Sample records for testis accessory gland

  1. Molecular Population Genetics of Accessory Gland Protein Genes and Testis-Expressed Genes in Drosophila mojavensis and D. arizonae

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Bradley J.; Begun, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Molecular population genetic investigation of Drosophila male reproductive genes has focused primarily on melanogaster subgroup accessory gland protein genes (Acp's). Consistent with observations from male reproductive genes of numerous taxa, Acp's evolve more rapidly than nonreproductive genes. However, within the Drosophila genus, large data sets from additional types of male reproductive genes and from different species groups are lacking. Here we report findings from a molecular population genetics analysis of male reproductive genes of the repleta group species, Drosophila arizonae and D. mojavensis. We find that Acp's have dramatically higher average pairwise Ka/Ks (0.93) than testis-enriched genes (0.19) and previously reported melanogaster subgroup Acp's (0.42). Overall, 10 of 19 Acp's have Ka/Ks > 1 either in nonpolarized analyses or in at least one lineage of polarized analyses. Of the nine Acp's for which outgroup data were available, average Ka/Ks was considerably higher in D. mojavensis (2.08) than in D. arizonae (0.87). Contrasts of polymorphism and divergence suggest that adaptive protein evolution at Acp's is more common in D. mojavensis than in D. arizonae. PMID:16085702

  2. TESTICULE ET SPERMATOGENSE EFFECTS OF FSH, LH AND PROLACTIN ON THE TESTIS AND ACCESSORY

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    TESTICULE ET SPERMATOGENÈSE EFFECTS OF FSH, LH AND PROLACTIN ON THE TESTIS AND ACCESSORY ORGANS. Frequent measurements of plasma LH and testosterone, testis size, skin colour and behaviour - the latter AND SUPERIOR CERVICAL GANGLIO- NECTOMY ON THE TESTIS OF THE VOLE, MICROTUS AGRESTIS. H. M. CHARLTON, C. A

  3. Oncocytic carcinoma of the accessory lobe of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Colella, Giuseppe; Apicella, Adolfo; Bove, Pierfrancesco; Rossiello, Luigi; Trodella, Michele; Rossiello, Raffaele

    2010-11-01

    Oncocytic carcinoma is a rare tumor of the parotid gland. An additional case, characterized by an exceptional localization in the accessory lobe of the parotid gland, never reported to date in the literature, is described. The clinical and histologic difficulties in relationship to the diagnosis of a midcheek mass consisting of an unusual tumor are emphasized. PMID:21119478

  4. Ductal Cysts of the Accessory Lacrimal Glands: CT Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nabil J. Khoury; Maurice C. Haddad; Ayman N. Tawil; Riad N. Ma' luf

    Summary: Benign ductal cysts of the accessory lacrimal glands are uncommon lesions of the orbit, arising from the glands of Wolfring and Krause. We report two patients with histopathologically proved cysts in whom CT scans revealed well-circumscribed extraconal cystic lesions ad- jacent to the globe, involving both eyelids. Radiologists should be aware of these rare lesions so as to include

  5. Chemocauterization of Congenital Fistula from the Accessory Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bong Jik; Sung, Myung-Whun; Kim, Kwang Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Congenital sialo-cutaneous fistula arising from the accessory parotid gland is extremely rare. Although the fistula tract can be successfully excised after making a skin incision along the skin tension line around the fistula opening, a facial scar inevitably remains. We here report a case of sialo-cutaneous fistula that was treated with chemocauterization with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). TCA cauterization is an easy and effective option for the treatment of congenital fistula from an accessory parotid gland, especially from the aesthetic point of view. PMID:19434283

  6. Female accessory glands and sperm reception in Tingidae (Heteroptera)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Livingstone; M H S Yacoob

    1990-01-01

    Studies on the anatomy of the female internal organs of reproduction and the intromittent organs of 34 species of Tingidae\\u000a confirm the absence of spermathecae. The accessory glands are vesicular and primitively unpaired. There is no vermiform gland\\u000a and the term pseudosperrnatheca, introduced by Carayon in heteropteran literature, is a misnomer. The lateral oviduct and\\u000a all the 7 pedicels of

  7. Morphology and protein patterns of honey bee drone accessory glands.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Landim, Carminda da; Dallacqua, Rodrigo Pires

    2005-01-01

    We used light and transmission electron microscopy to examine the morphology of the accessory glands of immature and mature adult males of Apis mellifera L. We also made an electrophoretic analysis of the protein content of the mature gland. The glands of the immature male actively secrete a mucous substance that can be seen in the lumen of the gland of the mature male. This secretion stains with mercury bromophenol blue and with periodic acid-Schiff reaction, which stain glyconjugates. The protein content was higher in the lumen secretion than in the gland wall extracts. The electrophoresis patterns of the wall extracts were different from those of the secretion found in the gland lumen. PMID:16342031

  8. Male Accessory Gland Infection: Relevance of Serum Total Testosterone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, R. A.; Calogero, A. E.; Vicari, E.; Favilla, V.; Cimino, S.; Russo, G. I.; Morgia, G.; La Vignera, S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the different ultrasound characterization of fertile symptomatic patients with MAGI (male accessory gland infection) according to different serum concentrations of total T (TT). We analyzed the ultrasound and hormonal data of 200 patients aged between 24.0 and 67.0 years. Patients were divided into six groups according to the sextile distribution of TT. Patients with serum concentrations of TT < 3.6?ng?mL?1 had a higher mean duration of symptoms compared to the other examined groups. Patients with serum concentrations of TT > 6.6?ng?mL?1 showed a frequency of ultrasound criteria suggestive for bilateral form of prostatitis and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis and significantly lower compared to the other examined groups. At multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and BMI, TT was an independent predictive factor of prostatovesiculitis (OR = 0.818 [95% CI: 0.675–0.992]; P < 0.01) and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (OR = 0.714 [95% CI: 0.578–0.880]; P < 0.01), which represent the main forms of complicated MAGI. The results of this study suggest that male hypogonadism could be associated with a different ultrasound characterization of these patients. PMID:25276133

  9. Social cues of sperm competition influence accessory reproductive gland size in a promiscuous mammal

    PubMed Central

    Lemaître, Jean-François; Ramm, Steven A.; Hurst, Jane L.; Stockley, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that males should increase overall investment in ejaculate expenditure with increasing levels of sperm competition. Since ejaculate production is costly, we may expect males to tailor their reproductive investment according to anticipated levels of sperm competition. Here, we investigate plasticity in ejaculate investment in response to cues of population average levels of sperm competition in a promiscuous mammal, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). We manipulated the social experience of experimental subjects during sexual development via differential exposure to the odour of rival males, to simulate conditions associated with relatively high or low average levels of sperm competition. Males exposed to a high level of competition developed larger major accessory reproductive glands (seminal vesicles) than those that experienced a low level of competition, suggesting that an increased investment in the production of copulatory plugs and/or mating rate may be beneficial at relatively high sperm competition levels. However, investment in sperm production, testis size and sperm motility were not altered according to social experience. Our findings emphasize the importance of non-sperm components of the ejaculate in mammalian postcopulatory sexual selection, and add to the growing evidence linking plasticity in reproductive traits to social cues of sperm competition. PMID:20880887

  10. Isolation of serotonin from the accessory salivary glands of the marine snail Nucella lapillus.

    PubMed

    West, D J; Andrews, E B; McVean, A R; Osborne, D J; Thorndyke, M C

    1994-10-01

    We report here the presence of a bioactive compound in the secretion of the accessory salivary glands (ASGs) of Nucella lapillus. We have purified the compound using HPLC and identified it as serotonin by mass spectrometry, UV spectroscopy, HPLC and capillary electrophoresis. Serotonin was not found in the secretions of the acinous salivary glands or the hypobranchial gland. The amount of serotonin in the secretion of the ASGs does not show seasonal or regional variation. PMID:7846696

  11. Morphology of accessory genital glands of spotted paca (Agouti paca Linnaeus, 1766).

    PubMed

    Borges, Edson Moreira; Branco, Érika; de Lima, Ana Rita; Leal, Leonardo Martins; Martins, Leandro Luiz; Reis, Ana Carolina Gonçalves; Cruz, Claudinei; Machado, Márcia Rita Fernandes; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-02-01

    The spotted paca is the second largest rodent in Brazil, where it is of great economic interest in impoverished regions in view of its prominence as a low-cost source of protein. Little is known about the morphology of the accessory genital glands of this species. Thus, we studied the position and morphology of the genitals in ten adult male spotted pacas. The animals were divided into two groups, five animals were used for fixing of samples in 10% aqueous formaldehyde for macroscopic studies and the other five animals were designated for microscopic analysis. These were arranged in pairs and had the vesicular, prostate, coagulating and bulbourethral glands identified, being structured as mucous glands, which lead into the pelvic urethra. It was concluded that the accessory genital glands found in the paca are the same as those found in most rodents, showing similar histological aspects. PMID:24461579

  12. Ultrastructure of the principal and accessory submandibular glands of the common vampire bat.

    PubMed

    Tandler, B; Toyoshima, K; Phillips, C J

    1990-12-01

    The principal and accessory submandibular glands of the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, were examined by electron microscopy. The secretory endpieces of the principal gland consist of serous tubules capped at their blind ends by mucous acini. The substructure of the mucous droplets and of the serous granules varies according to the mode of specimen preparation. With ferrocyanide-reduced osmium postfixation, the mucous droplets are moderately dense and homogeneous; the serous granules often have a polygonal outline and their matrix shows clefts in which bundles of wavy filaments may be present. With conventional osmium postfixation, the mucous droplets have a finely fibrillogranular matrix; the serous granules are homogeneously dense. Mucous cells additionally contain many small, dense granules that may be small peroxisomes, as well as aggregates of 10-nm cytofilaments. Intercalated duct cells are relatively unspecialized. Striated ducts are characterized by highly folded basal membranes and vertically oriented mitochondria. Luminal surfaces of all of the secretory and duct cells have numerous microvilli, culminating in a brush borderlike affair in the striated ducts. The accessory gland has secretory endpieces consisting of mucous acini with small mucous demilunes. The acinar mucous droplets contain a large dense region; the lucent portion has punctate densities. Demilune mucous droplets lack a dense region and consist of a light matrix in which fine fibrillogranular material is suspended. A ring of junctional cells, identifiable by their complex secretory granules, separates the mucous acini from the intercalated ducts. The intercalated ducts lack specialized structure. Striated ducts resemble their counterparts in the principal gland. As in the principal gland, all luminal surfaces are covered by an array of microvilli. At least some of the features of the principal and accessory submandibular glands of the vampire bat may be structural adaptations to the exigencies posed by the exclusively sanguivorous diet of these animals and its attendant extremely high intake of sodium chloride. PMID:2285039

  13. TESTICULE ET SPERMATOGENSE EFFECTS OF FSH, LH AND PROLACTIN ON THE TESTIS AND ACCESSORY

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    AND SUPERIOR CERVICAL GANGLIO- NECTOMY ON THE TESTIS OF THE VOLE, MICROTUS AGRESTIS. H. M. CHARLTON, C. A. GROCOCK A. OSTBERG Oxford (G. B.) Previous experiments have shown that when male voles are kept in short function is maintained in adult voles and stimulated in juveniles when these animals are kept in short

  14. Orthology, Function and Evolution of Accessory Gland Proteins in the Drosophila repleta Group

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Francisca C.; DeSalle, Rob

    2009-01-01

    The accessory gland proteins (Acps) of Drosophila have become a model for the study of reproductive protein evolution. A major step in the study of Acps is to identify biological causes and consequences of the observed patterns of molecular evolution by comparing species groups with different biology. Here we characterize the Acp complement of Drosophila mayaguana, a repleta group representative. Species of this group show important differences in ecology and reproduction as compared to other Drosophila. Our results show that the extremely high rates of Acp evolution previously found are likely to be ubiquitous among species of the repleta group. These evolutionary rates are considerably higher than the ones observed in other Drosophila groups' Acps. This disparity, however, is not accompanied by major differences in the estimated number of Acps or in the functional categories represented as previously suggested. Among the genes expressed in accessory glands of D. mayaguana almost half are likely products of recent duplications. This allowed us to test predictions of the neofunctionalization model for gene duplication and paralog evolution in a more or less constrained timescale. We found that positive selection is a strong force in the early divergence of these gene pairs. PMID:19015541

  15. Chronic prostatitis and male accessory gland infection - is there an impact on male infertility (diagnosis and therapy)?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Everaert; A. Mahmoud; C. Depuydt; M. Maeyaert; F. Comhaire

    2003-01-01

    Summary. The aim of this article was to discuss by means of a review of the literature and own study material the multifactorial aetiology of male infer- tility, extrapolate this hypothesis to male accessory gland infection (MAGI) and relate it to chronic prostatitis and its treatment. Infertility is a multifac- torial disease and diagnosis and therapy must be oriented as

  16. Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.

    PubMed

    Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2014-10-01

    Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands. PMID:25160003

  17. Developmental Mucin Gene Expression in the Gastroduodenal Tract and Accessory Digestive Glands. II. Duodenum and Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Pierre Buisine; Louise Devisme; Pierre Degand; Marie-Claire Dieu; Bernard Gosselin; Marie-Christine Copin; Jean-Pierre Aubert; Nicole Porchet

    SUMMARY Studies were undertaken to provide information regarding cell-specific ex- pression of mucin genes and their relation to developmental and neoplastic patterns of ep- ithelial cytodifferentiation. In situ hybridization was used to study mRNA expression of mu- cin genes in duodenum and accessory digestive glands (liver, gallbladder, pancreas) of 13 human embryos and fetuses (6.5-27 weeks' gestation), comparing these with

  18. Adaptive Evolution of Recently Duplicated Accessory Gland Protein Genes in Desert Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Bradley J.; Begun, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between animal mating system variation and patterns of protein polymorphism and divergence is poorly understood. Drosophila provides an excellent system for addressing this issue, as there is abundant interspecific mating system variation. For example, compared to D. melanogaster subgroup species, repleta group species have higher remating rates, delayed sexual maturity, and several other interesting differences. We previously showed that accessory gland protein genes (Acp's) of Drosophila mojavensis and D. arizonae evolve more rapidly than Acp's in the D. melanogaster subgroup and that adaptive Acp protein evolution is likely more common in D. mojavensis/D. arizonae than in D. melanogaster/D. simulans. These findings are consistent with the idea that greater postcopulatory selection results in more adaptive evolution of seminal fluid proteins in the repleta group flies. Here we report another interesting evolutionary difference between the repleta group and the D. melanogaster subgroup Acp's. Acp gene duplications are present in D. melanogaster, but their high sequence divergence indicates that the fixation rate of duplicated Acp's has been low in this lineage. Here we report that D. mojavensis and D. arizonae genomes contain several very young duplicated Acp's and that these Acp's have experienced very rapid, adaptive protein divergence. We propose that rapid remating of female desert Drosophila generates selection for continuous diversification of the male Acp complement to improve male fertilization potential. Thus, mating system variation may be associated with adaptive protein divergence as well as with duplication of Acp's in Drosophila. PMID:17720912

  19. Nutrition regulation of male accessory gland growth and maturation in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingjing; Anciro, Ashlee L; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway is known to control growth, development and reproduction. Insulin-like peptide mediated body size plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster has been reported. Here, our studies showed that IIS pathway and nutrition regulate growth and maturation of the male accessory gland (MAG) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The size of MAG increased from day 1 to day 5 post-adult emergence (PAE). This increase in the size of MAG is contributed by an increase in cell size, but not cell number. The growth of MAG was impaired after double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated knockdown in the expression of genes coding for ILP3, InR, Chico, PI3k, AKT, and GATA1 involved in IIS pathway. Interestingly, starvation showed similar effects on the growth and maturation of MAG. The phenotypes observed in animals where IIS signaling pathway genes were knocked down are similar to the phenotypes observed after starving beetles for 5 days PAE. These data suggest that nutrition signals working through IIS pathway regulate maturation of MAG by promoting the growth of MAG cells. PMID:26035685

  20. Prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in patients with male accessory gland infection.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S; Vicari, E; Condorelli, R A; Franchina, C; Scalia, G; Morgia, G; Perino, A; Schillaci, R; Calogero, A E

    2015-04-01

    The frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the semen of patients with male accessory gland infection (MAGI) was evaluated. One hundred infertile patients with MAGI were classified into group A: patients with an inflammatory MAGI (n = 48) and group B: patients with a microbial form (n = 52). Healthy age-matched fertile men (34.0 ± 4.0 years) made up the control group (n = 20). Amplification of HPV DNA was carried out by HPV-HS Bio nested polymerase chain reaction for the detection of HPV DNA sequences within the L1 ORF. Ten patients in group A (20.8%) and 15 patients in group B (28.8%) had a HPV infection; two controls (10.0%) had HPV infection. Patients with MAGI had a significantly higher frequency of HPV infection compared with controls; patients with a microbial MAGI had significantly higher frequency of HPV infection compared with patients with an inflammatory form (both P < 0.05). Patients with MAGI and HPV had a slight, but significantly lower sperm progressive motility and normal morphology compared with patients with MAGI HPV-negative (P < 0.05). Elevated frequency of HPV infection occurred in patients with MAGI, suggesting that HPV should be investigated in the diagnostic work-up of these patients. PMID:25684094

  1. Male accessory gland inflammation prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly reflecting autonomic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E; La Vignera, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Male accessory gland inflammation or infection (MAGI) is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type 2 diabetes (DM2); specifically, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2 patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles (SVs) in DM2 patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2 patients (i.e. patients with and without symptoms that possibly reflect DAN) and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2 patients with a mean (± s.e.m.) age of 42.0 ± 6.0 years (range: 34–47 years) were classified according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly reflect DAN (group A: DM2 with symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 28 patients and group B: DM2 without symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 32 patients). The patients in Group A exhibited a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in group B patients (P < 0.05); moreover, the Group A patients exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis (P < 0.05). Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in group A compared with group B. PMID:24799635

  2. Bone morphogenetic protein- and mating-dependent secretory cell growth and migration in the Drosophila accessory gland

    PubMed Central

    Leiblich, Aaron; Marsden, Luke; Gandy, Carina; Corrigan, Laura; Jenkins, Rachel; Hamdy, Freddie; Wilson, Clive

    2012-01-01

    The paired male accessory glands of Drosophila melanogaster enhance sperm function, stimulate egg production, and reduce female receptivity to other males by releasing a complex mixture of glycoproteins from a secretory epithelium into seminal fluid. A small subpopulation of about 40 specialized secretory cells, called secondary cells, resides at the distal tip of each gland. We show that these cells grow via mechanisms promoted by mating. If aging males mate repeatedly, a subset of these cells delaminates from and migrates along the apical surface of the glandular epithelium toward the proximal end of the gland. Remarkably, these secretory cells can transfer to females with sperm during mating. The frequency of this event increases with age, so that more than 50% of triple-mated, 18-d-old males transfer secondary cells to females. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling specifically in secondary cells is needed to drive all of these processes and is required for the accessory gland to produce its normal effects on female postmating behavior in multiply mated males. We conclude that secondary cells are secretory cells with unusual migratory properties that can allow them to be transferred to females, and that these properties are a consequence of signaling that is required for secondary cells to maintain their normal reproductive functions as males age and mate. PMID:23129615

  3. Diversity and Partitioning of Bacterial Populations within the Accessory Nidamental Gland of the Squid Euprymna scolopes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andrew J.; LaBarre, Brenna A.; Wong Won, Brian S.; Shah, Monica V.; Heng, Steven; Choudhury, Momena H.; Haydar, Shahela A.; Santiago, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Microbial consortia confer important benefits to animal and plant hosts, and model associations are necessary to examine these types of host/microbe interactions. The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) is a female reproductive organ found among cephalopod mollusks that contains a consortium of bacteria, the exact function of which is unknown. To begin to understand the role of this organ, the bacterial consortium was characterized in the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, a well-studied model organism for symbiosis research. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the ANG revealed dense bacterial assemblages of rod- and coccus-shaped cells segregated by morphology into separate, epithelium-lined tubules. The host epithelium was morphologically heterogeneous, containing ciliated and nonciliated cells with various brush border thicknesses. Hemocytes of the host's innate immune system were also found in close proximity to the bacteria within the tubules. A census of 16S rRNA genes suggested that Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia bacteria were prevalent, with members of the genus Phaeobacter dominating the consortium. Analysis of 454-shotgun sequencing data confirmed the presence of members of these taxa and revealed members of a fourth, Flavobacteria of the Bacteroidetes phylum. 16S rRNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that many ANG tubules were dominated by members of specific taxa, namely, Rhodobacterales, Verrucomicrobia, or Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes, suggesting symbiont partitioning to specific host tubules. In addition, FISH revealed that bacteria, including Phaeobacter species from the ANG, are likely deposited into the jelly coat of freshly laid eggs. This report establishes the ANG of the invertebrate E. scolopes as a model to examine interactions between a bacterial consortium and its host. PMID:22504817

  4. Variation in Sperm Displacement and Its Association with Accessory Gland Protein Loci in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A. G.; Aguade, M.; Prout, T.; Harshman, L. G.; Langley, C. H.

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophilia melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female's reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes, Glucose dehydrogenase (Gld), and Esterase-6 (Est-6). Acp genes encode proteins that are in some cases known to be transmitted to the female in the seminal fluid and are likely candidates for genes that might mediate the phenomenon of sperm displacement. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. PMID:7705622

  5. Is the rapid post-mating inhibition of pheromone response triggered by ecdysteroids or other factors from the sex accessory glands in the male moth Agrotis ipsilon?

    PubMed

    Vitecek, Simon; Maria, Annick; Blais, Catherine; Duportets, Line; Gaertner, Cyril; Dufour, Marie-Cécile; Siaussat, David; Debernard, Stéphane; Gadenne, Christophe

    2013-05-01

    In many animals, male copulation is dependent on the detection and processing of female-produced sex pheromones, which is generally followed by a sexual refractory post-ejaculatory interval (PEI). In the male moth, Agrotis ipsilon, this PEI is characterized by a transient post-mating inhibition of behavioral and central nervous responses to sex pheromone, which prevents males from re-mating until they have refilled their reproductive tracts for a potential new ejaculate. However, the timing and possible factors inducing this rapid olfactory switch-off are still unknown. Here, we determined the initial time delay and duration of the PEI. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that the brain, the testis and/or the sex accessory glands (SAGs) could produce a factor inducing the PEI. Lastly, we investigated the possible involvement of ecdysteroids, hormones essential for development and reproduction in insects, in this olfactory plasticity. Using brain and SAG cross-injections in virgin and newly-mated males, surgical treatments, wind tunnel behavioral experiments and EIA quantifications of ecdysteroids, we show that the PEI starts very shortly after the onset of copulation, and that SAGs contain a factor, which is produced/accumulated after copulation to induce the PEI. Moreover, SAGs were found to be the main source of ecdysteroids, whose concentration decreased after mating, whereas it increased in the haemolymph. 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) was identified as the major ecdysteroid in SAGs of A. ipsilon males. Finally, 20E injections did not reduce the behavioral pheromone response of virgin males. Altogether our data indicate that 20E is probably not involved in the PEI. PMID:23562716

  6. Protein and Peptide Composition of Male Accessory Glands of Apis mellifera Drones Investigated by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Blenau, Wolfgang; Koeniger, Gudrun; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, reproductive females usually mate early in their life with more than 10 males in free flight, often within 10 minutes, and then store male gametes for up to five years. Because of the extreme polyandry and mating in free flight special adaptations in males are most likely. We present here the results of an investigation of the protein content of four types of male reproductive glands from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone, namely seminal vesicles (secretion in ejaculate), as well as bulbus, cornua and mucus glands (secretions for the mating plug). Using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry and a combination of database searching and de novo sequencing techniques it was possible to identify 50 different proteins in total, inside all mentioned glands, except in the mucus gland. Most of the proteins are unique for a specific gland type, only one of them (H9KEY1/ATP synthase subunit O) was found in three glands, and 7 proteins were found in two types of glands. The identified proteins represent a wide variety of biological functions and can be assigned to several physiological classes, such as protection, energy generation, maintaining optimal conditions, associated mainly with vesicula seminalis; signaling, cuticle proteins, icarpin and apolipoproteins located mainly in the bulbus and cornua glands; and some other classes. Most of the discovered proteins were not found earlier during investigation of semen, seminal fluid and tissue of reproductive glands of the bee drone. Moreover, we provide here the origin of each protein. Thus, the presented data might shed light on the role of each reproductive gland. PMID:25955586

  7. Induction of a heparin-stimulated serine proteinase in sex accessory gland tumors of the Lobund-Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael J; Lind, Jeremy; Sinha, Akhouri A

    2015-08-01

    Induction of new proteinase activities that may process growth factors, modify cell surface receptors, cleave extracellular matrix proteins, etc. is considered fundamental in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel proteinase activity induced in sex accessory gland cancers (about 70% in seminal vesicles) of adult male Lobund-Wistar rats by a single injection of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU; 25mg/kg) followed by implanted testosterone propionate (45mg in silastic tubing every 2months) treatment for 10-14months. A 28kDa proteinase activity was detected in tumor extracts using SDS-gelatin gel zymography with incubations done without CaCl2. Its activity was stimulated 15 fold by heparin (optimal activity 1.5-3.0?g/lane) added to the tissue extract-SDS sample buffer prior to electrophoresis. No 28kDa heparin-stimulated proteinase (H-SP) was found in the dorsal, lateral and anterior (coagulating gland) prostate lobes or seminal vesicles of untreated adult rats, but there was a 26-30kDa Ca(2+)-independent proteinase activity in the ventral prostate that showed limited heparin stimulation. The 28kDa H-SP was completely inhibited by 1.0mM 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonylfluoride (AESBF) indicating that it was a serine-type proteinase. Other types of proteinase inhibitors were without effect, including serine proteinase inhibitors benzamidine, tranexamic acid and ?-aminocaproic acid. Proteinase activities of about 28kDa were found with casein, fibrinogen or carboxymethylated transferrin as substrate, however, these activities were not stimulated by heparin. Similar levels of activities of the 28kDa H-SP were found in primary tumors and their metastases, but little/no activity was detected in serum, even from rats with large tumor volume and metastases. These data demonstrate overexpression of a heparin-stimulated 28kDa serine proteinase in the primary tumors of sex accessory gland cancers and their metastases. This proteinase either does not leak into or is inactivated in the blood. The role of this proteinase remains to be determined, but its possible interaction with extracellular glycosaminoglycans could focus its proteolytic activity in the tumor microenvironment and affect tumor growth. PMID:25913327

  8. A Syringe-Like Love Dart Injects Male Accessory Gland Products in a Tropical Hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Joris M.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner’s hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner’s hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals. PMID:23894565

  9. Hormonal Regulation of MicroRNA Expression in Steroid Producing Cells of the Ovary, Testis and Adrenal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhigang; Shen, Wen-Jun; Cortez, Yuan; Tang, Xudong; Liu, Li-Fen; Kraemer, Fredric B.; Azhar, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the emerging roles of miRNAs as potential posttranscriptional/posttranslational regulators of the steroidogenic process in adrenocortical and gonadal cells, we sought to determine miRNA profiles in rat adrenals from animals treated with vehicle, ACTH, 17?-E2 or dexamethasone. Key observations were also confirmed using hormone (Bt2cAMP)-treated mouse Leydig tumor cells, MLTC-1, and primary rat ovarian granulosa cells. Methodology RNA was extracted from rat adrenal glands and miRNA profiles were established using microarray and confirmed with qRT-PCR. The expression of some of the hormone-sensitive miRNAs was quantified in MLTC-1 and granulosa cells after stimulation with Bt2cAMP. Targets of hormonally altered miRNAs were explored by qRT-PCR and Western blotting in adrenals and granulosa cells. Results Adrenals from ACTH, 17?-E2 and dexamethasone treated rats exhibited miRNA profiles distinct from control animals. ACTH up-regulated the expression of miRNA-212, miRNA-182, miRNA-183, miRNA-132, and miRNA-96 and down-regulated the levels of miRNA-466b, miRNA-214, miRNA-503, and miRNA-27a. The levels of miR-212, miRNA-183, miRNA-182, miRNA-132, miRNA-370, miRNA-377, and miRNA-96 were up-regulated, whereas miR-125b, miRNA-200b, miR-122, miRNA-466b, miR-138, miRNA-214, miRNA-503 and miRNA27a were down-regulated in response to 17?-E2 treatment. Dexamethasone treatment decreased miRNA-200b, miR-122, miR-19a, miRNA-466b and miRNA27a levels, but increased miRNA-183 levels. Several adrenal miRNAs are subject to regulation by more than one hormone. Significant cAMP-induced changes in certain miRNAs were also noted in MLTC-1 and granulosa cells. Some of the hormone-induced miRNAs in steroidogenic cells were predicted to target proteins involved in lipid metabolism/steroidogenesis. We also obtained evidence that miR-132 and miRNA-214 inhibit the expression of SREBP-1c and LDLR, respectively. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that expression of a number of miRNAs in steroidogenic cells of the testis, ovary and adrenal glands is subject to hormonal regulation and that miRNAs and their regulation by specific hormones are likely to play a key role in posttranscriptional/posttranslational regulation of steroidogenesis. PMID:24205079

  10. Pleomorphic adenoma of the accessory parotid gland: case report and reappraisal of intraoral extracapsular dissection for management.

    PubMed

    Tsegga, Tibebu M; Britt, Jennifer D; Ellwanger, Aragon R

    2015-03-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common tumor of the major and minor salivary glands. Rarely is it found evolving from an ectopic location of major salivary glandular tissue in the mid cheek. A healthy 56-year-old woman presented to our institution with a 20-year duration of a slowly growing right cheek soft tissue mass that was causing facial asymmetry. No significant functional or neurosensory dysfunction was appreciated. Radiologic examination showed a heterogeneous, hyperintense, well-delineated mass within the region of the right buccal fat pad. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy showed benign salivary gland elements consistent with pleomorphic adenoma. The decision was made to perform intraoral extracapsular dissection for removal. Discussion of the clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation with an emphasis on intraoral extracapsular dissection for definitive surgical therapy of longstanding benign salivary gland tumors is emphasized. PMID:25530278

  11. Effect of semen collection by transrectal massage of accessory sexual glands or artificial vagina on the outcome of breeding soundness examinations of Italian yearling beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Sylla, Lakamy; Palombi, Claudio; Stradaioli, Giuseppe; Vagniluca, Antonio; Monaci, Maurizio

    2015-03-15

    Although semen quality is one of the major traits that influence breeding soundness examination outcomes in bulls, field conditions occasionally do not allow for the collection of semen samples by means of an artificial vagina. The aims of the present study were to report the results of a large number of semen collections that were performed via the transrectal massage (TRM) of the accessory sexual glands of Italian yearling beef bulls and compare this semen collection method to the artificial vagina (AV) method in term of breeding soundness examination outcomes; furthermore, we determined whether the breed affected the semen characteristics. In the TRM group (n = 475), the semen samples were collected via TRM of the accessory sexual glands, and in the AV group (n = 502), the AV method was used. In the TRM group, semen samples were obtained from 81.3% of the bulls and penile protrusion was observed in 87.6% of the animals during semen collection. The sperm concentrations (920.5 ± 439.0 vs. 281.0 ± 259.8 × 10(6)/mL) and the percentages of total abnormal spermatozoa (22.8 ± 15.0 vs. 18.8 ± 12.9) were significantly higher in the AV group than those in the TRM group. The percentage of bulls that did not meet the minimum requirement for normal cells (?70%) was 6.2% higher in the AV group than that in the TRM group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the samples collected from Chianina bulls by TRM exhibited a lower percentage of motile sperm and a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa when compared with the other two breeds. The major drawbacks of the TRM technique were the inability to conduct complete evaluation of the libido and mating ability of the yearling bulls, a significant reduction of the number of spermatozoa collected, and an increase in the variability of the semen characteristics due to breed. In conclusion, despite the drawbacks, TRM guarantees that semen evaluation can be conducted in cases in which the semen samples cannot be collected with the AV method. PMID:25488791

  12. AN ULTRASTRUCTURAL AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF THREE INHIBITORS OF CHOLESTEROL BIOSYNTHESIS UPON MURINE ADRENAL GLAND AND TESTIS

    PubMed Central

    Dietert, Scott E.; Scallen, Terence J.

    1969-01-01

    Triparanol and 20,25-diazacholesterol inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis and result in the accumulation of desmosterol. AY-9944, another inhibitor, produces an accumulation of 7-dehydrocholesterol. Adult male C3H mice receive one of these drugs intraperitoneally. Livers, adrenal glands, and testes from each drug group are excised, and portions of each are analyzed by a modified Liebermann-Burchard reaction for quantitation of sterols. Adrenals and testes are examined also by electron microscopy. Fine-structural localization of acid phosphatase has been studied in triparanol-treated adrenal glands. Biochemical analysis reveals that 14–64% of the sterols occurs as desmosterol or 7-dehydrocholesterol. Fine-structural alterations in the adrenal glands and testes from each drug group are essentially identical. The predominant cytological feature is the occurrence of increased numbers of pleomorphic, unit-membrane-limited, electron-opaque, cytoplasmic inclusions. Hence, the cellular modifications following triparanol administration are not unique, as has been suggested. They represent a generalized phenomenon, probably related to inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis, which is an effect common to each drug. Lead phosphate reaction product (indicating acid phosphatase activity) is demonstrable within these membrane-limited cytoplasmic bodies, identifying them as morphological lysosomes. The utilization of a lysosomal mechanism in sterol-synthesizing cells, which are accumulating cholesterol intermediates, is discussed. PMID:5782451

  13. Variation and Genomic Localization of Genes Encoding DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER Male Accessory Gland Proteins Separated by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Michael; Wilson, Thomas G.

    1986-01-01

    Accessory gland proteins from Drosophila melanogaster males have been separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into nine major bands. When individual males from 175 strains were examined, considerable polymorphism for nearly one-half of the major protein bands was seen, including null alleles for three bands. Variation was observed not only among long-established laboratory strains but also among stocks recently derived from natural populations. There was little difference in the amount of variation between P and M strains, indicating that P element mutagenesis is not a factor producing the variation. Codominant expression of variants for each of five bands was found in heterozygotes, suggesting structural gene variation and not posttranslational modification variation. Stocks carrying electrophoretic variants of four of the major proteins were used to map the presumed structural genes for these proteins; the loci were found to be dispersed on the second chromosome. Since males homozygous for variant proteins were fertile, the polymorphism seems to have little immediate effect on successful sperm transfer. We propose that a high degree of polymorphism can be tolerated because these proteins play a nutritive rather than enzymatic role in Drosophila reproduction. PMID:3095182

  14. Evaluation of atorvastatin efficacy and toxicity on spermatozoa, accessory glands and gonadal hormones of healthy men: a pilot prospective clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention advocate lowering both cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol systemic levels, notably by statin intake. However, statins are the subject of questions concerning their impact on male fertility. This study aimed to evaluate, by a prospective pilot assay, the efficacy and the toxicity of a decrease of cholesterol blood levels, induced by atorvastatin on semen quality and sexual hormone levels of healthy, normocholesterolaemic and normozoospermic men. Methods Atorvastatin (10 mg daily) was administrated orally during 5 months to 17 men with normal plasma lipid and standard semen parameters. Spermatozoa parameters, accessory gland markers, semen lipid levels and blood levels of gonadal hormones were assayed before statin intake, during the treatment, and 3 months after its withdrawal. Results Atorvastatin treatment significantly decreased circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol concentrations by 42% and 24% (p?

  15. Contribution of the secretory material of caecilian (amphibia: Gymnophiona) male Mullerian gland to motility of sperm: a study in Uraeotyphlus narayani.

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Mathew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2005-02-01

    Caecilians are a unique group of limbless burrowing amphibians with discontinuous distribution. Several caecilian species are viviparous, and all practice internal fertilization. In amniotic vertebrates the sperm undergo post-testicular physiological maturation when they are initiated into motility under the influence of an epididymal secretion. Further, during ejaculation mammalian sperm are suspended in a fluid secreted by the male accessory sex glands, viz., prostate gland and seminal vesicles. Caecilians lack comparable glands, but still practice internal fertilization. Uniquely, male caecilians retain the Mullerian ducts in the adults as a pair of functional glands. It has long been hypothesized, based on indirect evidence, that the Mullerian gland would be a male accessory sex gland, secreting a fluid in which sperm are suspended during ejaculation and which would also provide nutritional support to the ejaculated sperm. In the present study, the secretory material of the Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani was mixed with sperm obtained from the testis, and the changes in motility were recorded. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm possess a perforatorium of the acrosome proceeding deep into the endonuclear canal of the nucleus. The midpiece is characterized by closely applied centrioles, the anterior ends of the axoneme and axial fiber, and a mitochondrial sheath. The long tail has an undulating membrane on one side, supported by the axoneme and an axial fiber. The live sperm possess a mitochondrial vesicle, also known as the cytoplasmic droplet, anywhere along the head and the midpiece, as in anuran sperm, which is shed from sperm that have ceased motility. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm are motile the moment they are released directly from the testis, indicating that the sperm do not require post-testicular physiological maturation. On being mixed with the secretory material of the Mullerian gland, the spermatozoa are enhanced in speed as well as duration of motility. Therefore, the caecilian male Mullerian gland is considered to be the male accessory sex gland. PMID:15605393

  16. Surgical management of accessory parotid tumors.

    PubMed

    Rodino, W; Shaha, A R

    1993-11-01

    Accessory parotid gland tumors are defined as masses within salivary gland tissue located adjacent to Stensen's duct, but separate from the main body of the parotid gland. These tumors usually present as asymptomatic cheek masses. There is a temptation to excise these masses locally; however, the likelihood of injury to branches of the facial nerve is high. The best surgical approach to tumors in the accessory parotid region is via a standard parotid incision and concomitant superficial parotidectomy. Eight patients have been surgically treated with accessory parotid gland masses. Six patients had mixed tumors, one had a low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and one had a localized parotitis. Our approach included a standard parotid incision, raising an anterior flap beyond the mass, and exposing the main trunk of the facial nerve, with careful tracing of all its branches. This approach to accessory parotid gland tumors is superior in that it provides a better margin of resection and minimizes functional and cosmetic deformities. Most importantly, there is less danger of injury to branches of the facial nerve. PMID:8412169

  17. Matching Accessories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Steven M. Foord (Stevenage; Target Bioinformatics, GlaxoSmithKline Medicine Research Centre REV)

    2003-07-08

    Heterodimerization enhances the complexity of ligand recognition and diversity of signaling responses of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Many accessory proteins (for ion channels or GPCRs) appear to associate with their partners relatively early in the process whereby proteins are transported to the cell surface; their roles in modulating function may have evolved out of simple proximity to a protein that once upon a time they either facilitated or accompanied through the maturation process. The receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are a family of single-transmembrane accessory proteins that heterodimerize with GPCRs and, thereby, allow individual GPCRs to recognize multiple ligands and to activate various signaling pathways in response to ligand binding. The M10 family of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1b proteins has recently been shown to associate with murine vomeronasal V2R receptors, as well as to escort them to the cell surface. The exact role of M10 in modulating V2R function (or vice versa) remains to be determined.

  18. The Laser Accessory Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Ashvin

    1988-09-01

    Wandering through the exhibit hall yesterday, I noticed that if you look at the laser companies and if you look at the accessory companies, there are pretty much the same number of accessory booths as well as the laser companies. There was one difference. Laser company booths are all sexy looking, very flashy, big booths. Whereas if you look at the accessories booths, they were small, not so prominent.

  19. Review of accessory tragus with highlights of its associated syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bahrani, Bahar; Khachemoune, Amor

    2014-12-01

    Accessory tragus is a developmental defect involving malformation of part of the external ear. It is a moderately rare congenital condition reported in 1858 by Birkett for the first time. Histological features of accessory tragus include a thin layer of stratum corneum with a rugated epidermis, presence of eccrine glands, and irregular spatial positioning of vellus hair follicles accompanied by sebaceous glands. Accessory tragus is commonly a limited deformity; however, it can be a sign of associated congenital syndromes. It has been shown to be associated with Goldenhar syndrome, Townes-Brocks syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, VACTERL syndrome, and Wolf-Hirschhron syndrome. Surgical excision, the most common form of management of accessory tragus lesions, typically leads to a positive outcome. An extensive search was performed using pubmed.gov, Embase, MedLine, and Googlescholar.com using key words: accessory tragus, congenital malformations of ear, first branchial arch, and embryology. In this paper, we review the clinical and histological presentation, associated syndromes, management, and outcome of accessory tragus. PMID:25266223

  20. Accessories Around the Clock. 

    E-print Network

    Boyles, Rheba Merle; Hard, Graham; Roberson, Nena; Eaton, Fannie Brown

    1958-01-01

    Accessories Around the Clock RHEBA MERLE BOYLES GRAHAM HARD NENA ROBERSON FANNIE BROWN EATON Extension Clothing Specialists k. The Texas A. a M. College System 2? well-dressed woman of today believes a wardrobe of fewer q, well chosen...

  1. Testis tumor associated to microlithiasis

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Maciel, Felipe; Monnerat, Andrea Lima C.; Fernandes, Marcia Antunes; Dekermache, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To discuss the relationship between testicular microlithiasis and testis tumors in children and to consider the chances of testis preserving surgery in specific cases. CASE DESCRIPTION: Pre-adolescent presenting testicular microlithiasis and a larger left testis, corresponding to a cystic testicular tumor. The tumor was excised, with ipsilateral testis preservation. Histology diagnosed a testis dermoid tumor. COMMENTS: The relationship between testis tumors and testicular microlithiasis is ill defined in children. Pediatric urologists need to develop specific follow-up protocols for pre-pubertal children. PMID:24473964

  2. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePLUS

    ... salivary gland tumors usually show up as painless enlargements of these glands. Tumors rarely involve more than ... otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon should check these enlargements. Malignant tumors of the major salivary glands can ...

  3. Accessories Around the Clock.

    E-print Network

    Boyles, Rheba Merle; Hard, Graham; Roberson, Nena; Eaton, Fannie Brown

    1958-01-01

    ~t~.~~, r as the basic garment; varied colors I be used in smaller, less expensive ac- jories. Good leather bags, gloves and - rather than na Ies are a park of a well-dressed person, - smoothiy. fmishd. >Q. . . . .- . A should .;b= considered...~~i The effect usually is spotted if two bright-colored matching 4 are worn at one time. One brighd accessory often is smarter than @ the other accessories harmonizing If a brilliant hat is worn wih a bl wear dark shoes and bag. 'a 1 Gloves may match...

  4. Factors controlling testis descent.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L

    2008-12-01

    Descent of the testis from an intra-abdominal site in foetal life to an extracorporeal location after birth is a mandatory developmental process to ensure that the mature testis promotes normal spermatogenesis. The two phases of transabdominal and inguinoscrotal descent occur approximately during the first and last thirds of gestation respectively. Key anatomical events to release the testis from its urogenital ridge location and to guide the free gonad into the scrotum are the degeneration of the cranio-suspensory ligament and a thickening of the gubernaculum. Androgens play a role in both these processes, particularly with respect to enabling the testis to traverse the inguinal canal in the final phase of descent. Experiments in animals suggest that androgens mediate this effect via the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide by the genitofemoral nerve, but direct evidence for such a mechanism is lacking in humans. The transabdominal phase of descent is under the control of insulin-like 3 (INSL3), a product of the Leydig cells. Definitive evidence of its role in rodent testis descent is illustrated by the phenotype of bilateral cryptorchidism in Insl3-/- null mice. Circulating levels of INSL3 are higher in boys at puberty, are undetectable in girls and are lower in boys with undescended testes. A minority also have a mutation either in the INSL3 gene or affecting its receptor gene, relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 2 (LGRF8). Other factors that may play a role in testis descent include the anti-Mullerian hormone and members of the HOX gene family. Evidence that the prevalence of undescended testis may be increasing provides a phenotypic readout for the effects of postulated chemicals in the environment interfering in some way with the action of factors that control testis descent. Epidemiological studies point to profound geographical variations in prevalence in countries such as Denmark and Finland. Associations have been found with levels of chemicals labelled as endocrine disruptors being higher in breast milk samples from mothers with cryptorchid boys when compared with controls. The adverse effects of these compounds (e.g. bisphenol A) can be replicated in the offspring of dams exposed during pregnancy. A sensitive marker of an anti-androgen effect of a compound is a reduction in the anogenital distance, an anthropometric measurement that is significantly greater in males compared with females. The observation of an association between the anogenital distance in infant boys and the level of pesticides in the urine of their mothers in late gestation indicates that this has the potential to be a useful surrogate marker of the effects of environmental chemicals on testis descent in human population studies. The rightful place for the testis at birth is in the scrotum in order to provide the temperature differential essential for normal spermatogenesis. Appropriate screening programmes and early surgical intervention are the prerequisites to ensure optimal fertility in adulthood and a considerably lessened risk of testis cancer. PMID:18647820

  5. Testis Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Testis C620–C 629 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 12 Local tumor destruction, NOS No specimen sent to pathology from surgical

  6. Spinal accessory nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Wiater, J M; Bigliani, L U

    1999-11-01

    Injury to the spinal accessory nerve can lead to dysfunction of the trapezius. The trapezius is a major scapular stabilizer and is composed of three functional components. It contributes to scapulothoracic rhythm by elevating, rotating, and retracting the scapula. The superficial course of the spinal accessory nerve in the posterior cervical triangle makes it susceptible to injury. Iatrogenic injury to the nerve after a surgical procedure is one of the most common causes of trapezius palsy. Dysfunction of the trapezius can be a painful and disabling condition. The shoulder droops as the scapula is translated laterally and rotated downward. Patients present with an asymmetric neckline, a drooping shoulder, winging of the scapula, and weakness of forward elevation. Evaluation should include a complete electrodiagnostic examination. If diagnosed within 1 year of the injury, microsurgical reconstruction of the nerve should be considered. Conservative treatment of chronic trapezius paralysis is appropriate for older patients who are sendentary. Active and healthy patients in whom 1 year of conservative treatment has failed are candidates for surgical reconstruction. Studies have shown the Eden-Lange procedure, in which the insertions of the levator scapulae, rhomboideus minor, and rhomboideus major muscles are transferred, relieves pain, corrects deformity, and improves function in patients with irreparable injury to the spinal accessory nerve. PMID:10613148

  7. Secretory discharge and microflora of milk gland in tsetse flies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Chun Ma; David L. Denlinger

    1974-01-01

    THE uterine or milk glands in tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) are modified female accessory reproductive glands which elaborate and release a nutritive liquid of proteinaceous and lipoid nature for the maturing intrauterine larva1-3. The multi-branched tubules of the gland converge into a pair of efferent ducts which fuse inside the oviductal shelf and open into the lumen of the uterus

  8. Electroporation of the Testis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yomogida, Kentaro

    The mature mammalian testis is a marvelous organ that produces numerous sperm cells during its reproductive phase. This biologically significant process consists of three steps: stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, meiosis and genetic recombination, and haploid cell morphogenesis into sperm (Russell et al., 1990). The first step provides a good model for investigating the molecular mechanism of stem cell regulation. Currently, the mechanism underlying sperm cell production is a very exciting topic in regenerative medicine (Lensch et al. 2007; Okita et al., 2007). The spermatogonial stem cell system has several advantages, including the easy histological identification of stem cells (Russell et al., 1990), a clear relationship between stem cells and the supporting Sertoli cells, which provide a stem cell niche (Tadokoro et al., 2002; Yomogida et al., 2003), and a transplantation assay for stem cell activity (Oatley & Brinster, 2006). Although germline stem (GS) cells derived from the gonocytes in newborn testis constitute a suitable in vitro system for investigating the properties of spermatogonial stem cells (Kanatsu-Shinohara et al., 2003, 2004), studies using living mammalian testes continue to provide information regarding the roles of the stem cell niche. In vivo electroporation of the supporting cells in the testis will expand our ability to study it.

  9. Effects of organic selenium supplementation on growth performance, carcass measurements, tissue selenium concentrations, characteristics of reproductive organs, and testis gene expression profiles in boars.

    PubMed

    Speight, S M; Estienne, M J; Harper, A F; Barb, C R; Pringle, T D

    2012-02-01

    The objective was to compare growth and physiological responses in boars fed diets supplemented with organic or inorganic sources of Se. At weaning, crossbred boars (n = 117; 8.3 kg of BW) were placed in nursery pens (3 boars/pen) and assigned within BW blocks to receive on an ad libitum basis 1 of 3 dietary treatments: I) basal diets with no supplemental Se (controls), II) basal diets supplemented with 0.3 mg/kg of organic Se, and, III) basal diets supplemented with 0.3 mg/kg of sodium selenite (13 pens/dietary treatment). Average daily gain (470 g/d), ADFI (896 g/d), and G:F (0.54) were similar among groups. Blood Se concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for boars consuming organic Se (107.5 ± 4.8 µg/L) or sodium selenite (114.7 ± 4.8 µg/L) compared with controls (28.4 ± 4.8 µg/L). Intact pens of boars (11 pens/dietary treatment) were moved to a grow-finish barn and continued to receive appropriate diets on an ad libitum basis. Average daily gain (1,045 g/d) and ADFI (2,716 g/d) were similar among groups. Gain:feed was affected by treatment (P = 0.02) and was greater (P < 0.06) for boars fed organic Se (0.378 ± 0.004) compared with boars fed sodium selenite (0.368 ± 0.004) or controls (0.363 ± 0.004). Blood Se concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) in grow-finish boars consuming organic Se (198.9 ± 5.5 µg/L) than boars consuming sodium selenite (171.4 ± 5.4 µg/L) or controls (26.7 ± 5.4 µg/L). Treatment did not affect (P > 0.15) HCW, dressing percent, carcass length, LM area, standardized fat-free lean, lean percentage, backfat thickness, visual color, firmness, marbling, or Minolta loin color scores. Selenium supplementation did not affect (P > 0.17) testis or accessory sex gland sizes. Concentrations of Se in loin, liver, kidney, testis, cauda epididymis, and accessory sex glands were greatest (P < 0.01) in boars receiving organic Se, intermediate in boars receiving sodum selenite, and least in control boars. Microarray analysis of testis gene expression did not detect differences (P > 0.05) due to dietary treatment. Testis gene expression of glutathione peroxidase 4, as determined using quantitative PCR, was increased (P < 0.01) in boars fed organic Se compared with those fed sodium selenite. In summary, dietary supplementation of boars with organic Se failed to alter ADG or ADFI but enhanced G:F during grow-finish. More research is needed to discern the mechanism by which organic Se improves feed efficiency in boars. PMID:21948612

  10. A newborn with antenatal testis tortion

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Fatma Çakmak; Aygün, Canan; Ayçiçek, Tu?ba; Aykanat, Mustafa Alper; Ayy?ld?z, Suat

    2014-01-01

    Testis tortion in the newborn (especially antenatal testis tortion) is observed very rarely and constitutes 10-12% of childhood testis tortions. In testis tortion, firm and painless testicular tissue is palpated on physical examination. Doppler ultrasonography is a sensitive method in the diagnosis. In cases of neonatal testis tortion, the testis can be saved with appropriate surgical exploration in only 0–5% of the cases. Here, a newborn with antenatal testis tortion who underwent orchiectomy in the first day of life was presented.

  11. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the pancreas, ovaries and testes. The endocrine and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends ... endocrine glands. Because of this intimate relationship, the nervous and endocrine systems are referred to as the neuroendocrine system. The ...

  12. 14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting attachment must include provisions...A drive and mounting attachment requiring lubrication...to prevent unacceptable loss of oil and to...

  13. Analisi e Annotazione Automatica dei Testi Letterari

    E-print Network

    Moschitti, Alessandro

    Analisi e Annotazione Automatica dei Testi Letterari R. Basili, A. Moschitti, and M. Pennacchiotti In questo lavoro viene introdotto un approccio alla anal- isi dei testi letterari secondo una prospettiva'indagine dei testi letterari. 1 Introduzione e Motivazioni `E stato spesso osservato ([1]) che l'analisi dei

  14. Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins in adrenal disease and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, David S.; Ramachandrappa, Shwetha; Clark, Adrian J.; Chan, Li F.

    2015-01-01

    Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs) are regulators of the melanocortin receptor family. MRAP is an essential accessory factor for the functional expression of the MC2R/ACTH receptor. The importance of MRAP in adrenal gland physiology is demonstrated by the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 2. The role of its paralog melanocortin-2-receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2), which is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus including the paraventricular nucleus, has recently been linked to mammalian obesity. Whole body deletion and targeted brain specific deletion of the Mrap2 gene result in severe obesity in mice. Interestingly, Mrap2 complete knockout (KO) mice have increased body weight without detectable changes to food intake or energy expenditure. Rare heterozygous variants of MRAP2 have been found in humans with severe, early-onset obesity. In vitro data have shown that Mrap2 interaction with the melanocortin-4-receptor (Mc4r) affects receptor signaling. However, the mechanism by which Mrap2 regulates body weight in vivo is not fully understood and differences between the phenotypes of Mrap2 and Mc4r KO mice may point toward Mc4r independent mechanisms.

  15. BA (Hons) Fashion Accessory Design Course content

    E-print Network

    Evans, Paul

    BA (Hons) Fashion Accessory Design Course content Year One During the first year you will be introduced to the fundamentals of the fashion accessory design process. Year One modules Design Principles and an understanding of the design process. Lectures during this module will introduce key ideas in fashion accessory

  16. news update Fashion Accessory Design

    E-print Network

    Evans, Paul

    news update let's talk Fashion Accessory Design Fashion Design Fashion Knitwear Design and Knitted-year Fashion Knitwear Design and Knitted Textiles student Thea Sanders won the top knitwear prize at the event) Fashion Design student Adnan Ebo, whose bold prints were a hot topic during the event. Adnan's work even

  17. Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Glazier; T. S. Vates; K. B. Cummings; S. Antoun

    1996-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is a rare tumor. Histologic diagnosis is difficult, and in the past the tumor may have been incorrectly identified in a number of cases, leading to misleading information on the nature and behavior of this neoplasm. We present the case of a 39-year-old man with a long history of a small left hydrocele, who was

  18. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification....

  1. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification....

  2. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification....

  3. Il Sistema BEATRIX per il Riconoscimento Automatico di Testi Manoscritti

    E-print Network

    Reyneri, Leonardo

    Il Sistema BEATRIX per il Riconoscimento Automatico di Testi Manoscritti B. Lazzerini, F riconoscimento automatico dei testi manoscritti, costituito da due sottosistemi fortemente interagenti, basati esempio sfruttando la ridondanza presente nella maggior parte dei testi manoscritti tipicamente tutti i

  4. Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.

    2010-06-15

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power. Two studies were conducted at ORNL. One was to put an additional winding in the motor slots to magnetically link with the high frequency of the controllable zero-sequence stator currents that do not produce any zero-sequence harmonic torques. The second approach was to utilize the corners of the square stator punching for the high-frequency transformers of the dc/dc inverter. Both approaches were successful. This CRADA validated the feasibility of GM’s desire to use the motor’s magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply. Three joint U.S. patents with GM were issued to ORNL and GM by the U.S. Patent Office for the research results produced by this CRADA.

  5. 19 CFR 10.920 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.920 Section 10.920 Customs...10.920 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and...

  6. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section 10.537 Customs Duties... § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that...

  7. 19 CFR 10.920 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.920 Section 10.920 Customs...10.920 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and...

  8. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section 10.537 Customs Duties... § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that...

  9. 19 CFR 10.1020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.1020 Section 10.1020 Customs...10.1020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and...

  10. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section 10.537 Customs Duties... § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that...

  11. 19 CFR 10.1020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.1020 Section 10.1020 Customs...10.1020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and...

  12. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section 10.537 Customs Duties... § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that...

  13. 19 CFR 10.920 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.920 Section 10.920 Customs...10.920 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23.1192...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For...from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm that...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23.1192...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For...from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm that...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23.1192...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For...from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm that...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23.1192...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For...from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm that...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23.1192...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For...from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm that...

  19. 66. Chirurgische Technik beim Maldescensus testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Müller

    1976-01-01

    Summary In cases of retentio abdominalis or inguinalis and of ectopic testis, surgery is performed about the 2nd year of life. Essentials of the operating technique are: incision of the skin must not be parallel to the spermatic cord; testes and spermatic cord must be mobilized without trauma; ideally a biopsy of the testis should be taken; any pulling of

  20. HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE TESTIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book, the first to describe how the testis is evaluated in research and toxicology testing settings, is a resource for individuals who wish to perform a systematic evaluation of the testis. he book contains 728 illustrations and drawings. The book begins with a description o...

  1. Characterization of a Lolium multiflorum Accessory Chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accessory chromosomes, also called B-chromosomes, have been reported in more than 1300 species of plants. Accessory chromosomes show numerical polymorphism and when present in high number, are known to negatively affect the growth and vigor of the plants, while in low numbers they may be beneficial...

  2. Adenocarcinoma of the ampullary glands of the ductus deferens in a sprague-dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Masaya; Wakui, Shin; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Ayaka; Mutou, Tomoko; Ikegami, Masahiro; Asari, Masao; Inomata, Tomo

    2015-06-01

    Spontaneously occurring proliferative lesions of the male accessory sex glands are infrequent in various strains of rats. In rodents, the ampullary glands are embedded in the prostate. Although 2 spontaneous cases of atypical hyperplastic lesions at the ampullary gland were previously described in Wistar rats, adenocarcinoma and/or adenoma in this gland have not been reported. This study describes adenocarcinomas in the bilateral ampullary glands in a 52-week-old intact male Sprague-Dawley rat housed as part of a control group in a toxicological experiment. At necropsy, the body weight (644.4 g) and the weight of the prostate with ampullary gland (2.75 g) were similar to others of the same control group, and it had a normal gross appearance. Histopathologically, both ampullary glands revealed microinvasive adenocarcinoma without vascular invasion. The morphological characteristics of the neoplasm varied in different regions of the gland. Other parts of the male accessory sex glands did not show proliferative lesions. PMID:25361752

  3. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

  7. Accessory tragus: a dentist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Vishal; Banda, Naveen Reddy; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Banda, Vanaja Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Accessory tragus (AT) also referred as preauricular tag is a rudimentary tag of ear tissue This paper presents two specific cases: one hereditary and another sporadic case of AT. A general clinical description of AT, its associated syndromes, embryology aetiopathogenesis and management is discussed. A dentist can play an important role in spotting the AT during their head and neck examination. The presence of this defect can be correlated to other congenital defects of first branchial arch. On recognising its occurrence, the dentist can refer to a specialist for thorough investigation management. A dentist can play a vital role in encouraging and counselling the parents for the correction of such defects as it improves the aesthetics of the face. Usually, children with these defects are often targets of teasing by peers. PMID:23761605

  8. [A case of pure choriocarcinoma of the testis in an elderly man].

    PubMed

    Gohji, K; Sugimoto, M; Ogawa, T; Sugino, M; Hamami, G; Kamidono, S; Takahashi, R; Sugiyama, T

    1986-09-01

    A case of pure choriocarcinoma of the testis in a 62-year-old male is reported. The patient consulted his family physician with an enlarged but painless right scrotal containment in November, 1980. Initial diagnosis was right hydrocele testis and chronic epididymitis, and he was treated with antibiotics. However, the tumor continued to enlarge. Right high orchiectomy was performed on March, 15, 1981 under the diagnosis of suspected right testicular tumor. The resected specimen was 10 X 7 X 6 cm and elastic hard. The cut surface was dark reddish with hemorrhagic foci. Serial sections of the entire testis were made and their histopathological examinations revealed the tumor to be a classical pure choriocarcinoma of the testis. The plasma beta-HCG level was remarkably elevated, but the alpha-fetoprotein level was normal. Anticancer chemotherapy (CDDP 125 mg, MTX 20 mg, ADM 50 mg, and EDX 500 mg) was performed in eight courses after the operation. Multiple metastatic foci were present in both lungs during the treatment, and his condition gradually deteriorated. Therefore, he was transferred to our hospital. Aggressive anticancer treatment could not be given because of his poor general condition, and he died on May, 16, 1982 of carcinomatosis. The autopsy revealed multiple nodular metastasis of the tumor to bilateral lungs, bilateral adrenal glands and right kidney. There was no metastasis to the lymph nodes. The metastatic lesions, macrospically dark reddish with hemorrhagic foci, were histopathologically pure choriocarcinoma. PMID:3812148

  9. Genes promoting and disturbing testis development.

    PubMed

    Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Burgos, Miguel; Scherer, Gerd; Jiménez, Rafael

    2012-11-01

    Mammals have an XX/XY sex chromosomal sex determination system in which males represent the heterogametic sex. The Y-linked gene, SRY, determines sex by inducing the undifferentiated, bipotential gonads to differentiate as testes, which produce androgens and promote in this way the development of a male phenotype. Thus, in mammals, sex determination can be equated to testis determination, which involves several important cell processes, including Sertoli cell differentiation, mesonephric cell migration, testis cord formation, testis-specific vascularization, and myoid and Leydig cell differentiation. Many genes are currently known to be involved in testis development. Some of them, including SF1, WT1, GATA4 and FOG2, are necessary for the formation of the bipotential, undifferentiated gonad but also have important roles in testis differentiation. Others can be considered testis-promoting, differentaition and/or maintenance genes: these include SRY, SOX9, FGF9, PTGDS, SOX8, SOX3, NR0B1, PDGFRa, DMRT1, AMH, NGF, NTF3 and NGFR as the most important examples. Finally, there is a smaller group of genes which are involved in ovarian development and which can cause aberrant testis development if mutated, including RSPO1, WNT4, CTNNB1, FST, BMP2 and FOXL2. In this paper, we review our current knowledge on the function, spatio-temporal expression pattern and mutant sexual phenotypes associated with these genes, and discuss the various roles they play in gonad development. PMID:23018237

  10. Computed tomographic imaging characteristics of the normal canine lacrimal glands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The canine lacrimal gland (LG) and accessory lacrimal gland of the third eyelid (TEG) are responsible for production of the aqueous portion of the precorneal tear film. Immune-mediated, toxic, neoplastic, or infectious processes can affect the glands directly or can involve adjacent tissues, with secondary gland involvement. Disease affecting these glands can cause keratoconjunctivitis sicca, corneal ulcers, and loss of vision. Due to their location in the orbit, these small structures are difficult to evaluate and measure, making cross-sectional imaging an important diagnostic tool. The detailed cross-sectional imaging appearance of the LG and TEG in dogs using computed tomography (CT) has not been reported to date. Results Forty-two dogs were imaged, and the length, width, and height were measured and the volume calculated for the LGs & TEGs. The glands were best visualized in contrast-enhanced CT images. The mean volume of the LG was 0.14 cm3 and the TEG was 0.1 cm3. The mean height, width, and length of the LG were, 9.36 mm, 4.29 mm, and 9.35 mm, respectively; the corresponding values for the TEG was 2.02 mm, 9.34 mm, and 7.90 mm. LG and TEG volume were positively correlated with body weight (p?glands. PMID:24886364

  11. Primary Carcinoid Tumor of the Testis

    PubMed Central

    Petrossian, Albert A.; Habibi, Joseph; Rapp, David E.; Ramnani, Dharamdas

    2015-01-01

    Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis are a rare entity comprising less than 1% of all testicular neoplasms. Their presence should be considered particularly when evaluating a testicular lesion in an older male patient. Immunohistochemical studies may aid in diagnosis and radiographic evaluation is important to rule out metastatic origin. Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis are associated with an excellent prognosis; however, surveillance is important given rare reports of delayed metastases. PMID:25763289

  12. Lacrimal gland (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The lacrimal gland lies within the orbit on the outer portion of the upper eye. The gland continually secretes tears which moisten, lubricate, and protect the surface of the eye. Excess tears drain into small ducts which ...

  13. Secretory and basal cells of the epithelium of the tubular glands in the male Mullerian gland of the caecilian Uraeotyphlus narayani (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Matthew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2004-12-01

    Caecilians are exceptional among the vertebrates in that males retain the Mullerian duct as a functional glandular structure. The Mullerian gland on each side is formed from a large number of tubular glands connecting to a central duct, which either connects to the urogenital duct or opens directly into the cloaca. The Mullerian gland is believed to secrete a substance to be added to the sperm during ejaculation. Thus, the Mullerian gland could function as a male accessory reproductive gland. Recently, we described the male Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and histochemistry. The present TEM study reports that the secretory cells of both the tubular and basal portions of the tubular glands of the male Mullerian gland of this caecilian produce secretion granules in the same manner as do other glandular epithelial cells. The secretion granules are released in the form of structured granules into the lumen of the tubular glands, and such granules are traceable to the lumen of the central duct of the Mullerian gland. This is comparable to the situation prevailing in the epididymal epithelium of several reptiles. In the secretory cells of the basal portion of the tubular glands, mitochondria are intimately associated with fabrication of the secretion granules. The structural and functional organization of the epithelium of the basal portion of the tubular glands is complicated by the presence of basal cells. This study suggests the origin of the basal cells from peritubular tissue leukocytes. The study also indicates a role for the basal cells in acquiring secretion granules from the neighboring secretory cells and processing them into lipofuscin material in the context of regression of the Mullerian gland during the period of reproductive quiescence. In these respects the basal cells match those in the epithelial lining of the epididymis of amniotes. PMID:15487004

  14. A ‘giant’ paraganglioma in the testis

    PubMed Central

    Koumarelas, Konstantinos C; Mitrousias, Apostolos S; Psathas, Giannos G; Mantzioros, Athanasios; Sakellariou, Stratigoula P; Ntailiani, Panagiota; Yettimis, Evripides

    2014-01-01

    Summary Until now, less than ten cases of extra-adrenal chromaffin cell tumors have been reported to be localized to the spermatic cord area. All published studies report benign tumors with a diameter <2–3?cm and no invasion of the testis. In this article, we present one case of a giant malignant paraganglioma in the testis of a patient who had initially been operated for a giant mass in the scrotum. The mass developed in approximately 4 months. This is the first study reporting the following findings: i) paraganglioma was found exclusively in the testis, invading the testicle and not the spermatic cord, ii) it was malignant with lung metastasis, and iii) its size was 17.5?cm×10?cm×9.5?cm. We present the first – giant – malignant paraganglioma. Moreover, it is the first case report of a paraganglioma in the testis. Learning points This is the first study reporting the following findings:Paraganglioma found exclusively in the testis, invading the testicle and not the spermatic cord.It is malignant with lung metastasis.It is of the size 17.5?cm×10?cm×9.5?cm. PMID:25392737

  15. Primary lymphoma of the testis

    SciTech Connect

    Buskirk, S.J.; Evans, R.G.; Banks, P.M.; O'Connell, M.J.; Earle, J.D.

    1982-10-01

    Seventeen patients with initial presentation of lymphoma of the testis were evaluated at the Mayo Clinic between 1969 and 1979. The mean age of the patients was 69 years with 15 of the 17 patients age 60 and older at the time of diagnosis. All histologies were diffuse according to the Rappaport classification with 12 of 17 patients being histiocytic. Eleven of the 15 State I/sub E/A and II/sub E/A patients were treated with radiation therapy alone with doses ranging from 2,600 to 4,000 rad. Eight of these 11 Stage I/sub E/A patients experienced recurrence; in five of these eight, the first site of recurrence was Waldeyer's ring and adjacent structures. Four patients were treated initially with chemotherapy. In all four patients the lymphoma recurred, in two patients in the central nervous system (CNS). The survival rate at two years was 73% in Stage I/sub E/A patients and 25% in Stage II/sub E/A patients. There were no survivors at two years in those patients presenting with Stage IV disease. As patients with testicular lymphoma have a relatively high incidence of secondary involvement of Waldeyer's ring and the CNS, careful evaluation of these areas should be performed as part of the routine staging procedures. In view of the high incidence of secondary involvement of distant sites, systemic treatment should be given full consideration in addition to local irradiation as part of the initial treatment of patients with localized disease.

  16. In moltissime situazioni necessario includere testi all'interno delle animazioni.

    E-print Network

    Gribaudo, Marco

    I testi In moltissime situazioni è necessario includere testi all'interno delle animazioni. Quasi tutti i programmi dispongono di funzionalità per gestire l'inclusione di testi. I testi I testi possono essere divisi in: Singola linea Multilinea I testi: linea singola Un testo a linea singola viene

  17. Acquired undescended testis: putting the pieces together.

    PubMed

    Hack, W W M; Goede, J; van der Voort-Doedens, L M; Meijer, R W

    2012-02-01

    Acquired undescended testis is now a well-recognized disorder. It is seen in 1.5% of pre-pubertal boys and accounts for the 1-2% orchidopexy rate in older boys. Its pathogenesis remains largely unclear, but it may be caused by a fibrous remnant of the processus vaginalis. There is much controversy over its management, and the proper management awaits a randomized-controlled trial. Until now, follow-up data are available only for cases of spontaneous descent or pubertal orchidopexy. It is speculated that acquired undescended testis is in fact congenital and because of a short funiculus at birth, allowing a low-scrotal position early in life. However, as the boy grows, the testis might evolve into an undescended state. When testosterone surges at puberty, spontaneous descent occurs in three of every four cases. PMID:21651571

  18. DNA and RNA synthesis by postpubertal undescended testis in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, M.; Nonomura, N.; Namiki, M.; Okuyama, A.; Koh, E.; Kondoh, N.; Fujioka, H.; Nishimune, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Matsuda, M.

    1989-01-01

    To study the spermatogenic potential of postpubertal undescended testis, the /sup 3/H-thymidine and /sup 14/C-uridine incorporations into normally descended and inguinal undescended testes were examined. The results suggest that DNA synthesis by the inguinal undescended testis is remarkably inhibited but, on the contrary, RNA synthesis is not. The cell-proliferative ability of postpubertal undescended testis may be impaired in spite of the retention of cell viability in the testis.

  19. Ultrastructural Characteristics of the Testis, Spermatogenesis and Taxonomic Values of Sperm Morphology in Male Ruditapes philippinarum in Western Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hee; Chung, Jae Seung; Lee, Ki-Young

    2013-01-01

    Ultrastructural characteristics of the germ cells and accessory cells in testis during spermatogenesis and taxonomic values of mature sperm morphology of Ruditapes philippinarum were investigated by the transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope observations. The testis is the diffuse organ that consists of branching acini containing developing germ cells and accessory cells associated with spermatogenesis. The morphology of the spermatozoon is of the primitive type and is somewhat different to those of other bivalves. The morphologies of the sperm nucleus type and the acrosome shape of this species have a cylinderical type and a modified cone shape, respectively. As some ultrastructural characteristics of the acrosomal vesicle, the peripheral parts of two basal rings show electron opaque part, while the apex part of the acrosome shows electron lucent part. These characteristics of sperm belong to the family Veneridae in the subclass Heterodonta, unlike a characteristic of the subclass Pteriomorphia showing all part of the acrosome being composed of electron opaque part. In particular, a cylinder-like nucleus of the sperm is curved. The spermatozoon is approximately 48-51 ?m in length, including a long acrosome (about 2.40 ?m in length), a curved sperm nucleus (about 3.40 ?m in length), and a tail flagellum. The axoneme of the sperm tail shows a 9+2 structure. PMID:25949128

  20. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories....

  1. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories....

  9. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories....

  10. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories....

  15. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories....

  18. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a)...

  20. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are...

  1. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the...

  2. Human testis expresses a specific poly(A)-binding protein.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Human testis expresses a specific poly(A)-binding protein. C. Féral, G. Guellaën and A. Pawlak*. Unité INSERM 99, Hôpital Henri Mondor, 94010 Créteil, France. Keywords : PABP, spermatogenesis, testis FRANCE Tel. 33 1 49 81 35 30 Fax. 33 1 48 98 09 08 E-mail : pawlak@im3.inserm.fr #12;Abstract In testis

  3. Original article Selection on testis size as an indicator

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Selection on testis size as an indicator of maturity in growing animals. I Direct, specifically testis weight, could be used to indicate degree of maturity and produce genetic change high and low on 5 wk male body weight (lines HX, LX), on 5 wk testis weight (XH, XL) and on indices

  4. Original article Selection on testis size as an indicator

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Selection on testis size as an indicator of maturity in growing animals. II for 11 generations high and low on 5 wk body weight (HX, LX), on 5 wk testis weight (XH, XL), and on indices in which body and testis weight were selected in the same (HH, LL), and in opposite directions (HL

  5. GLYCOSYLATION PATTERN IN THE APPENDIX TESTIS IN CHILDREN WITH CRYPTORCHIDISM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerardo Lopez; Salvador Jmenez; Ruth Martinez; Maria del Socorro Pina; Belem Gallegos; Eduardo Pérez-Campos; Edgar Zenteno; Pedro Hernández

    2010-01-01

    In humans, at about week 6, sex cords develop within the forming testes. Testes normally descend to the scrotum; cryptorchidism occurs when one or two testes do not descend to scrotum and in some case are accompanied by the appendix testis. The appendix testis is a small sessile or polypoid structure located at the antero superior pole of the testis,

  6. Androgen and oestrogen receptor status of the human appendix testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Samnakay; R. J. Cohen; J. Orford; P. A. King; R. J. Davies

    2003-01-01

    Since the human appendix testis is a Mullerian duct derivative it has been theorised that rising oestrogen levels in puberty result in enlargement of this organ and consequent predisposition to torsion. This study sought to establish the presence or absence of both androgen and oestrogen receptors in the human appendix testis. Bilateral appendix testis specimens surgically excised from ten patients

  7. Decreased Incidence of Appendix Testis in Cryptorchidism with Intraoperative Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamás Józsa; István Csízy; Balázs Kutasy; Tamás Cserni; Tibor Flaskó

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Several authors have investigated the background of the process of testicular descent, but the role of the appendix testis has not been studied. The human appendix testis was found to express both estrogen and androgen receptors. We determined and compared the occurrence of testicular appendices intraoperatively in descended and undescended testes. Methods: The number of appendix testis was evaluated

  8. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section 10.456 Customs Duties...Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's standard...

  9. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section 10.456 Customs Duties...Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's standard...

  10. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section 10.456 Customs Duties...Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's standard...

  11. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harmon H. Davis; Ajit Varki; W. A. Heaton; B. A. Siegel

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets.

  12. Multiple ancient schwannoma of the accessory nerve: a case report.

    PubMed

    George, N A; Balagopal, P G; Somanath, T; Sebastian, P

    2012-01-01

    We are reporting a case of multiple ancient schwannoma of the accessory nerve in a 57 year old male. Accessory schwannomas are rare with only 19 cases reported in literature so far. Ancient schwannoma is even rarer in the head and neck region with no other cases associated with the accessory nerve being reported in literature so far. PMID:22227549

  13. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    MedlinePLUS

    Search SEER Training: SEER Training Modules Print Home Glossary Citation Help Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer ...

  14. Important Information ................................... 2 ~ 3 Supplied Accessories ......................................... 3

    E-print Network

    Kleinfeld, David

    Accessories ......................................... 3 · Before Operating Your Television includes basic operating instructions in Spanish and French. SPANISH is on page 6, 27. FRENCH is on page 7 TELEVISION MODELS 13N-M100 13N-M150 B #12;2 Welcome to the SHARP Family.We are pleased that you are now

  15. Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory

    DOEpatents

    Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

    2005-05-31

    An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

  16. BioMed Central Page 1 of 6

    E-print Network

    Cotton, Sam

    reproductive organ size is an important determinant of male reproductive success. While the response of testis studies address the importance of testis size in determining other components of male reproductive success. Accessory gland length, but not testis length, is both phenotypically and genetically correlated with male

  17. Accessories to the crime: Recent advances in HIV accessory protein biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Gramberg; Nicole Sunseri; Nathaniel R. Landau

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding the roles of the lentiviral accessory proteins have provided fascinating insight into the\\u000a molecular biology of the virus and uncovered previously unappreciated innate immune mechanisms by which the host defends itself.\\u000a HIV-1 and other lentiviruses have developed accessory proteins that counterattack the antiviral defenses in a sort of evolutionary\\u000a battle. The virus is remarkably adept at

  18. Aqueous solvents for extracting glanded cottonseed protein without gland rupture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Muller; T. J. Jacks; T. P. Hensarling

    1976-01-01

    The presence of pigment glands has thwarted attempts to extract edible cottonseed protein aqueously from glanded seeds or\\u000a gland-rich meals, probably because of the widely held belief that glands rupture on contact with aqueous media. We found several\\u000a aqueous salt solutions in which glands did not rupture. Glands remained intact in saturated (2m) sodium sulfate, but not in saturated 2m

  19. Motile Sperm in Human Testis Biopsy Specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM W. JOW; JOPH STECKEL; PETER N. SCHLEGEL; MARGRET S. MAGID

    We prospectively studied 62 consecutive infertile men who underwent 100 intraoperative wet prep cytological examinations of testis biopsy material obtained simultaneously with permanently fixed specimens. Wet preps were performed by placing a small sam- pIe of fresh testicular tissue on a slide, adding a drop of Ringer's lactate, and compressing the specimen under a glass coverslip. Among these 100 wet

  20. Cancer\\/testis antigens, gametogenesis and cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otavia L. Caballero; Achim Jungbluth; Yao-Tseng Chen; Lloyd J. Old; Andrew J. G. Simpson

    2005-01-01

    Cancer\\/testis (CT) antigens, of which more than 40 have now been identified, are encoded by genes that are normally expressed only in the human germ line, but are also expressed in various tumour types, including melanoma, and carcinomas of the bladder, lung and liver. These immunogenic proteins are being vigorously pursued as targets for therapeutic cancer vaccines. CT antigens are

  1. Malignant mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis testis

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, G.; Munn, C.S.; Kiser, L.C.; Wetzner, S.M.; Tarabulcy, E. (New England Baptist Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis is rare, but sometimes curable. It is similar to malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum and of the pleura, and is likewise associated with asbestos exposure. We report a case, with correlative computed tomography, ultrasound, and gross pathology images that demonstrate tiny tumor implants studding the vaginalis testis. The literature is reviewed.

  2. Free Radicals in Adolescent Varicocele Testis

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Carmelo; Santoro, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relationship between the structure and function of the testis and the oxidative and nitrosative stress, determined by an excessive production of free radicals and/or decreased availability of antioxidant defenses, which occur in the testis of adolescents affected by varicocele. Moreover, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidative stress were provided. We conducted a PubMed and Medline search between 1980 and 2014 using “adolescent,” “varicocele,” “free radicals,” “oxidative and nitrosative stress,” “testis,” and “seminiferous tubules” as keywords. Cross-references were checked in each of the studies, and relevant articles were retrieved. We conclude that increased concentration of free radicals, generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in adolescent affected by varicocele, can harm germ cells directly or indirectly by influencing nonspermatogenic cells and basal lamina. With regard to few available data in current literature, further clinical trials on the pre- and postoperative ROS and RNS levels together with morphological studies of the cellular component of the testis are fundamental for complete comprehension of the role played by free radicals in the pathogenesis of adolescent varicocele and could justify its pharmacological treatment with antioxidants. PMID:25580183

  3. Torsion of a Large Appendix Testis Misdiagnosed as Pyocele

    PubMed Central

    Meher, Susanta; Rath, Satyajit; Sharma, Rakesh; Sasmal, Prakash Kumar; Mishra, Tushar Subhadarshan

    2015-01-01

    Torsion of the appendix testis is not an uncommon cause of acute hemiscrotum. It is frequently misdiagnosed as acute epididymitis, orchitis, or torsion of testis. Though conservative management is the treatment of choice for this condition, prompt surgical intervention is warranted when testicular torsion is suspected. We report a case of torsion of a large appendix testis misdiagnosed as pyocele. Emergency exploration of it revealed a large appendix testis with torsion and early features of gangrene. After excision of the appendix testis, the wound was closed with an open drain. The patient had an uneventful and smooth postoperative recovery. PMID:25861514

  4. Wnt signaling in testis development: Unnecessary or essential?

    PubMed

    Dong, Wei-Lai; Tan, Fu-Qing; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2015-07-10

    Testis development is a fundamental process in sexual development and reproduction. It is under the regulation of multiple factors. Wnt signaling pathway is a classical pathway, which plays an essential role during early development. From a traditional view, Wnt signaling serves as a key regulator of female reproductive system. However, its role in testis development is relatively controversial. This paper reviews Wnt signaling's part in the major events during testis development, including primordial germ cell specification, proliferation and migration, testis determination, spermatogenesis and somatic cell regulation, and summarizes Wnt signaling's impact on testis-related disorders. We evaluate the outcomes of current studies in the field and suggest future research directions. PMID:25921962

  5. Atrioventricular accessory pathway with anterograde decremental conduction property

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Satoshi; Fujii, Eitaro; Sugiura, Shinya; Ito, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of atrioventricular (AV) accessory pathway with anterograde decremental conduction property. The ? wave polarity suggested the presence of a right posteroseptal accessory AV pathway. During atrial pacing, Wenckebach-type AV block over the accessory pathway was observed with prolongation of the local AV conduction time without the change in QRS morphology. No retrograde ventriculoatrial conduction was observed. During mapping of the right midseptal area, mechanical conduction block at the level of the proximal input to the accessory pathway was induced repeatedly by catheter manipulation. Radiofrequency energy delivery eliminated the accessory pathway. In this case only the bump phenomenon was the best marker of successful ablation. PMID:23780770

  6. Parotid gland sparing radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Braam

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Radiotherapy is a common form of treatment for head-and-neck malignancies. One of the most prominent complaints after radiotherapy is a dry mouth, which is caused by irradiation of the salivary glands. The main contributors of saliva during stimulation are the parotid glands, which are positioned near the neck nodes and in most cases in the vicinity of the primary

  7. Ectopic cervical salivary glands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ph. Greant; M. Pipeleers-Marichal; P. Wylockt

    1987-01-01

    Ectopic salivary glands in the neck are very unusual lesions. Generally they are localized to the oropharyngeal region, near the mandible and para-parotid lymph nodes. They occur occasionally on the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the soft tissues of the neck. We wish to report on a singular association of ectopic salivary glands with partial hearing loss, preauricular

  8. Identity and transfer of male reproductive gland proteins of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti: potential tools for control of female feeding and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Sirot, Laura K.; Poulson, Rebecca L.; McKenna, M. Caitlin; Girnary, Hussein; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2009-01-01

    Male reproductive gland proteins (mRGPs) impact the physiology and/or behavior of mated females in a broad range of organisms. We sought to identify mRGPs of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses. Earlier studies with Ae. aegypti demonstrated that “matrone” (a partially purified male reproductive accessory gland substance) or male accessory gland fluid injected into virgin female Ae. aegypti affect female sexual refractoriness, blood feeding and digestion, flight, ovarian development, and oviposition. Using bioinformatic comparisons to Drosophila melanogaster accessory gland proteins and mass spectrometry of proteins from Ae. aegypti male accessory glands and ejaculatory ducts (AG/ED) and female reproductive tracts, we identified 63 new putative Ae. aegypti mRGPs. Twenty-one of these proteins were found in the reproductive tract of mated females, but not of virgin females, suggesting that they are transferred from males to females during mating. Most of the putative mRGPs fall into the same protein classes as mRGPs in other organisms, although some appear to be evolving rapidly and lack identifiable homologs in Culex pipiens, Anopheles gambiae, and D. melanogaster. Our results identify candidate male-derived molecules that may have an important influence on behavior, survival and reproduction of female mosquitoes. PMID:18207079

  9. HIV Accessory Proteins versus Host Restriction Factors

    PubMed Central

    Strebel, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Primate immunodeficiency viruses, including HIV-1, are characterized by the presence of accessory genes such as vif, vpr, vpx, vpu, and nef. Current knowledge indicates that none of the primate lentiviral accessory proteins has enzymatic activity. Instead, these proteins interact with cellular ligands to either act as adapter molecules to redirect the normal function of host factors for virus-specific purposes or to inhibit a normal host function by mediating degradation or causing intracellular mislocalization/sequestration of the factors involved. This review aims at providing an update of our current understanding of how Vif, Vpu, and Vpx control the cellular restriction factors APOBEC3G, BST-2, and SAMHD1, respectively. PMID:24246762

  10. [Accessory renal arteries in human fetuses].

    PubMed

    Go?cicka, D; Szpinda, M; Kochan, J

    1996-12-01

    Using conventional anatomical methods, renal arteries of 140 human fetuses were studied. It was found (21.1%) that the accessory renal arteries occurred in a three-fold manner: 1. as single arteries (19.2%), 2. as double arteries (2.1%) and 3. as triplex arteries (0.7%). More often they originated from the right part of the circumference of the abdominal aorta, mainly in the female fetuses. These arteries penetrated the following segments of the kidney: the inferior (12.9%), the superior (2.3%), the anterior inferior (2.8%), the posterior (2.1%) and the anterior superior (1.5%). They crossed the renal pelvis more often in front (12.2%) than from behind of it (5%). The frequency of the occurrence of the accessory arteries depends not from the age of the fetus. PMID:9082875

  11. Bacteriophage P22 accessory recombination function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony R. Poteete; Anita C. Fenton; Arlene Semerjian

    1991-01-01

    The accessory recombination function (arf) gene of bacteriophage P22 is located immediately upstream of the essential recombination function (erf) gene. Three mutant alleles of arf were constructed and installed in P22 in place of the wild-type allele: an out-of-frame internal deletion, an in-frame internal deletion, and an amber mutation. The deletion mutant phages are partially defective in homologous recombination and

  12. Malignant Leydig cell tumour of the testis.

    PubMed

    Powari, Manish; Kakkar, Nandita; Singh, S K; Rai, R S; Jogai, Sanjay

    2002-01-01

    A case of malignant Leydig cell tumour is presented. It is a rare primary malignant tumour of the testis and occurs exclusively in adults. The present case is of interest because it occurred at the young age of 25 years which is rare. Histologically it showed almost all features which suggest malignancy and also had metastases to the lungs and liver. The clinical details and pathology of this tumour are discussed. PMID:11803271

  13. Thyroid Hormone and Leptin in the Testis

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Cristiane Fonte; Zamoner, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is primarily expressed in white adipose tissue; however, it is expressed in the hypothalamus and reproductive tissues as well. Leptin acts by activating the leptin receptors (Ob-Rs). Additionally, the regulation of several neuroendocrine and reproductive functions, including the inhibition of glucocorticoids and enhancement of thyroxine and sex hormone concentrations in human beings and mice are leptin functions. It has been suggested that thyroid hormones (TH) could directly regulate leptin expression. Additionally, hypothyroidism compromises the intracellular integration of leptin signaling specifically in the arcuate nucleus. Two TH receptor isoforms are expressed in the testis, TRa and TRb, with TRa being the predominant one that is present in all stages of development. The effects of TH involve the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli and Leydig cells during development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis. In this context, TH disorders are associated with sexual dysfunction. An endocrine and/or direct paracrine effect of leptin on the gonads inhibits testosterone production in Leydig cells. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effects of both hormones in the testis during hypothyroidism. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge regarding leptin and TH in the testis. PMID:25505448

  14. Thyroid Hormone Function in the Rat Testis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are emerging regulators of testicular function since Sertoli, germ, and Leydig cells are found to express thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). These testicular cells also express deiodinases, which are capable of converting the pro-hormone T4 to the active thyroid hormone T3, or inactivating T3 or T4 to a non-biologically active form. Furthermore, thyroid hormone transporters are also found in the testis. Thus, the testis is equipped with the transporters and the enzymes necessary to maintain the optimal level of thyroid hormone in the seminiferous epithelium, as well as the specific TRs to execute thyroid hormone action in response to different stages of the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. Studies using genetic models and/or goitrogens (e.g., propylthiouracil) have illustrated a tight physiological relationship between thyroid hormone and testicular function, in particular, Sertoli cell differentiation status, mitotic activity, gap junction function, and blood–testis barrier assembly. These findings are briefly summarized and discussed herein. PMID:25414694

  15. The Treatment of the Incompletely Descended Testis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D. S. Poole

    1939-01-01

    (1) Under three years of age the diagnosis of the incompletely descended testis is uncertain. (2) The policy of awaiting spontaneous descent may be pursued until 10 years of age but, unless the testis lies in the superior scrotal position, this policy should not be persisted in thereafter. (3) Hormonal therapy may be employed before operative treatment as a means of determining testes which will descend spontaneously. It should only be used in the prepuberty period. (4) Operative treatment may be safely carried out at any age after 3 years and should be completed before puberty. The optimum period is between 8 and 11 years. The Bevan operation may be successful when the testis is very mobile but the most consistent results are obtained by the septal transposition or Keetley-Torek operations. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22 PMID:19991991

  16. Glycosylation pattern in the appendix testis in children with cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Gerardo; Jmenez, Salvador; Martinez, Ruth; Pina, Maria del Socorro; Gallegos, Belem; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Zenteno, Edgar; Hernández, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    In humans, at about week 6, sex cords develop within the forming testes. Testes normally descend to the scrotum; cryptorchidism occurs when one or two testes do not descend to scrotum and in some case are accompanied by the appendix testis. The appendix testis is a small sessile or polypoid structure located at the antero superior pole of the testis, adjacent to the head of the epididymis. Glycans can be involved in development of the appendix testis and cryptorchidism. In this work, lectin histochemistry was used to evaluate glycans expression in appendix testis in children with cryptorchidism. Our results showed that lectin from Lens culinaris, Ulex europaeus I., Canavalia ensiformis, Artocarpus integrifolia, Glycine max, and Griffonia simplicifolia recognizes epithelial and estromal cells. Not interaction was observed with lectin from Amaranthus leucocarpus, while lectin from Dolichus biflorus lectin only recognizes epithelial cells. Our results suggest that O-glycans linked in some glycoproteins represent important elements in appendix testis development. PMID:21229461

  17. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is encased within the prostate gland. As a man ages, the prostate typically enlarges in size in ... urinate, and incontinence. Less than half of all men with BPH have symptoms of the disease, or ...

  18. Lacrimal gland anatomy (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The lacrimal gland is located within the orbit above the lateral end of the eye. It continually releases fluid which cleanses and protects the eye's surface as it lubricates and moistens it. These lacrimal secretions are commonly known ...

  19. Pineal and Pituitary Glands

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CNS Tumors » Anatomy » Pineal and Pituitary Glands Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Site-specific Modules Brain & Other Nervous ... malignant Brain Tumors History of CNS Tumor Surveillance & Registration BTWG Recommendations Public Law 107-260 Reportable Cases ...

  20. Adrenal glands (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.

  1. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  2. Profiling of Androgen Response in Rainbow Trout Pubertal Testis: Relevance to Male Gonad Development

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Profiling of Androgen Response in Rainbow Trout Pubertal Testis: Relevance to Male Gonad gene expression in trout testis using microarrays. Following treatment of immature males. Expression profiles of responsive genes throughout testis development and in isolated germ cells confirmed

  3. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  12. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

  15. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

  20. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

  1. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  2. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  3. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

  6. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  7. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  8. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

  9. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  15. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  16. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

  19. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  1. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  2. Non-Azygos Accessory Fissure in Right Upper Lobe Associated with Superior and Inferior Accessory Fissures in Right Lower Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Muttikkal, Thomas Jose Eluvathingal; Deng, Chunli

    2012-01-01

    Accessory fissures in the lungs are common congenital variations, usually detected as incidental findings in radiographs or CT scan. Accessory fissures can act as an anatomic barrier to the spread of inflammatory or neoplastic disease, as well as due to the variant anatomy, mimic lesions. It is important to recognize the presence of accessory fissures, as they affect surgical planning of pulmonary lobectomy and segmentectomy. Accessory fissure in the right upper lobe other than due to the anomalous course of azygos vein is very rare. We report a case of non-azygos accessory fissure, between the apical and the anterior segments of right upper lobe, along with superior and inferior accessory fissures in the right lower lobe. PMID:23393635

  3. Effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba in mature rat testis function.

    PubMed

    Moundipa, F P; Kamtchouing, P; Koueta, N; Tantchou, J; Foyang, N P; Mbiapo, F T

    1999-05-01

    Mature male albino Wistar rats (180-220 g) were given by gastric intubation Hibiscus macranthus Hochst A ex Rich (Malvaceae) and Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) aqueous extract from both fresh and dry leaves, at a dose equivalent to 0.720 or 0.108 g of plant, respectively per kg body weight. This was to evaluate their effects on male reproductive function. Control groups were treated equally, but given water instead of the extract. After the treatment periods, animals were killed, their blood collected, the testes and some annex glands removed for histological and biochemical analysis. Results showed that the extract from fresh leaves significantly increased the body weight of rats by 17% from day 7 as compared to controls, whereas the increase was less pronounced (4%) when the rats were given dry leaf extract. The weight of seminal vesicles of rats given the extracts also increased after 15 days. The histological analysis of testis showed abundant spermatozoa in the lumen of the seminiferous tubulus from day 7 in rats fed with the extract when compared to the controls. The serum level of testosterone was significantly increased on the 15th day by 80% in rats given both types of extracts compared to the controls. Testis of treated rats showed high testosterone production in vitro (136 and 62%, respectively for treated and control after 15 days, compared to those of 3 days). Activity of prostatic acid phosphatase was high in prostate, testis and serum of treated rats in all experimental period. From these findings and observation, it was concluded that the aqueous extract of H. macranthus and B. alba had anabolizing and virilizing effects. PMID:10465653

  4. Mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis with prominent adenomatoid features: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lian-He; Yu, Juan-Han; Xu, Hong-Tao; Lin, Xu-Yong; Liu, Yang; Miao, Yuan; Wang, Liang; Fan, Chui-Feng; Jiang, Gui-Yang; Ding, Si-Lu; Li, Guang; Wang, En-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Malignant mesotheliomas of the testis arise from the tunica vaginalis, formed from the evagination of the abdominal peritoneum into the scrotum. It is an extremely rare tumor representing 0.3% to 5% of all malignant mesotheliomas. We presented an interesting case of 68-year-old male with swelling and slightly painful in the right scrotum. Histologically, the lesion were composed of small tubular, microcystic, gland lined by flattened epithelioid cells and vague signet ring cells set in a myxofibrous stroma, which is resemblance to adenomatoid tumor. But the tumor cells showed significant atypical cytologic morphology and invaded into spermatic cord tissue, which indicated the diagnosis of malignant tumor. Immunohistochemistry study showed positive expression of CK, CK5/6, CK7, Calretinin, D2-40 and Vimentin which indicated the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. This case of mesothelioma should be classified as epithelial in type. To our knowledge, the mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis with adenomatoid tumor-like microscopic features is very rare. PMID:25400801

  5. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. 878.4400...4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. 878.4400...4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. 878.4400...4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a...

  8. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. 878.4400...4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. 878.4400...4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a...

  10. Cancer\\/testis antigens and gametogenesis: a review and \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martins Kalejs; Jekaterina Erenpreisa

    2005-01-01

    Genes expressed both in normal testis and in malignancies (Cancer\\/ Testis associated genes – CTA) have become the most extensively studied antigen group in the field of tumour immunology. Despite this, many fundamentally important questions remain unanswered: what is the connection between germ-cell specific genes and tumours? Is the expression of these genes yet another proof for the importance of

  11. Simon Effect with and without Awareness of the Accessory Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treccani, Barbara; Umilta, Carlo; Tagliabue, Mariaelena

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated whether a Simon effect could be observed in an accessory-stimulus Simon task when participants were unaware of the task-irrelevant accessory cue. In Experiment 1A a central visual target was accompanied by a suprathreshold visual lateral cue. A regular Simon effect (i.e., faster cue-response corresponding reaction times…

  12. Accessory bronchus in a patient with chronic cough.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Raúl; Esparza, Edgar A; Macías, Marco P; Quiroz-Castro, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    The accessory bronchus involving the trachea or main bronchi is very rare. In this report, we present images of an accessory bronchus, detected by computed tomography scan and flexible bronchoscopy. Our patient was suffering from persistent productive cough and had normal chest x-ray. We review the literature to establish relationship between our patient's symptoms and this congenital anomaly. PMID:23609250

  13. Cancer/testis antigens and urological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Prakash; Shiraishi, Takumi; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Kim, Robert; Mooney, Steven M.; Getzenberg, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are a group of tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) that display normal expression in the adult testis—an immune-privileged organ—but aberrant expression in several types of cancers, particularly in advanced cancers with stem cell-like characteristics. There has been an explosion in CTA-based research since CTAs were first identified in 1991 and MAGE-1 was shown to elicit an autologous cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in a patient with melanoma. The resulting data have not only highlighted a role for CTAs in tumorigenesis, but have also underscored the translational potential of these antigens for detecting and treating many types of cancers. Studies that have investigated the use of CTAs for the clinical management of urological malignancies indicate that these TAAs have potential roles as novel biomarkers, with increased specificity and sensitivity compared to those currently used in the clinic, and therapeutic targets for cancer immunotherapy. Increasing evidence supports the utilization of these promising tools for urological indications. PMID:22710665

  14. What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a slightly better outcome. Other cancers that can affect the salivary glands These types of cancer are ... Most lymphomas that start in the salivary glands affect people with Sjogren (Sjögren) syndrome (a disorder that ...

  15. Male accessory gland protein reduces egg laying in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joris M. Koene; Wiebe Sloot; Kora Montagne-Wajer; Scott F. Cummins; Bernard M. Degnan; John S. Smith; Gregg T. Nagle; Andries ter Maat

    2010-01-01

    Seminal fluid is an important part of the ejaculate of internally fertilizing animals. This fluid contains substances that nourish and activate sperm for successful fertilization. Additionally, it contains components that influence female physiology to further enhance fertilization success of the sperm donor, possibly beyond the recipient's optimum. Although evidence for such substances abounds, few studies have unraveled their identities, and

  16. Male Accessory Gland Protein Reduces Egg Laying in a Simultaneous Hermaphrodite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joris M. Koene; Wiebe Sloot; Kora Montagne-Wajer; Scott F. Cummins; Bernard M. Degnan; John S. Smith; Gregg T. Nagle; Andries Ter Maat; Laszlo Orban

    2010-01-01

    Seminal fluid is an important part of the ejaculate of internally fertilizing animals. This fluid contains substances that nourish and activate sperm for successful fertilization. Additionally, it contains components that influence female physiology to further enhance fertilization success of the sperm donor, possibly beyond the recipient's optimum. Although evidence for such substances abounds, few studies have unraveled their identities, and

  17. EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems

    E-print Network

    Walters, James R.; Harrison, Richard G.

    2008-12-08

    the same locus (within species) or orthologous loci (between species). However, we fully recognize that such questions of identity and orthology can only be conclusively determined in the context of complete genome sequences and that the modest number... diversity in the context of well- characterized ecological and phenotypic diversity. The two species studied here are also the focal taxa for research examining the genetic basis of wing pattern diversity in Heliconius. Our results comprise the first major...

  18. Tokens of love: Functions and regulation of drosophila male accessory gland products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana F. Wolfner

    1997-01-01

    A male fruit fly influences the behavior and physiology of his mate via molecules that he transmits to her'in his semen. The mated female fly has an elevated rate of egg laying, a decreased receptivity to mating and a shorter life span; she also stores sperm from the mating. Molecular genetic analyses possible in this insect model system permit the

  19. RESEARCH ARTICLES Comparative Genomics of Accessory Gland Protein Genes in Drosophila

    E-print Network

    Begun, David

    they are D. melanogaster orphans. The weighted average of interspecific amino acid identity for alignable generalunderstandingofgenelossislikelyplaguedbyascer- tainment bias. For example, genes that are prone to loss over relativelyshortertimescalesmaytendtoevolvequicklyand, therefore, are more likely to be unannotated in model system genomes. Gain and loss of genes

  20. Recent methods for the investigation of the accessory glands of the human male genital tract

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    . Such a study alerted us to an unsuspected and unexplained defect in the bladder neck mechanism, and patients of the bladder neck and external sphincter function which are not readily apparent by other methods and to avoid of contrast into the prostatic urethra and bladder. Buck, Sherwood and Pryor (1977) reviewed 96 vasograms

  1. Treatment of parotid glands cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdalena Jozefowicz-Korczynska; Elzbieta Debniak; Marek Lukomski

    2003-01-01

    Parotid glands tumors are relatively uncommon but they diverse and range from less to highly aggressive. Surgery is the primary treatment of choice for most neoplasm of salivary glands.We evaluated the results of parotid gland cancer treatment dependent on clinical data and treatment modality on survival. Results of treatment, clinical stage, types of surgical management and recurrences in 105 patients

  2. Hair follicle sebaceous gland (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Each pore on the surface of the skin is an opening to a canal called a follicle. The follicle also contains a hair and an oil gland (sebaceous gland). The oil gland helps remove old skin cells, keeps the skin lubricated, and prevents ...

  3. The permeability of the microvasculature of the perfused rat testis to small hydrophilic substances.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, J C; Setchell, B P

    2000-01-01

    The permeability-surface area products (PS) for sodium, Cr-EDTA, and cyanocobalamine (CoB12) have been determined in isolated perfused rat testes, using the single-passage multiple tracer technique, with albumin as the reference tracer. The validity of using albumin was established from its recovery in the perfusate leaving the testis, which was 98.73+/-0.48% of that for Cr-labeled red cells. The PS values obtained for Na, Cr-EDTA, and CoB12 were correlated with perfusate flow, both below and above levels that were equivalent to normal rates of blood flow in the testis (0.3 mL/[g x min]). The values found at the highest flow rates obtained (between 2.7 and 3.5 mL/[g x min]) were 2230+/-240 microL/(g x min) (n = 8) for sodium, 1460+/-140 microL/(g x min) (n = 7) for Cr-EDTA, and 850+/-80 microL/(g x min) (n = 7) for CoB12. These values are similar to those reported at equivalent flow rates for heart muscle and greater than those reported for skeletal muscle, both of which have unfenestrated capillaries similar to testis, but are less than the values for pancreas and salivary gland, which have fenestrated capillaries and are similar to most other endocrine tissues. However, the permeability coefficients for these markers in the testis (calculated using published values for the surface area of the testicular microvasculature) appear to be considerably greater than for any other tissue studied thus far. By extrapolating extraction values, either linearly or logarithmically, to obtain maximal values for PS for Cr-EDTA and CoB12, and comparing the ratio of these PS area values with the ratio of the diffusion coefficients of these molecules, it can be calculated that the equivalent pore radius for the testicular endothelium is between 5 and 6 nm, comparable to those calculated for other nonfenestrated endothelia. PMID:10819453

  4. Queen Conch (Strombus gigas) Testis Regresses during the Reproductive Season at Nearshore Sites in the Florida Keys

    PubMed Central

    Spade, Daniel J.; Griffitt, Robert J.; Liu, Li; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Feswick, April; Glazer, Robert A.; Barber, David S.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Queen conch (Strombus gigas) reproduction is inhibited in nearshore areas of the Florida Keys, relative to the offshore environment where conchs reproduce successfully. Nearshore reproductive failure is possibly a result of exposure to environmental factors, including heavy metals, which are likely to accumulate close to shore. Metals such as Cu and Zn are detrimental to reproduction in many mollusks. Methodology/Principal Findings Histology shows gonadal atrophy in nearshore conchs as compared to reproductively healthy offshore conchs. In order to determine molecular mechanisms leading to tissue changes and reproductive failure, a microarray was developed. A normalized cDNA library for queen conch was constructed and sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences GS-FLX pyrosequencer, producing 27,723 assembled contigs and 7,740 annotated transcript sequences. The resulting sequences were used to design the microarray. Microarray analysis of conch testis indicated differential regulation of 255 genes (p<0.01) in nearshore conch, relative to offshore. Changes in expression for three of four transcripts of interest were confirmed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis indicated changes in biological processes: respiratory chain (GO:0015992), spermatogenesis (GO:0007283), small GTPase-mediated signal transduction (GO:0007264), and others. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that Zn and possibly Cu were elevated in some nearshore conch tissues. Conclusions/Significance Congruence between testis histology and microarray data suggests that nearshore conch testes regress during the reproductive season, while offshore conch testes develop normally. Possible mechanisms underlying the testis regression observed in queen conch in the nearshore Florida Keys include a disruption of small GTPase (Ras)-mediated signaling in testis development. Additionally, elevated tissue levels of Cu (34.77 ng/mg in testis) and Zn (831.85 ng/mg in digestive gland, 83.96 ng/mg in testis) nearshore are similar to reported levels resulting in reproductive inhibition in other gastropods, indicating that these metals possibly contribute to NS conch reproductive failure. PMID:20856805

  5. Heterogeneity of Ovarian Theca and Interstitial Gland Cells in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miyabayashi, Kanako; Tokunaga, Kaori; Otake, Hiroyuki; Baba, Takashi; Shima, Yuichi; Morohashi, Ken-ichirou

    2015-01-01

    It has been established that two developmentally and functionally distinct cell types emerge within the mammalian testis and adrenal gland throughout life. Fetal and adult types of steroidogenic cells (i.e., testicular Leydig cells and adrenocortical cells) develop in the prenatal and postnatal period, respectively. Although the ovary synthesizes steroids postnatally, the presence of fetal-type steroidogenic cells has not been described. We had previously established transgenic mouse lines in which fetal Leydig cells were labeled with an EGFP reporter gene by the FLE (fetal Leydig enhancer) of the Ad4BP/SF-1 (Nr5a1) gene. In the present study, we examined the reporter gene expression in females and found that the reporter gene is turned on in postnatal ovaries. A comparison of the expressions of the EGFP and marker genes revealed that EGFP is expressed in not all but rather a proportion of steroidogenic theca and in interstitial gland cells in the ovary. This finding was further supported by experiments using BAC transgenic mice in which reporter gene expression recapitulated endogenous Ad4BP/SF-1 gene expression. In conclusion, our observations from this study strongly suggest that ovarian theca and interstitial gland cells in mice consist of at least two cell types. PMID:26039146

  6. Streaming submandibular gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Zajicek; C. Yagil; Y. Michaeli

    1985-01-01

    Twenty female young adult rats were injected with tritiated thymidine (³HTdR). The animals were then killed in groups of five, at the following times: 1 hour, and 4, 16, and 23 days. Autoradiograms of sections through the submandibular gland were prepared, and the location of labelled cells in relationship to tubuli and acini was recorded. The different tubular and acinar

  7. Hunting for eruption ages in accessory minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    A primary goal in geochronology is to provide precise and accurate ages for tephras that serve as chronostratigraphic markers for constraining the timing and rates of volcanism, sedimentation, climate change, and catastrophic events in Earth history. Zircon remains the most versatile accessory mineral for dating silicic tephras due to its common preservation in distal pyroclastic deposits, as well as the robustness of its U-Pb and U-series systems even after host materials have been hydrothermally altered or weathered. Countless studies document that zircon may be complexly zoned in age due to inheritance, contamination, recycling of antecrysts, protracted crystallization in long-lived magma reservoirs, or any combination of these. Other accessory minerals such as allanite or chevkinite can retain similar records of protracted crystallization. If the goal is to date the durations of magmatic crystallization, differentiation, and/or magma residence, then these protracted chronologies within and between accessory minerals are a blessing. However, if the goal is to date the timing of eruption with high precision, i.e., absolute ages with millennial-scale uncertainties, then this age zoning is a curse. Observations from ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of Pleistocene zircon and allanite provide insight into the record of near-eruption crystallization in accessory minerals and serve as a guide for high-precision whole-crystal dating. Although imprecise relative to conventional techniques, ion probe analysis allows high-spatial resolution 238U-230Th dating that can document multi-millennial age distributions at the crystal scale. Analysis of unpolished rims and continuous depth profiling of zircon from small and large volume eruptions (e.g., Coso, Mono Craters, Yellowstone) reveals that the final several micrometers of crystallization often yield ages that are indistinguishable from associated eruption ages from the 40Ar/39Ar or (U-Th)/He methods. Using this approach, we have derived relatively precise (± ~ 5%, 2?) U-Th isochron ages from the unpolished rims of pumice-derived allanite and zircon from late Pleistocene Wilson Creek Formation tephras in eastern California, whose ages are controversial and have been difficult to resolve via 40Ar/39Ar and radiocarbon dating. Allanite and zircon rims from Ashes 7-19 in the lower portion of Wilson Creek sediments yield stratigraphically consistent ages of ca. 27 ka to ca. 62 ka, with a minority of crystals identifiable as xenocrysts from early Mono Craters rhyolites. Model ages for the interiors of allanite crystals are mostly < 10 k.y. older than their rims. Tephra deposited during the geomagnetic excursion debated to be either the Mono Lake or Laschamp event yields a rim isochron age of ca. 41 ka. This age is indistinguishable from an independent age of 41 ka derived at the latter excursion's type locality in France (Singer et al., 2009) as well as from age-models for deep-sea sediments. The results are in excellent agreement with a previously determined chronology derived from magnetostratigraphy (Zimmerman et al., 2006). Refs: Singer et al., 2009, EPSL 286: 80-88; Zimmerman et al., 2006, EPSL 252: 94-106

  8. Sertoli cells secrete both testis-specific and serum proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, W W; Musto, N A; Mather, J P; Bardin, C W

    1981-01-01

    The secretions of the Sertoli cell were examined with two polyvalent antisera--one prepared against proteins in rat serum and the other against testis-specific proteins in rete testis fluid. These antisera detected 12 serum and 9 testis-specific proteins in rete testis fluid. To determine the origin of these proteins, primary cultures enriched in Sertoli cells were incubated with [35S]methionine, and the radiolabeled proteins in the medium were immunoprecipitated. Gel electrophoresis of the two immunoprecipitates resolved eight serum and nine testis-specific proteins. These two sets of proteins were specifically bound to their respective antiserum and were immunologically distinct. Medium from Sertoli cell cultures contained 10 times more of the testis-specific proteins than did cultures enriched for testicular myoid or interstitial cells. The concentration of the serum proteins in Sertoli cell medium was 5 and 10 times greater, respectively, than in myoid or interstitial cell preparations. The proteins from Sertoli cells were next characterized on two-dimensional gels. Seven of the proteins recognized by antiserum against serum proteins had identical molecular weights and isoelectric points as serum proteins. Three of these proteins were ceruloplasmin, transferrin, and glycoprotein 2. In addition to the proteins immunoprecipitated by the two antisera, more than 60 other proteins were detected on two-dimensional gels of the total secretory proteins. We conclude that the Sertoli cell secretes many proteins, some of which are specific to the testis and others of which are similar to serum proteins. Images PMID:6950398

  9. Cancer/testis genes in multiple myeloma: Expression patterns and prognosis value determined by microarray analysis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Cancer/testis genes in multiple myeloma: Expression patterns and prognosis value determined, Germany; Running title: Expression of cancer-testis genes in multiple myeloma Key words: human, antigen Immunol 2007;178(5):3307-15" #12;2 Abstract Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are expressed in testis

  10. Hormones, Sex Accessory Structures, and Secondary Sexual Characteristics

    E-print Network

    Sever, David M.

    gland secretions) and secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., genial glands and skin glands of newts pads of American newts (e.g., Notophthalmus viridescens), whereas oxytocin antagonizes the influence of prolactin. In the Japanese newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster), however, estrogens block the action of prolactin

  11. Endocrine glands in anencephaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samir C. Mitra; G. Venkataraman

    1973-01-01

    Summary  Geographic and ethnic differences influence the incidence of anencephaly. This study was undertaken to assess the influence\\u000a of such differences on the endocrine defects associated with anencephaly. All endocrine and exo-endocrine glands of ten human\\u000a anencephalic monsters, conceived and born of South Indian parents in South India, and control specimens were subjected to\\u000a microanatomical examination. The gonads were not found

  12. Effect of the Y chromosome on testis weight in mice

    PubMed Central

    SATOU, Kunio; SUTO, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the Y chromosome on testis weight in (B6.Cg-Ay × Y-consomic mouse strain) F1 male mice. We obtained the following results: (1) Mice with the Mus musculus domesticus-type Y chromosome had significantly heavier testis than those with the M. m. musculus-type Y chromosome. (2) Variations in Usp9y and the number of CAG repeats in Sry were significantly associated with testes weight. The Ay allele was correlated with a reduced testis weight, and the extent of this reduction was significantly associated with a CAG repeat number polymorphism in Sry. These results suggest that Y chromosome genes not only influence testis weight but also modify the effect of the Ay allele in mediating this phenomenon. PMID:25716571

  13. Ameboid cells in spermatogenic cysts of caecilian testis.

    PubMed

    Smita, Mathew; Jancy, M George; Akbarsha, M A; Oommen, Oommen V

    2005-03-01

    Sertoli cells constitute a permanent feature of the testis lobules in caecilians irrespective of the functional state of the testis. The developing germ cells are intimately associated with the Sertoli cells, which are adherent to the basal lamina, until spermiation. There are irregularly shaped cells in the cores of the testis lobules that interact with germ cells at the face opposite to their attachment with Sertoli cells. These irregularly shaped (ameboid) cells first appear in the lumen of the cysts containing primary spermatocytes and are continually present until spermiation. We did not observe any cytoplasmic continuity between a Sertoli cell and an ameboid cell. Both light microscopic and TEM observations reveal a phagocytic role for the ameboid cells: they scavenge the residual bodies shed by spermatozoa. Organization of the ameboid cells is grossly different from that of the spermatogenic and Sertoli cells. They appear to develop from the epithelium at the juncture of the collecting ductule with the testis lobule. PMID:15688448

  14. [Surgical technique in the management of undescenced testis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Müller, E

    1976-11-15

    In cases of retentio abdominalis or inguinalis and of ectopic testis, surgery is performed about the 2nd year of life. Essentials of the operating technique are: incision of the skin must not be parallel to the spermatic cord; testes and spermatic cord must be mobilized without trauma; ideally a biopsy of the testis should be taken; any pulling of the spermatic cord and torsion of it during fixation of the testis should be avoided. If initial tensionfree placement of the testis in the scrotum is impossible, the operation should be carried out in 2 sessions with an interval of 6-12 months. In 241 cases of children operated on from 1972-1975 with 308 total operations, the author observed 2 recurrences and 1 deep infection (scrotal abscess). PMID:11375

  15. Effect of the Y chromosome on testis weight in mice.

    PubMed

    Satou, Kunio; Suto, Jun-Ichi

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effect of the Y chromosome on testis weight in (B6.Cg-A(y) × Y-consomic mouse strain) F1 male mice. We obtained the following results: (1) Mice with the Mus musculus domesticus-type Y chromosome had significantly heavier testis than those with the M. m. musculus-type Y chromosome. (2) Variations in Usp9y and the number of CAG repeats in Sry were significantly associated with testes weight. The A(y) allele was correlated with a reduced testis weight, and the extent of this reduction was significantly associated with a CAG repeat number polymorphism in Sry. These results suggest that Y chromosome genes not only influence testis weight but also modify the effect of the A(y) allele in mediating this phenomenon. PMID:25716571

  16. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...inches. Nonferrous materials, such as copper, copper alloys and aluminum alloys, shall not be used in the construction of valves, fittings or accessory equipment. Brazed joints are prohibited. (b) Each tank shall be provided...

  17. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Sterility Review Guidance 2/12/90 (K-90),” and (iii) “Guidance (‘Guidelines’) for Evaluation of Laproscopic Bipolar and Thermal Coagulators (and Accessories),” (2) International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-AM2...

  18. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Sterility Review Guidance 2/12/90 (K-90),” and (iii) “Guidance (‘Guidelines’) for Evaluation of Laproscopic Bipolar and Thermal Coagulators (and Accessories),” (2) International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-AM2...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...6010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and...

  1. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and...

  2. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and...

  3. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and...

  4. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and...

  5. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...6010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a)...

  6. 19 CFR 10.2020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.2020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section 872.6010...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section 872.6010...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  13. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  14. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  15. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

  18. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

  19. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

  20. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

  1. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  2. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  3. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

  8. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm that complies with the firewall requirements of § 25.1191. [Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5678, Apr. 8,...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm that complies with the firewall requirements of § 25.1191. [Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5678, Apr. 8,...

  11. 21 CFR 884.1600 - Transabdominal amnioscope (fetoscope) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...system via abdominal entry. The device is used to ascertain fetal abnormalities, to obtain fetal blood samples, or to obtain fetal tissue. This generic type of device may include the following accessories: trocar and cannula, instruments used...

  12. 19 CFR 10.3020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.3020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a)...

  13. 19 CFR 10.3020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.3020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

  15. 21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

  16. 21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

  17. Analysis of cDNA sequences from mouse testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Kerr; S. Vambrie; S. J. McKay; H. J. Cooke

    1994-01-01

    Few mammalian proteins involved in chromosome structure and function during meiosis have been characterized. As an approach to identify such proteins, cDNA clones expressed in mouse testis were analyzed by sequencing and Northern blotting. Various cDNA library screening methods were used to obtain the clones. First, hybridization with cDNA from testis or brain allowed selection of either negative or differentially

  18. Treatment of Mesothelioma of the Tunica vaginalis testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tohru Umekawa; Takashi Kurita

    1995-01-01

    We report a rare case of malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis. A 67-year-old man was hospitalized with a complaint of swelling on the right side of the scrotal contents. Right high orchiectomy was performed, and the pathological examination revealed malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis. The surgery was thought to have been radical, but 4 months post-operation,

  19. Primary B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma of the testis.

    PubMed

    Tombolini, Flavia; Lacetera, Vito; Gini, Guido; Capelli, Debora; Leoni, Pietro; Montironi, Rodolfo; Galosi, Andrea Benedetto; Muzzonigro, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    We present a rare case of primary lymphoblastic B-cell lymphoma of the testis focusing on ultrasonographic and pathological features and clinical implications. Pathological examination revealed primary testicular lymphoblastic B-cell lymphoma which was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, including rachicentesis with administration of chemotherapy and with radiotherapy of contralateral testis. Primary testicular lymphoblastic B cell lymphoma is an aggressive disease and it is necessary a multimodal therapy (surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy) to prevent metastasis. PMID:25641484

  20. An evolutionarily conserved family of accessory subunits of K + channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi-Qing Cai; Ki Ho Park; Federico Sesti

    2006-01-01

    Accessory subunits are an essential feature of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels. They determine trafficking to the plasma\\u000a membrane, surface expression, gating, permeation, and pharmacology. At least three distinct classes of accessory subunits\\u000a including the KCNE family can regulate Kv channel function. KCNE genes encode integral membrane proteins with a single transmembrane\\u000a domain. KCNE genes span the eukaryotic kingdom and, in

  1. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of septal accessory atrioventricular pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Xie, B; Heald, S C; Bashir, Y; Camm, A J; Ward, D E

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--Septal accessory atrioventricular pathways are recognised as being more difficult to ablate than pathways in other locations. This paper describes an experience of 48 consecutive patients with septal accessory pathways who had catheter ablation with radiofrequency current. PATIENTS AND METHODS--There were 28 male and 20 female patients, mean (SD) age 35 (17). 43 patients had a single accessory pathway and 5 patients had multiple accessory pathways. Pre-excitation was present in 37 patients, and 11 patients had concealed accessory pathways. 21 patients had had a previous electrophysiological study. Catheter ablation was undertaken with radiofrequency current delivered by a standard unipolar technique or by delivery of current across the septum (the bipolar technique). RESULTS--The median total procedure time was 167 (83) minutes including a 30-40 minute observation period after the abolition of conduction by the accessory pathway. The median total fluoroscopic time was 56 (30) minutes. 42 (88%) out of 48 patients had successful ablation of the pathway during the first session. In the six patients in whom the procedure failed, five had a midseptal pathway and one had a right anteroseptal pathway. A second attempt at ablation was made in two patients and succeeded in both. In total, 49 accessory pathways were successfully ablated in 44 (92%) out of 48 patients. The bipolar technique was used in 11 patients and succeeded in 10 patients. Standard unipolar current delivery had previously failed in seven of the 11 patients. Complications developed in two patients with a mid septal pathway (one with complete atrioventricular block and the other with a small pericardial effusion). CONCLUSION--Radiofrequency catheter ablation of septal accessory pathways is efficacious and safe. The procedure time can be shortened and success rate can be increased after improvement of the technique--that is, consideration of a bipolar approach for energy delivery in difficult cases. PMID:7946782

  2. Alveolar macrophage accessory cell function in bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Gant, V; Cluzel, M; Shakoor, Z; Rees, P J; Lee, T H; Hamblin, A S

    1992-10-01

    The capacity of peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages (AM) obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) to present recall antigens, namely, tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) or streptokinase-streptodornase (SKSD), to highly purified autologous T-cells has been studied in 11 asthmatic and 11 healthy, nonatopic normal subjects. In the asthmatic group, AM accessory cell function was variable, and most subjects were unable to present either recall antigen as effectively as blood monocytes, although one asthmatic subject demonstrated larger proliferative responses than blood monocytes for both antigens. AM accessory cell activity was not antigen-specific, and there was a correlation between accessory cell efficacy for the two antigens (r = 0.92; confidence interval, 0.53 to 0.98). Furthermore, a correlation existed between the percentage lymphocyte count in the BAL fluid and the ratio of macrophage to monocyte antigen-presenting capability for both PPD (r = 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 0.99) and SKSD (r = 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.45 to 0.98). In the normal subjects, AM were also unable to act effectively as accessory cells for the presentation of PPD and SKSD in the majority of subjects. No correlation existed between the percentage lymphocytes in BAL fluid and the ratio of AM to monocyte accessory cell function. These results suggest an association between AM accessory function and the presence of BAL lymphocytes in bronchial asthma. PMID:1416417

  3. [Cysts of the hepatoid glands].

    PubMed

    Shabadash, S A; Zelikina, T I

    1995-01-01

    Cysts are specific rounded closed structures characteristic of some hepatoid glands. They never occur in other cutaneous glands of mammals. The cysts of the circumanal hepatoid glands of the dog and polar fox, the violet gland of the polar and common red fox, and the groin pouches of three species of gazelles were studied. The cyst is enclosed in a cellular wall saturated with glycogen. The amorphous content of the cyst is rich in hydrophobic lipids and it also contains protein. The cysts of the dog and gazelle contain also carboxylated mucopolysaccharides. The amorphous masses of the cyst are surrounded by concentric fibers rich in sulfated mucopolysaccharides. It was shown, using the circumanal glands of adult male dogs, that cysts are permanently formed from single secretory cells capable of synthesizing hydrophobic lipids before their destruction. During the involution of the hepatoid cysts (circumanal glands of an old female dog), whole acini and glandular lobes transform into cysts. PMID:7894314

  4. Transvenous Catheter Ablation of a Posteroseptal Accessory Pathway in a Patient with Coexistent Posteroseptal and Right-Sided Accessory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ding-Jiu, Huang; Run-Fen, Chen; Dao-Sheng, Zheng; Ming-Xin, Huang; Morady, Fred

    1988-01-01

    Transvenous catheter ablation techniques have recently been used successfully in blocking posteroseptal accessory pathways in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPWS). We report the case of a patient in the People's Republic of China who had WPWS and posteroseptal and right anterolateral accessory pathways, and who had failed to respond to conventional antiarrhythmic drug therapy. The posteroseptal accessory pathway was ablated successfully. During 23 months of follow-up there were no complications; this led us to conclude that this technique can be used to achieve successful long-term ablation of this accessory pathway. This technique obviates the need for drug therapy and direct surgical ablation; it offers, as well, the advantages of shorter hospitalization, lower cost, a much shorter convalescence, and less discomfort to the patient. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1988;15:61-64) PMID:15227283

  5. Gestational bisphenol A exposure and testis development

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Cecilia; Bondesson, Maria; Krementsov, Dimitry N; Teuscher, Cory

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all humans are exposed to bisphenol A (BPA). Since BPA can act as a ligand for estrogen receptors, potential hazardous effects of BPA should be evaluated in the context of endogenous estrogenic hormones. Because estrogen is metabolized in the placenta, developing fetuses are normally exposed to very low endogenous estrogen levels. BPA, on the other hand, passes through the placenta and might have distinct adverse consequences during the sensitive stages of fetal development. Testicular gametogenesis and steroidogenesis begin early during fetal development. These processes are sensitive to estrogens and play a role in determining the number of germ stem cells, sperm count, and male hormone levels in adulthood. Although studies have shown a correlation between BPA exposure and perturbed reproduction, a clear consensus has yet to be established as to whether current human gestational BPA exposure results in direct adverse effects on male genital development and reproduction. However, studies in animals and in vitro have provided direct evidence for the ability of BPA exposure to influence male reproductive development. This review discusses the current knowledge of potential effects of BPA exposure on male reproductive health and whether gestational exposure adversely affects testis development.

  6. Intervention of D-glucose ameliorates the toxicity of streptozotocin in accessory sex organs of rat

    SciTech Connect

    Vikram, A.; Tripathi, D.N.; Ramarao, P. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab-160062 (India); Jena, G.B. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab-160062 (India)], E-mail: gbjena@gmail.com

    2008-01-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is a naturally occurring compound isolated from Streptomyces achromogens. It is used extensively for inducing diabetes in experimental animals. Diabetes mellitus is known to have proven adverse effects on male sexual organs and their reproductive functions. The atrophy of prostate gland and other organs of the genitourinary tract were observed in experimental diabetic animals. STZ exhibits a structural resemblance to D-glucose due to the presence of sugar moiety in its structure. Pancreatic {beta}-cells mainly contain GLUT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Possibly due to structural resemblance, STZ and D-glucose, share a common recognition site for entry into the {beta}-cells. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of D-glucose on STZ-induced toxicity in accessory sex organs of male rats. Animals were kept on overnight fasting. One group received vehicle and served as negative control, while all other groups were given STZ (45 mg/kg). Animals that received only STZ served as positive control. The effect of D-glucose was studied on STZ treated animals with different dosage of D-glucose (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg). Restoration of body weight, plasma glucose and plasma insulin was evident only at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of D-glucose. The protective effect of D-glucose is evident only when it is administered simultaneously with STZ. In the present investigation, we report that simultaneous administration of D-glucose along with STZ ameliorates STZ-induced toxicity. This is evident from the restoration of accessory sex organ's weight, cellular morphology as well as insulin level.

  7. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  8. Submucosal Glands and Airway Defense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Wine; Nam Soo Joo

    2004-01-01

    Most airway mucus is produced by submucosal glands in response to neural signals. Gland mucus traps microbes, inhibits their replica- tion, and clears them from the airways. In cystic fibrosis mucus clearance is compromised, allowing pathogens to persist in static mucus. These trigger an influx of inflammatory cells, but optimal effectiveness of inflammation, and especially its resolution, also requires effective

  9. Continuous Intraoperative Neuromonitoring (C-IONM) Technique with the Automatic Periodic Stimulating (APS) Accessory for Conventional and Endoscopic Thyroid Surgery.

    PubMed

    Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Hui, Sun; Wu, Chei-Wei; Xiaoli, Liu; Ferrari, Cesare Carlo; Mangano, Alberto; Lianos, Georgios D; Leotta, Andrea; Lavazza, Matteo; Frattini, Francesco; Annoni, Matteo; Rausei, Stefano; Boni, Luigi; Kim, Hoon Yub

    2015-05-01

    One of the most important trends in intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM) in thyroid surgery is currently the real-time monitoring of the vagus nerve (VN) in order to prevent recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) iatrogenic damages. Notably, continuous intraoperative neuromonitoring (C-IONM) seems to be superior to intermitted intraoperative neural monitoring (I-IONM) because it enhances standardization by permanent vagus nerve (VN) stimulation, and it provides entire and constant RLN function monitoring as the surgeon dissects and removes the thyroid gland. It also has to be highlighted that the surgical maneuvers for the automatic periodic stimulating (APS) placement must be accurate and standardized in order to avoid a potential iatrogenic morbidity on the VN function. We recommend the experienced surgeon be very careful in each step, with cautious dissection. With this review article we provide a comprehensive analyses of C-IONM technique with the APS accessory for conventional and endoscopic thyroid surgery. PMID:26054997

  10. CULTURE CLASSICHE E MODERNE...................................................................... 2 FILOLOGIA, INTERPRETAZIONE E STORIA DEI TESTI ITALIANI E ROMANZI ........................... 2

    E-print Network

    Genova, Università degli Studi di

    FILOLOGIA, INTERPRETAZIONE E STORIA DEI TESTI ITALIANI E ROMANZI ........................... 2 DIRITTO, INTERPRETAZIONE E STORIA DEI TESTI ITALIANI E ROMANZI 1) Torregrossa Maria Irene 102/120 2) Ferraro Alessandro 96

  11. Tuft calcium spikes in accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells.

    PubMed

    Urban, Nathaniel N; Castro, Jason B

    2005-05-18

    The mammalian accessory olfactory system is critical for the detection and identification of pheromones and the representation of complex stimuli including sex, genetic relatedness, and individual identity. Mitral cells, the principal cells of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), receive monosynaptic input from the sensory periphery and already show highly specific response properties, firing selectively for combinations of genetic markers and gender-specific cues. Vomeronasal sensory neuron axons form synapses onto distal tuft-like branches of mitral cell primary dendrites. We have studied dendritic excitability and synaptic integration in AOB mitral cell dendrites, and we show that dendrites of accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells support action potential propagation and can fire regenerative spike-like events that are likely to contribute to the integration of inputs to these cells. These tuft spikes may be important for the specificity of AOB mitral cell responses. PMID:15901783

  12. Tuft Calcium Spikes in Accessory Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cells

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Nathaniel N.; Castro, Jason B.

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian accessory olfactory system is critical for the detection and identification of pheromones and the representation of complex stimuli including sex, genetic relatedness, and individual identity. Mitral cells, the principal cells of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), receive monosynaptic input from the sensory periphery and already show highly specific response properties, firing selectively for combinations of genetic markers and gender-specific cues. Vomeronasal sensory neuron axons form synapses onto distal tuft-like branches of mitral cell primary dendrites. We have studied dendritic excitability and synaptic integration in AOB mitral cell dendrites, and we show that dendrites of accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells support action potential propagation and can fire regenerative spike-like events that are likely to contribute to the integration of inputs to these cells. These tuft spikes may be important for the specificity of AOB mitral cell responses. PMID:15901783

  13. Pituitary Gland Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina Montinari; Franco Rongioletti

    \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Excessive secretion of pituitary hormones, as well as their deficiency, may cause a constellation of clinical and pathological\\u000a manifestations involving major organ systems of the body, including the skin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a There are no specific cutaneous signs or symptoms that are pathognomonic for the main manifestations of pituitary gland diseases\\u000a such as acromegaly, hyperprolactinemia, Cushing’s disease, or hypopituitarism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In

  14. A giant serous cystadenoma developing in an accessory ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhyittin Temiz; Ahmet Aslan; Arif Gungoren; Güvenç Diner; Sinem Karazincir

    2008-01-01

    Background  Accessory ovaries are rare anomalies and cysts arising from accessory ovaries are extremely rare. Their reported incidence\\u000a is 1\\/29,000–1\\/700,000. Establishing the diagnosis preoperatively is difficult. Radiologic methods are usually inadequate in\\u000a recognizing the origin of these tumors. Thus, they are usually confused with other intraabdominal tumors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case  A 22-year-old nulliparous girl presented with abdominal pain and tumoral growth for 1.5 years. Abdominal

  15. Osteochondrosis of the accessory ossification centre of the medial malleolus.

    PubMed

    Farsetti, Pasquale; Dragoni, Massimiliano; Potenza, Vito; Caterini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a painful accessory ossification centre of the medial malleolus in an 11-year-old girl who was not involved in sports activities. The patient was treated conservatively, with complete clinical and radiographic healing of the medial malleolus 6 months after the first presentation. We ruled out the uncommon pathological conditions causing chronic pain in the medial malleolus during skeletal growth, such as traction apophysitis of the medial malleolus, osteochondrosis, osteochondritis or avascular necrosis of the distal tibial epiphysis. We speculate that this painful condition may be classified as an osteochondrosis of the accessory ossification centre of the medial malleolus. PMID:25438106

  16. Inbreeding in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.): effects on testis and sperm traits

    E-print Network

    Inbreeding in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.): effects on testis and sperm in this species. In the present study, testis and sperm traits were quantified in outbred and inbred males. The comparatively small impact of inbreeding on testis and sperm traits might be explained by the low number

  17. Animal Reproduction Science 106 (2008) 6576 Xenografting of adult mammalian testis tissue

    E-print Network

    Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

    2008-01-01

    Animal Reproduction Science 106 (2008) 65­76 Xenografting of adult mammalian testis tissue Luc 30 March 2007 Available online 8 April 2007 Abstract Xenografting of testis tissue from immature of fertilization-competent sperm. However, the efficiency of testis tissue xenografting from adult donors has

  18. Correlated response in reproductive and life history traits to selection on testis length

    E-print Network

    Pitnick, Scott

    Correlated response in reproductive and life history traits to selection on testis length, testis length, and other reproductive and life history traits, including body size, age at ®rst underlying these interspeci®c patterns, we imposed replicated bidirectional selection for testis length

  19. Relationship between rete testis fluid secretion and testicular structure in the ram

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Relationship between rete testis fluid secretion and testicular structure in the ram Claudine.N.R.A. Nouzilly, 37380 Monnaie, France. Summary. A rete testis cannulation technique was used to compare the secretion of rete testis fluid with the production of spermatozoa and histological testicular parameters

  20. Leonardo Testi: ALMA Observations of BD disks, Ringberg Oct 23, 2012 Observing BDs Disks with

    E-print Network

    Joergens, Viki

    Leonardo Testi: ALMA Observations of BD disks, Ringberg Oct 23, 2012 Observing BDs Disks with ALMA Leonardo Testi (ESO/Arcetri) L. Ricci (Caltech), A. Natta (Arcetri/DIAS), A. Scholz (DIAS), I. de Gregorio/planet formation #12;Leonardo Testi: ALMA Observations of BD disks, Ringberg Oct 23, 2012 è Constrain BDs formation

  1. Effects of FSH and testosterone on Sertoli cells and spermatocytes from rat testis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of FSH and testosterone on Sertoli cells and spermatocytes from rat testis F. F. G biochemical parameters have been studied in isolated Sertoli cells and germinal cells from rat testis the same testis tissue. Isolated Sertoli cells when incubated with 3H-leucine secreted in addition

  2. Differentiation of the fetal gonad of Macaca fascicularis with special reference to the testis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Differentiation of the fetal gonad of Macaca fascicularis with special reference to the testis D. C of differentiation (37 to 39 days) were the same in the testis and the ovary. We observed an antero posterior in the future testis and ovary lack topographical organization. This has been called « the indifferent stage

  3. LA TRADIZIONE MUSICALE. STUDI E TESTI SPFM. COLLANA PROMOSSA DALLA SPFM (POI FACOLT DI MUSICOLOGIA E

    E-print Network

    Segatti, Antonio

    LA TRADIZIONE MUSICALE. STUDI E TESTI ­ SPFM. COLLANA PROMOSSA DALLA SPFM (POI FACOLTÀ DI del Galluzzo, 1998. ( La tradizione musicale. Studi e testi , 2. SPFM, 1). ANTONIO DELFINO, MARIA, 1999. ( La tradizione musicale. Studi e testi , 4. SPFM, 2). DONATELLA RIGHINI (a cura di), Psallitur

  4. Development of Sertoli cell populations in organ culture of immature pig testis

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Development of Sertoli cell populations in organ culture of immature pig testis Michelle CHEVALIER 45, 63170 Aubière, France. Summary. Small samples of porcine testis were maintained in organ culture in the testis is the FSH target cell (Steinberger and Steinberger, 1977 ; Means, 1977 ; Hansson et al., 1978

  5. Testosterone regulates FGF-2 expression during testis maturation by an IRES-dependent translational mechanism.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Testosterone regulates FGF-2 expression during testis maturation by an IRES- dependent, France Key words: / FGF-2 / testis maturation/ IRES / translation control/ testosterone/ transgenic mouse Running Title : FGF-2 IRES is regulated by testosterone during testis maturation. § These authors equally

  6. ORIGINAL PAPER Extra-pair paternity and the evolution of testis size

    E-print Network

    Munshi-South, Jason

    ORIGINAL PAPER Extra-pair paternity and the evolution of testis size in a behaviorally monogamous that the high rate of EPP in Tupaia tana is not associated with intense sperm competition. Relative testis size of treeshrews was similar to testis size in 22 primate species with uni-male mating systems but smaller than 44

  7. Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study G. S in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram. The results in these three species were more or less similar. Peroxidase of monoamine oxidase (MAO) has been reported in the rat testis (Bhagvat et al., 1939 ; Zeller and Joel, 1941

  8. REPRODUCTIONRESEARCH Adiponectin and its receptors are expressed in the chicken testis

    E-print Network

    Ramachandran, Ramesh

    REPRODUCTIONRESEARCH Adiponectin and its receptors are expressed in the chicken testis: influence, and ADIPOR2 expressions in the chicken testis and to determine whether sexual maturation affects in the chicken testis, where they are likely to influence steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, Sertoli cell function

  9. Testis development and daily sperm output in guinea-fowl raised under constant daily photoperiods

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Testis development and daily sperm output in guinea-fowl raised under constant daily photoperiods J was consistent with the observations on testis weights. Under neither photoschedule was a correlation found in the guinea-fowl. The present paper describes for the first time changes in testis weight and sperm output

  10. The movement of fluid in the seminiferous tubules and rete testis

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    The movement of fluid in the seminiferous tubules and rete testis B. P. SETCHELL, R. V. DAVIES R. T tubules and rete testis of the rat has been studied. Differences in ionic, steroid and protein but that its composition is modified as it passes through the tubuli recti or when it reaches the rete testis

  11. CORRESPONDENCE Open Access Re-analysis of the larval testis data on meiotic sex

    E-print Network

    Dean, Matthew D.

    CORRESPONDENCE Open Access Re-analysis of the larval testis data on meiotic sex chromosome in shaping sex chromosome evolution is controversial. Here we examine two aspects of a recent study on testis on the transcriptional profiling of the early testis development, and thus concluded that MSCI does not occur in D

  12. Testicular Xenografts: A Novel Approach to Study Cytotoxic Damage in Juvenile Primate Testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsi Jahnukainen; Jens Ehmcke; Stefan Schlatt

    2006-01-01

    The underlying primary damage to the testis caused by chemotherapeutic regimens during childhood is largely unknown. Xenografting of monkey testes was successfully applied in maturation of juvenile testis to the point of complete spermatogenesis. This allows us to manipulate developing primate testis without direct treatment of patients. This new model is validated establishing the effects of cyto- toxic treatment in

  13. Irradiation induced salivary gland neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Sener, S.F.; Scanlon, E.F.

    1980-03-01

    Twenty-six patients with a prior history of irradiation for benign conditions of the head and neck and salivary gland abnormalities are reported. All the patients had preoperative physical findings suggestive of tumor, not glandular infection. Forty-six per cent of the patients had one carcinoma and 11% had two carcinomas within the irradiated field. Eight of the 11 malignant tumors in these 26 patients were in the parotid gland. The nonmalignant salivary changes were similar to those previously reported in glands receiving therapeutic irradiation for carcinoma.

  14. 6035 Hg(Ar) Lamp in 6058 Fiber Optic Accessory. Pencil Style Calibration Lamps

    E-print Network

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    6035 Hg(Ar) Lamp in 6058 Fiber Optic Accessory. Pencil Style Calibration Lamps Compact and simple, and spectral radiometers. We also offer a full range of accessories, from mounts and holders, to fiber optic

  15. 41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39...installation of accessory equipment. The modification of a GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle...installation of accessory equipment on these...

  16. 41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39...installation of accessory equipment. The modification of a GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle...installation of accessory equipment on these...

  17. 41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39...installation of accessory equipment. The modification of a GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle...installation of accessory equipment on these...

  18. 41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39...installation of accessory equipment. The modification of a GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle...installation of accessory equipment on these...

  19. 41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39...installation of accessory equipment. The modification of a GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle...installation of accessory equipment on these...

  20. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of gametes or embryos. Variations of microscopes and accessories used for these purposes would include phase contrast microscopes, dissecting...

  1. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of gametes or embryos. Variations of microscopes and accessories used for these purposes would include phase contrast microscopes, dissecting...

  2. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of gametes or embryos. Variations of microscopes and accessories used for these purposes would include phase contrast microscopes, dissecting...

  3. 21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories...Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic...

  4. 21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories...Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic...

  5. 77 FR 67261 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Forward Crosstube...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Forward Crosstube...directive (AD) for Aeronautical Accessories, Inc. (AAI) high landing gear forward crosstube...AB412EP; and Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (Bell) Model 205A, 205A-1,...

  6. 77 FR 37768 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ...Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly...AD) for the Aeronautical Accessories, Inc. (AAI), High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube...installed on certain Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (Bell) and Agusta S.p.A....

  7. Stages of Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treat some salivary gland tumors . These include: Fast neutron radiation therapy : Fast neutron radiation therapy is a type of high-energy ... radiation therapy machine aims tiny, invisible particles, called neutrons, at the cancer cells to kill them. Fast ...

  8. Sweat Gland Adenocarcinoma of Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pragya A; Rathod, Kirti M; Chaudhary, Arvind H; Pilani, Abhishek P

    2013-01-01

    Sweat gland adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor particularly over scalp. They have potential to be benign as well as distant metastasis. Usually presents with papules or nodules. Ulcerative morphology is uncommon. Wide surigical excision with regional lymph not dissection is the treatment of choice. A 42-year-old female with sweat gland adenocarcinoma of scalp is reported with cervical lymph node involvement. PMID:24778534

  9. Liouville theory, {N} = 2 gauge theories and accessory parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Franco; Piatek, Marcin

    2012-05-01

    The correspondence between the semiclassical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the {N} = 2 (?-deformed) U(2) super-Yang-Mills theories is used to calculate the unknown accessory parameter of the Fuchsian uniformization of the 4-punctured sphere. The computation is based on the saddle point method. This allows to find an analytic expression for the N f = 4, U(2) instanton twisted superpotential and, in turn, to sum up the 4-point classical block. It is well known that the critical value of the Liouville action functional is the generating function of the accessory parameters. This statement and the factorization property of the 4-point action allow to express the unknown accessory parameter as the derivative of the 4-point classical block with respect to the modular parameter of the 4-punctured sphere. It has been found that this accessory parameter is related to the sum of all rescaled column lengths of the so-called 'critical' Young diagram extremizing the instanton 'free energy'. It is shown that the sum over the 'critical' column lengths can be rewritten in terms of a contour integral in which the integrand is built out of certain special functions closely related to the ordinary Gamma function.

  10. The accessory middle cerebral artery (AMCA). Diagnostic and therapeutic consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abanou; P. Lasjaunias; C. Manelfe; L. Lopez-Ibor

    1984-01-01

    Summary The existence of the accessory middle cerebral artery (AMCA) is a rare anatomical variation with an estimated incidence of 0.31%. The embryological development of this artery is unknown. Three anatomical subtypes are described: in the type 1 variety the AMCA arises from the internal carotid artery; in the type 2, the AMCA originates from the proximal part of the

  11. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous...in § 872.9. If the device is not labeled or otherwise...of the quality system regulation in part 820 of this...

  12. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for use in reconstructive oral surgery to drill or cut into the upper or lower jaw and may be used to prepare bone to insert a wire, pin, or screw....

  13. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for use in reconstructive oral surgery to drill or cut into the upper or lower jaw and may be used to prepare bone to insert a wire, pin, or screw....

  14. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for use in reconstructive oral surgery to drill or cut into the upper or lower jaw and may be used to prepare bone to insert a wire, pin, or screw....

  15. Conservative management of accessory spleen torsion in children.

    PubMed

    Scirè, G; Zampieri, N; El-Dalati, G; Camoglio, F S

    2013-08-01

    Accessory spleen torsion is very rare condition especially in children. The aim of this study is to report the conservative treatment option. In April 2009 we observed a 10-year-old child affected by hereditary spherocytosis who reported acute abdominal pain without fever or vomiting. At hospitalization all blood tests were within normal value. Abdominal ultrasounds showed an increase in spleen volume and a solid round-shaped hypoechogenic formation with hyperechogenic areas in the lower pole without vascolarisation on color-Doppler scan. These findings suggested torsion of the accessory spleen. We opted for a conservative approach: analgesics on demand and antibiotics. After a week symptoms resolved spontaneously and patient was discharged in good health conditions. Follow-up ultrasound scans were performed at one week, three-six months and one year after hospitalization and showed a progressive reduction of the dimensions of the solid round-shaped formation. Accessory spleen torsion needs to be added to the differential diagnosis of cases of acute abdomen in children. Ultrasounds with eco-color-Doppler scans seem to be the best option for the diagnosis of such condition in the pediatric age since other diagnostic methods are more invasive and require sedation of patients. Once accessory spleen torsion is correctly diagnosed it is possible to opt for its conservative treatment. PMID:24051978

  16. Evolutionary Dynamics of the Accessory Genome of Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    den Bakker, Henk C.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Griggs, Allison D.; Peters, Joseph E.; Zeng, Qiandong; Young, Sarah K.; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Yandava, Chandri; Hepburn, Theresa A.; Haas, Brian J.; Birren, Bruce W.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85–3.14 Mb, encode 2,822–3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II. PMID:23825666

  17. 49 CFR 192.147 - Flanges and flange accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...a) Each flange or flange accessory (other than cast iron) must meet the minimum requirements of ASME/ANSI B16.5, MSS SP-44, or the equivalent. (b) Each flange assembly must be able to withstand the maximum pressure at which the...

  18. Mesangial cell accessory functions: Mediation by intercellular adhesion molecule-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel C Brennan; Anthony M Jevnikar; Fumio Takei; Vicki E Reubin-Kelley

    1990-01-01

    Mesangial cell accessory functions: Mediation by intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Mesangial cell (MC) proliferation is an early pathologic alteration characteristic of many forms of immune mediated glomerulonephritis. The intracapillary position, contractile capacity, and production of cytokines and other inflammatory molecules place MC in a pivotal position to initiate, mediate, and direct glomerular damage. We as well as others have noted increased

  19. Pluripotency of spermatogonial stem cells from adult mouse testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaomei Guan; Karim Nayernia; Lars S. Maier; Stefan Wagner; Ralf Dressel; Jae Ho Lee; Jessica Nolte; Frieder Wolf; Manyu Li; Wolfgang Engel; Gerd Hasenfuss

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic germ cells as well as germline stem cells from neonatal mouse testis are pluripotent and have differentiation potential similar to embryonic stem cells, suggesting that the germline lineage may retain the ability to generate pluripotent cells. However, until now there has been no evidence for the pluripotency and plasticity of adult spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which are responsible for

  20. Morphometric analysis of Leydig cells in the normal rat testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HIROSHI MORI; A. KENT CHRISTENSEN

    1980-01-01

    Leydig cells are thought to be the source of most, if not all, the testosterone produced by the testis . The goal of this study was to obtain quantitative infor- mation about rat Leydig cells and their organelles that might be correlated with pertinent physiological and biochemicaldata available either now or in the future . Morphometric analysis of Leydig cells

  1. Stem cell and niche development in the postnatal rat testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Buom-Yong Ryu; Kyle E Orwig; Mary R Avarbock; Ralph L Brinster

    2003-01-01

    Adult tissue stem cells self-renew and differentiate in a way that exactly meets the biological demand of the dependent tissue. We evaluated spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) activity in the developing rat testis and the quality and accessibility of the stem cell niche in wild type, and two busulfan-treated models of rat pup recipient testes using an SSC transplantation technique as

  2. Orchidopexy for undescended testis in England: is it evidence based?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. McCabe; Simon E. Kenny

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundCurrent evidence-based recommendations are that orchidopexy for undescended testis should be performed before 18 months of age. We examined hospital episode statistics data for all orchidopexies performed in England over a 9-year period to see how well this guideline was implemented in current practice and examine trends.

  3. Original article Production of estradiol by the fetal rat testis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , 1972; dog : Kelch et al, 1972; rat : de Jong et al, 1973, 1974). In fetal mammals, estrogen secretion is a general feature of the testis of adult mammals (man: Goldzieher and Roberts, 1952; Kelch et al, 1972; Long tissue of fetal sheep and measured their concentration therein. Human fetal testes can produce some es

  4. Condition dependence of testis size in small mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde; John S. Millar; Graham J. Hickling

    2005-01-01

    Sperm competition is a common phenomenon across the animal kingdom and is recognized as a major factor in the sexual selection of males. Intraspecific variation in testis size (ejaculate investment) has been implicated as an important factor in male reproductive success because larger testes produce higher quality ejaculates. Sexual selection theory predicts that traits associated with male-male competition or female

  5. Control of testis function in fish : in vitro studies of gonadotropic regulation in the trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Control of testis function in fish : in vitro studies of gonadotropic regulation in the trout involved in the control of testis function ? Introduction. The testis of seasonally breeding teleost fish to control the testis function. This hormone was called « maturational» GtH because it could also induce

  6. In Vitro Spermatogenesis in Explanted Adult Mouse Testis Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takuya; Katagiri, Kumiko; Kojima, Kazuaki; Komeya, Mitsuru; Yao, Masahiro; Ogawa, Takehiko

    2015-01-01

    Research on in vitro spermatogenesis is important for elucidating the spermatogenic mechanism. We previously developed an organ culture method which can support spermatogenesis from spermatogonial stem cells up to sperm formation using immature mouse testis tissues. In this study, we examined whether it is also applicable to mature testis tissues of adult mice. We used two lines of transgenic mice, Acrosin-GFP and Gsg2-GFP, which carry the marker GFP gene specific for meiotic and haploid cells, respectively. Testis tissue fragments of adult GFP mice, aged from 4 to 29 weeks old, which express GFP at full extension, were cultured in medium supplemented with 10% KSR or AlbuMAX. GFP expression decreased rapidly and became the lowest at 7 to 14 days of culture, but then slightly increased during the following culture period. This increase reflected de novo spermatogenesis, confirmed by BrdU labeling in spermatocytes and spermatids. We also used vitamin A-deficient mice, whose testes contain only spermatogonia. The testes of those mice at 13-21 weeks old, showing no GFP expression at explantation, gained GFP expression during culturing, and spermatogenesis was confirmed histologically. In addition, the adult testis tissues of Sl/Sld mutant mice, which lack spermatogenesis due to Kit ligand mutation, were cultured with recombinant Kit ligand to induce spermatogenesis up to haploid formation. Although the efficiency of spermatogenesis was lower than that of pup, present results showed that the organ culture method is effective for the culturing of mature adult mouse testis tissue, demonstrated by the induction of spermatogenesis from spermatogonia to haploid cells. PMID:26065832

  7. Cancer/testis (CT) antigens, carcinogenesis and spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    During spermatogenesis, spermatogonial stem cells, undifferentiated and differentiated spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa all express specific antigens, yet the functions of many of these antigens remain unexplored. Studies in the past three decades have shown that many of these transiently expressed genes in developing germ cells are proto-oncogenes and oncogenes, which are expressed only in the testis and various types of cancers in humans and rodents. As such, these antigens are designated cancer/testis antigens (CT antigens). Since the early 1980s, about 70 families of CT antigens have been identified with over 140 members are known to date. Due to their restricted expression in the testis and in various tumors in humans, they have been used as the target of immunotherapy. Multiple clinical trials at different phases are now being conducted with some promising results. Interestingly, in a significant number of cancer patients, antibodies against some of these CT antigens were detected in their sera. However, antibodies against these CT antigens in humans under normal physiological conditions have yet to be reported even though many of these antigens are residing outside of the blood-testis barrier (BTB), such as in the basal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium and in the stem cell niche in the testis. In this review, we summarize latest findings in the field regarding several selected CT antigens which may be intimately related to spermatogenesis due to their unusual restricted expression during different discrete events of spermatogenesis, such as cell cycle progression, meiosis and spermiogenesis. This information should be helpful to investigators in the field to study the roles of these oncogenes in spermatogenesis. PMID:22319669

  8. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-02

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  9. Perioperative Identification of an Accessory Fissure of the Right Lung

    PubMed Central

    Taverne, Yannick; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; de Rooij, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Anatomical variations of lungs are common in clinical practice; however, they are sometimes overlooked in routine imaging. Surgical anatomy of the lung is complex and many variations are known to occur. A defective pulmonary development gives rise to variations in lobes and fissures. Morphological presentation is of clinical importance and profound knowledge of the organogenesis and functional anatomy is imperative for the interpretation and evaluation of lung pathophysiology and subsequent surgical intervention. However, appreciating them on radiographs and CT scans is difficult and they are therefore often either not identified or completely misinterpreted. As presented in this case report, an accessory fissure separating the superior segment of the right lower lobe from its native lobe was seen perioperatively and could only retrospectively be defined on X-rays and CT scan. It is imperative to keep in mind that accessory fissures can be missed on imaging studies and thus can make the surgical procedure more challenging. PMID:26185701

  10. Spinal accessory nerve schwannomas masquerading as a fourth ventricular lesion

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Shyam Sundar; Bojja, Sivaram; Vasudevan, Madabhushi Chakravarthy

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomas are benign lesions that arise from the nerve sheath of cranial nerves. The most common schwannomas arise from the 8th cranial nerve (the vestibulo-cochlear nerve) followed by trigeminal and facial nerves and then from glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. Schwannomas involving the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nerves are very rare. We report a very unusual spinal accessory nerve schwannoma which occupied the fourth ventricle and extended inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. The radiological features have been detailed. The diagnostic dilemma was due to its midline posterior location mimicking a fourth ventricular lesion like medulloblastoma and ependymoma. Total excision is the ideal treatment for these tumors. A brief review of literature with tabulations of the variants has been listed. PMID:25552867

  11. Regucalcin Expression as a Diagnostic Tool for the Illicit Use of Steroids in Veal Calves.

    PubMed

    Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Sereno, Alessandra; Cannizzo, Francesca T

    2015-06-17

    It has been previously demonstrated that sex steroid hormone treatment down-regulates regucalcin gene expression in the accessory sex glands and testis of prepubertal and adult male bovines. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low doses of sex steroid hormones combined with other drugs significantly affect regucalcin gene expression in the accessory sex glands and testis of veal calves. The regucalcin expression was down-regulated in the bulbo-urethral glands of estrogen-treated calves, whereas it was up-regulated in the prostate of estrogen-treated calves. Only the testis of androgen-treated calves showed a down-regulation of the regucalcin expression. Thus, the administration of sex steroid hormones, even in low doses and combined with other molecules, could affect regucalcin expression in target organs. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests regucalcin expression in this organ as a first molecular biomarker of illicit androgen administration in bovine husbandry. PMID:26016660

  12. Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis.

    PubMed

    Sajadi, Kamran P; Dalton, Rory R; Brown, James A

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm. PMID:19125206

  13. FlyTED: the Drosophila Testis Gene Expression Database.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Klyne, Graham; Benson, Elizabeth; Gudmannsdottir, Elin; White-Cooper, Helen; Shotton, David

    2010-01-01

    FlyTED, the Drosophila Testis Gene Expression Database, is a biological research database for gene expression images from the testis of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. It currently contains 2762 mRNA in situ hybridization images and ancillary metadata revealing the patterns of gene expression of 817 Drosophila genes in testes of wild type flies and of seven meiotic arrest mutant strains in which spermatogenesis is defective. This database has been built by adapting a widely used digital library repository software system, EPrints (http://eprints.org/software/), and provides both web-based search and browse interfaces, and programmatic access via an SQL dump, OAI-PMH and SPARQL. FlyTED is available at http://www.fly-ted.org/. PMID:19934263

  14. The consistent presence of the human accessory deep peroneal nerve.

    PubMed

    Kudoh, H; Sakai, T; Horiguchi, M

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-four human legs were dissected macroscopically to study the morphological details of the accessory deep peroneal nerve. This nerve arose from the superficial peroneal nerve and descended in the lateral compartment of the leg, deep to peroneus longus along the posterior border of peroneus brevis. Approaching the ankle joint, this nerve passed through the peroneal tunnels to wind around the lateral malleolus; it then crossed beneath the peroneus brevis tendon anteriorly to reach the dorsum of the foot. The accessory deep peroneal nerve was found in every case examined and constantly gave off muscular branches to peroneus brevis and sensory branches to the ankle region. In addition, this nerve occasionally had muscular branches to peroneus longus and extensor digitorum brevis, and sensory branches to the fibula and the foot. The anomalous muscles around the lateral malleolus were also innervated by this nerve. Neither cutaneous branches nor communicating branches with other nerves were found. The present study reveals that the accessory deep peroneal nerve is consistently present and possesses a proper motor and sensory distribution in the lateral region of the leg and ankle. It is not an anomalous nerve as has previously been suggested. PMID:10227671

  15. What Does the Thyroid Gland Do?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it helps other cells do their job. hypothyroidism (hi-poh-THY-royd-izm): when your thyroid gland ... thyroid hormone (“hypo” means ‘under’ or ‘below’). hyperthyroidism (hi-purr-THY-royd-izm): when your thyroid gland ...

  16. Oncocytic Sialolipoma of the Submandibular Gland

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Dongbin; Park, Tae In; Park, Junesik

    2014-01-01

    Sialolipoma, a rare tumor of the salivary gland, is a recently described variant of salivary gland lipoma. Oncocytic sialolipoma was first described by Pusiol et al. in 2009. We report the case of an oncocytic sialolipoma of the submandibular gland in a 43-year-old female. Excision of the tumor was performed with preservation of the submandibular gland. The tumor had a thin, fibrous capsule and consisted of abundant adipose tissue, an oncocytic nodule, and scattered normal glandular structures surrounded by adipose tissue. Four cases of sialolipoma of the submandibular gland, including the present case, were reviewed. All 4 tumors were developed on the right submandibular glands, with a composition of adipose tissue as high as that of sialolipoma of the parotid gland; in contrast to previous reports, three cases were in females. As newly described tumor type, care should be taken to distinguish oncocytic sialolipoma from other salivary gland neoplasms such as simple lipoma, pleomorphic adenoma, or oncocytoma. PMID:24917915

  17. Pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal salivary gland

    PubMed Central

    Khandekar, Shubhangi; Dive, Alka; Munde, Prashant; Wankhede, Neena Dongre

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland swellings can result from tumors, an inflammatory process or cysts. It can sometimes be difficult to establish; whether pathology arises from the salivary gland itself or adjacent structures. Neoplasms of the salivary glands account for less than 1% of all tumors, 3–5% of all head and neck tumors and benign pleomorphic adenoma (PA) of minor salivary glands arising de novo is very rare. PA is the most common tumor of the salivary gland. While the majority arises from the parotid gland, only a small percentage arises from the buccal minor salivary gland. A case of PA of minor salivary glands in the buccal mucosa in a 70-year-old female is discussed. It includes review of literature, clinical features, histopathology, radiological findings and treatment of the tumor; with emphasis on diagnosis.

  18. Generation of Pluripotent Stem Cells from Neonatal Mouse Testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mito Kanatsu-Shinohara; Kimiko Inoue; Jiyoung Lee; Momoko Yoshimoto; Narumi Ogonuki; Hiromi Miki; Shiro Baba; Takeo Kato; Yasuhiro Kazuki; Shinya Toyokuni; Megumi Toyoshima; Ohtsura Niwa; Mitsuo Oshimura; Toshio Heike; Tatsutoshi Nakahata; Fumitoshi Ishino; Atsuo Ogura; Takashi Shinohara

    2004-01-01

    Although germline cells can form multipotential embryonic stem (ES)\\/embryonic germ (EG) cells, these cells can be derived only from embryonic tissues, and such multipotent cells have not been available from neonatal gonads. Here we report the successful establishment of ES-like cells from neonatal mouse testis. These ES-like cells were phenotypically similar to ES\\/EG cells except in their genomic imprinting pattern.

  19. A simple method for preparing meiotic chromosomes from mammalian testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Meredith

    1969-01-01

    Freshly removed testis tubules are treated with hypotonic citrate solution and fixed in 3:1 acetic alcohol without undue rupture. The material is transferred to 60% acetic acid and the resulting suspension is air-dried onto warm slides using a micropipette. Finally the slides are stained with lacto-acetic orcein. — Provided suitable storage is made, slides need not be prepared in the

  20. Spermatogonial Stem Cells (SSCs) in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranjeet Singh Mahla; Niranjan Reddy; Sandeep Goel

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundWater buffalo is an economically important livestock species and about half of its total world population exists in India. Development of stem cell technology in buffalo can find application in targeted genetic modification of this species. Testis has emerged as a source of pluripotent stem cells in mice and human; however, not much information is available in buffalo.Objectives and MethodsPou5f1

  1. Laparoscopic classification and treatment of the impalpable testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sameh A. Hay; Hesham A. Soliman; Ahmed H. Abdel Rahman; Ibrahim E. Bassiouny

    1999-01-01

    Laparoscopic orchiopexy has gained popularity in recent years. However, the decision when to perform one-stage laparoscopic\\u000a orchiopexy without division of the spermatic vessels versus initial ligation of the spermatic vessels followed later by orchiopexy\\u000a is not clear. A new laparoscopic classification to facilitate decision-making during laparoscopy, according to the position\\u000a of the impalpable testis and the relation of the spermatic

  2. Embryonal Carcinoma in Cryptorchid Abdominal Testis of an Infant

    PubMed Central

    Zaka-ur-Rab, Atia; Zaka-ur-Rab, Zeeba; Akhtar, Kafil

    2015-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is a known predisposing factor for the development of testicular tumors in adults. Age of patient at the time of treatment of undescended testes has some bearing on the risk of neoplasia. Testicular neoplasia at the time of primary surgery for cryptorchidism has been reported rarely in prepubertal period. We report a case where embryonal carcinoma was detected in a cryptorchid testis of an infant. PMID:26137335

  3. Polarity Proteins and Cell–Cell Interactions in the Testis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Elissa W.P.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-01-01

    In mammalian testes, extensive junction restructuring takes place in the seminiferous epithelium at the Sertoli–Sertoli and Sertoli–germ cell interface to facilitate the different cellular events of spermatogenesis, such as mitosis, meiosis, spermiogenesis, and spermiation. Recent studies in the field have shown that Rho GTPases and polarity proteins play significant roles in the events of cell–cell interactions. Furthermore, Rho GTPases, such as Cdc42, are working in concert with polarity proteins in regulating cell polarization and cell adhesion at both the blood–testis barrier (BTB) and apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES) in the testis of adult rats. In this chapter, we briefly summarize recent findings on the latest status of research and development regarding Cdc42 and polarity proteins and how they affect cell–cell interactions in the testis and other epithelia. More importantly, we provide a new model in which how Cdc42 and components of the polarity protein complexes work in concert with laminin fragments, cytokines, and testosterone to regulate the events of cell–cell interactions in the seminiferous epithelium via a local autocrine-based regulatory loop known as the apical ES—BTB—basement membrane axis. This new functional axis coordinates various cellular events during different stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle of spermatogenesis. PMID:19815182

  4. Microvasculature of the mouse testis and excurrent duct system.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, F

    1982-04-01

    The microvascular architecture of the mouse testis and excurrent duct system was examined by a casting method with the aid of scanning electron microscopy and by sectioning techniques for light and transmission electron microscopy. Two fundamental types of peritubular capillary arrangements were noted in relation to the tubules. The first type most typically appeared in the testis. In this type, peritubular capillaries interconnected intertubular blood vessels to form a rope-ladder-like structure. The length of the individual peritubular capillaries was short, and a number of the capillaries encircled each tubule. Adjacent tubules shared a single layer of capillaries. The vascular organization of the ductuli efferentes and of the middle segment of the epididymis was also of this type, but the number of peritubular capillaries was much fewer compared with that of the testis. In the second type, the peritubular capillaries formed a network encircling each tubule in its subepithelial layer. The capillary organization in the initial and terminal segments of the epididymis and the ductus deferens belonged to the second type. In the distal part of the ductus deferens, a prominent venous plexus was formed in the most peripheral subepithelial layer. PMID:7091016

  5. Sensitivity of Salivary Glands to Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Grundmann, O.; Mitchell, G.C.; Limesand, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer causes significant secondary side-effects in normal salivary glands, resulting in diminished quality of life for these individuals. Salivary glands are exquisitely sensitive to radiation and display acute and chronic responses to radiotherapy. This review will discuss clinical implications of radiosensitivity in normal salivary glands, compare animal models used to investigate radiation-induced salivary gland damage, address therapeutic advances, and project future directions in the field. PMID:19783796

  6. An Accessory Agonist Binding Site Promotes Activation of ?4?2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Sriram, Aarati; Jin, Zhuang; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Kenny, Paul J; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-05-29

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing ?4, ?2, and sometimes other subunits (?4?2* nAChRs) regulate addictive and other behavioral effects of nicotine. These nAChRs exist in several stoichiometries, typically with two high affinity acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at the interface of ?4 and ?2 subunits and a fifth accessory subunit. A third low affinity ACh binding site is formed when this accessory subunit is ?4 but not if it is ?2. Agonists selective for the accessory ACh site, such as 3-[3-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS9283), cannot alone activate a nAChR but can facilitate more efficient activation in combination with agonists at the canonical ?4?2 sites. We therefore suggest categorizing agonists according to their site selectivity. NS9283 binds to the accessory ACh binding site; thus it is termed an accessory site-selective agonist. We expressed (?4?2)2 concatamers in Xenopus oocytes with free accessory subunits to obtain defined nAChR stoichiometries and ?4/accessory subunit interfaces. We show that ?2, ?3, ?4, and ?6 accessory subunits can form binding sites for ACh and NS9283 at interfaces with ?4 subunits, but ?2 and ?4 accessory subunits cannot. To permit selective blockage of the accessory site, ?4 threonine 126 located on the minus side of ?4 that contributes to the accessory site, but not the ?4?2 sites, was mutated to cysteine. Alkylation of this cysteine with a thioreactive reagent blocked activity of ACh and NS9283 at the accessory site. Accessory agonist binding sites are promising drug targets. PMID:25869137

  7. Parotid gland function after radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Maria Roesink

    2005-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment for head and neck cancer patients. Unfortunately, it produces serious acute and long-term side effects to the oral cavity. One severe complication is the loss of salivary gland function, which can persists for many years. Saliva has multiple functions relating to speech, taste perception, mastication, and swallowing and bolus formation. Cleansing and dental and mucosal

  8. Novel, Testis-Specific mRNA Transcripts Encoding N-Terminally Truncated Choline Acetyltransferase

    E-print Network

    Ibáñez, Carlos

    Novel, Testis-Specific mRNA Transcripts Encoding N-Terminally Truncated Choline Acetyltransferase of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA and protein in the mammalian testis. We have now found that none of the ChAT mRNAs produced in the testis is capable of encoding a full-length ChAT protein. Two ChAT c

  9. Effects of a simulated microgravity model on cell structure and function in rat testis and epididymis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadley, Jill A.; Hall, Joseph C.; O'Brien, Ami; Ball, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The effect of simulated microgravity on the structure and function of the testis and epididymis cells was investigated in rats subjected to 7 days of tail suspension. Results of a histological examination revealed presence of disorganized seminiferous tubules and accumulation of large multinucleated cells and spermatids in the lumen of the epididymis. In addition, decreases in the content of testis protein and in testosterone levels in the testis, the interstitial fluid, and the epididymis were observed.

  10. Primary clear cell carcinoma of the rete testis: 1st report.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Arun Zachariah; McDermott, Thomas Eugene Dermot; Crowther, Stephen; Thornhill, John Alan

    2015-01-01

    Primary tumours of the rete testis, either benign or malignant, are very rare. Such lesions require careful scrutiny including immunohistochemical analysis to exclude malignant lesions such as mesothelioma or papillary serous carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a primary clear cell carcinoma of the rete testis. The possibility of a primary renal cell carcinoma or other primary site with metastatic spread to rete testis was excluded by thorough clinical and radiological work-up. PMID:25858938

  11. Inclusion\\/host relations involving accessory minerals in high-grade metamorphic and anatectic rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bruce Watson; Edward P. Vicenzi; Robert P. Rapp

    1989-01-01

    In general, accessory minerals are expected to participate in partial fusion of their host rocks to a degree determined simply\\u000a by their solubilities in the melt. The possibility must be recognized, however, that a given accessory grain may be physically\\u000a isolated from the melt by inclusion within a residual major mineral. Because of the importance of accessory minerals to crustal-rock

  12. Anatomy, biogenesis, and regeneration of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Kyle V.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients per year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients’ quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland (SMG), which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of three general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy, and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph. PMID:24862590

  13. 21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and...

  14. 21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and...

  15. 21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and...

  16. 21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and...

  17. 21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and...

  18. Developmental Mucin Gene Expression in the Gastroduodenal Tract and Accessory Digestive Glands. I. Stomach: A Relationship to Gastric Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Pierre Buisine; Louise Devisme; Vincent Maunoury; Elisabeth Deschodt; Bernard Gosselin; Marie-Christine Copin; Jean-Pierre Aubert; Nicole Porchet

    SUMMARY Studies were undertaken to provide information regarding cell-specific ex- pression of mucin genes in stomach and their relation to developmental and neoplastic patterns of epithelial cytodifferentiation. In situ hybridization was used to study mRNA ex- pression of eight mucin genes (MUC1-4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC6, MUC7) in stomach of 13 human embryos and fetuses (8-27 weeks' gestation), comparing these with

  19. Thermomechanical milling of accessory lithics in volcanic conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Michelle E.; Russell, James K.; Porritt, Lucy A.

    2013-09-01

    Accessory lithic clasts recovered from pyroclastic deposits commonly result from the failure of conduit wall rocks, and represent an underutilized resource for constraining conduit processes during explosive volcanic eruptions. The morphological features of lithic clasts provide distinctive 'textural fingerprints' of processes that have reshaped them during transport in the conduit. Here, we present the first study focused on accessory lithic clast morphology and show how the shapes and surfaces of these accessory pyroclasts can inform on conduit processes. We use two main types of accessory lithic clasts from pyroclastic fallout deposits of the 2360 B.P. subplinian eruption of Mount Meager, British Columbia, as a case study: (i) rough and subangular dacite clasts, and (ii) variably rounded and smoothed monzogranite clasts. The quantitative morphological data collected on these lithics include: mass, volume, density, 2-D image analysis of convexity (C), and 3-D laser scans for sphericity (?) and smoothness (S). Shaping and comminution (i.e. milling) of clasts within the conduit are ascribed to three processes: (1) disruptive fragmentation due to high-energy impacts between clasts or between clasts and conduit walls, (2) ash-blasting of clasts suspended within the volcanic flux, and (3) thermal effects. We use a simplified conduit eruption model to predict ash-blasting velocities and lithic residence times as a function of clast size and source depth, thereby constraining the lithic milling processes. The extent of shape and surface modification (i.e. rounding and honing) is directly proportional to clast residence times within the conduit prior to evacuation. We postulate that the shallow-seated dacite clasts remain subangular and rough due to short (<2 min) residence times, whereas monzogranite clasts are much more rounded and smoothed due to deeper source depths and consequently longer residence times (up to ˜1 h). Larger monzogranite clasts are smoother than smaller clasts due to longer residence times and to greater differential velocities within the ash-laden jet. Lastly, our model residence times and mass loss estimates for rounded clasts are used to estimate minimum attrition rates due to volcanic ash-blasting within the conduit (e.g., 12 cm3?s-1 for 25 cm clasts, sourced at 2500 m depth).

  20. Cadmium inhibits testis and epididymal acidification in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Caflisch, C.r.p; DuBose, T.D. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    The testis is known to be highly sensitive to functional impairment by cadmium, a widely distributed trace metal. Both vascular compromise and inhibition of Leydig cell androgen production may result in impaired sperm maturation and motility. Recent studies by our laboratory have confirmed the presence of an acid mileau in the testis and epididymis which may play an important role in sperm maturation. In this study the effect of cadmium on luminal acidification was assessed in rat seminiferous tubules, caput and cauda epididymis by glass membrane double-barrelled pH microelectrodes in vivo. Four Sprague-Dawley rats received CdCl/sub 2/ (0.015 mM/kg s.c.) 24 hrs. prior to micropuncture and 4 rats served as controls. Arterial blood gas values were within the normal range and were not different in the two groups. Cadmium resulted in marked alkalinization of seminiferous tubule fluid compared to controls (7.30 +/- 0.01 (15) vs 6.97 +/- 0.01 (25)) (p < 0.001). Similarly, the pH in proximal caput after CdCl/sub 2/ was 7.07 +/- 0.02 (19) a value significantly more alkaline (p < 0.001) than 6.58 +/- 0.02 (24) in untreated animals. In contrast, however, pH in the distal caput was 6.90 +/- 0.03 (19), a value indistinguishable from that observed in controls. In summary, CdCl/sub 2/ administration is associated with marked impairment of acidification in the testis and proximal epididymus while acidification in the distal epididymus remains intact.

  1. Lymphoma of the testis as primary location: tumour review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgios Koukourakis; Vassilios Kouloulias

    2010-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma as a primary testicular neoplasm accounts approximately 9% of all testicular malignant tumours and\\u000a about 1–2% of all non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. This neoplasm is the most common malignant tumour of the testis in the elderly.\\u000a The most common histotype in primary forms is the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, whereas more aggressive histologies such\\u000a as Burkitt’s lymphoma are principal founded

  2. Malignant lymphoma of the testis presenting as primary testicular tumor.

    PubMed

    Saha, P K; Sakai, H; Nomata, K; Minami, Y; Kanetake, H; Saito, Y

    1991-09-01

    A case of malignant lymphoma of the testis is presented. A 49-year-old male presented with swelling and dull pain of his left scrotal content. The initial clinical diagnosis was left testicular tumor. Left high orchiectomy was performed immediately after admission and histopathology showed malignant lymphoma, large cell type, B-cell type according to the Lymphoma Study Group (LSG) classification. Extensive investigations revealed clinical stage lE, with no evidence of metastasis. Chemotherapy was initiated with vincristine, prednisolone, adriamycin and methotrexate (VEPA-M). After therapy, the patient is doing well without any evidence of metastasis. PMID:1785415

  3. Germ cell development in the human and marmoset fetal testis and the origins of testicular germ cell tumours 

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Roderick T.

    2010-01-01

    Normal germ cell development in the human testis is crucial for subsequent fertility and reproductive health. Disruption of testis development in fetal life can result in deleterious health consequences such as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS...

  4. Expression of a candidate sex-determining gene during mouse testis differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Koopman; Andrea Münsterberg; Blanche Capel; Nigel Vivian; Robin Lovell-Badge

    1990-01-01

    THE development of a eutherian mammal as a male is a consequence of testis formation in the embryo, which is thought to be initiated by a gene on the Y chromosome. In the absence of this gene, ovaries are formed and female characteristics develop1. Sex determination therefore hinges on the action of this testis-determining gene, known as Tdy in mice

  5. One tissue, two fates: molecular genetic events that underlie testis versus ovary development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Brennan; Blanche Capel

    2004-01-01

    The pivotal point of vertebrate sex determination is the development of the gonad into a testis or ovary, which governs phenotypic sex through the production of hormones. The identification of Sry, the genetic switch that controls testis development in mammals, fuelled the race for the discovery of downstream pathways. Comparative analyses of XY versus XX gonadogenesis in both mouse and

  6. Hormones and testis development and the possible adverse effects of environmental chemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. Sharpe

    2001-01-01

    Development of a fetus into a phenotypic male depends, first, on testis formation and second, on hormone production by the fetal testis. Disorders of testicular hormone production or action can lead in severe cases to phenotypic abnormalities or can predispose towards impaired reproductive health. Evidence for deteriorating human male reproductive health, especially an increase in testicular cancer, points to disturbed

  7. Yolk sac tumor of cryptorchid testis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Monisha; Sehgal, Shivali; Nangia, Anita; Chadha, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Yolk sac tumor is the most common germ cell tumor in infants and children. Majority of them arise in the gonads. Yolk sac tumor of undescended testis has been rarely diagnosed. We present a case of yolk sac tumor in right undescended testis in a 2-year-old child primarily diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. PMID:25948949

  8. Expression of multiple cancer-testis antigen genes in gastrointestinal and breast carcinomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Mashino; N Sadanaga; F Tanaka; H Yamaguchi; H Nagashima; H Inoue; K Sugimachi; M Mori

    2001-01-01

    Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) such as MAGE are selectively expressed in various types of human neoplasms but not in normal tissues other than testis. This characteristic feature of CTAs makes them promising antigens for cancer-specific immunotherapy. A critical requirement for this therapy is identification of promising antigens. In this study, we investigated the expression of 6 genes recently identified by serological

  9. The vitamin D receptor localization and mRNA expression in ram testis and epididymis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hui; Huang, Yang; Jin, Guang; Xue, Yanrong; Qin, Xiaowei; Yao, Xiaolei; Yue, Wenbing

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of present study were to investigate the presence of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in testis and epididymis of ram by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to locate VDR in testis and epididymis by immunohistochemistry and to compare difference of VDR expression between testis and epididymis before and after sexual maturation by Real time-PCR and Western blot. The results showed that VDR exists in the testis and epididymis of ram while VDR protein in testis and epididymis was localized in Leydig cells, spermatogonial stem cells, spermatocytes, Sertoli cells and principal cells. For the adult ram, the amounts of VDR mRNA and VDR protein were less (p < 0.01) in testis than compared with caput, corpus and cauda epididymis. For prepubertal ram, the result showed the same trend (p < 0.01). However, the expression levels of VDR mRNA and VDR protein in caput, corpus, cauda epididymis and testis showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) between adult and prepubertal. In conclusion, VDR exists in testis and epididymis of ram, suggesting 1?,25-(OH)(2)VD(3) may play a role in ram reproduction. PMID:25582701

  10. The effect of microgravity on tissue structure and function of rat testis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ye; Tang, Jin; Zou, Jun; She, Ruiping; Wang, Yinghua; Yue, Zhuo; Tian, Jijing; Xia, Kangkang; Yin, Jun; Wang, Desheng

    2011-12-01

    To explore whether an environment of weightlessness will cause damage to the reproductive system of animals, we used the tail-suspension model to simulate microgravity, and investigated the effect of microgravity on the tissue structure and function of the testis in sexually mature male rats. Forty-eight male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly assigned to three groups (N = 16 each): control, tail traction, and tail suspension. After the rats were suspended for 7 or 14 days, morphological changes of testis were evaluated by histological and electron microscopic methods. The expression of HSP70, bax/bcl-2 and AR (androgen receptor) in testis was measured by immunohistochemistry. Obvious pathological lesions were present in the testis after the rats were suspended for 7 or 14 days. We detected overexpression of HSP70 and an increase of apoptotic cells, which may have contributed to the injury to the testis. The expression of AR, as an effector molecule in the testis, was significantly decreased in the suspended groups compared to control (P < 0.01). We also observed that, with a longer time of suspension, the aforementioned pathological damage became more serious and some pathological injury to the testis was irreversible. The results demonstrated that a short- or medium-term microgravity environment could lead to severe irreversible damage to the structure of rat testis. PMID:22042268

  11. Latitudinal variation in testis size in six species of North American songbirds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor E. Pitcher; Bridget J. M. Stutchbury

    1998-01-01

    Six songbird species were studied to determine how testis size varies in relation to latitude, using data from breeding areas at latitudes 7?N to 69?N. Three of the species (Carpodacus mexicanus, Vireo olivaceus, Geothylpis trichas) exhibited a significant positive relationship, one (Passerculus sandwichensis) a significant negative relationship, and two (Agelaius phoeniceus, Spizella passerina) no significant association between relative testis mass

  12. Accessory spleen in the pelvis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Taskin, Mine Islimye; Baser, Banu Guleç; Adali, Ertan; Bulbul, Erdo?an; Uzgoren, Engin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Accessory Spleen (AS) is a very rare entity and usually near the spleen’s hilum and in the tail of the pancreas. Pelvis reported as an atypical and a rare localization. AS may be formed during embryonic life, they rise from the left side of the dorsal mesogastrium as a result of imperfect fusion of separate splenic masses. Presentation of case We report a case of an AS presenting as an left adnexal mass in a middle-aged woman. Transvaginal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a left adnexial mass. Laparatomy was performed, and histological examination revealed that resected mass was splenic tissue. Discussion An AS is an incidental finding of no clinical significance in most patients. AS are generally determined during radiological investigations or during open or laparoscopic surgeries. When, the AS settle in the adnexal area; the differential diagnosis could include the causes of adnexal masses like enlarged lymph nodes, subserous fibroid, ovarian tumors, organized hematoma, tuboovarian abscess. Conclusion Althought pelvic accessory spleen is a rare condition, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adnexal masses. PMID:25985297

  13. Hypersensitivity of human testis-tumour cell lines to chemotherapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Masters, J R; Osborne, E J; Walker, M C; Parris, C N

    1993-01-21

    Metastatic testis tumours, in contrast to most other types of cancer, can be cured by drugs. To investigate which classes of chemotherapeutic drug are differentially toxic to testis-tumour cells, we compared the in vitro dose-response curves of 5 human testis and 5 bladder-cancer cell lines to 12 compounds. The testis cells were hypersensitive to drugs that interact directly with DNA (m-amsa, bleomycin, cisplatin, doxorubicin, methylnitrosourea, mitozolomide, etoposide, mitomycin-C), but little or no difference between the 2 cell types was seen following exposure to drugs whose mechanisms of action do not involve direct interaction with DNA (methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, colchicine, vinblastine). We conclude that testis tumour cells are either less tolerant of, or have a reduced capacity to repair, DNA damage. PMID:8425772

  14. Fidgetin-Like1 Is a Strong Candidate for a Dynamic Impairment of Male Meiosis Leading to Reduced Testis

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Testis Weight in Mice David L'Ho^ te1,2 , Magalie Vatin3,4 , Jana Auer3,4 , Johan Castille6 , Bruno, we reported a genomic region of 23 Mb on mouse chromosome 11 implicated in testis weight decrease the QTL position to a 5 Mb fragment encompassing only 11 genes. We showed that the low testis weight

  15. Significant Expression Levels of Transgenic PPP1CC2 in Testis and Sperm Are Required to Overcome the Male

    E-print Network

    Significant Expression Levels of Transgenic PPP1CC2 in Testis and Sperm Are Required to Overcome including testis, the only phenotype resulting from deletion of Ppp1cc gene is male infertility or by the testis specific human Pgk2 promoter, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the 2.6-kb genomic region

  16. A comparative study of the development of the fetal testis and ovary in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A comparative study of the development of the fetal testis and ovary in the monkey (Macaca and 118 days on serial semi-thin and thin sections. The testis and the ovary began to differentiate at the same age (37 days) ; the definitive architecture of the testis was acquired at 43 days, while a cortex

  17. BIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION 35, 1289-1297 (1986) The Influence of Hibernation on Testis Growth and Spermatogenesis in the

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Brian McRae

    1986-01-01

    BIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION 35, 1289-1297 (1986) 1289 The Influence of Hibernation on Testis Growth, California 94720 ABSTRACT Testis size and spermatogenesis were monitored serially in individual golden. We suggest that the limited testis growth that occurred during the hibernation season was restricted

  18. Properties of an LH-stimulable adenylate cyclase in plasma membranes of interstitial cells from rat testis

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    testis Danièle SALTARELLI, M. Paloma DE LA LLOSA-HERMIER C. HERMIER Laboratoire d'Enzymo%gie, C interstitial cells of the rat testis. AC was activated to different degrees by guanosine triphosphate (GTP, it seems that there are differences between the ovary and the testis as to structural requi- rements

  19. Gene expression profiling and real-time PCR analyses identify novel potential cancer-testis antigens in multiple myeloma1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Gene expression profiling and real-time PCR analyses identify novel potential cancer-testis Tumorerkrankungen, INF350, D-69115 Heidelberg, Germany; Running title: Novel cancer-testis genes in multiple myeloma manuscript, published in "J Immunol 2009;183(2):832-40" DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.0803298 #12;2 Abstract Cancer-testis

  20. Exogenous and endogenous control of the annual reproductive cycle in the male golden hamster: participation of the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Reiter, R J

    1975-01-01

    Testes and accessory sex organs (seminal vesicles and coagulating glands) of hamsters exposed to natural lighting (NL) conditions beginning September 22 underwent complete degeneration by October 31. The following February the testes began to regrow with the regeneration being complete by mid to late March. Associated with the atrophic response of the testes during the winter months was consistent depression in pituitary prolactin and an inconsistent decrease in pituitary luteinizing hormone levels. If hamsters are pineal lectomized prior to their exposure to NL, the sexual organs do not atrophy and the pituitary hormone levels do not drop. Moving hamsters from NL to the long daily photoperiods (light:dark cycles of 14 hrs light and 10 hrs darknessLD 14:10) of the laboratory near mid winter is followed by regrowth of the gonads and accessory glands. Regeneration of the reproductive system in the spring is not a function of increasing photoperiodic length since if animals are completely deprived of light (by blinding) in February, the gonads still regenerate. When hamsters are exposed to LD 14:10 cycles during the subsequent summer, the return to NL on September 22 is followed by a second involution of the reproductive system. However, if the period of LD 14:10 (the simulated summer) is shortened by ten weeks, the second return to NL does not initiate involution of the reproductive system. During the simulated summer complete light deprivation by blinding is incapable of forcing atrophy of the sexual organs. PMID:1110345

  1. Efferents and Centrifugal Afferents of the Main and Accessory Olfactory Bulbs in the Snake Thamnophis sirtalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique Lanuza; Mimi Halpern

    1998-01-01

    This study reinvestigates the efferent projections of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs and describes for the first time the centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs in the snake Thamnophis sirtalis, using the intraaxonal transport of the anterograde and retrograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine and the retrograde tracer horseradish peroxidase. The olfactory projection consists of three tracts:

  2. Human testis-specific genes are under relaxed negative selection.

    PubMed

    Pierron, Denis; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Rocher, Christophe; Letellier, Thierry; Grossman, Lawrence I

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested that selective forces and constraints acting on genes varied during human evolution depending on the organ in which they are expressed. To gain insight into the evolution of organ determined negative selection forces, we compared the non-synonymous SNP diversity of genes expressed in different organs. Based on a HAPMAP dataset, we determined for each SNP its frequency in 11 human populations and, in each case, predicted whether or not the change it produces is deleterious. We have shown that, for all organs under study, SNPs predicted to be deleterious are present at a significantly lower frequency than SNPs predicted to be tolerated. However, testis-specific genes contain a higher proportion of deleterious SNPs than other organs. This study shows that negative selection is acting on the whole human genome, but that the action of negative selection is relaxed on testis-specific genes. This result adds to and expands the hypothesis of a recent evolutionary change in the human male reproductive system and its behavior. PMID:24202551

  3. [Vascular morphology of the bovine testis. Light and scanning electron microscopic studies].

    PubMed

    Hees, H; Kohler, T; Leiser, R; Hees, I; Lips, T

    1990-01-01

    The testicular artery of the bull-testis shows a straight course from the end of the pampiniform plexus to the caudal extremity of testis. There it branches off in Rami tunicales, which lie as stratum arteriosum superficially to the albugineal veins of testis: a multi-layered stratum venosum. Arterial Rami parenchymales centripetales run directly to the mediastinum testis, form coils and then divide in approximately 10 or more thinner Rami parenchymales centrifugales, which extend from the coils into the parenchyma of the gonad. The three-dimensional microvasculature of the bull-testis is strikingly different from that of rodents: The peritubular network of capillaries in the interstitial space is positioned in a more irregular way. Only here and there is discernible a rope-ladder-like or polygonal arrangement of capillaries. A subalbugineal plexus does not exist in the bovine testis. Parenchymal veins drain in albugineal veins and these empty in the venous networks of the pampiniform plexus. Valves are a rare finding in testicular veins. Already low perfusion-pressure easily forces the corrosion-compound to leave the capillary bed and form typical extravasations as bent shovel-like plates, thus filling the clefts of peritubular spaces. Arteries and veins are directly embedded in the parenchyma of testis, surrounded only by a relatively thin margin of perivascular connective tissue. There are no septula testis and therefore a lobular organisation of bovine testis does not exist. The angioarchitecture of the testis plays an important role in thermoregulatory and androgen-transfer mechanisms as well as in the transport of rete-fluid to the epididymis. PMID:2334059

  4. The human testis-specific proteome defined by transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling.

    PubMed

    Djureinovic, D; Fagerberg, L; Hallström, B; Danielsson, A; Lindskog, C; Uhlén, M; Pontén, F

    2014-06-01

    The testis' function is to produce haploid germ cells necessary for reproduction. Here we have combined a genome-wide transcriptomics analysis with immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling to characterize the molecular components of the testis. Deep sequencing (RNA-Seq) of normal human testicular tissue from seven individuals was performed and compared with 26 other normal human tissue types. All 20 050 putative human genes were classified into categories based on expression patterns. The analysis shows that testis is the tissue with the most tissue-specific genes by far. More than 1000 genes show a testis-enriched expression pattern in testis when compared with all other analyzed tissues. Highly testis enriched genes were further characterized with respect to protein localization within the testis, such as spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids, sperm, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells. Here we present an immunohistochemistry-based analysis, showing the localization of corresponding proteins in different cell types and various stages of spermatogenesis, for 62 genes expressed at >50-fold higher levels in testis when compared with other tissues. A large fraction of these genes were unexpectedly expressed in early stages of spermatogenesis. In conclusion, we have applied a genome-wide analysis to identify the human testis-specific proteome using transcriptomics and antibody-based protein profiling, providing lists of genes expressed in a tissue-enriched manner in the testis. The majority of these genes and proteins were previously poorly characterised in terms of localization and function, and our list provides an important starting point to increase our molecular understanding of human reproductive biology and disease. PMID:24598113

  5. Parotid gland metastasis of a breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Perez-Fidalgo; I. Chirivella; J. Laforga; J. M. Colio; M. D. Blanes; R. Baydal; S. Roselló; E. De-la-Morena; A. Lluch

    2007-01-01

    Parotid gland metastases from malignant tumors are extremely rare. A 61-year-old woman was diagnosed with an early breast\\u000a cancer with no expression of oestrogen and progesterone receptors. Five years later the patient presented a tumour in parotid\\u000a gland. After total parotidectomy, microscopic analysis of the gland demonstrated an invasive duct carcinoma (IDC) with positive\\u000a expression of oestrogen receptor. The patient

  6. Oncocytoma of palatal minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Motallebnejad, Mina; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Khakbaz Baboli, Oveis; Yarmand, Fateme

    2015-05-01

    Oncocytoma is a rare benign salivary gland tumor, which mostly occurs in the parotid gland. In this article, we describe an early onset of oncocytoma of minor salivary gland in a 36-year, white male. On clinical examination, we encounter with a painless, granular, sessile mass. After Excisional biopsy, the histopathological features revealed sheets of cells with abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, and large, round nuclei that are known as "Oncocyte". PMID:25959915

  7. [Diffuse hyperplastic oncocytosis of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Zagólski, Olaf; Czajecki, Krzysztof; Gajda, Mariusz

    2006-10-01

    An intracellular metabolic disturbance associated with mitochondriopathy, due to an age dependent metabolic defect, is suggested to cause metaplasia of salivary gland cells into oncocytes. The WHO classification of salivary gland diseases considers 3 oncocytic lesions: oncocytosis, oncocytoma and oncocytic carcinoma. In case of diffuse hyperplastic oncocytosis of the parotid gland, extensive metaplasia of acinic and ductal cells leads to transformation of nearly all cells of the gland into oncocytes, which is clinically characterised by swelling of the parotid gland, and is an extremely rare condition. A 82-year-old man (the eldest of all reported) presented with a 2-month history of increasing diffuse swelling of the left parotid gland, 6 cm in diameter. The mass was soft, painless to palpation and grew in the superficial lobe of the parotid gland. The patient underwent surgical removal of the lesion with wide margins of healthy tissue. Histopathological examination of the operative specimen disclosed oncocytosis of the salivary gland. The patient has been followed-up for 6 months. He is doing well without recurrence. Surgical removal of the diffuse hyperplastic oncocytosis of the parotid gland, with indications and extent of the resection like in benign tumors, was effective in the presented patient. PMID:17205777

  8. Successful catheter ablation of a left anterior accessory pathway from the non-coronary cusp of the aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Laranjo, Sérgio; Oliveira, Mário; Trigo, Conceição

    2015-08-01

    Left anterior accessory pathways are considered to be rare findings. Catheter ablation of accessory pathways in this location remains a challenging target, and few reports about successful ablation of these accessory pathways are available. We describe our experience regarding a case of a manifest left anterior accessory pathway ablation using radiofrequency energy at the junction of the left coronary cusp with the non-coronary cusp. PMID:25249369

  9. CONTRIBUTION OF THYROID GLAND ULTRASOUND FOR SCREENING OF PATIENTS WITH SUSPECTED SUBCLINICAL THYROID GLAND DISORDERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TAJTAKOVA M; LANGER P; SEMANOVA Z; TOMKOVA Z

    1999-01-01

    Tajtakova M, Langer P, Semanova Z, Tomkova Z: Contribution of Thyroid Gland Ultrasound for Screening of Patients with Suspected Subclinical Thyroid Gland Disorders Bratisl Lek Listy 1999; 100 (4): 196ñ199 Thyroid gland ultrasonography is recommended in patients with nonspecific clinical symptoms such as fatigue, weightgain, dry skin, amnesic symptoms, depression, bradycardia, abnor- mal myocardial contractility, increased diastolic pressure, hy- percholesterolemia,

  10. Safety and efficacy of a modified catheter-mediated ablation of accessory pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, S A; Tsang, W P; Wang, D C; Hsia, C P; Chen, J W; Chiang, C E; Ting, C T; Wang, S P; Chiang, B N; Chang, M S

    1992-05-01

    Fifty-one consecutive patients underwent modified catheter-mediated direct-current ablation of accessory pathways. Energy was delivered through the distal pair of electrodes (dual electrode configuration) of a 6F quadripolar catheter to the internal surface of the right or left atrioventricular (AV) annulus. In an attempt to prevent the later resumption of accessory pathway conduction, one additional shock was given after the initial successful interruption of accessory pathways. A mean of 2.7 shocks with cumulative energy of 453 +/- 32 Joules/patient interrupted the accessory pathways in 47 patients and modified the accessory pathway conduction in 2 patients. Forty-eight patients were asymptomatic and free of any antiarrhythmic agents with a follow-up ranging from 3-20 months (mean 12 +/- 1 months), without early or late serious complications (AV block or tamponade). Conduction characteristics, concealed or manifest, and recording of accessory pathway activity did not affect the outcome. Mean cumulative energy and number of applications of energy to achieve a successful outcome were lower in patients with concealed (376 +/- 31 Joules, 2.4 +/- 0.2 shocks) than manifest accessory pathways (516 +/- 50 Joules, 2.9 +/- 0.2 shocks). At the successful ablation sites, the mean shortest retrograde ventriculoatrial interval during orthodromic reentrant tachycardia (VA') was 80 +/- 3 msec (78% had VA' less than 90 msec) and was not different between concealed and manifest accessory pathways; the mean shortest antegrade AV interval was 47 +/- 3 msec in manifest preexcitation; the mean ratio of atrial to ventricular wave amplitude was not significantly different between left-sided (0.8 +/- 0.1) and right-sided (1.1 +/- 0.2) accessory pathways (p greater than 0.05). A successful outcome was achieved in 94% of 51 patients. This procedure is relatively safe and effective, regardless of the location of the accessory pathway. PMID:1522687

  11. What Are the Key Statistics about Salivary Gland Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for salivary gland cancer? What are the key statistics about salivary gland cancer? Salivary gland cancers are ... be better or worse than this.) For more statistics related to survival, see the section “ Survival rates ...

  12. Identification and significance of accessory minerals from a bituminous coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Stanton, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used to study the in situ accessory minerals in polished blocks and pellets of petrographically analysed samples of the Waynesburg coal (hvb). Individual grains from the low-temperature ash (LTA) of the same coal were also studied. The visual resolution of the SEM permitted the detection of submicron mineral grains, which could then be analysed by the attached energy-dispersive system. Emphasis was placed on the highly reflective grains in the carbominerite bands. Among the most abundant accessory minerals observed were rutile, zircon, and rare-earth-bearing minerals. Small (1-5 ??m) particles of what may be authigenic iron-rich chromite and a nickel silicate form rims on quartz grains. The SEM also permits the observation of grain morphology and mineral intergrowths. These data are useful in determining authigenicity and diagenic alteration. Substances in density splits of LTA include authigenic, detrital, extraterrestrial magnetite, tourmaline, and evaporite (?) minerals, and a fluorine-bearing amphibole. This analytical approach allows the determination of specific sites for many of the trace elements in coals. In the Waynesburg coal, most of the chromium is in the iron-chromium rims, the fluorine is in the amphibole, and the rare-earth elements are in rare-earth-bearing minerals. The ability to relate trace-element data to specific minerals will aid in predicting the behaviour of elements in coal during combustion, liquefaction, gasification, weathering, and leaching processes. This ability also permits insight into the degree of mobility of these elements in coal and provides clues to sedimentological and diagenetic conditions. ?? 1978.

  13. Twin pregnancy in an accessory cavitated non-communicating uterus

    PubMed Central

    Alkhateeb, Harith M.; Yaseen, Enas M.

    2015-01-01

    Background A uterine malformation is a type of female genital malformation resulting from abnormal development of the Mullerian duct(s) during embryogenesis. The type and degree of uterine malformation depends on the level at which the fusion process of the two Mullerian ducts stops; thus, there is a wide variety of malformations. A newly described deformity called accessory cavitated uterine mass (ACUM) has been increasingly reported. The case We report this deformity (in a 20-year-old married woman) which appears to be an additional incompletely developed, cavitated and presumably non-communicating uterus in addition to a normally shaped and developed uterus. The former uterus became impregnated with twins that died in a missed abortion at 13 weeks of gestation. Before discovering the presence of the deformity, three attempts were made to evacuate the dead fetuses by cervical dilatation and curettage of the normal empty uterus. These attempts resulted in perforation of its fundus, a laparotomy was performed to repair the uterus. During the laparotomy, the pregnant accessory uterus was discovered and was excised with the dead twins. Discussion The lack of good medical history was a cause of the mismanagement of this patient. Most probably, the origin of ACUM is a growth from the right Mullerian duct. The ovum has entered the ACUM through the rudimentary tube and has been fertilized by a sperm travelled either through the normal vaginal and uterine cavities or through the lymphatics. Conclusions (1) A detailed case history is important. (2) An ACUM can be impregnated. PMID:25813124

  14. The effect of opium dependency on testis volume: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Cyrus, Ali; Solhi, Hassan; Azizabadi Farahani, Mahdi; Khoddami Vishteh, Hamid Reza; Goudarzi, Davoud; Mosayebi, Ghasem; Mohamadian, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the paucity of data on possible testis changes in opioid dependents, we sought to compare the testis volumes between a group of opium dependents and a group of healthy controls. Objective: Comparison of testis volume between opium dependents and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: This case-control study recruited 100 men with opium dependency (cases) and 100 healthy men (controls) in Iran, in 2008. A checklist containing questions about age, height, weight, daily amount of cigarette use, and duration of cigarette use for all the participants as well as daily amount of opium use (grams) and duration of opium use (years) for the case group was completed. Additionally, the dimensions of each testis were measured by a single person using calipers, and the mean of the left and right testes volume was compared between these two groups. Results: The mean of the testis volumes in the case group was significantly lower than that of the case group (11.2±2.2 and 25.1±2.7cm³, p<0.001). The results of the ANCOVA test showed that even after the omission of the cigarette smoking effect (p=0.454), the testis volume remained lower in the opium dependents (R2=0.884, p<0.001). In the case group, there were significant reverse correlations between testis volume and age (r=-0.404, p<0.001), daily amount of opium use (r=-0/207, p=0.039) and duration of opium use (r=-0.421, p<0.001). Conclusion: We found that the testis volume in the male opium dependents was lower than that of the healthy controls. We would recommend that future studies into the impact of drugs on the testis dimensions pay heed to possible histological changes in the testes owing to opium dependency. PMID:25246920

  15. Mantle irradiation of the major salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, P.

    1985-11-01

    Radiation given to the mantle field for treatment of Hodgkin's disease impinges on the submandibular and parotid glands at levels that have been both measured and calculated to be the complete tumor dose. This dosage is above the level of irradiation that has been shown to cause partial or complete loss of salivary gland function.

  16. Recurrent amyloid tumor of the parotid gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Vavrina; W. Müller; J.-O. Gebbers

    1995-01-01

    A case of an organ-limited amyloid tumor of the left parotid gland is described with a history of recurrence. A slowly growing parotid mass was the only symptom. After 5.5 years following local excision, the patient was readmitted with a slowly growing recurrence in the superficial lobe of the previously treated gland. Lateral parotidectomy was performed with wide excision of

  17. Meibomian glands and contact lens wear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A S Henriquez; D R Korb

    1981-01-01

    A study of a syndrome characterised by deficient or inadequate Meibomian gland secretions, minimal or transient symptoms suggestive of ocular dryness, fluorescein staining of the cornea (often detected only after delayed observation or sequential instillation of stain), and contact lens intolerance is described. Clinical and cytological studies indicate that the syndrome is due to obstruction of the Meibomian gland orifices

  18. [Meibomian gland disfunction in computer vision syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pimenidi, M K; Polunin, G S; Safonova, T N

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews ethiology and pathogenesis of dry eye syndrome due to meibomian gland disfunction (MDG). It is showed that blink rate influences meibomian gland functioning and computer vision syndrome development. Current diagnosis and treatment options of MDG are presented. PMID:21395003

  19. Mammary Gland Immunity and Mastitis Susceptibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorraine M. Sordillo; Katie L. Streicher

    2002-01-01

    Lactation is considered the final phase of the mammalian reproductive cycle, and the mammary gland provides milk for nourishment and disease resistance to the newborn. However, the cellular and soluble immune components associated with mammary tissues and secretion also can play an important role in protecting the gland from infectious diseases, such as mastitis. Mastitis can affect essentially all lactating

  20. Ectopic thyroid in the adrenal gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taizo Shiraishi; Hiroshi Imai; Kazuo Fukutome; Masatoshi Watanabe; Ryuichi Yatani

    1999-01-01

    We report two cases of intraadrenal thyroid gland tissue, both found by abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan and ultrasound echography. Histologically, the lesions were composed of mature thyroid follicles, varying in size, and some with cystic dilatation. Immununohistochemical staining for thyroglobulin confirmed their thyroid follicular nature. In neither case was there any evidence of thyroid gland cancer or teratomatous elements.

  1. Oncocytes in human bronchial mucous glands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Matsuba; T. Takizawa; W. M. Thurlbeck

    1972-01-01

    Oncocytes were found in the bronchial glands of 30 of 33 lungs in which the left bronchial tree was examined. They were found with similar frequency in the main, upper and lower lobe bronchi. They were found more commonly with increasing age and were most frequent in the collecting duct of the bronchial glands. However, they were absent from the

  2. Oncocytic lipoadenoma of the submandibular gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa; Michio Shimizu; Toshiaki Manabe; Jishu Ito; Shinji Ogawa

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of oncocytic lipoadenoma of the submandibular gland, previously unrecognized benign tumor of the salivary gland. The patient was a 66-year-old Japanese woman with a left submandibular mass, measuring 11 × 7.5 × 5 cm. Microscopically, the mass was completely surrounded by a thin fibrous connective tissue capsule, and was composed of an intimate admixture of mature

  3. Studies on gonadotropin receptor of rat ovary and testis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.

    1989-01-01

    The subunit structure of the testicular LH/hCG receptor was studied by a chemical cross-linking technique. Leydig cells isolated from rat testis were incubated with {sup 125}I-hCG, following which the bound {sup 125}I-hCG was covalently cross-linked to the receptor on the cell surface with a cleavable or a non-cleavable cross-linking reagent. The hormone-receptor complex was extracted and then either subjected to gel permeation chromatography under nondenaturing conditions, or resolved by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by autoradiographic analysis. The ovarian LH/hCG receptor was studied with luteal cells from pseudopregnant rats. Purification of the receptor was achieved by ligand affinity chromatography following detergent solubilization of the plasma membrane. The purified hCG receptor displayed properties identical to the membrane bound receptor with regard to binding specificity and affinity, and exhibited a molecular weight of approximately 130,000 dalton.

  4. Effects of plants and plant products on the testis

    PubMed Central

    D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia; Vaithinathan, Selvaraju; Jubendradass, Rajamanickam; Mathur, Premendu Prakash

    2010-01-01

    For centuries, plants and plant-based products have been used as a valuable and safe natural source of medicines for treating various ailments. The therapeutic potential of most of these plants could be ascribed to their anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antispasmodic, analgesic and various other pharmacological properties. However, several commonly used plants have been reported to adversely affect male reproductive functions in wildlife and humans. The effects observed with most of the plant and plant-based products have been attributed to the antispermatogenic and/or antisteroidogenic properties of one or more active ingredients. This review discusses the detrimental effects of some of the commonly used plants on various target cells in the testis. A deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of action of these natural compounds could pave the way for developing therapeutic strategies against their toxicity. PMID:20562897

  5. The Impact of Long-Term Exposure to Space Environment on Adult Mammalian Organisms: A Study on Mouse Thyroid and Testis

    PubMed Central

    Masini, Maria Angela; Albi, Elisabetta; Barmo, Cristina; Bonfiglio, Tommaso; Bruni, Lara; Canesi, Laura; Cataldi, Samuela; Curcio, Francesco; D'Amora, Marta; Ferri, Ivana; Goto, Katsumasa; Kawano, Fuminori; Lazzarini, Remo; Loreti, Elisabetta; Nakai, Naoya; Ohira, Takashi; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Palmero, Silvio; Prato, Paola; Ricci, Franco; Scarabelli, Linda; Shibaguchi, Tsubasa; Spelat, Renza; Strollo, Felice; Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco Saverio

    2012-01-01

    Hormonal changes in humans during spaceflight have been demonstrated but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. To clarify this point thyroid and testis/epididymis, both regulated by anterior pituitary gland, have been analyzed on long-term space-exposed male C57BL/10 mice, either wild type or pleiotrophin transgenic, overexpressing osteoblast stimulating factor-1. Glands were submitted to morphological and functional analysis. In thyroids, volumetric ratios between thyrocytes and colloid were measured. cAMP production in 10?7M and 10?8M thyrotropin-treated samples was studied. Thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were quantitized by immunoblotting and localized by immunofluorescence. In space-exposed animals, both basal and thyrotropin-stimulated cAMP production were always higher. Also, the structure of thyroid follicles appeared more organized, while thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were overexpressed. Unlike the control samples, in the space samples thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were both observed at the intracellular junctions, suggesting their interaction in specific cell membrane microdomains. In testes, immunofluorescent reaction for 3?- steroid dehydrogenase was performed and the relative expressions of hormone receptors and interleukin-1? were quantified by RT-PCR. Epididymal sperm number was counted. In space-exposed animals, the presence of 3? and 17? steroid dehydrogenase was reduced. Also, the expression of androgen and follicle stimulating hormone receptors increased while lutenizing hormone receptor levels were not affected. The interleukin 1 ? expression was upregulated. The tubular architecture was altered and the sperm cell number was significantly reduced in spaceflight mouse epididymis (approx. ?90% vs. laboratory and ground controls), indicating that the space environment may lead to degenerative changes in seminiferous tubules. Space-induced changes of structure and function of thyroid and testis/epididymis could be responsible for variations of hormone levels in human during space missions. More research, hopefully a reflight of MDS, would be needed to establish whether the space environment acts directly on the peripheral glands or induces changes in the hypotalamus-pituitary-glandular axis. PMID:22558148

  6. Liquid secretion properties of airway submucosal glands

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Stephen T; Inglis, Sarah K

    2004-01-01

    The tracheobronchial submucosal glands secrete liquid that is important for hydrating airway surfaces, supporting mucociliary transport, and serving as a fluid matrix for numerous secreted macromolecules including the gel-forming mucins. This review details the essential structural elements of airway glands and summarizes what is currently known regarding the ion transport processes responsible for producing the liquid component of gland secretion. Liquid secretion most likely arises from serous cells and is principally under neural control with muscarinic agonists, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) functioning as effective secretogogues. Liquid secretion is driven by the active transepithelial secretion of both Cl? and HCO3? and at least a portion of this process is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is highly expressed in glands. The potential role of submucosal glands in cystic fibrosis lung disease is discussed. PMID:14660706

  7. Microscopy of the echidna sublingual glands.

    PubMed

    Krause, William J

    2011-10-01

    The secretory units and duct system of the echidna sublingual glands exhibit subtle architectural modifications to accommodate the viscous secretion produced by these glands. The glands are compound tubular glands, the secretory units of which are elongate with open lumina and consist only of mucous cells. Closely packed spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells invest the secretory units, but are absent around the ducts. The branched secretory tubules open into an abbreviated duct system characterized by wide lumina. Striated ducts normally associated with the second portion of the intralobular duct system are absent. The duct system shows the most obvious modification of general salivary gland architecture presumably to accommodate the viscous secretion propelled from the secretory units by surrounding myoepithelial cells. PMID:21671992

  8. Thyroid gland metastasis of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Shinsuke; Matsuura, Sohei; Kishi, Hirohisa; Maeda, Mamoru; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman with a history of rectal cancer was admitted to our hospital to undergo thyroidectomy and left adrenalectomy. She had undergone low anterior resection and regional lymph node dissection for rectal cancer 52 months pre-admission (T3 N1 M0, stage IIIb according to International Union Against Cancer tumor-node-metastasis), and she had also undergone metastasectomy for lung metastases and right adrenal gland metastasis after the rectal surgery. Follow-up computed tomography scans detected nodules in the bilateral lobes of the thyroid gland and in the left adrenal gland. Subtotal thyroidectomy and left adrenalectomy were performed, and pathological examination revealed metastases of rectal cancer to the thyroid gland and left adrenal gland. PMID:25952954

  9. Peroneal spastic flatfoot in adolescents with accessory talar facet impingement: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Niki, Hisateru; Aoki, Haruhito; Hirano, Takaaki; Akiyama, Yui; Fujiya, Hiroto

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzed imaging, arthroscopic findings, and treatment responses for peroneal spastic flatfoot (PSFF) caused by talocalcaneal impingement at the accessory anterolateral talar facet (AALTF) (accessory talar facet impingement) in 13 adolescents without histories of trauma and tarsal coalition. The AALTF was determined with computed tomography and MRI. Focal abutting bone marrow edema (FABME) on MRI around the AALTF was confirmed. In seven patients who underwent AALTF resection, subtalar arthroscopy was performed. All experienced alleviation PSFF after treatment; reduction in FABME was observed. AALTF resection alone is beneficial for PSFF caused by accessory talar facet impingement when peroneal spasms are restored by an injection of local anesthesia. PMID:25856276

  10. Evaluation of a Tier I Screening Battery for Detecting Endocrine-Active Compounds (EACs) Using the Positive Controls Testosterone, Coumestrol, Progesterone, and RU486

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. O'Connor; Leonard G. Davis; Steven R. Frame; Jon C. Cook

    2000-01-01

    changes of the testis (Leydig cell atrophy). In the YTS, PROG activated gene transcription in the yeast containing the AR or PR. In the female battery, RU486 administration increased uterine weight and decreased uterine stromal cell proliferation. In the male battery, RU486 decreased epididymis and accessory sex gland weights and increased serum FSH and LH concentrations. In the YTS, RU486

  11. Reproductive soundness of captive southern and northern white rhinoceroses ( Ceratotherium simum simum, C.s. cottoni): evaluation of male genital tract morphology and semen quality before and after cryopreservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Hermes; Thomas Bernd Hildebrandt; Steffen Blottner; Christian Walzer; Sandra Silinski; Marilyn L. Patton; Gudrun Wibbelt; Franz Schwarzenberger; Frank Göritz

    2005-01-01

    White rhinoceroses suffer from a low rate of reproduction in captivity. This study examines the role of male reproductive function as a contributing factor. We used ultrasonography to image accessory sex glands, testis and epididymis. Electroejaculation provided 36 ejaculates from 21 rhinoceroses. Based on the percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa, semen was categorized in three groups, high (I: >75%), intermediate

  12. Characterization of a large population of mRNAs from human testis

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlak, A.; Toussaint, C.; Levy, I. [INSERM, Creteil (France)] [and others] [INSERM, Creteil (France); and others

    1995-03-01

    The authors present the results of single-pass sequencing of 779 expressed sequence tags from normal human testis cDNA clones. Of the sequences generated, 319 (41%) appeared to be completely unknown and are likely to represent new genes, and 289 (37%) were identified based on exact or nonexact matches to sequences in public databases. In analyses of hybridization of four tissues, testis, brain, liver, and kidney, 6 of 12 cDNAs clones revealed testis-specific expression. This argues for the value of the combination of random sequencing and analysis of cellular expression for large-scale characterization of gene expression in the testis. 26 refs., 1 figs. 2 tab.

  13. Palindromes on the human X chromosome : testis-biased transcription, gene conversion and evolution

    E-print Network

    Saionz, Jennifer R., 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Recent genomic studies of the Y chromosome revealed massive, testis-specific palindromes that span 30% of the chromosome and are subject to gene conversion. We conducted studies to determine whether similar palindromes ...

  14. Transcutaneous high-intensity focused ultrasonography can cure testicular cancer in solitary testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Kratzik; G. Schatzl; J. Lackner; M. Marberger

    2006-01-01

    ObjectivesTo report the long-term results in 7 patients (including the 5-year results in 3 patients) after high-intensity focused ultrasonography (HIFU) combined with irradiation to treat testicular tumors in a solitary testis.

  15. Interactions between developing nerves and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, João N; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a summary of the field of salivary gland development and regeneration from the perspective of what is known about the function of nerves during these processes. The primary function of adult salivary glands is to produce and secrete saliva. Neuronal control of adult salivary gland function has been a focus of research ever since Pavlov's seminal experiments on salivation in dogs. Less is known about salivary gland innervation during development and how the developing nerves influence gland organogenesis and regeneration. Here, we will review what is known about the communication between the autonomic nervous system and the epithelium of the salivary glands during organogenesis. An important emerging theme is the instructive role of the nervous system on the epithelial stem/progenitor cells during development as well as regeneration after damage. We will provide a brief overview of the neuroanatomy of the salivary glands and discuss recent literature that begins to integrate neurobiology with epithelial organogenesis, which may provide paradigms for exploring these interactions in other organ systems. PMID:23974175

  16. Biological Roles of Uterine Glands in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, uterine receptivity, and stromal cell decidualization in humans and animal models. The infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss observed in the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model unequivocally supports a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid in survival and development of the conceptus. Further, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation as well as stromal cell decidualization. Similarly in humans, uterine glands and their secretory products are likely critical regulators of blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus growth and development during the first trimester. Circumstantial evidence suggests that deficient glandular activity may be a causative factor in pregnancy failure and complications in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility and pregnancy problems in mammals. PMID:24959816

  17. Genetic ablation of androgen receptor signaling in fetal Leydig cell lineage affects Leydig cell functions in adult testis.

    PubMed

    Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Lopez, Carolina; Ferguson, Lydia; Myhr, Courtney; Agoulnik, Alexander I

    2015-06-01

    It is commonly accepted that androgen-producing fetal Leydig cells (FLC) are substituted by adult Leydig cells (ALC) during perinatal testis development. The mechanisms influencing this process are unclear. We used mice with a retinoid acid receptor 2 promoter-Cre recombinase transgene (Rarb-cre) expressed in embryonic FLC precursors, but not in postnatal testis, and a dual fluorescent Cre recombinase reporter to label FLC and ALC in vivo. All FLC in newborn testis had the recombinant, whereas the majority of LC in adult testis had the nonrecombinant reporter. Primary LC cultures from adult testis had either recombinant (20%) or nonrecombinant (80%) cells, demonstrating that the FLC survive in adult testis and their ontogeny is distinct from ALC. Conditional inactivation of androgen receptor (AR) allele using the Rarb-cre transgene resulted in a 50% increase of AR-negative LC in adult testis. The mutant males became infertile with age, with all LC in older testis showing signs of incomplete differentiation, such as a large number of big lipid droplets, an increase of finger-like protrusions, and a misexpression of steroidogenic or FLC- and ALC-specific genes. We propose that the antiandrogenic exposure during early development may similarly result in an increase of FLC in adult testis, leading to abnormal LC differentiation.-Kaftanovskaya, E. M., Lopez, C., Ferguson, L., Myhr, C., Agoulnik, A. I. Genetic ablation of androgen receptor signaling in fetal Leydig cell lineage affects Leydig cell functions in adult testis. PMID:25713029

  18. Histological, histochemical and fine structure studies of the lacrimal gland and superficial gland of the third eyelid and their significance on the proper function of the eyeball in alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Kle?kowska-Nawrot, J; Nowaczyk, R; Go?dziewska-Har?ajczuk, K; Krasucki, K; Janeczek, M

    2015-01-01

    The lacrimal gland (LG) and superficial gland of the third eyelid (SGTE) belong to accessory organs of the eye. The aim of the present studies was to evaluate the histological, histochemical and fine structure of the LG and SGTE obtained from 3 adult females and 2 adult males of alpaca (Vicugna pacos). The LG was situated in the dorsolateral angle of the orbit between the dorsal rectus and the lateral rectus muscles. The SGTE was located between the medial rectus muscle, the ventral rectus muscle and was partially covered by the ventral oblique muscle of the eyeball. There were no effect of gender on the morphometry of examined LG and SGTE. The third eyelid resembles an anchor in shape. During histological and ultrastructural analyses using light and transmission electron microscopy, it was established that the LG and SGTE are tubulo-acinar glands with mucoserous characters. The LG contains either lymphocytes or plasma cells, while SGTE had rare plasma cells and numerous lymphocytes in connective tissue. The cartilage of the third eyelid was composed of hyaline tissue. Numerous aggregations of lymphocytes as lymph nodules in bulbar surface of the third eyelid were observed. The LG and SGTE secretory cells exhibited a similar ultrastructure appearance in electron microscopic examination, with secretory cells tightly filled with intracytoplasmatic secretory granules and numerous clusters of mucus of different sizes which were observed in the peripheral cells compartment. PMID:26050807

  19. Two distinct origins for Leydig cell progenitors in the fetal testis

    PubMed Central

    DeFalco, Tony; Takahashi, Satoru; Capel, Blanche

    2011-01-01

    During the differentiation of the mammalian embryonic testis, two compartments are defined: the testis cords and the interstitium. The testis cords give rise to the adult seminiferous tubules, whereas steroidogenic Leydig cells and other less well characterized cell types differentiate in the interstitium (the space between testis cords). Although the process of testis cord formation is essential for male development, it is not entirely understood. It has been viewed as a Sertoli-cell driven process, but growing evidence suggests that interstitial cells play an essential role during testis formation. However, little is known about the origin of the interstitium or the molecular and cellular diversity within this early stromal compartment. To better understand the process of mammalian gonad differentiation, we have undertaken an analysis of developing interstitial/stromal cells in the early mouse testis and ovary. We have discovered molecular heterogeneity in the interstitium and have characterized new markers of distinct cell types in the gonad: MAFB, C-MAF, and VCAM1. Our results show that at least two distinct progenitor lineages give rise to the interstitial/stromal compartment of the gonad: the coelomic epithelium and specialized cells along the gonad-mesonephros border. We demonstrate that both these populations give rise to interstitial precursors that can differentiate into fetal Leydig cells. Our analysis also reveals that perivascular cells migrate into the gonad from the mesonephric border along with endothelial cells and that these vessel-associated cells likely represent an interstitial precursor lineage. This study highlights the cellular diversity of the interstitial cell population and suggests that complex cell-cell interactions among cells in the interstitium are involved in testis morphogenesis. PMID:21255566

  20. Metabolomic evaluation of rat liver and testis to characterize the toxicity of triazole fungicides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Drew R. Ekman; Hector C. Keun; Charles D. Eads; Carrie M. Furnish; Rachel N. Murrell; John C. Rockett; David J. Dix

    2006-01-01

    The effects of two triazole fungicides, myclobutanil and triadimefon, on endogenous rat metabolite profiles in blood serum, liver, and testis was assessed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for 14 days with myclobutanil or triadimefon, at two dose levels for each triazole. Following exposure, serum, liver, and testis were collected and

  1. Large-Cell Calcifying Sertoli Cell Tumor of the Testis: Appearance at Sonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cindy L. Gierke; Bernard F. King; David G. Bostwick; Peter L. Choyke; Robert R. Hattery

    A healthy 15-year-old boy had a 6-week history of intermittent tenderness in the left testis. He had no history of trauma. Physical examination revealed a palpable mass in the left testis. The remain- der of the findings on physical examination were unremarkable. Pre- operative serum levels of ?3-human chorionic gonadotropin and a-fetoprotein were normal. Scrotal sonography was done preopera- tively

  2. d Aspartic acid induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in testis of prepubertal rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. Chandrashekar; Æ Muralidhara

    2010-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated the potential of d-aspartic acid (d-Asp), an acidic amino acid to induce oxidative response in prepubertal rat testis in vitro. In the present study, we determined\\u000a the extent of oxidative stress in the testis of prepubertal rats that were administered d-Asp (100 and 500 mg\\/kg bw\\/d, i.p. 7 days). d-Asp treatment significantly elevated the levels of reactive oxygen species,

  3. Gene Discovery Using Computational and Microarray Analysis of Transcription in the Drosophila melanogaster Testis

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Justen; Bouffard, Gerard G.; Cheadle, Chris; Lü, Jining; Becker, Kevin G.; Oliver, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Identification and annotation of all the genes in the sequenced Drosophila genome is a work in progress. Wild-type testis function requires many genes and is thus of potentially high value for the identification of transcription units. We therefore undertook a survey of the repertoire of genes expressed in the Drosophila testis by computational and microarray analysis. We generated 3141 high-quality testis expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Testis ESTs computationally collapsed into 1560 cDNA set used for further analysis. Of those, 11% correspond to named genes, and 33% provide biological evidence for a predicted gene. A surprising 47% fail to align with existing ESTs and 16% with predicted genes in the current genome release. EST frequency and microarray expression profiles indicate that the testis mRNA population is highly complex and shows an extended range of transcript abundance. Furthermore, >80% of the genes expressed in the testis showed onefold overexpression relative to ovaries, or gonadectomized flies. Additionally, >3% showed more than threefold overexpression at p <0.05. Surprisingly, 22% of the genes most highly overexpressed in testis match Drosophila genomic sequence, but not predicted genes. These data strongly support the idea that sequencing additional cDNA libraries from defined tissues, such as testis, will be important tools for refined annotation of the Drosophila genome. Additionally, these data suggest that the number of genes in Drosophila will significantly exceed the conservative estimate of 13,601. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the dbEST data library under accession nos. AI944400–AI947263 and BE661985–BE662262.] [The microarray data described in this paper have been submitted to the GEO data library under accession nos. GPLS, GSM3–GSM10.] PMID:11116097

  4. In vitro maintenance of spermatogenesis in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Risley; A. Miller; D. A. Bumcrot

    1987-01-01

    Spermatogenesis has been maintained for extended periods in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media supplemented with bovine serum albumin, insulin, transferrin, follicle-stimulating hormone, dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, retinol, ascorbate, and tocopherol. The organization of the testis fragments was maintained for 28 days, and all stages of development were present throughout the culture period. ³H-Thymidine-labeled secondary (Type B) spermatogonia developed in

  5. The organization of the salivary gland microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Fraser, P A; Smaje, L H

    1977-10-01

    1. The microvasculature of the rabbit submandibular salivary gland has been investigated employing in vivo microscopy, blood flow measurements, latex casts, microsphere injections and examination of fixed sections of the gland.2. Two principal microcirculations were distinguished in the living gland, one supplying the acini and the other the intralobular ducts. Parasympathetic nerve stimulation (2, 5 or 10 sec(-1)) elicited different responses in each of the two microcirculations. Flow in the capillaries around the acini slowed initially before increasing. In contrast, flow in the intralobular duct capillaries increased soon after beginning stimulation.3. In some experiments both whole gland flow and microvascular flow were monitored simultaneously. Whole gland flow increased at the same time as flow in the acinar capillaries was decreasing and as flow in the intralobular duct capillaries increased. Flow in acinar capillaries increased about 5 sec after glandular flow started to increase.4. These observations could be explained if either the vascular beds of the acini and the intralobular ducts were arranged in parallel or if arteriovenous anastomoses were to shunt the acinar circulation. No such anastomoses were found in latex casts made of the gland vasculature, and microspheres injected into the artery supplying the gland were not found in the venous effluent.5. The intraglandular distribution of microspheres was measured in histological sections of the injected glands to give an estimate of the distribution of blood flow between the duct and acinar microcirculations. At rest and during maintained stimulation about 55% of the blood flow passed through the intralobular duct microcirculations, whilst during this initial 15 sec of stimulation this proportion was increased to over 70%. This finding is consistent with a parallel arrangement of the two microcirculations.6. The conclusions drawn from these observations are that the duct and acinar microcirculations are arranged in parallel, that there are differences in the way the vasodilatation is mediated in these circulations, and that arterio-venous anastomoses play no significant role in this gland. PMID:592119

  6. Salivary glands and human selection: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Shields, E D; Mann, R W

    1996-01-01

    Stafne static bone defect (SSBD) of the mandible is the only described destructive bone lesion that is highly localized, nonprogressive, but nonhealing. This common defect in male is found in the region of the major salivary glands that produce a cornucopia of biologically active factors. We describe rare phenocopies caused by mandibular immobility that hold the gland in a constant position thus implicating a localized chronic "leak" of an osteoclast induction factor from the major salivary glands as the pathologic agent. This finding suggests that increased salivary gland size could simulate immobility by apposing the gland to bone, thus allowing the "leaked" factor's gradient to have an effect. In one step, the putative genetic enlargement of a critical gland that produces many factors important for survival, a broad biological vista would be available to the massive potential for both positive and negative selection. Positive selection was identified by observing a correlation between the prevalence of enhanced androgen-induced enlarge salivary glands (SSBD) as a marker, with a great preponderance of males) and the conjectured resulting increased production of immunoreactive factors, with pole-to-equator isotherm and broad ranged infection clines. Negative selection was observed among the slave ancestors of African Americans for a potential embryonic homeotic mutation causing larger salivary glands in both sexes (decreased prevalence of SSBD, with an equal sex ratio). The decreased production of saliva and electrolytes diminished the salt and water depletive effects of severe diarrhea and vomiting induced by enteric diseases, which killed many slaves. Data presented suggests that SSBD is a polymorphism and a marker of selection processes that cause variation in size, or structure, of the major salivary glands. PMID:8773904

  7. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. [Department of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P. [Department of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Vissink, Arjan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells, but is also caused by damage to the extracellular environment, preventing proper cell functioning.

  8. 29 CFR 1919.27 - Unit proof tests-winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.27 Unit proof tests—winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto....

  9. 29 CFR 1919.28 - Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.28 Unit proof tests—cranes and gear accessory thereto. (a) Except...

  10. 26 CFR 48.4062(b)-1 - Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(b)-1 Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis. The sale price...

  11. 26 CFR 48.4062(b)-1 - Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(b)-1 Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis. The sale price...

  12. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(b)-3 Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories. (a) Rebuilt...

  13. 26 CFR 48.4062(b)-1 - Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(b)-1 Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis. The sale price...

  14. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(b)-3 Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories. (a) Rebuilt...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. Spark plugs, storage batteries, leaf...

  16. 26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. Spark plugs, storage batteries, leaf...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4062(b)-1 - Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(b)-1 Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis. The sale price...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. Spark plugs, storage batteries, leaf...

  19. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(b)-3 Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories. (a) Rebuilt...

  20. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(b)-3 Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories. (a) Rebuilt...

  1. 26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. Spark plugs, storage batteries, leaf...

  2. 21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used without a power source on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  3. 21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used without a power source on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  4. 21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used without a power source on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  5. 21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used without a power source on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  6. 21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used without a power source on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  7. [Primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Ibnou Soufyane, N; Chadli, A; El Ghomari, H; Essodegui, F; Marouan, F; El Farouqi, A; Ababou, M R; Kafih, M

    2002-06-01

    Malignant primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland is a rare disease generally occurring women in the 6(th) or 7(th) decade of life. The principal clinical sign is giant goiter rapidly leading to sings of compression, raising the question of differential diagnosis with anaplastic cancer. The radiological findings in our patient were suggestive of malignancy due to the locoregional invasion. Immunohistochemistry study of the surgical specimen was required to reach the definitive diagnosis of thyroid gland primary lymphoma. Diagnosis of malignant primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland made at the stage of extensive locoregional extension compromises prognosis. Our patient died after one session of chemotherapy. PMID:12193880

  8. 0610009K11Rik, a testis-specific and germ cell nuclear receptor-interacting protein

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Heng; Denhard, Leslie A.; Zhou Huaxin; Liu Lanhsin [Birth Defects Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Dental Building Room 203B, 501 S. Preston Street, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Lan Zijian [Birth Defects Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Dental Building Room 203B, 501 S. Preston Street, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)], E-mail: z0lan001@gwise.louisville.edu

    2008-02-22

    Using an in silico approach, a putative nuclear receptor-interacting protein 0610009K11Rik was identified in mouse testis. We named this gene testis-specific nuclear receptor-interacting protein-1 (Tnrip-1). Tnrip-1 was predominantly expressed in the testis of adult mouse tissues. Expression of Tnrip-1 in the testis was regulated during postnatal development, with robust expression in 14-day-old or older testes. In situ hybridization analyses showed that Tnrip-1 is highly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes and spermatids. Consistent with its mRNA expression, Tnrip-1 protein was detected in adult mouse testes. Immunohistochemical studies showed that Tnrip-1 is a nuclear protein and mainly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation analyses showed that endogenous Tnrip-1 protein can interact with germ cell nuclear receptor (GCNF) in adult mouse testes. Our results suggest that Tnrip-1 is a testis-specific and GCNF-interacting protein which may be involved in the modulation of GCNF-mediated gene transcription in spermatogenic cells within the testis.

  9. Simian immunodeficiency virus infection and immune responses in the pig-tailed macaque testis.

    PubMed

    Winnall, Wendy R; Lloyd, Sarah B; De Rose, Robert; Alcantara, Sheilajen; Amarasena, Thakshila H; Hedger, Mark P; Girling, Jane E; Kent, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    The testis is a site of immune privilege in rodents, and there is evidence that T cell responses are also suppressed in the primate testis. Local immunosuppression is a potential mechanism for HIV persistence in tissue reservoirs that few studies have examined. The response of the pig-tailed macaque testis to SIVmac239 infection was characterized to test this possibility. Testes were surgically removed during early-chronic (10 wk) and late-chronic (24-30 wk) SIV infection in 4 animals and compared with those from 7 uninfected animals. SIV infection caused only minor disruption to the seminiferous epithelium without marked evidence of inflammation or consistent changes in total intratesticular leukocyte numbers. Infection also led to an increase in the relative proportion of testicular effector memory CD8(+) T cell numbers and a corresponding reduction in central memory CD4(+) T cells. A decrease in the relative proportion of resident-type CD163(+) macrophages and DCs was also observed. SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells were detectable in the testis, 10-11 wk after infection by staining with SIV Gag-specific or Tat-specific MHC-I tetramers. However, testicular CD8(+) T cells from the infected animals had suppressed cytokine responses to mitogen activation. These results support the possibility that local immunosuppression in the testis may be restricting the ability of T cells to respond to SIV or HIV infection. Local immunosuppression in the testis may be an underexplored mechanism allowing HIV persistence. PMID:25605872

  10. Application of Garnet-Accessory Phase Thermometry: a Combined EMP and SIMS Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Pyle; C. G. Daniel; F. S. Spear; G. D. Layne

    2003-01-01

    Fe-Mg exchange thermometry involving garnet and other phases requires appropriate bulk compositions, and is often compromised by bulk diffusion within garnet and retrograde net-transfer reactions that dissolve garnet or shift biotite compositions. Application of garnet-accessory phase thermometry provides a robust, multi-faceted alternative. Garnet-accessory phase pairs are resistant to diffusive reequilibration of Y and HREE, display evidence for an approach to

  11. Health warning labelling practices on narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rima Nakkash; Joanna Khalil

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundWaterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing around the globe despite current evidence that smoke emissions are toxic and contain carcinogenic compounds.ObjectiveTo evaluate current health warning labelling practices on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories.MethodsAll waterpipe tobacco products, as well as waterpipe accessories, were purchased from Lebanon and a convenience sample was obtained from Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Palestine, Syria, Jordan,

  12. New exocrine glands in ants: the hypostomal gland and basitarsal gland in the genus Melissotarsus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölldobler, Bert; Obermayer, Malu; Plowes, Nicola J. R.; Fisher, Brian L.

    2014-07-01

    Fisher and Robertson (Insect Soc 46: 78-83, 1999) discovered the production of silk-like secretions emerging from slit-shaped openings along the anterior margin of the ventral hypostoma of Melissotarsus ant workers. The current histological study describes a hitherto unknown hypostomal gland from which this silk-like substance originates. In addition, this study describes a new basitarsal gland in the three pairs of legs of Melissotarsus workers.

  13. Multivariate proteomic profiling identifies novel accessory proteins of coated vesicles.

    PubMed

    Borner, Georg H H; Antrobus, Robin; Hirst, Jennifer; Bhumbra, Gary S; Kozik, Patrycja; Jackson, Lauren P; Sahlender, Daniela A; Robinson, Margaret S

    2012-04-01

    Despite recent advances in mass spectrometry, proteomic characterization of transport vesicles remains challenging. Here, we describe a multivariate proteomics approach to analyzing clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) from HeLa cells. siRNA knockdown of coat components and different fractionation protocols were used to obtain modified coated vesicle-enriched fractions, which were compared by stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative mass spectrometry. 10 datasets were combined through principal component analysis into a "profiling" cluster analysis. Overall, 136 CCV-associated proteins were predicted, including 36 new proteins. The method identified >93% of established CCV coat proteins and assigned >91% correctly to intracellular or endocytic CCVs. Furthermore, the profiling analysis extends to less well characterized types of coated vesicles, and we identify and characterize the first AP-4 accessory protein, which we have named tepsin. Finally, our data explain how sequestration of TACC3 in cytosolic clathrin cages causes the severe mitotic defects observed in auxilin-depleted cells. The profiling approach can be adapted to address related cell and systems biological questions. PMID:22472443

  14. Comparative morphology of the accessory olfactory bulb in bats.

    PubMed Central

    Frahm, H D; Bhatnagar, K P

    1980-01-01

    Bouin-perfused brains of 148 bats (76 species, 48 genera, 8 families) were examined in serial sections for the presence of an accessory olfactory bulb. A moderate to well developed AOB was identified in 26 species. However, absence of an AOB in a particular species does not preclude its presence in some other species of that genus. Descriptions and measurements of the AOBs of each species are reported. The unmyelinated vomeronasal nerve enters the bulb medially and posteriorly. The glomeruli, variable in diameter, appear better circumscribed than previously described. Mitral cells often form thick layers, up to five cells deep, which sometimes reach the dorsolateral surface of the bulb formation. Both external and internal plexiform layers are thin. The latter, however is seen only in a few species. The internal granular layer, reaching the ventricular ependyma in some species, is a prominent component of the bulb. The pars dorsalis of the lateral olfactory tract usually courses between the mitral and internal granular layers. The chiropteran AOB does not differ in significant detail from that of insectivores, primates and other mammals. The occurrence of a functional vomeronasal system in the frugivorous, nectarivorous, and sanguivorous Phyllosotomatidae points to a primary functional role of this system in feeding strategy, at least in bats. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7400042

  15. Importance of preexcited QRS morphology during induced atrial fibrillation to the diagnosis and localization of multiple accessory pathways.

    PubMed

    Fananapazir, L; German, L D; Gallagher, J J; Lowe, J E; Prystowsky, E N

    1990-02-01

    The present investigation evaluates the ability of several electrocardiographic (ECG) and electrophysiologic methods to identify multiple accessory pathways in 47 patients in whom the presence and sites of multiple accessory pathways were confirmed intraoperatively. To establish ECG features that suggested the presence of multiple accessory pathways in these patients, we initially studied the 12-lead ECG during maximal preexcitation in 101 patients with single accessory pathways. Distinctive 12-lead ECG patterns were noted for six defined anatomic areas around the right and left atrioventricular groove. Multiple preexcited QRS morphologies, each typical for a separate accessory pathway, and atypical preexcited QRS morphologies were recorded during atrial fibrillation in 31 of 47 (66%) patients with multiple accessory pathways. By comparison, the ECG during sinus rhythm and rapid atrial pacing identified 14 (32%) and 26 (55%) of the patients, respectively. In 12 (26%) patients in whom evidence for multiple accessory pathways was absent from endocardial mapping data, atrial fibrillation provided the diagnosis. In five (11%) patients, atrial fibrillation was the only method that demonstrated the presence of multiple accessory pathways. A combination of ECG findings during atrial fibrillation and rapid atrial pacing plus endocardial mapping data identified 43 (91%) of the patients with multiple accessory pathways. There were two unique fusion patterns on the 12-lead ECG that were characteristic of specific multiple accessory pathway combinations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2297863

  16. The harderian gland: a tercentennial review.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, A P

    1994-01-01

    The harderian gland was first described in 1694 by Johann Jacob Harder (1656-1711). It occurs in most terrestrial vertebrates and is located within the orbit where, in some species, it is the largest structure. It may be compound tubular or compound tubuloalveolar, and its secretory duct is usually morphologically distinct only after leaving the substance of the gland to open on the surface of the nictitating membrane. The tubules of the gland are formed of a single layer of columnar epithelial cells surrounded by myoepithelial cells. The chief product(s) of the gland varies between different groups of vertebrates, and epithelial cells possess granules or vacuoles whose contents may be mucous, serous or lipid. In rodents, the gland synthesises lipids, porphyrins and indoles. In the case of lipid vacuoles, the gland is unusual in releasing these by an exocytotic mechanism. It is unclear whether the gland can act both as an exocrine and endocrine organ. There is control of gland structure and synthesis through a variety of humoral agents, including gonadal, thyroid and pituitary hormones; in addition there is a rich autonomic innervation and many neuropeptides have been identified. The proposed functions of the gland are remarkably diverse and include the gland being (1) a source of 'saliva', (2) a site of immune response, (3) a photoprotective organ, (4) part of a retinal-pineal axis, (5) a source of pheromones, (6) a source of thermoregulatory lipids, (7) a site of osmoregulation, and (8) a source of growth factors. The gland is discussed in terms of its embryology and phylogeny, and in relation to ecological variables. Several goals of future research are identified. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 40 PMID:7559104

  17. Effect of infection with Trichobilharzia ocellata and Schistosoma mansoni on the ultrastructure of the albumen gland of their respective hosts, Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    el-Saadany, M M; Mohamed, A M

    1989-01-01

    The albumen gland, a female accessory sex gland of pulmonate snails, produces the perivitelline fluid. The ultrastructure of the albumen glands of control and infected specimens of Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria glabrata was studied. The albumen gland of L. stagnalis contains two types of secretory cells--light (active) and dark (inactive)--and two types of supporting cells--centroacinar and myoepithelial. The secretory cells apparently represent two activity stages of one type of cell. The gland B. glabrata possesses only one secretory cell type, which alternates with one type of supporting cell. The albumen glands of L. stagnalis and B. glabrata infected at a juvenile stage were studied 4 and 14 weeks (L. stagnalis) and 4 and 9 weeks (B. glabrata) after exposure. After four weeks' infection, B. glabrata produced some egg masses, but in subsequent stages egg mass production completely coased. Infected L. stagnalis never produced eggs. B. glabrata was apparently infected at a "physiologically" more mature stage than L. stagnalis. The morphology of the albumen glands four weeks after exposure (the daughter sporocyst stage) is in agreement with this hypothesis. At this interval the secretory cells of L. stagnalis appeared to be much more severely affected (inactive Golgi bodies and rough endoplasmic reticulum, crinophagy of the secretory granules) than the cells of B. glabrata. In the later stages studied (shedding of the cercariae), the glands of both species appeared to be completely inactive (reduced height of the epithelium, inactive organelles, crinophagy, absence of secretory granules). At this stage of infection, daughter sporocysts containing cercaria embryos were seen in the connective tissue of the albumen gland of B. glabrata, but not of L. stagnalis. The results thus indicate that the development and synthetic activity of the albumen gland are seriously affected by infection. These processes are known to be under the endocrine control of the female gonadotrophic hormones. Since it has been established that these hormones are normally present in the haemolymph of infected snails, the findings can be explained by assuming that the parasite interferes in some way or other with the snail's endocrine system. PMID:2606384

  18. Cancer/Testis Antigen PASD1 Silences the Circadian Clock.

    PubMed

    Michael, Alicia K; Harvey, Stacy L; Sammons, Patrick J; Anderson, Amanda P; Kopalle, Hema M; Banham, Alison H; Partch, Carrie L

    2015-06-01

    The circadian clock orchestrates global changes in transcriptional regulation on a daily basis via the bHLH-PAS transcription factor CLOCK:BMAL1. Pathways driven by other bHLH-PAS transcription factors have a homologous repressor that modulates activity on a tissue-specific basis, but none have been identified for CLOCK:BMAL1. We show here that the cancer/testis antigen PASD1 fulfills this role to suppress circadian rhythms. PASD1 is evolutionarily related to CLOCK and interacts with the CLOCK:BMAL1 complex to repress transcriptional activation. Expression of PASD1 is restricted to germline tissues in healthy individuals but can be induced in cells of somatic origin upon oncogenic transformation. Reducing PASD1 in human cancer cells significantly increases the amplitude of transcriptional oscillations to generate more robust circadian rhythms. Our results describe a function for a germline-specific protein in regulation of the circadian clock and provide a molecular link from oncogenic transformation to suppression of circadian rhythms. PMID:25936801

  19. Integrative Discovery of Epigenetically Derepressed Cancer Testis Antigens in NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Chad A.; Smith, Ian M.; Ochs, Michael F.; Begum, Shahnaz; Westra, William; Chang, Steven S.; Sun, Wenyue; Bhan, Sheetal; Khan, Zubair; Ahrendt, Steven; Califano, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) were first discovered as immunogenic targets normally expressed in germline cells, but differentially expressed in a variety of human cancers. In this study, we used an integrative epigenetic screening approach to identify coordinately expressed genes in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose transcription is driven by promoter demethylation. Methodology/Principal Findings Our screening approach found 290 significant genes from the over 47,000 transcripts incorporated in the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 expression array. Of the top 55 candidates, 10 showed both differential overexpression and promoter region hypomethylation in NSCLC. Surprisingly, 6 of the 10 genes discovered by this approach were CTAs. Using a separate cohort of primary tumor and normal tissue, we validated NSCLC promoter hypomethylation and increased expression by quantitative RT-PCR for all 10 genes. We noted significant, coordinated coexpression of multiple target genes, as well as coordinated promoter demethylation, in a large set of individual tumors that was associated with the SCC subtype of NSCLC. In addition, we identified 2 novel target genes that exhibited growth-promoting effects in multiple cell lines. Conclusions/Significance Coordinated promoter demethylation in NSCLC is associated with aberrant expression of CTAs and potential, novel candidate protooncogenes that can be identified using integrative discovery techniques. These findings have significant implications for discovery of novel CTAs and CT antigen directed immunotherapy. PMID:19997593

  20. Treatment of disseminated germ cell tumours of the testis.

    PubMed

    Athanassiou, A; Pectasides, D; Bafaloukos, D; Barbounis, V; Dimitriadis, M; Christodoulou, K

    1989-05-01

    Between 1979 and 1987 64 men with non-seminomatous germ cell tumours of the testis were treated with chemotherapy. Nearly half of these patients had large volume disease. The most frequently used combinations were VAB-6 and POMB/ACE. Chemotherapy lasted 3.9 months for small volume disease and 5.5 months for large volume disease. Seven patients (11%) underwent resection of residual masses; viable malignancy was found in only 1 of these. Relapse occurred in 6 complete responders, 3 of whom were salvaged with further chemotherapy. Fifty-three patients are presently alive and have received no treatment for periods of 5 to 86 months. Life table analysis forecasts a survival of 81%. Adverse prognostic factors have been recognised and include high initial serum concentrations of beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-HCG) and alpha fetoprotein (AFP), large volume disease and prior irradiation. Although the survival time of patients with advanced disease has improved in recent years, it remains considerably below that of patients who present with less advanced disease. Such patients should be treated aggressively from the outset in order to obtain maximum benefit from chemotherapy. Selected cases also require adjunctive surgery. PMID:2471573

  1. Sertoliform cystadenoma: a rare benign tumour of the rete testis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Sertoliform cystadenoma of the rete testis represents an uncommon benign tumour. They appear in patients from 26 to 62 years of age. We describe a case of a 66-year-old man with a tumour in the area of the epididymal head. The tumour markers were not increased. Under the assumption of a malignant testicular tumour an inguinal orchiectomy was performed. The cut surface of this tumour was of grey/white color and showed small cysts. The tumour consisted of two compartments. The epithelial like tumour cells showed a sertoliform growth pattern and cystic dilatations. In between the tumour cells repeatedly actin expressing sclerotic areas could be recognized as the second tumour component. Proliferative activity was not increased. Immunohistochemically the tumour cells were positiv for inhibin, S-100, and CD 99. Alpha feto protein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG) and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) as well as synaptophysin, epithelial membrane antigene (EMA), and BCL-2 were not expressed. As far as we know this is the sixth reported case of this tumour. Because of the benign nature of this tumour the correct diagnosis is important for the intra- and postoperative management. Here we present a case of this rare tumour and discuss potential differential diagnosis. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1956026143857335 PMID:23406299

  2. Identification of a Meiosis-Specific Protein as a Member of the Class of Cancer\\/Testis Antigens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ozlem Tureci; Ugur Sahin; Carsten Zwick; Michael Koslowski; Gerhard Seitz; Michael Pfreundschuh

    1998-01-01

    Little is known about the function of human cancer\\/testis antigens (CTAs), such as MAGE, BAGE, GAGE, HOM-MEL-40, and NY-ESO-1, the expression of which is restricted to human malignancies and testis. When screening a cDNA expression library enriched for testis-specific representative long transcripts for reactivity with high-titered IgG antibodies from the serum of a patient with renal cell carcinoma, one repeatedly

  3. The composition of fluid collected by micropuncture and catheterization from the seminiferous tubules and rete testis of rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Tuck; B. P. Setchell; G. M. H. Waites; J. A. Young

    1970-01-01

    Fluid and electrolyte secretion in the rat testis has been studied by micropuncture and catheterization. Three fluids have been collected and analyzed:1.Rete-testis fluid, obtained by catheterization of the rete testis.2.Free-flow fluid, obtained by micropuncture of seminiferous tubules.3.Primary fluid, also obtained by micropuncture but after first filling a tubule segment with oil and allowing new secretion to form and break up

  4. Identification of Accessory Spleens During Laparoscopic Splenectomy Is Superior to Preoperative Computed Tomography for Detection of Accessory Spleens

    PubMed Central

    Pahuja, Anil K.; Németh, Zoltán H.; Abkin, Alexander; Carter, Mitchel S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Missed accessory spleen (AcS) can cause recurrence of hematologic disease after splenectomy. The objective of the study was to determine whether detection of AcS is more accurate with preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan or with exploration during laparoscopic splenectomy. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for 75 adult patients who underwent laparoscopic splenectomy for various hematologic disorders from 1999 to 2009. Preoperative CT scans were performed in all patients. Patients were followed for recurrence of disease, and a scintigraphy scan was performed in those with suspected missed AcS. Results: The most common diagnosis was idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in 29 patients (39%), followed by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in 22 patients (29%). Sixteen AcSs were found during surgery in 15 patients (20%), and preoperative CT scan identified 2 of these. Twelve AcSs were located at the splenic hilum (75%). Nine patients experienced recurrence of their disease, and none had a missed AcS on subsequent scintigraphy. Sensitivity of exploratory laparoscopy for detection of AcS was 100%, and for preoperative CT scan was 12.5% (P = .005). Conclusion: Exploratory laparoscopy during splenectomy is more accurate than preoperative imaging with CT scan for detection of AcS. Preoperative CT scan misses AcS frequently and should not be obtained for the purpose of its identification. PMID:23318063

  5. Lacrimal Gland Radiosensitivity in Uveal Melanoma Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Karin [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: k.muller@erasmusmc.nl; Nowak, Peter J.C.M. [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Naus, Nicole [Department of Ophthalmology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pan, Connie de [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Santen, Cornelis A. van [Department of Ophthalmology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Levendag, Peter [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Luyten, Gre P.M. [Department of Ophthalmology, Leids University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To find a dose-volume effect for inhomogeneous irradiated lacrimal glands. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2006, 72 patients (42 men and 30 women) were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in a prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial (median follow-up, 32 months). A total dose of 50 Gy was given on 5 consecutive days. The mean of all Schirmer test results obtained {>=}6 months after treatment was correlated with the radiation dose delivered to the lacrimal gland. Also, the appearance of dry eye syndrome (DES) was related to the lacrimal gland dose distribution. Results: Of the 72 patients, 17 developed a late Schirmer value <10 mm; 9 patients developed DES. A statistically significant relationship was found between the received median dose in the lacrimal gland vs. reduced tear production (p = 0.000) and vs. the appearance of DES (p = 0.003), respectively. A median dose of 7 Gy/fraction to the lacrimal gland caused a 50% risk of low Schirmer results. A median dose of 10 Gy resulted in a 50% probability of DES. Conclusion: We found a clear dose-volume relationship for irradiated lacrimal glands with regard to reduced tear production and the appearance of DES.

  6. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-10

    High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

  7. Antizyme Inhibitor 2 Hypomorphic Mice. New Patterns of Expression in Pancreas and Adrenal Glands Suggest a Role in Secretory Processes

    PubMed Central

    López-Garcia, Carlos; Ramos-Molina, Bruno; Lambertos, Ana; López-Contreras, Andrés J.; Cremades, Asunción; Peñafiel, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular levels of polyamines, polycations implicated in proliferation, differentiation and cell survival, are regulated by controlling their biosynthesis, catabolism and transport. Antizymes and antizyme inhibitors are key regulatory proteins of polyamine levels by affecting ornithine decarboxylase, the rate-limiting biosynthetic enzyme, and polyamine uptake. We recently described the molecular function of a novel antizyme inhibitor (AZIN2). However, the physiological function of AZIN2 in mammals is mostly unknown. To gain insight on the tissue expression profile of AZIN2 and to find its possible physiological role, we have generated, transgenic mice with severe Azin2 hypomorphism. This mouse model expresses transgenic bacterial ?-D-galactosidase as a reporter gene, under the control of the Azin2 endogenous promoter, what allows a very sensitive and specific detection of the expression of the gene in the different tissues of transgenic mice. The biochemical and histochemical analyses of ?-D-galactosidase together with the quantification of Azin2 mRNA levels, corroborated that AZIN2 is mainly expressed in testis and brain, and showed for the first time that AZIN2 is also expressed in the adrenal glands and pancreas. In these tissues, AZIN2 was not expressed in all type of cells, but rather in specific type of cells. Thus, AZIN2 was mainly found in the haploid germinal cells of the testis and in different brain regions such as hippocampus and cerebellum, particularly in specific type of neurons. In the adrenal glands and pancreas, the expression was restricted to the adrenal medulla and to the Langerhans islets, respectively. Interestingly, plasma insulin levels were significantly reduced in the transgenic mice. These results support the idea that AZIN2 may have a role in the modulation of reproductory and secretory functions and that this mouse model might be an interesting tool for the progress of our understanding on the role of AZIN2 and polyamines in specific mammalian cells. PMID:23874910

  8. Rapid evolution of mammalian X-linked testis microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xuejiang; Su, Bing; Zhou, Zuomin; Sha, Jiahao

    2009-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are small, non-coding RNAs approximately 21-nucleotides in length, have become a major focus of research in molecular biology. Mammalian miRNAs are proposed to regulate approximately 30% of all protein-coding genes. Previous studies have focused on highly conserved miRNAs, but nonconserved miRNAs represent a potentially important source of novel functionalities during evolution. Results An analysis of the chromosome distribution of miRNAs showed higher densities of miRNAs on the X chromosome compared to the average densities on autosomes in all eight mammalian species analyzed. The distribution pattern did not, however, apply well to species beyond mammals. In addition, by comparing orthologous human and mouse miRNAs, we found that X-linked miRNAs had higher substitution rates than autosomal miRNAs. Since the highest proportion of X-linked miRNAs were found in mouse testis, we tested the hypothesis that testis miRNAs are evolving faster on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Mature X-linked testis miRNAs had an average substitution rate between mouse and human that was almost 25-fold higher than mature testis miRNAs on autosomes. In contrast, for mature miRNAs with precursors not expressed in testis, no significant difference in the substitution rate between the X chromosome and autosomes was found. Among mammals, the rapid evolution of X-linked testis miRNAs was also observed in rodents and primates. Conclusion The rapid evolution of X-linked testis miRNAs implies possible important male reproductive functions and may contribute to speciation in mammals. PMID:19257908

  9. Regulation of STREX BK channels by the ?4 Accessory Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, David; Brenner, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Large conductance (BK-type) calcium-activated potassium channels utilize alternative splicing and association with accessory ? subunits to tailor BK channel properties to diverse cell types. Two important modulators of BK channel gating are the neuronal-specific ?4 subunit and alternative splicing at the STREX exon. Individually, these modulators affect the gating properties of the BK channel as well as its response to phosphorylation. In this study, the combined functional consequences of STREX and the ?4 subunit on BK channel biophysical properties were investigated in transfected HEK293 cells. Surprisingly, we found that the combined effects of STREX and ?4 are non-additive and even opposite for some properties. At high calcium, ?4 or the STREX exon individually share properties that promote BK channel opening via slowing of deactivation. However, the combined effects are a speeding of deactivation and a decreased open probability. ?4 also inhibits BK channel opening by a slowing of activation. This effect occurs across calcium concentrations in the absence of STREX, but predominates only at low calcium for STREX containing channels. BK channel response to phosphorylation status are also altered by the combination of the ?4 subunit and the STREX exon. ?4/STREX channels show a slowing of activation kinetics following dephosphorylation whereas ?4 channels lacking STREX do not. In contrast, ?4 confers a speeding of activation in response to cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in channels lacking STREX, but not in channels containing the STREX exon. These results indicate that the combination of the ?4 subunit and STREX exon confer non-additive and unique properties to BK channels. Analysis of expression in brain slices suggests that STREX and ?4 mRNA overlap expression in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the cerebellar purkinje cells, suggesting that these unique properties of BK channels may underlie BK channel gating in these cells. PMID:17945424

  10. Morphology and connections of the abdominal accessory neurons of the crayfish Cherax destructor.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Joanne M; Macmillan, David L

    2004-02-16

    Associated with the abdominal muscle receptor organs of crayfish are accessory neurons that inhibit the activity of the stretch receptors. Cobalt infusion into their cut axons reveals four accessory somata associated with each hemiganglion in the abdomen of the crayfish Cherax destructor. These conform to the pattern described previously for these neurons: The cell bodies are in the ganglion posterior to the one from which they exit. We recorded intracellularly from the largest accessory neurons, Acc-1 and Acc-2, and stained them with intracellular dye to establish unambiguously the characteristics defining their identity and structure. We describe their branching patterns in the ganglion of origin and the ganglion of exit. This morphological information permitted us to distinguish all four accessory neurons in preparations with dye infused through their cut axons, and we propose a revised, unambiguous nomenclature for the two smaller ones. Our intracelluar recordings allowed us to reexamine the physiological relationships of Acc-1 and Acc-2, the only accessory neurons for which there are data in the literature. In general, the connections and inputs described in previous studies were substantiated, although there has clearly been confusion between the two, and they differ in a number of significant ways. We found that they are seldom active together, have different firing patterns, and may operate with different clusters of extensor and flexor motorneurons. The results illustrate the level at which the accessory neurons operate within the abdominal control system but do not distinguish between competing hypotheses concerning their role in behavior. The data are consistent with the view that accessory neurons assist in timing between adjacent segments. PMID:14755535

  11. Efferents and centrifugal afferents of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs in the snake Thamnophis sirtalis.

    PubMed

    Lanuza, E; Halpern, M

    1998-01-01

    This study reinvestigates the efferent projections of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs and describes for the first time the centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs in the snake Thamnophis sirtalis, using the intraaxonal transport of the anterograde and retrograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine and the retrograde tracer horseradish peroxidase. The olfactory projection consists of three tracts: the lateral olfactory tract, which projects bilaterally to the lateral cortex and the rostral amygdala, crossing the midline through the stria medullaris-habenular commissure system; the intermediate olfactory tract, which projects ipsilaterally to the olfactory tubercle and contributes to the contralateral projection; and the medial olfactory tract, which projects ipsilaterally to the dorsomedial retrobulbar formation. The vomeronasal projection is formed by a single tract, the accessory olfactory tract, that projects ipsilaterally to the nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract, the medial amygdala and the nucleus sphericus. The centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulb are composed of two components: one that arises in areas that receive the olfactory or vomeronasal input (neurons in the olfactory tubercle, retrobulbar formation and lateral cortex project to the main olfactory bulb; and neurons in the nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract, the medial amygdala and the nucleus sphericus project to the accessory olfactory bulb), and another that arises in areas not directly implicated in processing the chemosensory information (the nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca and the dorsal cortex). These data allow the recognition of the general pattern of organization of the reptilian olfactory and vomeronasal systems. PMID:9435967

  12. Morphological Features of the Porcine Lacrimal Gland and Its Compatibility for Human Lacrimal Gland Xenografting

    PubMed Central

    Gaffling, Simone; Asano, Nagayoshi; Hampel, Ulrike; Garreis, Fabian; Hornegger, Joachim; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present first data concerning the anatomical structure, blood supply and location of the lacrimal gland of the pig. Our data indicate that the porcine lacrimal gland may serve as a potential xenograft candidate in humans or as an animal model for engineering of a bioartificial lacrimal gland tissue construct for clinical application. For this purpose, we used different macroscopic preparation techniques and digital reconstruction of the histological gland morphology to gain new insights and important information concerning the feasibility of a lacrimal gland transplantation from pig to humans in general. Our results show that the lacrimal gland of the pig reveals a lot of morphological similarities to the analogous human lacrimal gland and thus might be regarded as a xenograft in the future. This is true for a similar anatomical location within the orbit as well as for the feeding artery supply to the organ. Functional differences concerning the composition of the tear fluid, due to a different secretory unit distribution within the gland tissue will, however, be a challenge in future investigations. PMID:24069265

  13. Harderian Gland: An Extraretinal Photoreceptor Influencing the Pineal Gland in Neonatal Rats?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lennart Wetterberg; Edward Geller; Arthur Yuwiler

    1970-01-01

    The circadian rhythm of pineal serotonin and the influence of light on that rhythm have been confirmed. Removal of the Harderian gland abolishes the response to light in blinded animals, which suggests that this gland may act as the extraretinal transducer involved in the persistence of the pineal rhythm in blinded suckling rats.

  14. Dosimetry for a study of effects of 2. 45-GHz microwaves on mouse testis

    SciTech Connect

    Cairnie, A.B.; Hill, D.A.; Assenheim, H.M.

    1980-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of microwave radiation on the testis, it is necessary to express the physical insult in animal studies in a way that can be replicated elsewhere and ultimately used as a basis for extrapolation to man. However, there is conflict--especially in chronic experiments--between the desire for precise dosimetry and the need to minimise alteration of the normal physiological functions of the animals. The compromise arrangement used in this study was to house the mice singly, in cages with limited food and water, and to irradiate them for up to 30 days (16 h/day) in an anechoic chamber. The only measurements taken routinely were of power density in the positions normally occupied by the cages. In addition, a series of absorption measurements was made in mouse carcasses: Whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR); energy-deposition patterns (determined thermographically); and local SAR in testis (using a miniature electric (E)-field probe). It was concluded that the SAR in testis was considerably less than the whole-body SAR. Exposure for 16 h at 50 mW/cm2 elevated rectal but not testis temperature, thus demonstrating the ability of the conscious mouse to regulate the temperature of its testis.

  15. Protective effect of Zingiber officinale extract on rat testis after cyclophosphamide treatment.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, F; Nikzad, H; Taghizadeh, M; Taherian, A; Azami-Tameh, A; Hosseini, S M; Moravveji, A

    2014-08-01

    Decreasing the side effects of chemotherapy in testis has been the subjects of many studies. In this study, the protective effects of Zingiber officinale extract on rat testis were investigated after chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide. Histological and biochemical parameters were compared in cyclophosphamide-treated rats with or without ginger extract intake. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into four groups each 10. The control group received a single injection of 1 ml isotonic saline intraperitoneally. The Cyclophosphamide (CP) group received a single dose of cyclophosphamide (100 mg kg(-1) BW) intraperitoneally. CP + 300 and CP + 600 groups received orally 300 or 600 mg of ginger extract, respectively, for a period of 6 weeks after cyclophosphamide injection. The morphologic and histological structure of the testis was compared in different groups of the rats. Also, factors like malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, total antioxidant capacity and testosterone level were assessed in blood serum as well. Our results showed that although ginger extract could not change testis weight, malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS, but antioxidant and testosterone levels in serum were increased significantly. Also, an obvious improved histological change was seen in CP + 300 and CP + 600 groups in comparison with CP group. These protective effects of ginger on rat testis after cyclophosphamide treatment could be attributed to the higher serum level of antioxidants. PMID:23889539

  16. Translational Activation of Developmental Messenger RNAs During Neonatal Mouse Testis Development1

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Vesna A.; Busada, Jonathan T.; Keiper, Brett D.; Geyer, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The basic tenets of germ cell development are conserved among metazoans. Following lineage commitment in the embryo, germ cells proliferate, transition into meiosis, and then differentiate into gametes capable of fertilization. In lower organisms such as Drosophila and C. elegans, germline stem cells make the decision to proliferate or enter meiosis based in large part on the regulated expression of genes by translational control. This study undertakes a direct characterization of mRNAs that experience translational control and their involvement in similar decisions in the mammalian testis. We previously showed that translation of mRNA encoding the germ cell-specific gene Rhox13 was suppressed in the fetal and neonatal testis. By investigating changes in message utilization during neonatal testis development, we found that a large number of mRNAs encoding both housekeeping and germ cell-specific proteins experience enhanced translational efficiency, rather than increase in abundance, in the testis as quiescent gonocytes transition to mitotic spermatogonia. Our results indicate that translational control is a significant regulator of the germ cell proteome during neonatal testis development. PMID:23926285

  17. Exposure to constant light during testis development increases daily sperm production in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rocha, D C; Debeljuk, L; França, L R

    1999-06-01

    Testis histometry and daily sperm production (DSP) were evaluated in adult (160-day-old) Wistar rats exposed to constant light for the first 25 days after birth, and compared with control animals which were exposed to a 12 h-light-12 h-dark light regimen. Significantly greater (P < 0.05) numbers of Sertoli cell nucleoli and round spermatids per cross-section of seminiferous tubule were found in animals exposed to constant light. In addition, epididymis weight, DSP per testis and per gram of testis, as well as Leydig cell compartment volume, were significantly increased in treated animals. Although there was a clear trend toward an increased Sertoli cell population per testis in animals exposed to constant light, this difference was not statistically significant (P < 0.05). The number of round spermatids as expressed per Sertoli cell was the same in both groups. Surprisingly, the diameter and volume of round spermatid nucleus at stages I and VII of the cycle of seminiferous epithelium were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in treated animals. In conclusion, constant illumination during neonatal testis development increased sperm production and Leydig cell compartment volume in adult rats probably through a mechanism involving elevated follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone during the prepubertal period. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that altering the light regimen can affect sperm production in non-seasonal breeders. PMID:10481308

  18. Accessory cell function in the Con A response: role of Ia-positive and Ia-negative accessory cells.

    PubMed

    Bekoff, M; Kakiuchi, T; Grey, H M

    1985-03-01

    We have examined the role of Ia-positive and Ia-negative accessory cells (AC) and soluble factors in Con A-stimulated murine T cell activation. Supernatant fluids containing interleukin 1 (IL 1) derived from the P388D1 macrophage cell line and from a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage hybridoma provided only partial reconstitution of the response of purified T cells (18 to 27%). The complete reconstitution obtained with gamma-irradiated spleen cells or LPS-activated B cells was inhibited by approximately 60 to 77% when anti-Ia antibody was included in the culture. Despite this apparent involvement of Ia+ spleen AC, Ia-negative L cell AC could also reconstitute the response of both Class I-restricted Lyt-2+ T cells and Class II-restricted L3T4+ T cells. When the Ia-negative AC were employed, the L3T4 antigen on L3T4+ T cells played a critical role because addition of anti-L3T4 antibody to the culture inhibited the response by 85 to 90%. In contrast, anti-L3T4 did not inhibit the response in the presence of spleen AC. These results suggest that the molecules involved in T cell-AC interactions may vary depending on the AC source. Moreover, at least one of the putative target ligands for L3T4 presumably is not Ia, because anti-L3T4 inhibited T cell stimulation when Ia-negative AC were used. PMID:3881521

  19. Suprascapular nerve release for treatment of shoulder and periscapular pain following intracranial spinal accessory nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Flores, Leandro Pretto

    2008-11-01

    Iatrogenic injury to the spinal accessory nerve is one of the most common causes of trapezius muscle palsy. Dysfunction of this muscle can be a painful and disabling condition because scapular winging may impose traction on the soft tissues of the shoulder region, including the suprascapular nerve. There are few reports regarding therapeutic options for an intracranial injury of the accessory nerve. However, the surgical release of the suprascapular nerve at the level of the scapular notch is a promising alternative approach for treatment of shoulder pain in these cases. The author reports on 3 patients presenting with signs and symptoms of unilateral accessory nerve injury following resection of posterior fossa tumors. A posterior approach was used to release the suprascapular nerve at the level of the scapular notch, transecting the superior transverse scapular ligament. All patients experienced relief of their shoulder and scapular pain following the decompressive surgery. In 1 patient the primary dorsal branch of the C-2 nerve root was transferred to the extracranial segment of the accessory nerve, and in the other 2 patients a tendon transfer (the Eden-Lange procedure) was used. Results from this report show that surgical release of the suprascapular nerve is an effective treatment for shoulder and periscapular pain in patients who have sustained an unrepairable injury to the accessory nerve. PMID:18976092

  20. Cell membrane is a major locus for ultraviolet B-induced alterations in accessory cells.

    PubMed Central

    Krutmann, J; Khan, I U; Wallis, R S; Zhang, F; Rich, E A; Ellner, J J; Elmets, C A

    1990-01-01

    In vitro ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation of human blood monocytes inhibits their accessory cell function for antigen- and mitogen-induced T cell responses. These studies were designed to characterize the nature of the UVB-induced defect in human monocyte accessory cell function. Irradiated monocytes were deficient in their ability to serve as accessory cells for OKT3-induced T cell activation. In vitro exposure of monocytes to 100 J/m2 UVB completely inhibited the T cell proliferative response (51502 cpm, non-UVB-irradiated; 302 cpm, UVB-irradiated). Analysis of the accessory signals altered by UVB indicated that irradiated monocytes were incapable of binding to OKT3 molecules attached to the CD3 antigen on T cells. Provision of an alternative mechanism for binding of OKT3 molecules by attaching anti-mouse IgG to the bottom of microtiter wells completely restored accessory cell function. Further characterization of the defect demonstrated that UVB radiation did not deplete p72 Fc receptors from the surface of irradiated monocytes. However, UVB exposure did produce a dose-dependent decrease in monocyte membrane expression of ICAM-1. It is proposed that UVB radiation leads to changes within the cell membrane that inhibit the ability of monocytes to express selected molecules necessary for binding of T cells. Images PMID:1970582