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1

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Accessory Sex Gland and Testis from the Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis)  

PubMed Central

The accessory sex gland (ASG) is an important component of the male reproductive system, which functions to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa during male reproduction. Certain proteins secreted by the ASG are known to bind to the spermatozoa membrane and affect its function. The ASG gene expression profile in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been conducted on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for the ASG of E. sinensis using Illumina sequencing technology. This analysis yielded a total of 33,221,284 sequencing reads, including 2.6 Gb of total nucleotides. Reads were assembled into 85,913 contigs (average 218 bp), or 58,567 scaffold sequences (average 292 bp), that identified 37,955 unigenes (average 385 bp). We assembled all unigenes and compared them with the published testis transcriptome from E. sinensis. In order to identify which genes may be involved in ASG function, as it pertains to modification of spermatozoa, we compared the ASG and testis transcriptome of E. sinensis. Our analysis identified specific genes with both higher and lower tissue expression levels in the two tissues, and the functions of these genes were analyzed to elucidate their potential roles during maturation of spermatozoa. Availability of detailed transcriptome data from ASG and testis in E. sinensis can assist our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved with spermatozoa conservation, transport, maturation and capacitation and potentially acrosome activation. PMID:23342039

He, Lin; Jiang, Hui; Cao, Dandan; Liu, Lihua; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Qun

2013-01-01

2

Prolactin receptor expression in human testis and accessory tissues: localization and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies in animals have established prolactin (PRL) as a progonadal hormone that promotes the function of the testis and reproductive accessory glands. The present study investigated the localization of PRL receptor (PRL-R) expression in the human testis and accessory tissues. Expression of PRL-R was identified in human testis and vas deferens by RT-PCR, and further localized by immunohistochemistry to

W. M. Hair; O. Gubbay; H. N. Jabbour; G. A. Lincoln

2002-01-01

3

[Clinical features of accessory parotid gland tumors].  

PubMed

Accessory parotid gland tumors are relatively rare; hence, adequately detailed clinical analyses of these tumors are difficult to perform at a single institution. In this report, we describe the findings for 65 patients [29 men, 36 women; median age, 51 (9-81) years] with accessory parotid gland tumors, consisting of 4 cases documented by us and 61 cases previously reported by other Japanese authors. Approximately 50% of the patients were treated in an otolaryngology department, while the remaining patients were treated in plastic surgery, oral surgery, or dermatology departments. In 4 patients, the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated that the tumor was benign; however, the postoperative histopathology results revealed malignant tumors. The frequencies of malignant and benign tumors were 44.6% (n = 29) and 55.4% (n = 36), respectively. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma were the most frequent types of malignant and benign accessory parotid gland tumors, respectively. Among the various surgical methods that were used, such as direct cheek and intraoral incisions, a standard parotidectomy incision was the most preferred treatment approach for these tumors. Recently, an endoscopic approach has also been found to yield satisfactory results. An optimal approach should be selected after evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. No definite guidelines are available regarding the choice of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy for malignant accessory parotid gland tumors. Although tumor resection (plus elective neck dissection) and postoperative radiation therapy have been frequently performed for various kinds of malignant accessory parotid gland tumors to date, additional studies are needed regarding the criteria for selecting elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy. Since the malignancy rate for accessory parotid gland tumors is higher than that for parotid gland tumors, the possibility of malignancy (especially mucoepidermoid carcinoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma) should be considered when resecting accessory parotid gland tumors, even if the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicate that the tumor is benign. PMID:24558945

Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kei; Matsushita, Naoki; Okamoto, Sachimi; Teranishi, Yuichi; Koda, Yuki; Kosugi, Yuki; Yamane, Hideo

2013-12-01

4

Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products  

PubMed Central

To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner’s body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

2014-01-01

5

Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products.  

PubMed

To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner's body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

Zizzari, Z Valentina; Smolders, Irene; Koene, Joris M

2014-01-01

6

Accessory sex glands as a tool to measure the efficacy of immunocastration in male pigs.  

PubMed

The use of an anti-gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine for immunocastration of male pigs has been recently approved in the European Union. This technique is potentially useful for avoiding both castration-associated pain for the animal and boar taint in pork. However, some animals may escape immunocastration and be slaughtered as entire males, potentially exhibiting boar taint. Therefore, it is important to check the efficacy of immunocastration on the slaughter line. To achieve that, the currently proposed method, based on testis weight, is not fully reliable because there is some overlap in the distributions of testis weight between immunocastrates and entire males. On the basis of literature data on the effect of immunocastration on the development of accessory sex glands, this paper provides evidence that the weight of seminal vesicles might be a much better criterion for checking the efficacy of immunocastration, because their size decreases more rapidly, and to a greater extent, than that of the testis. PMID:22444264

Bonneau, M

2010-06-01

7

Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.  

PubMed

Regucalcin (RGN) is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle. PMID:25415588

Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Divari, Sara; Mulasso, Chiara; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca T

2014-01-01

8

Regucalcin Expression in Bovine Tissues and Its Regulation by Sex Steroid Hormones in Accessory Sex Glands  

PubMed Central

Regucalcin (RGN) is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle. PMID:25415588

Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Divari, Sara; Mulasso, Chiara; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca T.

2014-01-01

9

Proteomic identification of Drosophila melanogaster male accessory gland proteins, including a pro-cathepsin and a soluble ?-glutamyl transpeptidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

: BACKGROUND: In Drosophila melanogaster, the male seminal fluid contains proteins that are important for reproductive success. Many of these proteins are synthesised by the male accessory glands and are secreted into the accessory gland lumen, where they are stored until required. Previous studies on the identification of Drosophila accessory gland products have largely focused on characterisation of male-specific accessory

Michael J Walker; Caroline M Rylett; Jeff N Keen; Neil Audsley; Mohammed Sajid; Alan D Shirras; R Elwyn Isaac

2006-01-01

10

Morphology of the accessory reproductive glands of some male Indian chiropterans.  

PubMed

The accessory glands of seven species of male chiropterans are described. The unpaired prostate and paired Cowper's glands occur in all the species. The seminal vesicles are present only in Cynopterus and Taphozous. The ampullary glands occur in all the species except Cynopterus sphinx. The presence of solid rounded bodies is a characteristic feature of the seminal vesicles of Cynopterus sphinx. The urethral gland is present in all the species except Taphozous and Rhinopoma; utriculus prostaticus was not seen in any of the species investigated. The study reveals that the male accessory glands show great diversity and remarkable differences are seen even between closely related species. PMID:900515

Mokkapati, S; Dominic, C J

1977-01-01

11

Ecdysteroids in vitro promote differentiation in the accessory glands of male mealworm beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Physiological peak doses of 20-hydroxyecdysone were added to organ cultures of young pupal accessory glands of maleTenebrio molitor. During subsequent culture in vitro or in vivo, the glands accumulated adult-specific antigens. Control organ cultures showed no such antigen accumulation. In this system, ecdysteroid controls not only cell cycles but also differentiation.

K. A. Grimnes; G. M. Happ

1987-01-01

12

Trehalase from the bean-shaped accessory glands and the spermatophore of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

InTenebrio molitor, male adults transfer sperm to the female via a spermatophore or sperm sac. The spermatophore is formed from secretions of the bean-shaped accessory glands (BAGs) and the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of the male beetle. Trehalase is found in the adult BAGs. During the pupal stage, the activity in the BAGs was very low. After adult ecdysis, the

Toshinobu Yaginuma; George M. Happ

1988-01-01

13

Morphology of accessory genital glands of spotted paca (Agouti paca Linnaeus, 1766).  

PubMed

The spotted paca is the second largest rodent in Brazil, where it is of great economic interest in impoverished regions in view of its prominence as a low-cost source of protein. Little is known about the morphology of the accessory genital glands of this species. Thus, we studied the position and morphology of the genitals in ten adult male spotted pacas. The animals were divided into two groups, five animals were used for fixing of samples in 10% aqueous formaldehyde for macroscopic studies and the other five animals were designated for microscopic analysis. These were arranged in pairs and had the vesicular, prostate, coagulating and bulbourethral glands identified, being structured as mucous glands, which lead into the pelvic urethra. It was concluded that the accessory genital glands found in the paca are the same as those found in most rodents, showing similar histological aspects. PMID:24461579

Borges, Edson Moreira; Branco, Érika; de Lima, Ana Rita; Leal, Leonardo Martins; Martins, Leandro Luiz; Reis, Ana Carolina Gonçalves; Cruz, Claudinei; Machado, Márcia Rita Fernandes; Miglino, Maria Angelica

2014-02-01

14

Glycosaminoglycans in the accessory sex glands, testes and seminal plasma of alpaca and ram.  

PubMed

The viscous nature of alpaca semen limits its use in cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies. The cause and source of this viscosity is unknown although it has been postulated, but never proven, that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) secreted by the bulbourethral gland are responsible. The present study investigated the concentration and composition of GAGs in alpaca seminal plasma, testes, bulbourethral gland and prostate gland and compared them to those in the ram to determine the relationship between seminal plasma GAGs and viscosity and to identify the source of seminal plasma GAGs. Alpaca seminal plasma contained more GAGs than ram (P<0.001) and the predominant GAG, keratan sulfate, was correlated with viscosity (P=0.05, R(2)=0.2635). The alpaca bulbourethral gland contained most GAGs compared with prostate or testis (P<0.001). In the ram, the prostate contained most GAGs. These findings suggest that GAGs, particularly keratan sulfate, may be the cause of seminal plasma viscosity in alpacas, and that the seminal plasma GAGs originate from the bulbourethral gland. PMID:22281083

Kershaw-Young, Claire M; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

2012-01-01

15

EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems  

PubMed Central

Background Heliconius butterflies possess a remarkable diversity of phenotypes, physiologies, and behaviors that has long distinguished this genus as a focal taxon in ecological and evolutionary research. Recently Heliconius has also emerged as a model system for using genomic methods to investigate the causes and consequences of biological diversity. One notable aspect of Heliconius diversity is a dichotomy in mating systems which provides an unusual opportunity to investigate the relationship between sexual selection and the evolution of reproductive proteins. As a first step in pursuing this research, we report the generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the male accessory gland of H. erato and H. melpomene, species representative of the two mating systems present in the genus Heliconius. Results We successfully sequenced 933 ESTs clustering into 371 unigenes from H. erato and 1033 ESTs clustering into 340 unigenes from H. melpomene. Results from the two species were very similar. Approximately a third of the unigenes showed no significant BLAST similarity (E-value <10-5) to sequences in GenBank's non-redundant databases, indicating that a large proportion of novel genes are expressed in Heliconius male accessory glands. In both species only a third of accessory gland unigenes were also found among genes expressed in wing tissue. About 25% of unigenes from both species encoded secreted proteins. This includes three groups of highly abundant unigenes encoding repetitive proteins considered to be candidate seminal fluid proteins; proteins encoded by one of these groups were detected in H. erato spermatophores. Conclusion This collection of ESTs will serve as the foundation for the future identification and evolutionary analysis of male reproductive proteins in Heliconius butterflies. These data also represent a significant advance in the rapidly growing collection of genomic resources available in Heliconius butterflies. As such, they substantially enhance this taxon as a model system for investigating questions of ecological, phenotypic, and genomic diversity. PMID:19063743

Walters, James R; Harrison, Richard G

2008-01-01

16

Short adrenergic neurons and catecholamine-containing cells in vas deferens and accessory male genital glands of different mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The adrenergic innervation and catecholamine-containing cells in the internal accessory male genital organs of the guinea-pig, rat, rabbit, cat, dog and macaque has been studied with a fluorescence microscopic method for the cellular localization of catecholamines and 5-hydroxytryptamine.2.The vas deferens and most of the accessory genital glands have a very dense supply of adrenergic terminals, which is resistant to hypogastric

Christer Owman; Nils O. Sjöstrand

1965-01-01

17

Recently Evolved Genes Identified From Drosophila yakuba and D. erecta Accessory Gland Expressed Sequence Tags  

PubMed Central

The fraction of the genome associated with male reproduction in Drosophila may be unusually dynamic. For example, male reproduction-related genes show higher-than-average rates of protein divergence and gene expression evolution compared to most Drosophila genes. Drosophila male reproduction may also be enriched for novel genetic functions. Our earlier work, based on accessory gland protein genes (Acp's) in D. simulans and D. melanogaster, suggested that the melanogaster subgroup Acp's may be lost and/or gained on a relatively rapid timescale. Here we investigate this possibility more thoroughly through description of the accessory gland transcriptome in two melanogaster subgroup species, D. yakuba and D. erecta. A genomic analysis of previously unknown genes isolated from cDNA libraries of these species revealed several cases of genes present in one or both species, yet absent from ingroup and outgroup species. We found no evidence that these novel genes are attributable primarily to duplication and divergence, which suggests the possibility that Acp's or other genes coding for small proteins may originate from ancestrally noncoding DNA. PMID:16361246

Begun, David J.; Lindfors, Heather A.; Thompson, Melissa E.; Holloway, Alisha K.

2006-01-01

18

Synchronous ipsilateral carcinoma of the accessory mammary gland and primary lymphoma of the breast with subsequent rectal carcinoma: report of a case.  

PubMed

A case of synchronous carcinoma of the accessory mammary gland and primary breast lymphoma with subsequent rectal carcinoma has not been reported previously. We present a very rare case of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the left breast diagnosed simultaneously with invasive lobular carcinoma of the left axillary accessory mammary gland and rectal adenocarcinoma. An 82-year-old Japanese woman presented with two palpable masses on the left chest wall. She was given a diagnosis of suspected breast malignant tumor and axillary accessory mammary gland. She underwent excision of the axillary accessory mammary gland and left mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection. Histopathological examination revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the breast and invasive lobular carcinoma of the axillary accessory mammary gland with lymph nodes metastasis. Three months after the surgery, primary rectal adenocarcinoma was also detected by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Hartmann's operation was performed, since which time the patient has been doing well. PMID:25217973

Nishikawa, Akihiro; Kasai, Hide; Koyama, Yoshinori; Koide, Naohiko; Iijima, Akihiro; Shimojo, Hisashi; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi

2014-01-01

19

Angiotensin converting enzyme in the brain, testis, epididymis, pituitary gland and adrenal gland  

SciTech Connect

(/sup 3/H)Captopril binds to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in rat tissue homogenates. The pharmacology, regional distribution and copurification of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding with enzymatic activity demonstrate the selectivity of (/sup 3/H)captopril labeling of ACE. (/sup 3/H)Captopril binding to purified ACE reveals differences in cationic dependence and anionic regulation between substrate catalysis and inhibitor recognition. (/sup 3/H)Captopril association with ACE is entropically driven. The selectivity of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding permits autoradiographic localization of the ACE in the brain, male reproductive system, pituitary gland and adrenal gland. In the brain, ACE is visualized in a striatonigral neuronal pathway which develops between 1 and 7 d after birth. In the male reproductive system, (/sup 3/H)captopril associated silver grains are found over spermatid heads and in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in stages I-VIII and XII-XIV. In the pituitary gland, ACE is localized to the posterior lobe and patches of the anterior lobe. The adrenal medulla contains moderate ACE levels while low levels are found in the adrenal cortex. Adrenal medullary ACE is increased after hypophysectomy and after reserpine treatment. The general of ligand binding techniques for the study of enzymes is demonstrated by the specific labeling of another enzyme, enkephaline convertase, in crude tissue homogenates by the inhibitor (/sup 3/H)GEMSA.

Strittmatter, S.M.

1986-01-01

20

Evidence of Adaptive Evolution of Accessory Gland Proteins in Closely Related Species of the Drosophila repleta Group  

E-print Network

Evidence of Adaptive Evolution of Accessory Gland Proteins in Closely Related Species significant evidence of adaptive evolution for 10 of the tested genes. Among these, the ones with a conserved met by evidence that many Acp genes have patterns of nucleotide variation compatible with evolution

DeSalle, Rob

21

Chronic prostatitis and male accessory gland infection - is there an impact on male infertility (diagnosis and therapy)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The aim of this article was to discuss by means of a review of the literature and own study material the multifactorial aetiology of male infer- tility, extrapolate this hypothesis to male accessory gland infection (MAGI) and relate it to chronic prostatitis and its treatment. Infertility is a multifac- torial disease and diagnosis and therapy must be oriented as

K. Everaert; A. Mahmoud; C. Depuydt; M. Maeyaert; F. Comhaire

2003-01-01

22

Morphology and Ultrastructure of the Accessory Glands in the Female Genital Tract of the House Cricket, Acheta domesticus  

PubMed Central

The accessory glands in the genital tract of female Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) were investigated in detail. The glands are situated within the 7th and 8th abdominal segment and lead to the genital chamber lateral to the terminal papilla of the ductus receptaculi. The shape of the gland is characterized by a complex system of tubules, including numerous ramifications. The gland's size ranges from 2 to 4 mm. The epithelium is constructed according to a simple scheme and consists of a cuticular intima at the luminal side, one layer of gland cells, and a basallamina at the outermost side. The observed morphology of the accessory glands widely corresponds with that in other cricket species (e.g., Teleogryllus commodus). This is also true for the structure of a single gland cell, which can be subdivided into a basal part with nucleus and intracellular cisternae, as well as an apical part with all those compartments responsible for the production of the secretion. The secretion itself may be classified as lipophilic and is produced for the first time 4 to 6 days after the imaginai moult. Several endogenic functions of the secretion are discussed (lubricant for oviposition, support for introducing the tube of the spermatophore into the ductus receptaculi, etc.). PMID:23425229

Sturm, Robert

2012-01-01

23

Morphology and Histology of the Ductus Receptaculi and Accessory Glands in the Reproductive Tract of the Female Cricket, Teleogryllus commodus  

PubMed Central

The morphology and histology of the ductus receptaculi and accessory glands in females of the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus Walker (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) are described. Both are reproductive organs situated in the 7th and 8th abdominal segment that join the posterior part of the genital chamber. The ductus receptaculi is a long (up to 25 mm) homogeneous tube, and the accessory glands (total length: 4 to 12 mm) are a complex system of tubes and end lobes with various numbers of ramifications. Based on their external shapes the accessory glands may be subdivided into three distinct regions, a distal region mainly producing the gland's secretion, a middle conducting region, and a basal region serving for the storage and release of the secretory substances into the genital chamber of the female. In histological respects, both organs have an outer muscle coat followed by a basal lamina, one or two cell layers, the cuticular intima, and the inner lumen. The ductus receptaculi is subdivided into three histologically different regions. The region located adjacent to the receptaculum and the region neighbouring the terminal papilla consist of a single, epithelial cell layer that is not secretory. The epithelium of the middle region contains two cell layers, glandular cells and cuticula-forming cells, which are responsible for the production of the cuticular intima. The secretion of the gland cells is released into an extracellular cavity, through which it reaches the lumen via a complex network of canals running through the intima. The histology of the accessory glands is rather homogeneous among the different regions, as one layer of epithelial cells produces both the secretion and the cuticular intima. Histological variations in the distal, middle, and basal gland sections mainly concern the height of the epithelium, the thickness of the basal lamina and the cuticular intima as well as the variable presence of the outer muscle coat. In contrast to the ductus receptaculi, secretory substances produced by the accessory gland cells accumulate in the lumen by a diffusive permeation of the intima. PMID:20298118

Sturm, Robert

2008-01-01

24

Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.  

PubMed

Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands. PMID:25160003

Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

2014-10-01

25

Male accessory gland substances from Aedes albopictus affect the locomotor activity of Aedes aegypti females  

PubMed Central

Dengue is one of the world’s most important mosquito-borne diseases and is usually transmitted by one of two vector species: Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus . These two diurnal mosquitoes are frequently found coexisting in similar habitats, enabling interactions between adults, such as cross-mating. The objective of this study was to assess cross-mating between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males under artificial conditions and evaluate the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti virgin females injected with male accessory gland (MAG) homogenates to infer the physiological and behavioural responses to interspecific mating. After seven days of exposure, 3.3-16% of Ae. aegypti females mated with Ae. albopictus males. Virgin Ae. aegypti females injected with conspecific and heterospecific MAGs showed a general decrease in locomotor activity compared to controls and were refractory to mating with conspecific males. The reduction in diurnal locomotor activity induced by injections of conspecific or heterospecific MAGs is consistent with regulation of female reproductive activities by male substances, which are capable of sterilising female Ae. aegypti through satyrisation by Ae. albopictus . PMID:24473799

Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Codeço, Claudia Torres; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Lounibos, Leon Philip

2013-01-01

26

Diversity and Partitioning of Bacterial Populations within the Accessory Nidamental Gland of the Squid Euprymna scolopes  

PubMed Central

Microbial consortia confer important benefits to animal and plant hosts, and model associations are necessary to examine these types of host/microbe interactions. The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) is a female reproductive organ found among cephalopod mollusks that contains a consortium of bacteria, the exact function of which is unknown. To begin to understand the role of this organ, the bacterial consortium was characterized in the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, a well-studied model organism for symbiosis research. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the ANG revealed dense bacterial assemblages of rod- and coccus-shaped cells segregated by morphology into separate, epithelium-lined tubules. The host epithelium was morphologically heterogeneous, containing ciliated and nonciliated cells with various brush border thicknesses. Hemocytes of the host's innate immune system were also found in close proximity to the bacteria within the tubules. A census of 16S rRNA genes suggested that Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia bacteria were prevalent, with members of the genus Phaeobacter dominating the consortium. Analysis of 454-shotgun sequencing data confirmed the presence of members of these taxa and revealed members of a fourth, Flavobacteria of the Bacteroidetes phylum. 16S rRNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that many ANG tubules were dominated by members of specific taxa, namely, Rhodobacterales, Verrucomicrobia, or Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes, suggesting symbiont partitioning to specific host tubules. In addition, FISH revealed that bacteria, including Phaeobacter species from the ANG, are likely deposited into the jelly coat of freshly laid eggs. This report establishes the ANG of the invertebrate E. scolopes as a model to examine interactions between a bacterial consortium and its host. PMID:22504817

Collins, Andrew J.; LaBarre, Brenna A.; Wong Won, Brian S.; Shah, Monica V.; Heng, Steven; Choudhury, Momena H.; Haydar, Shahela A.; Santiago, Jose

2012-01-01

27

Is the rapid post-mating inhibition of pheromone response triggered by ecdysteroids or other factors from the sex accessory glands in the male moth Agrotis ipsilon?  

PubMed

In many animals, male copulation is dependent on the detection and processing of female-produced sex pheromones, which is generally followed by a sexual refractory post-ejaculatory interval (PEI). In the male moth, Agrotis ipsilon, this PEI is characterized by a transient post-mating inhibition of behavioral and central nervous responses to sex pheromone, which prevents males from re-mating until they have refilled their reproductive tracts for a potential new ejaculate. However, the timing and possible factors inducing this rapid olfactory switch-off are still unknown. Here, we determined the initial time delay and duration of the PEI. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that the brain, the testis and/or the sex accessory glands (SAGs) could produce a factor inducing the PEI. Lastly, we investigated the possible involvement of ecdysteroids, hormones essential for development and reproduction in insects, in this olfactory plasticity. Using brain and SAG cross-injections in virgin and newly-mated males, surgical treatments, wind tunnel behavioral experiments and EIA quantifications of ecdysteroids, we show that the PEI starts very shortly after the onset of copulation, and that SAGs contain a factor, which is produced/accumulated after copulation to induce the PEI. Moreover, SAGs were found to be the main source of ecdysteroids, whose concentration decreased after mating, whereas it increased in the haemolymph. 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) was identified as the major ecdysteroid in SAGs of A. ipsilon males. Finally, 20E injections did not reduce the behavioral pheromone response of virgin males. Altogether our data indicate that 20E is probably not involved in the PEI. PMID:23562716

Vitecek, Simon; Maria, Annick; Blais, Catherine; Duportets, Line; Gaertner, Cyril; Dufour, Marie-Cécile; Siaussat, David; Debernard, Stéphane; Gadenne, Christophe

2013-05-01

28

Trehalase from male accessory gland of an insect, Tenebrio molitor. cDNA sequencing and developmental profile of the gene expression.  

PubMed

A cDNA of alpha alpha-trehalase (EC 3.2.1.28) from a cDNA library of male bean-shaped accessory gland of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, has been isolated by the homology screening approach. Sequence analysis of the cDNA (1830 bp) revealed that the cDNA encoded a protein of 555 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 64457. The deduced amino acid sequence had significant similarities to rabbit small intestine and Escherichia coli trehalases. Northern blotting and semi-quantitative PCR analyses revealed that a trehalase transcript with about 2.0 kb was abundant in bean-shaped accessory glands. In the glands, the amount of trehalase transcript increased from 1 to 2 days after adult ecdysis. These tissue- and stage-specific gene expressions of trehalase corresponded to the tissue- and stage-specificity of trehalase activity. PMID:1445264

Takiguchi, M; Niimi, T; Su, Z H; Yaginuma, T

1992-11-15

29

[Isolation of rabies virus from brain, salivary and interscapular glands, heart, lungs and testis of the bat Desmodus rotundus, in the State of São Paulo (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Rabies virus was isolated from the brain, salivary and interscapular (brown fat) glands, heart, lungs and testis of naturally infected vampire bat Desmodus rotundus found paralyzed in the day at Barueri, São Paulo State. The rabies virus isolations were made by intracerebral inoculation in 4-5 days and 30 days old mice. The virus strain was identified as rabies virus by the Sellers and Faraco (Mann) techniques, the fluorescent antibody test and intracerebral inoculation of mice. The isolation of virus from lungs and testis was made only in suckling mice. Only one of eight and two of eight mice inoculated died with rabies. PMID:1236047

Nilsson, M R; Nagata, C A

1975-01-01

30

A Syringe-Like Love Dart Injects Male Accessory Gland Products in a Tropical Hermaphrodite  

PubMed Central

Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner’s hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner’s hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals. PMID:23894565

Koene, Joris M.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

2013-01-01

31

The B proteins secreted by the tubular accessory sex glands of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, have sequence similarity to moth pheromone-binding proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

B proteins represent one of the four major protein groups secreted by the tubular accessory glands of adult, male mealworm beetles. They are acidic proteins with an apparent molecular mass of 18.8 kDa. In this paper we present the deduced amino-acid sequences of two, almost identical B proteins, termed B1 and B2. The mature proteins are 118 amino acids long.

Guido C. Paesen; George M. Happ

1995-01-01

32

Trehalase in the spermatophore from the bean-shaped accessory gland of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor : purification, kinetic properties and localization of the enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trehalase from the bean-shaped accessory glands of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, was purified by acid treatment, with subsequent chromatography on columns of DEAE-cellulofine and Sephacryl S-300. The molecular masses of the native and the denatured forms were estimated to be 43 and 62 kDa by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE, respectively, an indication that the trehalase may be composed

T. Yaginuma; T. Mizuno; C. Mizuno; M. Ikeda; T. Wada; K. Hattori; O. Yamashita; G. M. Happ

1996-01-01

33

Comparative analysis of the male reproductive accessory glands of bat species from the five Brazilian Subfamilies of the family Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera).  

PubMed

This study aimed to morphologically characterize and compare the male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) of bats belonging to the five Brazilian subfamilies of the family Phyllostomidae (Carollia perspicillata-Carollinae; Desmodus rotundus-Desmodontinae; Glossophaga soricina-Glossophaginae; Phyllostomus discolor-Phyllostominae and Platyrrhinus lineatus-Stenodermatinae). The study demonstrated that the RAGs of phyllostomid bats were comprised of a pair of extra-abdominal bulbourethral glands and an intra-abdominal complex, composed of paraurethral glands and a prostate with two (Desmodontinae and Stenodermatinae) or three (Carollinae, Glossophaginae and Phyllostominae) different regions, with the absence of the seminal vesicles; this pattern possibly evolved from a process of compaction of the prostatic regions from an ancestor with three regions. J. Morphol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25471705

Martins, Fabiane F; Puga, Cintia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

2014-12-01

34

Hormonal Regulation of MicroRNA Expression in Steroid Producing Cells of the Ovary, Testis and Adrenal Gland  

PubMed Central

Background Given the emerging roles of miRNAs as potential posttranscriptional/posttranslational regulators of the steroidogenic process in adrenocortical and gonadal cells, we sought to determine miRNA profiles in rat adrenals from animals treated with vehicle, ACTH, 17?-E2 or dexamethasone. Key observations were also confirmed using hormone (Bt2cAMP)-treated mouse Leydig tumor cells, MLTC-1, and primary rat ovarian granulosa cells. Methodology RNA was extracted from rat adrenal glands and miRNA profiles were established using microarray and confirmed with qRT-PCR. The expression of some of the hormone-sensitive miRNAs was quantified in MLTC-1 and granulosa cells after stimulation with Bt2cAMP. Targets of hormonally altered miRNAs were explored by qRT-PCR and Western blotting in adrenals and granulosa cells. Results Adrenals from ACTH, 17?-E2 and dexamethasone treated rats exhibited miRNA profiles distinct from control animals. ACTH up-regulated the expression of miRNA-212, miRNA-182, miRNA-183, miRNA-132, and miRNA-96 and down-regulated the levels of miRNA-466b, miRNA-214, miRNA-503, and miRNA-27a. The levels of miR-212, miRNA-183, miRNA-182, miRNA-132, miRNA-370, miRNA-377, and miRNA-96 were up-regulated, whereas miR-125b, miRNA-200b, miR-122, miRNA-466b, miR-138, miRNA-214, miRNA-503 and miRNA27a were down-regulated in response to 17?-E2 treatment. Dexamethasone treatment decreased miRNA-200b, miR-122, miR-19a, miRNA-466b and miRNA27a levels, but increased miRNA-183 levels. Several adrenal miRNAs are subject to regulation by more than one hormone. Significant cAMP-induced changes in certain miRNAs were also noted in MLTC-1 and granulosa cells. Some of the hormone-induced miRNAs in steroidogenic cells were predicted to target proteins involved in lipid metabolism/steroidogenesis. We also obtained evidence that miR-132 and miRNA-214 inhibit the expression of SREBP-1c and LDLR, respectively. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that expression of a number of miRNAs in steroidogenic cells of the testis, ovary and adrenal glands is subject to hormonal regulation and that miRNAs and their regulation by specific hormones are likely to play a key role in posttranscriptional/posttranslational regulation of steroidogenesis. PMID:24205079

Hu, Zhigang; Shen, Wen-Jun; Cortez, Yuan; Tang, Xudong; Liu, Li-Fen; Kraemer, Fredric B.; Azhar, Salman

2013-01-01

35

Structure of a D-protein gene and amino-acid sequences of the highly repetitive D-proteins secreted by the accessory glands of the mealworm beetle.  

PubMed

The D-group proteins form the major component of the proteinaceous secretion of the tubular accessory glands of the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor. In a previous paper, we reported the sequence of two D-protein cDNAs and their inferred translation products. Both proteins contain three highly repetitive domains (A, A' and B). In this paper, we present the cDNA-inferred sequences of 8 more D-proteins, none of which contains an A' domain. We also present the structure of a D-protein gene. Southern analysis suggests that genes coding for an A' domain are relatively rare. Genes with a total of 7 or 8 (A + B domain) repeats seem most common. PMID:8620026

Paesen, G C; Feng, X; Happ, G M

1996-04-16

36

Synthesis, depletion and cell-type expression of a protein from the male accessory glands of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Aedes aegypti males transfer sperm and seminal fluid proteins (Sfps), primarily produced by male accessory glands (AGs), to females during mating. When collectively injected or transplanted into females, AG tissues and/or seminal fluid homogenates have profound effects on Aedes female physiology and behavior. To identify targets and design new strategies for vector control, it is important to understand the biology of the AGs. Thus, we examined characteristics of AG secretion and development in A. aegypti, using the AG-specific seminal fluid protein, AAEL010824, as a marker. We showed that AAEL010824 is first detectable by 12h post-eclosion, and increases in amount over the first 3 days of adult life. We then showed that the amount of AAEL0010824 in the AG decreases after mating, with each successive mating depleting it further; by 5 successive matings with no time for recovery, its levels are very low. AAEL010824 levels in a depleted male are replenished by 48 h post-mating. In addition to examining the level of AAEL010824 protein, we also characterized the expression of its gene. We did this by making a transgenic mosquito line that carries an Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) fused to the AAEL0010824 promoter that we defined here. We showed that AAEL010824 is expressed in the anterior cells of the accessory glands, and that its RNA levels also respond to mating. In addition to further characterizing AAEL010824 expression, our results with the EGFP fusion provide a promoter for driving AG expression. By providing this information on the biology of an important male reproductive tissue and the production of one of its seminal proteins, our results lay the foundation for future work aimed at identifying novel targets for mosquito population control. PMID:25107876

Alfonso-Parra, Catalina; Avila, Frank W; Deewatthanawong, Prasit; Sirot, Laura K; Wolfner, Mariana F; Harrington, Laura C

2014-11-01

37

Variation and Genomic Localization of Genes Encoding DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER Male Accessory Gland Proteins Separated by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

Accessory gland proteins from Drosophila melanogaster males have been separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into nine major bands. When individual males from 175 strains were examined, considerable polymorphism for nearly one-half of the major protein bands was seen, including null alleles for three bands. Variation was observed not only among long-established laboratory strains but also among stocks recently derived from natural populations. There was little difference in the amount of variation between P and M strains, indicating that P element mutagenesis is not a factor producing the variation. Codominant expression of variants for each of five bands was found in heterozygotes, suggesting structural gene variation and not posttranslational modification variation. Stocks carrying electrophoretic variants of four of the major proteins were used to map the presumed structural genes for these proteins; the loci were found to be dispersed on the second chromosome. Since males homozygous for variant proteins were fertile, the polymorphism seems to have little immediate effect on successful sperm transfer. We propose that a high degree of polymorphism can be tolerated because these proteins play a nutritive rather than enzymatic role in Drosophila reproduction. PMID:3095182

Whalen, Michael; Wilson, Thomas G.

1986-01-01

38

Effects of Pygidial Secretion (Zoopesticide) on Histopathological Changes in the Male Accessory Reproductive Glands of Adult Male Insect Odontopus varicornis in Relation to Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Indiscriminate use of pesticides for the eradication of pests causes tremendous changes to the environment and also to other nontarget organisms. To prevent such contamination of the environment and save nontarget species, zoopesticides are increasingly used as they are cost effective, eco-friendly, safe, and sustainable in the field of agriculture. The present study was undertaken to find out the effect of pygidial secretion (zoopesticide) on Odontopus varicornis. The insects were exposed to pygidial secretion for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours and its sublethal concentration was found to be about 2.8% for 48 hours. When the insects were injected with sublethal concentration 2.8% for 48 hours, the study revealed certain remarkable changes in the histopathology of the male accessory reproductive glands (MARGs) such as disintegration of epithelial cell wall, swollen nucleus, vacuolization of cytoplasm, highly pycnotic and necrotic epithelium, enlargement of epithelial cells, and disorganized tissues. It is suggested that zoopesticide causes several histopathological damages in the MARGs of O. varicornis and affects the reproductive potentiality of O. varicornis. PMID:21042469

Lousia, M.; Selvisabhanayakam; Mathivanan, V.

2010-01-01

39

Ablation of paternal accessory sex glands imparts physical and behavioural abnormalities to the progeny: an in vivo study in the golden hamster.  

PubMed

The functional significance of male accessory sex glands (ASG) remains unclear. This study explored their importance in reproduction. In previous investigations, embryos sired by males with ASG either totally or partially removed had a shift in the cell cycle and delayed cleavage during preimplantation development, higher incidence of apoptosis, early oviductal-uterine transit, higher proportion of embryo degeneration, lower implantation rate, and ultimately reduced fertility and fecundity. Some pups were born alive; but would they be normal? We hypothesized that the first generation offspring (F1) could also bear undesirable traits. To test our hypothesis, we raised and studied these F1 pups from birth to 8 weeks. We monitored physical growth and assessed behaviour such as nest patch odor preference, acoustic startle response (ASR) and exploratory activity. We detected deviations from the norm in physical growth, a premature cessation of nest patch odor preferences, accelerated acoustic startle habituation and more frequent rearing when exposed to a novel environment. In terms of structure, we found one incidence of diphallus with duplicated urethra. We concluded that sperm lacking contact with ASG secretions gave rise to progeny with abnormal traits. PMID:17597198

Wong, C L; Lee, K H; Lo, K M; Chan, O C; Goggins, W; O, W S; Chow, P H

2007-09-01

40

Contribution of the secretory material of caecilian (amphibia: Gymnophiona) male Mullerian gland to motility of sperm: a study in Uraeotyphlus narayani.  

PubMed

Caecilians are a unique group of limbless burrowing amphibians with discontinuous distribution. Several caecilian species are viviparous, and all practice internal fertilization. In amniotic vertebrates the sperm undergo post-testicular physiological maturation when they are initiated into motility under the influence of an epididymal secretion. Further, during ejaculation mammalian sperm are suspended in a fluid secreted by the male accessory sex glands, viz., prostate gland and seminal vesicles. Caecilians lack comparable glands, but still practice internal fertilization. Uniquely, male caecilians retain the Mullerian ducts in the adults as a pair of functional glands. It has long been hypothesized, based on indirect evidence, that the Mullerian gland would be a male accessory sex gland, secreting a fluid in which sperm are suspended during ejaculation and which would also provide nutritional support to the ejaculated sperm. In the present study, the secretory material of the Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani was mixed with sperm obtained from the testis, and the changes in motility were recorded. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm possess a perforatorium of the acrosome proceeding deep into the endonuclear canal of the nucleus. The midpiece is characterized by closely applied centrioles, the anterior ends of the axoneme and axial fiber, and a mitochondrial sheath. The long tail has an undulating membrane on one side, supported by the axoneme and an axial fiber. The live sperm possess a mitochondrial vesicle, also known as the cytoplasmic droplet, anywhere along the head and the midpiece, as in anuran sperm, which is shed from sperm that have ceased motility. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm are motile the moment they are released directly from the testis, indicating that the sperm do not require post-testicular physiological maturation. On being mixed with the secretory material of the Mullerian gland, the spermatozoa are enhanced in speed as well as duration of motility. Therefore, the caecilian male Mullerian gland is considered to be the male accessory sex gland. PMID:15605393

George, Jancy M; Smita, Mathew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

2005-02-01

41

Sexual behavior attenuates the effects of chronic stress in body weight, testes, sexual accessory glands, and plasma testosterone in male rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether continuous sexual behavior could attenuate the effects of chronic stress on spermatogenesis, sexual glands, plasma testosterone and corticosterone in sexually experienced male rats. Rats were exposed to stress by immersion in cold water (ICW) daily for 20 or 50 consecutive days. Plasma testosterone and corticosterone, masculine sexual behavior, as well as the number of offspring, the epithelial area of seminiferous, prostatic and seminal glands were assessed. In stressed males, body and testicular weights decreased, male sexual behavior was disrupted, and adrenal weights increased. In males stressed for 50 days, prostate and seminal glands had lower weights compared with controls. Prostate and seminal epithelial areas also decreased in these males. Seminiferous tubules in testes from rats stressed for 20 or 50 days showed several degenerative signs, such as vacuoles in the basal epithelium, with picnotic indicia; moderate to severe exfoliation of degenerative germinal cells in the tubule lumen was also observed. In males stressed for 50 days a significant decrease in seminiferous epithelial area was observed from stages I-VIII, regardless of copulation. The litters from females that copulated with males stressed for 50 days decreased significantly. Chronic stress caused increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, which were higher in males stressed for 20 days than in males stressed for 50 days. Testosterone decreased in stressed males and it was lower in males stressed for 50 days. In stressed males allowed to copulate, body and testicular weights were similar to controls. Adrenal, seminal glands, and prostate weights, as well as epithelial areas of males stressed for 50 days allowed to copulate were also similar to controls. Corticosterone was lower than in males stressed for 50 days, but still higher than in controls. Testosterone in males stressed for 50 days and allowed to copulate was higher than in stressed males not allowed to copulate and control males without copulation, but still lower than in control copulating males. These results show that chronic stress causes germ cell loss in testes and a decrease in prostate and seminal epithelium, possibly as a result of testosterone decrease, affecting fertility. Continuous copulation can attenuate the effects of stress on testosterone levels and on the epithelial area in male sexual glands, but not on the seminiferous epithelium after 50 days of stress. PMID:25236886

Retana-Márquez, S; Vigueras-Villaseñor, R M; Juárez-Rojas, L; Aragón-Martínez, A; Torres, G Reyes

2014-11-01

42

Maldescendus testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maldescendus testis is a common congenital abnormality occurring in 2–5% of full-term boys at birth in the Western countries. By 3 months of age, the incidence rate spontaneously reduces to 1–2% in this group. The etiology of the disorder is not known, but normal hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is usually a prerequisite for normal descent of the testes. Abnormal sexual differentiation is

Jorma Toppari; Marko Kaleva

1999-01-01

43

Functional differentiation of Leydig cells in the testis of the fetal monkey (Macaca fascicularis)  

E-print Network

Functional differentiation of Leydig cells in the testis of the fetal monkey (Macaca fascicularis and accessories. We have only fragmentary data on fetal plasma testo- sterone levels in monkey from 60 days (Resko

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

Maldescendus testis.  

PubMed

Maldescendus testis is a common congenital abnormality occurring in 2-5% of full-term boys at birth in the Western countries. By 3 months of age, the incidence rate spontaneously reduces to 1-2% in this group. The etiology of the disorder is not known, but normal hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is usually a prerequisite for normal descent of the testes. Abnormal sexual differentiation is associated with maldescent. However, the majority of boys with maldescended testes show no endocrine abnormalities after birth. Several defects in developmental genes, such as homeobox genes and Insl3, have been described to cause cryptorchidism in mice, and disturbances in the regulation of these genes or their mutations may explain etiology of a large part of human testicular maldescent in the future. Increased degeneration of germ cells can be observed in undescended testes after the first year, and therefore early treatment is recommended. Surgical treatment is the most effective and reliable method to bring testes into the scrotum, but hormone treatment with either hCG or GnRH analogues can be considered, particularly in cases where testes can be palpated in high scrotal position. The efficacy of hormone treatment is less than 20% and depends on the initial location of the testis. Nonpalpable testes rarely descend with hormone treatment. Both surgery and hormone treatment can have untoward effects. Treatment with hCG has been associated with an inflammation-like reaction in the testes and an increased rate of apoptosis of germ cells leading to a reduced adult size of the testes. Vascular complications can occur during surgery, particularly in staged orchidopexies. Men with a history of undescended testis have an increased risk of testicular cancer. Impaired fertility is another long-term risk associated to maldescended testes. Fertility potential may be improved by early treatment. Although our knowledge on cryptorchidism has increased considerably during the last decades, many questions remain to be answered: Is the incidence rate increasing? What is causing maldescent? Do hormones have any role in the treatment? PMID:10640886

Toppari, J; Kaleva, M

1999-12-01

45

Proteins of the Drosophila melanogaster male reproductive system: Two-dimensional gel patterns of proteins synthesized in the XO, XY, and XYY testis and paragonial gland and evidence that the Y chromosome does not code for structural sperm proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testes and paragonial glands of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type males were labeled in vitro using [35S]methionine, and the proteins synthesized were analyzed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Testes and paragonial glands were also labeled in vivo by feeding male larvae 35S-labeled yeast and then dissecting the adult males. Approximately 1200 proteins were resolved by autoradiography of the gels. The in vitro method

Jane Ingman-Baker; E. Peter M. Candido

1980-01-01

46

The painful accessory navicular.  

PubMed

The accessory navicular is usually considered a normal anatomic and roentgenographic variant. The term may refer to two distinct patterns. First, a sesamoid bone may be present within the posterior tibial tendon (Type 1); this is anatomically separate from the navicular. Second, an accessory ossification center may be medial to the navicular (Type 2). During postnatal development this is within a cartilaginous mass that is continuous with the cartilage of the navicular. At skeletal maturity the accessory center usually fuses with the navicular to form a curvilinear bone. The Type 2 pattern may be associated with a painful foot, particularly in the athletic adolescent, and should not be arbitrarily dismissed as a roentgenologic variant in the symptomatic patient. The clinical, radiologic, pathologic, and surgical findings in ten cases are reviewed. Roentgenographically the ossicle is triangular or heart-shaped. 99mTc MDP imaging may be of value when the significance of the ossicle is uncertain. Even when the roentgenographic variant is bilateral, increased radionuclide activity occurs only on the symptomatic side. Histologic examination of surgically excised specimens reveals inflammatory chondro-osseous changes in the navicular-accessory navicular synchondrosis compatible with chronic trauma and stress fracture. Nonsurgical treatment with orthotics or cast immobilization produces variable results and resection of the accessory navicular may be the treatment of choice. PMID:6239377

Lawson, J P; Ogden, J A; Sella, E; Barwick, K W

1984-01-01

47

Effects of maternal exposure to di-isononylphthalate (DINP) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) on steroidogenesis in the fetal rat testis and adrenal gland.  

PubMed

Exposure to antiandrogens during the critical developmental window (i.e. sexual differentiation) can permanently demasculinize the male phenotype. Here we have investigated the effects of developmental exposure to di-isononylphthalate (DINP) (250 and 750 mg/kg) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) (50 and 100mg/kg) on 19.5-day-old fetal Sprague-Dawley rat testicular and adrenal steroidogenesis. Maternal exposure to DINP or p,p'-DDE on embryonic days (EDs) 13.5-17.5 did not down-regulate the activity of steroidogenesis in ED 19.5 male rat fetus. Protein expression levels of testicular and adrenal StAR, P450scc, 3beta-HSD and androgen receptor (AR) did not show any changes. However, p,p'-DDE caused clear abnormalities in the ultrastructure of steroidogenic cells in ED 19.5 rat testis and adrenal. These structural alterations can disturb the development and function of fetal testis and adrenal that may become evident later in life. PMID:19490997

Adamsson, A; Salonen, V; Paranko, J; Toppari, J

2009-07-01

48

Testis tumor associated to microlithiasis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the relationship between testicular microlithiasis and testis tumors in children and to consider the chances of testis preserving surgery in specific cases. CASE DESCRIPTION: Pre-adolescent presenting testicular microlithiasis and a larger left testis, corresponding to a cystic testicular tumor. The tumor was excised, with ipsilateral testis preservation. Histology diagnosed a testis dermoid tumor. COMMENTS: The relationship between testis tumors and testicular microlithiasis is ill defined in children. Pediatric urologists need to develop specific follow-up protocols for pre-pubertal children. PMID:24473964

de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Maciel, Felipe; Monnerat, Andrea Lima C.; Fernandes, Marcia Antunes; Dekermache, Samuel

2013-01-01

49

The human rete testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human rete testis was examined with regard to 1) the number and distribution of entrances of seminiferous tubules, 2) the light microscopic topography and 3) details of the passages as revealed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In a newborn 1474 entrances were counted, approximately 50 % entering from the right and 50 % from the left of the

E. C. Roosen-Runge; A. F. Holstein

1978-01-01

50

Autonomously functioning nodule arising from accessory mediastinal thyroid tissue  

PubMed Central

Functional imaging using radionuclide Tc99m pertechnetate is routinely used in the evaluation of the problems related to the thyroid gland. Scintiscan has been useful in the visualization of thyroid tissue in ectopic sites due to congenital developmental anomalies. Similarly, the scan helps in establishing the diagnosis of autonomously functioning nodule when the nodule being evaluated appears “hot” with suppression of rest of the gland activity. Here, we present a very rare case of autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma in an ectopic focus of accessory thyroid tissue in the mediastinum. PMID:23326068

Kumaresan, Karuppiah; Rao, N Sudhakar; Mohan, A Ram; Rao, M Sudhakar

2011-01-01

51

Fine structure of the salivary glands of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine structure of the salivary glands of adult Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) bugs has been analyzed. Stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that each insect presents a pair of salivary glands, each pair containing three distinct units (main, supplementary, and accessory) with different sizes and colors. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that all gland units consist of a monolayer of

Marcos M Reis; Rosane M. S Meirelles; Maurilio J Soares

2003-01-01

52

Vasectomy-behind testis.  

PubMed

The findings in a series of 100 scrotal dissections seem to indicate that the conventional method of vasectomy may be partly responsible for the persistent failures of vaso-vasostomy. It is suggested that the selection of a different site for vasectomy is necessary in order to minimize the percentage of failures attending the operation of vaso-vasostomy for refertility. Anatomically, vasectomy performed above the level of the upper pole of the testis carries some disadvantages. There is a greater possibility of damaging the vessels. Defining the ends of vas in relatively loose tissue calls for a wider dissection and possibly may prove more damaging when done for the subsequent operation of anastomosis. Thus, the blood supply to both the testis and vas may be jeopardized. The resultant scar tissue is also significantly large. When the vas is exposed at the back of the upper 1/3 of the testis, the testicular artery has already divided into branches and left the vas. The venous plexus is yet to form a veil for it. The vas is comparatively better anchored in the surrounding areolar tissue. Since in most of the cases the vas is not coiled in this region, no difficulty should be encountered, and the difficulty of anastomozing the ends of the coiled portion of the vas deferens is generally accepted when the patients comes for an anastomotic operation at a later date. Also the scar tissue will be less. It is recommended that the method be used on a larger scale. PMID:12254773

Shahade, M G; Shah, V C; Boradkar, R V

1965-01-01

53

Electroporation of the Testis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mature mammalian testis is a marvelous organ that produces numerous sperm cells during its reproductive phase. This biologically significant process consists of three steps: stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, meiosis and genetic recombination, and haploid cell morphogenesis into sperm (Russell et al., 1990). The first step provides a good model for investigating the molecular mechanism of stem cell regulation. Currently, the mechanism underlying sperm cell production is a very exciting topic in regenerative medicine (Lensch et al. 2007; Okita et al., 2007). The spermatogonial stem cell system has several advantages, including the easy histological identification of stem cells (Russell et al., 1990), a clear relationship between stem cells and the supporting Sertoli cells, which provide a stem cell niche (Tadokoro et al., 2002; Yomogida et al., 2003), and a transplantation assay for stem cell activity (Oatley & Brinster, 2006). Although germline stem (GS) cells derived from the gonocytes in newborn testis constitute a suitable in vitro system for investigating the properties of spermatogonial stem cells (Kanatsu-Shinohara et al., 2003, 2004), studies using living mammalian testes continue to provide information regarding the roles of the stem cell niche. In vivo electroporation of the supporting cells in the testis will expand our ability to study it.

Yomogida, Kentaro

54

Split gland  

DOEpatents

A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

Petranto, J.J.

1989-09-05

55

List of Publications Leonardo Testi  

E-print Network

., Felli M., Gilmore G., Guglielmo F., Habing H., Price S., Robin A., de Batz B., Cesarsky C., Elbaz D [A15] Marconi A., Testi L., Natta A., Walmsley C.M., 1998, ``Near infrared spectra of the Orion Bar&A, 342, 515 [A24] Vicini B., Natta A., Marconi A., Testi L., Hollenbach D., Draine B.T., 1999, ``A Near

Testi, Leonardo

56

14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...33.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting...

2013-01-01

57

14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.  

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...33.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting...

2014-01-01

58

14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...33.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting...

2010-01-01

59

14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...33.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting...

2012-01-01

60

14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...33.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting...

2011-01-01

61

Natural variation of the Y chromosome suppresses sex ratio distortion and modulates testis-specific gene expression in Drosophila simulans.  

PubMed

X-linked sex-ratio distorters that disrupt spermatogenesis can cause a deficiency in functional Y-bearing sperm and a female-biased sex ratio. Y-linked modifiers that restore a normal sex ratio might be abundant and favored when a X-linked distorter is present. Here we investigated natural variation of Y-linked suppressors of sex-ratio in the Winters systems and the ability of these chromosomes to modulate gene expression in Drosophila simulans. Seventy-eight Y chromosomes of worldwide origin were assayed for their resistance to the X-linked sex-ratio distorter gene Dox. Y chromosome diversity caused males to sire ?63% to ?98% female progeny. Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed hundreds of genes differentially expressed between isogenic males with sensitive (high sex ratio) and resistant (low sex ratio) Y chromosomes from the same population. Although the expression of about 75% of all testis-specific genes remained unchanged across Y chromosomes, a subset of post-meiotic genes was upregulated by resistant Y chromosomes. Conversely, a set of accessory gland-specific genes and mitochondrial genes were downregulated in males with resistant Y chromosomes. The D. simulans Y chromosome also modulated gene expression in XXY females in which the Y-linked protein-coding genes are not transcribed. The data suggest that the Y chromosome might exert its regulatory functions through epigenetic mechanisms that do not require the expression of protein-coding genes. The gene network that modulates sex ratio distortion by the Y chromosome is poorly understood, other than that it might include interactions with mitochondria and enriched for genes expressed in post-meiotic stages of spermatogenesis. PMID:23591516

Branco, A T; Tao, Y; Hartl, D L; Lemos, B

2013-07-01

62

Pituitary gland  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... stimulates breast tissue in nursing mothers to produce milk ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) - causes the adrenal glands to ... less urine Oxytocin – initiates labor, uterine contractions and milk ejection in mothers

63

Endocrine glands  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it’s the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

64

Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

Micallef, Ken

2007-01-01

65

Pineal and Pituitary Glands  

MedlinePLUS

... after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Pineal and Pituitary Glands The pineal gland is a small endocrine gland ... of the corpus callosum, and secretes melatonin . The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain ...

66

Epithelioid hemangioma of the testis.  

PubMed

Testicular hemangioma is a very rare benign vascular neoplasm, there are only less than 30 cases of testicular hemangiomas reported in the literature. We report a case of epithelioid hemangioma of the testis in a 53-year-old man who presented with painless mass in the right testis. An orchiectomy was performed, The 1 cm tumor was composed of prominent proliferation of small, capillary-sized vessels lined by plump, epithelioid endothelial cells. Immunohistochemically, the epithelioid endothelial cells reacted with antibodies to factor VIII-related antigen, CD31, CD34 and Vimentin, but not CK, EMA, CEA, S-100 and CD68. Although it is a rare tumor, we should be aware of it and avoid confusion with other vascular neoplasm. PMID:24441238

Liu, Xibo; Wang, Ruifen; Guan, Wenbin; Wang, Lifeng

2013-01-01

67

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2013-04-01

68

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2014-04-01

69

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2011-04-01

70

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2010-04-01

71

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2012-04-01

72

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

73

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

74

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

75

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

76

Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies  

SciTech Connect

This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power. Two studies were conducted at ORNL. One was to put an additional winding in the motor slots to magnetically link with the high frequency of the controllable zero-sequence stator currents that do not produce any zero-sequence harmonic torques. The second approach was to utilize the corners of the square stator punching for the high-frequency transformers of the dc/dc inverter. Both approaches were successful. This CRADA validated the feasibility of GM’s desire to use the motor’s magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply. Three joint U.S. patents with GM were issued to ORNL and GM by the U.S. Patent Office for the research results produced by this CRADA.

Marlino, L.D.

2010-06-15

77

21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876... Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a...

2010-04-01

78

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2011-04-01

79

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2014-04-01

80

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2012-04-01

81

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2010-04-01

82

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2013-04-01

83

Myoepithelioma of a minor salivary gland of the cheek: case report  

PubMed Central

Summary Myoepithelioma is a rare neoplasm of the salivary glands, generally occurring in the parotid gland and less often in the minor accessory salivary gland of the oral cavity. The histological appearance includes solid, myxoid and reticular growth patterns. Vimentin and S-100 protein are very sensitive but non-specific immunohistochemical markers of neoplastic myoepithelium. Conservative surgery is the treatment of choice. A case of myoepithelioma of the minor salivary gland of the cheek with low grade malignancy is described, focusing on clinical behaviour, histopathological and immunohistochemical features and differential diagnosis. PMID:18383757

Ferri, E; Pavon, I; Armato, E; Cavaleri, S; Capuzzo, P; Ianniello, F

2006-01-01

84

Thymus Gland Anatomy  

MedlinePLUS

... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Thymus Gland Anatomy Adult View/Download: Small: 720x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Thymus Gland Anatomy Adult Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; illustration ...

85

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

86

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

87

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

88

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

89

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

90

Primary cilia in the developing pig testis.  

PubMed

In vertebrates, a variety of cell types generate a primary cilium. Cilia are implicated in determination and differentiation of a wide variety of organs and during embryonic development. However, there is little information on the presence or function of primary cilia in the mammalian testis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize expression of primary cilia in the developing pig testis. Testicular tissue from pigs at 2-10 weeks of age was analyzed for primary cilia by immunocytochemistry. Expression of primary cilia was also analyzed in testicular tissue formed de novo from a single cell suspension ectopically grafted into a mouse host. Functionality of primary cilia was monitored based on cilia elongation after exposure to lithium. Analysis showed that the primary cilium is present in testis cords as well as in the interstitium of the developing pig testis. Germ cells did not express primary cilia. However, we identified Sertoli cells as one of the somatic cell types that produce a primary cilium within the developing testis. Primary cilium expression was reduced from the second to the third week of pig testis development in situ and during de novo morphogenesis of testis tissue from a single cell suspension after xenotransplantation. In vitro, primary cilia were elongated in response to lithium treatment. These results indicate that primary cilia on Sertoli cells may function during testicular development. De novo morphogenesis of testis tissue from single cell suspensions may provide an accessible platform to study and manipulate expression and function of primary cilia. PMID:25107611

Ou, Young; Dores, Camila; Rodriguez-Sosa, Jose-Rafael; van der Hoorn, Frans A; Dobrinski, Ina

2014-11-01

91

HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE TESTIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This book, the first to describe how the testis is evaluated in research and toxicology testing settings, is a resource for individuals who wish to perform a systematic evaluation of the testis. he book contains 728 illustrations and drawings. The book begins with a description o...

92

Fine structure of the salivary glands of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).  

PubMed

The fine structure of the salivary glands of adult Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) bugs has been analyzed. Stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that each insect presents a pair of salivary glands, each pair containing three distinct units (main, supplementary, and accessory) with different sizes and colors. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that all gland units consist of a monolayer of epithelial cells surrounding a large central lumen. The gland units are enveloped by a thick basal lamina containing bundles of muscle cells. Microvilli are present at the apical plasma membrane domain of the gland cells, thus enlarging the available membrane area for saliva secretion towards the large gland lumen, although occasionally budding vesicles could be observed among the microvilli. Cytochemical analysis showed that the salivary gland cells of T. infestans present abundant endoplasmic reticulum profiles and several lipid droplets. PMID:14517105

Reis, Marcos M; Meirelles, Rosane M S; Soares, Maurilio J

2003-10-01

93

The rete testis of birds.  

PubMed Central

The rete testis in the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus), Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris galeata) and drake (Anas platyrhynchos) was studied histologically and with both the scanning and transmission electron microscopes. All the birds have rete epithelial cells varying between squamous and high cuboidal. A cilium-like structure projects from the luminal portion of most cells into the rete lumen, and the outline of the cells varies from polygonal to elongate. Sparse, stubby microvilli were concentrated on the cell borders. Ultrastructural features suggest only moderate secretory and absorptive activities in the cells. The rete testis of birds is amply supplied with blood as well as lymphatic vessels and nerves. Intraepithelial lymphocytes form part of the rete epithelium, and macrophages are present in large numbers in the rete lumen of the domestic fowl and drake and, to a lesser degree, also in the rete epithelium of the drake. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 PMID:7130060

Aire, T A

1982-01-01

94

The Number of Grafted Fragments Affects the Outcome of Testis Tissue Xenografting from Piglets into Recipient Mice  

PubMed Central

To optimize the procedure for testis tissue xenografting, we grafted 2, 4, 8, or 16 small fragments of immature porcine testis tissue under the back skin of immunodeficient castrated mice (n = 10 mice/group). At 8 months post grafting, the graft recovery rate did not differ between groups; however, not only the total but also the average graft weights were higher (by ?12-fold and ?2.5-fold, resp.) in mice receiving 16 fragments than those receiving 2 fragments (P < .05). The recipient mice with 16 fragments had the largest vesicular glands (indicators of testosterone release by the grafts) compared with those with 2 fragments (P = .007). The grafts in the group of 16 fragments also had more (P < .05) percentage of tubules with round spermatids than those of the group of mice receiving 2 fragments. Therefore, recipient mice can be grafted with at least 16 testis tissue fragments for optimal results. PMID:20814434

Abbasi, Sepideh; Honaramooz, Ali

2011-01-01

95

Characterization of ocular gland morphology and tear composition of pinnipeds  

PubMed Central

Objective The importance of tear film integrity to ocular health in terrestrial mammals is well established, however, in marine mammals, the role of the tear film in protection of the ocular surface is not known. In an effort to better understand the function of tears in maintaining health of the marine mammal eye surface, we examined ocular glands of the California sea lion, and began to characterize the biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds. Procedures Glands dissected from California sea lion eyelids and adnexa were examined for gross morphology, sectioned for microscopic analysis, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The tear film was examined using interferometry. Tears were collected from humans and pinnipeds for analysis of protein and carbohydrate content. Results The sea lion has sebaceous glands in the lid, but these glands are different in size and orientation compared to typical meibomian glands of terrestrial mammals. Two other accessory ocular glands located dorsotemporally and medially appeared to be identical in morphology, with tubulo-acinar morphology. An outer lipid layer on the ocular surface of the sea lion was not detected using interferometry, consistent with the absence of typical meibomian glands. Similar to human tears, the tears of pinnipeds contain several proteins but the ratio of carbohydrate to protein was greater than that in human tears. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the ocular gland architecture and biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds have evolved to adapt to the challenges of an aquatic environment. PMID:23067374

Davis, Robin Kelleher; Doane, Marshall G.; Knop, Erich; Knop, Nadja; Dubielzig, Richard R.; Colitz, Carmen M. H.; Argüeso, Pablo; Sullivan, David A.

2012-01-01

96

Genes promoting and disturbing testis development.  

PubMed

Mammals have an XX/XY sex chromosomal sex determination system in which males represent the heterogametic sex. The Y-linked gene, SRY, determines sex by inducing the undifferentiated, bipotential gonads to differentiate as testes, which produce androgens and promote in this way the development of a male phenotype. Thus, in mammals, sex determination can be equated to testis determination, which involves several important cell processes, including Sertoli cell differentiation, mesonephric cell migration, testis cord formation, testis-specific vascularization, and myoid and Leydig cell differentiation. Many genes are currently known to be involved in testis development. Some of them, including SF1, WT1, GATA4 and FOG2, are necessary for the formation of the bipotential, undifferentiated gonad but also have important roles in testis differentiation. Others can be considered testis-promoting, differentaition and/or maintenance genes: these include SRY, SOX9, FGF9, PTGDS, SOX8, SOX3, NR0B1, PDGFRa, DMRT1, AMH, NGF, NTF3 and NGFR as the most important examples. Finally, there is a smaller group of genes which are involved in ovarian development and which can cause aberrant testis development if mutated, including RSPO1, WNT4, CTNNB1, FST, BMP2 and FOXL2. In this paper, we review our current knowledge on the function, spatio-temporal expression pattern and mutant sexual phenotypes associated with these genes, and discuss the various roles they play in gonad development. PMID:23018237

Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Burgos, Miguel; Scherer, Gerd; Jiménez, Rafael

2012-11-01

97

[Aging of the human testis].  

PubMed

The morphological and histological changes related to testicular aging are: volume decrease, arteriolar sclerosis, degeneration of Leydig cells and Sertoli, depletion of germ cells and thickening of the tunica albuginea testis. The participation in testicular androgen decline in aging is related to the decrease in the number of Leydig cells associated with alterations in the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis Sperm volume, concentration and total number, motility and morphology of sperm decrease with aging male. The interindividual variability of sperm parameters, the variability of methodologies for data collection and selection of patients must be careful in interpreting the published results. Overall, the quality of sperm decreases progressively with age, without any age limit that can be individualized. Alterations of spermatogenesis do not seem significantly compromising fertility in the elderly. The clinical impact of testicular aging implies androgen production decrease and diseases associated with aging. PMID:24439534

Sibert, Louis; Lacarrière, Emeric; Safsaf, Athmane; Rives, Nathalie

2014-02-01

98

Effect of long-term testosterone propionate or human chorionic gonadotrophin administration on reproductive glands in adult male rabbits.  

PubMed

The study was aimed to investigate the effect of testosterone propionate (TP) or human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) treatment on reproductive glands in sexually mature male rabbits. A total 36 adult male rabbits were randomly distributed to six equal groups. The first control group (CON), the second treated with low-dose TP (TPL), the third treated with high-dose TP (TPH), the fourth treated with low-dose hCG (CGL), the fifth treated with medium-dose hCG (CGM) and sixth treated with high-dose hCG (CGH). At the 16th post-treatment week, the animals were sacrificed, and the testes and accessory sex glands dissected, weighted and stored at -20 °C until assay. Testosterone propionate treatment in both doses resulted in reduction (P < 0.01) in testicular weight and increase (P < 0.01) in weight of vesicular gland, paraprostate and proprostate glands. High-dose TP increased the weight of prostate and bulbouretheral gland (BUG). Testosterone propionate increased total androgen (P < 0.01) with Testosterone (T) predominating in serum, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) predominating in testes and most accessory sex glands. High dose of hCG increased the weight of proprostate and paraprostate glands. Androgen level in serum, testes and accessory sex glands increased (P < 0.01) after hCG treatment. PMID:24811403

Abdel-Raouf, M; Hussein, H A

2014-05-01

99

14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2010-01-01

100

14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2013-01-01

101

14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...27.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2011-01-01

102

14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...27.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2014-01-01

103

14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2011-01-01

104

14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2012-01-01

105

14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2014-01-01

106

14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...27.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2010-01-01

107

14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...27.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2012-01-01

108

14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...27.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2013-01-01

109

Vanishing Testis Syndrome: Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Vanishing testis syndrome or Testicular regression syndrome (TRS) is defined as the absence or an incomplete development of the testis of varying degrees in 46XY patients with normal external genitalia.TRS or vanishing testis syndrome may be seen in less than 5% of all patients of cryptorchidism. We report two cases of TRS who underwent surgical exploration with an initial diagnosis of cryptorchidism with impalpable testis. Grossly testicular tissue was not identified and the vas deferens was ending into a nubbin in both the cases. The presumed testicular remnants were sent for histological examination. The histological sections in both the cases showed vascularised fibrous nodule, structure of the spermatic cord and calcification, supporting the diagnosis of TRS. PMID:25302234

Dhandore, Priya; Hombalkar, Narendra Narayan; Gurav, Prakash Dattatray

2014-01-01

110

Steroids of Invertebrates: Production of Oestrogens by an Accessory Reproductive Tissue of the Slug Arion ater rufus (Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PREVIOUS communication1 described the endogenous production of 11-keto-testosterone, testosterone and 17a-hydroxyprogesterone during the in vitro incubation of the eggs of Arion ater. The present study concerns the in vitro production of C18 steroids from endogenous precursors by an accessory reproductive organ of this animal, the bursa copulatrix or spermatheca gland. The function of the spermatheca is believed to be

H. Gottfried; R. I. Dorfman; P. E. Wall

1967-01-01

111

Computed tomographic imaging characteristics of the normal canine lacrimal glands  

PubMed Central

Background The canine lacrimal gland (LG) and accessory lacrimal gland of the third eyelid (TEG) are responsible for production of the aqueous portion of the precorneal tear film. Immune-mediated, toxic, neoplastic, or infectious processes can affect the glands directly or can involve adjacent tissues, with secondary gland involvement. Disease affecting these glands can cause keratoconjunctivitis sicca, corneal ulcers, and loss of vision. Due to their location in the orbit, these small structures are difficult to evaluate and measure, making cross-sectional imaging an important diagnostic tool. The detailed cross-sectional imaging appearance of the LG and TEG in dogs using computed tomography (CT) has not been reported to date. Results Forty-two dogs were imaged, and the length, width, and height were measured and the volume calculated for the LGs & TEGs. The glands were best visualized in contrast-enhanced CT images. The mean volume of the LG was 0.14 cm3 and the TEG was 0.1 cm3. The mean height, width, and length of the LG were, 9.36 mm, 4.29 mm, and 9.35 mm, respectively; the corresponding values for the TEG was 2.02 mm, 9.34 mm, and 7.90 mm. LG and TEG volume were positively correlated with body weight (p?glands. PMID:24886364

2014-01-01

112

Selective constraint dominates the evolution of genes expressed in a novel reproductive gland.  

PubMed

One striking pattern in molecular evolution is that genes encoding proteins involved in reproduction tend to evolve rapidly. Seminal fluid proteins frequently exhibit this pattern and directly affect multiple reproductive processes including enhancing sperm performance and mediating postmating sexual selection. Here, we investigate molecular evolutionary patterns of genes expressed in the foam gland of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), a novel reproductive phenotype. Foam provides an interesting contrast to seminal fluid because it plays a similar functional role, yet is produced, stored, and transferred to females independent of semen. We combined RNA-Seq and comparative genomics to examine evolutionary rates of genes with enriched expression in the foam gland of Japanese quail and those that exhibit enriched expression in two other tissues (testis and liver) and with broadly expressed genes. Overall, we found pronounced heterogeneity in evolutionary rates. Foam gland genes evolved under strong evolutionary constraint, whereas testis genes evolved rapidly and sometimes adaptively. These striking differences were robust to variation in gene expression. Genes with enriched expression in the foam gland did not show major shifts in selective pressure after the quail and chicken lineages split; in contrast, testis-expressed genes experienced a burst of accelerated evolution specifically along the Coturnix lineage. Our work demonstrates that, as a class, genes expressed in the novel foam gland experience different selection regimes than genes expressed in many other tissues producing seminal fluid proteins. Our results also highlight the importance of selective constraint in shaping the evolution of male reproductive genes. PMID:25193339

Finseth, Findley R; Bondra, Eliana; Harrison, Richard G

2014-12-01

113

Lacrimal gland (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The lacrimal gland lies within the orbit on the outer portion of the upper eye. The gland continually secretes tears which moisten, lubricate, and protect the surface of the eye. Excess tears drain into small ducts which ...

114

Salivary gland infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Physiology of the salivary glands. In: Cummings CW, Flint PW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Otolaryngology: Head & ... disorders of the salivary glands. In: Cummings CW, Flint PW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Otolaryngology: Head & ...

115

Adrenal Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

116

[Sebaceous glands and acne].  

PubMed

New studys on the sebaceous glands in recent years have facilitated the further understanding and treatment of acne vulgaris. This article summarizes the advancements in the relationship between sebaceous glands and acne, with focus on androgen metabolism in skin, abnormal lipids secretion, and immunology of sebaceous gland cells. PMID:17536283

Ju, Qiang; Xia, Long-Qing

2007-04-01

117

Unilateral and bilateral cryptorchidism and its effect on the testicular morphology, histology, accessory sex organs, and sperm count in laboratory mice  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Experimental unilateral cryptorchidism (ULC) and bilateral cryptorchidism (BLC) are excellent methods to study undescended testis in relation to spermatogenesis against a temperature gradient. OBJECTIVES: In case of ULC, it is possible to compare the testicular functions between normal condition and cryptorchidism in the same animal, whereas BLC shows the necessity of testicular androgens for proper maintenance of reproductive structures and functions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, experimental ULC and BLC was done on same-aged adult mature male mice and kept for 15 days and 30 days, respectively, to observe the changes due to the induced cryptorchidism on the different reproductive organs, viz., the testis and accessory sex organs along with epididymal sperm count. Reproductive tissues were collected from individual animals and histopathological studies of testis were done to investigate different cytological changes. RESULTS: The size of the testes and accessory sex organs were found to be significantly reduced in BLC mice, whereas only testicular weight reduction was observed in ULC mice. Histopathological studies showed degenerative changes throughout the seminiferous tubules. CONCLUSION: Thus, the present investigation showed compensatory androgen production in ULC mice, whereas absence of androgen mediated reproductive functions in BLC animals. PMID:24082651

Dutta, Soumita; Joshi, Keshab Raj; Sengupta, Pallav; Bhattacharya, Koushik

2013-01-01

118

Rete testis adenomatous hyperplasia: our experience.  

PubMed

The word "adenomatous hyperplasia of rete testis" (AHRT) was used by M. Nistal et Al. for the first time in an article about the cystic dysplasia of the testis (1976). AHRT is a benign lesion of the testis. The patient who came to our attention was studied with a testicular echo color Doppler that identified a solid, well circumscribed and hypoechoic mass of 4.5 x3.8mm as diameter, localized in the upper third of the right testicle and with a perilesional vascularization pattern. The preoperative study was based on an accurate medical history, on an ultrasound with contrast and on a RMI. The treatment consisted in an echo guided excisional biopsy of the testicular lesion, considering this as the best approach for those testicular neoformation difficult to define, with a lot of benefits for the patients, especially for those monorchid. PMID:24311150

Martino, Giovanni; Pasta, Vittorio; Ciardi, Antonio; Palmieri, Andrea; Marinaccio, Lucia; Malavenda, Maria Stella; Monti, Massimo

2013-01-01

119

14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23.1437 Section 23.1437 ...UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes,...

2010-01-01

120

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2010-04-01

121

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2013-04-01

122

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2014-04-01

123

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2011-04-01

124

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2012-04-01

125

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

126

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

127

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

128

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

129

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

130

21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.  

...accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives, such as diamond chips, that are glued to shellac-based paper. The device is intended to remove excessive restorative materials,...

2014-04-01

131

Secretory and basal cells of the epithelium of the tubular glands in the male Mullerian gland of the caecilian Uraeotyphlus narayani (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).  

PubMed

Caecilians are exceptional among the vertebrates in that males retain the Mullerian duct as a functional glandular structure. The Mullerian gland on each side is formed from a large number of tubular glands connecting to a central duct, which either connects to the urogenital duct or opens directly into the cloaca. The Mullerian gland is believed to secrete a substance to be added to the sperm during ejaculation. Thus, the Mullerian gland could function as a male accessory reproductive gland. Recently, we described the male Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and histochemistry. The present TEM study reports that the secretory cells of both the tubular and basal portions of the tubular glands of the male Mullerian gland of this caecilian produce secretion granules in the same manner as do other glandular epithelial cells. The secretion granules are released in the form of structured granules into the lumen of the tubular glands, and such granules are traceable to the lumen of the central duct of the Mullerian gland. This is comparable to the situation prevailing in the epididymal epithelium of several reptiles. In the secretory cells of the basal portion of the tubular glands, mitochondria are intimately associated with fabrication of the secretion granules. The structural and functional organization of the epithelium of the basal portion of the tubular glands is complicated by the presence of basal cells. This study suggests the origin of the basal cells from peritubular tissue leukocytes. The study also indicates a role for the basal cells in acquiring secretion granules from the neighboring secretory cells and processing them into lipofuscin material in the context of regression of the Mullerian gland during the period of reproductive quiescence. In these respects the basal cells match those in the epithelial lining of the epididymis of amniotes. PMID:15487004

George, Jancy M; Smita, Matthew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

2004-12-01

132

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...23.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established for those drives from being exceeded;...

2012-01-01

133

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...23.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established for those drives from being exceeded;...

2011-01-01

134

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...23.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established for those drives from being exceeded;...

2010-01-01

135

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...23.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established for those drives from being exceeded;...

2013-01-01

136

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...23.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established for those drives from being exceeded;...

2014-01-01

137

Appendix D: Equipment ELECTROSTATIC PAPER AND ACCESSORIES  

E-print Network

D - 1 Appendix D: Equipment ELECTROSTATIC PAPER AND ACCESSORIES: To investigate electric fields with the electrostatic paper, you need to do the following: · Lay the electrostatic paper flat. . · Distribute the pieces. · You may wish to place a wooden block on top of the brass rods to increase contact pressure

Minnesota, University of

138

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2013-04-01

139

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2012-04-01

140

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2011-04-01

141

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2010-04-01

142

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2014-04-01

143

Free Radicals in Adolescent Varicocele Testis  

PubMed Central

We examine the relationship between the structure and function of the testis and the oxidative and nitrosative stress, determined by an excessive production of free radicals and/or decreased availability of antioxidant defenses, which occur in the testis of adolescents affected by varicocele. Moreover, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidative stress were provided. We conducted a PubMed and Medline search between 1980 and 2014 using “adolescent,” “varicocele,” “free radicals,” “oxidative and nitrosative stress,” “testis,” and “seminiferous tubules” as keywords. Cross-references were checked in each of the studies, and relevant articles were retrieved. We conclude that increased concentration of free radicals, generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in adolescent affected by varicocele, can harm germ cells directly or indirectly by influencing nonspermatogenic cells and basal lamina. With regard to few available data in current literature, further clinical trials on the pre- and postoperative ROS and RNS levels together with morphological studies of the cellular component of the testis are fundamental for complete comprehension of the role played by free radicals in the pathogenesis of adolescent varicocele and could justify its pharmacological treatment with antioxidants. PMID:25580183

Romeo, Carmelo; Santoro, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

144

Scanning of novel cancer/testis proteins by human testis proteomic analysis.  

PubMed

The testes are where spermatogenesis, the sperm-generating process that is unique to men, occurs. Importantly, human spermatogenesis and tumorigenesis share key similarities. Until now, only a few proteins in the human testis have been identified due to limitations of available technology. In this paper, using an advanced proteomics platform, we have identified 7346 unique proteins within the human testis with a high degree of confidence. Immunohistochemistry data from the Human Protein Atlas database show over 90% (1833/2020) of identified proteins can be detected in the human testis using specific antibodies. To make the data widely available to the scientific community, an online Human Testis Proteome Database (HTPD, http://reprod.njmu.edu.cn/htpd/) was built. Many of the identified human testicular proteins are associated with human infertility, especially human testicular predominantly expressed proteins. We characterized six novel cancer/testis genes (TMPRSS12, TPPP2, PRSS55, DMRT1, PIWIL1, HEMGN), which map to cancer-associated genetic variants positions, in both the cancer and testis tissues using genome-wide analyses. Our results provide a molecular connection between spermatogenesis and tumorigenesis and broaden the range of cancer antigen choice available for immunotherapy. PMID:23436708

Liu, Mingxi; Hu, Zhibin; Qi, Lin; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Yueshuai; Zeng, Yan; Zheng, Bo; Wu, Yibo; Zhang, Pan; Chen, Xin; Tu, Wenjiao; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Quan; Jiang, Min; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhou, Zuomin; Sha, Jiahao

2013-04-01

145

Salivary gland disorders.  

PubMed

Patients with salivary gland disease present with certain objective and/or subjective signs. An accurate diagnosis for these patients requires a range of techniques that includes the organized integration of information derived from their history, clinical examination, imaging, serology, and histopathology. This article highlights the signs and symptoms of the salivary gland disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center, and emphasizes the methodology used to achieve a definitive diagnosis and therapy. PMID:25443682

Mandel, Louis

2014-11-01

146

Aqueous solvents for extracting glanded cottonseed protein without gland rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of pigment glands has thwarted attempts to extract edible cottonseed protein aqueously from glanded seeds or\\u000a gland-rich meals, probably because of the widely held belief that glands rupture on contact with aqueous media. We found several\\u000a aqueous salt solutions in which glands did not rupture. Glands remained intact in saturated (2m) sodium sulfate, but not in saturated 2m

L. L. Muller; T. J. Jacks; T. P. Hensarling

1976-01-01

147

HIV Accessory Proteins versus Host Restriction Factors  

PubMed Central

Primate immunodeficiency viruses, including HIV-1, are characterized by the presence of accessory genes such as vif, vpr, vpx, vpu, and nef. Current knowledge indicates that none of the primate lentiviral accessory proteins has enzymatic activity. Instead, these proteins interact with cellular ligands to either act as adapter molecules to redirect the normal function of host factors for virus-specific purposes or to inhibit a normal host function by mediating degradation or causing intracellular mislocalization/sequestration of the factors involved. This review aims at providing an update of our current understanding of how Vif, Vpu, and Vpx control the cellular restriction factors APOBEC3G, BST-2, and SAMHD1, respectively. PMID:24246762

Strebel, Klaus

2013-01-01

148

Accessory mineral records of tectonic environments? (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accessory mineral research continues to gather momentum as we seek to unleash their full potential. It is now widely recognised that robust accessory minerals, such as zircon, rutile, titanite, allanite and monazite, are archives of important trace elements that can help deduce metamorphic reaction history in metapelites, metabasites and other rock types. Moreover, they are important carriers of certain trace elements and govern or influence the products of partial melting and of fluid-rock interaction (e.g. magmas and mineralisation) in settings like subduction zones and hydrothermal systems. Perhaps most importantly, they can often be dated using the U-Th-Pb system. More recently, radiogenic (Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr) and stable (O) isotope systems have been applied and have further pushed the utility of accessory mineral research. In this talk I will discuss some of these advances towards one particular aim: the use of detrital accessory minerals for fingerprinting tectonic environments. This is a particularly laudable aim in Precambrian rocks, for which the preservation potential of orogenic belts and fossil subduction zones and their diagnostic metamorphic rocks is low. The implication is that our understanding of plate tectonics, particularly in the Archaean, is biased by the preserved in-tact rock record. An analogy is that Jack Hills zircons record evidence of Earth’s crust some 400 Ma before the preserved rock record begins. I will focus on some recent advances and new data from rutile and also the mineral inclusion record within zircon, which shows great promise for petrologic interpretation.

Storey, C.; Marschall, H. R.; Enea, F.; Taylor, J.; Jennings, E. S.

2010-12-01

149

Mammary Glands: Developmental Changes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mammary gland progresses from the accumulation of a few cells in the embryonic ectoderm to a highly arborescent tubulo-alveolar gland capable of secreting a highly nutritious product for consumption. Throughout this progression, various changes occur during each developmental stage: prenatal, pr...

150

Salivary Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

151

Thyroid hormone and leptin in the testis.  

PubMed

Leptin is primarily expressed in white adipose tissue; however, it is expressed in the hypothalamus and reproductive tissues as well. Leptin acts by activating the leptin receptors (Ob-Rs). Additionally, the regulation of several neuroendocrine and reproductive functions, including the inhibition of glucocorticoids and enhancement of thyroxine and sex hormone concentrations in human beings and mice are leptin functions. It has been suggested that thyroid hormones (TH) could directly regulate leptin expression. Additionally, hypothyroidism compromises the intracellular integration of leptin signaling specifically in the arcuate nucleus. Two TH receptor isoforms are expressed in the testis, TRa and TRb, with TRa being the predominant one that is present in all stages of development. The effects of TH involve the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli and Leydig cells during development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis. In this context, TH disorders are associated with sexual dysfunction. An endocrine and/or direct paracrine effect of leptin on the gonads inhibits testosterone production in Leydig cells. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effects of both hormones in the testis during hypothyroidism. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge regarding leptin and TH in the testis. PMID:25505448

Ramos, Cristiane Fonte; Zamoner, Ariane

2014-01-01

152

Thyroid Hormone Function in the Rat Testis  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hormones are emerging regulators of testicular function since Sertoli, germ, and Leydig cells are found to express thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). These testicular cells also express deiodinases, which are capable of converting the pro-hormone T4 to the active thyroid hormone T3, or inactivating T3 or T4 to a non-biologically active form. Furthermore, thyroid hormone transporters are also found in the testis. Thus, the testis is equipped with the transporters and the enzymes necessary to maintain the optimal level of thyroid hormone in the seminiferous epithelium, as well as the specific TRs to execute thyroid hormone action in response to different stages of the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. Studies using genetic models and/or goitrogens (e.g., propylthiouracil) have illustrated a tight physiological relationship between thyroid hormone and testicular function, in particular, Sertoli cell differentiation status, mitotic activity, gap junction function, and blood–testis barrier assembly. These findings are briefly summarized and discussed herein. PMID:25414694

Gao, Ying; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

2014-01-01

153

Thyroid Hormone and Leptin in the Testis  

PubMed Central

Leptin is primarily expressed in white adipose tissue; however, it is expressed in the hypothalamus and reproductive tissues as well. Leptin acts by activating the leptin receptors (Ob-Rs). Additionally, the regulation of several neuroendocrine and reproductive functions, including the inhibition of glucocorticoids and enhancement of thyroxine and sex hormone concentrations in human beings and mice are leptin functions. It has been suggested that thyroid hormones (TH) could directly regulate leptin expression. Additionally, hypothyroidism compromises the intracellular integration of leptin signaling specifically in the arcuate nucleus. Two TH receptor isoforms are expressed in the testis, TRa and TRb, with TRa being the predominant one that is present in all stages of development. The effects of TH involve the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli and Leydig cells during development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis. In this context, TH disorders are associated with sexual dysfunction. An endocrine and/or direct paracrine effect of leptin on the gonads inhibits testosterone production in Leydig cells. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effects of both hormones in the testis during hypothyroidism. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge regarding leptin and TH in the testis. PMID:25505448

Ramos, Cristiane Fonte; Zamoner, Ariane

2014-01-01

154

21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

2010-04-01

155

21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

2011-04-01

156

21 CFR 870.4200 - Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4200 Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. (a)...

2013-04-01

157

21 CFR 870.4200 - Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4200 Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. (a)...

2014-04-01

158

HIV-1 Accessory Proteins: Vpu and Vif  

PubMed Central

HIV-1 Vif and Vpu are accessory factors involved in late stages of viral replication. Vif regulates viral infectivity by preventing virion incorporation of APOBEC3G and other members of the family of cytidine deaminases, while Vpu causes degradation of CD4 and promotes virus release by functionally inactivating the host factor BST-2. This chapter described techniques used for the characterization of Vif and Vpu and their functional interaction with host factors. Many of the techniques are, however, applicable to the functional analysis of other viral proteins. PMID:24158820

Andrew, Amy; Strebel, Klaus

2014-01-01

159

Salivary gland derived peptides as a new class of anti-inflammatory agents: review of preclinical pharmacology of C-terminal peptides of SMR1 protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limitations of steroidal and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have prompted investigation into other biologically based therapeutics, and identification of immune selective anti-inflammatory agents of salivary origin. The traditional view of salivary glands as accessory digestive structures is changing as their importance as sources of systemically active immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory factors is recognized. Salivary gland involvement in maintenance of whole

Ronald D Mathison; Joseph S Davison; A Dean Befus; Daniel A Gingerich

2010-01-01

160

Enlarged prostate gland  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... is encased within the prostate gland. As a man ages, the prostate typically enlarges in size in ... urinate, and incontinence. Less than half of all men with BPH have symptoms of the disease, or ...

161

Lacrimal gland anatomy (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The lacrimal gland is located within the orbit above the lateral end of the eye. It continually releases fluid which cleanses and protects the eye's surface as it lubricates and moistens it. These lacrimal secretions are commonly known ...

162

Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones  

MedlinePLUS

... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

163

Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.  

PubMed

This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice. PMID:24642774

Oxenham, Julie

164

76 FR 585 - In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories and Packaging Thereof; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Handbags, Luggage, Accessories and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Investigation AGENCY...handbags. luggage, accessories and packaging thereof by reason of infringement of...handbags, luggage, accessories and packaging thereof that infringe the `594...

2011-01-05

165

Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

SciTech Connect

Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

Mishkin, F.S.

1981-10-01

166

Simon Effect with and without Awareness of the Accessory Stimulus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated whether a Simon effect could be observed in an accessory-stimulus Simon task when participants were unaware of the task-irrelevant accessory cue. In Experiment 1A a central visual target was accompanied by a suprathreshold visual lateral cue. A regular Simon effect (i.e., faster cue-response corresponding reaction times…

Treccani, Barbara; Umilta, Carlo; Tagliabue, Mariaelena

2006-01-01

167

Genome-wide analysis of cancer/testis gene expression  

PubMed Central

Cancer/Testis (CT) genes, normally expressed in germ line cells but also activated in a wide range of cancer types, often encode antigens that are immunogenic in cancer patients, and present potential for use as biomarkers and targets for immunotherapy. Using multiple in silico gene expression analysis technologies, including twice the number of expressed sequence tags used in previous studies, we have performed a comprehensive genome-wide survey of expression for a set of 153 previously described CT genes in normal and cancer expression libraries. We find that although they are generally highly expressed in testis, these genes exhibit heterogeneous gene expression profiles, allowing their classification into testis-restricted (39), testis/brain-restricted (14), and a testis-selective (85) group of genes that show additional expression in somatic tissues. The chromosomal distribution of these genes confirmed the previously observed dominance of X chromosome location, with CT-X genes being significantly more testis-restricted than non-X CT. Applying this core classification in a genome-wide survey we identified >30 CT candidate genes; 3 of them, PEPP-2, OTOA, and AKAP4, were confirmed as testis-restricted or testis-selective using RT-PCR, with variable expression frequencies observed in a panel of cancer cell lines. Our classification provides an objective ranking for potential CT genes, which is useful in guiding further identification and characterization of these potentially important diagnostic and therapeutic targets. PMID:19088187

Hofmann, Oliver; Caballero, Otavia L.; Stevenson, Brian J.; Chen, Yao-Tseng; Cohen, Tzeela; Chua, Ramon; Maher, Christopher A.; Panji, Sumir; Schaefer, Ulf; Kruger, Adele; Lehvaslaiho, Minna; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Jongeneel, C. Victor; Simpson, Andrew J. G.; Old, Lloyd J.; Hide, Winston

2008-01-01

168

[Post-operative functional evaluation of accessory nerve reconstruction].  

PubMed

A nerve reconstruction was performed in 20 patients whose spinal accessory nerve was resected during total neck dissection. Re-anastomosis or a cable graft was performed between both cut ends of the accessory nerve in 14 patients (accessory nerve reconstruction group), and between the peripheral cut end of the accessory nerve and the central cut end of the cervical nerve (C2 or C3) in 6 patients (cervical/accessory nerve reconstruction group). There was no difference in the postoperative shoulder functions between the reconstruction groups, and both groups were significantly better than the group without reconstruction (n = 13), although they tended to be poorer than the nerve preservation group (n = 41). PMID:24601096

Asakura, Koji; Honma, Tomo; Keira, Takashi; Nagaya, Tomonori; Himi, Tetsuo

2014-01-01

169

Control system for engine-operated automotive accessories  

SciTech Connect

A control system is described for an accessory of an automobile, comprising: an engine, an engine output detector for detecting the output of the engine; a gear transmission coupled to the engine and responsive to detection of an idling condition of the automobile for selecting a neutral gear position; an accessory drivable by the engine; a clutch disposed between the accessory and the engine for connecting and disconnecting the output of the engine to the accessory; a speed sensor for detecting the speed of travel of the automobile from the gear transmission; and control means for comparing an actual running condition of the automobile with a prescribed running condition in which the output of the engine and the speed of the automobile are lower than respective prescribed levels; and for inhibiting operation of the accessory by disconnecting the clutch when the automobile is under the prescribed running conditions.

Nishikawa, M.; Aoki, T.; Sato, Y.; Fukuda, Y.

1987-08-25

170

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2013-04-01

171

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2014-04-01

172

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2011-04-01

173

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2012-04-01

174

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2010-04-01

175

Skull fracture vs. accessory sutures: how can we tell the difference?  

E-print Network

K (2003) Unusual accessory cranial sutures in pediatric headcranial CT is deemed clinically necessary in trauma patients, questionable fractures can be confidently differen- tiated from unusual accessory sutures

Sanchez, Thomas; Stewart, Deborah; Walvick, Matthew; Swischuk, Leonard

2010-01-01

176

The bitch uterine response to semen deposition and its modification by male accessory gland secretions.  

PubMed

Little is known about the response of the bitch's reproductive tract to semen deposition. In this study, an influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) into the uterus was detected after artificial insemination, but there was normal fertility. Doppler ultrasonography showed that insemination induced an increase in uterine artery blood velocity and a decrease in the resistance index of short duration, indicating vasodilation. Semen that was extended in fluid from the sperm rich fraction of the ejaculate (seminal plasma, SP), or third fraction of the ejaculate (prostatic fluid, PF), produced a similar magnitude of effect but of longer duration. It was hypothesised that vasodilation following insemination was largely induced by SP and PF which, together with PMN influx, was part of a normal uterine response. Physiological concentrations of PMNs in vitro reduced the ability of spermatozoa to attach to uterine epithelium, most likely as a result of spermatozoa becoming attached to PMNs. However, both SP and PF increased attachment of spermatozoa to the uterine epithelium by reducing sperm attachment to PMNs, and potentially by an additional mechanism that did not involve inhibition of sperm binding to PMNs. These are the first canine studies to document an apparent physiological response by the uterus to semen, associated with uterine artery vasodilation and PMN influx. Moreover, these investigations are the first to demonstrate that canine SF and PF are part of the mechanism for increasing uterine perfusion and that both fluids have a modulatory effect on PMN-induced inhibition of spermatozoal attachment to uterine epithelium, most likely mediated by reduced sperm attachment to PMNs. PMID:22652115

England, G C W; Russo, M; Freeman, S L

2013-02-01

177

Spermatogenesis, Overview 539 treatments with secretion of female accessory gland and  

E-print Network

Reproduction. Pergamon, New York. Gillett, C. 0 988). Arthropoda-Insecta. In Reproductive Biology.), pp. 33-55. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Hinsch, G. W. (1990). Arthropoda-Crustacca. In Reproduc tive. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Reger, J. F., and Fitzgerald, M. E. C. (1983). Arthropoda

Hess, Rex A.

178

Tokens of love: Functions and regulation of drosophila male accessory gland products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A male fruit fly influences the behavior and physiology of his mate via molecules that he transmits to her'in his semen. The mated female fly has an elevated rate of egg laying, a decreased receptivity to mating and a shorter life span; she also stores sperm from the mating. Molecular genetic analyses possible in this insect model system permit the

Mariana F. Wolfner

1997-01-01

179

Ultrastructure of the epidermal maxilla II-gland of Scutigera coleoptrata (Chilopoda, Notostigmophora) and the ground pattern of epidermal gland organs in Myriapoda.  

PubMed

The epidermal maxilla II-gland of Scutigera coleoptrata was investigated using light and electron microscopy. The glandular epithelium surrounds a spacious integumental cavity at the base of the maxilla II. The gland is formed as a compound gland organ that is composed of thousands of epidermal gland units. Each of them consists of four different cell types: a secretory cell, an accessory or intermediary cell, and a proximal and distal canal cell. The intermediary and the two canal cells form a conducting canal. Only in the most distal part of the intermediary cell is the canal lined by a cuticle. In the area of the two canal cells, the conducting canal is completely covered by a cuticle. The canal passes through the cuticle and opens into the spacious integumental cavity, which serves as a secretion reservoir. The structural organization of the epidermal maxilla II-gland was compared to that of other compound epidermal gland organs in Chilopoda and Diplopoda. All these glandular organs in Myriapoda share the same ground pattern. PMID:15732052

Hilken, Gero; Rosenberg, Jörg; Brockmann, Claudia

2005-04-01

180

Queen Conch (Strombus gigas) Testis Regresses during the Reproductive Season at Nearshore Sites in the Florida Keys  

PubMed Central

Background Queen conch (Strombus gigas) reproduction is inhibited in nearshore areas of the Florida Keys, relative to the offshore environment where conchs reproduce successfully. Nearshore reproductive failure is possibly a result of exposure to environmental factors, including heavy metals, which are likely to accumulate close to shore. Metals such as Cu and Zn are detrimental to reproduction in many mollusks. Methodology/Principal Findings Histology shows gonadal atrophy in nearshore conchs as compared to reproductively healthy offshore conchs. In order to determine molecular mechanisms leading to tissue changes and reproductive failure, a microarray was developed. A normalized cDNA library for queen conch was constructed and sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences GS-FLX pyrosequencer, producing 27,723 assembled contigs and 7,740 annotated transcript sequences. The resulting sequences were used to design the microarray. Microarray analysis of conch testis indicated differential regulation of 255 genes (p<0.01) in nearshore conch, relative to offshore. Changes in expression for three of four transcripts of interest were confirmed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis indicated changes in biological processes: respiratory chain (GO:0015992), spermatogenesis (GO:0007283), small GTPase-mediated signal transduction (GO:0007264), and others. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that Zn and possibly Cu were elevated in some nearshore conch tissues. Conclusions/Significance Congruence between testis histology and microarray data suggests that nearshore conch testes regress during the reproductive season, while offshore conch testes develop normally. Possible mechanisms underlying the testis regression observed in queen conch in the nearshore Florida Keys include a disruption of small GTPase (Ras)-mediated signaling in testis development. Additionally, elevated tissue levels of Cu (34.77 ng/mg in testis) and Zn (831.85 ng/mg in digestive gland, 83.96 ng/mg in testis) nearshore are similar to reported levels resulting in reproductive inhibition in other gastropods, indicating that these metals possibly contribute to NS conch reproductive failure. PMID:20856805

Spade, Daniel J.; Griffitt, Robert J.; Liu, Li; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Feswick, April; Glazer, Robert A.; Barber, David S.; Denslow, Nancy D.

2010-01-01

181

Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Treatment (Posterior Blepharitis)  

MedlinePLUS

... Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Treatment What are Meibomian (Oil) Glands? Meibomian glands are glands that are arranged ... lashes. The force of an eyelid blink causes oil to be excreted onto the posterior lid margin. ...

182

Are so-called cancer-testis genes expressed only in testis?  

PubMed

Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are a group of tumor-associated antigens with restricted expression in normal tissues except for testis and expression in a wide variety of tumor tissues. This pattern of expression makes them suitable targets for immunotherapy as well as potential biomarkers for early detection of cancer. However, some genes attributed to this family are now known to be expressed in other normal tissues which put their potential applications in immunotherapy and cancer detection under question. Here we analyzed expression of two previously known CT antigens, RHOXF2 and PIWIL2, in AML patients versus normal donors and found no significant difference in the expression of these genes between the two groups. As these two genes showed expression in normal leukocytes, their expression pattern seems to be wider than to be attributed to the CT gene family. Future research should focus on the expression profiles of so called CT antigens to find those with more testis specific expression. PMID:25292049

Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh; Rezazadeh, Fatemeh; Zare-Abdollahi, Davood; Omrani, Mir Davood; Movafagh, Abolfazl

2014-01-01

183

Management of Salivary Gland Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Carcinomas of the salivary glands are uncommon representing only 2–6.5% of all head and neck cancer and less than 1% of all\\u000a cancers. About 85% of salivary gland tumors arise in the parotid glands and approximately 75% of these are benign while about\\u000a 75% of tumors arising from minor salivary glands are malignant. The latest WHO’s histological classification (2005) includes

Laura D. Locati; Marco Guzzo; Patrizia Olmi; Lisa Licitra

184

[Simultaneous bilateral primary lymphomatous tumors of the testis].  

PubMed

Among the malignant tumours of the gonads, primary lymphoma of the testis represents a rare pathology. It is even more rare to observe this pathology in a bilateral localisation. After a careful evaluation of the cases described in the literature, the authors report a case or primary synchronous and bilateral lymphoma of the testis in a 68-year-old patient; they examine the clinical data and diagnostic methods and analyse the surgical treatment. In conclusion the authors affirm that primary synchronous bilateral lymphoma of the testis represents a rare form of tumour which is burdened by a high mortality rate. PMID:8322114

Vadalà, G; Basile, G; Altamore, S; Mauceri, M; Mangiameli, A; Roveccio, S; Bartoluccio, R

1993-03-01

185

Salivary Gland Changes in Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructural alterations occurring in human salivary glands as a result of a variety of diseases are described. Major changes in these organs in cases of cystic fibrosis are probably the result of duct blockage, as indicated by study of chronically inflamed salivary glands. A new disease of salivary glands is reported in which parotid serous granules are distorted by bundles

B. Tandler

1987-01-01

186

Hormones, Sex Accessory Structures, and Secondary Sexual Characteristics  

E-print Network

gland secretions) and secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., genial glands and skin glands of newts pads of American newts (e.g., Notophthalmus viridescens), whereas oxytocin antagonizes the influence of prolactin. In the Japanese newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster), however, estrogens block the action of prolactin

Sever, David M.

187

Bartholin's Gland Cyst  

MedlinePLUS

MENU ... the vagina were the face of a clock, these glands would be found at about 4 and 8 o'clock. Normally they are invisible. They make a small amount of fluid that lubricates the vaginal lips. If a flap of skin grows over ...

188

21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...use of a cast, orthosis (brace), or prosthesis. Examples of prosthetic and orthotic accessories include the following: A pelvic support band and belt, a cast shoe, a cast bandage, a limb cover, a prosthesis alignment device, a postsurgical...

2012-04-01

189

21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... A biliary catheter and accessories is a tubular flexible device used for temporary or prolonged drainage of the biliary tract, for splinting of the bile duct during healing, or for preventing stricture of the bile duct. This generic...

2010-04-01

190

What next for accessory dwellings? : getting from bylaws to buildings  

E-print Network

Accessory dwellings-secondary, self-contained housing units on the same property as a primary residence, either attached to or detached from the main dwelling, and subordinate in size, location and appearance-are recognized ...

Stege, Elinor Hope

2009-01-01

191

Where to Find Hair Loss Accessories and Breast Cancer Products  

MedlinePLUS

Where to Find Hair Loss Accessories and Breast Cancer Products Cancer treatments can cause major changes in the way you look – ... the form. You should wear whatever bra you find most comfortable. Keep in mind that the best ...

192

21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section 872.6010...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010...

2012-04-01

193

21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section 872.6010...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010...

2013-04-01

194

Reducing Exposure: Hands-free Kits and Other Accessories  

MedlinePLUS

... Phones Current Research Results Radiofrequency Background Reducing Exposure: Hands-free Kits and Other Accessories Steps to reduce ... distance between your head and the cell phone. Hands-free kits Hand-free kits may include audio ...

195

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2013-04-01

196

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2010-04-01

197

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2010-04-01

198

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

199

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2013-04-01

200

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2012-04-01

201

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

202

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2014-04-01

203

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2012-04-01

204

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

205

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2011-04-01

206

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2011-04-01

207

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2014-04-01

208

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

209

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2010-04-01

210

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2013-04-01

211

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2012-04-01

212

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2014-04-01

213

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

214

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2011-04-01

215

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2011-04-01

216

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2010-04-01

217

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2014-04-01

218

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2012-04-01

219

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2013-04-01

220

21 CFR 884.1720 - Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Devices § 884.1720 Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories...Identification. A gynecologic laparoscope is...perform diagnostic and surgical procedures on the female genital... (2) Class I for gynecologic laparoscope...

2010-04-01

221

21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4900 Obstetric table and accessories...the various positions required during obstetric and gynecologic procedures. This generic type of device may include...

2010-04-01

222

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the dialysate delivery system of the peritoneal dialysis system and accessories (§ 876.5630...hemodialysis system include the unpowered dialysis chair without a scale, the powered dialysis chair without a scale, the dialyzer...

2010-04-01

223

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the dialysate delivery system of the peritoneal dialysis system and accessories (§ 876.5630...hemodialysis system include the unpowered dialysis chair without a scale, the powered dialysis chair without a scale, the dialyzer...

2011-04-01

224

Ameboid cells in spermatogenic cysts of caecilian testis.  

PubMed

Sertoli cells constitute a permanent feature of the testis lobules in caecilians irrespective of the functional state of the testis. The developing germ cells are intimately associated with the Sertoli cells, which are adherent to the basal lamina, until spermiation. There are irregularly shaped cells in the cores of the testis lobules that interact with germ cells at the face opposite to their attachment with Sertoli cells. These irregularly shaped (ameboid) cells first appear in the lumen of the cysts containing primary spermatocytes and are continually present until spermiation. We did not observe any cytoplasmic continuity between a Sertoli cell and an ameboid cell. Both light microscopic and TEM observations reveal a phagocytic role for the ameboid cells: they scavenge the residual bodies shed by spermatozoa. Organization of the ameboid cells is grossly different from that of the spermatogenic and Sertoli cells. They appear to develop from the epithelium at the juncture of the collecting ductule with the testis lobule. PMID:15688448

Smita, Mathew; Jancy, M George; Akbarsha, M A; Oommen, Oommen V

2005-03-01

225

Morphological and Surgical Overview of Adolescent Testis Affected by Varicocele  

PubMed Central

Varicocele is a common pathology of the testis frequently associated with infertility. For its management, a fine morphological study of the testis, both macroscopically and microscopically, and an accurate choice of surgical procedure are mandatory. The present review focuses its attention on the anatomic substrates of adolescent varicocele and its pathophysiologic modifications. The comprehensive assessment of all the reported alterations should be considered by the clinician before deciding the type of treatment and the timing. PMID:24348160

Santoro, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

226

Gata4 Regulates Testis Expression of Dmrt1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (Dmrt1) is a putative transcriptional regulator that is expressed exclusively in the gonads and is required for postnatal testis differentiation. Here we describe the transcriptional mechanisms regulating testis-specific expression of the Dmrt1 gene. Transient-transfection analysis identified a region of the promoter between kb 3.2 and 2.8 that is important for Sertoli cell-specific

Ning Lei; Leslie L. Heckert

2004-01-01

227

Spermatogenesis in Ferret Testis Xenografts: A New Model  

PubMed Central

Testis xenografting is both a promising tool to study spermatogenesis and a means to preserve the genetic information and reproductive potential of prepubertal male animals. The present study was conducted to evaluate this technique using testis tissue from domestic ferrets, an important biomedical model and a model for the conservation of small carnivore species. Fresh testis tissue from 8-wk-old ferrets was implanted ectopically under the skin on the backs of castrated nude mice and subsequently evaluated for testosterone production and establishment of spermatogenesis at 10, 20, 25, and 30 wk after xenografting. A total of 40% of fresh ferret xenografts were harvested. Seminal vesicles were collected from the recipient mice and weighed as an assay for bioactive testosterone. The weights of seminal vesicles from the mice showed no significant difference from those of uncastrated, control nude mice, indicating that the xenografts were producing physiologically relevant amounts of testosterone. The ferret testis xenografts produced differentiating germ cells and sperm at the same time as did testis from age-matched control ferrets. These data demonstrate the ability of Mustelidae testicular tissue to establish spermatogenesis in nude mice after testis xenografting. PMID:21535925

Gourdon, Jim C; Travis, Alexander J

2011-01-01

228

Expression of visfatin in alloxan-induced diabetic rat testis.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a potential epidemic all over the world and causes dysfunction of reproductive activity. Visfatin, one of the adipokines, is present in various tissues including the testis. Our hypothesis was the level of testicular visfatin is affected in diabetic condition. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and localization of visfatin in the diabetic rat testis. No similar studies have been performed in diabetic rat testis with reference to visfatin. Overnight fasted adult male Wistar rats were made diabetic by the administration of alloxan (150 mg/kg i.p., in 0.9% saline). Blood glucose levels were tested on five days after alloxan treatment, rats with high blood glucose levels (>250 mg/dL) were considered as diabetic. Immunolocalization and Western blotting analysis of visfatin were performed. Correlation of visfatin expression was made in relation to body weight, testis weight, glucose concentration and serum testosterone level. Expression of visfatin was observed in Leydig cells, spermatocytes and sperm in control as well as in the diabetic group. Mild immunostaining of visfatin was observed in affected seminiferous tubules of alloxan-induced diabetic rat testis. Western blot analysis showed decreased expression of testicular visfatin in diabetic rats. The expression of visfatin showed a positive correlation with serum testosterone levels, body and testis weight, while a negative correlation was observed with blood glucose levels. This study showed involvement of visfatin in diabetic associated impairment of testicular activity. PMID:25450901

Gurusubramanian, Guruswami; Roy, Vikas Kumar

2014-10-01

229

Torsion of the testis: techniques of assessment.  

PubMed

Results of treatment of torsion of the testicle can be measured only by determining the rate of testicular salvage, which has been low but has improved in recent years. The Doppler instruments and the technique of scrotal imaging with the gamma camera provide noninvasive and rapid diagnostic aids with a high degree of accuracy. There is evidence that these techniques will aid in the differential diagnosis of equivocal cases, and thus lower the incidence of delay in the diagnosis of torsion, a cause of lower than optimal salvage rates in the past. Fluorescein staining can also be used in the operating room if there is a question of testicular viability. The availability of these new modalities, however, is no substitute for early evaluation. Quick referral from primary physicians and a high awareness of torsion as a cause of acute scrotal pain and swelling are extremely important. Reviews clearly indicate that improved salvage rates are achieved with early evaluation and treatment. Therefore the urologist has a continuing responsibility to educate pediatricians, family practitioners, and emergency room physicians in the urgency of diagnosis and treatment in cases of testicular torsion. Although new diagnostic aids are useful, only early surgical exploration can save a torsive testis. PMID:462683

Smith, S P; King, L R

1979-06-01

230

The extensive set of accessory Pseudomonas aeruginosa genomic components.  

PubMed

Up to 20% of the chromosomal Pseudomonas aeruginosa DNA belong to the so-called accessory genome. Its elements are specific for subgroups or even single strains and are likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Similarities of the accessory genomic elements to DNA from other bacterial species, mainly the DNA of ?- and ?-proteobacteria, indicate a role of interspecies HGT. In this study, we analysed the expression of the accessory genome in 150 clinical P. aeruginosa isolates as uncovered by transcriptome sequencing and the presence of accessory genes in eleven additional isolates. Remarkably, despite the large number of P. aeruginosa strains that have been sequenced to date, we found new strain-specific compositions of accessory genomic elements and a high portion (10-20%) of genes without P. aeruginosa homologues. Although some genes were detected to be expressed/present in several isolates, individual patterns regarding the genes, their functions and the possible origin of the DNA were widespread among the tested strains. Our results demonstrate the unaltered potential to discover new traits within the P. aeruginosa population and underline that the P. aeruginosa pangenome is likely to increase with increasing sequence information. PMID:24766399

Pohl, Sarah; Klockgether, Jens; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Khaledi, Ariane; Schniederjans, Monika; Chouvarine, Philippe; Tümmler, Burkhard; Häussler, Susanne

2014-07-01

231

Taxonomy of Salivary Gland Neoplasm  

PubMed Central

Classification of neoplasms of any organ should be predicted on the patterns of differentiation that reflect the organization and cell types of the parental tissue. The ability to classify a neoplasm instills confidence in its predicted biologic behavior and the selection of treatment. There has not been a single universally used classification system for salivary gland tumor. Histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts and the developing information on various molecular parameters will have significant influence on the classification of salivary glands tumors. In this article we would highlight the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts in salivary gland neoplasms and elaborate on the taxonomic system of classification of salivary gland neoplasms. PMID:24783163

Sreeja, C.; Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Satish, Muthu Kumar

2014-01-01

232

Mice Lacking the UBC4-testis Gene Have a Delay in Postnatal Testis Development but Normal Spermatogenesis and Fertility  

PubMed Central

Activation of ubiquitination occurs during spermatogenesis and is dependent on the induction of isoforms of the UBC4 family of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. The UBC4-testis isoform is testis specific, is induced in round spermatids, and demonstrates biochemical functions distinct from a ubiquitously expressed isoform UBC4-1. To explore further the function of UBC4-testis, mice bearing inactivation of this gene were produced. Homozygous (?/?) mice showed normal body growth and fertility. Although testis weight and morphology were normal in testes from adult mice, examination of young mice during the first wave of spermatogenesis revealed that testes were ?10% smaller in weight at 40 and 45 days of age but had become normal at 65 days of age. Overall protein content, levels of ubiquitinated proteins, and ubiquitin-conjugating activity did not differ between wild-type and homozygous (?/?) mice. Spermatid number, as well as the motility of spermatozoa isolated from the epididymis, was also normal in homozygous (?/?) mice. To determine whether the germ cells lacking UBC4-testis might be more sensitive to stress, testes from wild-type and knockout mice were exposed to heat stress by implantation in the abdominal cavity. Testes from both strains of mice showed similar rates of degeneration in response to heat. The lack of an obvious phenotype did not appear to be due to induction of other UBC4 isoforms, as shown by two-dimensional gel immunoblotting. Our data indicate that UBC4-testis plays a role in early maturation of the testis and suggest that the many UBC4 isoforms have mixed redundant and specific functions. PMID:16024774

Bedard, Nathalie; Hingamp, Pascal; Pang, Zhiyu; Karaplis, Andrew; Morales, Carlos; Trasler, Jacquetta; Cyr, Dan; Gagnon, Claude; Wing, Simon S.

2005-01-01

233

Wt1 negatively regulates ?-catenin signaling during testis development  

PubMed Central

?-Catenin, as an important effector of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and as a regulator of cell adhesion, has been demonstrated to be involved in multiple developmental processes and tumorigenesis. ?-Catenin expression was found mainly on the Sertoli cell membrane starting from embryonic day 15.5 in the developing testes. However, its potential role in Sertoli cells during testis formation has not been examined. To determine the function of ?-catenin in Sertoli cells during testis formation, we either deleted ?-catenin or expressed a constitutively active form of ?-catenin in Sertoli cells. We found that deletion caused no detectable abnormalities. However, stabilization caused severe phenotypes, including testicular cord disruption, germ cell depletion and inhibition of Müllerian duct regression. ?-Catenin stabilization caused changes in Sertoli cell identity and misregulation of inter-Sertoli cell contacts. As Wt1 conditional knockout in Sertoli cells causes similar phenotypes to our stabilized ?-catenin mutants, we then investigated the relationship of Wt1 and ?-catenin in Sertoli cells and found Wt1 inhibits ?-catenin signaling in these cells during testis development. Wt1 deletion resulted in upregulation of ?-catenin expression in Sertoli cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our study indicates that Sertoli cell expression of ?-catenin is dispensable for testis development. However, the suppression of ?-catenin signaling in these cells is essential for proper testis formation and Wt1 is a negative regulator of ?-catenin signaling during this developmental process. PMID:18403409

Chang, Hao; Gao, Fei; Guillou, Florian; Taketo, Makoto M.; Huff, Vicki; Behringer, Richard R.

2014-01-01

234

Microanatomical study of testis in juvenile ostrich (Struthio camelus).  

PubMed

The majority of investigations on the testis, as the main organ of male reproductive system, have been performed in mammalian species, with few studies on bird species. Thus, the structure of the ostrich testis remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the microanatomical characteristics of the testis in five juvenile ostriches. A stereological study was performed according to the Delesse principle. The mean volume fraction of the seminiferous tubules was 0.569, and the mean volume of the seminiferous tubules in an average testis was 1.04 cm(3). The Paraffin-embedded sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, Alcian blue, and periodic acid-Schiff stains. Histological studies revealed that the spermatogonial stem cells and Sertoli cells were localized inside the seminiferous tubules, close to the basement membrane. Inside the tubules a few meiotic cells up to the spermatozoa stage were located in a centripetal manner. Outside the tubules, one to three layers of euchromatic peritubular myoid cells were present, surrounded by loose interstitial connective tissue. A thick tunica albuginea contained many myoid cells and some rete ducts, with the latter extending from the hilus to the free surface of the testis. Straight seminiferous tubules were distributed in the lateral surfaces and hilar portions of the capsule but were rare in the free surface. These capsular rete ducts may participate in testicular fluid transit from the distal tubules through the capsule. PMID:23558799

Hassanzadeh, Belal; Nabipour, Abolghasem; Rassouli, Morteza Behnam; Dehghani, Hesam

2013-06-01

235

Accessory tragus: a possible sign of Goldenhar syndrome.  

PubMed

The accessory tragus is a relatively common benign congenital anomaly. The tragus is a cartilaginous projection that normally occurs anterior to the external auditory meatus. Although aberrancy of the tragus may occur in isolation and is exclusively derived from the first branchial arch, it may occasionally signal a defect in the first or second branchial arches. Thus it may be a sign of other syndromes, such as oculoauricularvertebral dysplasia (Goldenhar syndrome). In fact, accessory tragus is a constant feature of this syndrome and may be associated with other syndromes. Accessory tragi are polypoid and should be distinguished from acrochordon (skin tags), as the shave excision commonly employed for skin tags may expose cartilage and cause slow healing or chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis. PMID:21916271

Rankin, James S; Schwartz, Robert A

2011-08-01

236

The road to maleness: from testis to Wolffian duct  

PubMed Central

The establishment of the male internal reproductive system involves two crucial events: the formation of the testis and the maintenance and differentiation of the Wolffian duct. Testis formation, particularly the specification of Sertoli cell and Leydig cell lineages, is controlled strictly by genetic components initiated by the testis-determining gene SRY (sex-determining region of the Y chromosome). Conversely, Wolffian duct differentiation is not directly mediated via the composition of the sex chromosome or SRY; instead, it relies on androgens derived from the Leydig cells. Leydig cells do not express SRY, indicating that a crosstalk must be present between the SRY-positive Sertoli and Leydig cells to ensure normal androgen production. Recent advancement of genetic and genomic approaches has unveiled the molecular pathways for differentiation of Sertoli cells and Leydig cells as well as development of the Wolffian duct. PMID:16822678

Barsoum, Ivraym; Yao, Humphrey Hung-Chang

2014-01-01

237

Carcinoma in situ of the testis: aneuploid cells in semen  

PubMed Central

The content of cellular DNA in ejaculates from eight patients with carcinoma in situ of the testis and 26 controls without evidence of testicular neoplasia was studied by flow cytometry. An aneuploid cell population with a ploidy value similar to that found for carcinoma in situ cells was detected in seminal fluid from four of the eight men with carcinoma in situ but in none of the controls. One year after orchidectomy or local irradiation in these four men no aneuploid cells were found in the semen. These findings show that a detectable proportion of malignant germ cells may be released into the seminal fluid of patients with carcinoma in situ of the testis. Analysis of seminal fluid may therefore aid in screening for early neoplasia of the testis. PMID:3136829

Giwercman, Aleksander; Clausen, Ole Petter F; Skakkebæk, Niels E

1988-01-01

238

NUT Gene Rearrangement in a Poorly-differentiated Carcinoma of the Submandibular Gland  

PubMed Central

NUT midline carcinomas (NMC) are a rare, recently described class of poorly-differentiated tumors that exhibit rapid onset and highly aggressive clinicopathologic behavior. These tumors are defined by rearrangement of the nuclear protein in testis (NUT) gene on chromosome 15q14, most commonly in a balanced translocation with the BRD4 gene on chromosome 19p13.1, resulting in the characteristic BRD4-NUT fusion gene and protein which blocks epithelial differentiation through chromatin binding. NMC frequently involve midline structures of adolescents and young adults and affect the head and neck region in 50% of cases. To our knowledge, only one case has been previously reported involving a salivary gland. Here, we present a case of a NMC of the salivary gland in an adolescent male presenting with an intermittently painful left submandibular mass of 3 months duration. PMID:20352379

Ziai, James; French, Chris A.

2010-01-01

239

Salivary gland diseases in children  

PubMed Central

Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

2014-01-01

240

What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... grow into or spread to the salivary glands. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Most non-Hodgkin lymphomas start in lymph nodes. Rarely, these cancers start ... For more information on lymphomas, see our document Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma . Sarcomas: The salivary glands contain blood vessels, muscle ...

241

Microfilaria in thyroid gland nodule.  

PubMed

Presence of microfilaria in the thyroid gland is a rare finding. Filariasis is a common public health problem in the Indian sub-continent. Most of the cases of microfilaria in thyroid gland reported in the literature are associated with goiter and thyroid neoplasms. Here, we present a rare case that showed microfilaria on fine needle aspiration cytology of solitary thyroid nodule. PMID:18417874

Chowdhary, Monisha; Langer, Sabeena; Aggarwal, Meenu; Agarwal, Chetna

2008-01-01

242

Management of bile duct injuries combined with accessory hepatic duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

PubMed Central

Bile duct injuries (BDIs) are difficult to avoid absolutely when the biliary tract has a malformation, such as accessory hepatic duct. Here, we investigated the management strategies for BDI combined with accessory hepatic duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:25232275

Ren, Pei-Tu; Lu, Bao-Chun; Yu, Jian-Hua; Zhu, Xin

2014-01-01

243

26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Specific parts or accessories. 48...Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. ...with, or as component parts of, automobile trucks, other...

2012-04-01

244

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Definition of parts or accessories... Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061... Definition of parts or accessories...component part of an automobile truck or bus chasis...hand, parts for automobile parts or...

2011-04-01

245

26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Specific parts or accessories. 48...Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. ...with, or as component parts of, automobile trucks, other...

2011-04-01

246

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Definition of parts or accessories... Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061... Definition of parts or accessories...component part of an automobile truck or bus chasis...hand, parts for automobile parts or...

2012-04-01

247

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Definition of parts or accessories... Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061... Definition of parts or accessories...component part of an automobile truck or bus chasis...hand, parts for automobile parts or...

2013-04-01

248

26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Specific parts or accessories. 48...Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. ...with, or as component parts of, automobile trucks, other...

2013-04-01

249

26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 true Specific parts or accessories. 48...Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. ...with, or as component parts of, automobile trucks, other...

2010-04-01

250

77 FR 37768 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly AGENCY...Accessories, Inc. (AAI), High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly (aft crosstube...of a crosstube, collapse of the landing gear, and subsequent loss of...

2012-06-25

251

77 FR 5420 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories Inc. High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Aeronautical Accessories Inc. High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly AGENCY...Accessories Inc. (AAI) High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly (aft crosstube...of a crosstube, collapse of the landing gear, and subsequent loss of...

2012-02-03

252

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...parts or accessories. Reboring or other machining, rewinding, and comparable major operations constitute rebuilding. The person...accessory. The tax attaches whether the machining or other operation is performed by the rebuilder...

2013-04-01

253

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...parts or accessories. Reboring or other machining, rewinding, and comparable major operations constitute rebuilding. The person...accessory. The tax attaches whether the machining or other operation is performed by the rebuilder...

2011-04-01

254

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...parts or accessories. Reboring or other machining, rewinding, and comparable major operations constitute rebuilding. The person...accessory. The tax attaches whether the machining or other operation is performed by the rebuilder...

2010-04-01

255

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...parts or accessories. Reboring or other machining, rewinding, and comparable major operations constitute rebuilding. The person...accessory. The tax attaches whether the machining or other operation is performed by the rebuilder...

2012-04-01

256

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software, and systems.  

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software, and systems. 121.8...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software, and systems. (a) An...Rivets, wire, bolts, etc.) (e) Firmware and any related unique support...

2014-04-01

257

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 ...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...Rivets, wire, bolts, etc.) (e) Firmware and any related unique support...

2012-04-01

258

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 ...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...Rivets, wire, bolts, etc.) (e) Firmware and any related unique support...

2013-04-01

259

77 FR 15390 - Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...337-TA-754] Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest...exclusion order covering handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof that infringe U.S. Trademark Registration...

2012-03-15

260

77 FR 22802 - Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Determination Not To Review an...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...337-TA-754] Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination...importation of certain handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof by reason of infringement of U.S. Trademark...

2012-04-17

261

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

2010-04-01

262

Isolated rupture of an accessory liver from blunt abdominal trauma in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accessory liver is uncommonly encountered in surgical practice. It can rarely cause acute abdominal pain. An isolated\\u000a injury to an accessory liver from blunt trauma in a 10-year-old boy caused major intraperitoneal haemorrhage. Laparotomy and\\u000a excision of the lacerated accessory liver lobe was necessary; the patient recovered uneventfully. The literature on accessory\\u000a liver is reviewed.

E. S. Garba; E. A. Ameh

2002-01-01

263

Liouville theory, {N} = 2 gauge theories and accessory parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correspondence between the semiclassical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the {N} = 2 (?-deformed) U(2) super-Yang-Mills theories is used to calculate the unknown accessory parameter of the Fuchsian uniformization of the 4-punctured sphere. The computation is based on the saddle point method. This allows to find an analytic expression for the N f = 4, U(2) instanton twisted superpotential and, in turn, to sum up the 4-point classical block. It is well known that the critical value of the Liouville action functional is the generating function of the accessory parameters. This statement and the factorization property of the 4-point action allow to express the unknown accessory parameter as the derivative of the 4-point classical block with respect to the modular parameter of the 4-punctured sphere. It has been found that this accessory parameter is related to the sum of all rescaled column lengths of the so-called 'critical' Young diagram extremizing the instanton 'free energy'. It is shown that the sum over the 'critical' column lengths can be rewritten in terms of a contour integral in which the integrand is built out of certain special functions closely related to the ordinary Gamma function.

Ferrari, Franco; Piatek, Marcin

2012-05-01

264

Accessory proteins of SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses.  

PubMed

The huge RNA genome of SARS coronavirus comprises a number of open reading frames that code for a total of eight accessory proteins. Although none of these are essential for virus replication, some appear to have a role in virus pathogenesis. Notably, some SARS-CoV accessory proteins have been shown to modulate the interferon signaling pathways and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The structural information on these proteins is also limited, with only two (p7a and p9b) having their structures determined by X-ray crystallography. This review makes an attempt to summarize the published knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins, with an emphasis on their involvement in virus-host interaction. The accessory proteins of other coronaviruses are also briefly discussed. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10 years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses" (see Introduction by Hilgenfeld and Peiris (2013)). PMID:24995382

Liu, Ding Xiang; Fung, To Sing; Chong, Kelvin Kian-Long; Shukla, Aditi; Hilgenfeld, Rolf

2014-09-01

265

Accessory cells in the immune defense of the dental pulp.  

PubMed

This communication focuses on the participation of accessory cells in the initial recognition and processing of antigenic substances in the dental pulp. Immunohistochemical analyses have demonstrated the presence of two types of accessory cells--one with a dendritic morphology located in the periphery of the pulp and one with a macrophage-like appearance located more centrally. Functional studies in vitro have provided evidence for the dendritic cells being the most significant of the two cells regarding their capacity to induce T-cell proliferation. Studies on ontogeny have revealed that the appearance of pulp accessory cells is delayed compared to other peripheral tissues. In experimentally induced pulp lesions a rapid increase of cells with morphologic and phenotypic features similar to normally occurring accessory cells was found. These data demonstrate that the dental pulp contains the necessary cellular constituents to mount an immunologic defense reaction. Future studies should focus on elucidating possible interactions between these immune cells and the neurovascular system of the pulp. PMID:1508890

Jontell, M; Bergenholtz, G

1992-01-01

266

RESEARCH Open Access Are accessory hearing structures linked to inner  

E-print Network

and detectable frequency ranges (for an overview see [1-4]). This structural and functional di- versity far exceeds that observed in amniotes and renders teleost fishes an interesting group to study adaptationsRESEARCH Open Access Are accessory hearing structures linked to inner ear morphology? Insights from

Ladich, Friedrich

267

The sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system  

PubMed Central

Background A dual olfactory system, represented by two anatomically distinct but spatially proximate chemosensory epithelia that project to separate areas of the forebrain, is known in several classes of tetrapods. Lungfish are the earliest evolving vertebrates known to have this dual system, comprising a main olfactory and a vomeronasal system (VNO). Lampreys, a group of jawless vertebrates, have a single nasal capsule containing two anatomically distinct epithelia, the main (MOE) and the accessory olfactory epithelia (AOE). We speculated that lamprey AOE projects to specific telencephalic regions as a precursor to the tetrapod vomeronasal system. Results To test this hypothesis, we characterized the neural circuits and molecular profiles of the accessory olfactory epithelium in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Neural tract-tracing revealed direct and reciprocal connections with the dorsomedial telencephalic neuropil (DTN) which in turn projects directly to the dorsal pallium and the rostral hypothalamus. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that the main and the accessory olfactory epithelia have virtually identical profiles of expressed genes. Real time quantitative PCR confirmed expression of representatives of all 3 chemoreceptor gene families identified in the sea lamprey genome. Conclusion Anatomical and molecular evidence shows that the sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system that may serve a chemosensory function. PMID:23957559

2013-01-01

268

Evolutionary Dynamics of the Accessory Genome of Listeria monocytogenes  

PubMed Central

Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85–3.14 Mb, encode 2,822–3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II. PMID:23825666

den Bakker, Henk C.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Griggs, Allison D.; Peters, Joseph E.; Zeng, Qiandong; Young, Sarah K.; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Yandava, Chandri; Hepburn, Theresa A.; Haas, Brian J.; Birren, Bruce W.; Wiedmann, Martin

2013-01-01

269

49 CFR 192.147 - Flanges and flange accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...flange or flange accessory (other than cast iron) must meet the minimum requirements...c) Each flange on a flanged joint in cast iron pipe must conform in dimensions...gasket design to ASME/ANSI B16.1 and be cast integrally with the pipe, valve, or...

2011-10-01

270

Evolutionary dynamics of the accessory genome of Listeria monocytogenes.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85-3.14 Mb, encode 2,822-3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II. PMID:23825666

den Bakker, Henk C; Desjardins, Christopher A; Griggs, Allison D; Peters, Joseph E; Zeng, Qiandong; Young, Sarah K; Kodira, Chinnappa D; Yandava, Chandri; Hepburn, Theresa A; Haas, Brian J; Birren, Bruce W; Wiedmann, Martin

2013-01-01

271

Salvage of poorly developed arteriovenous fistulae with percutaneous ligation of accessory veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many arteriovenous (AV) fistulae fail to achieve an adequate blood flow or size for successful cannulation because of accessory veins. We describe a simple technique to ligate accessory veins that does not require a surgical incision. In this retrospective study, 17 end-stage renal disease patients underwent ligation of accessory veins of poorly developed AV fistulae. There were 14 men and

Rashid Faiyaz; Kenneth Abreo; Fahim Zaman; Aslam Pervez; Gazi Zibari; Jack Work

2002-01-01

272

26 CFR 48.4062(b)-1 - Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Rebuilt parts or accessories sold...Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(b)-1 Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on...include the value of a like part or accessory accepted...example, if a rebuilt automobile engine is sold...

2012-04-01

273

26 CFR 48.4062(b)-1 - Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Rebuilt parts or accessories sold...Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(b)-1 Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on...include the value of a like part or accessory accepted...example, if a rebuilt automobile engine is sold...

2013-04-01

274

MORPHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF AN INSECT EPIDERMAL GLAND  

PubMed Central

The sternal gland of primitive termites of the genus Zootermopsis (Z. nevadensis or Z. angusticollus) (Hagen) seems more organized than that of higher termites, in being comprised of three cell layers. It is also studded with about 200 campaniform sensilla. Below the meshwork cuticle of the gland lies a layer of columnar epithelial cells whose apical surfaces form a brush border, and whose basal surfaces are sculptured into a basketwork into which the second layer fits. Below the brush border are small microtubule-associated pits and coated vesicles. No channels can be seen either within or, except for the sensilla, between the cells. The second cell layer probably secretes the trail-following pheromone. Numerous electron-lucent droplets and large channels containing lipid micelles are found in the cytoplasm here, but the channels cannot be traced out of the secretory layer. The third layer consists of large pyriform cells. The campaniform sensilla are composed of three cells: the sensory cell proper whose dendrite carries a modified 9 + 0 sensory process, an accessory supporting cell that secretes an electron-opaque sheath, and an enveloping cell. At the cell borders of the sensillum, regions of septate and tight junction appear. There are also septate junctions between columnar cells and possibly tight junctions between columnar and secretory cells that would open an intracellular and molecular pathway to the endocuticle. The campaniform sensilla may be part of a feedback control system that determines the amount of pheromone deposited during trail laying. PMID:5645546

Stuart, A. M.; Satir, P.

1968-01-01

275

Pituitary Gland Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Excessive secretion of pituitary hormones, as well as their deficiency, may cause a constellation of clinical and pathological\\u000a manifestations involving major organ systems of the body, including the skin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a There are no specific cutaneous signs or symptoms that are pathognomonic for the main manifestations of pituitary gland diseases\\u000a such as acromegaly, hyperprolactinemia, Cushing’s disease, or hypopituitarism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In

Martina Montinari; Franco Rongioletti

276

Testicular fixation in adult retractile testis: technical notes.  

PubMed

A variety of techniques for scrotal orchiopexy have been described in the literature, including those without suture fixation, such as the scrotal pouch. We perform a simple modified technique for bilateral testicular fixation in patients with bilateral and/or unilateral adult retractile testis and with symptoms characterised by chronic orchialgia due to testicular hypermobility or repeated funicular subtorsion. PMID:12633055

Forte, Flavio; Bitelli, Marco; Sorrenti, Salvatore; Spinelli, Giovanni Luigi; Foti, Nicola; Ciotola, Oscar; Pietrantuono, Francesco; Catania, Antonio; Micali, Francesco

2003-01-01

277

Testis-sparing surgery in testicular mass: Testicular epidermoid cysts  

PubMed Central

We present 3 patients with testicular epidermoid cysts who experienced testis-sparing surgery. These patients had a palpable painless testicular mass and underwent inguinal testicular exploration. Intraoperative frozen section revealed no evidence of malignancy and therefore enucleation of the tumour was performed. We demonstrate that careful intraoperative frozen-section examination helps to avoid unnecessary orchidectomy in testicular epidermoid cysts. PMID:24554971

Mahdavi-Zafarghandi, Reza; Shakiba, Behnam; Ameli, Mojtaba

2014-01-01

278

Characterization of a Gene Abundantly Expressed in Stallion Testis  

E-print Network

of SRY (Bernard et al. 2008). It has been shown that if SRY is absent, supplementing with Sox9 expression will induce testis formation. This evidence also points toward Sox9 being a conserved target of SRY (Qin & Bishop 2005). Sox9 affects...

Shields, Jordan Elizabeth

2012-02-14

279

Condition dependence of testis size in small mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm competition is a common phenomenon across the animal kingdom and is recognized as a major factor in the sexual selection of males. Intraspecific variation in testis size (ejaculate investment) has been implicated as an important factor in male reproductive success because larger testes produce higher quality ejaculates. Sexual selection theory predicts that traits associated with male-male competition or female

Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde; John S. Millar; Graham J. Hickling

2005-01-01

280

Improvement of Mercuric Chloride-Induced Testis Injuries and Sperm Quality Deteriorations by Spirulina platensis in Rats  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) on mercury (II) chloride (HgCl2)-induced oxidative damages and histopathological alterations in the testis of Wistar albino rats. The animals were divided into four equal groups, i) control, ii) HgCl2, iii) S. platensis and iv) combination of HgCl2+S. platensis. Oxidative stress, induced by a single dose of HgCl2 (5 mg/kg, bw; subcutaneously, s.c.), substantially decreased (P<0.01) the activity level of testicular key enzymatic antioxidant biomarkers (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT and glutathione peroxidase, GPx), oxidative stress makers (blood hydroperoxide; testicular reduced glutathione, GSH and malondialdehyde, MDA), and testicular mercury levels. Moreover, HgCl2 administration resulted in a significant (P<0.01) increase in the number of sperms with abnormal morphology and decrease in epididymal sperm count, motility, plasma testosterone level and testicular cholesterol. Furthermore, HgCl2 exposure induced histopathological changes to the testis including morphological alterations of the seminiferous tubules, and degeneration and dissociation of spermatogenic cells. Notably, oral pretreatment of animals with Spirulina (300 mg/kg, bw) lowered the extent of the observed HgCl2-mediated toxicity, whereby significantly reducing the resulting lipid peroxidation products, mercury accumulation in the testis, histopathological changes of the testes and spermatozoal abnormalities. In parallel, the pretreatment with Spirulina also completely reverted the observed Hg-Cl2-induced inhibition in enzymatic activities of antioxidant biomarkers (SOD, CAT and GPx) back to control levels. The pretreatment of rats with S. platensis significantly recovered the observed HgCl2-mediated decrease in the weight of accessory sex organs. Taken together, our findings clearly highlight the role of S. platensis as a protective modulator of HgCl2-induced testicular injuries and suggest some therapeutic potential in mammals. Further investigation of therapeutic strategies employing Spirulina against heavy metals toxicity in humans is therefore warranted. PMID:23555627

El-Desoky, Gaber E.; Bashandy, Samir A.; Alhazza, Ibrahim M.; Al-Othman, Zeid A.; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A. M.; Yusuf, Kareem

2013-01-01

281

Calcium signaling in lacrimal glands.  

PubMed

Lacrimal glands provide the important function of lubricating and protecting the ocular surface. Failure of proper lacrimal gland function results in a number of debilitating dry eye diseases. Lacrimal glands secrete lipids, mucins, proteins, salts and water and these secretions are at least partially regulated by neurotransmitter-mediated cell signaling. The predominant signaling mechanism for lacrimal secretion involves activation of phospholipase C, generation of the Ca(2+)-mobilizing messenger, IP3, and release of Ca(2+) stored in the endoplasmic reticulum. The loss of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum then triggers a process known as store-operated Ca(2+) entry, involving a Ca(2+) sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum, STIM1, which activates plasma membrane store-operated channels comprised of Orai subunits. Recent studies with deletions of the channel subunit, Orai1, confirm the important role of SOCE in both fluid and protein secretion in lacrimal glands, both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:24507443

Putney, James W; Bird, Gary S

2014-06-01

282

Pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a 62-year-old male patient with pleomorphic adenoma and painless solid mass in his right eye. Computerized tomography demonstrated a mass with a diameter of 2.5 cm located in the right lacrimal gland. The mass was removed completely by combined orbitofrontal craniotomy through a transcranial approach. Histopathologic examination revealed pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. Orbital tumors originate primarily from vascular, muscle, cartilage, neural tissues, lacrimal glands and lymphoid structures. Five percent of all intraorbital masses originate from the lacrimal gland. Pleomorphic adenoma presents as a painless and slowly growing mass and also as exophthalmoses. Pleomorphic adenoma has a high morbidity. Morbidity increases due to the total displacement of the tumor without its capsule and incisional biopsy for the purpose of diagnosis. The success of the treatment depends on the removal of the tumor with its capsule. PMID:24964328

Binatli, Özcan; Yaman, Onur; Özdemir, Nail; Gökçöl Erdo?an, I??n

2013-01-01

283

The pathobiology of salivary gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the transgenic TG.SH (mouse mammary tumour virus\\/v-Ha-ras) mouse, designed to develop mammary tumours, occasional spontaneous salivary gland tumours have been reported, predominantly in males. The incidence and histomorphology of salivary gland tumours in 73 TG.SH mice were surveyed and in total, 21.9% developed both overt and microscopic parotid tumours. The majority developed between 73 and 150 days of

Irving Dardick; Aileen P. Burford-Mason; David S. Garlick; Walter P. Carney

1992-01-01

284

Spinal accessory nerve schwannomas masquerading as a fourth ventricular lesion  

PubMed Central

Schwannomas are benign lesions that arise from the nerve sheath of cranial nerves. The most common schwannomas arise from the 8th cranial nerve (the vestibulo-cochlear nerve) followed by trigeminal and facial nerves and then from glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. Schwannomas involving the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nerves are very rare. We report a very unusual spinal accessory nerve schwannoma which occupied the fourth ventricle and extended inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. The radiological features have been detailed. The diagnostic dilemma was due to its midline posterior location mimicking a fourth ventricular lesion like medulloblastoma and ependymoma. Total excision is the ideal treatment for these tumors. A brief review of literature with tabulations of the variants has been listed. PMID:25552867

Krishnan, Shyam Sundar; Bojja, Sivaram; Vasudevan, Madabhushi Chakravarthy

2015-01-01

285

Spinal accessory nerve schwannomas masquerading as a fourth ventricular lesion.  

PubMed

Schwannomas are benign lesions that arise from the nerve sheath of cranial nerves. The most common schwannomas arise from the 8(th) cranial nerve (the vestibulo-cochlear nerve) followed by trigeminal and facial nerves and then from glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. Schwannomas involving the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nerves are very rare. We report a very unusual spinal accessory nerve schwannoma which occupied the fourth ventricle and extended inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. The radiological features have been detailed. The diagnostic dilemma was due to its midline posterior location mimicking a fourth ventricular lesion like medulloblastoma and ependymoma. Total excision is the ideal treatment for these tumors. A brief review of literature with tabulations of the variants has been listed. PMID:25552867

Krishnan, Shyam Sundar; Bojja, Sivaram; Vasudevan, Madabhushi Chakravarthy

2015-01-01

286

Accessory attachment structure for a v-shaped engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an accessory attachment structure for a V-shaped engine having a pair of cylinder banks with a V-shaped space defined therebetween, a crank pulley disposed on one end of the engine in the direction of a crankshaft and transmission case on an opposite end of the engine, comprising: an intake manifold with a throttle body assembled thereon, the intake manifold being disposed in the v-shaped space and positioned with the throttle body disposed over the transmission case, providing a space between the pair of cylinder banks close to the crank pulley; and at least one accessory disposed in the last mentioned space and actuatable by the crank pulley.

Kadoshima, Y.; Nimi, A.

1988-12-27

287

Accessory mitral papillary muscle causing severe aortic insufficiency.  

PubMed

Accessory mitral papillary muscle originating from the interventricular septum is a rare congenital anomaly. A 20-year-old male patient presented with a complaint of exertional dyspnea. On cardiac examination, a grade 3/4 diastolic murmur was heard over the right upper parasternal area, and the apical pulsations were easily palpable over the precordium. Transthoracic echocardiography showed severe aortic regurgitation, dilatation of the left ventricle, and an accessory papillary muscle with its chordae, extending from the interventricular septum to the anterior mitral leaflet in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT). There was no mitral regurgitation. Color Doppler imaging showed turbulence set up by the abnormal mitral attachment and an associated mild pressure gradient of 20 mmHg across the LVOT. At surgery for aortic valve replacement, degenerative changes in the aortic leaflets were noted. The accessory papillary muscle was spared to maintain mitral valve functions and an aortic bileaflet mechanical prosthetic valve was implanted. During eight months of follow-up, he was well without any signs of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and mitral regurgitation, with a functioning prosthetic valve. PMID:21248456

Ucak, Alper; Onan, Burak; Alp, Ibrahim; Y?lmaz, Ahmet Turan

2010-12-01

288

The consistent presence of the human accessory deep peroneal nerve  

PubMed Central

Twenty-four human legs were dissected macroscopically to study the morphological details of the accessory deep peroneal nerve. This nerve arose from the superficial peroneal nerve and descended in the lateral compartment of the leg, deep to peroneus longus along the posterior border of peroneus brevis. Approaching the ankle joint, this nerve passed through the peroneal tunnels to wind around the lateral malleolus; it then crossed beneath the peroneus brevis tendon anteriorly to reach the dorsum of the foot. The accessory deep peroneal nerve was found in every case examined and constantly gave off muscular branches to peroneus brevis and sensory branches to the ankle region. In addition, this nerve occasionally had muscular branches to peroneus longus and extensor digitorum brevis, and sensory branches to the fibula and the foot. The anomalous muscles around the lateral malleolus were also innervated by this nerve. Neither cutaneous branches nor communicating branches with other nerves were found. The present study reveals that the accessory deep peroneal nerve is consistently present and possesses a proper motor and sensory distribution in the lateral region of the leg and ankle. It is not an anomalous nerve as has previously been suggested. PMID:10227671

KUDOH, HIROYUKI; SAKAI, TATSUO; HORIGUCHI, MASAHARU

1999-01-01

289

Gamma-ray irradiation promotes premature meiosis of spontaneously differentiating testis-ova in the testis of p53-deficient medaka (Oryzias latipes).  

PubMed

In this study, the roles of p53 in impaired spermatogenic male germ cells of p53-deficient medaka were investigated by analyzing histological changes, and gene expressions of 42Sp50, Oct 4 and vitellogenin (VTG2) by RT-PCR or in situ hybridization in the testes. We found that a small number of oocyte-like cells (testis-ova) differentiated spontaneously in the cysts of type A and early type B spermatogonia in the p53-deficient testes, in contrast to the wild-type (wt) testes in which testis-ova were never found. Furthermore, ionizing radiation (IR) irradiation increased the number of testis-ova in p53-deficient testes, increased testis-ova size and proceeded up to the zygotene or pachytene stages of premature meiosis within 14 days after irradiation. However, 28 days after irradiation, almost all the testis-ova were eliminated presumably by p53-independent apoptosis, and spermatogenesis was restored completely. In the wt testis, IR never induced testis-ova differentiation. This is the first study to demonstrate the pivotal role of the p53 gene in the elimination of spontaneous testis-ova in testes, and that p53 is not indispensable for the restoration of spermatogenesis in the impaired testes in which cell cycle regulation is disturbed by IR irradiation. PMID:23034330

Yasuda, T; Oda, S; Li, Z; Kimori, Y; Kamei, Y; Ishikawa, T; Todo, T; Mitani, H

2012-01-01

290

Cavernous hemangioma of the testis mimicking a testicular teratoma.  

PubMed

In this study we report a case of cavernous hemangioma of the testis, which mimicked a testicular teratoma. A 42-year-old male presented with a left testicular swelling that had arisen suddenly and been present for three months. Scrotal ultrasound revealed a hypoechoic mass with several calcifications in the left testicle. The mass demonstrated blood flow in the color Doppler mode. A radical orchiectomy was performed. Pathological evaluation revealed a testicular cavernous hemangioma with thrombus organization and calcification. PMID:23935725

Liu, Ben; Chen, Jun; Luo, Jindan; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Chaojun; Xie, Liping

2013-07-01

291

Cavernous hemangioma of the testis mimicking a testicular teratoma  

PubMed Central

In this study we report a case of cavernous hemangioma of the testis, which mimicked a testicular teratoma. A 42-year-old male presented with a left testicular swelling that had arisen suddenly and been present for three months. Scrotal ultrasound revealed a hypoechoic mass with several calcifications in the left testicle. The mass demonstrated blood flow in the color Doppler mode. A radical orchiectomy was performed. Pathological evaluation revealed a testicular cavernous hemangioma with thrombus organization and calcification. PMID:23935725

LIU, BEN; CHEN, JUN; LUO, JINDAN; ZHOU, FENG; WANG, CHAOJUN; XIE, LIPING

2013-01-01

292

Testis-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: origin and evolution  

PubMed Central

Background Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) catalyses one of the glycolytic reactions and is also involved in a number of non-glycolytic processes, such as endocytosis, DNA excision repair, and induction of apoptosis. Mammals are known to possess two homologous GAPD isoenzymes: GAPD-1, a well-studied protein found in all somatic cells, and GAPD-2, which is expressed solely in testis. GAPD-2 supplies energy required for the movement of spermatozoa and is tightly bound to the sperm tail cytoskeleton by the additional N-terminal proline-rich domain absent in GAPD-1. In this study we investigate the evolutionary history of GAPD and gain some insights into specialization of GAPD-2 as a testis-specific protein. Results A dataset of GAPD sequences was assembled from public databases and used for phylogeny reconstruction by means of the Bayesian method. Since resolution in some clades of the obtained tree was too low, syntenic analysis was carried out to define the evolutionary history of GAPD more precisely. The performed selection tests showed that selective pressure varies across lineages and isoenzymes, as well as across different regions of the same sequences. Conclusions The obtained results suggest that GAPD-1 and GAPD-2 emerged after duplication during the early evolution of chordates. GAPD-2 was subsequently lost by most lineages except lizards, mammals, as well as cartilaginous and bony fishes. In reptilians and mammals, GAPD-2 specialized to a testis-specific protein and acquired the novel N-terminal proline-rich domain anchoring the protein in the sperm tail cytoskeleton. This domain is likely to have originated by exonization of a microsatellite genomic region. Recognition of the proline-rich domain by cytoskeletal proteins seems to be unspecific. Besides testis, GAPD-2 of lizards was also found in some regenerating tissues, but it lacks the proline-rich domain due to tissue-specific alternative splicing. PMID:21663662

2011-01-01

293

Follicular lymphoma of the submandibular salivary gland  

PubMed Central

Lymphomas are neoplastic diseases of lymph nodes. Lymphoma of the salivary gland is rare accounting for less than 5% of lymphomas overall. Furthermore, lymphomas arising in the submandibular gland are reported to comprise 916% of all salivary gland lymphomas. Among lymphomas originating from salivary glands, the ratio of follicular lymphoma is very low. They can also be seen in the lymph nodes of the salivary glands which is an uncommon presentation. Here, we present a case follicular lymphoma which presented as a salivary gland tumour. PMID:25364171

Shashidara, R.; Prasad, Priyanka R.; Jaishankar; Joseph, Thomas

2014-01-01

294

Salivary Gland Cancer Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence suggests the existence of a tumorigenic population of cancer cells that demonstrate stem cell-like properties such as self-renewal and multipotency. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC), are able to both initiate and maintain tumor formation and progression. Studies have shown that CSC are resistant to traditional chemotherapy treatments preventing complete eradication of the tumor cell population. Following treatment, CSC are able to re-initiate tumor growth leading to patient relapse. Salivary gland cancers are relatively rare but constitute a highly significant public health issue due to the lack of effective treatments. In particular, patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma, the two most common salivary malignancies, have low long-term survival rates due to the lack of response to current therapies. Considering the role of CSC in resistance to therapy in other tumor types, it is possible that this unique sub-population of cells is involved in resistance of salivary gland tumors to treatment. Characterization of CSC can lead to better understanding of the pathobiology of salivary gland malignancies as well as to the development of more effective therapies. Here, we make a brief overview of the state-of-the-science in salivary gland cancer, and discuss possible implications of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the treatment of salivary gland malignancies. PMID:23810400

Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Nör, Jacques E.

2013-01-01

295

Cystic dysplasia of the rete testis. Case report.  

PubMed

Cystic dysplasia of the rete testis (CDRT) is a very rare cause of a paediatric scrotal mass often associated with renal and other genitourinary tract anomalies. These complex malformations are probably due to a developmental defect of the mesometanephric system during embryogenesis. A case of asymptomatic scrotal swelling in a 4-year-old boy is presented. Ultrasonography, showed a cystic lesion of the left testis associated with absence of the left kidney. Orchiectomy was performed because of extensive gonad involvement. Pathologic examination revealed multiple, anastomosing, irregular cystic spaces of varying sizes and shapes predominantly located in the region of the rete testis. The cysts had spread irregularly, displacing the testicular parenchyma, which was subsequently compressed under the tunica albuginea. Preoperative diagnosis of CDRT is easy if age, precise localisation, characteristic ultrasonographic features and other genitourinary malformations are considered. Other paediatric cystic lesions should be included in the differential diagnosis. It is possible to cure CDRT by orchiectomy or by conservative treatment. Nowadays the later option is preferred, but diagnosis of CDRT must be precisely established and followed by careful monitoring. PMID:16309434

Kajo, K; Matoska, J; Javorka, K; Macháleková, K; Tomaskin, R; Kliment, K

2005-10-01

296

Epidermal growth factor mediates spermatogonial proliferation in newt testis  

PubMed Central

The complex processes of spermatogenesis are regulated by various factors. The aim of the current study is to determine the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on spermatogonial proliferation and clarify the mechanism causing the proliferation in newt testis. In the organ culture, EGF stimulated spermatogonial proliferation, but not their differentiation into spermatocytes. cDNA cloning identified 3 members of the EGF receptors, ErbB1, ErbB2, and ErbB4, in the testis. RT-PCR showed that all the receptors cloned were expressed in both Sertoli and germ cells at the spermatogonial stage. In the organ cultures with inhibitors for the EGF receptors, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), the EGF-induced spermatogonial proliferation was suppressed. Furthermore, when the organ culture was exposed to EGF, the expressions of stem cell factor (SCF), immunoglobulin-like domain containing neuregulin1 (Ig-NRG1), and ErbB4 mRNA were increased. These results suggested that, since the spermatogonia are sequestered within cysts by the blood-testis barrier consisted of Sertoli cells, EGF possibly mediates spermatogonial proliferation in an endocrine manner through the receptors including ErbB1, ErbB2, and ErbB4 expressed on Sertoli cells via activation of MAPK cascade or/and PI3K cascade by elevating the expressions of SCF, Ig-NRG1, and ErbB4. PMID:18254942

Abé, Keisuke; Eto, Ko; Abé, Shin-ichi

2008-01-01

297

Polarity Proteins and Cell–Cell Interactions in the Testis  

PubMed Central

In mammalian testes, extensive junction restructuring takes place in the seminiferous epithelium at the Sertoli–Sertoli and Sertoli–germ cell interface to facilitate the different cellular events of spermatogenesis, such as mitosis, meiosis, spermiogenesis, and spermiation. Recent studies in the field have shown that Rho GTPases and polarity proteins play significant roles in the events of cell–cell interactions. Furthermore, Rho GTPases, such as Cdc42, are working in concert with polarity proteins in regulating cell polarization and cell adhesion at both the blood–testis barrier (BTB) and apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES) in the testis of adult rats. In this chapter, we briefly summarize recent findings on the latest status of research and development regarding Cdc42 and polarity proteins and how they affect cell–cell interactions in the testis and other epithelia. More importantly, we provide a new model in which how Cdc42 and components of the polarity protein complexes work in concert with laminin fragments, cytokines, and testosterone to regulate the events of cell–cell interactions in the seminiferous epithelium via a local autocrine-based regulatory loop known as the apical ES—BTB—basement membrane axis. This new functional axis coordinates various cellular events during different stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle of spermatogenesis. PMID:19815182

Wong, Elissa W.P.; Cheng, C. Yan

2009-01-01

298

[Action of the testosterone treated chicken testis on the regression of the Müllerian duct].  

PubMed

After administration of testosterone propionate to male chick embryos and chickens, their testis have an activity, on the retrogression of mullerian ducts, much more important than that observed in testis of normal subjects of the same age, activity measured by grafting testis fragments in undifferentiated female chick embryos. The results suggest that testosterone gives such an effect by inhibiting pituitary gonadotropins, peculiarly FSH. PMID:153170

Maraud, R; Vergnaud, O; Stoll, R

1978-01-01

299

Effects of a simulated microgravity model on cell structure and function in rat testis and epididymis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of simulated microgravity on the structure and function of the testis and epididymis cells was investigated in rats subjected to 7 days of tail suspension. Results of a histological examination revealed presence of disorganized seminiferous tubules and accumulation of large multinucleated cells and spermatids in the lumen of the epididymis. In addition, decreases in the content of testis protein and in testosterone levels in the testis, the interstitial fluid, and the epididymis were observed.

Hadley, Jill A.; Hall, Joseph C.; O'Brien, Ami; Ball, Richard

1992-01-01

300

Extraperitoneal Pelvic laparoscopic disconnection of accessory urethra from normal urethra in a case of urethral duplication  

PubMed Central

We report an extraperitoneal pelvic laparoscopic approach to disconnect accessory urethra from normal urethra in complete urethral duplication. First stage consisted of chordee correction, partial excision of the accessory urethra and glansplasty. In the second stage the remaining accessory urethra was disconnected from the normal urethra through a pre-peritoneal minimal access approach to the retropubic space. The remaining distal mucosa was ablated using monopolar cautery. PMID:24741219

Pant, Nitin; Aggarwal, Satish Kumar

2014-01-01

301

Oncocytic Sialolipoma of the Submandibular Gland  

PubMed Central

Sialolipoma, a rare tumor of the salivary gland, is a recently described variant of salivary gland lipoma. Oncocytic sialolipoma was first described by Pusiol et al. in 2009. We report the case of an oncocytic sialolipoma of the submandibular gland in a 43-year-old female. Excision of the tumor was performed with preservation of the submandibular gland. The tumor had a thin, fibrous capsule and consisted of abundant adipose tissue, an oncocytic nodule, and scattered normal glandular structures surrounded by adipose tissue. Four cases of sialolipoma of the submandibular gland, including the present case, were reviewed. All 4 tumors were developed on the right submandibular glands, with a composition of adipose tissue as high as that of sialolipoma of the parotid gland; in contrast to previous reports, three cases were in females. As newly described tumor type, care should be taken to distinguish oncocytic sialolipoma from other salivary gland neoplasms such as simple lipoma, pleomorphic adenoma, or oncocytoma. PMID:24917915

Ahn, Dongbin; Park, Tae In; Park, Junesik

2014-01-01

302

Oncocytic sialolipoma of the submandibular gland.  

PubMed

Sialolipoma, a rare tumor of the salivary gland, is a recently described variant of salivary gland lipoma. Oncocytic sialolipoma was first described by Pusiol et al. in 2009. We report the case of an oncocytic sialolipoma of the submandibular gland in a 43-year-old female. Excision of the tumor was performed with preservation of the submandibular gland. The tumor had a thin, fibrous capsule and consisted of abundant adipose tissue, an oncocytic nodule, and scattered normal glandular structures surrounded by adipose tissue. Four cases of sialolipoma of the submandibular gland, including the present case, were reviewed. All 4 tumors were developed on the right submandibular glands, with a composition of adipose tissue as high as that of sialolipoma of the parotid gland; in contrast to previous reports, three cases were in females. As newly described tumor type, care should be taken to distinguish oncocytic sialolipoma from other salivary gland neoplasms such as simple lipoma, pleomorphic adenoma, or oncocytoma. PMID:24917915

Ahn, Dongbin; Park, Tae In; Park, Junesik; Heo, Sung Jae

2014-06-01

303

21 CFR 878.4200 - Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...certain physiologic conditions. Examples include irrigation and drainage catheters, pediatric catheters, peritoneal catheters (including dialysis), and other general surgical catheters. An introduction/drainage catheter accessory is...

2010-04-01

304

21 CFR 878.4200 - Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...certain physiologic conditions. Examples include irrigation and drainage catheters, pediatric catheters, peritoneal catheters (including dialysis), and other general surgical catheters. An introduction/drainage catheter accessory is...

2011-04-01

305

Short communication Immunophysiology of the mammary gland  

E-print Network

Short communication Immunophysiology of the mammary gland and transmission of immunity to the young of immunity by the mammary gland from the mother to her offspring is related to the rate of transmission are present in the mammary gland at delivery and during lactation [4, 5]. In the mouse, it has been shown

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

306

Regulation of mammary gland remodelling and lactation  

E-print Network

Session II Regulation of mammary gland remodelling and lactation Dr. Y. Chilliard, Prof. T. Motyl and expression of genes involved in regulation of mammary gland function, genes encoding milk proteins and mammary tissue enzymes; 2. apoptosis as a fundamental process responsible for mammary gland involution; 3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

307

Signaling Pathways in Mammary Gland Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike most other organs, development of the mammary gland occurs predominantly after birth, under the control of steroid and peptide hormones. Once the gland is established, cycles of proliferation, functional differentiation, and death of alveolar epithelium occur repeatedly with each pregnancy. Although it is unique in this respect, the signaling pathways utilized by the gland are shared with other cell

Lothar Hennighausen; Gertraud W. Robinson

2001-01-01

308

[Aging of the pineal gland].  

PubMed

The age-related changes in the pineal gland are functional rather than organic, which makes their correction or prevention more tenable. The amelioration or inhibition of some age-related impairments of the pineal gland were observed with dietary restriction and the use of S-adenosylmethionine or MAO-A inhibitors. A threefold increase in nocturnal melatonin peaks occurs in old rhesus monkeys treated with a synthetic peptide Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly (Epithalon) designed basing on the amino acid content of a pineal peptide extract Epithalamin. Other effects of Epithalon markedly overlap with melatonin effects. Besides life extension in mice and fruit flies, Epithalon effects include the postponing vision loss in Campbell rats with hereditary pigmental dystrophy. A uniting aspect of such a range of activities might be the participation of transcription factors, since they are often highly conservative in evolution and, on the other hand, may be strictly tissue-specific. The targets of Epithalon may include transfactors that in mammals are specific for the pineal gland and retina and exhibit impaired functions in the aged pineal gland. PMID:12096440

Khavinson, V Kh; Golubev, A G

2002-01-01

309

Manipulating the murine lacrimal gland.  

PubMed

The lacrimal gland (LG) secretes aqueous tears necessary for maintaining the structure and function of the cornea, a transparent tissue essential for vision. In the human a single LG resides in the orbit above the lateral end of each eye delivering tears to the ocular surface through 3 - 5 ducts. The mouse has three pairs of major ocular glands, the most studied of which is the exorbital lacrimal gland (LG) located anterior and ventral to the ear. Similar to other glandular organs, the LG develops through the process of epithelial branching morphogenesis in which a single epithelial bud within a condensed mesenchyme undergoes multiple rounds of bud and duct formation to form an intricate interconnected network of secretory acini and ducts. This elaborate process has been well documented in many other epithelial organs such as the pancreas and salivary gland. However, the LG has been much less explored and the mechanisms controlling morphogenesis are poorly understood. We suspect that this under-representation as a model system is a consequence of the difficulties associated with finding, dissecting and culturing the LG. Thus, here we describe dissection techniques for harvesting embryonic and post-natal LG and methods for ex vivo culture of the tissue. PMID:25490187

Finley, Jennifer K; Farmer, D'Juan; Emmerson, Elaine; Cruz Pacheco, Noel; Knox, Sarah M

2014-01-01

310

Effects of mating and accessory gland injections on olfactory-mediated behavior in the female mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, exhibits a preferential switch in certain olfactory-mediated behaviors as a result of mating. Unmated, laboratory-reared, virgin females chose the odor of male-produced pheromone over host fruit odor (guava) in a dual-choice flight tunnel bioassay. Females continued to preferentially respond to the male pheromone for several weeks if not allowed to mate. Mated females

Eric B. Jang

1995-01-01

311

Steroid signaling promotes stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila testis.  

PubMed

Stem cell regulation by local signals is intensely studied, but less is known about the effects of hormonal signals on stem cells. In Drosophila, the primary steroid twenty-hydroxyecdysone (20E) regulates ovarian germline stem cells (GSCs) but was considered dispensable for testis GSC maintenance. Male GSCs reside in a microenvironment (niche) generated by somatic hub cells and adjacent cyst stem cells (CySCs). Here, we show that depletion of 20E from adult males by overexpressing a dominant negative form of the Ecdysone receptor (EcR) or its heterodimeric partner ultraspiracle (usp) causes GSC and CySC loss that is rescued by 20E feeding, uncovering a requirement for 20E in stem cell maintenance. EcR and USP are expressed, activated and autonomously required in the CySC lineage to promote CySC maintenance, as are downstream genes ftz-f1 and E75. In contrast, GSCs non-autonomously require ecdysone signaling. Global inactivation of EcR increases cell death in the testis that is rescued by expression of EcR-B2 in the CySC lineage, indicating that ecdysone signaling supports stem cell viability primarily through a specific receptor isoform. Finally, EcR genetically interacts with the NURF chromatin-remodeling complex, which we previously showed maintains CySCs. Thus, although 20E levels are lower in males than females, ecdysone signaling acts through distinct cell types and effectors to ensure both ovarian and testis stem cell maintenance. PMID:25093968

Li, Yijie; Ma, Qing; Cherry, Christopher M; Matunis, Erika L

2014-10-01

312

Testicular microlithiasis in acquired undescended testis after orchidopexy at diagnosis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to observe the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis (TM) in surgically corrected acquired undescended testis (UDT). The prevalence of TM was assessed by ultrasound. Boys and young men who had undergone orchidopexy (ORP) for acquired UDT in mid or late childhood were observed to study the long-term testicular volume. During this examination, the presence or absence of TM was also assessed. TM was defined as echogenic foci without shadowing within the testis parenchyma. We included 106 patients who had undergone ORP at the Medical Center Alkmaar (1986-1999) and 155 patients who had undergone ORP at the Juliana Children's Hospital (1996-2009). The majority of patients were white, Caucasian (82%). The median age at follow-up, 25.8 years (range 14.0-31.6 years) was higher in Medical Center Alkmaar than in Juliana Children's Hospital 13.4 years (range 5.1-26.6 years). From 2009 to 2011, these 261 patients (median age 18.9 years) underwent an ultrasound examination. Median follow-up after ORP was 11.3 years (range 1.4-23.5 years); age at ORP ranged from 2.1 to 16.2 years, with a median of 8.5 years. TM was found in 17 (6.5%) patients (median age at follow-up 20.4 years; range 11-28). No significant association was found with the incidence of TM and the operated testis, the age at ORP or the racial variance (p > 0.05). ORP at diagnosis for acquired UDT is associated with a 6.5% prevalence of TM in boys and young adults. PMID:24106044

van der Plas, E; Meij-de Vries, A; Goede, J; van der Voort-Doedens, L; Zijp, G; Hack, W

2013-11-01

313

[Ultrasound-guided biopsy of the testis: indications and results].  

PubMed

Ultrasound examination of the testis is the imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of intratesticular focal lesions. In spite of its high sensibility, eco-Doppler-elastography is lacking of specificity in discrimination between benign and malign lesions, not always allowing us to make a definitive diagnosis of malignancy. When a diagnostic doubt persists, for such lesions that are indeterminate at clinical and radiological evaluation, it is possible to recur to ultrasound-guided testicular needle biopsy. This paper describes the main application scenarios of testicular fine-needle aspiration under ultrasound guidance and the experience in our institute. PMID:24042419

Genovese, Eugenio Annibale; Capasso, Raffaella; Izzo, Andrea; Cesarano, Elviro; La Porta, Michele; Amato, Mario; D'Andrea, Alfredo; Coppolino, Francesco; Fonio, Paolo

2013-01-01

314

Testis Scintigraphy in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a pediatric malignancy associated with remissions and relapses. Common relapsing sitesare meninges, testis and ovary. Testicular scintigraphy is a highly specific modality used mainly in the differential diagnosis of testicular torsion and epidydimitis/epidydimo-orchitis. There is only one interesting image on leukemic infiltration with scrotal scintigraphy in the literature. The aim of this case presentation is to report that although the scintigraphic appearance of testicular torsion was observed in a patient with the diagnosis of ALL, testicular ALL infiltration was revealed in pathologic examination. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24653935

?encan Eren, Mine; Koç, Murat; Ören, Hale; Özkal, ?ermin; Durak, Hatice

2014-01-01

315

Evidence for a GABAergic System in Rodent and Human Testis: Local GABA Production and GABA Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), exerts its actions through GABAA, GABAB and GABAC receptors. GABA and GABA receptors are, however, also present in several non-neural tissues, including the endocrine organs pituitary, pancreas and testis. In the case of the rat testis, GABA appears to be linked to the regulation of steroid synthesis by Leydig

Christof Geigerseder; Richard Doepner; Andrea Thalhammer; Monica B. Frungieri; Katia Gamel-Didelon; Ricardo S. Calandra; Frank M. Köhn; Artur Mayerhofer

2003-01-01

316

Intraspecific variation in testis size of small mammals: implications for muscle mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraspecific variation in testis size is usually interpreted in the context of sperm competition, yet an uncon - sidered consequence of increased testis size may be an increase in the production of testosterone, which can affect the growth of muscle mass. After muscle mass is corrected for body size, male small mammals have more muscle mass than females, which suggests

Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde; John S. Millar; Graham J. Hickling

2003-01-01

317

Cystic dysplasia of the testis: a rare cause of painless hemiscrotal enlargement in childhood.  

PubMed

Cystic dysplasia of the testis is a rare, benign cause of painless hemiscrotal enlargement in children. We present two cases of cystic dysplasia of the testis presenting with scrotal enlargement. The diagnosis was based on its specific sonographic findings and on the coexistence of a multicystic dysplastic kidney in one case. PMID:11044942

Koumanidou, C; Theofanopoulou, M; Nikas, J; Vakaki, M; Pitsoulakis, G; Kakavakis, K

2000-01-01

318

Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study  

E-print Network

Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study G. S in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram. The results in these three species were more or less similar. Peroxidase of buffalo, goat and ram. (1) Present address :Reproductive Biology Lab., Dept. of Biology, Guru Nanak Dev

Boyer, Edmond

319

Distribution and fine structure of the lymphatic system in the human testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of lymph vessels in the human testis was investigated using ink injection methods, and light and electron microscopy. Lymph capillaries occur in the septula testis but are absent in the intertubular tissue. They consist of endothelial cells provided with an incomplete basal lamina and anchoring filaments of the adjacent connective tissue. Frequently, the endothelial cells are separated by

A. F. Holstein; G. E. Orlandini; R. Möller

1979-01-01

320

Contribution to the origin and development of the appendices of the testis and epididymis in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydatids, as appendices of testis or epididymis, were discovered by Morgagni in 1703 and 1705 and published by him in 1761. Hydatids are considered to be remnants of the cranial part of the Müllerian duct (MD), Wolffian duct (WD), or mesonephric tubules. They are localized as sessile or pedunculated appendices at the cranial pole of testis and at the head

Monika Jacob; Klaus Barteczko

2005-01-01

321

The vitamin D receptor localization and mRNA expression in ram testis and epididymis.  

PubMed

The objectives of present study were to investigate the presence of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in testis and epididymis of ram by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to locate VDR in testis and epididymis by immunohistochemistry and to compare difference of VDR expression between testis and epididymis before and after sexual maturation by Real time-PCR and Western blot. The results showed that VDR exists in the testis and epididymis of ram while VDR protein in testis and epididymis was localized in Leydig cells, spermatogonial stem cells, spermatocytes, Sertoli cells and principal cells. For the adult ram, the amounts of VDR mRNA and VDR protein were less (p<0.01) in testis than compared with caput, corpus and cauda epididymis. For prepubertal ram, the result showed the same trend (p<0.01). However, the expression levels of VDR mRNA and VDR protein in caput, corpus, cauda epididymis and testis showed no significant difference (p>0.05) between adult and prepubertal. In conclusion, VDR exists in testis and epididymis of ram, suggesting 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 may play a role in ram reproduction. PMID:25582701

Jin, Hui; Huang, Yang; Jin, Guang; Xue, Yanrong; Qin, Xiaowei; Yao, Xiaolei; Yue, Wenbing

2015-02-01

322

Accessory wandering spleen: Report of a case of laparoscopic approach in an asymptomatic patient  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Accessory wandering spleen is a rare but dangerous condition. Abnormalities of the ligamentous apparatus of an accessory spleen may evolve into torsion of its vascular axis, which can lead to a splenic infarct making surgery necessary. Patients are often asymptomatic and the diagnosis can be accidental. An early diagnosis and a correct treatment are fundamental. PRESENTATION OF CASE In this case report a young woman underwent laparoscopic surgery after an incidental finding at a Pelvic Ultrasound of an accessory wandering spleen. DISCUSSION In literature are reported cases of asymptomatic patients with an accessory wandering spleen treated with a conservative approach. However, a torsion or infarct of the accessory wandering spleen leads to emergency surgery. The presence of an independent vascular axis of the accessory spleen reduces the risk of postoperative complications (e.g. thrombocytosis) and the administration of low molecular weight heparin should prevent the risk of portal thrombosis. CONCLUSION We suggest performing surgery with a laparoscopic approach in patients with accessory wandering spleen, though asymptomatic, because of the risk of serious complications in case of accessory spleen torsion. PMID:25460427

Perin, Alessandro; Cola, Roberto; Favretti, Franco

2014-01-01

323

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false End-items, components, accessories, attachments... Enumeration of Articles § 121.8 End-items, components, accessories, attachments...firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item is an assembled article...

2011-04-01

324

21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories... (a) Identification. An isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and...

2013-04-01

325

21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories... (a) Identification. An isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and...

2012-04-01

326

21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories... (a) Identification. An isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and...

2011-04-01

327

21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories... (a) Identification. An isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and...

2014-04-01

328

Electrical recordings from the accessory olfactory bulb in VNO-AOB ex vivo preparations.  

PubMed

Electrical recordings from individual accessory olfactory bulb neurons allow exploration of the functional properties of this important pheromonal processing circuit. Several approaches to performing such recordings have been used. Here, we describe ex vivo methods that we have found useful for recording from accessory olfactory bulb neurons using simple extracellular glass electrodes. PMID:24014366

Meeks, Julian P; Holy, Timothy E

2013-01-01

329

Crystallization of accessory phases in magmas by local saturation adjacent to phenocrysts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accessory minerals commonly occur attached to or included in the major crystalline phases of felsic and some intermediate igneous rocks. Apatite is particularly common as inclusions, but Fe-Ti oxides, pyrrhotite, zircon, monazite, chevkinite and xenotime are also known from silicic rocks. Accessories may nucleate near the host crystal/ liquid interface as a result of local saturation owing to formation of a differentiated chemical boundary layer in which accessory mineral solubility would be lower than in the surrounding liquid. Differentiation of this boundary layer would be greatest adjacent to ferromagnesian phenocrysts, especially Fe-Ti oxides; it is with oxides that accessories are most commonly associated in rocks. A boundary layer may develop if the crystal grows more rapidly than diffusion can transport incorporated and rejected elements to and from the phenocryst. Diffusion must dominate over convection as a mode of mass transfer near the advancing crystal/liquid interface in order for a boundary layer to exist. Accumulation of essential structural constituent elements of accessory minerals owing to their slow diffusion in evolved silicate melt also may force local saturation, but this is not a process that applies to all cases. Local saturation is an attractive mechanism for enhancing fractionation during crystallization differentiation. If accessory minerals attached to or included in phenocrysts formed because of local saturation, their host phenocrysts must have grown rapidly when accessories nucleated in comparison to lifetimes of magma reservoirs. Some inconsistencies remain in a local saturation origin for accessory phases that cannot be evaluated without additional information. ?? 1989.

Bacon, C.R.

1989-01-01

330

21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories... (a) Identification. An isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and...

2010-04-01

331

Intermittent torsion of accessory hepatic lobe: An unusual cause of recurrent right upper quadrant pain  

PubMed Central

An accessory lobe of the liver is a rare congenital anomaly that can undergo torsion and present as an acute surgical emergency. It is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. We report the preoperative utility of CT scan and MRI in the diagnosis and surgical planning of a case of intermittent accessory hepatic lobe torsion. PMID:20607028

Jambhekar, Kedar; Pandey, Tarun; Kaushik, Chhavi; Shah, Hemendra R

2010-01-01

332

Efferents and Centrifugal Afferents of the Main and Accessory Olfactory Bulbs in the Snake Thamnophis sirtalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reinvestigates the efferent projections of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs and describes for the first time the centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs in the snake Thamnophis sirtalis, using the intraaxonal transport of the anterograde and retrograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine and the retrograde tracer horseradish peroxidase. The olfactory projection consists of three tracts:

Enrique Lanuza; Mimi Halpern

1998-01-01

333

Influence of thyroxine and luteinizing hormone on some enzymes concerned with lipogenesis in adipose tissue, testis and adrenal gland  

PubMed Central

The activities of hexokinase, citrate-cleavage enzyme, `malic enzyme' and NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase have been measured in the adipose tissue, testes and adrenals of normal rats, hypophysectomized rats and hypophysectomized rats treated with either thyroxine or thyroxine plus luteinizing hormone. Hypophysectomy reduced the activity of all four enzymes in all three tissues. Thyroxine alone restored the activity of all four enzymes in adipose tissue towards normal but failed to do so in either testes or adrenals. Thyroxine and luteinizing hormone restored the citrate-cleavage enzyme activity of testes and increased the activity of hexokinase from the low value after hypophysectomy. Neither `malic enzyme' nor isocitrate dehydrogenase was increased by thyroxine or thyroxine and luteinizing hormone in testes. The differential stimulation of enzyme activity by thyroxine in the different tissues suggests thyroxine as having a special significance in adipose-tissue lipogenesis. PMID:6008341

Brown, J.; McLean, Patricia; Greenbaum, A. L.

1966-01-01

334

A case of cystic dysplasia of the rete testis in a 17-months-old boy.  

PubMed

Cystic dysplasia of the testis (CDT) is a benign, congenital malformation of the testis and a rare cause of painless scrotal swelling in children, mimicking testicular cancer. It is commonly unilateral, often associated with ipsilateral wolffian duct and ureteral abnormalities. Cystic dysplasia of the rete testis (CDT) represents a diagnostic challenge made easier if age, precise localisation, typical ultrasonographic features, the presence or absence of associated genitourinary malformations, as well as tumor markers are considered. The definite treatment of such a benign lesion is testis-sparing surgery, however in most cases watch and wait strategy can be recommended. We present a case of cystic dysplasia of the testis in a 17-month-old boy with right multicystic dysplastic kidney, epididymal cyst, history of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), as well as of solitary umbilical artery. We performed epididymidal cyst enucleation and right testicular biopsy. PMID:21765843

Poupalou, Anna; Spyridis, George; Vakaki, Marina; Giamarelou, Panagiota; Petousis, George; Nikolaidis, Pantelis

2011-01-01

335

[Focal surgery in testis cancer: current state of the art].  

PubMed

Radical orchiectomy is the standard treatment of testicular neoplasia causing androgen insufficiency, infertility and psychological stress. Focal surgery allows the preservation of fertility, endocrine function and integrity of the genital anatomy, with preservation of the image of the male body. The EAU guidelines suggest focal surgery in case of synchronous bilateral tumors, metachronous contralateral tumours, tumour in solitary testis with normal pre-operative testosterone levels, when the tumor volume less than 30% of the testicular volume. There are two focal surgical techniques: tumorectomy and polar resection, followed by biopsies and frozen section of the resection bed. In case of benign tumours, the treatment is often curative. In case of malignancy, carcinoma in situ is frequently found in the surrounding tissues. Adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy is performed with a fair success rate. These adjuvant treatments reduce or delete the functional benefits achieved by conservative surgery. The evidence of the literature suggests that focal surgery is a valid option for all patients with testicular tumours that are not palpable and small sized, with the advantage of avoiding unnecessary radical orchiectomy in most cases. Therefore, the selection criteria for focal surgery are the mass size (less than 25 mm) and a safety distance of the tumor from the rete testis, in order to preserve testicular vascularization. A close follow-up with ultrasound, testicular markers and radiological examinations is mandatory in case of germ cell neoplasia treated conservatively in patients with indications for conservative surgery. PMID:24419923

Palermo, Giuseppe; Antonucci, Michele; Recupero, Salvatore Marco; Fiorillo, Alessandro; Vittori, Matteo; Bassi, Pier Francesco; Gulino, Gaetano

2013-01-01

336

Effects of hyperthermia and radiation on mouse testis stem cells  

SciTech Connect

The response of mouse testis stem cells to hyperthermia and combined hyperthermia-radiation treatments was assayed by spermatogenic colony regrowth, sperm head counts, testis weight loss, and fertility. With the use of spermatogenic colony assay, thermal enhancement ratios at an isosurvival level of 0.1 were 1.27 at 41 degrees, 1.80 at 42 degrees, and 3.97 at 43 degrees for testes exposed to heat for 30 min prior to irradiation. Sperm head counts were reduced by heat alone from a surviving fraction of 0.58 at 41 degrees to 0.003 at 42.5-43.5 degrees. Curves for sperm head survival measured 56 days after the testes had been heated for 30 min prior to irradiation were biphasic and showed a progressive downward displacement to lower survival with increasing temperature. The 41, 42, and 43 degrees curves were displaced downward by factors of 2, 58, and 175, respectively. The proportion of animals remaining sterile after 30 min of heat (41-43 degrees) and the median sterility period in days increased with increasing temperature. The minimum sperm count necessary to regain fertility was 13% of the normal mouse level.

Reid, B.O.; Mason, K.A.; Withers, H.R.; West, J.

1981-11-01

337

The effects of prepubertal epididymal ligation upon the rat testis  

PubMed Central

Background: Previous researches about the effects of epididymal obstruction on the testes are contradictory, and the mechanism harmful effect of male duct system obstruction on seminiferous tubules still remains unclear. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of epididymal obstruction in prepubertal rats on the testis. Materials and Methods: 15 days of age, the young rats were divided at random in two groups for epididymal ligation (n=25) or sham operation (n=15). Both groups were sacrificed at 21, 35, 56, 90, 120 days. The testis were removed, fixed in Bouin’s fixative and embedded in paraffin wax. The tissues were sectioned at 5 µm and stained with haematoxylin-eosin and triple stain. Results: In ligated rats the first histological alterations were detected at 56 days. These degenerative changes included increase at the seminiferous tubule diameter and basal membrane thickness, decrease at the germinal epithelium thickness, depletion of spermatids and presence of multinucleated spermatids. In 90 and 120 days ligation groups; germ cells greatly reduced in number. Conclusion: progressive degenerative alterations occurred in the seminiferous tubules after prepubertal epididymal obstruction but these degenerative alterations are not observed until puberta and in the seminiferous tubules that showed extensive degeneration, seminiferous epithelium was composed mainly of Sertoli cells. PMID:25469125

Gur, Fatih Mehmet; Timurkaan, Sema

2014-01-01

338

Human testis-specific genes are under relaxed negative selection.  

PubMed

Recent studies have suggested that selective forces and constraints acting on genes varied during human evolution depending on the organ in which they are expressed. To gain insight into the evolution of organ determined negative selection forces, we compared the non-synonymous SNP diversity of genes expressed in different organs. Based on a HAPMAP dataset, we determined for each SNP its frequency in 11 human populations and, in each case, predicted whether or not the change it produces is deleterious. We have shown that, for all organs under study, SNPs predicted to be deleterious are present at a significantly lower frequency than SNPs predicted to be tolerated. However, testis-specific genes contain a higher proportion of deleterious SNPs than other organs. This study shows that negative selection is acting on the whole human genome, but that the action of negative selection is relaxed on testis-specific genes. This result adds to and expands the hypothesis of a recent evolutionary change in the human male reproductive system and its behavior. PMID:24202551

Pierron, Denis; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Rocher, Christophe; Letellier, Thierry; Grossman, Lawrence I

2014-02-01

339

[Radiology of the adrenal glands].  

PubMed

An important principle of diagnostic imaging of the adrenal glands is to characterize an adrenal mass as an adenoma using computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. Most techniques exploit the fact that typical adrenal adenomas are lipid-rich so that lipid-poor adenomas, however, remain a diagnostic problem. A CT attenuation ??10 HU, more than 10% negative pixels as demonstrated by histogram analysis, an absolute washout of more than 60%, a relative washout of more than 40% and a signal drop of more than 20% in opposed-phase images are characteristic for adrenal adenomas. Endocrine dysfunction is diagnosed biochemically and not by means of imaging but are necessary to localize a functioning tumor. An important principle is to combine anatomical with functional imaging studies. Percutaneous biopsy of adrenal glands is only indicated when an adrenal mass is the only potential metastasis of a diagnosed primary tumor. PMID:22584484

Saleh, A

2012-05-01

340

EFFECT OF INFLAMMATION ON LACRIMAL GLAND FUNCTION  

PubMed Central

The lacrimal gland is the main contributor to the aqueous layer of the tear film. It secretes proteins, electrolytes and water, which helps to nourish and protect the ocular surface. Lacrimal gland secretion is primarily under neural control, which is achieved through a neural reflex arc. Stimuli to the ocular surface activate afferent sensory nerves in the cornea and conjunctiva. This in turn activates efferent parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves in the lacrimal gland to stimulate secretion. Sex steroid hormones are also important regulators of lacrimal gland functions. A decrease or lack of lacrimal gland secretion is the leading cause of aqueous tear deficient dry eye syndrome (DES). It has been suggested that DES is an inflammatory disorder that affects the ocular surface and the lacrimal gland. In several pathological instances, the lacrimal gland can become a target of the immune system and show signs of inflammation. This can result from autoimmune diseases (Sjögren's syndrome), organ transplantation (graft versus host disease), or simply as a result of aging. The hallmarks of lacrimal gland inflammation are the presence of focal lymphocytic infiltrates and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. The mechanisms leading to lacrimal gland dysfunction are still poorly understood. Apoptosis, production of autoantibodies, hormonal imbalance, alterations in signaling molecules, neural dysfunction, and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines have been proposed as possible mediators of lacrimal gland insufficiency in disease states. PMID:16309672

Zoukhri, Driss

2005-01-01

341

[An epidermoid cyst derived from an intrapancreatic accessory spleen].  

PubMed

A 43-year-old female patient had high levels of CA19-9 marker; an abdominal ultrasound revealed a cyst. Further investigations with computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and endoscopic ultrasound CT identified a multilocular cystic lesion on the pancreatic tail. An abnormal wall was noted, and different signal strengths were measured in each cyst. Thus, a mucinous cystic tumor was diagnosed, and distal pancreatectomy combined with splenectomy was performed. During the surgery, we identified a multilocular pancreatic cyst with internal bleeding at its distal end. The lesion was ultimately diagnosed as an epidermoid cyst of an intrapancreatic accessory spleen. This diagnosis was based on the histological observation that the vascular construction of the cystic wall was equivalent to that of the spleen, and that its internal tissue was covered by squamous epithelium. PMID:24598102

Shinohara, Fumi; Furukawa, Yoshinari; Itsuki, Hiroshi; Sakano, Ayaka; Hananoki, Mutsumi; Kurushima, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Nori; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Fujihara, Megumu

2014-03-01

342

Evolution of the continental crust as recorded in accessory minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in precise in situ isotopic analysis by LA-ICPMS and SIMS allow correlating multiple isotopic systems within single grains of accessory minerals such as zircon and monazite. The combined isotope systematics have provided valuable insights into the evolution of the continental crust. Zircon, a common accessory phase in granitoids, can be precisely dated by the U-Pb system. Zircon Lu-Hf isotopic composition is a function of crustal residence time of the magmatic protolith, whereas the O isotopic composition is a sensitive record of reworking of mature sediments such as pelite. An integration of U-Pb, Lu-Hf and O isotopic data for detrital zircons from modern large rivers indicates that: (1) the preserved continental crust dominantly formed between 3.6 and 1.0 Ga, (2) the major mode of crustal development would change during the supercontinent cycle, i.e., the generation of juvenile crust during supercontinent fragmentation versus the stabilization of the generated crust via crustal remelting during supercontinent fragmentation, and (3) reworking of mature sediments increased abruptly at ca. 2.1 Ga. No granitoids are known to have survived since 4.03 Ga. Yet evidence of an even older evolved crust is provided by detrital zircons with ages up to 4.4 Ga from Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks in the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Recently, such Hadean zircons have been found from outside the Yilgarn Craton, indicating that the young Earth had widespread granitoid crust. In addition, another accessory phase, monazite, in the Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks offers an unique opportunity to advance our knowledge of early crustal evolution. Monazite, a light rare earth element phosphate mineral, occurs as an igneous accessory phase particularly in low-Ca granitoids, in contrast to the occurrence of igneous zircon in a wide range of granitoids. U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope systematic of monazite are analogous to U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope systematics of zircon in that they define the timing of the crystallization and magmatic protolith formation (model age), respectively. The lack of monazites having >3.6 Ga crystallization ages as well as >4.0 Ga Nd model ages in the Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks suggests that the source rocks of the Hadean detrital zircons are not low-Ca granitoids and therefore contained few monazites. Given that low-Ca granitoid magmas generated mainly by melting of pre-existing mid-lower crust, this finding may indicate minor intra-crustal melting and, by extension, crustal stabilization until ca. 3.6 Ga. This is consistent with the picture portrayed by the detrital zircons from modern rivers. Presumably, the hotter and rheologically weaker lithospheric mantle fostered many small plates and island arcs early in Earth's history, and the young arc crust was efficiently returned to the mantle via subduction. Accordingly, net growth of continental crust was essentially minor in early Earth's history despite high rates of crust generation.

Iizuka, Tsuyoshi

2013-04-01

343

Accessory pathway for sound transfer in a neotropical frog.  

PubMed

A portion of the lateral body wall overlying the lung cavity of the arboreal frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui, vibrates in response to free-field sound. Peak displacement amplitude of the body wall in response to a natural call note presented at 73 decibels sound pressure level is 1.70 X 10(-9) m, roughly 8 decibels less than that of the ipsilateral eardrum, as measured by laser Doppler vibrometry. We show that the vibration magnitude varies predictably across the body profile and is posture and frequency dependent. Two routes to the inner ear are described for sounds impinging on the body wall; either of these accessory pathways could modify direct input from the peripheral auditory system and enhance sound localization in these small vertebrates. PMID:3422747

Narins, P M; Ehret, G; Tautz, J

1988-03-01

344

Geomorphic mapping of floodplain accessory channels with implications for floodplain morphodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floodplain morphology plays a key role in routing of floodwaters, sediment transport during floods, and the mechanics of the main channel. High-resolution topographic data (e.g., LiDAR) reveal a wealth of previously unappreciated geomorphic floodplain features. Using 1.5-m LiDAR data from Indiana, we found that the floodplains of Indiana rivers often contain a large number of secondary accessory channels. Accessory channels are subordinate to the main channel and are only active during flood stage, which is confirmed by Landsat images of inundated floodplains. Individual accessory channels are linear to sinuous, having widths ranging from 15 to 35% of the main channel, and lengths ranging from 500 to 3500 meters. On the White River, for example, the accessory channels account for ~25% of the floodplain area and these accessory channels are numerous and wide enough that during a ~10-year flood they conveyed all the flood discharge, leaving the inter-channel areas dry. To assess the pervasiveness of floodplain accessory channels, we inventoried all the floodplains of Indiana rivers having channel widths greater than 20 m. We constrained the mapping to the modern floodplains of each river, avoiding terraced floodplains related to the last glacial maximum. In total, we mapped 1100 km2 of floodplain; 55% of that area showed evidence for floodplain accessory channels. Moreover, there is a high concentration of floodplains exhibiting floodplain accessory channels in south-central Indiana occurring along the transition from glacial till into bedrock. Our preliminary hypothesis for the formation of floodplain accessory channels is that the channels form by connecting preexisting topographic lows, such as abandoned meander loops. Geomorphic mapping of a 7-km stretch of the floodplain along the White River reveals that the concave portions of accessory channels are associated with scroll-bar topography and abandoned meander loops from the main channel. In fact, 73% of the accessory channels annexed abandoned meander loops. Based on this, we conclude that accessory channels are associated with meandering rivers because frequent meander-loop cutoffs of the main channel create preexisting conduits that are then linked together during floods. These long coherent down-valley accessory channels have important implications for the morphodynamics of floodplains and flood-wave propagation.

David, S. R.; Edmonds, D. A.; Letsinger, S. L.; Hajek, E. A.

2013-12-01

345

Identification and significance of accessory minerals from a bituminous coal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used to study the in situ accessory minerals in polished blocks and pellets of petrographically analysed samples of the Waynesburg coal (hvb). Individual grains from the low-temperature ash (LTA) of the same coal were also studied. The visual resolution of the SEM permitted the detection of submicron mineral grains, which could then be analysed by the attached energy-dispersive system. Emphasis was placed on the highly reflective grains in the carbominerite bands. Among the most abundant accessory minerals observed were rutile, zircon, and rare-earth-bearing minerals. Small (1-5 ??m) particles of what may be authigenic iron-rich chromite and a nickel silicate form rims on quartz grains. The SEM also permits the observation of grain morphology and mineral intergrowths. These data are useful in determining authigenicity and diagenic alteration. Substances in density splits of LTA include authigenic, detrital, extraterrestrial magnetite, tourmaline, and evaporite (?) minerals, and a fluorine-bearing amphibole. This analytical approach allows the determination of specific sites for many of the trace elements in coals. In the Waynesburg coal, most of the chromium is in the iron-chromium rims, the fluorine is in the amphibole, and the rare-earth elements are in rare-earth-bearing minerals. The ability to relate trace-element data to specific minerals will aid in predicting the behaviour of elements in coal during combustion, liquefaction, gasification, weathering, and leaching processes. This ability also permits insight into the degree of mobility of these elements in coal and provides clues to sedimentological and diagenetic conditions. ?? 1978.

Finkelman, R.B.; Stanton, R.W.

1978-01-01

346

Dermoscopy of accessory nipples in authors’ own study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The accessory nipple (AN) is characterised by its network-like structures, which may suggest the diagnosis of a melanocytic lesion. The knowledge about additional dermoscopic features of AN may greatly minimise the risk of unnecessary surgical excisions. Aim To analyse and present different clinical and dermoscopic forms, in which the AN may appear. Material and methods Ninety AN with dermoscopic features were evaluated in the study, detected in 14 patients between the years 2008 and 2014. Results The most common dermoscopic features of the AN were central, scar-like areas (15/19) and peripheral network-like structures (12/19). A number of cleft-like appearances (8/19) and central network-like structures (7/19) had also been observed. Moreover, among the dermoscopic features, white cobblestone-like structures (7/19), a central round dimpling with a plug (6/19) and fisheye-like structures resembling comedo-like openings (9/19) have all also been noted. There is a statistical significance in the occurrence of white cobblestone-like structures with central network-like structures (Fisher's exact test p = 0.0449). The presence of peripheral network-like structures with the occurrence of central scar-like areas was statistically highly significant (p = 0.0091). The central round dimpling was never observed alongside any central network-like structures in any of the lesions (p = 0.0436). Conclusions Accessory nipples are most commonly characterised by the occurrence of a peripheral network-like structure accompanied by the presence of a scar-like area. PMID:25097482

Szymszal, Jan; Silny, Wojciech

2014-01-01

347

[Adrenal gland hemangioma: a case report].  

PubMed

Hemangioma is a benign vascular tumor composed of angioblastic cells. The adrenal gland localization is very rare, with only fifty cases reported in literature. We report a case of adrenal gland hemangioma diagnosed in a 55-year-old woman who presented a cervical neoplasm. The non-specific imaging features, the tumor size and the clinical context led to mandatory surgical resection. The pathological examination established the diagnosis of adrenal gland hemangioma. PMID:17194976

Harzallah, L; Zouari, L; Ben Chérifa, L; Harzallah, F; Sriha, B; Bakir, D; Kraiem, Ch

2006-12-01

348

Yolk-sac–derived macrophages regulate fetal testis vascularization and morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Organogenesis of the testis is initiated when expression of Sry in pre-Sertoli cells directs the gonad toward a male-specific fate. The cells in the early bipotential gonad undergo de novo organization to form testis cords that enclose germ cells inside tubules lined by epithelial Sertoli cells. Although Sertoli cells are a driving force in the de novo formation of testis cords, recent studies in mouse showed that reorganization of the vasculature and of interstitial cells also play critical roles in testis cord morphogenesis. However, the mechanism driving reorganization of the vasculature during fetal organogenesis remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that fetal macrophages are associated with nascent gonadal and mesonephric vasculature during the initial phases of testis morphogenesis. Macrophages mediate vascular reorganization and prune errant germ cells and somatic cells after testis architecture is established. We show that gonadal macrophages are derived from primitive yolk-sac hematopoietic progenitors and exhibit hallmarks of M2 activation status, suggestive of angiogenic and tissue remodeling functions. Depletion of macrophages resulted in impaired vascular reorganization and abnormal cord formation. These findings reveal a previously unappreciated role for macrophages in testis morphogenesis and suggest that macrophages are an intermediary between neovascularization and organ architecture during fetal organogenesis. PMID:24912173

DeFalco, Tony; Bhattacharya, Indrashis; Williams, Alyna V.; Sams, Dustin M.; Capel, Blanche

2014-01-01

349

Salivary Gland Development: A Template for Regeneration  

PubMed Central

The mammalian salivary gland develops as a highly branched structure designed to produce and secrete saliva. This review will focus on research on mouse submandibular gland development and the translation of this basic research towards therapy for patients suffering from salivary hypofunction. Here we review the most recent literature that has enabled a better understanding of the mechanisms of salivary gland development. Additionally, we discuss approaches proposed to restore salivary function using gene and cell-based therapy. Increasing our understanding of the developmental mechanisms involved during development is critical to design effective therapies for regeneration and repair of damaged glands. PMID:24333774

Patel, Vaishali N.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

2014-01-01

350

The effect of opium dependency on testis volume: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background: Given the paucity of data on possible testis changes in opioid dependents, we sought to compare the testis volumes between a group of opium dependents and a group of healthy controls. Objective: Comparison of testis volume between opium dependents and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: This case-control study recruited 100 men with opium dependency (cases) and 100 healthy men (controls) in Iran, in 2008. A checklist containing questions about age, height, weight, daily amount of cigarette use, and duration of cigarette use for all the participants as well as daily amount of opium use (grams) and duration of opium use (years) for the case group was completed. Additionally, the dimensions of each testis were measured by a single person using calipers, and the mean of the left and right testes volume was compared between these two groups. Results: The mean of the testis volumes in the case group was significantly lower than that of the case group (11.2±2.2 and 25.1±2.7cm³, p<0.001). The results of the ANCOVA test showed that even after the omission of the cigarette smoking effect (p=0.454), the testis volume remained lower in the opium dependents (R2=0.884, p<0.001). In the case group, there were significant reverse correlations between testis volume and age (r=-0.404, p<0.001), daily amount of opium use (r=-0/207, p=0.039) and duration of opium use (r=-0.421, p<0.001). Conclusion: We found that the testis volume in the male opium dependents was lower than that of the healthy controls. We would recommend that future studies into the impact of drugs on the testis dimensions pay heed to possible histological changes in the testes owing to opium dependency. PMID:25246920

Cyrus, Ali; Solhi, Hassan; Azizabadi Farahani, Mahdi; Khoddami Vishteh, Hamid Reza; Goudarzi, Davoud; Mosayebi, Ghasem; Mohamadian, Hamed

2012-01-01

351

Effects of plants and plant products on the testis  

PubMed Central

For centuries, plants and plant-based products have been used as a valuable and safe natural source of medicines for treating various ailments. The therapeutic potential of most of these plants could be ascribed to their anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antispasmodic, analgesic and various other pharmacological properties. However, several commonly used plants have been reported to adversely affect male reproductive functions in wildlife and humans. The effects observed with most of the plant and plant-based products have been attributed to the antispermatogenic and/or antisteroidogenic properties of one or more active ingredients. This review discusses the detrimental effects of some of the commonly used plants on various target cells in the testis. A deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of action of these natural compounds could pave the way for developing therapeutic strategies against their toxicity. PMID:20562897

D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia; Vaithinathan, Selvaraju; Jubendradass, Rajamanickam; Mathur, Premendu Prakash

2010-01-01

352

Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination  

SciTech Connect

The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

1984-08-01

353

Microvascular autotransplantation of the testis: the "refluo" technique.  

PubMed

We think that the microvascular orchidopexy is the best technique for the treatment of the high intraabdominal testis. To prevent the problems related to the performing of the anastomosis between the spermatic and the inferior epigastric arteries we changed the traditional way for microvascular orchidopexy performing the venous anastomosis only, relying on the collateral deferential circle for the arterial supply; we called this technique the "refluo testicular autotransplantation". We supported our idea with an experimental investigation in rats and rabbits, with which we confirmed the efficacy of our proposal. This original technique, performed in 41 cases, allowed us to gain three important ends: a) reduction of the age at operation (under two years); b) reduction of the operating time (2 hours); c) improved success rate compared with the Fowler-Stephens technique or staged orchidopexy. PMID:9402488

Dòmini, R; Lima, M; Dòmini, M

1997-10-01

354

Birth dates of men with cancer of the testis.  

PubMed Central

A recent rise in the incidence of cancer of the testis in affluent countries and affluent social strata suggests either an iatrogenic effect analogous with adenocarcinoma of the vagina or a prenatal infection analogous with congenital rubella syndrome. Three samples were assembled, two based on registration and one on death certification, and dates of birth were examined for the presence of steps, cycles, and irregular clusters. There was no evidence of a sudden step, and only equivocal evidence of clustering, but there was strong evidence of a temporal cycle. The cycle has a four-month period, analogous with a school-term-related cyclical component identified in other diseases. A prenatal infection is strongly suggested, but the pattern enables us to exclude many of the common childhood infectious fevers. PMID:4045366

Knox, E G; Cummins, C

1985-01-01

355

Ultrastructure of Spermatogenesis in the Testis of Paragonimus heterotremus  

PubMed Central

Lung fluke, Paragonimus heterotremus, is a flatworm causing pulmonary paragonimiasis in cats, dogs, and humans in Southeast Asia. We examined the ultrastructure of the testis of adult P. heterotremus with special attention to spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The full sequence of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, from the capsular basal lamina to the luminal surface, was demonstrated. The sequence comprises spermatogonia, spermatocytes with obvious nuclear synaptonemal complexes, spermatids, and eventual spermatozoa. Moreover, full steps of spermatid differentiation were shown which consisted of 1) early stage, 2) differentiation stage representing the flagella, intercentriolar body, basal body, striated rootlets, and electron dense nucleus of thread-like lamellar configuration, and 3) growing spermatid flagella. Detailed ultrastructure of 2 different types of spermatozoa was also shown in this study. PMID:24516272

Uabundit, Nongnut; Kanla, Pipatphong; Puthiwat, Phongphithak; Arunyanart, Channarong; Chaiciwamongkol, Kowit; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Iamsaard, Sitthichai

2013-01-01

356

Simple cyst of the testis: a rare and benign cause of testicular swelling in infancy.  

PubMed

We report a five-month-old boy who was referred to the hospital with a presumptive diagnosis of hydrocele of the cord. Ultrasonography revealed a cystic mass within the left testis. A complete removal of the cystic mass was done. Histopathological diagnosis was simple cyst of the testis. This rare lesion should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic testicular lesions in infancy. The treatment of choice is simple enucleation of the cyst with sparing of the testis and related structures. PMID:18246753

Güçer, Safak; Tanyel, Cahit; Ca?lar, Melda

2007-01-01

357

Effect of the extract of Thespesia populnea leaves on mice testis.  

PubMed

Male swiss mice were administered with the leaf extract of Thespesia populnea at a daily dose of 400 mg/kg body weight for 15 days and the testis were subjected to structural analysis. The structure of the seminiferous tubule in the testis of treated animal was elongated. Sertoli cells were enlarged in its structure and spermatids became round and disintegrated. It is suggested that the extract of T. populnea treatment leads to pathological changes in the seminiferous tubules, Sertoli cells and spermatids of the testis. PMID:15259611

Krishnamoorthy, P; Vaithinathan, S

2003-07-01

358

Dynamics of INSL3 peptide expression in the rodent testis.  

PubMed

The Leydig cell-specific factor insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) is involved in testicular descent during embryo development, and has been suggested to regulate spermatogenesis and bone metabolism in the adult. Using a new, sensitive assay specific for rodent INSL3, we have mapped the secretion of INSL3 into peripheral blood in mice and during postnatal male rat development (in female rats, circulating INSL3 is at the level of detection). Maximum INSL3 is measured at Postnatal Day (PD) 40 in the rat and decreases to a significantly lower, stable value by PD60, indicating an "overshoot" effect in the establishment of Leydig cell functionality during the first wave of spermatogenesis. Aging rats ( approximately 24 mo) have markedly reduced circulating INSL3 levels, as do humans. Treatment of young adult rats with ethane dimethylsulfonate (EDS) leads to loss of mature Leydig cells and no detectable INSL3 in peripheral blood. INSL3 can be detected first at Day 27 after EDS treatment, returning to near normal levels by Day 37. Both primary rat Leydig cells and the mouse MA-10 tumor cell line secrete substantial amounts of INSL3 into the culture media in a constitutive manner, unregulated by common effectors, including hCG. Analysis of different testicular fluid compartments shows highest INSL3 concentration in the interstitial fluid (391.4 +/- 47.8 ng/ml). However, INSL3 evidently traverses the blood-testis barrier to enter the seminiferous compartment, rete testis, and epididymis in sufficient concentration to be able to address the specific INSL3 receptors (RXFP2) on post-meiotic germ cells and in the epididymis. PMID:19420383

Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Heng, Kee; Hafen, Bettina; Setchell, Brian; Ivell, Richard

2009-09-01

359

[MRI of the pineal gland.  

PubMed

The pineal gland (CP) is located centrally in the brain and produces melatonin. Cysts and concrements are frequent findings on MRI but their significance is still unclear. The visualization of CP is difficult due to its location and surrounding structures and so far, no standardized method exists. New studies suggest a correlation between CP-morphology and melatonin secretion as well as a connection between melatonin, disturbed circadian rhythm, and the development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, underlining the need for a standardized approach to CP on MRI. PMID:25394927

Langevad, Line; Madsen, Camilla Gøbel; Siebner, Hartwig; Garde, Ellen

2014-11-10

360

The Impact of Long-Term Exposure to Space Environment on Adult Mammalian Organisms: A Study on Mouse Thyroid and Testis  

PubMed Central

Hormonal changes in humans during spaceflight have been demonstrated but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. To clarify this point thyroid and testis/epididymis, both regulated by anterior pituitary gland, have been analyzed on long-term space-exposed male C57BL/10 mice, either wild type or pleiotrophin transgenic, overexpressing osteoblast stimulating factor-1. Glands were submitted to morphological and functional analysis. In thyroids, volumetric ratios between thyrocytes and colloid were measured. cAMP production in 10?7M and 10?8M thyrotropin-treated samples was studied. Thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were quantitized by immunoblotting and localized by immunofluorescence. In space-exposed animals, both basal and thyrotropin-stimulated cAMP production were always higher. Also, the structure of thyroid follicles appeared more organized, while thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were overexpressed. Unlike the control samples, in the space samples thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were both observed at the intracellular junctions, suggesting their interaction in specific cell membrane microdomains. In testes, immunofluorescent reaction for 3?- steroid dehydrogenase was performed and the relative expressions of hormone receptors and interleukin-1? were quantified by RT-PCR. Epididymal sperm number was counted. In space-exposed animals, the presence of 3? and 17? steroid dehydrogenase was reduced. Also, the expression of androgen and follicle stimulating hormone receptors increased while lutenizing hormone receptor levels were not affected. The interleukin 1 ? expression was upregulated. The tubular architecture was altered and the sperm cell number was significantly reduced in spaceflight mouse epididymis (approx. ?90% vs. laboratory and ground controls), indicating that the space environment may lead to degenerative changes in seminiferous tubules. Space-induced changes of structure and function of thyroid and testis/epididymis could be responsible for variations of hormone levels in human during space missions. More research, hopefully a reflight of MDS, would be needed to establish whether the space environment acts directly on the peripheral glands or induces changes in the hypotalamus-pituitary-glandular axis. PMID:22558148

Masini, Maria Angela; Albi, Elisabetta; Barmo, Cristina; Bonfiglio, Tommaso; Bruni, Lara; Canesi, Laura; Cataldi, Samuela; Curcio, Francesco; D'Amora, Marta; Ferri, Ivana; Goto, Katsumasa; Kawano, Fuminori; Lazzarini, Remo; Loreti, Elisabetta; Nakai, Naoya; Ohira, Takashi; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Palmero, Silvio; Prato, Paola; Ricci, Franco; Scarabelli, Linda; Shibaguchi, Tsubasa; Spelat, Renza; Strollo, Felice; Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco Saverio

2012-01-01

361

What Are the Key Statistics about Salivary Gland Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... for salivary gland cancer? What are the key statistics about salivary gland cancer? Salivary gland cancers are ... be better or worse than this.) For more statistics related to survival, see the section “ Survival rates ...

362

Seasonal changes in circulating testosterone and androstenedione concentration and their correlation with the anomalous reproductive pattern in the male indian sheath-tailed bat, Taphozous longimanus.  

PubMed

The relationship between reproductive organs, circulating testosterone, and androstenedione concentration in the male sheath-tailed bat, Taphozous longimanus, was studied. The masses of testis, accessory sex gland (prostate, ampullary), and epididymides showed three peaks, one each in October, January, and April. Monthly changes in testosterone also peaked during October, January, and April and closely coincided with the peak spermatogenesis. Serum androstenedione concentration peaked during November and January. Testosterone showed a strong correlation with masses of testis and accessory sex glands, while androstenedione showed strong correlation with the body mass. Different threshold levels of testosterone may be required to trigger spermatogenesis, secretory activity of accessory sex glands and mating in Taphozous longimanus and may be responsible for reproductive asynchrony in this species. Higher circulating concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione throughout the year in this species, as compared with other mammalian species, may be responsible for prolonged retention of sperm in the epididymides. PMID:10861550

Singh, U P; Krishna, A

2000-06-15

363

Distribution of lactoferrin in human salivary glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immunoperoxidase technique was used to study the distribution of lactoferrin (LF) in human salivary glands from autopsy tissues fixed in Carnoy's fluid for the optimal preservation of LF antigenicity. Specific LF staining was seen in the intralobular ducts of all salivary glands but never in the interlobular ducts; acinar LF was detected in most serous demilunes of the mixed

S. Reitamo; Y. T. Konttinen; M. Segerberg-Konttinen

1980-01-01

364

[Ultrasonography of the adrenal gland in dogs].  

PubMed

The technic for the ultrasonographic evaluation of the canine adrenal glands is described and illustrated. When specific preconditions are met, it is feasible to image both adrenal glands. Indications for adrenal ultrasonography are discussed. The normal ultrasonographic appearance and ultrasonographic features of adrenal disease are described. PMID:7481716

Kaser-Hotz, B; Saunders, H M

1995-01-01

365

49 CFR 398.5 - Parts and accessories necessary for safe operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and maintenance of equipment and accessories...motor vehicle, or cause or permit it to...be such as not to cause cracking...defect likely to cause failure. No vehicle shall...cords, or other mechanical or electrical...

2010-10-01

366

21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...are: (1) FDA's: (i) “Use of International Standard ISO 10993 ‘Biological Evaluation of...Coagulators (and Accessories),” (2) International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-AM2 (1995-03), Amendment...

2010-04-01

367

21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used without a power source on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2010-04-01

368

21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used without a power source on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2011-04-01

369

21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories  

...cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used without a power source on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2014-04-01

370

21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used without a power source on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2012-04-01

371

21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used without a power source on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2013-04-01

372

WagTag: A Dog Collar Accessory for Monitoring Canine Activity Levels  

E-print Network

. Computer Applications: Life and Medical Sciences- Health. Permission to make digital or hard copies of all such as Fitbit and Jawbone, and apparel makers such as Nike. All of these accessories are likely to track human

Weiss, Gary

373

One nose, one brain: contribution of the main and accessory olfactory system to chemosensation.  

PubMed

The accessory olfactory system is present in most tetrapods. It is involved in the perception of chemical stimuli, being implicated also in the detection of pheromones. However, it is sensitive also to some common odorant molecules, which have no clear implication in intraspecific chemical communication. The accessory olfactory system may complement the main olfactory system and may contribute different perceptual features to the construction of a unitary representation, which merges the different chemosensory qualities. Crosstalk between the main and accessory olfactory systems occurs at different levels of central processing, in brain areas where the inputs from the two systems converge. Interestingly, centrifugal projections from more caudal brain areas are deeply involved in modulating both main and accessory sensory processing. A high degree of interaction between the two systems may be conceived and partial overlapping appears to occur in many functions. Therefore, the central chemosensory projections merge inputs from different organs to obtain a complex chemosensory picture. PMID:23162438

Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Redaelli, Marco; Caretta, Antonio

2012-01-01

374

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4820 Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments. (a)...

2011-04-01

375

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4820 Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments. (a)...

2013-04-01

376

21 CFR 878.4200 - Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4200 Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

377

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4820 Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments. (a)...

2014-04-01

378

21 CFR 878.4200 - Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4200 Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

379

21 CFR 878.4200 - Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4200 Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

380

21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

381

21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

382

21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

383

21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

384

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4820 Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments. (a)...

2010-04-01

385

21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

386

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4820 Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments. (a)...

2012-04-01

387

21 CFR 888.4580 - Sonic surgical instrument and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC...device with various accessories or attachments, such as a cutting tip that vibrates at high frequencies, and is intended for...

2011-04-01

388

21 CFR 888.4580 - Sonic surgical instrument and accessories/attachments.  

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC...device with various accessories or attachments, such as a cutting tip that vibrates at high frequencies, and is intended for...

2014-04-01

389

21 CFR 888.4580 - Sonic surgical instrument and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC...device with various accessories or attachments, such as a cutting tip that vibrates at high frequencies, and is intended for...

2012-04-01

390

21 CFR 888.4580 - Sonic surgical instrument and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC...device with various accessories or attachments, such as a cutting tip that vibrates at high frequencies, and is intended for...

2013-04-01

391

21 CFR 888.4580 - Sonic surgical instrument and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC...device with various accessories or attachments, such as a cutting tip that vibrates at high frequencies, and is intended for...

2010-04-01

392

21 CFR 888.5850 - Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...orthopedic traction apparatus is a device that consists of a rigid frame with nonpowered traction accessories, such as cords, pulleys, or weights, and that is intended to apply a therapeutic pulling force to the skeletal system. (b)...

2012-04-01

393

21 CFR 888.5850 - Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories.  

...orthopedic traction apparatus is a device that consists of a rigid frame with nonpowered traction accessories, such as cords, pulleys, or weights, and that is intended to apply a therapeutic pulling force to the skeletal system. (b)...

2014-04-01

394

21 CFR 888.5850 - Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...orthopedic traction apparatus is a device that consists of a rigid frame with nonpowered traction accessories, such as cords, pulleys, or weights, and that is intended to apply a therapeutic pulling force to the skeletal system. (b)...

2010-04-01

395

21 CFR 888.5850 - Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...orthopedic traction apparatus is a device that consists of a rigid frame with nonpowered traction accessories, such as cords, pulleys, or weights, and that is intended to apply a therapeutic pulling force to the skeletal system. (b)...

2011-04-01

396

21 CFR 888.5850 - Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...orthopedic traction apparatus is a device that consists of a rigid frame with nonpowered traction accessories, such as cords, pulleys, or weights, and that is intended to apply a therapeutic pulling force to the skeletal system. (b)...

2013-04-01

397

21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the patency (lack of obstruction) of the fallopian tubes by pressurizing the uterus and fallopian tubes and filling them with carbon dioxide gas. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2013-04-01

398

21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the patency (lack of obstruction) of the fallopian tubes by pressurizing the uterus and fallopian tubes and filling them with carbon dioxide gas. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2012-04-01

399

Stimulation of androgen-dependent gene expression by the adrenal precursors dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione in the rat ventral prostate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Androgens play a major role in the development, growth, and function of accessory sexual organs, especially the prostate. However, the testis is not the sole source of circulating androgens in man, since the adrenal gland secretes dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate, and androstenedione (delta 4-dione) in large quantities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of plasma

C. Labrie; J. Simard; H. F. Zhao; A. Belanger; G. Pelletier; F. Labrie

1989-01-01

400

Adrenal Cortex Heterotopia in an Undescended Testis–A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Heterotopic adrenal cortex is usually found in the kidney, retroperitoneum and spermatic cord. It is common among pediatric age group and rarely encountered in adults. Our case presented with swelling in the right inguinal region with on and off dragging pain. On clinical examination testis was absent in the right scotal sac which was confirmed with ultrasonogram. The clinical diagnosis was right side undescended testis. Orchidectomy was performed and on microscopic examination we incidentally found out an ectopic adrenal cortical rest in the rete testis with atropic changes in the testis. Though the ectopic adrenal tissue was indolent in our case, literature suggests that it can undergo transformations like hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma, leading to undesirable complications. We present this case for the rarity at this age and site, and for the awareness that it may cause complications if left untreated. PMID:25386447

Sree R, Revathi; G, Hemanathan; Savitri, Nerune M.; S, Anuradha

2014-01-01

401

Adrenal cortex heterotopia in an undescended testis-a case report.  

PubMed

Heterotopic adrenal cortex is usually found in the kidney, retroperitoneum and spermatic cord. It is common among pediatric age group and rarely encountered in adults. Our case presented with swelling in the right inguinal region with on and off dragging pain. On clinical examination testis was absent in the right scotal sac which was confirmed with ultrasonogram. The clinical diagnosis was right side undescended testis. Orchidectomy was performed and on microscopic examination we incidentally found out an ectopic adrenal cortical rest in the rete testis with atropic changes in the testis. Though the ectopic adrenal tissue was indolent in our case, literature suggests that it can undergo transformations like hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma, leading to undesirable complications. We present this case for the rarity at this age and site, and for the awareness that it may cause complications if left untreated. PMID:25386447

Raman R, Thulasi; Sree R, Revathi; G, Hemanathan; Savitri, Nerune M; S, Anuradha

2014-09-01

402

Cystic dysplasia of the rete testis associated to cryptorchidism: a case report.  

PubMed

A case of cystic dysplasia of the rete testis (CDRT) is reported. Nine months after right orchidopexy, a 10-year-old boy presented a palpable mass in the ipsilateral hemi-scrotum. Preoperative ultrasound showed a cystic lesion involving almost the whole testis. Radical orchidectomy was performed and at gross examination a hilar multiloculated cystic lesion was confirmed; microscopic examination showed cystic spaces lined by benign appearing monostratified epithelium with atrophy of the surrounding testicular parenchyma. These findings were consistent with the diagnosis of cystic dysplasia of the rete testis. Immunohistochemical investigation evidenced a pattern similar to that of a normal rete testis. Renal ultrasound and DTPA scintigraphy performed after pathological diagnosis documented the absence of the ipsilateral kidney. CDRT is a rare cause of scrotal swelling in the pediatric patient. When diagnosis is suspected, based on clinical and sonographic findings, conservative surgery may be considered. PMID:16444932

Nanni, Lorenzo; Buonuomo, Valentina; Gessi, Marco; Lauriola, Libero; Pintus, Claudio

2005-12-01

403

Palindromes on the human X chromosome : testis-biased transcription, gene conversion and evolution  

E-print Network

Recent genomic studies of the Y chromosome revealed massive, testis-specific palindromes that span 30% of the chromosome and are subject to gene conversion. We conducted studies to determine whether similar palindromes ...

Saionz, Jennifer R., 1976-

2005-01-01

404

Effects of subchronic samarium exposure on the histopathological structure and apoptosis regulation in mouse testis.  

PubMed

To evaluate the reproductive toxicity of samarium, a widely used rare earth element, male ICR mice were orally exposed to samarium nitrate for 90 days for lesion evaluation in the testis. Decreased organ coefficients, disorganized seminiferous tubules, and decreased spermatogenic cells and sperm of the testis were observed extensively in the treated groups, indicating that the testis is a target organ of samarium. Electron microscopy confirmed that the lesions inside the spermatogenic cells and sperm mainly included mitochondrial swelling, mitochondrial vacuolization, fuzzy nuclear membranes, and marginated chromatin. Increased spermatogenic cell apoptosis rate in the testis was confirmed with a TUNEL assay. And expression up-regulation of p53 and Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2 were observed (p<0.05), indicating the apoptosis is related to p53 mediated pathway. PMID:24561534

Zhang, De-Yong; Shen, Xiu-Ying; Ruan, Qin; Xu, Xiao-Lu; Yang, San-Ping; Lu, Yin; Xu, Hui-Ying; Hao, Fei-Lin

2014-03-01

405

Sebaceous gland hyperplasia of the foreskin.  

PubMed

Two men, aged in their 20s, presented with multiple, soft, rounded papules on the prepuce. The lesions were centrally umbilicated, resembling molluscum contagiosum, but clearly distinct from Tyson's glands. Surface microscopy showed well-defined, milky-white, bag-shaped structures, which under histological examination were found to be sebaceous glands with various features of hyperplasia. A lymphocytic T-cell infiltrate, closely associated with progressive degeneration and destruction of the sebocytes, was visible around the glands. In the differential diagnosis of penile papular lesions, this unusual clinical presentation supported by dermatoscopy is consistent with preputial sebaceous gland hyperplasia. As both patients had a prominent T-cell infiltration, it is possible that under inflammatory stimulation, sebaceous glands undergo hypertrophy and gradual central involution. PMID:19077090

Ena, P; Origa, D; Massarelli, G

2009-04-01

406

Gordon Research Conference on Mammary Gland Biology  

SciTech Connect

The 1989 conference was the tenth in the series of biennial Gordon Research Conferences on Mammary Gland Biology. Traditionally this conference brings together scientists from diverse backgrounds and experience but with a common interest in the biology of the mammary gland. Investigators from agricultural and medical schools, biochemists, cell and molecular biologists, endocrinologists, immunologists, and representatives from the emerging biotechnology industries met to discuss current concepts and results on the function and regulation of the normal and neoplastic mammary gland in a variety of species. Of the participants, approximately three-fourths were engaged in studying the normal mammary gland function, whereas the other quarter were engaged in studying the neoplastic gland. The interactions between scientists, clinicians, veterinarians examining both normal and neoplastic cell function serves to foster the multi-disciplinary goals of the conference and has stimulated many cooperative projects among participants in previous years.

Not Available

1989-01-01

407

Liquid secretion properties of airway submucosal glands  

PubMed Central

The tracheobronchial submucosal glands secrete liquid that is important for hydrating airway surfaces, supporting mucociliary transport, and serving as a fluid matrix for numerous secreted macromolecules including the gel-forming mucins. This review details the essential structural elements of airway glands and summarizes what is currently known regarding the ion transport processes responsible for producing the liquid component of gland secretion. Liquid secretion most likely arises from serous cells and is principally under neural control with muscarinic agonists, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) functioning as effective secretogogues. Liquid secretion is driven by the active transepithelial secretion of both Cl? and HCO3? and at least a portion of this process is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is highly expressed in glands. The potential role of submucosal glands in cystic fibrosis lung disease is discussed. PMID:14660706

Ballard, Stephen T; Inglis, Sarah K

2004-01-01

408

Stage dependent and androgen inductive expression of orphan receptor TR4 in rat testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the expression of TR4 in different stages of seminiferous tubules and the relationship between TR4 and androgen in rat testis. We found that TR4 was stage-dependently expressed in rat seminiferous tubules, T withdrawal induced by high doses of testosterone undecanoate and ethane dimethane sulfonate inhibit TR4 expression in rat testis, and testosterone induced TR4 expression

Xiaomin Mu; Lin Yang; Chawnshang Chang

2006-01-01

409

Testis morphometry, duration of spermatogenesis, and spermatogenic efficiency in the wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa).  

PubMed

The wild boar is a natural inhabitant of Europe, Asia, and North Africa and is phylogenetically the ancestor of the domestic pig. Because of its phylogenetic and economic importance, this species is an interesting model for studying testis function in boars. Therefore, the present study was performed to investigate the testis structure, spermatogenic cycle length, and Sertoli cell (SC) and spermatogenic efficiencies in eight adult wild boars. Each spermatogenic cycle lasted 9.05 days, and the total duration of spermatogenesis was estimated as lasting approximately 41 days. The percentages of testis volume occupied by seminiferous tubules and by Leydig cells were 87% and 6%, respectively. The mean number of SCs per gram of testis was 42 million. The SC (round spermatids per SC) and spermatogenic (daily sperm production per gram of testis) efficiencies were 6.6 cells and 28.6 million, respectively. In general, the testis structure, overall germ cell associations at the different stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, and duration of spermatogenesis in the wild boar were similar to those in domestic pigs. Probably because of the small size of Leydig cells (400 microm3), their number per gram of testis (157 million) was the highest among investigated mammalian species. Although the SC efficiency in wild boars was low, their spermatogenic efficiency was comparable to that observed in domestic pigs, mainly because of the higher number of SCs per gram of testis in wild boars. These data suggest that SCs became more efficient during evolution, genetic selection, and domestication in pigs. PMID:16870941

Almeida, Fernanda F L; Leal, Marcelo C; França, Luiz R

2006-11-01

410

Tubular ectasia of the rete testis: a potential pitfall in scrotal imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Tubular ectasia of the rete testis (TERT) is a benign entity due to dilation of the tubules of the rete testis. Most of the\\u000a time it is discovered incidentally on scrotal sonograms and may be misinterpreted as malignant. This article outlines the\\u000a diagnostic criteria of TERT, its possible causes, its incidence and its potential evolution. Recognizing this entity owing

O. Rouvière; R. Bouvier; C. Pangaud; C. Jeune; M. Dawahra; D. Lyonnet

1999-01-01

411

Characterization and in vitro culture of male germ cells from developing bovine testis.  

PubMed

The transition from male primitive germ cells (gonocytes) to type A spermatogonia in the neonatal testis is the initial process and a crucial process in spermatogenesis. However, in large domestic animals, the physiological and biochemical characteristics of germ cells during the developmental processes remain largely unknown. In this study, we characterized bovine germ cells in the developing testis from the neonatal stage to the adult stage. The binding of the lectin Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) and the expression of ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1) were restricted to gonocytes in the neonatal testis and spermatogonia in the adult testis. Gonocytes also expressed a germ cell marker (VASA) and stem cell markers (NANOG and OCT3/4), while the expressions of these markers in the adult testis were restricted to differentiated spermatic cells and were rarely expressed in spermatogonia. We subsequently utilized these markers to characterize gonocytes and spermatogonia after culture in vitro. Spermatogonia that were collected from the adult testis formed colonies in vitro only for one week. On the other hand, gonocytes from the neonatal testis could proliferate and form colonies after every passage for 1.5 months in culture. These colonies retained undifferentiated states of gonocytes as confirmed by the expression of both germ cell and stem cell markers. Moreover, a transplantation assay using immunodeficient mice testes showed that long-term cultured cells derived from gonocytes were able to colonize in the recipient testis. These results indicated that bovine gonocytes could maintain germ cell and stem cell potential in vitro. PMID:21289464

Fujihara, Mayako; Kim, Sung-Min; Minami, Naojiro; Yamada, Masayasu; Imai, Hiroshi

2011-06-01

412

Developmental and hormonal regulation of type II DNA topoisomerase in rat testis.  

PubMed

Type II DNA topoisomerase (topo II) is required for diverse biological functions including DNA replication, maintenance of genome stability, chromosome segregation and chromosome condensation. While the identity of topo II in rodent testis has been established, the regulation of topo II expression during the development of the postnatal testis and gametogenesis is unclear. Here, we report that rat testis topo II is developmentally and hormonally regulated. Topo IIalpha mRNA levels peaked prior to the onset of puberty, declined sharply thereafter and stabilized in adult testis. In contrast, the topo II enzyme content was lower in prepubertal testis but increased after the onset of puberty. Topo II was expressed in a cell-specific manner within germ cells, being detected only in pachytene spermatocytes. While testosterone markedly increased topo IIalpha mRNA levels in prepubertal testis, continued treatment failed to enhance topo IIalpha mRNA above postpubertal control levels. The extent of topo II activity remained steady regardless of the testosterone-induced increase in topo IIalpha mRNA levels. Inhibition of testosterone function in postpubertal animals by ethanedimethane sulphonate (EDS) and flutamide resulted in a significant decrease in topo IIalpha gene expression and topo II activity. The administration of exogenous testosterone (T) to EDS- and flutamide-treated rats restored topo IIalpha mRNA levels and topo II activity similar to the levels seen in the testis of age-matched control animals. Histochemical analyses of testes indicated that the effect of T on spermatogenesis was separable from its effect on topo IIalpha expression. Our results reveal that testosterone acts as a positive regulator of topo IIalpha gene expression and is required for the maintenance of topo IIalpha expression during the development of the postnatal testis and spermatogenesis. PMID:11357056

Bakshi, R P; Galande, S; Bali, P; Dighe, R; Muniyappa, K

2001-06-01

413

Ferulic acid supplements abrogate oxidative impairments in liver and testis in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic antioxidant, in ameliorating oxidative stress in the testis and liver of diabetic pubertal rats. Male (6 wk old) rats were rendered diabetic by an acute dose (60 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal) of streptozotocin (STZ) and were given oral supplementation of FA (50 mg/kg body weight/d on alternate days) for 4 weeks. The protective efficacy of FA was assessed by measuring markers of oxidative stress in the testis and liver along with the effect of stress on lipid profile in serum/testis. Terminally, the testis (cytosol and mitochondria) of STZ-administered rats exhibited a marked elevation in the status of lipid peroxidation and enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production compared to the non-diabetic controls. FA treatment completely normalized the oxidative impairments in the testis. Further, STZ-induced depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and elevated protein carbonyl content in the testis were restored to normalcy by FA treatment. The protective effects of FA were also discernible in the testis in terms of restoration of activities of various antioxidant enzymes in the diabetic rats. Furthermore, STZ-induced oxidative impairments in the liver were also abrogated significantly by FA treatment. STZ-induced perturbations in serum and testicular lipid profiles in the diabetic rats were also significantly attenuated by FA treatment. Collectively, these results indicate that oral supplementation of FA can significantly mitigate diabetes-associated oxidative impairments in the testis as well as in the liver and suggests the efficacy of FA as a complementary therapeutic agent in the management of diabetes-associated oxidative stress-mediated complications. PMID:18795822

Thyagaraju, Badanavalu Madaiah

2008-08-01

414

Increased Mortality Among Hispanic Testis Cancer Patients Independent of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status: A SEER Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testis cancer-specific survival (CSS) varies by Hispanic ethnicity. Our goal was to assess whether neighborhood socioeconomic\\u000a status (SES) accounts for elevated testis CSS among Hispanic patients. We queried the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End\\u000a Results (SEER) database for Hispanic (HW) and Non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients. Multivariate Cox regression analyses evaluated\\u000a Hispanic ethnicity’s impact on tCSS while adjusting for neighborhood socioeconomic status

Timothy V. Johnson; Wayland Hsiao; Ashesh Jani; Viraj A. Master

415

Sox9 and Sox8 are required for basal lamina integrity of testis cords and for suppression of FOXL2 during embryonic testis development in mice.  

PubMed

The sex-determining gene Sry and its target gene Sox9 initiate the early steps of testis development in mammals. Of the related Sox genes Sox8, Sox9, and Sox10, all expressed during Sertoli cell differentiation, only inactivation of Sox9 before the sex determination stage at Embryonic Day 11.5 (E11.5) causes XY sex reversal, while Sox9 inactivation after this stage has no effect on testis cord differentiation. We have previously shown that both Sox9 and Sox8 are essential for maintaining testicular function in post-E14.0 Sertoli cells. To gain insight into the molecular and cellular processes underlying the abnormal development of Sox9 and Sox8 mutant testes, we performed a detailed developmental study of embryonic and neonatal stages. We observe a progressive disruption of the basal lamina surrounding the testis cords that starts at E17.5 and already at E15.5 reduced expression levels of collagen IV, collagen IXa3 and testatin, structural components of the basal lamina, and the extracellular matrix transcriptional regulator Scleraxis. Lineage tracing reveals that mutant Sertoli cells delaminate from testis cords and are present as isolated cells between remaining cords. Also, Sox10 expression is strongly reduced in the absence of Sox9 and/or Sox8. Finally, we document increasing expression of the ovarian marker FOXL2 in mutant cords starting at E15.5, indicating progressive transdifferentiation of mutant Sertoli cells. This study shows that Sox9 and Sox8 maintain integrity of the basal lamina to prevent testis cord disintegration and that both factors actively suppress the ovarian program during early testis development. PMID:22837482

Georg, Ina; Barrionuevo, Francisco; Wiech, Thorsten; Scherer, Gerd

2012-10-01

416

0610009K11Rik, a testis-specific and germ cell nuclear receptor-interacting protein  

SciTech Connect

Using an in silico approach, a putative nuclear receptor-interacting protein 0610009K11Rik was identified in mouse testis. We named this gene testis-specific nuclear receptor-interacting protein-1 (Tnrip-1). Tnrip-1 was predominantly expressed in the testis of adult mouse tissues. Expression of Tnrip-1 in the testis was regulated during postnatal development, with robust expression in 14-day-old or older testes. In situ hybridization analyses showed that Tnrip-1 is highly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes and spermatids. Consistent with its mRNA expression, Tnrip-1 protein was detected in adult mouse testes. Immunohistochemical studies showed that Tnrip-1 is a nuclear protein and mainly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation analyses showed that endogenous Tnrip-1 protein can interact with germ cell nuclear receptor (GCNF) in adult mouse testes. Our results suggest that Tnrip-1 is a testis-specific and GCNF-interacting protein which may be involved in the modulation of GCNF-mediated gene transcription in spermatogenic cells within the testis.

Zhang Heng; Denhard, Leslie A.; Zhou Huaxin; Liu Lanhsin [Birth Defects Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Dental Building Room 203B, 501 S. Preston Street, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Lan Zijian [Birth Defects Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Dental Building Room 203B, 501 S. Preston Street, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)], E-mail: z0lan001@gwise.louisville.edu

2008-02-22

417

The Roles of Testicular C-kit Positive Cells in De novo Morphogenesis of Testis  

PubMed Central

C-kit positive (c-kit+) cells are usual tissue-specific stem cells. However, in postnatal testis, undifferentiated spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are c-kit negative (c-kit?) and activation of c-kit represents the start of SSC differentiation, leaving an intriguing question whether other c-kit+ cells exist and participate in the postnatal development of testis. To this end, a feasible system for testicular reconstitution, in which a specific type of cells can be manipulated, is needed. Here, we first establish de novo morphogenesis of testis by subcutaneous injection of testicular cells from neonatal testes into the backs of nude mice. We observe testicular tissue formation and spermatogenesis from all injected sites. Importantly, functional spermatids can be isolated from these testicular tissues. Using this system, we systemically analyze the roles of c-kit+ cells in testicular reconstitution and identify a small population of cells (c-kit+:CD140a+:F4/80+), which express typical markers of macrophages, are critical for de novo morphogenesis of testis. Interestingly, we demonstrate that these cells are gradually replaced by peripheral blood cells of recipient mice during the morphogenesis of testis. Thus, we develop a system, which may mimic the complete developmental process of postnatal testis, for investigating the testicular development and spermatogenesis. PMID:25088917

Zhang, Man; Zhou, Hai; Zheng, Chunxing; Xiao, Jun; Zuo, Erwei; Liu, Wujuan; Xie, Da; Shi, Yufang; Wu, Chunlian; Wang, Hongyan; Li, Dangsheng; Li, Jinsong

2014-01-01

418

Mesothelioma of the testis and nephrotic syndrome: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Paraneoplastic glomerulopathies are rare manifestations of neoplastic disease to be distinguished from iatrogenic renal damage. Solid tumors are preferentially associated with membranous nephropathy, whereas Hodgkin's lymphomas are associated with minimal change disease. Case presentation We report a 63-year-old Caucasian male diagnosed with a mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis who, secondary to this, also presented with a nephrotic syndrome due to minimal change disease. In the present case, the paraneoplastic etiology of the nephrotic syndrome can be discussed on four unusual elements: minimal change lesions were found; the glomerulopathy was very sensitive to corticosteroids; the nephrotic syndrome occurred 11 months after the diagnosis of the primary malignancy, but concomitantly with the recurrence; and the nephrotic syndrome did not decrease with tumor control and did not recur when the mesothelioma escaped treatment. No other etiologies could nevertheless explain this phenomenon. Conclusion Paraneoplastic nephrotic syndrome is often associated with membranous nephropathy in patients with solid tumors, especially in patients with lung and gastrointestinal tract neoplasia. The management of these patients is associated with a symptomatic treatment such as sodium and water restriction, diuretics and ACE inhibitors and a prophylaxis of specific complications of nephrotic syndrome including thromboembolism, infections and lipid abnormalities. Treatment of neoplasia must be undertaken rapidly, treatments must be regularly analyzed and drugs binding to albumin may be used with precaution. PMID:19830148

2009-01-01

419

Integrative Discovery of Epigenetically Derepressed Cancer Testis Antigens in NSCLC  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) were first discovered as immunogenic targets normally expressed in germline cells, but differentially expressed in a variety of human cancers. In this study, we used an integrative epigenetic screening approach to identify coordinately expressed genes in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose transcription is driven by promoter demethylation. Methodology/Principal Findings Our screening approach found 290 significant genes from the over 47,000 transcripts incorporated in the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 expression array. Of the top 55 candidates, 10 showed both differential overexpression and promoter region hypomethylation in NSCLC. Surprisingly, 6 of the 10 genes discovered by this approach were CTAs. Using a separate cohort of primary tumor and normal tissue, we validated NSCLC promoter hypomethylation and increased expression by quantitative RT-PCR for all 10 genes. We noted significant, coordinated coexpression of multiple target genes, as well as coordinated promoter demethylation, in a large set of individual tumors that was associated with the SCC subtype of NSCLC. In addition, we identified 2 novel target genes that exhibited growth-promoting effects in multiple cell lines. Conclusions/Significance Coordinated promoter demethylation in NSCLC is associated with aberrant expression of CTAs and potential, novel candidate protooncogenes that can be identified using integrative discovery techniques. These findings have significant implications for discovery of novel CTAs and CT antigen directed immunotherapy. PMID:19997593

Glazer, Chad A.; Smith, Ian M.; Ochs, Michael F.; Begum, Shahnaz; Westra, William; Chang, Steven S.; Sun, Wenyue; Bhan, Sheetal; Khan, Zubair; Ahrendt, Steven; Califano, Joseph A.

2009-01-01

420

Cholinergic Modulation of Neuronal Excitability in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb  

PubMed Central

The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), the first relay of chemosensory information in the Vomeronasal system, receives extensive cholinergic innervation from the basal forebrain. Cholinergic modulation of neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb has been hypothesized to play an important role in olfactory processing; however, little is known about the cellular actions of acetylcholine (ACh) within the AOB. Here using in vitro slice preparation, we show that muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activation increases neuronal excitability of granule and mitral/tufted cells (GCs and MCs) in the AOB. Activation of mAChRs increased excitability of GCs by three distinct mechanisms: induction of a long-lasting depolarization, activation of a slow afterdepolarization (sADP), and an increase in excitatory glutamatergic input due to MC depolarization. The depolarization and sADP were elicited by the selective agonist 4-[[[(3-chlorophenyl)amino]carbonyl]oxy]-N,N,N-trimethyl-2-butyn-1-aminium chloride (100 ?M) and blocked by low concentrations of pirenzepine (300 nM), indicating that they result from activation of M1-like mAChRs. In contrast, cholinergic stimulation increased the excitability of MCs via recruitment of nicotinic AChRs (nAChRs) and M1-like mAChRs. Submaximal activation of these receptors, however, decreased the excitability of MCs. Surprisingly, we found that unlike GCs in the main olfactory bulb, GCs in the AOB are excited by mAChR activation in young postnatal neurons, suggesting marked differences in cholinergic regulation of development between these two regions of the olfactory bulb. PMID:20861438

Smith, Richard S.

2010-01-01

421

Cholinergic modulation of neuronal excitability in the accessory olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), the first relay of chemosensory information in the Vomeronasal system, receives extensive cholinergic innervation from the basal forebrain. Cholinergic modulation of neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb has been hypothesized to play an important role in olfactory processing; however, little is known about the cellular actions of acetylcholine (ACh) within the AOB. Here using in vitro slice preparation, we show that muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activation increases neuronal excitability of granule and mitral/tufted cells (GCs and MCs) in the AOB. Activation of mAChRs increased excitability of GCs by three distinct mechanisms: induction of a long-lasting depolarization, activation of a slow afterdepolarization (sADP), and an increase in excitatory glutamatergic input due to MC depolarization. The depolarization and sADP were elicited by the selective agonist 4-[[[(3-chlorophenyl)amino]carbonyl]oxy]-N,N,N-trimethyl-2-butyn-1-aminium chloride (100 ?M) and blocked by low concentrations of pirenzepine (300 nM), indicating that they result from activation of M1-like mAChRs. In contrast, cholinergic stimulation increased the excitability of MCs via recruitment of nicotinic AChRs (nAChRs) and M1-like mAChRs. Submaximal activation of these receptors, however, decreased the excitability of MCs. Surprisingly, we found that unlike GCs in the main olfactory bulb, GCs in the AOB are excited by mAChR activation in young postnatal neurons, suggesting marked differences in cholinergic regulation of development between these two regions of the olfactory bulb. PMID:20861438

Smith, Richard S; Araneda, Ricardo C

2010-12-01

422

Anesthetic considerations on adrenal gland surgery.  

PubMed

Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anesthetic management during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694

Domi, Rudin; Sula, Hektor; Kaci, Myzafer; Paparisto, Sokol; Bodeci, Artan; Xhemali, Astrit

2015-01-01

423

Anesthetic Considerations on Adrenal Gland Surgery  

PubMed Central

Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anesthetic management during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694

Domi, Rudin; Sula, Hektor; Kaci, Myzafer; Paparisto, Sokol; Bodeci, Artan; Xhemali, Astrit

2015-01-01

424

Ultrastructure of the mink parotid gland.  

PubMed Central

Acini in the parotid gland of the North American mink (Mustela vision) are composed of seromucous cells that contain secretory granules of peculiar morphology. Many of the granules consist of a light matrix in which is embedded an inclusion made up of dense, frequently parallel rodlets in a fibrillar material of moderate density. Like the submandibular gland of the same animal, the tall cells of the parotid striated ducts contain numerous polygonal, often rhomboidal, crystalloids in their apical cytoplasm. These crystalloids are present equally in both sexes and are as abundant in the parotid as in the submandibular gland. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:1769893

Tandler, B

1991-01-01

425

Identification of a Meiosis-Specific Protein as a Member of the Class of Cancer\\/Testis Antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the function of human cancer\\/testis antigens (CTAs), such as MAGE, BAGE, GAGE, HOM-MEL-40, and NY-ESO-1, the expression of which is restricted to human malignancies and testis. When screening a cDNA expression library enriched for testis-specific representative long transcripts for reactivity with high-titered IgG antibodies from the serum of a patient with renal cell carcinoma, one repeatedly

Ozlem Tureci; Ugur Sahin; Carsten Zwick; Michael Koslowski; Gerhard Seitz; Michael Pfreundschuh

1998-01-01

426

Expression of Steroidogenic Factor 1 in the Testis Requires an E Box and CCAAT Box in its Promoter Proximal Region1  

PubMed Central

Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1), also known as adrenal 4-binding protein, is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family that regulates transcription of genes encoding hormones and steroidogenic enzymes important to the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The mammalian Ftz-F1 gene encodes SF-1 and is required for development of adrenal glands and gonads. To better understand the mechanisms regulating this gene in the gonads, we have examined its expression in the testis and characterized the promoter region for SF-1 in two testicular cell types. SF-1 promoter activity was examined in primary cultures of Sertoli cells and cell lines representative of Sertoli and Leydig cells. Deletion mutagenesis of the promoter identified several regions: both 5? and 3? to the transcriptional start sites that are important for transcriptional activity. Two elements, an E box and a CCAAT box, were found to be important for SF-1 transcription in the testis. An oligodeoxynucleotide containing both of these elements bound three specific protein complexes. The binding of one complex required only sequences within the E box and cross-reacted with antibodies against the basic helix-loop-helix ZIP proteins USF1 and USF2. A second specific complex required sequences within both the E box and CCAAT box for efficient binding, while a third complex predominantly interacted with sequences within the CCAAT motif. The presence of multiple protein complexes binding these sites suggests that regulation through these elements may involve interactions with different factors that depend on the state of the cell and its environment. PMID:10684809

Daggett, Melissa A.F.; Rice, Daren A.; Heckert, Leslie L.

2006-01-01

427

REGULAR ARTICLE Calcitonin is expressed in the chicken pituitary gland  

E-print Network

REGULAR ARTICLE Calcitonin is expressed in the chicken pituitary gland: influence of gonadal in mammals or by the ultimobranchial gland in chickens. CT is also expressed by the pituitary gland in rats) secretion. Gonadal steroids influence CT expression in the rat pituitary gland. However, the expression

Ramachandran, Ramesh

428

INTRODUCTION Mammary gland development (Fig. 1), like that of many  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Mammary gland development (Fig. 1), like that of many organs, requires interactions interactions critical to mammary gland development and those in other organs make the mammary gland, skin cancer and other tumors. The mammary gland is a specialized skin derivative requiring epithelial

Quake, Stephen R.

429

9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection of mammary glands. 310.17 Section 310.17 Animals...POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.17 Inspection of mammary glands. (a) Lactating mammary glands and diseased mammary glands of...

2011-01-01

430

9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection of mammary glands. 310.17 Section 310.17 Animals...POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.17 Inspection of mammary glands. (a) Lactating mammary glands and diseased mammary glands of...

2013-01-01

431

Efferents and centrifugal afferents of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs in the snake Thamnophis sirtalis.  

PubMed

This study reinvestigates the efferent projections of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs and describes for the first time the centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs in the snake Thamnophis sirtalis, using the intraaxonal transport of the anterograde and retrograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine and the retrograde tracer horseradish peroxidase. The olfactory projection consists of three tracts: the lateral olfactory tract, which projects bilaterally to the lateral cortex and the rostral amygdala, crossing the midline through the stria medullaris-habenular commissure system; the intermediate olfactory tract, which projects ipsilaterally to the olfactory tubercle and contributes to the contralateral projection; and the medial olfactory tract, which projects ipsilaterally to the dorsomedial retrobulbar formation. The vomeronasal projection is formed by a single tract, the accessory olfactory tract, that projects ipsilaterally to the nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract, the medial amygdala and the nucleus sphericus. The centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulb are composed of two components: one that arises in areas that receive the olfactory or vomeronasal input (neurons in the olfactory tubercle, retrobulbar formation and lateral cortex project to the main olfactory bulb; and neurons in the nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract, the medial amygdala and the nucleus sphericus project to the accessory olfactory bulb), and another that arises in areas not directly implicated in processing the chemosensory information (the nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca and the dorsal cortex). These data allow the recognition of the general pattern of organization of the reptilian olfactory and vomeronasal systems. PMID:9435967

Lanuza, E; Halpern, M

1998-01-01

432

New exocrine glands in ants: the hypostomal gland and basitarsal gland in the genus Melissotarsus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fisher and Robertson (Insect Soc 46: 78-83, 1999) discovered the production of silk-like secretions emerging from slit-shaped openings along the anterior margin of the ventral hypostoma of Melissotarsus ant workers. The current histological study describes a hitherto unknown hypostomal gland from which this silk-like substance originates. In addition, this study describes a new basitarsal gland in the three pairs of legs of Melissotarsus workers.

Hölldobler, Bert; Obermayer, Malu; Plowes, Nicola J. R.; Fisher, Brian L.

2014-07-01

433

Left-sided cryptorchidism in mice with Wilms' tumour 1 gene deletion in gubernaculum testis.  

PubMed

A significant number of patients with germline mutations in the Wilms' tumour 1 (WT1) gene, a transcriptional factor essential for early renal and gonadal development, display cryptorchidism or non-scrotal testis position. We show here that WT1 is expressed during development in the mouse gubernacular ligament connecting the testis to the abdominal wall. Conditional inactivation of Wt1 in the gubernaculum (GU-WT1KO animals) resulted in abnormal differentiation of the gubernacula during development and, in about 40% of adult males, unilateral, always left-sided, cryptorchidism. At birth the right testis was positioned above the processus vaginalis and eventually moved into the developing scrotal pouch. In affected mutants the left testis was displaced from the normal position and the left processus vaginalis failed to form. The analysis of testicular descent at different stages of postnatal development suggests that unilateral cryptorchidism might be caused by asymmetry in the positions of the abdominal organs providing a higher degree of mobility for the left testis. Spermatogenesis in GU-WT1KO animals was blocked in cryptorchid testes located in a high pararenal position, but was maintained in testes located in a low abdominal position. Conditional inactivation of both Wt1 and androgen receptor (Ar) genes in the gubernaculum led to a bilateral asymmetrical cryptorchidism in all mutant males, with the left testis again located higher than the right one. The malformations induced by WT1 and AR deficiency in the gubernaculum and processus vaginalis, in combination with mechanical constraints on testis descent, determine the final position of the testes. In summary, our data indicate that WT1 is directly involved in gubernaculum differentiation. Taken together, the results of the study underline the complex nature of testicular descent, with an involvement in this process of several genetic factors and developmental events. PMID:23288785

Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Neukirchner, Giselle; Huff, Vicki; Agoulnik, Alexander I

2013-05-01

434

Left-sided cryptorchidism in mice with Wilms Tumour 1 gene deletion in gubernaculum testis  

PubMed Central

A significant number of patients with germline mutations in the Wilms tumour 1 (WT1) gene, a transcriptional factor essential for early renal and gonadal development, displays cryptorchidism or non-scrotal testis position. We show here that WT1 is expressed during development in the mouse gubernacular ligament connecting the testis to the abdominal wall. Conditional inactivation of Wt1 in the gubernaculum (GU-WT1KO animals) resulted in abnormal differentiation of the gubernacula during development and in about 40 % adult males, unilateral, always left-sided, cryptorchidism. At birth the right testis was positioned above the processus vaginalis and eventually moved into the developing scrotal pouch. In affected mutants the left testis was displaced from the normal position and the left processus vaginalis failed to form. The analysis of testicular descent at different stages of postnatal development suggests that the unilateral cryptorchidism might be caused by the asymmetry in the position of abdominal organs providing a higher degree of mobility for the left testis. Spermatogenesis in GU-WT1KO animals was blocked in cryptorchid testes located in a high pararenal position but was maintained in testes located in a low abdominal position. Conditional inactivation of both Wt1 and androgen receptor (Ar) genes in gubernaculum led to a bilateral asymmetrical cryptorchidism in all mutant males with the left testis again located higher than the right one. The malformations induced by WT1 and AR deficiency in gubernaculum and processus vaginalis, in combination with mechanical constraints on testis descent, determine the final position of the testes. In summary, our data indicate that WT1 is directly involved in gubernaculum differentiation. Taken together the results of the study underline the complex nature of testicular descent with an involvement in this process of several genetic factors and developmental events. PMID:23288785

Kaftanovskaya, Elena M.; Neukirchner, Giselle; Huff, Vicki; Agoulnik, Alexander I.

2013-01-01

435

Heterogeneity of high-mobility-group protein 2. Enrichment of a rapidly migrating form in testis.  

PubMed Central

A determination of the absolute amounts of high-mobility-group proteins 1 and 2 (HMG1 and HMG2) in rat tissues demonstrated that amounts of HMG2 were low in non-proliferating tissues, somewhat higher in proliferating and lymphoid tissues, but were extremely elevated in the testis. This increase was due to a germ-cell-specific form of HMG2 with increased mobility relative to somatic HMG2 on acid/urea/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. To determine if the findings in the rat were a general feature of spermatogenesis, testis (germinal), spleen (lymphoid), and liver (non-proliferating) tissues from various vertebrate species were examined for their relative amounts of HMG1 and HMG2, and for HMG2 heterogeneity. Bull, chimpanzee, cynomologus monkey, dog, gopher, guinea pig, hamster, mouse, opossum, rabbit, rat, rhesus monkey, squirrel and toad (Xenopus) tissues were analysed. Nearly all species showed relatively high contents of HMG2 in testis tissue, whereas HMG1 contents were similar in all species and tissues. Ten of thirteen species showed a rapidly migrating HMG2 subtype in testis tissue, separable by acid/urea/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Xenopus, which lacks HMG2 in somatic tissues, showed an HMG2-like protein in testis tissue. Although the rapidly migrating HMG2 subtype in species other than rat was not testis-specific, it was always enriched in the testis. This study indicates that increased amounts of HMG2 and the enrichment of a rapidly migrating HMG2 subtype are general features of spermatogenic cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:4038257

Bucci, L R; Brock, W A; Meistrich, M L

1985-01-01

436

General Information about Salivary Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... treat some salivary gland tumors . These include: Fast neutron radiation therapy : Fast neutron radiation therapy is a type of high-energy ... radiation therapy machine aims tiny, invisible particles, called neutrons, at the cancer cells to kill them. Fast ...

437

The harderian gland: a tercentennial review.  

PubMed Central

The harderian gland was first described in 1694 by Johann Jacob Harder (1656-1711). It occurs in most terrestrial vertebrates and is located within the orbit where, in some species, it is the largest structure. It may be compound tubular or compound tubuloalveolar, and its secretory duct is usually morphologically distinct only after leaving the substance of the gland to open on the surface of the nictitating membrane. The tubules of the gland are formed of a single layer of columnar epithelial cells surrounded by myoepithelial cells. The chief product(s) of the gland varies between different groups of vertebrates, and epithelial cells possess granules or vacuoles whose contents may be mucous, serous or lipid. In rodents, the gland synthesises lipids, porphyrins and indoles. In the case of lipid vacuoles, the gland is unusual in releasing these by an exocytotic mechanism. It is unclear whether the gland can act both as an exocrine and endocrine organ. There is control of gland structure and synthesis through a variety of humoral agents, including gonadal, thyroid and pituitary hormones; in addition there is a rich autonomic innervation and many neuropeptides have been identified. The proposed functions of the gland are remarkably diverse and include the gland being (1) a source of 'saliva', (2) a site of immune response, (3) a photoprotective organ, (4) part of a retinal-pineal axis, (5) a source of pheromones, (6) a source of thermoregulatory lipids, (7) a site of osmoregulation, and (8) a source of growth factors. The gland is discussed in terms of its embryology and phylogeny, and in relation to ecological variables. Several goals of future research are identified. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 40 PMID:7559104

Payne, A P

1994-01-01

438

Pheromones and exocrine glands in Isoptera.  

PubMed

Termites are eusocial insects that have a peculiar and intriguing system of communication using pheromones. The termite pheromones are composed of a blend of chemical substances and they coordinate different social interactions or activities, including foraging, building, mating, defense, and nestmate recognition. Some of these sociochemicals are volatile, spreading in the air, and others are contact pheromones, which are transmitted by trophallaxis and grooming. Among the termite semiochemicals, the most known are alarm, trail, sex pheromones, and hydrocarbons responsible for the recognition of nestmates. The sources of the pheromones are exocrine glands located all over the termite body. The principal exocrine structures considered pheromone-producing glands in Isoptera are the frontal, mandibular, salivary or labial, sternal, and tergal glands. The frontal gland is the source of alarm pheromone and defensive chemicals, but the mandibular secretions have been little studied and their function is not well established in Isoptera. The secretion of salivary glands involves numerous chemical compounds, some of them without pheromonal function. The worker saliva contains a phagostimulating pheromone and probably a building pheromone, while the salivary reservoir of some soldiers contains defensive chemicals. The sternal gland is the only source of trail-following pheromone, whereas sex pheromones are secreted by two glandular sources, the sternal and tergal glands. To date, the termite semiochemicals have indicated that few molecules are involved in their chemical communication, that is, the same compound may be secreted by different glands, different castes and species, and for different functions, depending on the concentration. In addition to the pheromonal parsimony, recent studies also indicate the occurrence of a synergic effect among the compounds involved in the chemical communication of Isoptera. PMID:20831960

Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives

2010-01-01

439

Post-splenectomy intrapancreatic accessory spleen mimicking endocrine tumor of the pancreas  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Intrapancreatic accessory spleen is an uncommon congenital abnormality of the spleen with no indication for surgical intervention. Among the few cases reported, IPAS coexisted with a normal spleen. We here report the first case of IPAS arising a couple years after splenectomy with the appearance of an endocrine tumor of the pancreas. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 62-year-old female presented with a one-week history of left upper quadrant discomfort. She had splenectomy for the treatment of hypersplenism caused by cirrhotic portal hypertension two years before this admission. Her physical examination was unremarkable and laboratory data was within the normal range. Both the ultrasonography and magnetic resonance image revealed a small oval-shaped mass in the tail of her pancreas with the diameter 2 cm or less. A distal pancreatectomy was performed for the suspection of malignant neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas. An intrapancreatic accessory spleen was confirmed by the pathologic examination. DISCUSSION Intrapancreatic accessory spleen is one kind of congenital ectopic spleen without indication for operative intervention. We present the case to support that intrapancreatic accessory spleen may enlarge through a compensatory mechanism, and raise the awareness of this intrapacreatic entity to avoid unnecessary surgical operation. CONCLUSION IPAS should be highly considered as a differential diagnosis while the lesion is no more than 2.5 cm in diameter and/or other accessory spleens show around the splenic hilum. PMID:25437661

Zhu, Hong-xu; Lou, Wen-hui; Kuang, Tian-tao; Wang, Dan-song

2014-01-01

440

Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in accessory lobe neurons of the chick.  

PubMed

Birds have ten pairs of protrusions, "accessory lobes", on the lateral sides of the lumbosacral spinal cord. It has been proposed that accessory lobes act as a sensory organ of equilibrium and neurons in accessory lobes transmit sensory information to the motor center. We have reported that cells in chick accessory lobes express functional voltage-gated Na(+) and K(+) channels and generate action potentials. In this study, we examined properties of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs). The amplitude of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel currents carried by Ca(2+) and Ba(2+) increased gradually during 10 min rather than showing the usual run-down. The current-voltage relationship of Ba(2+) currents was consistent with that of the high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channel. The proportion of Ba(2+) currents inhibited by ?-conotoxin GVIA was larger than 80%, indicating that the major subtype is N type. Amplitudes of tail currents of Ca(2+) currents evoked by repetitive pulses at 50 Hz are stable for 1 s. If the major subtype of VGCCs at synaptic terminals is also N type, this property may contribute to the establishment of stable synaptic connections between accessory lobe neurons, which are reported to fire at frequencies higher than 15 Hz, and postsynaptic neurons in the spinal cord. PMID:24842482

Suzuki, Yuki; Kitamura, Naoki; Yamanaka, Yuko; Shibuya, Izumi

2014-08-01

441

Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers  

ClinicalTrials.gov

High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

2013-10-10

442

Protective effect of Zingiber officinale extract on rat testis after cyclophosphamide treatment.  

PubMed

Decreasing the side effects of chemotherapy in testis has been the subjects of many studies. In this study, the protective effects of Zingiber officinale extract on rat testis were investigated after chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide. Histological and biochemical parameters were compared in cyclophosphamide-treated rats with or without ginger extract intake. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into four groups each 10. The control group received a single injection of 1 ml isotonic saline intraperitoneally. The Cyclophosphamide (CP) group received a single dose of cyclophosphamide (100 mg kg(-1) BW) intraperitoneally. CP + 300 and CP + 600 groups received orally 300 or 600 mg of ginger extract, respectively, for a period of 6 weeks after cyclophosphamide injection. The morphologic and histological structure of the testis was compared in different groups of the rats. Also, factors like malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, total antioxidant capacity and testosterone level were assessed in blood serum as well. Our results showed that although ginger extract could not change testis weight, malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS, but antioxidant and testosterone levels in serum were increased significantly. Also, an obvious improved histological change was seen in CP + 300 and CP + 600 groups in comparison with CP group. These protective effects of ginger on rat testis after cyclophosphamide treatment could be attributed to the higher serum level of antioxidants. PMID:23889539

Mohammadi, F; Nikzad, H; Taghizadeh, M; Taherian, A; Azami-Tameh, A; Hosseini, S M; Moravveji, A

2014-08-01

443

Does testis weight decline towards the Subarctic? A case study on the common frog, Rana temporaria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interpopulation comparisons of variation in resource availability and in allocation patterns along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients allow insights into the mechanisms shaping the life history of animals. Patterns of between-population differences in female life history traits have been studied intensively across a wide range of taxa, but similar investigations in males have remained scarce. To study if testis weight—a measure of reproductive investment—varies on a geographical scale in anurans, we focussed on the variation in relative testis weight (RelTW) and asymmetry in 22 populations of the common frog Rana temporaria along a 1,600-km latitudinal transect across the Scandinavian peninsula. We found that RelTW decreased towards the north. Body mass and body length both had independent positive effects on testes mass. We found evidence for directional asymmetry (DA) in testis weight with the right testis being larger than the left. The level of DA in testis weight was not related to latitude, but both body mass and testes mass had independent positive effects on asymmetry. We discuss the northwards decrease in RelTW in terms of a decreased reproductive investment as a possible consequence of harsher environmental conditions, and perhaps also, weaker sexual selection in the north than in the south.

Hettyey, Attila; Laurila, Anssi; Herczeg, Gábor; Jönsson, K. Ingemar; Kovács, Tibor; Merilä, Juha

2005-04-01

444

Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal.

Naga Raju, G. J.; John Charles, M.; Bhuloka Reddy, S.; Sarita, P.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Rama Lakshmi, P. V. B.; Vijayan, V.

2005-04-01

445

Simulated microgravity activates apoptosis and NF-?B in mice testis  

PubMed Central

Microgravity is known to have significant effect on all aspects of reproductive function in animal models. Recent studies have also shown that microgravity induces changes at the cellular level, including apoptosis. Our effort here was to study the effect of simulated microgravity on caspase-8 and the caspase-3 activities, the effectors of the apoptotic pathway and on the transcription factor NF-?B a signaling molecule in mouse testis. Morey-Holton hind limb suspension model was used to simulate microgravity. Caspase-8 and 3 fluorometric assays were carried out and HLS mice testis exhibited a 51% increase in caspase-8 and caspase-3 compared to the controls. A sandwich ELISA-based immunoassay was carried out for detection of NF-?B which again significantly increased in the test mice. Testosterone levels were measured using an ELISA kit and in HLS mice the decrease was significant. There was also a significant decrease in testis weight in the test mice. Simulated microgravity activates caspase 8, 3 and NF-?B necessary to stimulate the apoptotic pathway in mice testis. This may account for the drop in testis weight and testosterone level further affecting testicular physiology and function. PMID:18385949

Sharma, Chidananda S.; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Ravichandran, Prabakaran; Sadanandan, Bindu; Ramesh, Vani; Thomas, Renard; Hall, Joseph C.; Wilson, Bobby L.

2009-01-01

446

Arthroscopic Bankart Repair: Accessory Posterior Portal With Slotted Cannula for Lowest Capsulolabral Access  

PubMed Central

We present a novel technique for safe establishment of the accessory posterior portal using a slotted cannula. Arthroscopic Bankart repair is a common procedure. A variety of arthroscopic techniques have been described in the literature, commonly using the posterior portal for visualization and the anterior portal with a working cannula. The accessory posterior portal enables elegant access to the lower part of the capsulolabral junction, a firmer grasp and mobilization of the tissue, quick and easy tool exchange using a slotted cannula, and clearer suture placement because of the flat, direct working angle. The skin incision is made small without the need for an arthroscopic cannula, and the portal location is in a relatively safe zone. The use of the accessory posterior portal along with a slotted cannula shortens the duration of the operative procedure and improves safety and performance. PMID:25126512

Tsvieli, Oren; Atoun, Ehud; Amar, Eyal; Levy, Ofer; Rath, Ehud

2014-01-01

447

Malignant Nerve Sheath Tumor of the Spinal Accessory Nerve: A Unique Presentation of a Rare Tumor  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), sarcomas originating from tissues of mesenchymal origin, are rare in patients without a history of neurofibromatosis. Case Report We report a case of an MPNST of the spinal accessory nerve, unassociated with neurofibromatosis, which metastasized to the brain. The tumor, originating in the intrasternomastoid segment of the spinal accessory nerve, was removed. Two years later, the patient presented with focal neurological deficits. Radiographic findings revealed a well-defined 2.2×2.2×2.2 cm, homogeneously enhancing mass in the left parieto-occipital region of the brain surrounded by significant vasogenic edema and mass effect, culminating in a 1-cm midline shift to the right. The mass was surgically removed. The patient had nearly complete recovery of vision, speech, and memory. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of an MPNST arising from an extracranial segment of the spinal accessory nerve and metastasizing to the brain. PMID:22523517

Sheikh, Omair A.; Reaves, Ann; Kralick, Francis A.; Brooks, Ari; Musial, Rachel E.

2012-01-01

448

The clypeal gland: a new exocrine gland in termite imagoes (Isoptera: Serritermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae).  

PubMed

Social insects possess a rich set of exocrine organs producing diverse pheromones and defensive compounds. This is especially true for termite imagoes, which are equipped with several glands producing, among others, sex pheromones and defensive compounds protecting imagoes during the dispersal flight and colony foundation. Here, we describe the clypeal gland, a new termite exocrine organ occurring in the labro-clypeal region of imagoes of most Rhinotermitidae, Serritermitidae and Termitidae species. The clypeal gland of Coptotermes testaceus consists of class 1 (modified epidermal cell) and class 3 (bicellular gland unit) secretory cells. Ultrastructural features suggest that the gland secretes volatile compounds and proteins, probably after starting the reproduction. One peculiar feature of the gland is the presence of multiple secretory canals in a single canal cell, a feature never observed before in other insect glands. Although the function of the gland remains unknown, we hypothesize that it could produce secretion signalling the presence of functional reproductives or their need to be fed. PMID:25280798

K?ížková, Barbora; Bourguignon, Thomas; Vytisková, Blahoslava; Sobotník, Jan

2014-11-01

449

Rescue of Salivary Gland Function after Stem Cell Transplantation in Irradiated Glands  

PubMed Central

Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Despite relatively high survival rates, the quality of life of these patients is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequential xerostomia (dry mouth syndrome). In this study, a clinically applicable method for the restoration of radiation-impaired salivary gland function using salivary gland stem cell transplantation was developed. Salivary gland cells were isolated from murine submandibular glands and cultured in vitro as salispheres, which contained cells expressing the stem cell markers Sca-1, c-Kit and Musashi-1. In vitro, the cells differentiated into salivary gland duct cells and mucin and amylase producing acinar cells. Stem cell enrichment was performed by flow cytrometric selection using c-Kit as a marker. In vitro, the cells differentiated into amylase producing acinar cells. In vivo, intra-glandular transplantation of a small number of c-Kit+ cells resulted in long-term restoration of salivary gland morphology and function. Moreover, donor-derived stem cells could be isolated from primary recipients, cultured as secondary spheres and after re-transplantation ameliorate radiation damage. Our approach is the first proof for the potential use of stem cell transplantation to functionally rescue salivary gland deficiency. PMID:18446241

Lombaert, Isabelle M. A.; Brunsting, Jeanette F.; Wierenga, Pieter K.; Faber, Hette; Stokman, Monique A.; Kok, Tineke; Visser, Willy H.; Kampinga, Harm H.; de Haan, Gerald; Coppes, Robert P.

2008-01-01

450

Morphological Features of the Porcine Lacrimal Gland and Its Compatibility for Human Lacrimal Gland Xenografting  

PubMed Central

In this study, we present first data concerning the anatomical structure, blood supply and location of the lacrimal gland of the pig. Our data indicate that the porcine lacrimal gland may serve as a potential xenograft candidate in humans or as an animal model for engineering of a bioartificial lacrimal gland tissue construct for clinical application. For this purpose, we used different macroscopic preparation techniques and digital reconstruction of the histological gland morphology to gain new insights and important information concerning the feasibility of a lacrimal gland transplantation from pig to humans in general. Our results show that the lacrimal gland of the pig reveals a lot of morphological similarities to the analogous human lacrimal gland and thus might be regarded as a xenograft in the future. This is true for a similar anatomical location within the orbit as well as for the feeding artery supply to the organ. Functional differences concerning the composition of the tear fluid, due to a different secretory unit distribution within the gland tissue will, however, be a challenge in future investigations. PMID:24069265

Gaffling, Simone; Asano, Nagayoshi; Hampel, Ulrike; Garreis, Fabian; Hornegger, Joachim; Paulsen, Friedrich

2013-01-01

451

Harderian Gland: An Extraretinal Photoreceptor Influencing the Pineal Gland in Neonatal Rats?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circadian rhythm of pineal serotonin and the influence of light on that rhythm have been confirmed. Removal of the Harderian gland abolishes the response to light in blinded animals, which suggests that this gland may act as the extraretinal transducer involved in the persistence of the pineal rhythm in blinded suckling rats.

Lennart Wetterberg; Edward Geller; Arthur Yuwiler

1970-01-01

452

Mamillo-accessory notch and foramen: Distribution patterns and correlation with superior lumbar facet structure.  

PubMed

The mamillary (MP) and the accessory (AP) processes are two important anatomical landmarks in the lumbar vertebral morphology. These two processes form the mamillo-accessory notch (MAN) between them. In the living, the MP and the AP are connected together by the mamillo-accessory ligament (MAL). The medial branches of lumbar dorsal rami pass underneath the MAL. The MAL often undergoes varied degrees of ossification with diverse notching at the junction of these two processes, often with formation of a discrete foramen (MAF). Reports on the distribution of these notches (MAN) and foramina (MAF) are very few and most of them do not discuss such ossification in context of morphology of adjoining structures in the vertebrae. Lumbar vertebral and sacral specimens were screened for three different categories of narrowing at the mamillo-accessory junction: firstly >1/2 notch, secondly ¾ notch, and thirdly MAF and their distribution patterns were mapped along the lumbar spine. Transverse dimensions of superior facet articulating surfaces [length (a)] and widths of MPs [length (b)] were recorded. Relative widths of the MPs were calculated as index M (a/b). Results suggest associations between the degrees of assimilation of the MPs into the facet joints, the index M values, and the different types of mamillo-accessory junctional anatomy. This study may help to understand if MAN and MAF related dorsal rami entrapment neuropathies arise merely due to osteoarthritic ossification of the MAL or could also be accounted for by facet dimensions or degree of MP-facet fusions that abut close to the mamillo-accessory junctions. PMID:24889272

Mahato, N K

2014-12-01

453

Do all patients with bilateral testis cancer have a hereditary predisposition?  

PubMed

An international study has demonstrated that patients with bilateral testicular cancer are significantly more likely to have brothers with testis cancer than those with unilateral disease. This, together with other evidence, implies that patients with bilateral disease are likely to carry a predisposing genotype. But is it the great majority of them which is thus predisposed? We show that if as few as half of these patients have the predisposing genotype, its penetrance would have to be 80%, causing 38% of resulting cases to be bilateral. Evidence from the International Testis Cancer Linkage Consortium shows that the proportion of familial cases with bilateral disease is much lower. It is likely that at least the majority of cases of bilateral testis cancer arise as a result of a predisposing genotype. PMID:17705806

Harland, S J; Rapley, E A; Nicholson, P W

2007-08-01

454

Concomitant Sertoli and Leydig Cell Tumor of the Testis: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

A rare intratubular gonadal stromal tumor was present in the testis of a 45-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with the chief complaint of gradual enlargement of the left testis. Tumoral markers were negative and no extension was observed. The tumor comprised an intratubular mixture of two types of tumor cells with intercellular junctions: the predominant tumor cells were consistent with a Sertoli cell origin and cells comprising the minor population consistent with a Leydig cell origin. The patient is disease free after 6-month follow-up. The case is considered to be a testicular mixed tubular Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor. It highlights a rare type of primary tumor of the testis that features a good prognosis. PMID:22114547

Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Ahallal, Youness; Khallouk, Abdelhak; Elfatemi, Hinde; Bendahou, Mohcine; Tazi, Elmehdi; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

2011-01-01

455

Sublethal effects of diazinon on the structure of the testis of bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus: a microscopic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A histopathological analysis of the testis exposed to diazinon, an organophosphorus pesticide was conducted. The testis from the control fish exhibited a normal histological structure with a round, oval or somewhat rectangular shaped with closely associated seminiferous tubules. The seminiferous tubules were surrounded by a layer of connective tissue with myoid cells, Leydig cells, blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves.

H. M. Dutta; H. J. M. Meijer

2003-01-01

456

Peroneus quartus, an accessory muscle in human: case report and its clinical importance.  

PubMed

The peroneus quartus is an accessory peroneal muscle seen in man. The term 'peroneus quartus' is often used to refer one or several of the accessory peroneal muscles. In this case, we report an unusual type of peroneus quartus which was originating from the muscular portion of the peroneus brevis and inserting onto the peroneus longus tendon. The clinical implications are emphasized with the morphological significance and literature review. The orthopedic surgeons and radiologists should be aware of the possible presence of this muscle not only because of its associated pathology, but also for its potential use in plastic surgeries. PMID:23007814

Murlimanju, B V; D'Souza, P S; Prabhu, L V; Saralaya, V V; David, S J

2012-07-01

457

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Accessory Protein 4a Is a Type I Interferon Antagonist  

PubMed Central

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe acute respiratory infection with as yet unclear epidemiology. We previously showed that MERS-CoV counteracts parts of the innate immune response in human bronchiolar cells. Here we analyzed accessory proteins 3, 4a, 4b, and 5 for their abilities to inhibit the type I interferon response. Accessory protein 4a was found to block interferon induction at the level of melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) activation presumably by direct interaction with double-stranded RNA. PMID:24027320

Niemeyer, Daniela; Zillinger, Thomas; Muth, Doreen; Zielecki, Florian; Horvath, Gabor; Suliman, Tasnim; Barchet, Winfried; Weber, Friedemann

2013-01-01

458

Transgenic characterization of two testis-specific promoters in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Sex-specific regulatory elements are key components for developing insect genetic sexing systems. The current insect genetic sexing system mainly uses a female-specific modification system whereas little success was reported on male-specific genetic modification. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, a lepidopteran model insect with economic importance, a transgene-based, female-specific lethality system has been established based on sex-specific alternative splicing factors and a female-specific promoter BmVgp (vitellogenin promoter) has been identified. However, no male-specific regulatory elements have yet been identified. Here we report the transgenic identification of two promoters that drive reporter gene expression in a testis-specific manner in B.?mori. Putative promoter sequences from the B.?mori Radial spoke head 1 gene (BmR1) and beta-tubulin 4 gene (Bm?4) were introduced using piggybac-based germline transformation. In transgenic silkworms, expression of the reporter gene enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) directed by either BmR1 promoter (BmR1p) or Bm?4p showed precisely testis-specific manners from the larval to adult stage. Furthermore, EGFP expression of these two transgenic lines showed different localization in the testis, indicating that BmR1p or Bm?4p might be used as distinct regulatory elements in directing testis-specific gene expression. Identification of these testis-specific promoters not only contributes to a better understanding of testis-specific gene function in insects, but also has potential applications in sterile insect techniques for pest management. PMID:25387604

Xu, J; Bi, H; Chen, R; Aslam, A F M; Li, Z; Ling, L; Zeng, B; Huang, Y; Tan, A

2014-11-11

459

Long Non-Coding RNA Expression Profiling of Mouse Testis during Postnatal Development  

PubMed Central

Mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis play critical roles in male fertility and continuation of a species. Previous research into the molecular mechanisms of testis development and spermatogenesis has largely focused on the role of protein-coding genes and small non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs and piRNAs. Recently, it has become apparent that large numbers of long (>200 nt) non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcribed from mammalian genomes and that lncRNAs perform important regulatory functions in various developmental processes. However, the expression of lncRNAs and their biological functions in post-natal testis development remain unknown. In this study, we employed microarray technology to examine lncRNA expression profiles of neonatal (6-day-old) and adult (8-week-old) mouse testes. We found that 8,265 lncRNAs were expressed above background levels during post-natal testis development, of which 3,025 were differentially expressed. Candidate lncRNAs were identified for further characterization by an integrated examination of genomic context, gene ontology (GO) enrichment of their associated protein-coding genes, promoter analysis for epigenetic modification, and evolutionary conservation of elements. Many lncRNAs overlapped or were adjacent to key transcription factors and other genes involved in spermatogenesis, such as Ovol1, Ovol2, Lhx1, Sox3, Sox9, Plzf, c-Kit, Wt1, Sycp2, Prm1 and Prm2. Most differentially expressed lncRNAs exhibited epigenetic modification marks similar to protein-coding genes and tend to be expressed in a tissue-specific manner. In addition, the majority of differentially expressed lncRNAs harbored evolutionary conserved elements. Taken together, our findings represent the first systematic investigation of lncRNA expression in the mammalian testis and provide a solid foundation for further research into the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs function in mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis. PMID:24130740

Sun, Jin; Lin, Yi; Wu, Ji

2013-01-01

460

Sox9-related signaling controls zebrafish juvenile ovary-testis transformation.  

PubMed

In almost all vertebrates, the downstream of the sox9 signaling axis is well conserved for testis differentiation. The upstream genes of this pathway vary from species to species during evolution. Yet, little is known about how these signaling cascades are regulated and what cellular processes are dominant in ovary-testis transformation in juvenile zebrafish. In this study, we find that the transforming gonads undergo activation of sox9a-expressing stromal cells with increased deposition of extracellular matrix and formation of degenerative compartments. This leads to follicle disassembly, oocyte degeneration, follicle cell-cyp19a1a-amh conversions, and, eventually, formation of the testis cord. In vitro primary culture of juvenile ovary tissue in gonadotropins increases cytoplasmic accumulation of sox9a and p-Erk1/2, and induces mesenchymal morphology. MAPK inhibitors (MKI), a mixture of PD98059 and U0216, eliminate the cytoplasmic distribution but do not eradicate nuclear localization of sox9a and p-Erk1/2. Nuclear p53 are relatively increased in MKI-treated cells that exhibit less spreading and reduced proliferation. Despite uniform nuclear condensation, only a fraction of cells displayed the apoptotic phenotype. These results suggest that high levels of cytoplasmic sox9a and p-Erk1/2 activity activate stromal cells and enhance the production of extracellular matrix required for testis cord formation, whereas deregulation and translocation of sox9a and p-Erk1/2 induce follicle disassembly and incomplete apoptosis associated with nuclear p53. Together with the established FSH/cAMP/MAPK/AMH pathway in mammalian granulosa and Sertoli cells, we demonstrated that the sox9 axis signaling that determines testis formation in mammals also induces zebrafish ovary-testis transition, and adds to its conserved role in sex reversal. PMID:24263104

Sun, D; Zhang, Y; Wang, C; Hua, X; Zhang, X A; Yan, J

2013-01-01

461

Human Fetal Testis Xenografts Are Resistant to Phthalate-Induced Endocrine Disruption  

PubMed Central

Background: In utero exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may contribute to testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), a proposed constellation of increasingly common male reproductive tract abnormalities (including hypospadias, cryptorchidism, hypospermatogenesis, and testicular cancer). Male rats exposed in utero to certain phthalate plasticizers exhibit multinucleated germ cell (MNG) induction and suppressed steroidogenic gene expression and testosterone production in the fetal testis, causing TDS-consistent effects of hypospadias and cryptorchidism. Mice exposed to phthalates in utero exhibit MNG induction only. This disparity in response demonstrates a species-specific sensitivity to phthalate-induced suppression of fetal Leydig cell steroidogenesis. Importantly, ex vivo phthalate exposure of the fetal testis does not recapitulate the species-specific endocrine disruption, demonstrating the need for a new bioassay to assess the human response to phthalates. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to develop and validate a rat and mouse testis xenograft bioassay of phthalate exposure and examine the human fetal testis response. Methods: Fetal rat, mouse, and human testes were xenografted into immunodeficient rodent hosts, and hosts were gavaged with a range of phthalate doses over multiple days. Xenografts were harvested and assessed for histopathology and steroidogenic end points. Results: Consistent with the in utero response, phthalate exposure induced MNG formation in rat and mouse xenografts, but only rats exhibited suppressed steroidogenesis. Across a range of doses, human fetal testis xenografts exhibited MNG induction but were resistant to suppression of steroidogenic gene expression. Conclusions: Phthalate exposure of grafted human fetal testis altered fetal germ cells but did not reduce expression of genes that regulate fetal testosterone biosynthesis. PMID:22511013

Heger, Nicholas E; Hall, Susan J; Sandrof, Moses A; McDonnell, Elizabeth V; Hensley, Janan B; McDowell, Erin N; Martin, Kayla A; Gaido, Kevin W; Johnson, Kamin J

2012-01-01

462

The effect of alpha-tocopherol on lipid peroxidation of microsomes and mitochondria from rat testis.  

PubMed

The testis is a remarkably active metabolic organ; hence it is suitable not only for studies of lipid metabolism in the organ itself but also for the study of lipid peroxidation processes in general. The content of fatty acids in testis is high with a prevalence of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which renders this tissue very susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of alpha-tocopherol in vitro on ascorbate-Fe(++) lipid peroxidation of rat testis microsomes and mitochondria. Chemiluminescence and fatty acid composition were used as an index of the oxidative destruction of lipids. Special attention was paid to the changes produced on the highly PUFA [C20:4 n6] and [C22:5 n6]. Lipid peroxidation of testis microsomes or mitochondria induced a significant decrease of both fatty acids. Total chemiluminescence was similar in both kinds of organelles when the peroxidized without (control) and with ascorbate-Fe(++) (peroxidized) groups were compared. Arachidonic acid was protected more efficiently than docosapentaenoic acid at all alpha-tocopherol concentrations tested when rat testis microsomes or mitochondria were incubated with ascorbate-Fe(++). The maximal percentage of inhibition in both organelles was approximately 70%; corresponding to an alpha-tocopherol concentration between 1 and 0.25 mM. IC50 values from the inhibition of alpha-tocopherol on the chemiluminescence were higher in microsomes (0.144 mM) than mitochondria (0.078 mM). The protective effect observed by alpha-tocopherol in rat testis mitochondria was higher compared with microsomes, associated with the higher amount of [C20:4 n6]+[C22:5 n6] in microsomes that in mitochondria. It is proposed that the vulnerability to lipid peroxidation of rat testis microsomes and mitochondria is different because of the different proportion of PUFA in these organelles The peroxidizability index (PI) was positively correlated with the level of long chain fatty acids. The results demonstrated the protective effect of alpha-tocopherol on lipid peroxidation in microsomes and mitochondria from rat testis. PMID:16549341

Gavazza, M B; Catalá, A

2006-04-01

463

Morphometric Studies on the Testis of Korean Ring-necked Pheasant ( Phasianus colchicus karpowi ) during the Breeding and Non-breeding Seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to obtain detailed quantitative information on all cell types in the testis interstitium of Korean ring-necked pheasants and to combine these data with changes in the steroidogenic function of the testis during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. For animals collected during the breeding season, their testis weights, sperm production, serum testosterone levels and leuteinizing

H. J. Tae; B. G. Jang; D. C. Ahn; E. Y. Choi; H. S. Kang; N. S. Kim; J. H. Lee; S. Y. Park; H. H. Yang; I. S. Kim

2005-01-01

464

Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma to Parotid Glands  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 66 Final Diagnosis: Hepatocellular carcinoma Symptoms: Abdominal distension • painful right facial swelling • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: — Objective: Rare disease Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common cancer, but it rarely metastasizes to the salivary glands. A review of the literature revealed only 5 reported cases of hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to parotid glands. We here report an additional case of this rare association. Case Report: A 66-year-old male with a background of type 2 diabetes mellitus and post-alcoholic decompensated liver cirrhosis presented with a progressively enlarging painful right facial swelling for 2 months that was eventually found to be due to hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to the right parotid gland. Fine needle aspiration from the right parotid showed sheets and single malignant cells that were interpreted as carcinoma not otherwise specific. However, biopsy showed metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma into the right parotid gland. Conclusions: We report an additional case of the rare metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma to the parotid glands. It should therefore be considered in a patient with decompensated liver cirrhosis presenting with a parotid swelling. Furthermore, the present case demonstrates the importance of the tissue biopsy for obtaining an accurate final diagnosis. PMID:25129420

Elzouki, Abdel-Naser; Elkhider, Hisham; Yacout, Khalid; Muzrakchi, Ahmed Al; Al-Thani, Shaikah; Ismail, Omer

2014-01-01

465

Sex-Biased miRNAs in Gonad and Their Potential Roles for Testis Development in Yellow Catfish  

PubMed Central

Recently, YY super-male yellow catfish had been created by hormonal-induced sex reversal and sex-linked markers, which provides a promising research model for fish sex differentiation and gonad development, especially for testis development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been revealed to play crucial roles in the gene regulation and gonad development in vertebrates. In this study, three small RNA libraries constructed from gonad tissues of XX female, XY male and YY super-male yellow catfish were sequenced. The sequencing data generated a total of 384 conserved miRNAs and 113 potential novel miRNAs, among which 23, 30 and 14 miRNAs were specifically detected in XX ovary, XY testis, and YY testis, respectively. We observed relative lower expression of several miR-200 family members, including miR-141 and miR-429 in YY testis compared with XY testis. Histological analysis indicated a higher degree of testis maturity in YY super-males compared with XY males, as shown by larger spermatogenic cyst, more spermatids and fewer spermatocytes in the spermatogenic cyst. Moreover, five miR-200 family members were significantly up-regulated in testis when treated by 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), high dose of which will impair testis development and cell proliferation. The down-regulation of miR-141 and 429 coincides with the progression of testis development in both yellow catfish and human. At last, the expression pattern of nine arbitrarily selected miRNAs detected by quantitative RT-PCR was consistent with the Solexa sequencing results. Our study provides a comprehensive miRNA transcriptome analysis for gonad of yellow catfish with different sex genotypes, and identifies a number of sex-biased miRNAs, some of that are potentially involved in testis development and spermatogenesis. PMID:25229553

Jing, Jing; Wu, Junjie; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Shuting; Ma, Wenge; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Weimin; Gui, Jian-Fang; Mei, Jie

2014-01-01

466

Computed tomography of the pituitary gland  

SciTech Connect

This book is written entirely to include the imaging of the pituitary gland by computed tomography (CT). The first three chapters illustrated technical aspects of scanning, anatomic depiction of the gland by CT, and the use of dynamic CT scanning for detecting and displaying abnormalities. The chapters discuss and illustrate various types of pathologic processes in and around the pituitary gland. One short but very helpful chapter demonstrates potential pitfalls due to the combination of anatomic variants and the geometry of CT sections. Some illustrations of disease processed are depicted by magnetic resonance imaging. All major types of pituitary diseases are illustrated. Lists of readily available English-language references are available. A small subject index is provided at the end of the book in which the illustrations are identified by use of a special numeric front.

Bonneville, J.F.; Cattin, F.; Dietemann, J.L.

1986-01-01

467

BIOPRODUCTS OF AUTOMOTIVE ACCESSORIES: RETHINKING DESIGN MATERIALS THROUGH CORNSTARCH, SUGARCANE AND HEMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current bioproducts or bio-based products do not only require less energy to produce than petroleum-based products, they are made with renewable sources that engineered from excessive waste and natural local materials. This paper identifies alternative design solutions by suggesting a use of natural materials such as cornstarch, sugarcanes and hemp in designing automotive accessories. Leading automotive industries have focused on

Apisak Sindhuphak

468

DETERMINING SEX IN POSTHATCHLING LOGGERHEAD SEA TURTLES USING MULTIPLE GONADAL AND ACCESSORY  

E-print Network

DETERMINING SEX IN POSTHATCHLING LOGGERHEAD SEA TURTLES USING MULTIPLE GONADAL AND ACCESSORY DUCT of the Environment and Earth Sciences, 135 Duke Marine Lab Road, Beaufort, NC 28516, USA ABSTRACT: The sex of young and heteromorphic sex chromosomes, yet internal dimorphic morphology is defined at hatching. We tested

Wyneken, Wyneken Jeanette

469

76 FR 9717 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Saddle-Mount Braking Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration 49 CFR Part 393 [Docket No...RIN-2126-AB30 Parts and Accessories Necessary...rulemaking from the Automobile Carriers Conference...submitting comments and related materials. All comments...were conducted in part to support increases...for the National Automobile Transporters...

2011-02-22

470

Activation of an anatomically distinct subpopulation of accessory olfactory bulb neurons by chemosensory stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemosensory cues known as pheromones play a key role in rodent reproductive physiology and social interactions. Pheromone molecules are detected by receptor cells located in the vomeronasal organ and conveyed exclusively to the accessory olfactory bulb, and then to limbic and hypothalamic sites for integration with other factors modulating reproductive physiology. We report here that chemosensory cues from the female

C. A Dudley; R. L Moss

1999-01-01

471

An ephemeral pheromone of female house mice: Perception via the main and accessory olfactory systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined the chemosensory modalities by which males detect an ephemeral sex pheromone in the freshly voided urine of female mice. Experiment 1 examined the interaction of deafferenting the accessory olfactory system (vomeronasal organ removal) and subsequent sexual experience upon ultrasonic vocalizations by male mice to freshly voided female urine. In general, sexually experienced males vocalized substantially more than

Maurice L. Sipos; Charles J. Wysocki; John G. Nyby; Linda Wysocki; Todd A. Nemura

1995-01-01

472

Type II Endoleaks Involving an Accessory Renal Artery and the Inferior Mesenteric Artery  

SciTech Connect

Two patients are described with type II endoleaks involving an accessory renal artery and the inferior mesenteric artery. One patient was successfully embolized via the translumbar route. The other continues to be observed; the endoleak is expected to close spontaneously because both the inflow and outflow are significantly compromised.

Martin, E. C., E-mail: emartin@chpnet.org [St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Todd, George J. [St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, Department of Surgery (United States)

2011-02-15

473

Functional properties of neurons in the cat gracile nucleus that project to the dorsal accessory olive  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the functional properties of neurons in the gracile nucleus that project to the dorsal accessory portion of the inferior olive (DAO) and compared these with properties of other efferents from the dorsal column nuclei (DCN). Projection neurons were identified in anesthetized cats by microstimulation within DAO. They were further tested to insure that they could not be

H. H. Molinari; J. O. Dostrovsky

1987-01-01

474

One-Stop Outpatient Management of Accessory Auricle in Children with Titanium Clip  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Literature on ideal management of accessory auricles is limited. Traditionally, accessory auricles are managed by paediatricians with suture ligation at the base of the accessory auricle to induce ischaemic necrosis (Mehmi et al, 2007). This method can be associated with complications and poor cosmesis thus leading to the vogue of surgical excision ( Frieden et al, 1995; Sebben, 1989). We present our experience in managing these lesions in children with the application of a titanium clip in a one-stop outpatient setting. Methods. Data was collected retrospectively through review of patient records and telephone questionnaire identifying outcomes from the parents' perspective. Results. Of 42 patients, 24 (57.1%) responded. Eleven (26.2%) underwent surgical excision, 6 (14.3%) had no intervention, and 1 (2.4%) was not contactable. All parents were happy with the outcome and would recommend this management to other parents. Twenty-three (96%) had no complications apart from a tiny residual nubbin, which was considered cosmetically acceptable. One child had a residual nubbin that grew in size requiring surgical excision at later stage. Conclusion. Management of accessory auricles by the application of a titanium clip in one-stop outpatient setting is safe, simple, quick, and well tolerated with no need for admission, anaesthesia, or followup due to the low complication rate. PMID:24800069

Laing, Tereze; Milroy, Catherine

2014-01-01

475

Quantitative histology of the mucous membrane of the accessory nasal sinus and mastoid cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mucous membranes of the accessory nasal sinuses and of the mastoid labyrinth were measured in undecalcified, plastic-embedded specimens from nonpathologic postmortem cases. Epithelial thicknesses, lamina propria thicknesses and the ratio of nuclear to total cell area of the epithelia are presented for these organs to provide a quantitative basis for dosimetric calculations of alpha-emitting radionuclides. These data will be

M. J. Harris; R. A. Schlenker

1981-01-01

476

Historical overview of imaging the meibomian glands  

PubMed Central

Growing knowledge of the role of the meibomian glands in dry eye disease and contact lens discomfort has resulted in a surge of interest in visualizing these glands within the eyelids. This manuscript provides an overview of the many different visualization methods that have evolved over the past 30–40 years. Some of the visualization methods covered in this review include lid transillumination, video and non-contact meibography, and imaging methods employing confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography and ultrasound. This review has also highlighted all the studies to date that have employed meibography as part of their methods. An overview of the available meibography dropout grading systems will also be provided.

Ngo, William; Srinivasan, Sruthi; Jones, Lyndon

2012-01-01

477

Lymphopoiesis in the chicken pineal gland  

SciTech Connect

Pineal lymphoid development was studied in two breeds of chickens from hatching until sexual maturity. No lymphocytes were found in the pineal prior to 9 days of age (da). Lymphocytes migrate through the endothelium of venules into the pineal stroma. Lymphoid tissue reached its maximal accumulation in 32-da pineal glands of both breeds. At this age, the New Hampshire (NH) breed had a larger proportion of lymphoid volume to total pineal volume (32%) than did pineal glands from White Leghorn (WL) chickens (18%).

Cogburn, L.A.; Glick, B.

1981-10-01

478

Breast cancer metastasis to the pituitary gland.  

PubMed

Metastatic tumors to the pituitary gland are an unusual complication typically seen in elderly patients with diffuse malignant disease. Breast and lung are the commonest sites of the primary tumor. Prognosis of patients with breast cancer metastasis is poor and depends on the primary neoplastic extension. We report a 54 year-old woman with breast cancer metastasis to the pituitary stalk first diagnosed because of visual disturbance with no other symptoms. Pituitary gland stalk metastasis is a very uncommon find and this case report includes a literature review. PMID:25465612

Magalhães, Julia Fragoso; Bacchin, Renata Prota; Costa, Priscila Scatena; Alves, Gisele Malavazi; Fraige Filho, Fadlo; Stella, Lenira Cristina

2014-11-01

479

Recovery of cytomegalovirus from the submaxillary glands of ground squirrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A cytomegalovirus strain was recovered from the submaxillary glands of healthy full grown ground squirrels (Citellus citellus). Homologous kidney epithelium monolayers exhibited cytomegalo-type cytopathic changes 4 days after inoculation with infected salivary gland material.

P. Diosi; Livia Babusceac; Camelia David

1967-01-01

480

The orbitofacial glands of bats: an investigation of the potential correlation of gland structure with social organization.  

PubMed

The facial glands of bats are modified skin glands, whereas there are up to three different orbital glands: Harderian, lacrimal, and Meibomian glands. Scattered studies have described the lacrimal and Meibomian glands in a handful of bat species, but there is as yet no description of a Harderian gland in bats. In this study we examined serial sections of orbitofacial glands in eight families of bats. Much variation amongst species was observed, with few phylogenetic patterns emerging. Enlarged facial glands, either sudoriparous (five genera) or sebaceous (vespertilionids only) were observed. Meibomian and lacrimal glands were present in most species examined (except Antrozous), though the relative level of development varied. Two types of anterior orbital glands were distinguished: the Harderian gland (tubulo-acinar: observed in Rousettus, Atribeus, Desmodus and Miniopterus) and caruncular (sebaceous: observed in Eptesicus and Dieamus). The relative development of the nasolacrimal duct and the vomeronasal organ did not appear to be correlated with the development of any of the exocrine glands examined. There does, however, appear to be a correlation between the presence of at least one well developed exocrine gland and the level of communality and known olfactory acuity, best documented in Artibeus, Desmodus, and Miniopterus. PMID:20665821

Rehorek, Susan J; Smith, Timothy D; Bhatnagar, Kunwar P

2010-08-01

481

Tumor in undescended intrapelvic testis revealed by supraclavicular lymphadenopathy: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Testicular cancer is a rare disease. The incidence of testicular cancer in undescended testicles is of 3 to 48 times greater than in the general population. In the developed countries, the existence of undescended testicles in the adult population is rare, due to systematic practice of elective orchidopexy before the second year of life and orchiectomy in post adolescent males with undescended testicles. Despite these prevention measures, there are still some isolated cases of intra-abdominal testicular tumors in adults. We report a case of testicular cancer in cryptorchid testis revealed by supraclavicular lymphadenopathy. Case presentation We report a case of a 46 year old fertile man with a history of unilateral cryptorchidism who presented with a palpable left supraclavicular mass and absence of the right testicle. On investigations an intrapelvic testis tumor was diagnosed. Laparotomy and complete excision was carried out. The possible association between the undescended testis and cancer transformations is briefly discussed. Conclusion Testicular cancer in undescended testicles should not be ignored. Only early diagnosis and lower of testis in scrotumprevent such clinical forms. PMID:23622500

2013-01-01

482

Localization of S-100 proteins in the testis and epididymis of poultry and rabbits.  

PubMed

The present investigation was conducted to demonstrate S-100 protein in the testis and epididymis of adult chickens, Sudani ducks, pigeons, and rabbits. This study may represent the first indication for the presence of S-100 in the male reproductive organs of these species and might therefore serve as a milestone for further reports. In the testis of chickens, pigeons and rabbits, intense S-100 was seen in Sertoli cells. S-100 was also seen in the endothelial lining of blood vessels in rabbit testis. On the contrary, no S-100 reaction was detected in the Sertoli cells of Sudani ducks. In epididymis, the localization of S-100 had varied according to species studied; it was seen in the basal cells (BC) of epididymal duct in duck, non-ciliated cells of the distal efferent ductules in pigeons and ciliated cells of the efferent ductules and BC of rabbit epididymis. Conversely, S-100 specific staining was not detected in the epithelial lining of the rooster and pigeon epididymal duct as well as the principal cells of the rabbit epididymis. In conclusion, the distribution of the S-100 proteins in the testis and epididymis might point out to its roles in the male reproduction. PMID:25276477

Abd-Elmaksoud, Ahmed; Shoeib, Mahmoud Badran; Marei, Hany E S

2014-09-01

483

Comparison of ex vivo DSP and in vitro MBP Exposures on Fetal Testis Testosterone Production  

EPA Science Inventory

In utero exposure to di-butyl phthalate (DBP) during sex differentiation reduces androgen production and produces a characteristic profile of gene expression changes in the fetal testis. The DPB metabolite mono-butyl phthalate (MBP) is hypothesized to produce these changes by ...

484

Protective Effect of Ginger on Gentamicin-Induced Apoptosis in Testis of Rats  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, is one of the most widely used spices for various foods and as an herbal medicine in Asian countries. It has been shown that ginger has antioxidant power. Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic with a very broad spectrum against microbial pathogens, especially the gram-negative. Many studies revealed that gentamicin induces an oxidative stress-status in the testis by increasing free radical formation and lipid peroxidation. The present study was designed to investigate on the effects of Ginger as a natural anioxidant on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin in rats. Methods: In order to study the recovery effects of ginger on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin 40 adult Wistar male rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Normal salin control (group I) (n=10), gentamicin control (group II), ginger control (group III) and gentamicin + ginger (group IV) each 10 rats. There was observation of negative effect of Gentamicin on testis histology in rats. Results: The results revealed that there was a significant increase in apoptosis in group III when compared with other groups (P<0.05).However, ginger could decrease apoptosis in group IV that received 100mg/kg/rat of Ginger. Conclusion: Regarding the results, it is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections. PMID:24312793

Zahedi, Afshin; Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Khaki, Arash; Ahmadnejad, Behnam

2012-01-01

485

RADIOIMMUNOASSAY OF 19 NOR TESTOSTERONE EVIDENCE OF ITS SECRETION BY THE TESTIS OF THE STALLION  

E-print Network

. It is used as an anabo- lic steroid and specially in competition horses. It was then thought to be only the pharmacokinetics of 19 NT administered as an anabolic agent. The low specificity of these anti- bodies against 19 of this steroid by the testis of stallions. Materials and Methods 1. Preparation of the antiserum Antibodies were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

486

Spermatogonial stem cell enrichment using simple grafting of testis and in vitro cultivation  

PubMed Central

Enrichment of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) from the mammalian adult testis faces several limitations owing to their relatively low numbers among many types of advanced germ cells and somatic cells. The aim of the present study was to improve the isolation efficiency of SSCs using a simple tissue grafting method to eliminate the existing advanced germ cells. Sliced testis parenchyma obtained from adult ICR or EGFP-expressing transgenic mice were grafted heterotropically under the dorsal skin of nude mice. The most advanced germ cells disappeared in the grafted tissues after 2–4 weeks. Grafted tissues were dissociated enzymatically and plated in culture dishes. During in vitro culture, significantly more SSCs were obtained from the grafted testes than from non-grafted controls, and the isolated SSCs had proliferative potential and were successfully maintained. Additionally, EGFP-expressing SSCs derived from graft parenchyma were transplanted into bulsufan-treated recipient mice testes. Finally, we obtained EGFP-expressing pups after in vitro fertilization using spermatozoa derived from transplanted SSCs. These results suggest that subcutaneous grafting of testis parenchyma and the subsequent culture methods provide a simple and efficient isolation method to enrich for SSCs in adult testis without specific cell sorting methods and may be useful tools for clinical applications. PMID:25080919

Lim, Jung Jin; Seol, Dong Won; Choi, Kyung Hee; Shin, Dong Hyuk; Kim, Hyung Joon; Song, Seung-Hun; Lee, Dong Ryul

2014-01-01

487

Striated pattern on scrotal ultrasonography: A marker for Non-hodgkins lymphoma of testis.  

PubMed

We present a case of 52 year old man who presented with bilateral painless testicular swelling. On evaluation with high resolution ultrasonography of the scrotum, typical "striated pattern" which is highly suggestive of Non Hodgkins lymphoma of the testis was seen. The patient underwent bilateral inguinal orchidectomy and the histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of Non Hodgkins lymphoma. PMID:24497696

Bhat, Suresh; Sachin, Joseph; Ramaprasad; Job, Suma

2014-01-01

488

Striated pattern on scrotal ultrasonography: A marker for Non-hodgkins lymphoma of testis  

PubMed Central

We present a case of 52 year old man who presented with bilateral painless testicular swelling. On evaluation with high resolution ultrasonography of the scrotum, typical “striated pattern” which is highly suggestive of Non Hodgkins lymphoma of the testis was seen. The patient underwent bilateral inguinal orchidectomy and the histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of Non Hodgkins lymphoma. PMID:24497696

Bhat, Suresh; Sachin, Joseph; Ramaprasad; Job, Suma

2014-01-01

489

COLLECTION OF INTERSTITIAL FLUID AND SEMINIFEROUS TUBULE FLUID FROM THE RAT TESTIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter describes in detail the collection of interstitial and seminiferous tubule fluid from the rat testis. he collection and analysis of fluid from the interstitial spaces and the tubular compartment is a means of measuring changes in the testicular hormonal environment. ...

490

EXPRESSION OF THE SPERMATOGENIC CELL-SPECIFIC GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE (GAPDS) IN RAT TESTIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The spermatogenic cell-specific variant of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) has been cloned from a rat testis cDNA library and its pattern of expression determined. A 1417 nucleotide cDNA has been found to encode an enzyme with substantial homology to mouse GAPDS...

491

METABOLOMIC EVALUATION OF RAT LIVER AND TESTIS TO CHARACTERIZE THE TOXICITY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of two triazole fungicides, myclobutanil and triadimefon, on endogenous rat metabolite profiles in blood serum, liver, and testis was assessed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for...

492

Characterization and Quenching of Autofluorescence in Piglet Testis Tissue and Cells  

PubMed Central

Significant intrinsic fluorescence in tissues and in disassociated cells can interfere with fluorescence identification of target cells. The objectives of the present study were (1) to examine an intrinsic fluorescence we observed in both the piglet testis tissue and cells and (2) to test an effective method to block the autofluorescence. We observed that a number of granules within the testis interstitial cells were inherently fluorescent, detectable using epifluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and flow cytometry. The emission wavelength of the autofluorescent substance ranged from 425 to 700?nm, a range sufficiently broad that could potentially interfere with fluorescence techniques. When we treated the samples with Sudan Black B for different incubation times, the intrinsic fluorescence was completely masked after treatment for 10–15?min of the testis tissue sections or for 8?min of the testis cells, without compromising specific fluorescence labeling of gonocytes with lectin Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA). We speculate that the lipofuscin or lipofuscin-like pigments within Leydig cell granules were mainly responsible for the observed intrinsic fluorescence in piglet testes. The method described in the present study can facilitate the identification and characterization of piglet gonocytes using fluorescence microscopy. PMID:22970375

Yang, Yanfei; Honaramooz, Ali

2012-01-01

493

PAX7 expression defines germline stem cells in the adult testis  

PubMed Central

Spermatogenesis is a complex, multistep process that maintains male fertility and is sustained by rare germline stem cells. Spermatogenic progression begins with spermatogonia, populations of which express distinct markers. The identity of the spermatogonial stem cell population in the undisturbed testis is controversial due to a lack of reliable and specific markers. Here we identified the transcription factor PAX7 as a specific marker of a rare subpopulation of Asingle spermatogonia in mice. PAX7+ cells were present in the testis at birth. Compared with the adult testis, PAX7+ cells constituted a much higher percentage of neonatal germ cells. Lineage tracing in healthy adult mice revealed that PAX7+ spermatogonia self-maintained and produced expanding clones that gave rise to mature spermatozoa. Interestingly, in mice subjected to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, both of which damage the vast majority of germ cells and can result in sterility, PAX7+ spermatogonia selectively survived, and their subsequent expansion contributed to the recovery of spermatogenesis. Finally, PAX7+ spermatogonia were present in the testes of a diverse set of mammals. Our data indicate that the PAX7+ subset of Asingle spermatogonia functions as robust testis stem cells that maintain fertility in normal spermatogenesis in healthy mice and mediate recovery after severe germline injury, such as occurs after cancer therapy. PMID:25133429

Aloisio, Gina M.; Nakada, Yuji; Saatcioglu, Hatice D.; Peña, Christopher G.; Baker, Michael D.; Tarnawa, Edward D.; Mukherjee, Jishnu; Manjunath, Hema; Bugde, Abhijit; Sengupta, Anita L.; Amatruda, James F.; Cuevas, Ileana; Hamra, F. Kent; Castrillon, Diego H.

2014-01-01

494

Immunocytochemical localization of the epidermal growth factor receptor in mouse testis.  

PubMed

The distribution of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in mouse testis was ascertained by immunocytochemical methodology using a polyclonal antibody (RK2) shown previously to recognize the cytoplasmic domain of the human (A431 cells), murine (Swiss 3T3 cells), and chicken (CK 109 cells) EGFR. Initial studies performed to determine the usefulness of this antibody as a probe of the murine EGFR in testis employed two murine cell lines, TM4 and MA10, of Sertoli cell and Leydig cell origin, respectively, in which a physiological response of EGF and specific binding of iodinated EGF has been demonstrated. Western blotting in membrane preparations of TM4 and MA10 revealed only one prominent band at 170 kDa. Immunocytochemical localization in TM4 and MA10 cells illustrated a plasma membrane distribution of the receptor. Western blotting of membrane fractions prepared from testis also revealed a specific band at 170 kDa. In the intact testis, the EGFR was immunolocalized specifically in Leydig cells and Sertoli cells only. These results suggest that the involvement of EGF action in spermatogenesis may occur at the level of the somatic components of the testes, principally in the Leydig and Sertoli cells. PMID:2291927

Suárez-Quian, C A; Niklinski, W

1990-12-01

495

Propylthiouracil-induced congenital hypothyroidism upregulates vimentin phosphorylation and depletes antioxidant defenses in immature rat testis.  

PubMed

Congenital hypothyroidism was induced in rats by adding 0.05% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil in the drinking water from day 9 of gestation, and continually up to postnatal day 15. Structural alterations observed by light microscopy of seminiferous tubules and by transmission electron microscopy of Sertoli cells of treated animals were consistent with hypothyroid condition. Hypothyroidism was also associated with high phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and decreased phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 levels. Furthermore, the phosphorylation and the immunoreactivity of cytoskeletal-associated vimentin were increased without altering vimentin expression, suggesting an accumulation of insoluble and phosphorylated vimentin. These alterations in intermediate filament dynamics could result in loss of Sertoli cell cytoskeletal integrity and be somewhat related to the deleterious effects of hypothyroidism in testis. In addition, the mitochondrial alterations observed could also be related to defective cytoskeletal dynamics implying in cell damage. Moreover, we observed decreased oxygen consumption and unaltered lipid peroxidation in hypothyroid testis. However, we demonstrated decreased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses, supporting an increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, contributing to biochemical changes in hypothyroid testis. In addition, the changes in the testis histoarchitecture could be ascribed to cytoskeletal alterations, decreased antioxidant defenses, and increased ROS generation, leading to oxidative stress in the organ. PMID:18316471

Zamoner, Ariane; Barreto, Kátia Padilha; Filho, Danilo Wilhelm; Sell, Fabíola; Woehl, Viviane Mara; Guma, Fátima Costa Rodrigues; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina; Silva, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto

2008-03-01

496

Accessory Genes Confer a High Replication Rate to Virulent Feline Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats, similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in humans. The FIV accessory protein Vif abrogates the inhibition of infection by cat APOBEC3 restriction factors. FIV also encodes a multifunctional OrfA accessory protein that has characteristics similar to HIV Tat, Vpu, Vpr, and Nef. To examine the role of vif and orfA accessory genes in FIV replication and pathogenicity, we generated chimeras between two FIV molecular clones with divergent disease potentials: a highly pathogenic isolate that replicates rapidly in vitro and is associated with significant immunopathology in vivo, FIV-C36 (referred to here as high-virulence FIV [HV-FIV]), and a less-pathogenic strain, FIV-PPR (referred to here as low-virulence FIV [LV-FIV]). Using PCR-driven overlap extension, we produced viruses in which vif, orfA, or both genes from virulent HV-FIV replaced equivalent genes in LV-FIV. The generation of these chimeras is more straightforward in FIV than in primate lentiviruses, since FIV accessory gene open reading frames have very little overlap with other genes. All three chimeric viruses exhibited increased replication kinetics in vitro compared to the replication kinetics of LV-FIV. Chimeras containing HV-Vif or Vif/OrfA had replication rates equivalent to those of the virulent HV-FIV parental virus. Furthermore, small interfering RNA knockdown of feline APOBEC3 genes resulted in equalization of replication rates between LV-FIV and LV-FIV encoding HV-FIV Vif. These findings demonstrate that Vif-APOBEC interactions play a key role in controlling the replication and pathogenicity of this immunodeficiency-inducing virus in its native host species and that accessory genes act as mediators of lentiviral strain-specific virulence. PMID:23658451

Troyer, Ryan M.; Thompson, Jesse; Elder, John H.

2013-01-01

497

Algal Accessory Pigment Detection Using AVIRIS Image-Derived Spectral Radiance Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visual and derivative analyses of AVIRIS spectral data can be used to detect algal accessory pigments in aquatic communities. This capability extends the use of remote sensing for the study of aquatic ecosystems by allowing detection of taxonomically significant pigment signatures which yield information about the type of algae present. Such information allows remote sensing-based assessment of aquatic ecosystem health, as in the detection of nuisance blooms of cyanobacteria or toxic blooms of dinoflagellates. Remote sensing of aquatic systems has traditionally focused on quantification of chlorophyll a, a photoreactive (and light-harvesting) pigment which is common to all algae as well as cyanobacteria (bluegreen algae). Due to the ubiquitousness of this pigment within algae, chl a is routinely measured to estimate algal biomass both during ground-truthing and using various airborne or satellite based sensors, including AVIRIS. Within the remote sensing and aquatic sciences communities, ongoing research has been performed to detect algal accessory pigments for assessment of algal population composition. This research is based on the fact that many algal accessory pigments are taxonomically significant, and all are spectrally unique. Aquatic scientists have been refining pigment analysis techniques, primarily high performance liquid chromatography, or HPLC, to detect specific pigments as a time-saving alternative to individual algal cell identifications and counts. Remote sensing scientists are investigating the use of pigment signatures to construct pigment libraries analogous to mineral spectral libraries used in geological remote sensing applications. The accessory pigment approach has been used successfully in remote sensing using data from the Thematic Mapper, low-altitude, multiple channel scanners, field spectroradiometers and the AVIRIS hyperspectral scanner. Due to spectral and spatial resolution capabilities, AVIRIS is the sensor of choice for such studies. We present here our results on detection of algal accessory pigments using AVIRIS data.

Richardson, Laurie L.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.

1996-01-01

498

Rhodopsin-like photosensitivity of isolated chicken pineal gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pineal gland of lower vertebrates such as fish, amphibians and reptiles is primarily a photoreceptor organ and its electrical activity changes in response to environmental lighting1-3, whereas the mammalian pineal gland is a secretory organ and no longer responds to direct illumination. It is uncertain whether the avian pineal gland retains a photoreceptive capability4-8, and also whether the gland

Takeo Deguchi

1981-01-01

499

Immunocytochemistry of myoepithelial cells in the salivary glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

MECs are distributed on the basal aspect of the intercalated duct and acinus of human and rat salivary glands. However, they do not occur in the acinus of rat parotid glands, and sometimes occur in the striated duct of human salivary glands. MECs, as the name implies, have structural features of both epithelial and smooth muscle cells. They contract by

Yuzo Ogawa

2003-01-01

500

The antisteroid action of the pineal gland Elena DAMIAN  

E-print Network

is discussed. Introduction. The inhibiting role of the pineal gland on the pituitary-gonadal systemThe antisteroid action of the pineal gland Elena DAMIAN « C. 1. Parhon » Institute of Endocrinology on the antisteroid action of the pineal gland. The administration of melatonin-free pineal extract to rats

Paris-Sud XI, Université de