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1

First Transcriptome of the Testis-Vas Deferens-Male Accessory Gland and Proteome of the Spermatophore from Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae)  

PubMed Central

Ticks are important vectors of numerous human diseases and animal diseases. Feeding stimulates spermatogenesis, mating and insemination of male factors that trigger female reproduction. The physiology of male reproduction and its regulation of female development are essentially a black box. Several transcriptomes have catalogued expression of tick genes in the salivary glands, synganglion and midgut but no comprehensive investigation has addressed male reproduction and mating. Consequently, a new global approach using transcriptomics, proteomics, and quantitative gene expression is needed to understand male reproduction and stimulation of female reproduction. This first transcriptome to the reproductive biology of fed male ticks, Dermacentor variabilis, was obtained by 454 pyrosequencing (563,093 reads, 12,804 contigs). Gene Ontology (Biological Processes level III) recognized 3,866 transcripts in 73 different categories; spermiogenesis; spermatogenesis; peptidases, lipases and hydrolases; oxidative and environmental stress; immune defense; and protein binding. Reproduction-associated genes included serine/threonine kinase, metalloendoproteinases, ferritins, serine proteases, trypsin, cysteine proteases, serpins, a cystatin, GPCR and others. qRT-PCR showed significant upregulation from unfed versus fed adult male reproductive organs of zinc metalloprotease, astacin metalloprotease and serine protease, enzymes important in spermiogenesis and mating activity in insects, as well as a GPCR with the greatest similarity to a SIFamide receptor known to be important in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila. Proteomics on these organs and the spermatophore by tryptic digestion/Liquid chromatography/Mass spectrometry/Mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) demonstrated expression of many of the same messages found by 454 sequencing, supporting their identification, and revealed differences in protein distribution in the reproductive system versus the spermatophore. We found Ef? but no EF ? in the transcriptome and neither of these proteins in the spermatophore. Thus, the previously described model for male regulation of female reproduction may not apply to other ticks. A new paradigm is needed to explain male stimulation of female tick reproduction.

Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Bissinger, Brooke W.; Egekwu, Noble; Donohue, Kevin V.; Khalil, Sayed M.; Roe, R. Michael

2011-01-01

2

New Genes for Male Accessory Gland Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accessory gland of male insects produces components of the seminal fluid that alter the behavior, physiology and life span of the mated female, and contribute to her efficient storage and utilization of sperm. As a step towards understanding how this occurs, we have isolated genes encoding 12 previously unreported accessory gland-specific mRNAs from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We

Mariana F. Wolfner; Heidi A. Harada; Michael J. Bertram; Thomas J. Stelick; Kevin W. Kraus; John M. Kalb; Y. Oliver Lung; Deborah M. Neubaum; Morgan Park; Uyen Tram

1997-01-01

3

Genes for Male Accessory Gland Proteins in Drosophila Melanogaster.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention provides a number of accessory gland proteins from Drosophila. The invention also provides an accessory gland protein which is toxic to insect cells and can be used to kill or inhibit the development of insects. Methods of controllin...

K. U. Tram M. F. Wolfner O. Lung

2005-01-01

4

Accessory parotid gland lesions: case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

There are numerous causes for chronic cheek swelling, including masseteric hypertrophy, lymphadenopathy, diffuse inflammatory changes and neoplasia. We report an unusual case of a recurrent swelling as the result of sialolithiasis of an accessory parotid gland, which lay isolated from the main parotid gland along the Stensen's duct. The calculi developed in the accessory salivary tissue whereas all major salivary glands presented without sialolithiasis. Clinical findings as well as imaging results are shown and surgical management and histopathology are discussed. Hereby, for the first time we report a case with multiple calculi in an accessory parotid gland removed via a standard parotid incision. Further to this, we give a comprehensive review of literature on accessory parotid gland lesions. PMID:18193255

Stenner, M; Preuss, S F; Hüttenbrink, K-B; Klussmann, J P

2008-01-11

5

Accessory parotid gland lesions: case report and review of literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are numerous causes for chronic cheek swelling, including masseteric hypertrophy, lymphadenopathy, diffuse inflammatory\\u000a changes and neoplasia. We report an unusual case of a recurrent swelling as the result of sialolithiasis of an accessory parotid\\u000a gland, which lay isolated from the main parotid gland along the Stensen’s duct. The calculi developed in the accessory salivary\\u000a tissue whereas all major salivary

M. Stenner; S. F. Preuss; K.-B. Hüttenbrink; J. P. Klussmann

2008-01-01

6

Pleomorphic adenoma occurring outside the submandibular gland: a case report of an accessory submandibular gland.  

PubMed

The accessory submandibular gland is a rare anatomic variant and the incidence of pathology reported within an accessory submandibular gland is even rarer. This report describes the case of a 22-year-old woman who presented with a slowly enlarging mass in the submandibular triangle, which on ultrasound examination suggested that it was close to, but not arising from, the submandibular gland. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was consistent with a pleomorphic adenoma. At surgery, the tumor was found to be entirely separate from the submandibular gland. This case presents an extremely rare occurrence of an accessory submandibular gland and, to the authors' knowledge, is the first report of a pleomorphic adenoma occurring within an accessory submandibular gland. PMID:23769461

Bryan, Stephanie; Bodner, Lipa; Manor, Esther; Brennan, Peter A

2013-06-14

7

A case of buccal abscess; originating from an ectopic accessory parotid gland?  

PubMed

We report a case of an abscess from an 'ectopic' accessory parotid gland in the cheek demonstrated by sialography and computed tomography (CT). The accessory parotid gland was ectopically located anterolateral to the masseter muscle and isolated from the main parotid gland. The orifice and ductal system of the ectopic accessory parotid gland were separated from those of Stensen's duct. The abscess developed from this ectopic accessory gland, and the main parotid gland was free of inflammation. Using sialography and CT, we confirmed the presence of this ectopic accessory gland. PMID:11945200

Lee, Dong-Hee

2002-04-01

8

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in the accessory parotid gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rare case of a 9-year-old female with mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in the accessory parotid gland is reported. She had complained of a painless and round mass of the left cheek for a duration of 14 months. Sialography, ultrasonography, CT scan and MRI were performed preoperatively. Sialography revealed a small duct separating from the Stensen’s duct. CT and MRI showed

Toshio Yoshihara; Saori Suzuki; Koichi Nagao

1999-01-01

9

Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly (Q-fly), Bactrocera tryoni, were investigated and compared with those of other tephritid flies. Male accessory glands were found to comprise one pair of mesodermic glands and three pairs of ectodermic glands. The mesodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined, binucleate epithelial cells, which are highly microvillated and

Preethi Radhakrishnan; Daniela Marchini; Phillip W. Taylor

2009-01-01

10

A peptide from the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes a study of the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). These glands add various substances to the ejaculate. On mating, the ejaculate is transferred to the female, together with the substances from the male accessory glands. The function of these substances is unknown in the case of the Colorado potato beetle. From

H. M. Smid

1998-01-01

11

Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins in adrenal gland physiology and beyond.  

PubMed

The melanocortin receptor (MCR) family consists of five G-protein-coupled receptors (MC1R-MC5R) with diverse physiological roles. MC1R controls pigmentation, MC2R is a critical component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, MC3R and MC4R have a vital role in energy homeostasis and MC5R is involved in exocrine function. The melanocortin receptor accessory protein (MRAP) and its paralogue MRAP2 are small single-pass transmembrane proteins that have been shown to regulate MCR expression and function. In the adrenal gland, MRAP is an essential accessory factor for the functional expression of the MC2R/ACTH receptor. The importance of MRAP in adrenal gland physiology is demonstrated by the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency, where inactivating MRAP mutations account for ?20% of cases. MRAP is highly expressed in both the zona fasciculata and the undifferentiated zone. Expression in the undifferentiated zone suggests that MRAP could also be important in adrenal cell differentiation and/or maintenance. In contrast, the role of adrenal MRAP2, which is highly expressed in the foetal gland, is unclear. The expression of MRAPs outside the adrenal gland is suggestive of a wider physiological purpose, beyond MC2R-mediated adrenal steroidogenesis. In vitro, MRAPs have been shown to reduce surface expression and signalling of all the other MCRs (MC1,3,4,5R). MRAP2 is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus, a site that also expresses a high level of MC3R and MC4R. This raises the intriguing possibility of a CNS role for the MRAPs. PMID:23418361

Novoselova, T V; Jackson, D; Campbell, D C; Clark, A J L; Chan, L F

2013-03-19

12

Morphological study of accessory gland of Bothrops jararaca and its secretory cycle.  

PubMed

The venom gland apparatus of Bothrops jararaca is composed of four distinct parts: main venom gland, primary duct, accessory gland and secondary duct. Despite the numerous studies concerning morphology and venom production and secretion in the main venom gland, there are few studies about the accessory gland and its secretion. We characterized the accessory gland of B. jararaca snake and determined the secretion cycle by morphological analysis using light and transmission electron microscopy. Our data showed that the accessory gland of B. jararaca has a simple secretory epithelium with at least six types of cells in the anterior region: two types of secretory cells, mitochondria-rich cells without secretory vesicles, horizontal cells, dark cells and basal cells, and in the posterior region a simple epithelium with two types of cells: seromucous cells and horizontal cells. Furthermore, the mucous secretory cells of the accessory gland show a delayed and massive exocytosis that occurs four days after the extraction of venom. Morphological analysis at different steps after venom extraction showed that the accessory gland has a long cycle of production and secretion, which is not synchronous with the main venom gland secretory cycle. PMID:22227156

Sakai, Fernanda; Carneiro, Sylvia M; Yamanouye, Norma

2011-12-30

13

Fine structure of the spermatheca and of the accessory glands in Orchesella villosa (Collembola, Hexapoda).  

PubMed

The spermatheca and the accessory glands of the collembolan Orchesella villosa are described for the first time. Both organs exhibit ultrastructural differences, according to the time of the intermolt in which the specimens were observed. A thick cuticular layer lines the epithelial cells of the accessory glands. In the reproductive phase, they are involved in secretory activity; a moderately dense secretion found in the apical cell region opens into the gland lumen. Cells with an extracellular cistern are intermingled with the secretory cells. These cells could be involved in fluid secretion, with the secretory product opening into the cistern which is filled with an electron-transparent material. After the reproductive phase, the gland lumen becomes filled with a dense secretion. The accessory gland secretion may play a protective role towards the eggs. The spermatheca is located between the accessory glands; its epithelium is lined by a thin cuticle forming spine-like projections into the lumen and consists of cells provided with an extracellular cistern. Secretory cells, similar to those seen in the accessory glands, are missing. Cells with a cistern could be involved in the production of a fluid secretion determining sperm unrolling and sperm motility. PMID:18157861

Dallai, Romano; Zizzari, Zaira Valentina; Fanciulli, Pietro Paolo

2008-04-01

14

Recurrent inflammation of accessory parotid tissue associated with unilateral parotid gland aplasia: diagnostic and therapeutic implications.  

PubMed

Aplasia of the major salivary glands is a rare condition due to an alteration in the development of the ectodermal tissue of the oral cavity often related to other craniofacial abnormalities or alteration of structures deriving from the first or second archial branch, in particular the lacrimal glands; it can be total or partial and determine clinical states ranging from an asymptomatic condition to a severe xerostomia. The accessory parotid tissue is similar to normal parotid tissue, completely independent from the main gland and susceptible to the same pathological disorders. We describe a very unusual case of an inflammatory disorder of accessory parotid tissue in a 44-year-old male patient with concomitant, and previously unknown, aplasia of the main ipsilateral parotid gland. We also discuss the role of imaging and conservative therapeutic modalities such as botulinum toxin therapy and, in the future, minimally invasive endoscopic-assisted resection in the management of such salivary disorder. PMID:22218848

Capaccio, Pasquale; Luca, Nicola; Sigismund, Paolo Enrico; Pignataro, Lorenzo

2012-01-05

15

Comparative fine structural analysis of the male reproductive accessory glands in Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology and ultrastructure of the male reproductive accessory glands from Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata were comparatively investigated. In both insects, there are two types of glands, mesoderm? and ectoderm?derived, which open in the ejaculatory duct. The mesoderm?derived glands are sac?like in B. oleae and very long tubules in C. capitata, whereas the ectodermic glands, generally branched finger?like structures,

Daniela Marchini; Giovanna Del Bene

2006-01-01

16

Postoperative evaluation of the surgical treatment of accessory teat and gland cistern complexes in dairy cows.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was the long-term evaluation of a method of surgically repairing the abnormal condition of accessory teat and gland cistern complexes in dairy cattle. A prospective evaluation of three cows that had undergone the procedure was done. These cows were evaluated from four months to one year, postoperatively. A thorough history, physical examination, contrast radiography, and ultrasonic examination were done on each cow. A retrospective evaluation of an additional 13 cows that had also undergone the procedure was obtained four months to three years following the surgery, via owner communication. The prospective portion of this study demonstrated patency of the communication between main and accessory teat cisterns. Postoperative complications included initial slow milking and mild swelling of the involved teat. These problems resolved in all cows one to two months postoperatively. None of the 16 cows that had undergone the surgery either developed or was treated for mastitis. Likewise, none of these cows was sold or slaughtered as a result of postoperative teat problems or unsatisfactory milk production. Our study demonstrated that this particular method of surgical correction of accessory teat and gland cistern complexes is effective, is esthetically acceptable, produces minimal associated complications, and preserves the milk production capacity of the gland. Images Figure 2. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6.

Schmit, K A; Arighi, M; Dobson, H

1994-01-01

17

Probing the function of Drosophila melanogaster accessory glands by directed cell ablation.  

PubMed Central

The female Drosophila melanogaster fly undergoes behavioral changes after mating, including an increase in egg laying and an avoidance of remating. Accessory-gland products elicit these changes transiently when introduced into unmated female flies. We report here the generation and phenotype of flies that lack functional accessory-gland main cells as a consequence of genetically directed delivery of diphtheria toxin subunit A to those cells. Only main-cell secretions are essential for the short-term inhibition to remating; no other products of the genital tract can replace their function. Long-term inhibition to remating depends only on the storage of sperm in the female. Both sperm and main-cell secretions have roles in the increase of egg laying by the mated female. In addition to full-strength diphtheria toxin, we used low-activity toxins to kill only those cells that express toxin at high levels. These transgenic strains that express diphtheria toxins of different strengths in accessory-gland main cells will be useful in further defining the role of these cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2

Kalb, J M; DiBenedetto, A J; Wolfner, M F

1993-01-01

18

Seminal leukocyte concentration and related specific reactive oxygen species production in patients with male accessory gland infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether differences occur in seminal concentrations of white blood corpuscles (sWBC) and whether WBC production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is related to the infiltration of one or more male sexual glands. We studied 70 infertile patients affected by bacterial male accessory gland infections (MAGI) who were divided clinically and, by ultrasound

E. Vicari

1999-01-01

19

EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems  

PubMed Central

Background Heliconius butterflies possess a remarkable diversity of phenotypes, physiologies, and behaviors that has long distinguished this genus as a focal taxon in ecological and evolutionary research. Recently Heliconius has also emerged as a model system for using genomic methods to investigate the causes and consequences of biological diversity. One notable aspect of Heliconius diversity is a dichotomy in mating systems which provides an unusual opportunity to investigate the relationship between sexual selection and the evolution of reproductive proteins. As a first step in pursuing this research, we report the generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the male accessory gland of H. erato and H. melpomene, species representative of the two mating systems present in the genus Heliconius. Results We successfully sequenced 933 ESTs clustering into 371 unigenes from H. erato and 1033 ESTs clustering into 340 unigenes from H. melpomene. Results from the two species were very similar. Approximately a third of the unigenes showed no significant BLAST similarity (E-value <10-5) to sequences in GenBank's non-redundant databases, indicating that a large proportion of novel genes are expressed in Heliconius male accessory glands. In both species only a third of accessory gland unigenes were also found among genes expressed in wing tissue. About 25% of unigenes from both species encoded secreted proteins. This includes three groups of highly abundant unigenes encoding repetitive proteins considered to be candidate seminal fluid proteins; proteins encoded by one of these groups were detected in H. erato spermatophores. Conclusion This collection of ESTs will serve as the foundation for the future identification and evolutionary analysis of male reproductive proteins in Heliconius butterflies. These data also represent a significant advance in the rapidly growing collection of genomic resources available in Heliconius butterflies. As such, they substantially enhance this taxon as a model system for investigating questions of ecological, phenotypic, and genomic diversity.

Walters, James R; Harrison, Richard G

2008-01-01

20

Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects.  

PubMed

Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E), the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot), an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH. PMID:23383307

Hentze, Julie L; Moeller, Morten E; Jørgensen, Anne F; Bengtsson, Meghan S; Bordoy, Anna M; Warren, James T; Gilbert, Lawrence I; Andersen, Ole; Rewitz, Kim F

2013-02-01

21

Accessory Gland as a Site for Prothoracicotropic Hormone Controlled Ecdysone Synthesis in Adult Male Insects  

PubMed Central

Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E), the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot), an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH.

Hentze, Julie L.; Moeller, Morten E.; J?rgensen, Anne F.; Bengtsson, Meghan S.; Bordoy, Anna M.; Warren, James T.; Gilbert, Lawrence I.; Andersen, Ole; Rewitz, Kim F.

2013-01-01

22

The eyestalk-androgenic gland-testis endocrine axis in the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus.  

PubMed

In decapod crustaceans, a number of neurohormones regulating a variety of physiological processes, including reproduction, are to be found in the X-organ-sinus gland complex of the eyestalk. Bilateral eyestalk ablation was thus performed in mature males of the Australian red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus with the aim of studying the role of eyestalk-borne hormones on spermatogenic activity in the testis and on the androgenic gland (AG). The latter gland controls the differentiation and functioning of male sexual characteristics in crustaceans. Eyestalk ablation caused hypertrophy of the AG, as indicated by an increase in gland weight (3.9 +/- 0.44 mg vs < 0.1mg in intact males) and by overexpression of AG polypeptides. In the testes of eyestalk-ablated males, empty spermatogenic lobules were common, while lobules containing primary spermatocytes were infrequent. These findings were reflected in decreased amounts of DNA in these testes and a consequent increase in the relative weights of the sperm ducts. Since it was found that eyestalk ablation affected both the AG and the reproductive system, in vitro experiments were conducted to study the direct effects of the sinus gland on the AG and testes and of the AG on the testes. Sinus gland extracts inhibited by 30% the incorporation of radiolabeled amino acids into AG polypeptides and almost totally inhibited the secretion of radiolabeled AG polypeptides into the culture medium. However, sinus gland extracts had no significant effects on testicular tissue. On the other hand, AG extracts affected the in vitro phosphorylation of a testicular polypeptide (of 28 kDa), in a time- and dose-dependent manner, suggesting a direct effect of AG-borne hormones on the testes. The above findings, together with the evidence for direct inhibition by the sinus gland on the AG, suggest an endocrine axis-like relationship between the sinus gland, the AG, and the male reproductive system in decapod crustaceans. PMID:12383442

Khalaila, Isam; Manor, Rivka; Weil, Simy; Granot, Yosef; Keller, Rainer; Sagi, Amir

2002-06-15

23

Regulation of Anopheles gambiae male accessory gland genes influences postmating response in female.  

PubMed

In Drosophila, the accessory gland proteins (Acps) secreted from the male accessory glands (MAGs) and transferred along with sperm into the female reproductive tract have been implicated in triggering postmating behavioral changes, including refractoriness to subsequent mating and propensity to egg laying. Recently, Acps have been found also in Anopheles, suggesting similar functions. Understanding the mechanisms underlying transcriptional regulation of Acps and their functional role in modulating Anopheles postmating behavior may lead to the identification of novel vector control strategies to reduce mosquito populations. We identified heat-shock factor (HSF) binding sites within the Acp promoters of male Anopheles gambiae and discovered three distinct Hsf isoforms; one being significantly up-regulated in the MAGs after mating. Through genome-wide transcription analysis of Hsf-silenced males, we observed significant down-regulation in 50% of the Acp genes if compared to control males treated with a construct directed against an unrelated bacterial sequence. Treated males retained normal life span and reproductive behavior compared to control males. However, mated wild-type females showed a ?46% reduction of egg deposition rate and a ?23% reduction of hatching rate (?58% combined reduction of progeny). Our results highlight an unsuspected role of HSF in regulating Acp transcription in A. gambiae and provide evidence that Acp down-regulation in males leads a significant reduction of progeny, thus opening new avenues toward the development of novel vector control strategies. PMID:22997226

Dottorini, Tania; Persampieri, Tania; Palladino, Pietro; Baker, Dean A; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Senin, Nicola; Crisanti, Andrea

2012-09-20

24

MALE ACCESSORY GLAND FACTORS ELICIT CHANGE FROM 'VIRGIN' TO 'MATED' BEHAVIOUR IN THE FEMALE CORN EARWORM MOTH HELICOVERPA ZEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary After mating, the females of many species of moths become depleted of sex pheromone, calling behaviour is terminated, and they become transiently or permanently unreceptive to additional matings. In the corn earworm moth, Helicoverpa zea, we have found that the male accessory gland\\/duplex is required for evoking the post-mating depletion of sex pheromone but apparently not for the cessation

TIMOTHY G. KINGAN; PATRICIA A. THOMAS-LAEMONT

1993-01-01

25

Clinical and Experimental Considerations of the Immunologic Response to Prostatic and Other Accessory Glands Tissues of Reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the present report two distinct but aligned areas of investigation pursued in this and other laboratories are reviewed. In the first, the experimental production of hetero-, iso-, and autoantibodies to prostatic and other accessory glands tissues of reproduction of man, monkey, canine, and rabbit have been employed to study the immunologic properties of these tissues and their possible

R. J. Ablin; W. A. Soanes; M. J. Gonder

1970-01-01

26

Chronic prostatitis and male accessory gland infection - is there an impact on male infertility (diagnosis and therapy)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The aim of this article was to discuss by means of a review of the literature and own study material the multifactorial aetiology of male infer- tility, extrapolate this hypothesis to male accessory gland infection (MAGI) and relate it to chronic prostatitis and its treatment. Infertility is a multifac- torial disease and diagnosis and therapy must be oriented as

K. Everaert; A. Mahmoud; C. Depuydt; M. Maeyaert; F. Comhaire

2003-01-01

27

The morphology of the phallosome and accessory gland material transfer during copulation in the blowfly, Lucilia cuprina (Insecta, Diptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of insemination in Lucilia cuprina is described. There are four duct openings on the phallosome. The terminal pore is continuous with the internal reproductive organs. The sub-terminal pore and paired, lateral pores are the openings of ducts formed by cuticular invaginations. The male accessory gland material appears to be re-routed from the terminal pore into the ducts of

D. J. Merritt

1989-01-01

28

Male contributions to egg production: the role of accessory gland products and sperm in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed Central

Drosophila melanogatser seminal fluid components, accessory gland proteins (Acps) and sperm, induce females to deposit high numbers of fertilized eggs for about 11 days. This high and sustained level of egg deposition requires that oogenesis be stimulated to provide the necessary mature oocytes. To investigate the relative timing and contributions of Acps and sperm in the egg-production process, we examined the rates of oogenic progression and egg deposition in females mated to genetically altered males that have seminal fluid deficient in Acps and/or sperm, and subjected these data to path analysis. We found that Acps and sperm are complementary stimuli necessary for inducing high rates of oogenic progression and rapid egg deposition. While egg deposition and oogenic progression can be induced by Acps alone, both Acps and sperm are required for maximum stimulation of oogenic progression and egg deposition immediately after mating.

Heifetz, Y; Tram, U; Wolfner, M F

2001-01-01

29

Juvenile hormone regulation of male accessory gland activity in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum  

PubMed Central

Male accessory gland proteins (Acps) act as key modulators of reproductive success in insects by influencing the female reproductive physiology and behavior. We used custom microarrays and identified 112 genes that were highly expressed in male accessory glands (MAG) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Out of these 112 identified genes, 59 of them contained sequences coding for signal peptide and cleavage site and the remaining 53 contained transmembrane domains. The expression of 14 these genes in the MAG but not in other tissues of male or female was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. In virgin males, juvenile hormone (JH) levels increased from second day post adult emergence (PAE), remained high on third day PAE and declined on fourth day PAE. The ecdysteroid titers were high soon after adult emergence but declined to minimal levels from 1-5 days PAE. Feeding of juvenile hormone analog, hydroprene, but not the ecdysteroid analog, RH-2485, showed an increase in size of MAGs, as well as an increase in total RNA and protein content of MAG. Hydroprene treatment also increased the expression Acp genes in the MAG. RNAi-mediated knock-down in the expression of JHAMT gene decreased the size of MAGs and expression of Acps. JH deficiency influenced male reproductive fitness as evidenced by a less vigor in mating behavior, poor sperm transfer, low egg and the progeny production by females mated with the JH deficient males. These data suggest a critical role for JH in the regulation of male reproduction especially through MAG secretions.

Parthasarathy, R.; Tan, A.; Sun, Z.; Chen, J.; Rainkin, M.; Palli, S. R.

2009-01-01

30

Angiotensin converting enzyme in the brain, testis, epididymis, pituitary gland and adrenal gland  

SciTech Connect

(/sup 3/H)Captopril binds to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in rat tissue homogenates. The pharmacology, regional distribution and copurification of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding with enzymatic activity demonstrate the selectivity of (/sup 3/H)captopril labeling of ACE. (/sup 3/H)Captopril binding to purified ACE reveals differences in cationic dependence and anionic regulation between substrate catalysis and inhibitor recognition. (/sup 3/H)Captopril association with ACE is entropically driven. The selectivity of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding permits autoradiographic localization of the ACE in the brain, male reproductive system, pituitary gland and adrenal gland. In the brain, ACE is visualized in a striatonigral neuronal pathway which develops between 1 and 7 d after birth. In the male reproductive system, (/sup 3/H)captopril associated silver grains are found over spermatid heads and in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in stages I-VIII and XII-XIV. In the pituitary gland, ACE is localized to the posterior lobe and patches of the anterior lobe. The adrenal medulla contains moderate ACE levels while low levels are found in the adrenal cortex. Adrenal medullary ACE is increased after hypophysectomy and after reserpine treatment. The general of ligand binding techniques for the study of enzymes is demonstrated by the specific labeling of another enzyme, enkephaline convertase, in crude tissue homogenates by the inhibitor (/sup 3/H)GEMSA.

Strittmatter, S.M.

1986-01-01

31

The relationship between the morphology of cell organelles and kinetics of the secretory process in male sex accessory glands of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two male sex accessory glands of the mouse, seminal vesicle and coagulating gland, were compared with the aim of relating differences in the morphology of organelles to the kinetics of the secretory process. The epithelial cells of the two glands were assessed by morphometric analysis, cytochemical staining, and electron-microscopic autoradiography after administration of a labeled amino acid. The rough endoplasmic

Lynn H. Samuel; Charles J. Flickinger

1987-01-01

32

Bone morphogenetic protein- and mating-dependent secretory cell growth and migration in the Drosophila accessory gland  

PubMed Central

The paired male accessory glands of Drosophila melanogaster enhance sperm function, stimulate egg production, and reduce female receptivity to other males by releasing a complex mixture of glycoproteins from a secretory epithelium into seminal fluid. A small subpopulation of about 40 specialized secretory cells, called secondary cells, resides at the distal tip of each gland. We show that these cells grow via mechanisms promoted by mating. If aging males mate repeatedly, a subset of these cells delaminates from and migrates along the apical surface of the glandular epithelium toward the proximal end of the gland. Remarkably, these secretory cells can transfer to females with sperm during mating. The frequency of this event increases with age, so that more than 50% of triple-mated, 18-d-old males transfer secondary cells to females. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling specifically in secondary cells is needed to drive all of these processes and is required for the accessory gland to produce its normal effects on female postmating behavior in multiply mated males. We conclude that secondary cells are secretory cells with unusual migratory properties that can allow them to be transferred to females, and that these properties are a consequence of signaling that is required for secondary cells to maintain their normal reproductive functions as males age and mate.

Leiblich, Aaron; Marsden, Luke; Gandy, Carina; Corrigan, Laura; Jenkins, Rachel; Hamdy, Freddie; Wilson, Clive

2012-01-01

33

Semen alterations and flow-citometry evaluation in patients with male accessory gland infections.  

PubMed

Male accessory gland infections (MAGI) represent a major cause of male infertility mainly through the secretory dysfunction of the prostate, seminal vesicles, and epididymis. This study was undertaken to evaluate conventional and nonconventional sperm parameters in these patients, therefore 150 patients with MAGI were selected. Each of them underwent to two sperm analyses and evaluation of DNA fragmentation mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, chromatin compactness, by flow cytometry. Results showed that patients with MAGI had a lower sperm progressive motility (11.4 ± 5.0 vs 34.0 ± 7.0%), and percentage of normal forms (9.0 ± 3.7 vs 33.0 ± 13.0%) compared to controls, instead, these patients showed higher number of seminal white blood cells (2.2 ± 1.0 vs 0.4 ± 0.6 106/ml). Patients with MAGI showed a higher number of spermatozoa with DNA fragmentation compared to controls (8.2 ± 3.0 vs 1.0 ± 1.0%). In addition, they have also a higher percentage of spermatozoa with low MMP (28.0 ± 4.0 vs 2.0 ± 2.0%). Patients with MAGI, showed a higher percentage of spermatozoa with PS externalization (8.0 ± 4.0 vs 3.0 ± 3.0%), an early sign of apoptosis, and lower percentage of viable spermatozoa (64.5 ± 12.0 vs 88.0 ± 10.0%). An increased percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal chromatin compactness (18.0 ± 4.0 vs 5.0 ± 3.0%) was found in patients with MAGI. In conclusion, patients with MAGI show alterations of conventional and biofunctional sperm parameters compared to controls. These results suggest to consider the flow cytometry evaluation among the diagnostic tools for male infertility. PMID:21946047

La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R; D'Agata, R; Vicari, E; Calogero, A E

2011-09-23

34

Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female`s reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Clark, A.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Prout, T.; Harshman, L.G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-01-01

35

Diversity and Partitioning of Bacterial Populations within the Accessory Nidamental Gland of the Squid Euprymna scolopes  

PubMed Central

Microbial consortia confer important benefits to animal and plant hosts, and model associations are necessary to examine these types of host/microbe interactions. The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) is a female reproductive organ found among cephalopod mollusks that contains a consortium of bacteria, the exact function of which is unknown. To begin to understand the role of this organ, the bacterial consortium was characterized in the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, a well-studied model organism for symbiosis research. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the ANG revealed dense bacterial assemblages of rod- and coccus-shaped cells segregated by morphology into separate, epithelium-lined tubules. The host epithelium was morphologically heterogeneous, containing ciliated and nonciliated cells with various brush border thicknesses. Hemocytes of the host's innate immune system were also found in close proximity to the bacteria within the tubules. A census of 16S rRNA genes suggested that Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia bacteria were prevalent, with members of the genus Phaeobacter dominating the consortium. Analysis of 454-shotgun sequencing data confirmed the presence of members of these taxa and revealed members of a fourth, Flavobacteria of the Bacteroidetes phylum. 16S rRNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that many ANG tubules were dominated by members of specific taxa, namely, Rhodobacterales, Verrucomicrobia, or Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes, suggesting symbiont partitioning to specific host tubules. In addition, FISH revealed that bacteria, including Phaeobacter species from the ANG, are likely deposited into the jelly coat of freshly laid eggs. This report establishes the ANG of the invertebrate E. scolopes as a model to examine interactions between a bacterial consortium and its host.

Collins, Andrew J.; LaBarre, Brenna A.; Wong Won, Brian S.; Shah, Monica V.; Heng, Steven; Choudhury, Momena H.; Haydar, Shahela A.; Santiago, Jose

2012-01-01

36

The role of male accessory gland protein Acp36DE in sperm competition in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed Central

A crucial factor determining sperm fertilization success in multiply mated Drosophila melanogaster females is the efficiency with which sperm are stored. This process is modulated by the accessory gland protein Acp36DE. In this study, we show that the effect of Acp36DE on sperm storage itself alters the outcome of sperm competition. As second-mating males, Acp36DE1 (null) males had significantly lower P2-values than Acp36DE2 (truncation) or Acp36DE+ (control) males, as might be expected as the null males' sperm are poorly stored. We used spermless males, which are null for Acp36DE, to show that, in the absence of sperm co-transfer, Acp36DE itself could not displace first-male sperm. The results therefore suggest that males null for Acp36DE suffer in sperm displacement because fewer sperm are stored or retained, not because Acp36DE itself displaces sperm. Acp36DE1 (null) males also gained significantly fewer fertilizations than controls when they were the first males to mate. Using spermless males, we also showed that significantly more second-male offspring were produced following the transfer of Acp36DE by spermless first-mating males. This implies that the transfer of Acp36DE itself by the first male facilitated the storage or use of the second male's sperm and that co-transfer with sperm is not necessary for Acp36DE effects on second-male sperm storage. Acp36DE may persist in the reproductive tract and aid the storage of any sperm including those of later-mating males or prime the female for future efficient sperm storage. Our results indicate that mutations in genes that affect sperm storage can drastically affect the outcome of sperm competition.

Chapman, T; Neubaum, D M; Wolfner, M F; Partridge, L

2000-01-01

37

The effect of metacestodes of Hymenolepis diminuta on the bean-shaped accessory glands in male Tenebrio molitor.  

PubMed

Metacestodes of Hymenolepis diminuta affect several aspects of female reproductive physiology in Tenebrio molitor and such effects are mediated via the endocrine system. The effects on male reproduction are less well known and were studied with respect to the Bean-Shaped Accessory Glands (BAGs). The size and wet and dry weight of BAGs from infected and uninfected beetles were compared and rose to a plateau from 0-6 days post-emergence in uninfected beetles but in infected individuals continued to increase in both size and weight. These effects were density independent. Glands from both infected and uninfected beetles were assayed for trehalase activity measured by its ability to convert the sugar trehalose to glucose. The activity of this enzyme, per mg wet weight, was not affected by the parasite. However, total activity per gland increased in infected males. Total protein content and electrophoretic profiles of BAGs from infected and uninfected individuals showed no change in profile but showed an increase in all protein subunits per gland over a broad molecular weight range. PMID:9509029

Carver, F J; Hurd, H

1998-02-01

38

Chemistry and Behavioral Significance of Rectal and Accessory Gland Contents in Camponotus pennsylvanicus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomical source of the trail pheromone in the black carpenter ant, Camponotus pennsylvanicus (De Geer), was investigated by presenting workers with hindgut extracts, testing for attractancy and trail-following behavior. Chemical analyses were used in conjunction with behav- ioral bioassays to detect and identify volatiles from the rectum, poison gland, and Dufour's gland. Rectal material was also examined to determine

Anne E. Hillery; Richard D. Fell

2000-01-01

39

Embryos sired by males without accessory sex glands induce failure of uterine support: a study of VEGF, MMP and TGF expression in the golden hamster.  

PubMed

To account for reproductive failure induced by surgical deletion of paternal accessory sex glands in the golden hamster in vivo, we studied expression of vegf, FLT-1 (VEGF-R1), FLK-1 (VEGF-R2), MMP and TGF-beta in endometrium of the dam and sired embryos during 5-7 days post coitum by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridisation, semiquantitative RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Spatiotemporal pattern of vegf expression in the control animals was similar to that reported for intact animals by our group. Removal of paternal ampullary glands did not disturb the normal expression pattern. Removal of ventral prostate glands alone or all accessory sex glands was associated with reduction of vegf transcripts and protein levels in both the embryo and endometrium. FLT-1, FLK-1 and MMP-2 were also reduced. MMP-1 was not changed whereas TGF-beta1 expression was enhanced. There was no expression in endometrium in between implantation sites. Thus the implanted embryos had a trophic effect on growth factor production by the endometrium, and the levels of expression were determined by viability and structural integrity of the conceptus. Based on these findings we concluded that incompetent embryos sired by males without the ventral prostate gland or all accessory sex glands reduced the potential of the uterus to support pregnancy. A negative cycle of events was thus set up and eventually led to premature termination of pregnancies. PMID:12592572

Chow, P H; Jiang, H Y; Poon, H K; Lee, K H; O, W S

2003-01-29

40

Trehalase from male accessory gland of an insect, Tenebrio molitor. cDNA sequencing and developmental profile of the gene expression.  

PubMed Central

A cDNA of alpha alpha-trehalase (EC 3.2.1.28) from a cDNA library of male bean-shaped accessory gland of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, has been isolated by the homology screening approach. Sequence analysis of the cDNA (1830 bp) revealed that the cDNA encoded a protein of 555 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 64457. The deduced amino acid sequence had significant similarities to rabbit small intestine and Escherichia coli trehalases. Northern blotting and semi-quantitative PCR analyses revealed that a trehalase transcript with about 2.0 kb was abundant in bean-shaped accessory glands. In the glands, the amount of trehalase transcript increased from 1 to 2 days after adult ecdysis. These tissue- and stage-specific gene expressions of trehalase corresponded to the tissue- and stage-specificity of trehalase activity. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4

Takiguchi, M; Niimi, T; Su, Z H; Yaginuma, T

1992-01-01

41

Aspiration biopsy of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of accessory parotid gland: Another diagnostic dilemma in matrix-containing tumors of the salivary glands.  

PubMed

Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a newly described rare salivary gland tumor, which shares morphologic features with acinic cell carcinoma, low-grade cystadenocarcinoma, and secretory carcinoma of the breast. This is the first reported case of MASC of an accessory parotid gland detected by aspiration biopsy with radiologic and histologic correlation in a 34-year-old patient. Sonographically-guided aspiration biopsy showed cytologic features mimicking those of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, including sheets of bland epithelial cells, dissociated histiocytoid cells with intracytoplasmic mucinous material, and spindle cells lying in a web-like matrix. Histologic sections showed a circumscribed tumor with microcystic spaces lined by bland uniform epithelial cells and containing secretory material. The tumor cells expressed mammaglobin and BRST-2. The cytologic features, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls are discussed. The pathologic stage was pT1N0. The patient showed no evidence of disease at 1 year follow-up. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2012; © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22807408

Levine, Pascale; Fried, Karen; Krevitt, Lane D; Wang, Beverly; Wenig, Bruce M

2012-07-16

42

Nerve growth factor-like immunoreactivities in rodent salivary glands and testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A series of polyclonal affinity-purified antibodies against mouse submandibular-gland nerve growth factor (NGF) are described. Using the submandibular gland of the male mouse and indirect immunofluorescence, the specificity and sensitivity of affinity-purified immunoglobulins and various other fractions from the immunized animals have been tested. It will be shown that affinity-purification schemes, including pre-purification of protein A-fractionated immunoglobulins to remove antibodies

Lars Olson; Christiane Ayer-LeLievre I; Ted Ebendal; Åke Seiger

1987-01-01

43

The B proteins secreted by the tubular accessory sex glands of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, have sequence similarity to moth pheromone-binding proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

B proteins represent one of the four major protein groups secreted by the tubular accessory glands of adult, male mealworm beetles. They are acidic proteins with an apparent molecular mass of 18.8 kDa. In this paper we present the deduced amino-acid sequences of two, almost identical B proteins, termed B1 and B2. The mature proteins are 118 amino acids long.

Guido C. Paesen; George M. Happ

1995-01-01

44

Differential steroidogenic gene expression in the fetal adrenal gland versus the testis and rapid and dynamic response of the fetal testis to di(n-butyl) phthalate.  

PubMed

The phthalate ester di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) causes feminization of male rats upon in utero exposure by repressing expression of genes required for testicular steroidogenesis. Previous work in our laboratory has shown that repression of gene expression and steroidogenesis in the fetal testis is apparent within a few hours of DBP exposure. The purpose of this study was to determine the precise timing of DBP-associated gene expression changes in the fetal testis using transcriptional profiling and to determine whether DBP exerts similar effects on steroidogenesis in the fetal adrenal. A DBP time-course experiment showed that testicular steroidogenesis was decreased within 1 h of DBP exposure and that this decrease preceded the repressed transcription of Star (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein); Scarb1 (scavenger receptor class B, member 1; also know as Sr-b1); Cyp11a1 (cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily a, polypeptide 1; also known as P450SCC); and Cyp17a1 (cytochrome P450 family 17, subfamily a, polypeptide 1; also known as Cyp17). Gene expression profiling demonstrated rapid (within 1 to 3 h) and transient induction of immediate early genes in the fetal testis after administration of DBP to the pregnant dam. There was a statistically insignificant decrease in corticosterone production by the fetal adrenal after in utero exposure to DBP from Gestation Day 12 to Gestation Day 19. The extent of steroidogenesis diminution was much less in the adrenal than in the testis (approximately 45% decrease in the adrenal versus 87% decrease in the testis) and expression of genes required for steroidogenesis in the adrenal was unaffected by DBP. Together, these studies demonstrate that DBP initiates a rapid and dynamic change in gene expression in the fetal testis that likely plays a role in the reduction in steroidogenesis that is unique to the fetal testis relative to the steroidogenically active fetal adrenal. PMID:15987825

Thompson, Christopher J; Ross, Susan M; Hensley, Janan; Liu, Kejun; Heinze, Susanna C; Young, S Stanley; Gaido, Kevin W

2005-06-29

45

A novel function for the Hox gene Abd-B in the male accessory gland regulates the long-term female post-mating response in Drosophila.  

PubMed

In insects, products of the male reproductive tract are essential for initiating and maintaining the female post-mating response (PMR). The PMR includes changes in egg laying, receptivity to courting males, and sperm storage. In Drosophila, previous studies have determined that the main cells of the male accessory gland produce some of the products required for these processes. However, nothing was known about the contribution of the gland's other secretory cell type, the secondary cells. In the course of investigating the late functions of the homeotic gene, Abdominal-B (Abd-B), we discovered that Abd-B is specifically expressed in the secondary cells of the Drosophila male accessory gland. Using an Abd-B BAC reporter coupled with a collection of genetic deletions, we discovered an enhancer from the iab-6 regulatory domain that is responsible for Abd-B expression in these cells and that apparently works independently from the segmentally regulated chromatin domains of the bithorax complex. Removal of this enhancer results in visible morphological defects in the secondary cells. We determined that mates of iab-6 mutant males show defects in long-term egg laying and suppression of receptivity, and that products of the secondary cells are influential during sperm competition. Many of these phenotypes seem to be caused by a defect in the storage and gradual release of sex peptide in female mates of iab-6 mutant males. We also found that Abd-B expression in the secondary cells contributes to glycosylation of at least three accessory gland proteins: ovulin (Acp26Aa), CG1656, and CG1652. Our results demonstrate that long-term post-mating changes observed in mated females are not solely induced by main cell secretions, as previously believed, but that secondary cells also play an important role in male fertility by extending the female PMR. Overall, these discoveries provide new insights into how these two cell types cooperate to produce and maintain a robust female PMR. PMID:23555301

Gligorov, Dragan; Sitnik, Jessica L; Maeda, Robert K; Wolfner, Mariana F; Karch, François

2013-03-28

46

Patterns of transcriptome divergence in the male accessory gland of two closely related species of field crickets.  

PubMed

One of the central questions in evolutionary genetics is how much of the genome is involved in the early stages of divergence between populations, causing them to be reproductively isolated. In this article, we investigate genomic differentiation in a pair of closely related field crickets (Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus). These two species are the result of allopatric divergence and now interact along an extensive hybrid zone in eastern North America. Genes encoding seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) are often divergent between species, and it has been hypothesized that these proteins may play a key role in the origin and maintenance of reproductive isolation between diverging lineages. Hence, we chose to scan the accessory gland transcriptome to enable direct comparisons of differentiation for genes known to encode SFPs with differentiation in a much larger set of genes expressed in the same tissue. We have characterized differences in allele frequency between two populations for >6000 SNPs and >26,000 contigs. About 10% of all SNPs showed nearly fixed differences between the two species. Genes encoding SFPs did not have significantly elevated numbers of fixed SNPs per contig, nor did they seem to show larger differences than expected in their average allele frequencies. The distribution of allele frequency differences across the transcriptome is distinctly bimodal, but the relatively high proportion of fixed SNPs does not necessarily imply "ancient" divergence between these two lineages. Further studies of linkage disequilibrium and introgression across the hybrid zone are needed to direct our attention to those genome regions that are important for reproductive isolation. PMID:23172857

Andrés, Jose A; Larson, Erica L; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Harrison, Richard G

2012-11-19

47

Exposure to TCDD during development permanently alters reproductive function in male Long Evans rats and hamsters: reduced ejaculated and epididymal sperm numbers and sex accessory gland weights in offspring with normal androgenic status.  

PubMed

Prenatal administration of relatively low doses of TCDD alters reproductive development and fertility of the progeny. Fertility was reduced in the progeny of Wistar rats exposed to 0.5 micrograms TCDD/kg/day from Gestational Day (GD) 6 to GD 15. In a three-generation reproduction study, TCDD reduced fertility of Sprague-Dawley rats in the F1 and F2 but not the F0 (no developmental exposure) generation at 0.01 microgram/kg/day in the diet. Furthermore, administration of TCDD on GD 15 (at 0.064 to 1 microgram/kg) both demasculinized and feminized morphology and behavior of Holtzman male rat offspring. Our objectives were to expand the observations of Mably et al. (1992, Toxicol, Appl. Pharmacol. 114, 97-107, 108-117, 118-126) on the effects of gestational administration of a single dose of TCDD to another strain of rat and another species, the hamster. In the first study, Long Evans (LE) hooded rats were dosed by gavage with 1 microgram TCDD/kg on GD 8 (during the period of major organogenesis) or GD 15 (the gestational day used by Mably et al.). In the second study, pregnant Syrian hamsters, a species relatively insensitive to the lethal effects of TCDD, were dosed on GD 11, equivalent to GD 15 in the rat, with TCDD at 2 micrograms/kg. When LE rats were dosed on GD 15, or when hamsters were dosed on GD 11, puberty (preputial separation) was delayed by about 3 days, ejaculated sperm counts were reduced by at least 58%, and epididymal sperm storage was reduced by 38%. Testicular sperm production was less affected. The sex accessory glands were also reduced in size in LE rat offspring treated on GD 15 despite the fact that serum testosterone (T), T production by the testis in vitro, and androgen receptor (AR) levels were not reduced. Some reproductive measures, such as anogenital distance and male sex behavior, were altered by TCDD treatment in rat but not hamster offspring. Since T and AR levels appeared normal in the sex accessory glands and the epididymis following perinatal TCDD exposure, the alterations in these tissues are not likely to have resulted from an alteration of the androgenic status of the male offspring. PMID:7878665

Gray, L E; Kelce, W R; Monosson, E; Ostby, J S; Birnbaum, L S

1995-03-01

48

Cryopreservation of aoudad (Ammotragus lervia sahariensis) sperm obtained by transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands and electroejaculation.  

PubMed

This study examines (1) the effectiveness of transrectal, ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands (TUMASG) combined with electroejaculation for obtaining aoudad (Ammotragus lervia sahariensis) sperm samples for cryopreservation, and (2) the effectiveness of a Tris-citric acid-glucose-based medium (TCG; usually used for freezing ibex sperm) and a TES-Tris-glucose-based medium (TTG; typically used in the cryopreservation of mouflon sperm) as sperm extenders. After TUMASG, just one to three electrical pulses were required for ejaculation to occur in five of the six animals studied; one ejaculated after TUMASG alone. Transrectal, ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands would therefore appear to be useful in obtaining sperm samples from this species, requiring few subsequent electrical electroejaculation stimuli and sometimes none at all. After thawing, the membrane integrity (assessed by nigrosin-eosin staining) of sperm extended with TTG was greater than that of sperm extended with TCG (P < 0.05). The total percentage of sperm showing an intact acrosome, as assessed by fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut (Arachis hypogea) agglutinin, was also higher in the TTG-extended sperm (P < 0.05), and the percentage of dead sperm with a damaged acrosome was lower (P < 0.05). No differences were seen between TCG and TTG in terms of apoptotic manifestations (DNA damage, caspase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and plasmalemma stability). Therefore, TTG appears to be a better extender than TCG for cryopreserving aoudad sperm. PMID:23158213

Santiago-Moreno, J; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Esteso, M C; López-Sebastián, A; Guerra, R; Ruiz, M J; Mendoza, N; Luna, C; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Hildebrandt, T B

2012-11-14

49

HISTOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF TESTICULAR AND ACCESSORY SEX GLANDS IN RAM LAMBS IMMUNIZED AGAINST RECOMBINANT GNRH FUSION PROTEINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the histological appearance of testis, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicles of ram lambs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH). Methods: The study was performed on 14 male lambs, 7 in the study group and the other 7 in the control group. Another 5 lambs were included from the study after biopsy

Mehmet Kanter

50

Antigen-induced inhibition of the autoimmune response to rat male accessory glands: bone marrow dependence of the enhancement of IA+ but not IE+ antigen-presenting cells.  

PubMed

IE+ peritoneal cells (PC), involved in the induction of suppression of autoimmune response to rat male accessory glands (RAG), are obtained from rats 2 h after i.p. injection of a purified fraction (FI) of RAG (FI-PC2h). In contrast, IA+ PC, involved in the induction of autoimmune response to RAG, are obtained from rats 24 h after FI of RAG injection (FI-PC24h). The present report analyzes the effect of irradiation or irradiation/bone marrow reconstitution on the induction of both populations of PC. Peritoneal cell donor rats were irradiated in a telegamma therapeutic Cs137. Twenty hours later half of them were i.v. reconstituted with 40 x 10(7) bone marrow cells. Six days later rats were i.p. injected with 200 micrograms of FI of RAG and 10(7) resident PC. The PC were harvested 2 h or 24 h later. The ability of resident PC to yield IE+ FI-PC2h involved in the induction of suppression is not impaired by irradiation, but the ability of resident PC to yield IA+ FI-PC24h involved in the induction of a positive response is impaired by irradiation and restored by bone marrow reconstitution of irradiated rats. Culture of normal PC with FI of RAG for 2 h or 24 h shows a selective increase in IE+ cells able to induce suppression to RAG.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1500091

Rivero, V E; Riera, C M; Ferro, M E

1992-05-01

51

Matching Accessories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heterodimerization enhances the complexity of ligand recognition and diversity of signaling responses of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Many accessory proteins (for ion channels or GPCRs) appear to associate with their partners relatively early in the process whereby proteins are transported to the cell surface; their roles in modulating function may have evolved out of simple proximity to a protein that once upon a time they either facilitated or accompanied through the maturation process. The receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are a family of single-transmembrane accessory proteins that heterodimerize with GPCRs and, thereby, allow individual GPCRs to recognize multiple ligands and to activate various signaling pathways in response to ligand binding. The M10 family of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1b proteins has recently been shown to associate with murine vomeronasal V2R receptors, as well as to escort them to the cell surface. The exact role of M10 in modulating V2R function (or vice versa) remains to be determined.

Steven M. Foord (Stevenage;Target Bioinformatics, GlaxoSmithKline Medicine Research Centre REV)

2003-07-08

52

Photoperiod and melatonin treatments for controlling sperm parameters, testicular and accessory sex glands size in male Iberian ibex: A model for captive mountain ruminants.  

PubMed

This study examines whether photoperiod and/or melatonin treatments can improve sperm variables outside the breeding season in the Iberian ibex-a model species for wild mountain ruminants-thus helping in the collection of high quality sperm beyond the normal breeding season for depositing in genetic resource banks. Adult Iberian ibex males (n=17) were divided into four treatment groups: (1) controls under the natural photoperiod (control group; n=4), (2) treatment with melatonin implants on December 22nd, February 22nd and April 22nd (group WS-M; n=5), (3) treatment with short photoperiod cycles, i.e., 2 months of long days followed by melatonin implants (to emulate 2 months of short days) throughout the year (group PHPld+M; n=4), and (4) treatment with melatonin implants on June 22nd and August 22nd (group SS-M; n=4). The interaction treatment x season had a strong influence on testis size (P<0.05), the size of the seminal vesicles (P<0.001), the percentage of abnormal sperms (P<0.05), and percentage non-progressive (P<0.05) and progressive (P<0.001) sperm motility. In groups WS-M and PHPld+M, the normal springtime physiological reductions in testis size, non-progressive sperm motility and acrosome integrity were prevented. The values for the studied sperm variables were, however, reduced in the natural breeding season at the end of the experimental period in group PHPld+M, although not in group WS-M. The pattern of melatonin administration in group SS-M conferred no advantages on reproductive functionality. These results suggest that lengthening the short day period after the winter solstice (the WS-M treatment) extends reproductive activity in this species, allowing good quality sperm to be recovered for conservation purposes during the non-breeding season. PMID:23664101

Santiago-Moreno, J; Toledano-Díaz, A; Castaño, C; Coloma, M A; Esteso, M C; Prieto, M T; Delgadillo, J A; López-Sebastián, A

2013-04-18

53

Accessory Sexual Glands of Male 'Blattella germanica'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several synthetic juvenile hormones were applied topically and by injection to adult male Blattella germanica. These compounds included the Law synthetic juvenile hormone, the synthetic Roeller compound and farnesyl O-methyl ether. Mortalities were low up...

P. M. Fox

1973-01-01

54

Intrapancreatic accessory spleen.  

PubMed

A case of accessory spleen located in the tail of the pancreas in a stillbirth male foetus is reported. The congenital anomaly was revealed at autopsy. The intrapancreatic spleen was well demarcated and was composed of red and white pulp; however, same pancreatic ducts were intermingled with the splenic parenchyma. As well as the intrapancreatic lesion another minute accessory spleen was also found at the hilum of the proper organ. Since a lack of morphological features of trisomy 13 syndrome were found in the foetus, the ectopic spleens were regarded as incidental findings. PMID:22532185

Szumi?o, J; Fronczek, A; Bukharin, S; Burdan, F

2012-02-01

55

Proteins of the Drosophila melanogaster male reproductive system: Two-dimensional gel patterns of proteins synthesized in the XO, XY, and XYY testis and paragonial gland and evidence that the Y chromosome does not code for structural sperm proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testes and paragonial glands of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type males were labeled in vitro using [35S]methionine, and the proteins synthesized were analyzed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Testes and paragonial glands were also labeled in vivo by feeding male larvae 35S-labeled yeast and then dissecting the adult males. Approximately 1200 proteins were resolved by autoradiography of the gels. The in vitro method

Jane Ingman-Baker; E. Peter M. Candido

1980-01-01

56

Double accessory tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report a case of double accessory tongue in a female neonate. The embryology of this extremely rare congenital anomaly, along with the diagnostic approach followed and the surgical intervention undertaken, are discussed. The surgical procedure was radical and led to good functional and esthetic results.

F. S. Chiarenza; A. D'Alessio; S. De Pascale; M. Cheli; C. Giardina; G. Rota; D. Schievano; G. Locatelli

1994-01-01

57

Androlog Summary Copious Pre-Ejaculation: Small Glands—Major Headaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Note: Postings to Androlog have been lightly edited before publication. Pre-ejaculate is a clear mucoid fluid produced by accessory sex glands and expressed on sexual stimula- tion into the urethra. The organs that produce this fluid are Cowper glands, the glands of Littre, and possibly the glands of Morgagni. Pre-ejaculate volume may range in normal men from a few drops

ALEKSANDER CHUDNOVSKY; CRAIG S. NIEDERBERGER

58

Axillary accessory breast associated with galactorrhea in an adolescent girl  

PubMed Central

We present herein a case of right axillary accessory breast associated with galactorrhea in an adolescent girl. A 14-year-old Japanese girl presented with an 11-month history of a tender, subcutaneous lesion in the right axillary fossa. Seven months later, she experienced menarche. Subsequently, the patient noticed pressure-induced galactorrhea from both nipples. Physical examination revealed an elastic, firm and well-demarcated subcutaneous tumor 3 × 2 cm in size. A biopsy specimen showed proliferation of mammary gland tissue in the stroma located below the subcutaneous fat tissue. On the basis of these findings the patient was diagnosed with an accessory breast. Interestingly, the galactorrhea ceased after surgical removal of the accessory breast.

Kyo, Akemi; Sasaki, Yoshihito; Fukunaga, Atsushi; Nagano, Tohru; Funasaka, Yoko; Nishigori, Chikako

2010-01-01

59

Aircraft-Engine-Accessory Vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The overhang-moment limit, or still better a limit on the moment of inertia of the accessory about a line through the center of the accessory mounting surface, would be helpful by limiting one of the two factors which control the natural frequency of the accessory-rear-cover combination. However, the natural frequency is the factor of prime importance, and, if control

John Tyler

1944-01-01

60

Accessory apartment conversion programs.  

PubMed

In recent years, state housing finance agencies have joined with state units on aging to develop programs to help the frail, elderly homeowner. Under an accessory apartment conversion program, a low-income homeowner will borrow money at a reduced interest rate to underwrite conversion of excess space into a rental apartment. The tenant will provide additional income as well as, ideally, certain kinds of personal assistance and a friendly presence. To date, few elderly clients have used this option. The initial rationale for the program is explained as are plausible reasons for the fact that it has not met expectations. PMID:10186784

Retsinas, J; Retsinas, N P

1991-01-01

61

Accessory antlers in male Cervidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accessory (supernumerary) antlers are an infrequent phenomenon in male cervids. These bony protuberances grow mostly from permanent pedicles, which developed in response to a repeated or a severe trauma to frontal, nasal or parietal bones. They regularly undergo seasonal mineralization, casting and regrowth and may persist for many years. Three examples of accessory antlers in telemetacarpal cervids, roe deer (Capreolus

G. A. Bubenik; K. J. Hundertmark

2002-01-01

62

Electroporation of the Testis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mature mammalian testis is a marvelous organ that produces numerous sperm cells during its reproductive phase. This biologically significant process consists of three steps: stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, meiosis and genetic recombination, and haploid cell morphogenesis into sperm (Russell et al., 1990). The first step provides a good model for investigating the molecular mechanism of stem cell regulation. Currently, the mechanism underlying sperm cell production is a very exciting topic in regenerative medicine (Lensch et al. 2007; Okita et al., 2007). The spermatogonial stem cell system has several advantages, including the easy histological identification of stem cells (Russell et al., 1990), a clear relationship between stem cells and the supporting Sertoli cells, which provide a stem cell niche (Tadokoro et al., 2002; Yomogida et al., 2003), and a transplantation assay for stem cell activity (Oatley & Brinster, 2006). Although germline stem (GS) cells derived from the gonocytes in newborn testis constitute a suitable in vitro system for investigating the properties of spermatogonial stem cells (Kanatsu-Shinohara et al., 2003, 2004), studies using living mammalian testes continue to provide information regarding the roles of the stem cell niche. In vivo electroporation of the supporting cells in the testis will expand our ability to study it.

Yomogida, Kentaro

63

The high scrotal (“gliding”) testis revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  At present, the high scrotal testis is considered a distinct and separate entity of undescended testis.Objectives  The aim of this study was to assess whether high scrotal testis is actually either a congenital- or acquired-undescended testis.Discussion  In 527 consecutive boys (aged 0.4 to 16.5 years, mean 7.5) referred for non-scrotal testis, the number of high scrotal testis was prospectively determined. According to previous

Wilfried W. M. Hack; Karlijn Sijstermans; Laszla M. van der Voort-Doedens; Rob W. Meijer; Krijn Haasnoot

2007-01-01

64

ACCESSORY RENAL VESSELS  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the variations of the renal artery has grown in importance with increasing of renal transplants, vascular reconstructions and various surgical and radiologic techniques performing in recent years. We report the presence of unilateral doubled renal vessels, discovered on routine dissection of a male cadaver, on the right side; additional renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta. In addition the right suprarenal gland received arteries from right renal and inferior phrenic arteries only. The right inferior phrenic originated from the right renal artery.

Ali Mohammed, Ammar Mohammed; Elseed Abdalrasol, Rami Gusm; Alamin Abdalhai, Khatim; Gommaa Hamad, Mohamed

2012-01-01

65

Mechanical Accessories for Mobile Teleoperators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems a...

M. J. Feldman J. N. Herndon

1985-01-01

66

Barrier properties of testis microvessels.  

PubMed

The blood-testis barrier is believed to be constituted by tight junctions between Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules and possibly by myoid cells that encircle these tubules. We now show that testis microvessels are endowed with several markers of barrier properties of brain microvessels, such as the glucose transporter, P-glycoprotein, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Quantitative EM studies show that the endothelium in testis, as in brain, is continuous and has long junctional profiles and few vesicles. However, a small proportion of testis capillaries have expansions in their junctional clefts suggestive of patent paracellular channels, which may explain their higher permeability. Because barrier features are thought to be induced and/or maintained in brain microvessels by astrocytes, we assessed whether astrocyte-like cells exist in the testis. We found that the intertubular Leydig cells, adjacent to microvessels, express the astrocyte markers: glial fibrillary acidic protein, glutamine synthetase, and S-100 protein. We suggest that the testis endothelium contributes to the blood-testis barrier and that these endothelial barrier features are influenced by Leydig cells. We believe that the endothelial and the epithelial (Sertoli) components of the blood-testis barrier are "in series" and complement each other in achieving a stable milieu for spermatogenesis. PMID:7902579

Holash, J A; Harik, S I; Perry, G; Stewart, P A

1993-12-01

67

Accessory drive for a turbine engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes, in combination: a radial flow turbine engine having a main shaft and a casing with air inlets open radially at one end, and an accessory drive comprising: an accessory housing positioned axially adjacent the one end of the turbine engine casing, a gear ring rotatably mounted within the accessory housing, means for mechanically drivingly connecting the gear ring to the turbine main shaft, the connecting means comprising a planetary gear arrangement contained in the accessory housing, the accessory housing having apertures open to the gear ring and circumferentially spaced from each other, at least one accessory having a driven gear, and means for mounting the at least one accessory to the accessory housing so that the accessory registers with one of the plurality of apertures and so that the gear ring meshes with the driven gear, wherein each aperture is adapted for connection with a separate accessory.

Brogdon, J.W.; Allen, K.D.; Barton, J.S.; Hicks, R.J.

1987-02-03

68

Accessory pathway reciprocating tachycardia.  

PubMed

Patients who have an accessory pathway (AP) of atrioventricular (AV) conduction may develop circus movement tachycardia otherwise known as atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia (AVRT). Orthodromic AVRT is the most common form. It occurs as a result of antegrade conduction through the normal AV conduction system and retrograde conduction to the atria via the AP. Less commonly, conduction occurs in the opposite direction resulting in antidromic AVRT. Tachycardia may also involve multiple APs which may provide both antegrade and retrograde conduction and may alternate antegradely or retrogradely. Tachycardia may occur in which the AP simply acts as a bystander, and does not participate in the tachycardia mechanism. When atrial fibrillation is conducted to the ventricles via and AP, the resultant ventricular rate may be extremely rapid, placing the patient at risk of developing ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest. This paper reviews the anatomical and physiological substrates involved in the pathogenesis of AVRT. The acute and long-term management of patients who suffer from these arrhythmias will then be discussed. The normal AV annulus is composed exclusively of electrically inert fibrous tissue. The AV node and His bundle normally act as the sole route of electrical conduction. Accessory pathways occur at all points along the AV ring, and usually occur as isolated abnormalities, although a proportion of patients have associated congenital abnormalities. This is particularly true of right-sided APs. Most APs exhibit non-decremental conduction properties, and conduct faster than normal AV conduction tissue. In many patients with APs the surface ECG reveals clear evidence of pre-excitation, and a good idea of pathway localization is possible using one or more of several algorithms which have been developed. Patients with latent pre-excitation, intermittent pre-excitation, and patients with concealed APs have not evidence of pre-excitation on a proportion or all of Their surface ECGs. Patients present with a history of paroxysmal palpitations, often with associated symptoms such as chest discomfort Syncope is a rare presenting symptom. Unless bundle branch block is present, patients with orthodromic AVRT exhibit a narrow complex tachycardia on the surface ECG. Patients with pre-excited tachycardia including antidromic AVRT, and other forms of SVT in which the AP conducts to the ventricles as a bystander but does not participate in the tachycardias mechanism, present as broad complex tachycardias on the surface ECG which may be difficult to distinguish from ventricular tachycardia. Adenosine is increasingly used for this purpose since it is highly efficacious and has an extremely short half-life. Adenosine is also very useful in the diagnosis of broad-complex tachycardia, and in unmasking latent pre-excitation during sinus rhythm. Electrophysiology study in these patients is frequently performed at the same time as an attempt at catheter ablation; it aims to diagnose, localize and determine the functional characteristics of an AP, and to characterize the role of the pathway in tachycardia. AVRT can be reliably terminated by effective AV nodal blockade. Drug therapy for the prevention of AVRT is useful for temporary control whilst awaiting more definitive measures and in certain cases as long-term management. No class of drug stands out as 'therapy of choice', and physician preference, pro-arrhythmic effects and associated conditions need to be taken into account such that an individual choice can be made in each patient. The management of patients with AVRT has been revolutionized in recent years with the advent of catheter-based techniques for their cure. Whilst this method of treatment is highly effective and has low complication rates, pathways in particular locations such as the septal region remain challenging. PMID:9717020

Obel, O A; Camm, A J

1998-05-01

69

Anatomy of secretory glands in the eyelid and conjunctiva: a photographic review.  

PubMed

The eyelid and conjunctiva are main targets in ophthalmic plastic surgery. Although dry eyes are known to occasionally occur after ophthalmic plastic surgery, little attention has been paid to the secretory glands in the eyelid and conjunctiva. The secretary glands in the eyelid and conjunctiva contain the main lacrimal gland, accessory lacrimal glands of Wolfring and Krause, goblet cells, ciliary glands of Moll and Zeis, and the meibomian gland of the tarsal plate. Understanding the details of these glands is helpful in preventing and managing secretion reduction after oculoplastic procedures. PMID:23381567

Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Akihide; Matsuda, Hiromichi; Nakamura, Yasuhisa; Nakano, Takashi; Asamoto, Ken; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

70

Split gland  

DOEpatents

A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

Petranto, Joseph J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

71

Split gland  

DOEpatents

A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

Petranto, J.J.

1989-09-05

72

Evaluation of Accessory Materials for Desalination Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Test results on accessory coatings, sealants, and polymeric products are presented. This was one part of a five-part investigation to evaluate concrete and accessory materials under a variety of temperature-pressure-salinity conditions encountered in a se...

B. V. Jones V. L. Kuehn W. R. Morrison

1973-01-01

73

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section...Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a) Identification. Microscopes and accessories are optical...

2010-04-01

74

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section...Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a) Identification. Microscopes and accessories are optical...

2009-04-01

75

Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known…

Micallef, Ken

2007-01-01

76

Recurrent malignant salivary gland neoplasms.  

PubMed

Recurrent salivary gland malignancies present difficult therapeutic decisions and poor prognosis in many instances, and treatment becomes of a palliative nature only. As many of the salivary gland malignancies we see are of the recurrent type, the following study was done to determine the efficacy of a vigorous attempt at retreatment. During the period January 1, 1960, through December 31, 1984, 352 patients with major and minor salivary gland tumors were evaluated at our institution. There were 149 benign lesions and 203 patients with malignant tumors. Of these, 99 patients had recurrent and metastatic tumors that had been treated initially elsewhere. Thirty-three of these patients were able to be treated with curative intent: surgery, 21; surgery plus radiation, 9; radiation therapy alone, 2; and radiation plus chemotherapy, 1. The 5 year survival with no evidence of disease was achieved in three patients with surgery alone and two patients with surgery plus radiation therapy. The group of five patients was comprised of two patients with adenoid cystic carcinomas of the parotid, one with intermediate grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid, one, sebaceous cell carcinoma of the parotid, and one, adenoid cystic carcinoma of an accessory salivary gland. The results of this study serve to re-emphasize the relative poor yield of attempts at retreatment of loco-regional recurrence of salivary gland tumors. PMID:2796352

Rodriguez-Bigas, M A; Sako, K; Razack, M S; Shedd, D P; Bakamjian, V Y; Castillo, N B; Rao, U

1989-10-01

77

Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis is a rare type of intermediate stromal cell tumor. Only 11 cases of juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis have been reported to the national tumor registry as of December 2001. We report an additional case of primary juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis. The benign lesion was managed successfully with

Randy Fagin; Ema Berbescu; Steve Landis; Kenneth Strumpf; Umeshchandra Patil

2003-01-01

78

Xenografting of adult mammalian testis tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xenografting of testis tissue from immature males from several mammalian species to immunodeficient mouse hosts results in production of fertilization-competent sperm. However, the efficiency of testis tissue xenografting from adult donors has not been critically evaluated. Testis tissue xenografting from sexually mature animals could provide an option to preserve the genetic material from valuable males when semen for cryopreservation cannot

Lucía Arregui; Rahul Rathi; Wenxian Zeng; Ali Honaramooz; Montserrat Gomendio; Eduardo R. S. Roldan; Ina Dobrinski

2008-01-01

79

Accessory origin of the piriformis muscle.  

PubMed

Incidental finding of an accessory slip of the piriformis muscle in the gluteal region is reported. Following routine dissection of the gluteal region in three formalin-fixed cadavers, an accessory slip of the piriformis was observed. The accessory slip was cleaned, attachments were identified, and dimensions were measured in two parts as fleshy and tendinous parts with a graduated scale to the nearest millimetre. The accessory slip was innervated by a small twig from the sciatic nerve. Having considered the available literature, the accessory slip of piriformis is rare, and if found, could be a cause for the undiagnosed chronic pain in the back and gluteal region, as this accessory slip may compress the sciatic nerve. PMID:18756338

Ravindranath, Y; Manjunath, K Y; Ravindranath, R

2008-08-01

80

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) innervation of the human eyelid glands.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to obtain morphological proof of innervating nerve fibres in the glands of the human eyelid (accessory lacrimal glands of Wolfring, meibomian glands, goblet cells, glands of Zeis, glands of Moll, sweat glands, glands of lanugo hair follicles) and identification of the secretomotorically active neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as a common transmitter. Epoxy-embedded ultrathin sections of tissue samples from human eyelids were studied using electron microscopy. Paraffin sections fixed in Bouin-Hollande solution were immunostained with rabbit antiserum against VIP. With the electron microscope we were able to identify nerves in the glandular stroma of all the glands examined with the exception of goblet cells. Intraepithelial single axons were only seen in the parenchyma of Wolfring glands. The morphological findings corresponded with the immunological finding of VIP-positive, nerve-like structures in the same locations, with the exception of lanugo hair follicle glands, and goblet cells. Our findings indicate that the glands of the eyelids and main lacrimal gland represent a functional unit with VIP as a possible common stimulating factor. PMID:10375432

Seifert, P; Spitznas, M

1999-06-01

81

The Accessory Genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains exhibit significant variability in pathogenicity and ecological flexibility. Such interstrain differences reflect the dynamic nature of the P. aeruginosa genome, which is composed of a relatively invariable “core genome” and a highly variable “accessory genome.” Here we review the major classes of genetic elements comprising the P. aeruginosa accessory genome and highlight emerging themes in the acquisition and functional importance of these elements. Although the precise phenotypes endowed by the majority of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome have yet to be determined, rapid progress is being made, and a clearer understanding of the role of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome in ecology and infection is emerging.

Kung, Vanderlene L.; Ozer, Egon A.; Hauser, Alan R.

2010-01-01

82

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

83

Engine starter and accessory drive system  

SciTech Connect

An engine starter and accessory drive system is described which consists of: an accessory drive means; a planetary gearset having a sun gear driveably connected to the accessory drive means, a ring gear, a carrier and planet pinions rotatably mounted on the carrier, fixed to the engine crankshaft, meshing with the sun gear and with the ring gear; means for holding the ring gear against rotation; and a starter motor and first clutch means for providing a one-way driving connection between the motor and the accessory drive means.

Stockton, T.R.

1986-10-07

84

Pitfall of the accessory spleen.  

PubMed

Two patients, one with insulinoma and one with Cushing's syndrome, are presented. Biochemical evaluation readily suggested the correct diagnosis. During radiologic imaging, the anatomic abnormality giving rise to these diseases, i.e. a pancreatic islet cell tumor, and an adrenal adenoma, at first were mistakenly interpreted as an accessory spleen on the basis of specific computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging appearances. The insulinoma was identified as such during laparotomy, whereas additional jodo-cholesterol scintigraphy revealed the real nature of the lesion in the patient with Cushing's syndrome. Both patients were operated successfully. PMID:10727761

Sels, J P; Wouters, R M; Lamers, R; Wolffenbuttel, B H

2000-04-01

85

Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators  

SciTech Connect

The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs.

Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

1985-01-01

86

Pituitary gland  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... stimulates breast tissue in nursing mothers to produce milk ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) - causes the adrenal glands to ... less urine Oxytocin – initiates labor, uterine contractions and milk ejection in mothers

87

Resident macrophages influence stem cell activity in the mammary gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Macrophages in the mammary gland are essential for morphogenesis of the ductal epithelial tree and have been implicated in promoting breast tumor metastasis. Although it is well established that macrophages influence normal mammopoiesis, the mammary cell types that these accessory cells influence have not been determined. Here we have explored a role for macrophages in regulating mammary stem cell

David E Gyorki; Marie-Liesse Asselin-Labat; Nico van Rooijen; Geoffrey J Lindeman; Jane E Visvader

2009-01-01

88

Three Accessories for a Rotating Platform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes three accessories developed to be used in conjunction with the rotating platform or turntable. Three demonstrations using these accessories are included. These demonstrations are: (a) conservation of angular momentum; (b) gravity-defying goblets; and (c) direct measurement of centripetal force. (HM)|

Riley, James A.; Fryer, Oscar G.

1980-01-01

89

Testis cord morphogenesis: determination, establishment, and maintenance 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of the testis-determining gene SRY in the early 1990s, rapid progress has been made in illuminating the genetic pathways for testis cord morphogenesis. Research on fetal testis cord development has largely focused on two key areas - testis determination and testis cord establishment. In the first of these events, expression of SRY in the XY gonad triggers

C. F. Liu; D. R. Archambeault

2006-01-01

90

Salivary Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the bottom of each page. About the salivary glands The body’s salivary glands are tissues that produce ... often called the minor salivary glands. About salivary gland cancer Cancer begins when normal cells change and ...

91

Lacrimal gland tumor  

MedlinePLUS

A lacrimal gland tumor is a tumor in the glands that produce tears. These glands are located under the outer part of each eyebrow. Lacrimal gland tumors can be harmless ( benign ) or cancerous ( malignant ). ...

92

[Is fetal testis in danger?].  

PubMed

Estrogens are classically known to play a major role in female reproduction, but there is now compelling evidence that they may also be involved in the regulation of male reproductive function. In humans, a decrease in sperm count and an increase in the incidences of testicular cancer, cryptorchidism and hypospadia have been observed in many countries over the last 50 years. Male reproductive alterations were also observed in wildlife. Such male reproductive disorders have been attributed to the increase in concentration of xenobiotics, and of xenoestrogens in particular, in the environment and in food. Epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have suggested that excessive exposure to estrogens during fetal/neonatal life can lead to reproductive disorders in adulthood. Using an in vitro model, we showed that estrogens directly affected the development of the fetal testis. Lastly, we clearly demonstrated that the fetal and neonatal testis is very sensitive to estrogens since the invalidation of estrogen receptor alpha leads to an increase of steroidogenesis and the invalidation of estrogen receptor beta enhances the development of the germ cell lineage in the male. PMID:16324650

Delbès, Géraldine; Levacher, Christine; Duquenne, Clotilde; Habert, René

2005-12-01

93

Controlled Speed Accessory Drive Demonstration Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Controlled Speed Accessory Drive System was examined in an effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars. Concept feasibility and the performance of a typical system during actual road driving conditions were demonstrated. The CSAD system is desc...

F. W. Hoehn

1981-01-01

94

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification...suspension sling, head and trunk support, and blanket and leg rest strap. (b) Classification. Class I...

2006-04-01

95

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification...suspension sling, head and trunk support, and blanket and leg rest strap. (b) Classification. Class I...

2008-04-01

96

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification...suspension sling, head and trunk support, and blanket and leg rest strap. (b) Classification. Class I...

2005-04-01

97

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification...suspension sling, head and trunk support, and blanket and leg rest strap. (b) Classification. Class I...

2013-04-01

98

Accessory subunits of mitochondrial complex I.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial complex I has a molecular mass of almost 1 MDa and comprises more than 40 polypeptides. Fourteen central subunits harbour the bioenergetic core functions. We are only beginning to understand the significance of the numerous accessory subunits. The present review addresses the role of accessory subunits for assembly, stability and regulation of complex I and for cellular functions not directly associated with redox-linked proton translocation. PMID:24059519

Kmita, Katarzyna; Zickermann, Volker

2013-10-01

99

What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... statistics about salivary gland cancer? What is salivary gland cancer? Salivary gland cancer is a cancer that ... can develop in these glands. About the salivary glands Salivary glands produce saliva -- the lubricating fluid found ...

100

Salivary Gland Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes your ... antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

101

Salivary gland tumors  

MedlinePLUS

Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the ducts that drain the salivary glands. ... The salivary glands are located around the mouth. They produce saliva, which moistens food to help with chewing and swallowing. Saliva ...

102

Salivary gland disease.  

PubMed

Salivary gland disease covers a wide range of pathological entities, including salivary gland-specific disease, as well as manifestations of systemic diseases. This chapter discusses the recent advances in managing obstructive salivary gland disease, the move from gland excision to gland preservation, the dilemmas in diagnosing and managing tumours of the salivary glands, and the international data collection to understand the aetiology and progression of Sjögren's disease. PMID:20428015

Thomas, Bethan L; Brown, Jackie E; McGurk, Mark

2010-04-20

103

Diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy for nonpalpable testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We evaluated the use of laparoscopy in the management of impalpable testis to determine what advantages it might offer over the open approach. Methods: Over a 5.5-year period, a total of 46 patients with 53 nonpalpable testes underwent a laparoscopic procedure at our hospital. There were 28 cases of intraabdominal testis (52.83%), 18 cases of the vas and vessels

M. D. Argos Rodriguez; A. Unda Freire; A. Ruiz Orpez; C. Garcia Lorenzo

2003-01-01

104

Gamma probe-confirmed laparoscopic accessory splenectomy.  

PubMed

The simultaneous occurrence of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and Hodgkin's disease in the same patient is uncommon. There have been only a limited number of reported cases of newly diagnosed ITP following Hodgkin's disease. Even more uncommon is the development of ITP after splenectomy for Hodgkin's disease. Of the reported cases of ITP following splenectomy for Hodgkin's disease, all have been successfully treated with medical therapy. We report an unusual case of an accessory spleen causing ITP in a patient who had undergone a splenectomy for Hodgkin's disease 10 years earlier. The patient underwent hand-held gamma-probe-assisted laparoscopic accessory splenectomy. PMID:12296313

Hendrickson, R J; Koniaris, L G; Kovach, S J; Johnson, J A

2002-09-01

105

Disruption of Testis Cords by Cyclopamine or Forskolin Reveals Independent Cellular Pathways in Testis Organogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies to date indicate that the formation of testis cords is critical for proper Sertoli cell differentiation, inhibition of germ cell meiosis, and regulation of Leydig cell differentiation. However, the connections between these events are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to dissect the molecular and cellular relationships between these events in testis formation. We took advantage

Humphrey Hung-Chang Yao; Blanche Capel

2002-01-01

106

21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

107

21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a)...

2009-04-01

108

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2013-04-01

109

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2009-04-01

110

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

111

21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120 Section...OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

112

21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive diaphragm is a closely...

2010-04-01

113

21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive diaphragm is a closely...

2009-04-01

114

21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive diaphragm is a closely...

2013-04-01

115

21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section...PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

2010-04-01

116

21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section...PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

2013-04-01

117

21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section...PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

2009-04-01

118

21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884...Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to...

2010-04-01

119

21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884...Monitoring Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to...

2010-04-01

120

21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884...Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to...

2009-04-01

121

21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884...Monitoring Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to...

2009-04-01

122

21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives, such as diamond chips, that are glued to shellac-based paper. The device is intended to remove excessive restorative materials,...

2013-04-01

123

21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories....

2013-04-01

124

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories....

2013-04-01

125

Complementary roles of the main and accessory olfactory systems in mammalian mate recognition.  

PubMed

We review studies conducted in mouse and ferret that have specified roles of both the main and the accessory olfactory nervous systems in the detection and processing of body odorants (e.g., urinary pheromones, extraorbital lacrimal gland secretions, major histocompatibility complex peptide ligands, and anal scent gland secretions) that play an essential role in sex discrimination and attraction between males and females leading to mate choice and successful reproduction. We also review literature that compares the forebrain processing of inputs from the two olfactory systems in the two sexes that underlies heterosexual partner preferences. Finally, we review experiments that raise the possibility that body odorants detected by the main olfactory system contribute to mate recognition in humans. PMID:18817511

Baum, Michael J; Kelliher, Kevin R

2009-01-01

126

Bilateral spinal accessory nerve palsy after rhytidectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 64-year-old patient experienced palsy of the right spinal accessory nerve after rhytidectomy. She was evaluated 6 months after surgery for unexplained shoulder pain and weakness since the procedure. Electrophysiological testing showed bilateral spinal nerve palsy without abnormalities in the other shoulder nerves. The electrophysiological findings supported entrapment as the mechanism, rather than nerve section or pure axonal disease due to

Paul Seror; Henri Lellouche

2006-01-01

127

Controlled Speed Accessory Drive Demonstration Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One phase of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars has been the investigation of a Controlled Speed Accessory Drive (CSAD) System. The objective of this specific program, initiated by DOE in association w...

F. W. Hoehn

1981-01-01

128

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories...components, intended for use during diagnostic examinations or surgical procedures to support and position a patient. (b)...

2013-04-01

129

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories...used to support a patient during diagnostic examinations or surgical procedures. (b) Classification. Class I...

2013-04-01

130

Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets  

SciTech Connect

In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets.

Davis, H.H., II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

1980-01-01

131

Accessories to the crime: Recent advances in HIV accessory protein biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in understanding the roles of the lentiviral accessory proteins have provided fascinating insight into the\\u000a molecular biology of the virus and uncovered previously unappreciated innate immune mechanisms by which the host defends itself.\\u000a HIV-1 and other lentiviruses have developed accessory proteins that counterattack the antiviral defenses in a sort of evolutionary\\u000a battle. The virus is remarkably adept at

Thomas Gramberg; Nicole Sunseri; Nathaniel R. Landau

2009-01-01

132

Unilateral and bilateral cryptorchidism and its effect on the testicular morphology, histology, accessory sex organs, and sperm count in laboratory mice  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Experimental unilateral cryptorchidism (ULC) and bilateral cryptorchidism (BLC) are excellent methods to study undescended testis in relation to spermatogenesis against a temperature gradient. OBJECTIVES: In case of ULC, it is possible to compare the testicular functions between normal condition and cryptorchidism in the same animal, whereas BLC shows the necessity of testicular androgens for proper maintenance of reproductive structures and functions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, experimental ULC and BLC was done on same-aged adult mature male mice and kept for 15 days and 30 days, respectively, to observe the changes due to the induced cryptorchidism on the different reproductive organs, viz., the testis and accessory sex organs along with epididymal sperm count. Reproductive tissues were collected from individual animals and histopathological studies of testis were done to investigate different cytological changes. RESULTS: The size of the testes and accessory sex organs were found to be significantly reduced in BLC mice, whereas only testicular weight reduction was observed in ULC mice. Histopathological studies showed degenerative changes throughout the seminiferous tubules. CONCLUSION: Thus, the present investigation showed compensatory androgen production in ULC mice, whereas absence of androgen mediated reproductive functions in BLC animals.

Dutta, Soumita; Joshi, Keshab Raj; Sengupta, Pallav; Bhattacharya, Koushik

2013-01-01

133

Preservation and transplantation of porcine testis tissue  

PubMed Central

Grafting of immature mammalian testis tissue to mouse hosts can preserve the male germline. To make this approach applicable to a clinical or field situation, it is imperative that the testis tissue and/or spermatozoa harvested from grafted tissue are preserved successfully. The aim of the present study was to evaluate protocols for the preservation of testis tissue in a porcine model. Testis tissue was stored at 4°C for short-term preservation or cryopreserved by slow-freezing, automated slow-freezing or vitrification for long-term storage. Preserved tissue was transplanted ectopically to mouse hosts and recovered xenografts were analysed histologically. In addition, spermatozoa were harvested from xenografts and cryopreserved. Total cell viability and germ cell viability remained high after tissue preservation. Complete spermatogenesis occurred in xenografts preserved by cooling up to 48 h, whereas spermatogenesis progressed to round spermatids in the xenografts that were frozen–thawed before grafting. Approximately 50% of spermatozoa harvested from xenografts remained viable after freezing and thawing. The in vivo developmental potential of cryopreserved tissue was reduced despite high post-thaw viability. Therefore, it is important to evaluate germ cell differentiation in vivo in addition to cell viability in vitro when optimising freezing protocols for testis tissue.

Zeng, W.; Snedaker, A. K.; Megee, S.; Rathi, R.; Chen, F.; Honaramooz, A.; Dobrinski, I.

2009-01-01

134

Cloning of chicken lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) cDNA: discovery of a testis-specific CYP51 transcript.  

PubMed

A lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) cDNA, which consisted of a 1419 bp open reading frame encoding 472 amino acids and a 918 bp 3'-untranslated region, was isolated from the chicken testis. The sequence corresponding to exon 1 of this cDNA was completely different from those of CYP51 cDNAs in other tissues, including the liver. The expression level of the CYP51 gene with the testis-specific exon 1 was much higher in mature (2-year-old) male chickens than in immature (5-week-old) chickens. In addition, a CYP51 transcript common to several tissues, including the liver, adrenal gland, cerebellum, cerebrum, lobus opticus, kidney, lung, heart, muscle, spleen, small intestine and ovary, was also detected in the testis by RT-PCR. Furthermore, testis-specific shorter transcripts, which have been observed in mammals such as humans, rats and pigs, were not detected in the chicken testis. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time the presence of a chicken testis-specific CYP51 transcript and its sexual maturation-related expression, although its biological significance remains unclear. PMID:16945562

Kojima, Misaki; Tagami, Takahiro; Degawa, Masakuni

2006-07-25

135

LAPAROSCOPIC EVALUATION OF NON-PALPABLE UNDESCENDED TESTIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the laparoscopic technique as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in the management of patients with impalpable testis. Methods: During the period from January 2002 to September 2003, sixteen patients with mean age of 20 years underwent laparoscopy to evaluate impalpable testis. Special attention was paid to the value of laparoscope in the diagnosis of these testis, in

Mohannad Al-Naser; Firas Khori; Mazen Quran; Lara Abu-Ghazaleh; Zahran Budair

136

Accessory cell function of Th2 clones.  

PubMed

We have investigated the ability of T helper clones to serve as accessory cells and in the presence of mitogen activate freshly-isolated, splenic T cells. In this type of costimulatory assay, the Th cells that secrete IL-4 but not the Th cells that secrete IL-2 function as AC to induce T cell proliferation in the presence of various T cell mitogens (Con A, anti-CD3 mAb, anti-TCR mAb, and anti-Thy-1 mAb). The signal provided by the accessory Th2 cells occurred independently of MHC restriction, and the analysis of dose-response curves showed the involvement of a single stimulator cell. CD4, as well as CD8 expressing splenic T cells were induced to proliferate by the Th2 clones and mitogen, but mAb specific for CD4 or CD8 failed to affect the response. These findings indicate that cloned Th2 cells functioned as accessory cells and induced naive T cells to proliferate in the presence of mitogen. PMID:2528580

Evavold, B D; Quintans, J

1989-09-15

137

The blood-testis barrier and its breakdown following immunization to testis material in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blood-testis barrier and its changes following immunization to testis material, were investigated by light- and electron microscopy in a teleost fish, the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using horseradish peroxidase and bovine serum albumin as tracers. In the normal testis, histochemistry using horseradish peroxidase revealed that a barrier composed of junctional complexes connecting adjacent Sertoli cells existed around the central

Ya Huan Lou; Hiroya Takahashi

1989-01-01

138

Salivary gland disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Salivary gland disorders are conditions that lead to swelling or pain in the saliva-producing tissues around the mouth. ... The salivary glands produce saliva (spit), which moistens food ... and swallowing. Saliva contains enzymes that begin the digestion ...

139

Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview  

MedlinePLUS

... Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Overview The pituitary gland is a tiny organ, the size of a ... the base of the brain. As the “master gland” of the body, it produces many hormones that ...

140

Enlarged prostate gland  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

The prostate gland is located underneath the bladder and is about the size of a chestnut. In this cut ... part of the urethra is encased within the prostate gland. As a man ages, the prostate typically ...

141

About the Parathyroid Glands  

MedlinePLUS

... glands is a newly discovered molecule called the Calcium Sensing Receptor (CaSR). This CaSR responds to very small changes in the blood level of calcium to turn the parathyroid glands on and off ...

142

Adrenal Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

143

Ceruminous gland neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY.Ceruminous glands are modified sweat glands, confined to the skin lining of the cartilaginous part of the external auditory meatus. Tumours arising from these glands are extremely rare. Confusion exists regarding the nomenclature ‘ceruminoma’ and controversies prevail on the standard way of management. Treatment often involves a multidisciplinary approach, requiring reconstruction after extensive surgical resection.A case report of adenoid cystic

A. Iqbal; P. Newman

1998-01-01

144

Adrenal Gland Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Your adrenal, or suprarenal, glands are located on the top of each kidney. These glands produce hormones that you can't live without, including sex ... other functions. Adrenal disorders can cause your adrenal glands to make too much or not enough hormones. ...

145

21 CFR 870.4200 - Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4200 Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. (a) Identification. Cardiopulmonary...

2013-04-01

146

HIV-1 Accessory Proteins: Vpu and Vif.  

PubMed

HIV-1 Vif and Vpu are accessory factors involved in late stages of viral replication. Vif regulates viral infectivity by preventing virion incorporation of APOBEC3G and other members of the family of cytidine deaminases, while Vpu causes degradation of CD4 and promotes virus release by functionally inactivating the host factor BST-2. This chapter described techniques used for the characterization of Vif and Vpu and their functional interaction with host factors. Many of the techniques are, however, applicable to the functional analysis of other viral proteins. PMID:24158820

Andrew, Amy; Strebel, Klaus

2014-01-01

147

Phantom testis syndrome: prevalence, phenomenology and putative mechanisms.  

PubMed

Chronic phantom pain has been found in up to 78% of limb amputees and is a major complication of limb amputation. Less is known about phantom phenomena after the amputation of other, i.e. visceral, parts of the body. In a retrospective design, we identified 539 patients in whom one testis was removed between 1995 and 2005. The operative technique was a unilateral standard radical inguinal orchiectomy. The underlying pathology in all cases was a testicular germ cell tumour. All patients received a detailed questionnaire asking about the occurrence of phantom testis pain (pain felt in the removed testis), phantom testis sensations (non-painful sensations as if the removed testis was still intact) and hallucinations (illusionary perceptions on the removed testis). Furthermore, we asked about the occurrence and clinical presentation of pain before and after surgery and about pre-operative testicular pain. Out of 238 respondents, 125 patients (53%) reported any kind of phantom experience. The prevalence of phantom testis pain was 25% (60/238), non-painful phantom sensations 16% (37/238) and male gonad hallucinations 12% (28/238). Patients with phantom symptoms reported pre-operative pain in the removed testis more often than patients without phantom symptoms. This study presents first data on the clinical characteristics and possible mechanisms of the phantom testis syndrome after surgical removal of one testis. PMID:19765099

Pühse, Gerald; Wachsmuth, Julia Urte; Kemper, Sebastian; Husstedt, Ingo W; Kliesch, Sabine; Evers, Stefan

2009-09-17

148

Expression of connexin 43 in human testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to further characterize the Sertoli cell state of differentiation, we investigated the expression of connexin 43\\u000a (cx43) protein in the testis of adult men both with normal spermatogenesis and associated with spermatogenic impairment, since\\u000a cx43 is first expressed during puberty. Cx43 protein was found as a single 43-kDa band on western blots of extracts of normal\\u000a human testicular

K. Steger; Frank Tetens; Martin Bergmann

1999-01-01

149

The mammalian testis-specific thioredoxin system.  

PubMed

Redox control of cell physiology is one of the most important regulatory mechanisms in all living organisms. The thioredoxin system, composed of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase, has emerged as a key player in cellular redox-mediated reactions. For many years, only one thioredoxin system had been described in higher organisms, ubiquitously expressed in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. However, during the last decade, we and others have identified and characterized novel thioredoxin systems with unique properties, such as organelle-specific localization in mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum, tissue-specific distribution mostly in the testis, and features novel for thioredoxins, such as microtubule-binding properties. In this review, we will focus on the mammalian testis-specific thioredoxin system that comprises three thioredoxins exclusively expressed in spermatids (named Sptrx-1, Sptrx-2, and Sptrx-3) and an additional thioredoxin highly expressed in testis, but also present in lung and other ciliated tissues (Txl-2). The implications of these findings in the context of male fertility and testicular cancer, as well as evolutionary aspects, will be discussed. PMID:14713334

Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Sadek, Christine M; Jiménez, Alberto; Krause, William J; Sutovsky, Peter; Oko, Richard

2004-02-01

150

Accessory cell populations in the cornea.  

PubMed

According to the "classical" doctrine, resident cells of the cornea include the stratified epithelial cells, quiescent keratocytes, and a single layer of nondividing endothelial cells. However, it has become increasingly evident that other cell types are involved in the homeostasis of the cornea. The presence of various cell types from different lineages has raised concern among researchers as to what we are actually "seeing" in the cornea. Although definitive conclusions cannot yet be drawn, this review attempts to clarify the various accessory cell types reported in the human and murine cornea. The epithelial layer of the limbal area includes melanocytes, as well as antigen-presenting cells that are also present in the peripheral clear cornea. The most debated tissue currently is perhaps the corneal stroma, where resident keratocytes are not as large a population as was previously believed. Bone marrow-derived cells are found in the cornea, and these may not express the typical HLA molecules usually found on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. Nerve fibers extend though the superficial stroma to form a plexus beneath the epithelium. Although the cell body of the neuron itself is not in the cornea, neural glial cells, such as Schwann cells, are present in the stroma. The use of specific molecular markers and high-quality imaging techniques will be required to fully elucidate the various accessory cells of the cornea and their function. PMID:16681078

Shimmura, Shigeto; Kawakita, Tetsuya

2006-04-01

151

Zebrafish primary testis tissue culture: an approach to study testis function ex vivo.  

PubMed

To develop new tools to study the regulation of testis physiology in teleost fish, a medium-term ex vivo organ culture system was adopted for zebrafish testis tissue. The addition of 100nM 11-ketotestosterone to the system supported complete spermatogenesis, as determined by morphological, molecular and immunohistochemical analyses. Under basal conditions, however, the development of differentiated spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids was seriously disturbed, probably related to the rapid (within 2 days) down-regulation of the steroidogenic system. Forskolin (0.5microM) stimulated acute androgen release from freshly removed tissue and partially prevented down-regulation of the steroidogenic system. The present ex vivo culture system can serve as a tool to evaluate effects of a wide range of substances on the two main functions of the testis, spermatogenesis and hormone production. PMID:19298819

Leal, Marcelo C; de Waal, Paul P; García-López, Angel; Chen, Shi X; Bogerd, Jan; Schulz, Rüdiger W

2009-03-17

152

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments...4820 Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments...Identification. Surgical instrument motors and accessories are AC-powered...osteotome), dermabrasion brush, dermatome, drill bit,...

2009-04-01

153

49 CFR 178.255-7 - Protection of valves and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of valves and accessories. 178.255-7 Section 178...Portable Tanks § 178.255-7 Protection of valves and accessories. (a) All valves, fittings, accessories, safety...

2011-10-01

154

Unusual insidious spinal accessory nerve palsy: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Isolated spinal accessory nerve dysfunction has a major detrimental impact on the functional performance of the shoulder girdle, and is a well-documented complication of surgical procedures in the posterior triangle of the neck. To the best of our knowledge, the natural course and the most effective way of handling spontaneous spinal accessory nerve palsy has been described in only

Ioannis N Charopoulos; Nikolas Hadjinicolaou; Ioannis Aktselis; George P Lyritis; Nikolaos Papaioannou; Constantinos Kokoroghiannis

2010-01-01

155

A case of successful replantation of testis after autohemicastration.  

PubMed

A case of autohemicastration in a 19-year-old patient with schizophrenia is reported. Orthotopic replantation of the testis under local hypothermia was performed. One pair of arterial, two pairs of venous vessels and vas deferens ends were anastomosed micro-surgically end-to-end. Surgical reinnervation of the testis was carried out. Peculiarities the operation technique, expediency of local hypothermia and surgical reinnervation of the testis in replantation are discussed. PMID:3653170

Shioshvili, T I

1987-01-01

156

The evolution of sweat glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammals have two kinds of sweat glands, apocrine and eccrine, which provide for thermal cooling. In this paper we describe the distribution and characteristics of these glands in selected mammals, especially primates, and reject the suggested development of the eccrine gland from the apocrine gland during the Tertiary geological period. The evidence strongly suggests that the two glands, depending on

G. Edgar Folk; A. Semken

1991-01-01

157

21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories. 876...GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories....

2013-04-01

158

Mammary Glands: Developmental Changes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mammary gland progresses from the accumulation of a few cells in the embryonic ectoderm to a highly arborescent tubulo-alveolar gland capable of secreting a highly nutritious product for consumption. Throughout this progression, various changes occur during each developmental stage: prenatal, pr...

159

Salivary Gland Secretion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)|

Dorman, H. L.; And Others

1981-01-01

160

Salivary Gland Secretion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

Dorman, H. L.; And Others

1981-01-01

161

Thyroid gland biopsy (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

162

Salivary Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

163

Genome-wide analysis of cancer/testis gene expression.  

PubMed

Cancer/Testis (CT) genes, normally expressed in germ line cells but also activated in a wide range of cancer types, often encode antigens that are immunogenic in cancer patients, and present potential for use as biomarkers and targets for immunotherapy. Using multiple in silico gene expression analysis technologies, including twice the number of expressed sequence tags used in previous studies, we have performed a comprehensive genome-wide survey of expression for a set of 153 previously described CT genes in normal and cancer expression libraries. We find that although they are generally highly expressed in testis, these genes exhibit heterogeneous gene expression profiles, allowing their classification into testis-restricted (39), testis/brain-restricted (14), and a testis-selective (85) group of genes that show additional expression in somatic tissues. The chromosomal distribution of these genes confirmed the previously observed dominance of X chromosome location, with CT-X genes being significantly more testis-restricted than non-X CT. Applying this core classification in a genome-wide survey we identified >30 CT candidate genes; 3 of them, PEPP-2, OTOA, and AKAP4, were confirmed as testis-restricted or testis-selective using RT-PCR, with variable expression frequencies observed in a panel of cancer cell lines. Our classification provides an objective ranking for potential CT genes, which is useful in guiding further identification and characterization of these potentially important diagnostic and therapeutic targets. PMID:19088187

Hofmann, Oliver; Caballero, Otavia L; Stevenson, Brian J; Chen, Yao-Tseng; Cohen, Tzeela; Chua, Ramon; Maher, Christopher A; Panji, Sumir; Schaefer, Ulf; Kruger, Adele; Lehvaslaiho, Minna; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Jongeneel, C Victor; Simpson, Andrew J G; Old, Lloyd J; Hide, Winston

2008-12-16

164

Postnatal changes in the calcium binding proteins of mouse testis.  

PubMed

To define the changes in calcium-binding proteins (CBPs) of mouse testis during postnatal development, testicular protein extracts were analyzed by mobility shift after Ca2+ binding (MSACB) in the 2-dimensional SDS-PAGE. In the adult testis extracts, 29 kinds of protein spots showed mobility shift in the gel containing Ca2+. Among them, 2 spots showed nonspecific mobility shift and 4 spots showed Zn2+ shift. Drastic changes in expression of high-Mr CBPs (Mr > 25 kDa) were observed in testis 3 weeks after birth, suggesting that their expressions were developmentally changed. There was no obvious difference in the qualitative patterns of CBP between 4-week-old testis and adult testis. There was a large mass of CBPs (Mr = 20-25 kDa) expressed constitutively in testis throughout the postnatal development. Degree of MSACB (Mr on the diagonal line/Mr of shifted point in Ca2+ gel) of each spot was in the range of 1.1-1.7 in 12% acrylamide gel. These results suggest that changes in CBPs of testis are closely related with progression of spermatogenesis in mouse testis. PMID:11204618

Gye, M C; Kim, C; Ahn, H S; Kim, Y S

165

Genome-wide analysis of cancer/testis gene expression  

PubMed Central

Cancer/Testis (CT) genes, normally expressed in germ line cells but also activated in a wide range of cancer types, often encode antigens that are immunogenic in cancer patients, and present potential for use as biomarkers and targets for immunotherapy. Using multiple in silico gene expression analysis technologies, including twice the number of expressed sequence tags used in previous studies, we have performed a comprehensive genome-wide survey of expression for a set of 153 previously described CT genes in normal and cancer expression libraries. We find that although they are generally highly expressed in testis, these genes exhibit heterogeneous gene expression profiles, allowing their classification into testis-restricted (39), testis/brain-restricted (14), and a testis-selective (85) group of genes that show additional expression in somatic tissues. The chromosomal distribution of these genes confirmed the previously observed dominance of X chromosome location, with CT-X genes being significantly more testis-restricted than non-X CT. Applying this core classification in a genome-wide survey we identified >30 CT candidate genes; 3 of them, PEPP-2, OTOA, and AKAP4, were confirmed as testis-restricted or testis-selective using RT-PCR, with variable expression frequencies observed in a panel of cancer cell lines. Our classification provides an objective ranking for potential CT genes, which is useful in guiding further identification and characterization of these potentially important diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

Hofmann, Oliver; Caballero, Otavia L.; Stevenson, Brian J.; Chen, Yao-Tseng; Cohen, Tzeela; Chua, Ramon; Maher, Christopher A.; Panji, Sumir; Schaefer, Ulf; Kruger, Adele; Lehvaslaiho, Minna; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Jongeneel, C. Victor; Simpson, Andrew J. G.; Old, Lloyd J.; Hide, Winston

2008-01-01

166

Seasonal changes in the testes and accessory reproductive organs and seasonal and circadian changes in plasma testosterone concentrations in the male grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis).  

PubMed

A 27-month study of cycles of regression and recrudescence of testis function in adult, grey squirrels in a natural environment in southern England has shown concomitant variation in mean testes weights, mean plasma testosterone concentrations, and mean weights of accessory sex organs, this variation being closely associated with months of the year. Testis regression occurred in the period June to August, the exact timing differing among individuals. In 1979-1980 the testes of all squirrels then remained regressed for 7 months, whereas in the autumn of 1980 testes were regressed in most squirrels for 4 months. There was also evidence of testis regression in some individuals in March 1979 and March 1981. Males born and housed in a small woodland enclosure in 1979-1980 and well fed with grain did not experience the long period of regressed testes. Plasma testosterone concentrations measured hourly over 24 hr in squirrels with large, active testes varied from 0.4 to 20 nmol/l, both within and between individuals, the higher concentrations being observed between midday and midnight. The range in the age of males at puberty, based on fusion of the epiphyses of the wrist, was 1.0 to 1.25 year. Juvenile males housed in a woodland enclosure together with adult males and females remained prepubertal up to 2 years of age. PMID:4018551

Webley, G E; Pope, G S; Johnson, E

1985-07-01

167

Perineal Accessory Scrotum with Congenital Lipoma: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

A case of accessory scrotum in a 1-year-old boy is reported because of its rarity. A boy presented with a tumor mass attached with scrotum-like skin on its tip in the right side of perineum between the scrotum and anus. Both testes had descended into the scrotum. There was no other urological anomaly. Histological findings of the tumor indicated perineal lipoma, and the scrotum-like portion accessory scrotum. An overview of sequences during the normal development of male external genitalia has been provided and the deranged mechanism resulting in this anomaly has been reviewed with hypothesis regarding etiology of accessory scrotum.

Chatterjee, Souvik; Gajbhiye, Vishal; Nath, Sasanka; Ghosh, Dipak; Chattopadhyay, Sarbani; Das, Sukanta Kumar

2012-01-01

168

Tokens of love: Functions and regulation of drosophila male accessory gland products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A male fruit fly influences the behavior and physiology of his mate via molecules that he transmits to her'in his semen. The mated female fly has an elevated rate of egg laying, a decreased receptivity to mating and a shorter life span; she also stores sperm from the mating. Molecular genetic analyses possible in this insect model system permit the

Mariana F. Wolfner

1997-01-01

169

Autogeny in saltmarsh mosquitoes induced by a substance from the male accessory gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

OVARIAN maturation by mosquitoes and other haematophagous Diptera without a prior blood meal is called autogeny, while the term anautogeny applies to those cases where blood is necessary. Many populations of the saltmarsh mosquito, Aedes taeniorhynchus, contain both autogenous and anautogenous females1-2. Moreover, within this species there are two types of autogenous females : (1) those that need a stimulus

George F. O'Meara; David G. Evans

1977-01-01

170

Proteomic analysis of Drosophila mojavensis male accessory glands suggests novel classes of seminal fluid proteins.  

PubMed

Fruit-flies of the genus Drosophila are characterized by overwhelming variation in fertilization traits such as copulatory plug formation, sperm storage organ use, and nutritional ejaculatory donation. Despite extensive research on the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster, little is known about the molecular underpinnings of these interspecific differences. This study employs a proteomic approach to pin-point candidate seminal fluid proteins in Drosophila mojavensis, a cactophilic fruit-fly that exhibits divergent reproductive biology when compared to D. melanogaster. We identify several classes of candidate seminal fluid proteins not previously documented in the D. melanogaster male ejaculate, including metabolic enzymes, nutrient transport proteins, and clotting factors. Conversely, we also define 29 SFPs that are conserved despite >40 million years of Drosophila evolution. We discuss our results in terms of universal processes in insect reproduction, as well as the specialized reproductive biology of D. mojavensis. PMID:19328853

Kelleher, Erin S; Watts, Thomas D; LaFlamme, Brooke A; Haynes, Paul A; Markow, Therese A

2009-03-28

171

Male Accessory Gland Protein Reduces Egg Laying in a Simultaneous Hermaphrodite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seminal fluid is an important part of the ejaculate of internally fertilizing animals. This fluid contains substances that nourish and activate sperm for successful fertilization. Additionally, it contains components that influence female physiology to further enhance fertilization success of the sperm donor, possibly beyond the recipient's optimum. Although evidence for such substances abounds, few studies have unraveled their identities, and

Joris M. Koene; Wiebe Sloot; Kora Montagne-Wajer; Scott F. Cummins; Bernard M. Degnan; John S. Smith; Gregg T. Nagle; Andries Ter Maat; Laszlo Orban

2010-01-01

172

Relevance of male accessory gland infection for subsequent fertility with special focus on prostatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections of the male genitourinary tract may contribute to infertility to a various extent depending on the site of inflammation. Especially in prostatitis, the exact classification of the infection contributes to its impact on changes in the ejaculate. Similarly, in urethritis, epididymitis and orchitis, only a clear clinical diagnosis allows a rational approach to altered sperm parameters. Several inflammatory and

W. Weidner; W. Krause; M. Ludwig

1999-01-01

173

EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Heliconius butterflies possess a remarkable diversity of phenotypes, physiologies, and behaviors that has long distinguished this genus as a focal taxon in ecological and evolutionary research. Recently Heliconius has also emerged as a model system for using genomic methods to investigate the causes and consequences of biological diversity. One notable aspect of Heliconius diversity is a dichotomy in mating

James R Walters; Richard G Harrison

2008-01-01

174

Identification of a dendritic cell population in normal testis and in chronically inflamed testis of rats with autoimmune orchitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) in the rat is the primary chronic animal model for the investigation of one of the main causes of male infertility, viz., testicular inflammation. Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen-presenting cells that play a fundamental role in autoimmune disease. We investigated the number of DC in normal testis and examined whether DC infiltrated the testis during

Claudia Rival; Livia Lustig; Radu Iosub; Vanesa A. Guazzone; Eva Schneider; Andreas Meinhardt; Monika Fijak

2006-01-01

175

Accessory spleens: Clinical significance with particular reference to the recurrence of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the important stages during splenectomy is the search for accessory spleens. The average frequency of accessory spleens is an estimated 11%. In our own material in 611 patients who had splenectomy in hematological disorders, accessory spleens were found in 110 patients (18%). The surgical anatomy, embryology, and clinical significance of the accessory spleens, with particular reference to the

Witold J. Rudowski

1985-01-01

176

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accessories (through a change in the light source) used for medical purposes include...that fluoresce under ultraviolet light. (3) Inverted stage microscopes...contained in bottles or tubes with the light source mounted above the specimen....

2013-04-01

177

21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories...a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic fluid...

2010-04-01

178

21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories...a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic fluid...

2013-04-01

179

21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories...a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic fluid...

2009-04-01

180

Giant Accessory Right-Sided Suprarenal Spleen in Thalassaemia  

PubMed Central

An accessory spleen is defined as ectopic splenic tissue that develops due to failure of fusion of cells during embryonic development as they migrate from the midline to the left upper quadrant. While benign, complications may arise which include trauma, torsion, or infarction of the ectopic tissue. Additionally, patients who have had a splenectomy secondary to treatment for previous pathology such as a haematological malignancy or idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura may experience persistent symptoms due to the accessory splenic tissue. The presence of an accessory spleen is therefore of significant diagnostic and therapeutic importance. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case is the second and largest reported case of a giant right suprarenal accessory spleen and highlights the difficulty in differentiation of these masses from malignant adrenal tumours.

Arra, A.; Ramdass, Michael J.; Mohammed, A.; Okoye, O.; Thomas, D.; Barrow, S.

2013-01-01

181

21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and...

2009-04-01

182

21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and...

2010-04-01

183

21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

184

21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...gastro-urological irrigation tray (for gastrological use). (b) Classification. (1) Class II (special controls). The barium enema retention catheter and tip with or without a bag that is a gastrointestinal tube and accessory is exempt from the...

2013-04-01

185

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...device intended to collect urine. The device and accessories consist of tubing, a suitable receptacle, connectors, mechanical supports, and may include a means to prevent the backflow of urine or ascent of infection. The two kinds of urine...

2013-04-01

186

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical...

2013-04-01

187

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

188

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

189

21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

190

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

191

21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

192

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

193

21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

194

21 CFR 884.4120 - Gynecologic electrocautery and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tissue contact with an electrically heated probe. It is used to excise cervical lesions, perform biopsies, or treat chronic cervicitis under direct visual observation. This generic type of device may include the following accessories: an electrical...

2010-04-01

195

21 CFR 884.4120 - Gynecologic electrocautery and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tissue contact with an electrically heated probe. It is used to excise cervical lesions, perform biopsies, or treat chronic cervicitis under direct visual observation. This generic type of device may include the following accessories: an electrical...

2009-04-01

196

21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental...

2013-04-01

197

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2013-04-01

198

21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and...

2013-04-01

199

21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories...intended to cut or remove soft tissue or to control bleeding during surgical procedures in the oral cavity. An electrical current...

2013-04-01

200

Controlled Speed Accessory Drive Program: Programmatic Environmental Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is a programmatic environmental assessment of the Department of Energy's Controlled Speed Accessory Drive (CSAD) program and alternatives. Its purpose is to evaluate CSAD alternatives to assure that environmental priorities are considered at...

1980-01-01

201

Salivary gland neoplasms.  

PubMed

Treatment and cure of salivary gland neoplasms requires surgical intervention in most cases. For parotid neoplasms, the most common surgical procedure performed is the superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation. Postoperative radiation therapy is indicated in high-grade salivary gland malignancies and malignancies with increased risk of locoregional recurrence. Primary radiation, including neutron beam techniques, may play a role in certain histologic types or nonoperative candidates. Chemotherapy has yet to result in improvements in survival or quality of life in the treatment of salivary gland malignancy. Advances in radiation therapy techniques, including intensity-modulated radiation therapy, provide opportunities for reduced morbidity. PMID:14697153

Day, Terry A; Deveikis, John; Gillespie, M Boyd; Joe, John K; Ogretmen, Besim; Osguthorpe, J David; Reed, Susan G; Richardson, Mary S; Rossi, Michael; Saini, Ranjiv; Sharma, Anand K; Stuart, Robert K

2004-02-01

202

Epicardial electric shock ablation of the left lateral accessory pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty patients with drug-resistant, recurrent tachyarrhythmias causing Wolff—Parkinson—White syndrome underwent surgery between 1990 and 1992. All recognized surgical methods for accessory pathway destruction were performed. Epicardial electric shock ablation was first used as a method of surgically destroying an accessory atrioventricular pathway in 1983. This technique avoids the need for cardioplegia and hypothermia during operation. The procedure is based on

K. Suwalski; M. Pytkowski; P. ?elazny; D. Wojciechowski; E. Sitkowska; Z. Sadowski; W. Sitkowski

1995-01-01

203

Choosing the correct accessory for each stoma type: an update.  

PubMed

There are many people with a stoma that report a good quality of life. However, for many, problems can be encountered that can directly affect them. The use of a stoma accessory, in addition to the stoma appliance, can often benefit people with a stoma in relation to treating sore skin or preventing appliances from leakage. This article focuses on some of the more common stoma accessories, including when and why they should be used. PMID:24037328

Burch, Jennie

2013-09-12

204

An unusual cause of subtalar pain and instability: accessory calcaneus.  

PubMed

We report on a 45-yr-old male sports instructor with chronic pain and instability of the ankle. He was a recreational basketball player, but because of repeated ankle sprains and chronic subtalar pain this activity became impossible. The radiologic findings were compatible with the diagnosis of accessory calcaneus. In an initial therapeutic approach the patient was treated conservatively with taping and physical therapy, but this failed to relieve the symptoms. Next, a ligamentoplasty was performed. The instability improved, but the pain remained the same. Finally the accessory calcaneus was resected and short term follow-up was unremarkable. Accessory calcaneus is an uncommon anatomical variation that may cause subtalar pain and instability. Resection of the accessory bone may be necessary to provide relief of symptoms. Accessory calcaneus can be well demonstrated on CT, SPECT-CT, and MR. MR and nuclear medicine can indicate instability of the accessory bone by showing bone marrow edema on MR or uptake on fusion imaging. PMID:23405487

Boulet, C; De Maeseneer, M; Everaert, H; Kichouh, M; De Mey, J; Shahabpour, M

205

Parathyroid gland removal  

MedlinePLUS

... invasive parathyroidectomy: You may receive a shot of nuclear medicine before this surgery. This helps highlight the ... Risks for any anesthesia are: Reactions to medicines Breathing ... Risks for parathyroidectomy are: Injury to the thyroid gland or ...

206

Salivary Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... gls/f_guidelines.asp. Accessed April 9, 2012. Laurie SA. Salivary gland tumors: Epidemiology, diagnosis, evaluation and ... e-mail Clicking "send" signifies that you have read and agree to our privacy policy. Share this ...

207

[Malignant mesotheliomas of the tunica vaginalis testis].  

PubMed

Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis is rare, and is usually not diagnosed until surgery is undertaken. We report here a case in a 62-year-old man with malignant mesothelioma tunica vaginalis testis. He was referred to our hospital with a painless swelling of the left scrotal contents. There is a thickening of mesothelia of the tunica vaginalis with left sided hydrocele by ultrasonography and computed tomography scan. The tumor was resected under the diagnosis of testicular malignant tumor. However, the pathologist reported malignant mesothelioma and positive margin. He received external beam radiation therapy at a total dose of 44 Gy. Disease progression was not apparent 2 years after treatment. To our knowledge, 26 cases of malignant mesothelioma in the perineum or intrascrotum have been reported in Japan and this case is thought to be the 27th case in Japan. PMID:24113761

Tei, Hiromoto; Kurahashi, Toshifumi; Maruyama, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Tashiro, Takashi

2013-09-01

208

Mammary Gland Development  

PubMed Central

The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial/mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development – pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation and involution – occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone and estrogen, as well as IGF1, to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its pre-pregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease.

Macias, Hector

2012-01-01

209

Interfacial behaviour of bovine testis hyaluronidase  

PubMed Central

The interfacial properties of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were investigated by demonstrating the association of hyaluronidase activity with membranes prepared from bovine testis. Protein adsorption to the air/water interface was investigated using surface pressure-area isotherms. In whichever way the interfacial films were obtained (protein injection or deposition), the hyaluronidase exhibited a significant affinity for the air/water interface. The isotherm obtained 180 min after protein injection into a pH 5.3 subphase was similar to the isotherm obtained after spreading the same amount of protein onto the same subphase, indicating that bovine testicular hyaluronidase molecules adopted a similar arrangement and/or conformation at the interface. Increasing the subphase pH from 5.3 to 8 resulted in changes of the protein isotherms. These modifications, which could correspond to the small pH-induced conformational changes observed by Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy, were discussed in relation to the pH influence on the hyaluronidase activity. Adding hyaluronic acid, the enzyme substrate, to the subphase tested the stability of the interfacial properties of hyaluronidase. The presence of hyaluronic acid in the subphase did not modify the protein adsorption and allowed substrate binding to a preformed film of hyaluronidase at pH 5.3, the optimal pH for the enzyme activity. Such effects of hyaluronic acid were not observed when the subphase was constituted of pure water, a medium where the enzyme activity was negligible. These influences of hyaluronic acid were discussed in relation to the modelled structure of bovine testis hyaluronidase where a hydrophobic region was proposed to be opposite of the catalytic site.

Belem-Goncalves, Silvia; Tsan, Pascale; Lancelin, Jean-Marc; Alves, Tito L. M.; Salim, Vera M.; Besson, Francoise

2006-01-01

210

A neglected gland: a review of Cowper's gland.  

PubMed

Cowper's glands are pea sized glands present inferior to the prostate gland in the male reproductive system. They produce thick clear mucus prior to ejaculation that drains into the spongy urethra. Though it is well established that the function of the Cowper's gland secretions is to neutralize traces of acidic urine in the urethra, knowledge regarding the various lesions and associated complications of this gland is scarce. This review provides a comprehensive report on the development, function and various lesions associated with Cowper's gland. PMID:15811067

Chughtai, Bilal; Sawas, Ahmed; O'Malley, Rebecca L; Naik, Rohan R; Ali Khan, S; Pentyala, Srinivas

2005-04-01

211

Dual role of immune cells in the testis  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review is to describe how the immune cells present in the testis interact with the germinal epithelium contributing to survival or apoptosis of germ cells (GCs). Physiologically, the immunosuppressor testicular microenvironment protects GCs from immune attack, whereas in inflammatory conditions, tolerance is disrupted and immune cells and their mediators respond to GC self antigens, inducing damage of the germinal epithelium. Considering that experimental models of autoimmune orchitis have clarified the local immune mechanisms by which protection of the testis is compromised, we described the following topics in the testis of normal and orchitic rats: (1) cell adhesion molecule expression of seminiferous tubule specialized junctions and modulation of blood-testis barrier permeability by cytokines (2) phenotypic and functional characteristics of testicular dendritic cells, macrophages, effector and regulatory T cells and mast cells and (3) effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6 and FasL) and the nitric oxide-nitric oxide synthase system on GC apoptosis.

Perez, Cecilia V.; Theas, Maria S.; Jacobo, Patricia V.; Jarazo-Dietrich, Sabrina; Guazzone, Vanesa A.; Lustig, Livia

2013-01-01

212

Expressions of cancer-testis antigens in human hepatocellular carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though regular sonographic examination can early detect small hepatocellular carcinoma, the therapeutic results remains unsatisfactory. Antigen-specific immunotherapy is an alternative approach for controlling tumors. The prerequisite for antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy is the identification of appropriate tumor antigens. Recently, a new category of tumor-specific shared antigens, called cancer-testis antigens, has been identified. The cancer-testis antigens have been found in a variety

Chien-Hung Chen; Guann-Jou Chen; Hsuan-Shu Lee; Guan-Tarn Huang; Pei-Ming Yang; Li-Jen Tsai; Ding-Shinn Chen; Jin-Chuan Sheu

2001-01-01

213

Gata4 Regulates Testis Expression of Dmrt1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (Dmrt1) is a putative transcriptional regulator that is expressed exclusively in the gonads and is required for postnatal testis differentiation. Here we describe the transcriptional mechanisms regulating testis-specific expression of the Dmrt1 gene. Transient-transfection analysis identified a region of the promoter between kb 3.2 and 2.8 that is important for Sertoli cell-specific

Ning Lei; Leslie L. Heckert

2004-01-01

214

Sebaceous lymphadenoma of submandibular gland.  

PubMed

Sebaceous lymphadenoma is a rare primary tumour of the salivary gland, benign in nature arising from differentiated Sebaceous glands and cells in the salivary gland. Most of the tumours are seen in the parotid gland and very rarely in the submandibular gland. Herein a case of sebaceous lymphadenoma is reported in a 45 years old female with a swelling in the submandibular region. Histopathological study after surgical excision showed islands of sebaceous epithelial cells with dense collections of lymphoid cells in stroma and a diagnosis of sebaceous lymphadenoma of submandibular gland was made. PMID:24000514

Pattnaik, Niharika; Parmar, Deepankar; Rao, B Rama Mohan; Rao, Epari Sanjeeva

2013-01-01

215

The evolution of sweat glands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mammals have two kinds of sweat glands, apocrine and eccrine, which provide for thermal cooling. In this paper we describe the distribution and characteristics of these glands in selected mammals, especially primates, and reject the suggested development of the eccrine gland from the apocrine gland during the Tertiary geological period. The evidence strongly suggests that the two glands, depending on the presence or absence of fur, have equal and similar functions among mammals; apocrine glands are not primitive. However, there is a unique and remarkable thermal eccrine system in humans; we suggest that this system evolved in concert with bipedalism and a smooth hairless skin.

Folk, G. Edgar; Semken, A.

1991-09-01

216

The evolution of sweat glands.  

PubMed

Mammals have two kinds of sweat glands, apocrine and eccrine, which provide for thermal cooling. In this paper we describe the distribution and characteristics of these glands in selected mammals, especially primates, and reject the suggested development of the eccrine gland from the apocrine gland during the Tertiary geological period. The evidence strongly suggests that the two glands, depending on the presence or absence of fur, have equal and similar functions among mammals; apocrine glands are not primitive. However, there is a unique and remarkable thermal eccrine system in humans; we suggest that this system evolved in concert with bipedalism and a smooth hairless skin. PMID:1778649

Folk, G E; Semken, H A

1991-11-01

217

A new twist on an old pathway - accessory Sec systems  

PubMed Central

Summary The export of proteins from their site of synthesis in the cytoplasm across the inner membrane is an important aspect of bacterial physiology. Because the location of extracytoplasmic proteins is ideal for host-pathogen interactions, protein export is also important to bacterial virulence. In bacteria there are conserved protein export systems that are responsible for the majority of protein export: the general secretion (Sec) pathway and the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway. In some bacteria, there are also specialized export systems dedicated to exporting specific subsets of proteins. In this review, we discuss a specialized export system that exists in some Gram-positive bacteria and mycobacteria – the accessory Sec system. The common element to the accessory Sec system is an accessory SecA protein called SecA2. Here we present our current understanding of accessory Sec systems in Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus parasanguinis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Listeria monocytogenes, making an effort to highlight apparent similarities and differences between the systems. We also review the data showing that accessory Sec systems can contribute to bacterial virulence.

Rigel, Nathan W.; Braunstein, Miriam

2008-01-01

218

Intervention of D-glucose ameliorates the toxicity of streptozotocin in accessory sex organs of rat  

SciTech Connect

Streptozotocin (STZ) is a naturally occurring compound isolated from Streptomyces achromogens. It is used extensively for inducing diabetes in experimental animals. Diabetes mellitus is known to have proven adverse effects on male sexual organs and their reproductive functions. The atrophy of prostate gland and other organs of the genitourinary tract were observed in experimental diabetic animals. STZ exhibits a structural resemblance to D-glucose due to the presence of sugar moiety in its structure. Pancreatic {beta}-cells mainly contain GLUT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Possibly due to structural resemblance, STZ and D-glucose, share a common recognition site for entry into the {beta}-cells. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of D-glucose on STZ-induced toxicity in accessory sex organs of male rats. Animals were kept on overnight fasting. One group received vehicle and served as negative control, while all other groups were given STZ (45 mg/kg). Animals that received only STZ served as positive control. The effect of D-glucose was studied on STZ treated animals with different dosage of D-glucose (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg). Restoration of body weight, plasma glucose and plasma insulin was evident only at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of D-glucose. The protective effect of D-glucose is evident only when it is administered simultaneously with STZ. In the present investigation, we report that simultaneous administration of D-glucose along with STZ ameliorates STZ-induced toxicity. This is evident from the restoration of accessory sex organ's weight, cellular morphology as well as insulin level.

Vikram, A.; Tripathi, D.N.; Ramarao, P. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab-160062 (India); Jena, G.B. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab-160062 (India)], E-mail: gbjena@gmail.com

2008-01-01

219

Expression of a histone H1 gene (H1.1) in human testis and Hassall's corpuscles of the thymus. Expression of a histone H1 gene (H1.1).  

PubMed

The expression of a H1 gene (H1.1) was studied in several human tissues. Northern blot analysis revealed that this gene is expressed in testis and thymus, but not in other human tissues like liver, spleen, lung, brain, thyroid gland and skin fibroblasts. Furthermore in situ hybridization on tissue sections revealed a cell type specific expression of histone H1.1 gene in the Hassall's corpuscles of the thymus. PMID:1626339

Burfeind, P; Hoyer-Fender, S; Doenecke, D; Tsaousidou, S; Engel, W

1992-06-01

220

Cytochrome P450c17 (Steroid 17alpha -hydroxylase\\/17,20 Lyase): Cloning of Human Adrenal and Testis cDNAs Indicates the Same Gene is Expressed in Both Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

P450c17 is the single enzyme mediating both 17alpha -hydroxylase (steroid 17alpha -monooxygenase, EC 1.14.99.9) and 17,20 lyase activities in the synthesis of steroid hormones. It has been suggested that different P450c17 isozymes mediate these activities in the adrenal gland and testis. We sequenced 423 of the 509 amino acids (83%) of the porcine adrenal enzyme; based on this partial sequence,

Bon-Chu Chung; James Picado-Leonard; Mitsuru Haniu; Michael Bienkowski; Peter F. Hall; John E. Shively; Walter L. Miller

1987-01-01

221

Salivary Glands: A Paradigm for Diversity of Gland Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major salivary glands of mammals are represented by three pairs of organs that cooperate functionally to produce saliva for the oral cavity. While each type of gland produces a signature secretion that complements the secretions from the other glands, there is also redundancy as evidenced by secretion of functionally similar and, in some cases, identical products in the three

P. C. Denny; W. D. Ball; R. S. Redman

1997-01-01

222

Zeis gland carcinoma.  

PubMed

Sebaceous carcinoma of the Zeis gland of the cilia is a rare malignant tumor. A 90-year-old Japanese man with a Zeis gland carcinoma on the left upper eyelid is reported. The tumor was a 12 x 3-mm, reddish, partially yellow, papillomatous nodule accompanied by loss of several lashes. Histologically, two types of tumor cells, a dark basaloid cell and a larger pale cell, showed lobular and comedo-acinar growth patterns. The carcinoma did not recur during the 8 months following surgery; however, the patient died of gastric carcinoma. PMID:9350107

Kato, N; Sotodate, A; Tomita, Y

1997-09-01

223

Salivary gland emergencies.  

PubMed

Salivary gland disorders are uncommon in the emergency department setting. Given the vast differential that spans infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic, and metabolic processes, they can pose a diagnostic challenge even to skilled clinicians. There is a paucity of evidence-based data regarding the management of these disorders with frequent incongruence between specific sources. Although by no means exhaustive or absolute, this article reconciles existing literature and serves as a concise and informative guide to salivary gland disorders encountered by the emergency care practitioner. PMID:23601484

Armstrong, Matthew A; Turturro, Michael A

2013-05-01

224

Urocortins are Present in the Rat Testis  

PubMed Central

The synthesis and release of testosterone (T) depends both on circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and on an array of testicular factors whose role remains incompletely understood. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) had been reported in the rat testes, where it was thought to inhibit T secretion. However, the discovery that the CRF-related peptides urocortins (Ucns), of which there are currently 3 subtypes (Ucn 1, 2 and 3), cross-react with many reagents previously used to detect CRF, has cast doubt on this concept. Here we show that while CRF was readily measurable in rat hypothalami (which served as controls), signals for this peptide were barely detectable in total RNA extracted from the testes. On the other hand, microarray, RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses all indicated strong signals for Ucn 1 in the male gonads, with weaker levels of Ucn 2 and 3 mRNA gene expression. Results obtained for Ucn 1 gene expression were corroborated by immunohistochemical detection, which appeared restricted to Leydig cells. Finally, to investigate possible changes in testicular Ucn 1 levels induced by homeostatic challenges, we measured them in rats exposed to alcohol. We observed that indeed, the intragastric injection of this drug significantly increased testicular Ucn 1, but not Ucn 2, Ucn 3, CRF, CRFR1 or CRFR2 mRNA levels. Collectively, these results provide novel information regarding the presence of CRF-like peptides in the adult male rat testis.

Lee, Soon; Braden, Brian; Kang, Sang Soo; Rivier, Catherine

2011-01-01

225

Scanning of the Salivary Glands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description is given of a technique of scanning of the salivary glands after Tc99m administration of sodium pertechnetate. Investigations were performed in 19 healthy persons and 34 patients. Scannograms of parotid and submaxillary salivary glands were ...

L. A. Yudin N. D. Kovalchuk N. F. Tarasov I. F. Romacheva

1971-01-01

226

Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging  

PubMed Central

Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands.

Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

2012-01-01

227

An Accessory Muscle of Pectoral Region: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Among the variations of pectoral muscles, this case appears to be unique in the literature. This was a case of an accessory pectoral muscle which was located between pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles, which was discovered during a routine anatomy dissection. The accessory muscle originated from 6th and 7th ribs at costo-chondral junction, which travelled supero-laterally and inserted by fusing with fibres of pectoralis minor. This unusual muscle holds importance for surgeons while they perform dissectomies, in avoiding complications.

Bannur, B.M.; Mallashetty, Nagaraj; Endigeri, Preetish

2013-01-01

228

Management of Salivary Gland Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Carcinomas of the salivary glands are uncommon representing only 2–6.5% of all head and neck cancer and less than 1% of all\\u000a cancers. About 85% of salivary gland tumors arise in the parotid glands and approximately 75% of these are benign while about\\u000a 75% of tumors arising from minor salivary glands are malignant. The latest WHO’s histological classification (2005) includes

Laura D. Locati; Marco Guzzo; Patrizia Olmi; Lisa Licitra

229

75 FR 41523 - Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithville...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TA-W-71,106; TA-W-71,106A] Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site...Job Connections, New Smithville, PA; Paris Accessories, Inc., Allentown, PA...Reconsideration applicable to workers of Paris Accessories, Inc., including...

2010-07-16

230

75 FR 34180 - Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithsville...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Training Administration [TA-W-71,106] Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site...reconsideration, I determine that workers of Paris Accessories, Inc., New Smithsville...following certification: All workers of Paris Accessories, Inc., New...

2010-06-16

231

Adrenal gland and bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adrenal gland synthesizes steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex and catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. Both cortisol and adrenal androgens can have powerful effects on bone. The overproduction of cortisol in Cushing’s disease leads to a dramatic reduction in bone density and an increase risk of fracture. Overproduction of adrenal androgens in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) leads to marked

Rowan Hardy; Mark S. Cooper

2010-01-01

232

Salivary gland infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Warm salt water rinses (1/2 teaspoon of salt in 1 cup of water) may be soothing and keep the mouth moist. Drink lots of water and use sugar-free lemon drops to increase the flow of saliva and reduce swelling. Massaging the gland with heat may help.

233

The Human Submandibular Gland  

PubMed Central

Submandibular acinar glands secrete numerous proteins such as digestive enzymes and defense proteins on the basis of the exocrine secretion mode. Exocytosis is a complex process, including a soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE)–mediated membrane fusion of vesicles and target membrane and the additional activation of cytoskeletal proteins. Relevant data are available predominantly for animal salivary glands, especially of the rat parotid acinar cells. The authors investigated the secretory molecular machinery of acinar (serous) cells in the human submandibular gland by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence and found diverse proteins associated with exocytosis for the first time. SNAP-23, syntaxin-2, syntaxin-4, and VAMP-2 were localized at the luminal plasma membrane; syntaxin-2 and septin-2 were expressed in vesicles in the cytoplasm. Double staining of syntaxin-2 and septin-2 revealed a colocalization on the same vesicles. Lactoferrin and ?-amylase served as a marker for secretory vesicles and were labeled positively together with syntaxin-2 and septin-2 in double-staining procedures. Cytoskeletal components such as actin, myosin II, cofilin, and profilin are concentrated at the apical plasma membrane of acinar submandibular glands. These observations complement the understanding of the complex exocytosis mechanisms.

Scherer, Elias Q.; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Loeffelbein, Denys J.; Rohleder, Nils H.; Nieberler, Markus; Hasler, Rafael; Kesting, Marco R.

2012-01-01

234

Minor Salivary Gland Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Minor oral salivary glands exist in large numbers in the labial, buccal and palatal mucosa, and account for approximately half of the baseline secretion of saliva. They can be transplanted together with the overlying mucosa as a complex graft to the posterior lamella of the eyelids to increase ocular surface lubrication and reduce discomfort in dry eyes. Material and

G. Geerling; P. Raus; J. Murube

2008-01-01

235

Ectopic Lacrimal Gland Tissue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All of the cases coded as aberrant or ectopic lacrimal gland at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology were reexamined, and observations on 35 are reported. The cornea was involved in ten of the 18 cases in which the choristomatous tissue was present in ...

W. R. Green L. Zimmerman

1967-01-01

236

Salivary gland and autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Recent evidences suggest that the apoptotic pathway plays a central role in tolerazing T cells to tissue-specific self antigen, and may drive the autoimmune phenomenon in the salivary glands. We found that retinoblastoma-associated protein RbAp48 overexpression induces p53-mediated apoptosis in the salivary glands caused by estrogen deficiency. We demonstrated that transgenic (Tg) expression of RbAp48 resulted in the development of autoimmune exocrinopathy resembling Sjögren's syndrome (SS). CD4(+)T cell-mediated autoimmune lesions in the salivary glands were aggravated with age, in association with autoantibody productions. We obtained evidences that salivary epithelial cells can produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) besides interleukin (IL)-18, which activates interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1), and class II transactivator (CIITA). Indeed, the autoimmune lesions into Rag2(-/-) mice were induced by the adoptive transfer of lymph node cells from RbAp48-Tg mice. These results indicate a novel immunocompetent role of epithelial cells that can produce IFN-gamma, resulting in loss of local tolerance prior to developing gender-based autoimmunity. The studies reviewed the molecular mechanisms on the development of salivary gland autoimmunity, and gender-related differences in SS. PMID:20224179

Hayashi, Yoshio; Arakaki, Rieko; Ishimaru, Naozumi

2009-01-01

237

21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories...Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic...

2009-04-01

238

21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories...Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic...

2010-04-01

239

49 CFR 178.255-7 - Protection of valves and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...Tanks § 178.255-7 Protection of valves and accessories. (a) All valves, fittings, accessories, safety devices, gauging devices, and...

2012-10-01

240

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2013-04-01

241

21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and...

2013-04-01

242

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

2013-04-01

243

The sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system  

PubMed Central

Background A dual olfactory system, represented by two anatomically distinct but spatially proximate chemosensory epithelia that project to separate areas of the forebrain, is known in several classes of tetrapods. Lungfish are the earliest evolving vertebrates known to have this dual system, comprising a main olfactory and a vomeronasal system (VNO). Lampreys, a group of jawless vertebrates, have a single nasal capsule containing two anatomically distinct epithelia, the main (MOE) and the accessory olfactory epithelia (AOE). We speculated that lamprey AOE projects to specific telencephalic regions as a precursor to the tetrapod vomeronasal system. Results To test this hypothesis, we characterized the neural circuits and molecular profiles of the accessory olfactory epithelium in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Neural tract-tracing revealed direct and reciprocal connections with the dorsomedial telencephalic neuropil (DTN) which in turn projects directly to the dorsal pallium and the rostral hypothalamus. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that the main and the accessory olfactory epithelia have virtually identical profiles of expressed genes. Real time quantitative PCR confirmed expression of representatives of all 3 chemoreceptor gene families identified in the sea lamprey genome. Conclusion Anatomical and molecular evidence shows that the sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system that may serve a chemosensory function.

2013-01-01

244

Accessory child safety harnesses: do the risks outweigh the benefits?  

PubMed

Accessory child safety harnesses are available in some countries as alternative restraints for young children or as an accessory restraint used with booster seats. Their use, in Australia at least, is becoming more common. There have been concerns that the risk of misuse of these restraints outweighs any potential benefit this system might have over a retractable lap-shoulder belt system used with a booster seat. However to date there is no evidence to confirm or deny this. This study used laboratory simulated frontal crash tests to examine the performance of accessory child safety harness systems compared to the lap-shoulder belt when used alone and when used with two common designs of Australian booster seat. The performance of the child safety harness system when misused was also investigated. The results demonstrate that the correctly used child safety harness system performed no better than the lap-shoulder system, and in fact allows for a greater risk of submarining. Furthermore, one common form of child safety harness misuse, where the harness is over-tightened causing the lap belt to be positioned high over the abdomen, allowed extremely undesirable dummy motion. This involved gross submarining and direct contact between the harness system and the dummy's neck. These findings suggest that the risks associated with accessory child safety harness systems most likely outweigh any potential benefits, in frontal impacts at least. PMID:19887151

Brown, Julie; Wainohu, Derek; Aquilina, Peter; Suratno, Basuki; Kelly, Paul; Bilston, Lynne E

2009-08-03

245

Conservative management of accessory spleen torsion in children.  

PubMed

Accessory spleen torsion is very rare condition especially in children. The aim of this study is to report the conservative treatment option. In April 2009 we observed a 10-year-old child affected by hereditary spherocytosis who reported acute abdominal pain without fever or vomiting. At hospitalization all blood tests were within normal value. Abdominal ultrasounds showed an increase in spleen volume and a solid round-shaped hypoechogenic formation with hyperechogenic areas in the lower pole without vascolarisation on color-Doppler scan. These findings suggested torsion of the accessory spleen. We opted for a conservative approach: analgesics on demand and antibiotics. After a week symptoms resolved spontaneously and patient was discharged in good health conditions. Follow-up ultrasound scans were performed at one week, three-six months and one year after hospitalization and showed a progressive reduction of the dimensions of the solid round-shaped formation. Accessory spleen torsion needs to be added to the differential diagnosis of cases of acute abdomen in children. Ultrasounds with eco-color-Doppler scans seem to be the best option for the diagnosis of such condition in the pediatric age since other diagnostic methods are more invasive and require sedation of patients. Once accessory spleen torsion is correctly diagnosed it is possible to opt for its conservative treatment. PMID:24051978

Scirè, G; Zampieri, N; El-Dalati, G; Camoglio, F S

2013-08-01

246

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

A hemodialysis system and accessories is a device that is used as an artificial kidney system for the treatment of patients with renal failure or toxemic conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and...

2009-04-01

247

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

A hemodialysis system and accessories is a device that is used as an artificial kidney system for the treatment of patients with renal failure or toxemic conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and...

2010-04-01

248

Clothing/Apparel and Accessories Merchandising. A Suggested Interdisciplinary Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide contains three sections: introduction, curriculum material, and an annotated bibliography. Introductory information provides an overview of the clothing/apparel and accessories merchandising area, aptitudes needed, and career opportunities; discusses potential career ladders, which are divided into entry level, middle…

Wray, Ralph D.; Hayden, Margaret B.

249

Evolutionary dynamics of the accessory genome of Listeria monocytogenes.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85-3.14 Mb, encode 2,822-3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II. PMID:23825666

den Bakker, Henk C; Desjardins, Christopher A; Griggs, Allison D; Peters, Joseph E; Zeng, Qiandong; Young, Sarah K; Kodira, Chinnappa D; Yandava, Chandri; Hepburn, Theresa A; Haas, Brian J; Birren, Bruce W; Wiedmann, Martin

2013-06-25

250

21 CFR 884.1600 - Transabdominal amnioscope (fetoscope) and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Date premarket approval application (PMA) or notice of completion of a product development protocol (PDP) is required. A PMA or a notice of completion of a PDP...and accessories shall have an approved PMA or a declared completed PDP in effect...

2013-04-01

251

Advancement of Small Gas Turbine Engine Accessory Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic requirements for controls and accessories for gas generators in the 2-to-5 pound per second airflow range are established. These requirements are then investigated in terms of current and projected state-of-the-art relative to the various contro...

H. L. Richardson R. M. Tommasini

1967-01-01

252

Basketry accessories: footwear, bags and fans in ancient Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ancient Egyptians had —by the New Kingdom— developed many basket making and matting techniques. These techniques were not only used for making all types and sizes of baskets and mats, but were also adopted for making other accessories such as bags, fans and different types of footwear, that seem to have been heavily used. Materials and techniques of nine objects

N. M. N. El Hadidi; R. Hamdy

2011-01-01

253

Schwannoma of the Spinal Accessory Nerve: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We are reporting a rare case of a schwannoma which originated from the cervical portion of the spinal accessory nerve, which was located in the left posterior triangle of the neck and did not have any neurological deficit, which was diagnosed by the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan and confirmed histopathologically after surgery.

Kohli, Ritesh; Singh, Surinder; Gupta, Sahwani K.; Matreja, Prithpal S.

2013-01-01

254

49 CFR 192.147 - Flanges and flange accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...flange or flange accessory (other than cast iron) must meet the minimum requirements...Each flange on a flanged joint in cast iron pipe must conform in dimensions...design to ASME/ANSI B16.1 and be cast integrally with the pipe,...

2011-10-01

255

Patent Accessory Canals: Incidence in Molar Furcation Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A total of 46 extracted maxillary and mandibular molars were examined to determine the incidence of accessory canals in the coronal and middle third of the root surface. A radiopaque dye was drawn through the root canal system under a vacuum of 5 p.s.i., ...

J. V. Lowman R. S. Burke G. B. Pelleu

1974-01-01

256

Mrap2: an accessory protein linked to obesity.  

PubMed

Melanocortin receptors are critical modulators of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Companion studies published in Science (Asai et al., 2013; Sebag et al., 2013) establish a role for melanocortin receptor accessory protein 2 (Mrap2) in regulating melanocortin receptor activity and in the development of obesity in zebrafish, rodents, and humans. PMID:24011068

Liu, Tiemin; Elmquist, Joel K; Williams, Kevin W

2013-09-01

257

Microanatomical study of testis in juvenile ostrich (Struthio camelus).  

PubMed

The majority of investigations on the testis, as the main organ of male reproductive system, have been performed in mammalian species, with few studies on bird species. Thus, the structure of the ostrich testis remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the microanatomical characteristics of the testis in five juvenile ostriches. A stereological study was performed according to the Delesse principle. The mean volume fraction of the seminiferous tubules was 0.569, and the mean volume of the seminiferous tubules in an average testis was 1.04 cm(3). The Paraffin-embedded sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, Alcian blue, and periodic acid-Schiff stains. Histological studies revealed that the spermatogonial stem cells and Sertoli cells were localized inside the seminiferous tubules, close to the basement membrane. Inside the tubules a few meiotic cells up to the spermatozoa stage were located in a centripetal manner. Outside the tubules, one to three layers of euchromatic peritubular myoid cells were present, surrounded by loose interstitial connective tissue. A thick tunica albuginea contained many myoid cells and some rete ducts, with the latter extending from the hilus to the free surface of the testis. Straight seminiferous tubules were distributed in the lateral surfaces and hilar portions of the capsule but were rare in the free surface. These capsular rete ducts may participate in testicular fluid transit from the distal tubules through the capsule. PMID:23558799

Hassanzadeh, Belal; Nabipour, Abolghasem; Rassouli, Morteza Behnam; Dehghani, Hesam

2013-04-05

258

A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Consumers’ Conspicuous Consumption of Branded Fashion Accessories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study attempts to (1) demonstrate whether the purchase of branded fashion accessories is motivated by consumers’ desire to reflect their social status, convey their self-image, and boost their self-esteem; (2) find whether the purchase of luxury fashion accessories may fall under the umbrella of conspicuous consumption; and (3) examine whether conspicuous consumption of branded fashion accessories varies across cultures.

Nizar Souiden; Bouthaina M’Saad; Frank Pons

2011-01-01

259

Tumor Suppressor Candidate TUSC3 Expression during Rat Testis Maturation.  

PubMed

Analysis of microarray data obtained by comparing gene expression between 2-week-old infant and 7-week-old mature SD rat testes revealed novel targets involved in tumor suppression. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Northern blotting indicated that Tusc3 gene expression was upregulated in the normal maturing testis and prostate and other organs such as the cerebrum and ovary. Tumor suppressor candidate 3 protein expression was detected in these same organs at a size of about 40 kDa, in accord with the predicted molecular size. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that mRNA and protein localization were prevalent in the testis spermatocytes and interstitial cells such as the Leydig cells, as well as prostate epithelial cells. These data suggest that TUSC3 is deeply involved in spermatogenesis in the testis, inducing sperm differentiation and maturation, and plays a role in normal prostate development and tumor suppression. PMID:24096664

Khalid, Ahmed Magzoub; Asano, Atsushi; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z; Takeuchi, Takashi; Yamano, Yoshiaki

2013-10-07

260

The stem cell niche: lessons from the Drosophila testis  

PubMed Central

In metazoans, tissue maintenance and regeneration depend on adult stem cells, which are characterized by their ability to self-renew and generate differentiating progeny in response to the needs of the tissues in which they reside. In the Drosophila testis, germline and somatic stem cells are housed together in a common niche, where they are regulated by local signals, epigenetic mechanisms and systemic factors. These stem cell populations in the Drosophila testis have the unique advantage of being easy to identify and manipulate, and hence much progress has been made in understanding how this niche operates. Here, we summarize recent work on stem cells in the adult Drosophila testis and discuss the remarkable ability of these stem cells to respond to change within the niche.

de Cuevas, Margaret; Matunis, Erika L.

2011-01-01

261

Tzfp Represses the Androgen Receptor in Mouse Testis  

PubMed Central

The testis zinc finger protein (Tzfp), also known as Repressor of GATA, belongs to the BTB/POZ zinc finger family of transcription factors and is thought to play a role in spermatogenesis due to its remarkably high expression in testis. Despite many attempts to find the in vivo role of the protein, the molecular function is still largely unknown. Here, we address this issue using a novel mouse model with a disrupted Tzfp gene. Homozygous Tzfp null mice are born at reduced frequency but appear viable and fertile. Sertoli cells in testes lacking Tzfp display an increase in Androgen Receptor (AR) signaling, and several genes in the testis, including Gata1, Aie1 and Fanc, show increased expression. Our results indicate that Tzfp function as a transcriptional regulator and that loss of the protein leads to alterations in AR signaling and reduced number of apoptotic cells in the testicular tubules.

Furu, Kari; Klungland, Arne

2013-01-01

262

Pluripotent male germline stem cells from goat fetal testis and their survival in mouse testis.  

PubMed

Male germline stem cells (mGSCs) are stem cells present in male testis responsible for spermatogenesis during their whole life. Studies have shown that mGSCs can be derived in vitro and resemble embryonic stem cells (ESCs) properties both in the mouse and humans. However, little is know about these cells in domestic animals. Here we report the first successful establishment of goat GSCs derived from 2-5-month fetal testis, and developmental potential assay of these cells both in vitro and in vivo. These cells express pluripotent markers such as Oct4, Sox2, C-myc, and Tert when cultured as human ESCs conditions. Embryoid bodies (EBs) formed by goat mGSCs were induced with 2?×?10(-6) M retinoic acid (RA). Immunofluorescence analysis showed that some cells inside of the EBs were positive for meiosis marker-SCP3, STRA8, and germ cell marker-VASA, and haploid marker-FE-J1, PRM1, indicating their germ cell lineage differentiation. Some cells become elongated sperm-like cells after induction. Approximately 34.88% (30/86) embryos showed cleavage and four embryos were cultured on murine fibroblast feeder and formed small embryonic stem like colonies. However, most stalled at four-cell stage after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of these cells. Transplantation of DAPI labeled mGSCs into the seminiferous tubules of busulfan-treated mice, and showed that mGSCs can colonize, self-renew, and differentiate into germ cells. Thus, we have established a goat GSC cell line and these cells could be differentiated into sperm-like cells in vivo and sperms in vitro, providing a promising platform for generation of transgenic goat for production of specific humanized proteins. PMID:21473690

Hua, Jinlian; Zhu, Haijing; Pan, Shaohui; Liu, Chao; Sun, Junwei; Ma, Xiaoling; Dong, Wuzi; Liu, Weishuai; Li, Wei

2011-04-01

263

Mammary Gland Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Knockout mice have been made which carry null mutations of genes encoding molecules essential for prolactin release, prolactin,\\u000a the prolactin receptor and various members of the receptor’s signalling pathway, allowing in vivo genetic analysis of the role of the lactogenic hormones in mammary gland development. In prolactin and prolactin receptor\\u000a knockout mice mammary ductal side branching was absent, terminal end

Christopher J. Ormandy; Nelson D. Horseman; Matthew J. Naylor; Jessica Harris; Fiona Robertson; Nadine Binart; Paul A. Kelly

264

An improved perfusion fixation method for the testis.  

PubMed

A reliable and uniform vascular perfusion fixation method for the testis has been developed by using an initial washout solution containing a vasodilator and an anticoagulant. This is followed by a brief fixation with a sodium phosphate buffered formaldehyde-glutaraldehyde solution of conventional strenght, and then a second more concentrated aldehyde fixative solution containing picric acid. The method takes into account some of the unique features of the vascular supply of the male genital tract for its favorable perfusion and fixation. The advantages of this method are: (1) consistently favorable preservation of the testis; (2) simple and inexpensive apparatus; and (3) stable and relatively innocuous stock solutions. PMID:332010

Forssmann, W G; Ito, S; Weihe, E; Aoki, A; Dym, M; Fawcett, D W

1977-07-01

265

Expression of Steroidogenic Factor 1 in the Testis Requires an Interactive Array of Elements Within Its Proximal Promoter1  

PubMed Central

Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that is important for expression of genes involved in sexual differentiation, testicular and adrenal development, and hormone synthesis and regulation. To better understand the mechanisms required for SF-1 production, we employed transient transfec-tion analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to characterize the elements and proteins required for transcriptional activity of the SF-1 proximal promoter in testicular Sertoli and Leydig cells and adrenocortical cells. Direct comparison of SF-1-promoter activity in testis and adrenal cell types established that a similar set of regulatory elements (an E box, CCAAT box, and Sp1-binding sites) is required for proximal promoter activity in these cells. Further evaluation of the E box and CCAAT box revealed a novel synergism between the two elements and iden-tified functionally important bases within the elements. Importantly, DNA/protein-binding studies uncovered new proteins interacting with the E box and CCAAT box. Thus, in addition to the previously identified USF and NF-Y proteins, newly described complexes, having migration properties that differed between Sertoli and Leydig cells, were observed bound to the E box and CCAAT box. Transient transfection analysis also identified several Sp1/Sp3-binding elements important for expression of SF-1 in the testis, one of which was previously described for expression in the adrenal gland whereas the other two were newly disclosed elements.

Scherrer, Serge P.; Rice, Daren A.; Heckert, Leslie L.

2006-01-01

266

Expression of MAGE--A restricted to testis and ovary or to various cancers in dogs.  

PubMed

Expression of MAGE-A protein, a family of cancer/testis antigens, was investigated in normal and neoplastic canine tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis of cross-reactions between a mouse anti-human MAGE-A proteins including MAGE-A1, -A2, -A3, -A4, -A6, -A10, and -A12 monoclonal antibody and canine proteins, showed positive immunoreactivity only in testicular spermatogonia and spermatocytes, and ovary oocytes. The immunoreaction was negative in all other tissues tested, including normal tissues of the skin, gingiva, muscle, adipose, connective, salivary gland, lymph node, intestinal mucosa, mammary gland, liver, cartilage, oviduct, endometrium, cerebrum and cerebellum. Use of a scoring system in the investigated tumors showed positive immunoreactivity in 75% (21/28) of melanomas including oral, cutaneous, eyelid, and interdigital melanomas; in 68.7% (22/32) of oral and nasal tumors; in 52.5% (21/40) discrete round cell tumors; and in 40.5% (15/37) of soft tissue sarcomas. Different tumor types also showed large difference in percentage of MAGE-A expression. Although oral squamous cell carcinomas, multicentric lymphomas and extraosseous osteosarcomas showed no expression, overexpression occurred in oral melanomas (81.82%, 18/21), malignant nasal tumors (100%, 3/3) and in transmissible venereal tumors (100%, 10/10). Based on the characteristic expression of MAGE-A in canine germ cells and in various neoplasms, MAGE-A has potential use as an indicator of malignancy but is probably unsuitable for strictly diagnostic purposes (i.e., diagnosis of tumor type). PMID:23466080

Chen, Yin-Chu; Hsu, Wei-Li; Chiu, Cheng-Yang; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chang, Chao-Chin; Chang, Shih-Chieh

2013-02-07

267

Hypoplastic Left Lobe of Liver with Accessory Caudate Lobe  

PubMed Central

During routine dissection, a liver from a cadaver of a female aged 50 years was observed to have hypoplastic left lobe, and on posterior surface an accessory caudate lobe was present to the left of main caudate lobe. It was separated by well-defined fissure from caudate lobe. The fissure for ligamentum venosum was present to the left of accessory caudate lobe. Porta hepatis was present below the new lobe. Prominent papillary process continued with caudate process which in turn is fused with right lobe of the liver. These developmental anomalies of liver may cause confusion during procedures like biopsy, transplantation, and lobectomies. This knowledge may be of immense use to clinicians for the diagnosis and management of hepatic diseases, morphologists and anatomists for new variant, and to embryologists for new developmental defect.

Singh, Rajani

2013-01-01

268

Simultaneous duct ectasia of accessory and normally located breast.  

PubMed

Accessory breast and duct ectasia are common clinical problems in their own right. However, their coexistence is a rare entity. Duct ectasia is a dilation in one or more of the larger lactiferous duct filled with a stagnant brown or green secretion, which may or may not discharge through the nipple. This material acts as an irritant and leads to periductal mastitis. Duct ectasia may present with subareolar mass, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, non-cyclical mastalgia or mammary fistula. Surgical options are microdochectomy or cone excision of major ducts. This case report describes the presence of duct ectasia in both accessory breast situated in the axilla and ipsilateral normal breast simultaneously. PMID:19149984

Afridi, Shahida Parveen; Shamim, M Shahid; Rahman, Shafiq Ur; Samo, Khursheed Ahmed; Sabir, Shazia

2009-01-01

269

Hypoplastic left lobe of liver with accessory caudate lobe.  

PubMed

During routine dissection, a liver from a cadaver of a female aged 50 years was observed to have hypoplastic left lobe, and on posterior surface an accessory caudate lobe was present to the left of main caudate lobe. It was separated by well-defined fissure from caudate lobe. The fissure for ligamentum venosum was present to the left of accessory caudate lobe. Porta hepatis was present below the new lobe. Prominent papillary process continued with caudate process which in turn is fused with right lobe of the liver. These developmental anomalies of liver may cause confusion during procedures like biopsy, transplantation, and lobectomies. This knowledge may be of immense use to clinicians for the diagnosis and management of hepatic diseases, morphologists and anatomists for new variant, and to embryologists for new developmental defect. PMID:23573097

Singh, Rajani

2013-03-19

270

Intrasellar symptomatic salivary gland rest.  

PubMed

Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6 x 5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest. PMID:17525000

Chen, Chih-Hao; Hsu, Shu-Shong; Lai, Ping-Hong; Lo, Yu-Shing

2007-05-01

271

Management of advanced germ-cell tumors of the testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced tumors of the testis are curable. Standard treatment includes chemotherapy with a combination of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin, followed by surgical resection of residual tumor. The number of cycles of chemotherapy needed depends on prognostic factors such as the primary site, histology, presence of visceral metastases, and serum levels of tumor markers. Patients with a favorable risk profile receive

Aude Fléchon; Michel Rivoire; Jean-Pierre Droz

2008-01-01

272

Reexamination of the lesions in rat testis caused by cadmium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early changes in the microvascular bed of the testis resulting from treatment with cadmium were studied with trypan blue, electron dense tracers and by vascular injections. Leakage of fluids and electrolytes from the testicular blood vessels to the interstitium was demonstrated at the light and electron microscope levels as early as 1 to 2 h following parenteral injection of

A. Aoki; A. P. Hoffer

1978-01-01

273

Generation of pluripotent stem cells from adult human testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human primordial germ cells and mouse neonatal and adult germline stem cells are pluripotent and show similar properties to embryonic stem cells. Here we report the successful establishment of human adult germline stem cells derived from spermatogonial cells of adult human testis. Cellular and molecular characterization of these cells revealed many similarities to human embryonic stem cells, and the germline

Sabine Conrad; Markus Renninger; Jörg Hennenlotter; Tina Wiesner; Lothar Just; Michael Bonin; Wilhelm Aicher; Hans-Jörg Bühring; Ulrich Mattheus; Andreas Mack; Hans-Joachim Wagner; Stephen Minger; Matthias Matzkies; Michael Reppel; Jürgen Hescheler; Karl-Dietrich Sievert; Arnulf Stenzl; Thomas Skutella

2008-01-01

274

Expression of the TAR RNA binding protein in human testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In testis, several RNA binding proteins have been shown to play a role in the translational regulation of specific transcripts. The human protein TRBP (TAR RNA binding protein) is the homologue of the mouse Prbp (Prm-1 RNA binding protein) involved in the protamine mRNA translational delay. TRBP is known to activate the HIV-1 long terminal repeat but this protein has

Jean Pierre Siffroi; Marie Francoise Alfonsi; Georges Guellaen; Jean Pierre Dadoune; Hopital Henri Mondor

2001-01-01

275

A secretory protease inhibitor requires androgens for its expression in male sex accessory tissues but is expressed constitutively in pancreas.  

PubMed Central

A full length cDNA clone encoding a mouse prostatic secretory glycoprotein (p12) whose synthesis is dependent upon testicular androgens has been cloned and characterized. The predicted amino acid sequence of p12 shares extensive homology with several members of the Kazal family of secretory protease inhibitors, in particular the pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitors. In agreement with sequence data, prostatic secretory p12, purified from mouse ventral prostate secretion, exhibits anti-trypsin activity. Steady-state levels of protease inhibitor mRNA in ventral prostate are reduced from approximately 0.06% in normal mice to undetectable after androgen withdrawal but are inducible within 4 h by re-administration of testosterone. Androgen-dependent expression of the secretory protease inhibitor mRNA was also observed in coagulating gland and seminal vesicle. In seminal vesicle, a tissue of different embryonic origin to the prostate, the kinetics of secretory protease inhibitor mRNA loss after castration are not as rapid as in the ventral prostate and coagulating gland. Low-level androgen independent expression was also observed in the pancreas. There appears to be a single gene for this secretory protease inhibitor and yet expression is markedly stimulated by testosterone in the sex accessory tissues and unaffected by this hormone in the pancreas. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7.

Mills, J S; Needham, M; Parker, M G

1987-01-01

276

Four accessory (supernumerary) intrathoracic ribs: a case report.  

PubMed

Accessory (supernumerary) intrathoracic ribs are a very rare congenital disorder. Here, we present the first case of multiple supernumerary intrathoracic ribs in an adult, which are present consecutively between ribs 1 and 4 and without articulation with the vertebrae. Despite this, anatomical variation is usually silent and accidentally discovered; its knowledge can prevent confusion with other structures during imaging diagnostic techniques of thoracic pathologies. PMID:23385737

Prados, Jose; Archilla, Francisco; Melguizo, Consolación; Aranega, Antonia

2013-02-06

277

Accessory mitral valve as a potential source of cardioembolism.  

PubMed

An accessory mitral valve (AMV) is considered to arise from abnormal development of endocardial cushion tissue. It is a very rare entity, commonly diagnosed in childhood and associated with symptomatic left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. Here we describe the presence of AMV in a 58-year old patient who presented with a transient ischemic attack. Transesophageal echocardiography visualized a spherical structure attached to the ventricular aspect of the anterior mitral valve leaflet. PMID:17707535

Bär, Harald; Katus, Hugo A; Mereles, Derliz

2007-08-20

278

Improvement of mercuric chloride-induced testis injuries and sperm quality deteriorations by Spirulina platensis in rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) on mercury (II) chloride (HgCl(2))-induced oxidative damages and histopathological alterations in the testis of Wistar albino rats. The animals were divided into four equal groups, i) control, ii) HgCl(2), iii) S. platensis and iv) combination of HgCl(2)+S. platensis. Oxidative stress, induced by a single dose of HgCl(2) (5 mg/kg, bw; subcutaneously, s.c.), substantially decreased (P<0.01) the activity level of testicular key enzymatic antioxidant biomarkers (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT and glutathione peroxidase, GPx), oxidative stress makers (blood hydroperoxide; testicular reduced glutathione, GSH and malondialdehyde, MDA), and testicular mercury levels. Moreover, HgCl(2) administration resulted in a significant (P<0.01) increase in the number of sperms with abnormal morphology and decrease in epididymal sperm count, motility, plasma testosterone level and testicular cholesterol. Furthermore, HgCl(2) exposure induced histopathological changes to the testis including morphological alterations of the seminiferous tubules, and degeneration and dissociation of spermatogenic cells. Notably, oral pretreatment of animals with Spirulina (300 mg/kg, bw) lowered the extent of the observed HgCl(2)-mediated toxicity, whereby significantly reducing the resulting lipid peroxidation products, mercury accumulation in the testis, histopathological changes of the testes and spermatozoal abnormalities. In parallel, the pretreatment with Spirulina also completely reverted the observed Hg-Cl(2)-induced inhibition in enzymatic activities of antioxidant biomarkers (SOD, CAT and GPx) back to control levels. The pretreatment of rats with S. platensis significantly recovered the observed HgCl(2)-mediated decrease in the weight of accessory sex organs. Taken together, our findings clearly highlight the role of S. platensis as a protective modulator of HgCl(2)-induced testicular injuries and suggest some therapeutic potential in mammals. Further investigation of therapeutic strategies employing Spirulina against heavy metals toxicity in humans is therefore warranted. PMID:23555627

El-Desoky, Gaber E; Bashandy, Samir A; Alhazza, Ibrahim M; Al-Othman, Zeid A; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A M; Yusuf, Kareem

2013-03-28

279

The consistent presence of the human accessory deep peroneal nerve  

PubMed Central

Twenty-four human legs were dissected macroscopically to study the morphological details of the accessory deep peroneal nerve. This nerve arose from the superficial peroneal nerve and descended in the lateral compartment of the leg, deep to peroneus longus along the posterior border of peroneus brevis. Approaching the ankle joint, this nerve passed through the peroneal tunnels to wind around the lateral malleolus; it then crossed beneath the peroneus brevis tendon anteriorly to reach the dorsum of the foot. The accessory deep peroneal nerve was found in every case examined and constantly gave off muscular branches to peroneus brevis and sensory branches to the ankle region. In addition, this nerve occasionally had muscular branches to peroneus longus and extensor digitorum brevis, and sensory branches to the fibula and the foot. The anomalous muscles around the lateral malleolus were also innervated by this nerve. Neither cutaneous branches nor communicating branches with other nerves were found. The present study reveals that the accessory deep peroneal nerve is consistently present and possesses a proper motor and sensory distribution in the lateral region of the leg and ankle. It is not an anomalous nerve as has previously been suggested.

KUDOH, HIROYUKI; SAKAI, TATSUO; HORIGUCHI, MASAHARU

1999-01-01

280

Radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways in infants.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the indications, results and complications of radiofrequency catheter ablation in small infants with supraventricular tachycardia due to an accessory atrioventricular pathway. METHODS: Five infants less than 9 months old underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways. Ablation was done for medically refractory tachyarrhythmia associated with aborted sudden death in two patients, left ventricular dysfunction in one, failure of antiarrhythmic drugs in one, and planned cardiac surgery in one. All five patients underwent a single successful procedure. Three left free wall pathways were ablated by transseptal approach, a right posteroseptal pathway was ablated from the inferior vena cava, and a left posteroseptal pathway was approached from the inferior vena cava into the coronary sinus. A deflectable 5F bipolar electrode catheter with a 3 mm tip was used. RESULTS: A sudden increment in impedance indicative of coagulum formation was observed in two procedures. One patient developed a transient ischaemic complication after ablation of a left lateral accessory pathway by transseptal approach. This patient had mild pericardial effusion after the procedure. Moderate pericardial effusion was also noted in another patient. After a mean follow up of 18.4 months all patients are symptom free without treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Radiofrequency catheter ablation can be performed successfully in infants. Temperature monitoring in 5F ablation catheters would be desirable to prevent the development of coagulum. Echocardiography must be performed after the ablation procedure to investigate pericardial effusion. Images

Benito, F.; Sanchez, C.

1997-01-01

281

Cancer/testis (CT) antigens, carcinogenesis and spermatogenesis  

PubMed Central

During spermatogenesis, spermatogonial stem cells, undifferentiated and differentiated spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa all express specific antigens, yet the functions of many of these antigens remain unexplored. Studies in the past three decades have shown that many of these transiently expressed genes in developing germ cells are proto-oncogenes and oncogenes, which are expressed only in the testis and various types of cancers in humans and rodents. As such, these antigens are designated cancer/testis antigens (CT antigens). Since the early 1980s, about 70 families of CT antigens have been identified with over 140 members are known to date. Due to their restricted expression in the testis and in various tumors in humans, they have been used as the target of immunotherapy. Multiple clinical trials at different phases are now being conducted with some promising results. Interestingly, in a significant number of cancer patients, antibodies against some of these CT antigens were detected in their sera. However, antibodies against these CT antigens in humans under normal physiological conditions have yet to be reported even though many of these antigens are residing outside of the blood-testis barrier (BTB), such as in the basal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium and in the stem cell niche in the testis. In this review, we summarize latest findings in the field regarding several selected CT antigens which may be intimately related to spermatogenesis due to their unusual restricted expression during different discrete events of spermatogenesis, such as cell cycle progression, meiosis and spermiogenesis. This information should be helpful to investigators in the field to study the roles of these oncogenes in spermatogenesis.

2011-01-01

282

Post-hatching development of Alligator mississippiensis ovary and testis  

PubMed Central

We investigated ovary and testis development of Alligator mississippiensis during the first five months post-hatch. To better describe follicle assembly and seminiferous cord development, we employed histochemical techniques to detect carbohydrate-rich extracellular matrix components in one-week, one-month, three-month, and five-month-old gonads. We found profound morphological changes in both ovary and testis. During this time, oogenesis progressed up to diplotene arrest and meiotic germ cells increasingly interacted with follicular cells. Concomitant with follicles becoming invested with full complements of granulosa cells, a periodic acid Schiff’s (PAS)-positive basement membrane formed. As follicles enlarged and thecal layers were observed, basement membranes and thecal compartments gained periodic acid-methionine silver (PAMS)-reactive fibers. The ovarian medulla increased first PAS- and then PAMS-reactivity as it fragmented into wide lacunae lined with low cuboidal to squamous epithelia. During this same period, testicular germ cells found along the tubule margins were observed progressing from spermatogonia to round spermatids located within the center of tubules. Accompanying this meiotic development, interstitial Leydig cell clusters become more visible and testicular capsules thickened. During the observed testis development, the thickening tunica albuginea and widening interstitial tissues showed increasing PAS- and PAMS-reactivity. We observed putative inter-sex structures in both ovary and testis. On the coelomic aspect of testes were cell clusters with germ cell morphology and at the posterior end of ovaries, we observed “medullary rests” resembling immature testis cords. We hypothesize laboratory conditions accelerated gonad maturation due to optimum conditions, including nutrients and temperature. Laboratory alligators grew more rapidly and with increased body conditions compared to previous measured, field-caught animals. Additionally, we predict the morphological maturation observed in these gonads is concomitant with increased endocrine activities.

Moore, Brandon C.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Botteri, Nicole L.; Lawler, Ashley N.; Mathavan, Ketan K.; Guillette, Louis J.

2009-01-01

283

Giant salivary calculi of the submandibular gland  

PubMed Central

Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. A case of an unusually large sialolith arising in the submandibular gland is presented, along with a review of the management of giant salivary gland calculi.

Fowell, C; MacBean, A

2012-01-01

284

Genetic dissection of testis weight in a mouse strain having an extremely large testis: major testis weight determinants are autosomal rather than Y-linked on the basis of comprehensive analyses in Y-chromosome consomic strains  

PubMed Central

I investigated the potential contribution of Y-linked genes by analyzing 16 Y-consomic strains that had been established on a DH-strain background. The results provided evidence that only the Y chromosome from the C3H/HeJ strain was different from most other inbred strains. The CBA strain has the lightest testis and the DDD strain has the heaviest testis among mouse strains; however, Y-consomic analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in testis weight among DH, DH-Chr YDDD, and DH-Chr YCBA strains, suggesting that YDDD and YCBA themselves do not influence testis weight. QTL analysis in DDD × DH F2 mice identified significant testis weight QTLs on chromosomes 9, 14, and 17, and the DDD allele at all these loci was associated with an increase in testis weight. Contribution of Y chromosome itself to testis weight was thus rather modest, and therefore, major testis weight determinants are autosomal. However, it was uncertain whether there would be any effects by interactions between Y chromosomal and autosomal genes.

Suto, Jun-ichi

2008-01-01

285

Submucosal Glands and Airway Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most airway mucus is produced by submucosal glands in response to neural signals. Gland mucus traps microbes, inhibits their replica- tion, and clears them from the airways. In cystic fibrosis mucus clearance is compromised, allowing pathogens to persist in static mucus. These trigger an influx of inflammatory cells, but optimal effectiveness of inflammation, and especially its resolution, also requires effective

Jeffrey J. Wine; Nam Soo Joo

2004-01-01

286

Congenital Submandibular Salivary Gland Fistula  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we present a patient with a congenital cervical submandibular gland fistula who was admitted to the hospital for nodular thyroid hyperplasia. After bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy, the fistula tract and the submandibular salivary gland on the right side of the neck and the obliterated sinus on the left side of the neck were excised. The pathological examination led

Vedat Durgun; Metin Kapan; Selin Kapan; Ender Onur

2003-01-01

287

Paediatric Salivary Gland Epithelial Neoplasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salivary gland epithelial neoplasms in children are rare. Clinicians of all disciplines need to have a high level of suspicion when a non-inflammatory single mass lesion presents in the parotid or submandibular glands. There is high likelihood of malignancy when such a mass presents. Surgery is the primary treatment of choice in the majority of cases, with the addition of

Patrick Bradley; Lisha McClelland; Deepak Mehta

2007-01-01

288

Xenografting of human fetal testis tissue: a new approach to study fetal testis development and germ cell differentiation  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Abnormal fetal testis development can result in disorders of sex development (DSDs) and predispose to later testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) disorders such as testicular germ cell tumours. Studies of human fetal testis development are hampered by the lack of appropriate model, and intervention systems. We hypothesized that human fetal testis xenografts can recapitulate normal development. METHODS Human fetal testes (at 9 weeks, n = 4 and 14–18 weeks gestation, n = 6) were xenografted into male nude mice for 6 weeks, with or without hCG treatment of the host, and evaluated for normal cellular development and function using immunohistochemistry, triple immunofluorescence and testosterone assay. The differentiation and proliferation status of germ cells within xenografts was quantified and compared with age-matched controls. RESULTS Xenografts showed >75% survival with normal morphology. In the first-trimester xenografts seminiferous cord formation was initiated and in first- and second-trimester grafts normal functional development of Sertoli, Leydig and peritubular myoid cells was demonstrated using cell-specific protein markers. Grafts produced testosterone when hosts were treated with hCG (P = 0.004 versus control). Proliferation of germ cells and differentiation from gonocytes (OCT4+) into pre-spermatogonia (VASA+) occurred in grafts and quantification showed this progressed comparably with age-matched ungrafted controls. CONCLUSIONS Human fetal testis tissue xenografts demonstrate normal structure, function and development after xenografting, including normal germ cell differentiation. This provides an in vivo system to study normal human fetal testis development and its susceptibility to disruption by exogenous factors (e.g. environmental chemicals). This should provide mechanistic insight into the fetal origins of DSDs and TDS disorders.

Mitchell, Rod T.; Saunders, Philippa T.K.; Childs, Andrew J.; Cassidy-Kojima, Claire; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.; Kelnar, Chris J.H.; Sharpe, Richard M.

2010-01-01

289

Fine structure of the tegumentary glands secreting the protective "shield" in a sessile insect (Homoptera, Diaspiddae).  

PubMed

The tegumentary pygidial glands of Aonidiella aurantii (Homoptera, Diaspididae) produce a secretion forming the shield of these fixed parasites of plants. They are formed of seven cells: a principal unpaired secretory cell which produces an abundant glycoproteinaceous secretion; a small associated cell with a secondary reservoir for this secretion; two accessory secretory cells which have very abundant tubular extensions coming from the plasma membrane, and a flocculent secretion gathered in a large sub-cuticular space; two cells forming an enlarged part of the excretory canal, functioning like a spinneret; and finally a single cell forming the tubular duct of this complex gland. The cuticle of the secretory cells has a very special porous structure, through which the secretion passes. The final product is a ribbon formed by two hollow strands stuck together. The exact nature of this secretion is not clear. It is comparable to a silk secretion though it has its own particular characteristics. PMID:675671

Pesson, P; Foldi, I

1978-01-01

290

Morphometric analysis of Leydig cells in the normal rat testis  

PubMed Central

Leydig cells are thought to be the source of most, if not all, the testosterone produced by the testis. The goal of this study was to obtain quantitative information about rat Leydig cells and their organelles that might be correlated with pertinent physiological and biochemical data available either now or in the future. Morphometric analysis of Leydig cells in mature normal rats was carried out on tissue fixed by perfusion with buffered glutaraldehyde, and embedded in glycol methacrylate for light microscopy and in Epon for electron microscopy. In a whole testis, 82.4% of the volume was occupied by seminiferous tubules, 15.7% by the interstitial tissue, and 1.9% by the capsule. Leydig cells constituted 2.7% of testicular volume. Each cubic centimeter (contained approximatelyy 1 g) of rat testis contained about 22 million Leydig cells. An average Leydig cell had a volume of 1,210 micron3 and its plasma membrane had a surface area of 1,520 micron2. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), the most prominent organelle in Leydig cells and a major site of steroidogenic enzymes, had a surface area of approximately 10,500 micron2/cell, which is 6.9 times that of the plasma membrane and is 60% of the total membrane area of the cell. The total surface area of Leydig SER per cubic centimeter of testis tissue is approximately 2,300 cm2 or 0.23 m2. There were 3.0 mg of Leydig mitochondria in 1 g of testis tissue. The average Leydig cell contained approximately 622 mitochondria, measuring on the average 0.35 micron in diameter and 2.40 micron in length. The mitochondrial inner membrane (including cristae), another important site of steroidogenic enzymes, had a surface area of 2,920 micron2/cell, which is 1.9 times that of the plasma membrane. There were 644 cm2 of inner mitochondrial membrane/cm3 of testis tissue. These morphometric results can be correlated with published data on the rate of testosterone secretion to show that an average Leydig cell secretes approximately 0.44 pg of testosterone/d or 10,600 molecules of testosterone/s. The rate of testosterone production by each square centimeter of SER is 4.2 ng/d or 101 million molecules/s: the corresponding rate for each square centimeter of mitochondrial inner membrane is 15 ng testosterone/d or 362 million molecules/s.

1980-01-01

291

Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

2013-02-27

292

Pituitary Gland Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Excessive secretion of pituitary hormones, as well as their deficiency, may cause a constellation of clinical and pathological\\u000a manifestations involving major organ systems of the body, including the skin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a There are no specific cutaneous signs or symptoms that are pathognomonic for the main manifestations of pituitary gland diseases\\u000a such as acromegaly, hyperprolactinemia, Cushing’s disease, or hypopituitarism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In

Martina Montinari; Franco Rongioletti

293

Cryopreservation of Parathyroid Glands  

PubMed Central

The risk of permanent hypoparathyroidism following thyroid and parathyroid surgery is around 1% in the hands of experienced endocrine surgeons. Although this complication is rare, rendering a patient permanently aparathyroid has significant consequences on the health and quality of life of the patient. Immediate autotransplantation of parathyroid glands that are injured or unintentionally removed offers the best possibility of graft viability and functionality. However, since the majority of cases of hypoparathyroidism are transient, immediate autotransplantation can complicate postoperative surveillance in certain patients, especially those with primary hyperparathyroidism. Cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue is an alternate technique that was developed to treat patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism. This method allows for parathyroid tissue to be stored and then autotransplanted in a delayed fashion once permanent hypoparathyroidism is confirmed. This article provides a contemporary review on cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue and its current role in thyroid and parathyroid surgery.

Guerrero, Marlon A.

2010-01-01

294

Accessory tragus: report of two cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Accessory tragus is a fairly common congenital malformation of the external ear. In the vast majority of cases it is an isolated developmental defect not associated with other abnormalities. However, the remote possibility exists that it could be associated with other abnormalities of the first and second branchial arch. Accessory tragus is a consistent feature of the oculoauriculovertebral syndrome (Goldenhar syndrome). When correctly identified, surgical excision of accessory tragus is quite simple and rarely results in any complications. PMID:11085670

Jansen, T; Romiti, R; Altmeyer, P

295

Gamma-ray irradiation promotes premature meiosis of spontaneously differentiating testis-ova in the testis of p53-deficient medaka (Oryzias latipes)  

PubMed Central

In this study, the roles of p53 in impaired spermatogenic male germ cells of p53-deficient medaka were investigated by analyzing histological changes, and gene expressions of 42Sp50, Oct 4 and vitellogenin (VTG2) by RT-PCR or in situ hybridization in the testes. We found that a small number of oocyte-like cells (testis–ova) differentiated spontaneously in the cysts of type A and early type B spermatogonia in the p53-deficient testes, in contrast to the wild-type (wt) testes in which testis–ova were never found. Furthermore, ionizing radiation (IR) irradiation increased the number of testis–ova in p53-deficient testes, increased testis–ova size and proceeded up to the zygotene or pachytene stages of premature meiosis within 14 days after irradiation. However, 28 days after irradiation, almost all the testis–ova were eliminated presumably by p53-independent apoptosis, and spermatogenesis was restored completely. In the wt testis, IR never induced testis–ova differentiation. This is the first study to demonstrate the pivotal role of the p53 gene in the elimination of spontaneous testis–ova in testes, and that p53 is not indispensable for the restoration of spermatogenesis in the impaired testes in which cell cycle regulation is disturbed by IR irradiation.

Yasuda, T; Oda, S; Li, Z; Kimori, Y; Kamei, Y; Ishikawa, T; Todo, T; Mitani, H

2012-01-01

296

Immunolocalization of humanin in human sperm and testis.  

PubMed

We have discovered, by immunocytochemistry and immunoelectronmicroscopy, that humanin (HN) is expressed in human ejaculated sperm and testis. In sperm, the HN immunolabeling pattern depends on sperm morphology; in particular, HN is mainly localized in the midpiece of sperm in semen samples with normal morphology and in cytoplasmic residues and entire tail in those with abnormal morphology. We also found HN in the cytoplasm and nucleus of spermatocytes and spermatids and in experimentally uncoiled chromatin of mature ejaculated sperm. Because it has been established that HN has antiapoptotic properties, it is reasonably hypothesized that HN may play an important role in preventing apoptosis in human sperm and testis. Thus, the examination of the HN localization in normal and abnormal sperm could be proposed as an auxiliary test to better define sperm quality. PMID:20542501

Moretti, Elena; Giannerini, Valentina; Rossini, Lara; Matsuoka, Masaaki; Trabalzini, Lorenza; Collodel, Giulia

2010-06-09

297

FlyTED: the Drosophila Testis Gene Expression Database.  

PubMed

FlyTED, the Drosophila Testis Gene Expression Database, is a biological research database for gene expression images from the testis of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. It currently contains 2762 mRNA in situ hybridization images and ancillary metadata revealing the patterns of gene expression of 817 Drosophila genes in testes of wild type flies and of seven meiotic arrest mutant strains in which spermatogenesis is defective. This database has been built by adapting a widely used digital library repository software system, EPrints (http://eprints.org/software/), and provides both web-based search and browse interfaces, and programmatic access via an SQL dump, OAI-PMH and SPARQL. FlyTED is available at http://www.fly-ted.org/. PMID:19934263

Zhao, Jun; Klyne, Graham; Benson, Elizabeth; Gudmannsdottir, Elin; White-Cooper, Helen; Shotton, David

2009-11-24

298

ALTERATIONS IN THE DEVELOPING TESTIS TRANSCRIPTOME FOLLOWING EMBRYONIC VINCLOZOLIN EXPOSURE  

PubMed Central

The current study investigates the direct effects of in utero vinclozolin exposure on the developing F1 generation rat testis transcriptome. Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to vinclozolin during embryonic gonadal sex determination induces epigenetic modifications of the germ line and transgenerational adult onset disease states. Microarray analyses were performed to compare control and vinclozolin treated testis transcriptomes at embryonic day 13, 14 and 16. A total of 576 differentially expressed genes were identified and the major cellular functions and pathways associated with these altered transcripts were examined. The sets of regulated genes at the different development periods were found to be transiently altered and distinct. Categorization by major known functions of altered genes was performed. Specific cellular process and pathway analyses suggest the involvement of Wnt and calcium signaling, vascular development and epigenetic mechanisms as potential mediators of the direct F1 generation actions of vinclozolin.

Clement, Tracy M.; Savenkova, Marina I.; Settles, Matthew; Anway, Matthew D.; Skinner, Michael K.

2010-01-01

299

Mammalian testis: a target of in vivo electroporation.  

PubMed

Mammalian spermatogenesis consists of three biologically significant processes: stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, meiosis, and haploid cell morphogenesis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind these processes might provide clues to the puzzle of species preservation and evolution, and to treatments for male infertility. However, few useful in vitro systems exist to investigate these processes at present. To elucidate these mechanisms, in vivo electroporation of the testis might be a convenient option. Since DNA solution can be injected into the seminiferous tubule via the rete testis, similar to germ cell transplantation, it is easy to transfect expression vectors into various differentiated germ cells and supporting Sertoli cells with adequate electric shock. Unfortunately, it is difficult to create transgenic animals using this method because of its low efficiency. However, gain- and loss-of-function assays, promoter assays, and tagged-protein behavior assays can be conducted with this technique, as in in vitro culture systems. PMID:18482405

Yomgogida, Kentaro

2008-05-14

300

Thermomechanical milling of accessory lithics in volcanic conduits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accessory lithic clasts recovered from pyroclastic deposits commonly result from the failure of conduit wall rocks, and represent an underutilized resource for constraining conduit processes during explosive volcanic eruptions. The morphological features of lithic clasts provide distinctive 'textural fingerprints' of processes that have reshaped them during transport in the conduit. Here, we present the first study focused on accessory lithic clast morphology and show how the shapes and surfaces of these accessory pyroclasts can inform on conduit processes. We use two main types of accessory lithic clasts from pyroclastic fallout deposits of the 2360 B.P. subplinian eruption of Mount Meager, British Columbia, as a case study: (i) rough and subangular dacite clasts, and (ii) variably rounded and smoothed monzogranite clasts. The quantitative morphological data collected on these lithics include: mass, volume, density, 2-D image analysis of convexity (C), and 3-D laser scans for sphericity (?) and smoothness (S). Shaping and comminution (i.e. milling) of clasts within the conduit are ascribed to three processes: (1) disruptive fragmentation due to high-energy impacts between clasts or between clasts and conduit walls, (2) ash-blasting of clasts suspended within the volcanic flux, and (3) thermal effects. We use a simplified conduit eruption model to predict ash-blasting velocities and lithic residence times as a function of clast size and source depth, thereby constraining the lithic milling processes. The extent of shape and surface modification (i.e. rounding and honing) is directly proportional to clast residence times within the conduit prior to evacuation. We postulate that the shallow-seated dacite clasts remain subangular and rough due to short (<2 min) residence times, whereas monzogranite clasts are much more rounded and smoothed due to deeper source depths and consequently longer residence times (up to ˜1 h). Larger monzogranite clasts are smoother than smaller clasts due to longer residence times and to greater differential velocities within the ash-laden jet. Lastly, our model residence times and mass loss estimates for rounded clasts are used to estimate minimum attrition rates due to volcanic ash-blasting within the conduit (e.g., 12 cm3?s?1 for 25 cm clasts, sourced at 2500 m depth).

Campbell, Michelle E.; Russell, James K.; Porritt, Lucy A.

2013-09-01

301

Spermatogonial Stem Cells (SSCs) in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWater buffalo is an economically important livestock species and about half of its total world population exists in India. Development of stem cell technology in buffalo can find application in targeted genetic modification of this species. Testis has emerged as a source of pluripotent stem cells in mice and human; however, not much information is available in buffalo.Objectives and MethodsPou5f1

Ranjeet Singh Mahla; Niranjan Reddy; Sandeep Goel

2012-01-01

302

Lymphoma of the testis as primary location: tumour review.  

PubMed

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma as a primary testicular neoplasm accounts approximately 9% of all testicular malignant tumours and about 1-2% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This neoplasm is the most common malignant tumour of the testis in the elderly. The most common histotype in primary forms is the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, whereas more aggressive histologies such as Burkitt's lymphoma are principal founded in cases of secondary involvement of the testis. Regarding clinical presentation, the most common sign is a unilateral painless scrotal swelling, sometimes with sharp scrotal pain or hydrocele. In patients with advanced stage, the systematic B symptoms are present in 25-41% of all cases. In 35% of patients, bilateral testicular involvement is detected. In more advanced stages with para-aortic lymph-node involvement, ascites and abdominal pain is evident. Despite the fact that responses to doxorubicin- containing chemotherapy, especially in early stages, show good results, relapses are often seen, and the prognosis of this tumour is very poor. Testicular lymphoma often disseminates to other extranodal organs, such as contralateral testis, central nervous system (CNS), lung, pleura, Waldeyer's ring and soft tissue. For patients with limited disease, the recommended first-line treatment is orchiectomy followed by rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) combination chemotherapy, with central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis and prophylactic irradiation of the contralateral testis. In more advanced or relapsed disease, management should follow the worldwide recommendations for nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here we present a review of this tumour. PMID:20466616

Koukourakis, Georgios; Kouloulias, Vassilios

2010-05-01

303

Epidemiology of salivary gland infections.  

PubMed

This article approaches sialadenitis from a personal perspective based on 15 years of clinical practice limited mainly to salivary gland diseases. Disorders of the salivary glands are uncommon. When they occur, experience in managing the process is diluted over a range of disciplines. The result is that traditional views go unchallenged and are recast unchanged from one textbook to another. Sialadenitis of bacterial origin is a relatively uncommon occurrence today and is normally associated with sialoliths. The most common viral infection of the salivary glands is mumps. PMID:19608052

Cascarini, Luke; McGurk, Mark

2009-08-01

304

Testis-specific expression of the human MYCL2 gene.  

PubMed Central

We have characterized the expression of MYCL2, an intronless X-linked gene related to MYCL1. RNase protection analysis of a panel of human normal and tumor tissues has revealed that MYCL2 is expressed almost exclusively in human adult normal testis; much lower levels of transcript were detected in one human lung adenocarcinoma. No MYCL2 transcript was found in human testis RNA obtained from second trimester fetuses. This observation suggests a germ cell rather than somatic cell origin of the transcript and possible developmental regulation of MYCL2. Northern blot analysis of poly(A)+ RNA from adult human normal testis with an antisense riboprobe revealed a transcript of approximately 4.8-kb, which is in agreement with the size predicted from the MYCL2 nucleotide sequence. Antisense transcripts were found spanning regions of MYCL2 corresponding to all three exons of MYCL1. No sizable open reading frame was seen for the MYCL2 antisense transcripts suggesting that they may represent either regulatory sequences or an intron of a gene encoded by the complementary strand. RNase protection assays and the 5' RACE protocol (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends) were used to address the localization of the transcription start site of the MYCL2 sense transcript and different putative promoters and transcription regulatory elements have been identified. Images

Robertson, N G; Pomponio, R J; Mutter, G L; Morton, C C

1991-01-01

305

Murine Asb-17 expression during mouse testis development and spermatogenesis.  

PubMed

In this study we isolated a murine mAsb-17 from mouse testis by RT-PCR using primers designed based on the sequences from the GenBank database. The sequence analysis showed that mAsb-17 encodes a 295 amino acid polypeptide with a molecular weight of approximately 34 kDa containing two ankyrin repeats and one SOCS box. The amino acid sequence of mASB-17 showed 87.5%, 98.3% and 92.9% identity with that of human, rat and dog, respectively. Interestingly, northern blot analysis showed that mAsb-17 was expressed only in the testis. The expression analysis by RT-PCR for mAsb-17 in mouse indicates that mAsb-17 is expressed from the fourth week after birth to adult, with the highest expression in round spermatids. Both northern blot and RT-PCR analyses suggest that mASB-17 may play essential roles in testis development and spermatogenesis. PMID:15460110

Kim, Kye-Seong; Kim, Myung-Sun; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

2004-05-01

306

Testis determination in mammals: more questions than answers.  

PubMed

In humans, testis development depends on a regulated genetic hierarchy initiated by the Y-linked SRY gene. Failure of testicular determination results in the condition termed 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis (GD). Several components of the testis determining pathway have recently been identified though it has been difficult to articulate a cascade with the known elements of the system. It seems, however, that early gonadal development is the result of a network of interactions instead of the outcome of a linear cascade. Accumulating evidence shows that testis formation in man is sensitive to gene dosage. Haploinsufficiency of SF1, WT1 and SOX9 is responsible for 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. Besides, data on SRY is consistent with possible dosage anomalies in certain cases of male to female sex reversal. 46,XY GD due to monosomy of distal 9p and 10q might also be associated with an insufficient gene dosage effect. Duplications of the locus DSS can lead to a failure of testicular development and a duplication of the region containing SOX9 has been implicated in XX sex reversal. Transgenic studies in mouse have shown, however, that this mammal is less sensitive to gene dosage than man. Here, we will try to put in place the known pieces of the jigsaw puzzle that is sex determination in mammals, as far as current knowledge obtained from man and animal models allows. We are certain that from this attempt more questions than answers will arise. PMID:11420125

Veitia, R A; Salas-Cortés, L; Ottolenghi, C; Pailhoux, E; Cotinot, C; Fellous, M

2001-06-20

307

Pdgfr-? mediates testis cord organization and fetal Leydig cell development in the XY gonad  

PubMed Central

During testis development, the rapid morphological changes initiated by Sry require the coordinate integration of many signaling pathways. Based on the established role of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family of ligands and receptors in migration, proliferation, and differentiation of cells in various organ systems, we have investigated the role of PDGF in testis organogenesis. Analysis of expression patterns and characterization of the gonad phenotype in Pdgfr-??/? embryos identified PDGFR-? as a critical mediator of signaling in the early testis at multiple steps of testis development. Pdgfr-??/? XY gonads displayed disruptions in the organization of the vasculature and in the partitioning of interstitial and testis cord compartments. Closer examination revealed severe reductions in characteristic XY proliferation, mesonephric cell migration, and fetal Leydig cell differentiation. This work identifies PDGF signaling through the ? receptor as an important event downstream of Sry in testis organogenesis and Leydig cell differentiation.

Brennan, Jennifer; Tilmann, Christopher; Capel, Blanche

2003-01-01

308

Estrogen receptor accessory proteins: effects on receptor-DNA interactions.  

PubMed Central

Despite a wealth of information about the structure and composition of steroid receptors and their functional domains, little is known about the role of accessory proteins as mediators of receptor activity. To better define the role of such proteins in estrogen receptor (ER) function, we have used immunoaffinity, steroid affinity, and site-specific DNA-affinity chromatography to identify and characterize proteins that associate with human ER (hER) in extracts from MCF-7 cells and hER-expressing CHO (CHO-ER) cells. In addition to the expected 66-kDa hER, a 70-kDa protein was obtained and subsequently identified as a member of the heat shock protein family (hsp70). A 55-kDa protein, detected by all three approaches, was identified as a member of the protein disulfide isomerase family (PDI). Two proteins that were preferentially retained by an ER-specific DNA affinity column (p48 and p45) remain unidentified. Maximal interaction of purified hER with the vitellogenin A2 estrogen response element (ERE) occurred in the presence of all four associated proteins isolated by DNA-affinity chromatography. The increased stability of this complex was due primarily to an increase in the association rate of hER with ERE. Thus, accessory proteins may be required for optimal interaction of ER with EREs.

Landel, C C; Kushner, P J; Greene, G L

1995-01-01

309

Catheter Ablation of Multiple Accessory Pathways in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

A 23-year-old male with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) experienced self-limiting palpitations at age 19 years for the first time. Palpitations recurred not earlier than at age 23 years, and were attributed to narrow complex tachycardia, which could be terminated with adenosine. Since electrocardiography showed a delta-wave, Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome was diagnosed, ajmaline prescribed and radio-frequency catheter ablation of three accessory pathways carried out one week later. One day after ablation, however, a relapse of the supraventricular tachycardia occurred and was terminated with ajmaline. Re-entry tachycardia occurred a second time six days after ablation, and as before, it was stopped only with ajmaline. Despite administration of verapamil to prevent tachycardia, it occurred a third time four months after ablation. This case shows that cardiac involvement in DMD may manifest also as WPW-syndrome. In these patients, repeated radio-frequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways may be necessary to completely block the re-entry mechanism.

Stollberger, Claudia; Steger, Christine; Gatterer, Edmund

2013-01-01

310

Catheter ablation of multiple accessory pathways in duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

A 23-year-old male with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) experienced self-limiting palpitations at age 19 years for the first time. Palpitations recurred not earlier than at age 23 years, and were attributed to narrow complex tachycardia, which could be terminated with adenosine. Since electrocardiography showed a delta-wave, Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome was diagnosed, ajmaline prescribed and radio-frequency catheter ablation of three accessory pathways carried out one week later. One day after ablation, however, a relapse of the supraventricular tachycardia occurred and was terminated with ajmaline. Re-entry tachycardia occurred a second time six days after ablation, and as before, it was stopped only with ajmaline. Despite administration of verapamil to prevent tachycardia, it occurred a third time four months after ablation. This case shows that cardiac involvement in DMD may manifest also as WPW-syndrome. In these patients, repeated radio-frequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways may be necessary to completely block the re-entry mechanism. PMID:23508228

Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia; Steger, Christine; Gatterer, Edmund

2013-02-28

311

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland  

PubMed Central

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of salivary glands is a slow-growing malignant tumor, characterized by wide local infiltration, perineural spread, a propensity to local recurrence and late distant metastasis. Although ACC is the second most common malignant salivary gland neoplasm and constitutes approximately one-third of all salivary gland malignancies, it is relatively rare in parotid gland. Here, we present a case report of a cribriform type of ACC involving parotid salivary gland in a 66-year-old female.

Godge, Pournima; Sharma, Shubhra; Yadav, Monica

2012-01-01

312

Acetylation-Dependent Chromatin Reorganization by BRDT, a Testis-Specific Bromodomain-Containing Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between histone acetylation and replacement observed during spermatogenesis prompted us to consider the testis as a source for potential factors capable of remodelling acetylated chromatin. A system- atic search of data banks for open reading frames encoding testis-specific bromodomain-containing proteins focused our attention on BRDT, a testis-specific protein of unknown function containing two bromodomains. BRDT specifically binds hyperacetylated

Christophe Pivot-Pajot; Cecile Caron; Jerome Govin; Alexandre Vion; Sophie Rousseaux; Saadi Khochbin

2003-01-01

313

Urogenital nonunion—the case for laparoscopy for the impalpable testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of urogenital nonunion is presented to illustrate the importance of laparoscopy for the impalpable testis. A 4-year-old\\u000a boy with an impalpable left testis underwent laparoscopy. This revealed not only the vas deferens entering the deep inguinal\\u000a ring but also a small intraabdominal testis supplied by the testicular vessels. Exploration of the inguinal canal revealed\\u000a the vas deferens terminating

P. T. Foley; A. L. Sparnon; J. Lipsett

2005-01-01

314

Tissue-specific transcriptomics in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus.  

PubMed

Field crickets (family Gryllidae) frequently are used in studies of behavioral genetics, sexual selection, and sexual conflict, but there have been no studies of transcriptomic differences among different tissue types. We evaluated transcriptome variation among testis, accessory gland, and the remaining whole-body preparations from males of the field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. Non-normalized cDNA libraries from each tissue were sequenced on the Roche 454 platform, and a master assembly was constructed using testis, accessory gland, and whole-body preparations. A total of 940,200 reads were assembled into 41,962 contigs, to which 36,856 singletons (reads not assembled into a contig) were added to provide a total of 78,818 sequences used in annotation analysis. A total of 59,072 sequences (75%) were unique to one of the three tissues. Testis tissue had the greatest proportion of tissue-specific sequences (62.6%), followed by general body (56.43%) and accessory gland tissue (44.16%). We tested the hypothesis that tissues expressing gene products expected to evolve rapidly as a result of sexual selection--testis and accessory gland--would yield a smaller proportion of BLASTx matches to homologous genes in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster compared with whole-body tissue. Uniquely expressed sequences in both testis and accessory gland showed a significantly lower rate of matching to annotated D. melanogaster genes compared with those from general body tissue. These results correspond with empirical evidence that genes expressed in testis and accessory gland tissue are rapidly evolving targets of selection. PMID:23390599

Bailey, Nathan W; Veltsos, Paris; Tan, Yew-Foon; Millar, A Harvey; Ritchie, Michael G; Simmons, Leigh W

2013-02-01

315

Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics in the Field Cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus  

PubMed Central

Field crickets (family Gryllidae) frequently are used in studies of behavioral genetics, sexual selection, and sexual conflict, but there have been no studies of transcriptomic differences among different tissue types. We evaluated transcriptome variation among testis, accessory gland, and the remaining whole-body preparations from males of the field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. Non-normalized cDNA libraries from each tissue were sequenced on the Roche 454 platform, and a master assembly was constructed using testis, accessory gland, and whole-body preparations. A total of 940,200 reads were assembled into 41,962 contigs, to which 36,856 singletons (reads not assembled into a contig) were added to provide a total of 78,818 sequences used in annotation analysis. A total of 59,072 sequences (75%) were unique to one of the three tissues. Testis tissue had the greatest proportion of tissue-specific sequences (62.6%), followed by general body (56.43%) and accessory gland tissue (44.16%). We tested the hypothesis that tissues expressing gene products expected to evolve rapidly as a result of sexual selection—testis and accessory gland—would yield a smaller proportion of BLASTx matches to homologous genes in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster compared with whole-body tissue. Uniquely expressed sequences in both testis and accessory gland showed a significantly lower rate of matching to annotated D. melanogaster genes compared with those from general body tissue. These results correspond with empirical evidence that genes expressed in testis and accessory gland tissue are rapidly evolving targets of selection.

Bailey, Nathan W.; Veltsos, Paris; Tan, Yew-Foon; Millar, A. Harvey; Ritchie, Michael G.; Simmons, Leigh W.

2013-01-01

316

Fine structural evidence of mechanoreception in spinal lumbosacral accessory lobes of pigeons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the lumbosacral spinal cord of birds there are accessory lobes which protrude into the vertebral canal. The accessory lobes consist of multipolar neurons and glia-derived glycogen cells. It has been suggested that these lobes function as a sense organ of equilibrium. Therefore the lobes were studied ultrastructurally to look for possible mechanoreceptive structures. Extracellular lacunae extend from the periphery

Jörg Rosenberg; Reinhold Necker

2000-01-01

317

Fusion of the primary and accessory navicular bones: a modification of the kidner procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accessory navicular is a congenital anomaly. Present in about 9% of the population, it is symptomatic in only a small percentage. The pertinent anatomy, clinical presentation, classification system, and conservative treatment are discussed. Surgical options are reviewed. The surgical technique for a modified Kidner procedure in which the primary and accessory naviculars are fused is described in detail.

Michael P Swords; John R Shank; Sigvard T Hansen; Bruce J Sangeorzan

2004-01-01

318

Multiple accessory pathways in the permanent form of junctional reciprocating tachycardia.  

PubMed

The permanent form of junctional reciprocating tachycardia (PJRT) has been successfully eliminated by ablation of the accessory pathway responsible for the tachycardia. The coexistence of multiple accessory pathways responsible for different, long RP-interval tachycardias was not documented previously. Five patients with PJRT underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways. Three of 5 patients had 2 accessory pathways each: 1 had 2 left free wall accessory pathways, another had a right posterior free wall and right posteroseptal pathway, whereas the third had 2 right posteroseptal pathways approximately 1 cm apart. The remaining 2 patients each had 1 right posteroseptal accessory pathway. Seven of 8 pathways were successfully ablated with a median of 3 radiofrequency pulses. No patient developed complications. Peak serum creatine kinase ranged from 131 to 311 IU/liter, with peak MB fraction 7 to 17 IU/liter, or 5 to 11%. Follow-up electrophysiologic study, 29 to 70 days after ablation, revealed no inducible tachycardia and no evidence of accessory pathway conduction, except for the 1 pathway not ablated. All patients remained asymptomatic 17 to 29 months after ablation. Thus, patients with PJRT can have several accessory pathways that can be safely and effectively eliminated with radiofrequency catheter ablation. PMID:8109550

Shih, H T; Miles, W M; Klein, L S; Hubbard, J E; Zipes, D P

1994-02-15

319

Surgical Anatomy of the Spinal Accessory Nerve and the Trapezius Branches of the Cervical Plexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A thorough understanding of the topo- graphical anatomy of the spinal accessory nerve and the cervical plexus branches is a basic prerequisite for posi- tive results when operating on the neck. Objective: To give an exact description of the topo- graphical and surgical anatomy of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) and the trapezius branches of the cervical plexus. Design:

A. C. Kierner; I. Zelenka; S. Heller; M. Burian

2000-01-01

320

Spinal Accessory Nerve Palsy as a Cause of Pain After Whiplash Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal accessory nerve injury is most commonly reported following surgery in and around the posterior cervical triangle. Pain, impaired ability to raise the ipsilateral shoulder, and scapular winging on abduction of the arm are the most frequently noted clinical manifestations. We report the case of a collegiate swimmer who developed left-sided neck and shoulder pain secondary to a spinal accessory

Mark P. Bodack; Richard S. Tunkel; Steven G. Marini; Willibald Nagler

1998-01-01

321

21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories... (a) Identification. An isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and...

2009-04-01

322

Crystallization of accessory phases in magmas by local saturation adjacent to phenocrysts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accessory minerals commonly occur attached to or included in the major crystalline phases of felsic and some intermediate igneous rocks. Apatite is particularly common as inclusions, but Fe-Ti oxides, pyrrhotite, zircon, monazite, chevkinite and xenotime are also known from silicic rocks. Accessories may nucleate near the host crystal/ liquid interface as a result of local saturation owing to formation of a differentiated chemical boundary layer in which accessory mineral solubility would be lower than in the surrounding liquid. Differentiation of this boundary layer would be greatest adjacent to ferromagnesian phenocrysts, especially Fe-Ti oxides; it is with oxides that accessories are most commonly associated in rocks. A boundary layer may develop if the crystal grows more rapidly than diffusion can transport incorporated and rejected elements to and from the phenocryst. Diffusion must dominate over convection as a mode of mass transfer near the advancing crystal/liquid interface in order for a boundary layer to exist. Accumulation of essential structural constituent elements of accessory minerals owing to their slow diffusion in evolved silicate melt also may force local saturation, but this is not a process that applies to all cases. Local saturation is an attractive mechanism for enhancing fractionation during crystallization differentiation. If accessory minerals attached to or included in phenocrysts formed because of local saturation, their host phenocrysts must have grown rapidly when accessories nucleated in comparison to lifetimes of magma reservoirs. Some inconsistencies remain in a local saturation origin for accessory phases that cannot be evaluated without additional information. ?? 1989.

Bacon, C. R.

1989-01-01

323

Sexual Selection on Accessory Glands, Genitalia and Protarsal Pads in the Whirligig Beetle Dineutus nigrior Roberts (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual selection is a potent force in the evolution of morphology in sex- ually reproducing species. When large size in a trait is favored by sexual selection the trait often exhibits positive allometry. Mating behavior in whirligig beetles consists of males attempting to grasp reluctant females using enlarged protarsi (protarsal pads). Here we use allometry and a mating experiment to

Evan R. Fairn; Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde; Yves Alarie

2007-01-01

324

A case of diaphragm hernia containing accessory spleen and great omentum detected by Tc-99m phytate scintigraphy.  

PubMed

A rare case of diaphragm hernia containing an accessory spleen and great omentum is reported. Tc-99m phytate SPECT showed tracer accumulation in the accessory spleen and was useful in the evaluation of the disease. PMID:10582805

Ohta, H; Kohno, K; Kojima, N; Ihara, N; Ishigaki, T; Todo, G; Komibuchi, T

1999-10-01

325

Streptozotocin diabetes and insulin resistance impairment of spermatogenesis in adult rat testis: central vs. local mechanism.  

PubMed

Mammalian reproduction is dynamically regulated by the pituitary gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). These hormones are synthesized in the pituitary gland following stimulation by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and act by stimulating steroid production and gametogenesis in both males and females. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats (120 - 140 g) were randomly divided into 7 groups. Group 1 > Control group; fed on normal rat pellets. Group 2 > Streptozotocin group; received a single dose IP injection of streptozotocin 45 mg/kg BW in Na+ citrate buffer pH 4.5. Group 3 > Streptozotocin-insulin treated group; received a single dose IP injection of streptozotocin as in group 2 above and treated with insulin sub-cutaneously. Group 4 > Streptozotocin-ginger treated group; received a single dose IP injection of streptozotocin as in group 2 above and treated with 500 mg/Kg Ginger extract orally. Group 5 > Insulin resistant group; fed ad libitum on a special diet containing 25% fructose mixed with 75% normal rat chow (w/w). Group 6 > Insulin resistant-pioglitazone treated group; fed ad libitum on a special diet as in group 5 above and treated with Pioglitazone 15 mg/kg orally. Group 7 > Insulin resistant-ginger treated group; fed ad libitum on a special diet as in group 4 above, and also treated with 500 mg/Kg Ginger extract orally. Hormonal and tissue biochemistry analyses revealed that both central and local mechanisms are implicated in the impairment of spermatogenesis by diabetes but the hypothalamo-pituitary testicular axis alteration might not likely have a major impact as the local defect on steroidogenesis in the testis. This local defect could also predispose to male hypogonadism, i.e. failure of gonadal function. PMID:23652232

Arikawe, A P; Oyerinde, A; Olatunji-Bello, I I; Obika, L F O

2012-12-18

326

Cadmium inhibits testis and epididymal acidification in vivo  

SciTech Connect

The testis is known to be highly sensitive to functional impairment by cadmium, a widely distributed trace metal. Both vascular compromise and inhibition of Leydig cell androgen production may result in impaired sperm maturation and motility. Recent studies by our laboratory have confirmed the presence of an acid mileau in the testis and epididymis which may play an important role in sperm maturation. In this study the effect of cadmium on luminal acidification was assessed in rat seminiferous tubules, caput and cauda epididymis by glass membrane double-barrelled pH microelectrodes in vivo. Four Sprague-Dawley rats received CdCl/sub 2/ (0.015 mM/kg s.c.) 24 hrs. prior to micropuncture and 4 rats served as controls. Arterial blood gas values were within the normal range and were not different in the two groups. Cadmium resulted in marked alkalinization of seminiferous tubule fluid compared to controls (7.30 +/- 0.01 (15) vs 6.97 +/- 0.01 (25)) (p < 0.001). Similarly, the pH in proximal caput after CdCl/sub 2/ was 7.07 +/- 0.02 (19) a value significantly more alkaline (p < 0.001) than 6.58 +/- 0.02 (24) in untreated animals. In contrast, however, pH in the distal caput was 6.90 +/- 0.03 (19), a value indistinguishable from that observed in controls. In summary, CdCl/sub 2/ administration is associated with marked impairment of acidification in the testis and proximal epididymus while acidification in the distal epididymus remains intact.

Caflisch, C.r.p; DuBose, T.D. Jr.

1986-03-01

327

Testis response to low doses of cadmium in Wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Although it is well known that cadmium (Cd) causes adverse effects on male rat reproductive organs, few studies have quantified alterations caused by its low doses. Quantification of these alterations, especially in the testis, was measured using morphometry. A single dose of cadmium chloride (1 or 1.2 mg/kg BW) was injected i.p. in adult rats, killed after 7 or 56 days. The lower dose caused slight alterations as measured by morphometrical analysis. The higher dose caused significant reduction in testis and epididymis weight, gonadossomatic index and length of seminiferous tubule (ST) after 7 and 56 days. Cadmium significantly reduced the ST diameter after 56 days. Decreased volume density of ST, after 7 and 56 days, was accompanied by an increase in interstitium volume density. The damage caused by the dose of 1.2 mg/kg can be clearly observed with light microscope. After 7 days, the tubule lumens were filled with degenerated germ cells and multinucleated spermatid aggregates. Vacuolization of the seminiferous epithelium was also observed. After 56 days, increased damage resulted in vacuolated ST, consisting only of Sertoli cells. Scanning electron microscopy examination of the testis showed that, in the group cadmium treated (1.2 mg/kg) and killed after 56 days, the interstitial tissue presents a compact and fibrous appearance with absence of fenestrae. The seminiferous epithelium height diminished and the absence of spermatozoa can be noted. The results show that a very small difference of Cd dose causes a sudden increase in testicular damage, apparently overpowering this tissue's natural defences.

de Souza Predes, Fabricia; Diamante, Maria Aparecida S; Dolder, Heidi

2010-01-01

328

Testicular microlithiasis in acquired undescended testis after orchidopexy at diagnosis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to observe the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis (TM) in surgically corrected acquired undescended testis (UDT). The prevalence of TM was assessed by ultrasound. Boys and young men who had undergone orchidopexy (ORP) for acquired UDT in mid or late childhood were observed to study the long-term testicular volume. During this examination, the presence or absence of TM was also assessed. TM was defined as echogenic foci without shadowing within the testis parenchyma. We included 106 patients who had undergone ORP at the Medical Center Alkmaar (1986-1999) and 155 patients who had undergone ORP at the Juliana Children's Hospital (1996-2009). The majority of patients were white, Caucasian (82%). The median age at follow-up, 25.8 years (range 14.0-31.6 years) was higher in Medical Center Alkmaar than in Juliana Children's Hospital 13.4 years (range 5.1-26.6 years). From 2009 to 2011, these 261 patients (median age 18.9 years) underwent an ultrasound examination. Median follow-up after ORP was 11.3 years (range 1.4-23.5 years); age at ORP ranged from 2.1 to 16.2 years, with a median of 8.5 years. TM was found in 17 (6.5%) patients (median age at follow-up 20.4 years; range 11-28). No significant association was found with the incidence of TM and the operated testis, the age at ORP or the racial variance (p > 0.05). ORP at diagnosis for acquired UDT is associated with a 6.5% prevalence of TM in boys and young adults. PMID:24106044

van der Plas, E; Meij-de Vries, A; Goede, J; van der Voort-Doedens, L; Zijp, G; Hack, W

2013-09-17

329

Accessory pathway for sound transfer in a neotropical frog.  

PubMed Central

A portion of the lateral body wall overlying the lung cavity of the arboreal frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui, vibrates in response to free-field sound. Peak displacement amplitude of the body wall in response to a natural call note presented at 73 decibels sound pressure level is 1.70 X 10(-9) m, roughly 8 decibels less than that of the ipsilateral eardrum, as measured by laser Doppler vibrometry. We show that the vibration magnitude varies predictably across the body profile and is posture and frequency dependent. Two routes to the inner ear are described for sounds impinging on the body wall; either of these accessory pathways could modify direct input from the peripheral auditory system and enhance sound localization in these small vertebrates.

Narins, P M; Ehret, G; Tautz, J

1988-01-01

330

Congenital anomaly of combined tracheal and accessory cardiac bronchus.  

PubMed

The presence of congenital tracheobronchial abnormalities remain rare and have been reported to range from 0.1% to 2% in the literature. The most commonly described abnormalities are the tracheal bronchus and the accessory cardiac bronchus. We present the case of a 67-year-old man presenting for evaluation of interstitial lung disease, on computed tomography found to have presence of both the anomalies; the findings later confirmed on bronchoscopy. We believe this report is important as it adds more descriptive information regarding this unusual presentation, including bronchoscopic and computed tomographic images. We believe that it is imperative that bronchoscopists are cognizant of these congenital abnormalities and their combinations. Inability to properly characterize these abnormalities has a potential leading to unnecessary investigations of these relatively benign entities. PMID:23328152

Gilbert, Christopher R; Cox, Phillip D; Toth, Jennifer W; Kaifi, Jussuf T; Reed, Michael F

2013-01-01

331

Evolution of the continental crust as recorded in accessory minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in precise in situ isotopic analysis by LA-ICPMS and SIMS allow correlating multiple isotopic systems within single grains of accessory minerals such as zircon and monazite. The combined isotope systematics have provided valuable insights into the evolution of the continental crust. Zircon, a common accessory phase in granitoids, can be precisely dated by the U-Pb system. Zircon Lu-Hf isotopic composition is a function of crustal residence time of the magmatic protolith, whereas the O isotopic composition is a sensitive record of reworking of mature sediments such as pelite. An integration of U-Pb, Lu-Hf and O isotopic data for detrital zircons from modern large rivers indicates that: (1) the preserved continental crust dominantly formed between 3.6 and 1.0 Ga, (2) the major mode of crustal development would change during the supercontinent cycle, i.e., the generation of juvenile crust during supercontinent fragmentation versus the stabilization of the generated crust via crustal remelting during supercontinent fragmentation, and (3) reworking of mature sediments increased abruptly at ca. 2.1 Ga. No granitoids are known to have survived since 4.03 Ga. Yet evidence of an even older evolved crust is provided by detrital zircons with ages up to 4.4 Ga from Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks in the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Recently, such Hadean zircons have been found from outside the Yilgarn Craton, indicating that the young Earth had widespread granitoid crust. In addition, another accessory phase, monazite, in the Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks offers an unique opportunity to advance our knowledge of early crustal evolution. Monazite, a light rare earth element phosphate mineral, occurs as an igneous accessory phase particularly in low-Ca granitoids, in contrast to the occurrence of igneous zircon in a wide range of granitoids. U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope systematic of monazite are analogous to U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope systematics of zircon in that they define the timing of the crystallization and magmatic protolith formation (model age), respectively. The lack of monazites having >3.6 Ga crystallization ages as well as >4.0 Ga Nd model ages in the Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks suggests that the source rocks of the Hadean detrital zircons are not low-Ca granitoids and therefore contained few monazites. Given that low-Ca granitoid magmas generated mainly by melting of pre-existing mid-lower crust, this finding may indicate minor intra-crustal melting and, by extension, crustal stabilization until ca. 3.6 Ga. This is consistent with the picture portrayed by the detrital zircons from modern rivers. Presumably, the hotter and rheologically weaker lithospheric mantle fostered many small plates and island arcs early in Earth's history, and the young arc crust was efficiently returned to the mantle via subduction. Accordingly, net growth of continental crust was essentially minor in early Earth's history despite high rates of crust generation.

Iizuka, Tsuyoshi

2013-04-01

332

The frequency of accessory mental foramina in four ethnic groups.  

PubMed

The frequency of accessory mental foramina (AMF) was studied in four population groups: 20th century Asian Indians, African Americans and American Whites, and Pre-Columbian Nazca Indians. AMF were found less frequently in the American White and Asian Indian populations than in the other groups (American White, 1.4%; Asian Indian, 1.5%; African American, 5.7% and Nazca, 9.0%). The incidence of AMFs did not differ significantly between right- and left-hand sides. In certain ethnic groups, i.e., African American, AMF may occur more often in males. Additional studies with larger samples are needed to show whether AMFs are more common in males. PMID:9681117

Sawyer, D R; Kiely, M L; Pyle, M A

1998-05-01

333

Simultaneous Accessory Pathway and AV Node Mechanical Block.  

PubMed

We report a clinical case of a 22-year-old female referred to our institution due to palpitations and preexcitation. Her ECG suggested a right superior paraseptal accessory pathway (AP), which was localised during the electrophysiological study at the superior paraseptal region in close proximity to the His recordings. Reproducible orthodromic reciprocating tachycardia was induced by atrial pacing with extrastimuli. Cryo-mapping performed in the area of earliest atrial activation was not able to terminate the tachycardia. A second attempt, slightly more posterior, caused mechanical block of the AP, which rendered the tachycardia non-inducible. More pressure with the ablation catheter determined a Wenckebach type supra-hisian AV block, which was transient but reproducible. Given this finding no ablation was done. Simultaneous block to the AP and the atrioventricular node has rarely been reported using radiofrequency energy. However, to our knowledge this phenomenon has not been previously reported in large series using cryo-thermal energy. PMID:24130429

Garofalo, Daniel; Gallanti, Alfonso Gomez; Rama, David Filgueiras; Peinado, Rafael Peinado

2013-09-01

334

Simultaneous Accessory Pathway and AV Node Mechanical Block  

PubMed Central

We report a clinical case of a 22-year-old female referred to our institution due to palpitations and preexcitation. Her ECG suggested a right superior paraseptal accessory pathway (AP), which was localised during the electrophysiological study at the superior paraseptal region in close proximity to the His recordings. Reproducible orthodromic reciprocating tachycardia was induced by atrial pacing with extrastimuli. Cryo-mapping performed in the area of earliest atrial activation was not able to terminate the tachycardia. A second attempt, slightly more posterior, caused mechanical block of the AP, which rendered the tachycardia non-inducible. More pressure with the ablation catheter determined a Wenckebach type supra-hisian AV block, which was transient but reproducible. Given this finding no ablation was done. Simultaneous block to the AP and the atrioventricular node has rarely been reported using radiofrequency energy. However, to our knowledge this phenomenon has not been previously reported in large series using cryo-thermal energy.

Garofalo, Daniel; Gallanti, Alfonso Gomez; Rama, David Filgueiras; Peinado, Rafael Peinado

2013-01-01

335

[Ultrasound-guided biopsy of the testis: indications and results].  

PubMed

Ultrasound examination of the testis is the imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of intratesticular focal lesions. In spite of its high sensibility, eco-Doppler-elastography is lacking of specificity in discrimination between benign and malign lesions, not always allowing us to make a definitive diagnosis of malignancy. When a diagnostic doubt persists, for such lesions that are indeterminate at clinical and radiological evaluation, it is possible to recur to ultrasound-guided testicular needle biopsy. This paper describes the main application scenarios of testicular fine-needle aspiration under ultrasound guidance and the experience in our institute. PMID:24042419

Genovese, Eugenio Annibale; Capasso, Raffaella; Izzo, Andrea; Cesarano, Elviro; La Porta, Michele; Amato, Mario; D'Andrea, Alfredo; Coppolino, Francesco; Fonio, Paolo

336

Early vertebrate origin of melanocortin 2 receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs).  

PubMed

The melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) accessory proteins, MRAP, along with its homolog, MRAP2, are two among a growing number of G protein-coupled receptor accessory proteins that have been identified in recent years. These proteins interact directly with MC2R and are essential for trafficking of this receptor from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface, where it mediates the effects of ACTH. lthough earlier studies have identified MRAP and MRAP2 subtypes in distant species, an overall evolutionary analysis of these families is still missing. Here, we performed a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of the MRAP and MRAP2 homologs based on whole genome sequences. We systematically mined and analyzed the genomes of metazoans to identify these genes. Overall, we identified 70 sequences of MRAP and MRAP2 from 44 species belonging to several vertebrate lineages, including at least 40 new sequences previously not reported in the literature. Herein, we provide evidence that MRAP2 is likely to be the ancestor of the MRAP family because MRAP2-like protein, but not MRAP, was identified in Petromyzon marinus (sea lamprey), which belong to an ancient basal vertebrate lineage. Later in vertebrate evolution, MRAP2 duplicated and gave rise to MRAP in an event before the emergence of actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes). However, we observed losses of MRAP in sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish), amphibians and reptiles while both subtypes are present in chicken and most mammals studied. Synteny analysis showed a conserved synteny within same lineages and an inversion of gene order between lineages. An evolutionary rate shift analysis indicated that these genes were under high purifying selection. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive analysis of the evolution and gene repertoire of MRAP and MRAP2. PMID:23370304

Valsalan, Ravisankar; Krishnan, Arunkumar; Almén, Markus Sällman; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B

2013-01-29

337

Differences in Accessory Pathway Location by Sex and Race  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The etiology of accessory pathway formation (AP) is generally unknown. OBJECTIVE Using sex and race as proxies to distinguish genetically different individuals, we sought to test the hypothesis that AP formation is genetically mediated by examining whether AP location differs by sex and/or race. METHODS This was a single center, retrospective cohort study of 282 consecutive patients undergoing their first electrophysiology study that revealed at least one AP between 2004–2008. Sex and race were compared to AP location determined by the invasive electrophysiology study. RESULTS Eighty-nine males (52%) and 40 (36%) females had a left posterior AP (p=0.006). Sixty-four females (57%) had a right annular AP compared to 55 (32%) males (p<0.001). After adjusting for age and race, females had a 2.8 fold greater odds of having a right annular AP compared to males (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70–4.65 greater odds, p<0.001). While right anterior (free wall) pathways were rare in all other races (12%), a significantly larger proportion of Asians (n=10, 26%) had a right anterior AP (p=0.017). After adjusting for sex and age, Asians had a 3.8 fold greater odds of having a right anterior accessory pathway compared to other races (95% CI 1.5–9.4 greater odds, p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS Females more commonly had right annular APs, and Asians had right anterior APs substantially more frequently than other races. These findings suggest that the pathogenesis of AP formation may have a genetic component.

Hsu, Jonathan C; Tannel, Ronn E; Lee, Byron K; Scheinman, Melvin M; Badhwar, Nitish; Lee, Randall J; Tseng, Zian H; Olgin, Jeffrey E; Marcus, Gregory M

2009-01-01

338

Salivary glands - "an unisex organ'?  

PubMed

Usually no distinction is made between female and male salivary glands although cyclic changes of and ? or differences in serum and salivary sex steroid concentrations characterize women and men. Moreover, sexual dimorphism is well recognized in salivary glands of rodents.Salivary glands contain estrogen and androgen receptors and are, according to modern high throughput technologies,subjected to gender differences not explainable by gene dose effects by the X chromosome alone. Because sex steroids are lipophilic, it is often thought that approximately 10% of them passively diffuse from plasma to saliva. Indeed, saliva can find use as sample material in sports medicine, pediatrics, veterinary medicine and behavioral sciences. Last but not least, humans and other primates are unique in that they have a reticular zone in their adrenal cortex, which produces dehydroepiandrosterone and androstendione pro-hormones. These are processed in peripheral tissues, not only in female breast and uterus and male prostate, but also in salivary glands by an intracrine enzymatic machinery to active 17b-estradiol,dihydrotestosterone and others, to satisfy and buffer against a constantly changing needs caused by circadian,menstrual, pregnancy and chronobiological hormonal changes in the systemic circulation. Female dominance of Sjögren's syndrome and certain forms of salivary gland cancer probably reflect these gender-based differences. PMID:20412448

Konttinen, Y T; Stegaev, V; Mackiewicz, Z; Porola, P; Hänninen, A; Szodoray, P

2010-10-01

339

Salivary gland cancer stem cells.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence suggests the existence of a tumorigenic population of cancer cells that demonstrate stem cell-like properties such as self-renewal and multipotency. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC), are able to both initiate and maintain tumor formation and progression. Studies have shown that CSC are resistant to traditional chemotherapy treatments preventing complete eradication of the tumor cell population. Following treatment, CSC are able to re-initiate tumor growth leading to patient relapse. Salivary gland cancers are relatively rare but constitute a highly significant public health issue due to the lack of effective treatments. In particular, patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma, the two most common salivary malignancies, have low long-term survival rates due to the lack of response to current therapies. Considering the role of CSC in resistance to therapy in other tumor types, it is possible that this unique sub-population of cells is involved in resistance of salivary gland tumors to treatment. Characterization of CSC can lead to better understanding of the pathobiology of salivary gland malignancies as well as to the development of more effective therapies. Here, we make a brief overview of the state-of-the-science in salivary gland cancer, and discuss possible implications of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the treatment of salivary gland malignancies. PMID:23810400

Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Nör, Jacques E

2013-06-28

340

Localization and regulation of aromatase liver receptor homologue-1 in the developing rat testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme aromatase converts androgens to estrogens, which have recently been postulated to be essential for testicular development and fertility. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate aromatase activity in the testis may therefore have implications for treatment of male infertility. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, which uses multiple tissue-specific alternative promoters. In the testis, the proximal promoter PII drives

Jayne Sierens; Irumini Jakody; Yogavalli Poobalan; Sarah J. Meachem; Kevin Knower; Morag J. Young; Rosa Sirianni; Vincenzo Pezzi; Colin D. Clyne

2010-01-01

341

A rare testicular solid mass in children: Juvenile granulosa cell tumour of testis.  

PubMed

Juvenile granulosa cell tumour (JGCT) of the testis is a benign neoplasm rarely seen in children. It usually presents as a unilateral scrotal mass and can be associated with genital ambiguity and chromosomal anomalies. Radical orchiectomy is the treatment of choice. We present an infant with a JGCT of the testis and we review the typical findings of the disease. PMID:22511424

Couture, Julie; Bolduc, Stéphane

2012-04-01

342

Expression of a candidate sex-determining gene during mouse testis differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE development of a eutherian mammal as a male is a consequence of testis formation in the embryo, which is thought to be initiated by a gene on the Y chromosome. In the absence of this gene, ovaries are formed and female characteristics develop1. Sex determination therefore hinges on the action of this testis-determining gene, known as Tdy in mice

Peter Koopman; Andrea Münsterberg; Blanche Capel; Nigel Vivian; Robin Lovell-Badge

1990-01-01

343

Modulation of the mouse testis transcriptome during postnatal development and in selected models of male infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to develop an overview of genetic events during spermatogenesis using a novel, specifically targeted gonadal gene set. Two subtracted cDNA libraries enriched for testis specific and germ cell specific genes were constructed, char- acterized and sequenced. The combined libraries contain >1905 different genes, the vast majority previously uncharacterized in testis. cDNA microarray analysis of

P. J. I. Ellis; R. A. Furlong; A. Wilson; S. Morris; D. Carter; G. Oliver; C. Print; P. S. Burgoyne; K. L. Loveland; N. A. Affara

2004-01-01

344

A rare testicular solid mass in children: juvenile granulosa cell tumour of testis  

PubMed Central

Juvenile granulosa cell tumour (JGCT) of the testis is a benign neoplasm rarely seen in children. It usually presents as a unilateral scrotal mass and can be associated with genital ambiguity and chromosomal anomalies. Radical orchiectomy is the treatment of choice. We present an infant with a JGCT of the testis and we review the typical findings of the disease.

Couture, Julie; Bolduc, Stephane

2012-01-01

345

Effects of Nandrolone Decanoate on Ultrastructure of Testis in Male Adult Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To improve the athletic ability and muscle mass, anabolic androgenic steroids are abused by athletes. Lit- tle is known about how these compounds affect the fine struc- tures of the testis. This study aimed to identify the changes in the fine structure of testis following administration of nandro- lone decanoate. Methods: Twenty five Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into

S. F. Mesbah; S. Shokri; S. Karbalay-Doust; H. Mirkhani

2008-01-01

346

One tissue, two fates: molecular genetic events that underlie testis versus ovary development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pivotal point of vertebrate sex determination is the development of the gonad into a testis or ovary, which governs phenotypic sex through the production of hormones. The identification of Sry, the genetic switch that controls testis development in mammals, fuelled the race for the discovery of downstream pathways. Comparative analyses of XY versus XX gonadogenesis in both mouse and

Jennifer Brennan; Blanche Capel

2004-01-01

347

Expression of cancer-testis antigens in lung cancer: definition of bromodomain testis-specific gene (BRDT) as a new CT gene, CT9  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to define new cancer-testis (CT) genes, we investigated whether BRDT, a testis-restricted member of the RING3 family of transcriptional regulators, is also expressed in cancer. Standard RT–PCR expression analysis detected BRDT transcripts in 12 of 47 cases of non-small cell lung cancer and single cases of both squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (1\\/12) and

Matthew J Scanlan; Nasser K Altorki; Ali O Gure; Barbara Williamson; Achim Jungbluth; Yao-Tseng Chen; Lloyd J Old

2000-01-01

348

[Radiofrequency ablation in tachycardias due to accessory pathways in a pediatric population].  

PubMed

Catheter ablation of accessory atrioventricular pathways using radiofrequency current was attempted in 61 children and young adolescents less than 18 years of age who were referred for treatment of symptomatic supraventricular tachycardia. Thirty-three children had the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and 30 tachyarrhythmias related to an accessory pathway conducting only in retrograde fashion. Ablation of left sided accessory pathways was usually attempted utilizing an arterial approach to the annulus of the mitral valve, only in one case we used the transseptal approach, while the venous route to the atrial aspect of the tricuspid valvular annulus was chosen for right sided accessory connections. Ablation of 55 of 63 accessory connections was achieved (87% success) with a range of 1 to 42 applications of radiofrequency current. The sessions were completed within 19 to 180 minutes, and we used within 16 to 45 watts of radiofrequency current. Two patients had complications as a result of their ablation procedure. One patient had complete heart block but did not require pacemaker implantation, and other one had mitral regurgitation. A second session was necessary in three patients, two of three accessory pathways were ablated, giving a success rate of 90%. During a one year period of follow-up, we had 4 recurrences (7.2%). Catheter ablation using radiofrequency current is a highly effective and safe curative approach for treating young patients with supraventricular tachycardia mediated by accessory pathways. PMID:7840718

Iturralde, P; Saucedo, J; Colín, L; Kershenovich, S; Robledo, R; Garrido, A; González-Hermosillo, J A; Buendía, A

349

A Case of Cystic Dysplasia of the Rete Testis in a 17-Months-Old Boy  

PubMed Central

Cystic dysplasia of the testis (CDT) is a benign, congenital malformation of the testis and a rare cause of painless scrotal swelling in children, mimicking testicular cancer. It is commonly unilateral, often associated with ipsilateral wolffian duct and ureteral abnormalities. Cystic dysplasia of the rete testis (CDT) represents a diagnostic challenge made easier if age, precise localisation, typical ultrasonographic features, the presence or absence of associated genitourinary malformations, as well as tumor markers are considered. The definite treatment of such a benign lesion is testis-sparing surgery, however in most cases watch and wait strategy can be recommended. We present a case of cystic dysplasia of the testis in a 17-month-old boy with right multicystic dysplastic kidney, epididymal cyst, history of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), as well as of solitary umbilical artery. We performed epididymidal cyst enucleation and right testicular biopsy.

Poupalou, Anna; Spyridis, George; Vakaki, Marina; Giamarelou, Panagiota; Petousis, George; Nikolaidis, Pantelis

2011-01-01

350

Emerging role for drug transporters at the blood-testis barrier  

PubMed Central

Drug transporters are integral membrane proteins that transport a broad range of substrates into and out of cells usually against a concentration gradient. Studies have shown efflux pumps such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) to localize at the blood-testis barrier (BTB), where they protect the testis from drugs and xenobiotics that are detrimental to spermatogenesis. At the same time, efflux pumps might also preclude entry of non-hormonal contraceptives to the testis. In more recent studies, P-gp function was found to correlate with the integrity of the BTB. In this review, we discuss findings that have made a significant impact on our understanding of efflux pumps in the testis. Modulating efflux pump function via specific inhibitors could help to deliver contraceptives to the testis in the future.

Mruk, Dolores D.; Su, Linlin; Cheng, C. Yan

2011-01-01

351

Production of estradiol by the fetal rat testis.  

PubMed

Testes from 17- to 20-d-old rat fetuses were cultured in vitro for various time intervals in Medium 199 alone or with added gonadotrophins. Estradiol released into the culture media was determined by radioimmunoassay. A basal estradiol secretion rate was inexistant or undetectable at all stages studied. In early stages (17 and 18 d) there was no difference in the stimulatory effect of FSH or LH at the same concentration. At 19 d, the prevalence of FSH became apparent. At 20 d, a significant action of FSH was noted after only 3 h culture time. 1-Methyl-1, 4-androstadiene-3,17-dione, an aromatase inhibitor, markedly depressed FSH-stimulated estradiol secretion. In the 20-d old testis, stimulation of estradiol production by FSH was more rapid and reached a higher level than by (Bu)2cAMP. It is suggested that the difference in the action of LH and FSH reflects the difference in the time of appearance of the corresponding receptors in the developing fetal testis. PMID:8363736

Weniger, J P; Chouraqui, J; Zeis, A

1993-01-01

352

Effects of hyperthermia and radiation on mouse testis stem cells  

SciTech Connect

The response of mouse testis stem cells to hyperthermia and combined hyperthermia-radiation treatments was assayed by spermatogenic colony regrowth, sperm head counts, testis weight loss, and fertility. With the use of spermatogenic colony assay, thermal enhancement ratios at an isosurvival level of 0.1 were 1.27 at 41 degrees, 1.80 at 42 degrees, and 3.97 at 43 degrees for testes exposed to heat for 30 min prior to irradiation. Sperm head counts were reduced by heat alone from a surviving fraction of 0.58 at 41 degrees to 0.003 at 42.5-43.5 degrees. Curves for sperm head survival measured 56 days after the testes had been heated for 30 min prior to irradiation were biphasic and showed a progressive downward displacement to lower survival with increasing temperature. The 41, 42, and 43 degrees curves were displaced downward by factors of 2, 58, and 175, respectively. The proportion of animals remaining sterile after 30 min of heat (41-43 degrees) and the median sterility period in days increased with increasing temperature. The minimum sperm count necessary to regain fertility was 13% of the normal mouse level.

Reid, B.O.; Mason, K.A.; Withers, H.R.; West, J.

1981-11-01

353

Testis differentiation in the fetal and postnatal ferret.  

PubMed Central

Testis development has been examined in a series of 59 fetal and 9 postnatal ferrets from day 22 of the 40-42 day pregnancy, to 12 days after birth. Developing seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells were first seen on day 26, and were well established one day later. Differentiation was associated with cell enlargement and cell division, and consequently the testes grew distinctly more rapidly at this time than the corresponding ovaries. Up to the end of pregnancy the epithelioid interstitial cells, derived from stromal tissue, formed a large proportion of the testis. Lipid was distinguishable in them, histologically, from about day 30. As in various other mammals, there appeared to be some regression of the interstitial Leydig cells around the time of birth, when the seminiferous tubules resumed their growth. The intra-gonadal rete was present from day 22 onwards; it established connexions with the seminiferous tubules through the small tubuli recti by day 32. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14

Deanesly, R

1977-01-01

354

Melatonin, the Pineal Gland and Circadian Rhythms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rat pineal is a component of the circadian clock. Exogenous melatonin entrains the rat clock and does not require the presence of the pineal gland. The pineal gland is important for circadian rhythmicity. Pinealectomy exacerbates the disruptive effect...

V. M. Cassone

1995-01-01

355

Morphology and Volatile Compounds of Metathoracic Scent Gland in Tessaratoma papillosa (Drury) (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae).  

PubMed

Tessaratoma papillosa (Drury) (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae) is a serious insect pest of litchi and longan in South China. When disturbed, this insect could release large quantities of disagreeable odorous volatiles from its scent gland. Knowledge on the scent gland and its secretion is crucial for developing the semiochemical methods to manage this pest. Morphology and ultrastructure of the metathoracic scent glands (MTGs) were studied under stereo and scanning electron microscopy, and the volatile compounds of MTGs from both male and female T. papillosa were analyzed with coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The MTG complex is located between the metathorax and the first abdominal segment at the ventral surface of the insect, which has a well-developed single double valve cystic-shaped orange median reservoir, paired colorless lateral glands in both sides, and a long and wavy tubular accessory gland that inlays tightly into the ventral edge around the median reservoir. The MTG opens to the body surface through paired ostioles located between the meso- and metacoxae of the evaporatorium with mushroom bodies. The GC-MS analyses showed that female and male adults have nine major volatile components in common. Tridecane is the most abundant in both females and males, reaching up to 47.1% and 51.8% of relative amount, respectively. The minor component is benzophenone with only 0.28% and 0.14%. Furthermore, undecane, tetradecane, 3-methyl-tridecane, and cyclopentadecane were found only in males. The possible function of volatile compounds of MTG contents in T. papillosa is addressed. PMID:23950062

Zhao, Dongxiang; Gao, J; Wang, Y; Jiang, J; Li, R

2012-05-30

356

Sensitivity of Salivary Glands to Radiation  

PubMed Central

Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer causes significant secondary side-effects in normal salivary glands, resulting in diminished quality of life for these individuals. Salivary glands are exquisitely sensitive to radiation and display acute and chronic responses to radiotherapy. This review will discuss clinical implications of radiosensitivity in normal salivary glands, compare animal models used to investigate radiation-induced salivary gland damage, address therapeutic advances, and project future directions in the field.

Grundmann, O.; Mitchell, G.C.; Limesand, K.H.

2009-01-01

357

Epidermoid cyst of the submandibular gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary epidermoid cyst of the salivary gland is extremely rare and has only been reported once in the parotid gland A case\\u000a of epidermoid cyst of the submandibular gland is presented, which required excisional biopsy for the diagnosis. Such excision\\u000a is also curative.

Sunil N. Dutt; Y L Hock; Yousuf Saleem; Nazir Bhat; David M East

2000-01-01

358

Intraoral removal of the submandibular gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcervical procedure used for treating sialolithiasis in the submandibular gland has been generally accepted by head and neck surgeons. However, several clinical problems after surgery through the transcervical approach have been described. We introduce a new surgical approach for excision of the submandibular gland indicated in the chronically inflamed salivary gland with or without calculus and benign mixed tumor

Ki Hwan Hong; Young Ki Kim

2000-01-01

359

Malakoplakia of the adrenal gland.  

PubMed Central

The clinical and pathological features of a case of malakoplakia of the adrenal gland occurring in a woman with Escherichia coli infection are described. This lesion mimicked a neoplasm, the true diagnosis only being revealed by histological examination. The light and electron microscopic features are described and it is suggested that malakoplakia is due to an abnormal macrophage response to E coli infection. Images

Benjamin, E; Fox, H

1981-01-01

360

CT of submandibular gland sialolithiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We emphasise the importance of high-resolution CT with reconstruction in the demonstration of submandibular gland (SMG) sialolithiasis and its role in monitoring treatment. We studied 76 patients with swollen and tender SMG, some with fever. They underwent conventional radiography, sonography (US) and high-resolution CT with reconstructions. Conventional radiographs demonstrated single stones in 29 patients. Axial CT, before reconstructions, demonstrated single

E. Avrahami; M. Englender; E. Chen; D. Shabtay; R. Katz; M. Harell

1996-01-01

361

Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... Talk with your doctor for more information. Environmental/occupational exposure. Exposure to sawdust and chemicals used in the leather industry, pesticides, and some industrial solvents may increase the risk of a type of salivary gland cancer that occurs in the nose and sinuses. Other ...

362

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...nuts, washers, screws, nails, tacks, rivets, pins, studs, cotters, pipe fittings such as plugs, tees, ells, and elbows, drain cocks, grease cups, oilers, and similar articles are not of themselves parts or accessories unless so...

2013-04-01

363

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...replacements of worn parts) of automobile parts or accessories, such as fuel pumps, water pumps, carburetors, distributors, shock absorbers, windshield-wiper motors, brake shoes, clutch disks, voltage regulators, and other parts or...

2013-04-01

364

Isolated non-obstructive accessory mitral valve tissue in an adult mimicking ruptured chordae.  

PubMed

Accessory mitral valve tissue is commonly associated with other congenital heart diseases and is usually detected in children causing left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. We present an adult patient with isolated non-obstructive accessory mitral valve tissue that was mimicking ruptured chordae of the mitral valve. Accessory mitral valve tissue in adults is very rare and can mimick various causes of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. This patient represents the first case in literature wherein an unobstructive accessory mitral valve tissue simulated a ruptured chordae. This case illustrates that in patients with suspected mitral valve chordae rupture without any mitral regurgitation, this diagnosis should be considered, which can have therapeutic implications. PMID:23809393

Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Mukhaini, Mohammed

2013-04-10

365

21 CFR 874.4760 - Nasopharyngoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...4760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4760 Nasopharyngoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories....

2013-04-01

366

26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. Spark plugs, storage batteries, leaf springs, coils, timers, and tire chains, which are suitable for use on or in connection...

2009-04-01

367

Accessory cell defect in unresponsiveness of neonates and aged to polysaccharide vaccines.  

PubMed

T independent antigens elicit antibody responses in the absence of carrier specific T helper cells but require signals from accessory cells (macrophages and dendritic cells) or specific cytokines. They are further subdivided into TI-1 and TI-2 categories based on the ability of TI-1 but not TI-2 antigens to elicit immune responses from neonates. Most bacterial polysaccharides including the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines belong to the TI-2 class. It is hypothesized that defects in accessory cell function play a critical role in the failure of neonates to respond to such TI-2 antigens. Immune responses to these TI-2 stimuli are also reduced in the aged, also due to a quantitative deficiency in accessory cells. Agents that can stimulate accessory cell function may provide an alternative strategy to improve the immunogenicity of the polysaccharide vaccines in the neonates and the aged. PMID:11027821

Bondada, S; Wu, H; Robertson, D A; Chelvarajan, R L

2000-10-15

368

Sequential Anterograde and Retrograde Conduction Block during Radiofrequency Ablation of an Accessory Pathway  

PubMed Central

We present an interesting image showing sequential loss of anterograde, and subsequently, retrograde conduction during radiofrequency ablation of an accessory pathway. We discuss the possible mechanisms and prior literature concerning this interesting finding.

Ramasamy, Chandramohan; Ramteke, Rahul; Balachander, Jayaraman; Selvaraj, Raja

2013-01-01

369

One nose, one brain: contribution of the main and accessory olfactory system to chemosensation  

PubMed Central

The accessory olfactory system is present in most tetrapods. It is involved in the perception of chemical stimuli, being implicated also in the detection of pheromones. However, it is sensitive also to some common odorant molecules, which have no clear implication in intraspecific chemical communication. The accessory olfactory system may complement the main olfactory system and may contribute different perceptual features to the construction of a unitary representation, which merges the different chemosensory qualities. Crosstalk between the main and accessory olfactory systems occurs at different levels of central processing, in brain areas where the inputs from the two systems converge. Interestingly, centrifugal projections from more caudal brain areas are deeply involved in modulating both main and accessory sensory processing. A high degree of interaction between the two systems may be conceived and partial overlapping appears to occur in many functions. Therefore, the central chemosensory projections merge inputs from different organs to obtain a complex chemosensory picture.

Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Redaelli, Marco; Caretta, Antonio

2012-01-01

370

Software Modifications to Total Data Reporting Accessory for Metabolic Measurement Cart.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Total Data Reporting Accessory available for the Beckman Metabolic Measurement Cart has characteristics which limit its use in a research laboratory. Storage of test results and retrieval for subsequent analysis is awkward. In addition, metabolic data...

R. W. Nolan C. W. Gibson S. D. Livingstone

1987-01-01

371

21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories....

2013-04-01

372

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4820 Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments. (a)...

2013-04-01

373

29 CFR 1919.28 - Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1919.28 Unit proof testsâcranes and gear accessory thereto. ...paragraph (e) of this section, cranes and other hoisting machines...possible in both directions. If the jib or boom of the crane has a variable radius, it...

2010-07-01

374

29 CFR 1919.28 - Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1919.28 Unit proof testsâcranes and gear accessory thereto. ...paragraph (e) of this section, cranes and other hoisting machines...possible in both directions. If the jib or boom of the crane has a variable radius, it...

2009-07-01

375

21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and...

2009-04-01

376

21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and...

2010-04-01

377

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...bearings, bolts, nuts, washers, screws, nails, tacks, rivets, pins, studs, cotters, pipe fittings such as plugs, tees, ells, and elbows, drain cocks, grease cups, oilers, and similar articles are not of themselves parts or accessories...

2009-04-01

378

Substructure and accessory proteins in scallop myosin filaments  

PubMed Central

Native myosin filaments from scallop striated muscle fray into subfilaments of approximately 100-A diameter when exposed to solutions of low ionic strength. The number of subfilaments appears to be five to seven (close to the sevenfold rotational symmetry of the native filament), and the subfilaments probably coil around one another. Synthetic filaments assembled from purified scallop myosin at roughly physiological ionic strength have diameters similar to those of native filaments, but are much longer. They too can be frayed into subfilaments at low ionic strength. Synthetic filaments share what may be an important regulatory property with native filaments: an order- disorder transition in the helical arrangement of myosin cross-bridges that is induced on activation by calcium, removal of nucleotide, or modification of a myosin head sulfhydryl. Some native filaments from scallop striated muscle carry short "end filaments" protruding from their tips, comparable to the structures associated with vertebrate striated muscle myosin filaments. Gell electrophoresis of scallop muscle homogenates reveals the presence of high molecular weight proteins that may include the invertebrate counterpart of titin, a component of the vertebrate end filament. Although the myosin molecule itself may contain much of the information required to direct its assembly, other factors acting in vivo, including interactions with accessory proteins, probably contribute to the assembly of a precisely defined thick filament during myofibrillogenesis.

1989-01-01

379

Variations in the surface anatomy of the spinal accessory nerve in the posterior triangle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iatrogenic injury to the spinal accessory nerve has been widely documented and can have medico-legal implications. The resulting\\u000a syndrome of pain, paralysis and winging of the scapula are often the source of considerable morbidity. This paper researches\\u000a the degree of accuracy achievable in mapping the surface anatomy of the spinal accessory nerve in the region of the posterior\\u000a triangle with

A Symes; H Ellis

2005-01-01

380

Effects of plants and plant products on the testis  

PubMed Central

For centuries, plants and plant-based products have been used as a valuable and safe natural source of medicines for treating various ailments. The therapeutic potential of most of these plants could be ascribed to their anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antispasmodic, analgesic and various other pharmacological properties. However, several commonly used plants have been reported to adversely affect male reproductive functions in wildlife and humans. The effects observed with most of the plant and plant-based products have been attributed to the antispermatogenic and/or antisteroidogenic properties of one or more active ingredients. This review discusses the detrimental effects of some of the commonly used plants on various target cells in the testis. A deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of action of these natural compounds could pave the way for developing therapeutic strategies against their toxicity.

D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia; Vaithinathan, Selvaraju; Jubendradass, Rajamanickam; Mathur, Premendu Prakash

2010-01-01

381

Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination  

SciTech Connect

The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

1984-08-01

382

Taste perception: from the tongue to the testis.  

PubMed

In mammals, the sense of taste helps in the evaluation and consumption of nutrients, and in avoiding toxic substances and indigestible materials. Distinct cell types expressing unique receptors detect each of the five basic tastes: salty, sour, bitter, sweet and umami. The latter three tastes are detected by two distinct families of G protein-coupled receptors: T2Rs and T1Rs. Interestingly, these taste receptors have been found in tissues other than the tongue, such as the digestive system, respiratory system, brain, testis and spermatozoa. The functional implications of taste receptors distributed throughout the body are unknown. We therefore reviewed the remarkable advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of taste perception in 'taste' and 'non-taste' tissues. We also present our speculations on the direction of further research in the field of male reproduction. PMID:23423265

Li, Feng

2013-02-18

383

Morphological study on pigmented cells in the horse testis.  

PubMed

One of the most attractive characteristics of a horse testis is the change of the weight during development. As the testicular weight changes and the number of Leydig cells decreases, pigments appear in interstitial tissues. In the present study, the characteristics of the pigments found in the interstitial tissues were examined histochemically and ultrastructurally. Specific stainings indicated that the pigmented granules showed almost all of the histological and histochemical characteristics of ceroid or ceroid-like pigment. The cells showed positive reaction for acid phosphatase while the pigmented cells contained a lot of lysosomes ultrastructurally. These results suggest that macrophages might phagocytize Leydig cells, and store their digested materials as ceroid-like pigment. PMID:10563302

Murabayashi, H; Hondo, E; Kitamura, N; Furuoka, H; Taguchi, K; Nambo, Y; Yamada, J

1999-10-01

384

Studies on gonadotropin receptor of rat ovary and testis  

SciTech Connect

The subunit structure of the testicular LH/hCG receptor was studied by a chemical cross-linking technique. Leydig cells isolated from rat testis were incubated with {sup 125}I-hCG, following which the bound {sup 125}I-hCG was covalently cross-linked to the receptor on the cell surface with a cleavable or a non-cleavable cross-linking reagent. The hormone-receptor complex was extracted and then either subjected to gel permeation chromatography under nondenaturing conditions, or resolved by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by autoradiographic analysis. The ovarian LH/hCG receptor was studied with luteal cells from pseudopregnant rats. Purification of the receptor was achieved by ligand affinity chromatography following detergent solubilization of the plasma membrane. The purified hCG receptor displayed properties identical to the membrane bound receptor with regard to binding specificity and affinity, and exhibited a molecular weight of approximately 130,000 dalton.

Zhang, Q.

1989-01-01

385

Birth dates of men with cancer of the testis.  

PubMed Central

A recent rise in the incidence of cancer of the testis in affluent countries and affluent social strata suggests either an iatrogenic effect analogous with adenocarcinoma of the vagina or a prenatal infection analogous with congenital rubella syndrome. Three samples were assembled, two based on registration and one on death certification, and dates of birth were examined for the presence of steps, cycles, and irregular clusters. There was no evidence of a sudden step, and only equivocal evidence of clustering, but there was strong evidence of a temporal cycle. The cycle has a four-month period, analogous with a school-term-related cyclical component identified in other diseases. A prenatal infection is strongly suggested, but the pattern enables us to exclude many of the common childhood infectious fevers.

Knox, E G; Cummins, C

1985-01-01

386

The vanishing testis: a histomorphologic and clinical assessment.  

PubMed

Of patients with cryptorchidism, 5% have no palpable gonad. Physical examination or scrotal exploration demonstrates tissue nubbins or small nodules that constitute the vanishing testis syndrome. At the University of Chicago Hospitals (Chicago, IL; 2004-2008), 30 surgical pathology specimens from 29 patients with this clinical diagnosis underwent scrotal exploration. Histologic and immunohistochemical comparison was done with 7 fetal testes, 8 surgically removed nonneoplastic testes, and 2 cryptorchid testes. Routine histologic studies showed no seminiferous tubules in 18 cases (60%), fibrosis in all (100%), calcifications in 16 (53%), and hemosiderin deposits in 9 (30%). In 12 cases with seminiferous tubules (40%), there were Sertoli cells only. Scrotal exploration in such cases is clinically driven and results in the removal of any tissue present. Although published studies suggest the risk for future tumor development is low, possibly absent, the definitive removal of a testicle is established by an awareness of the histologic spectrum exhibited by testicular remnants. PMID:22095372

Antic, Tatjana; Hyjek, Elizabeth M; Taxy, Jerome B

2011-12-01

387

MicroRNA expression profiling of carcinoma in situ cells of the testis.  

PubMed

Testicular germ cell tumours, seminoma (SE) and non-seminoma (NS), of young adult men develop from a precursor cell, carcinoma in situ (CIS), which resembles foetal gonocytes and retains embryonic pluripotency. We used microarrays to analyse microRNA (miRNA) expression in 12 human testis samples with CIS cells and compared it with miRNA expression profiles of normal adult testis, testis with Sertoli-cell-only that lacks germ cells, testis tumours (SE and embryonal carcinoma (EC), an undifferentiated component of NS) and foetal male and female gonads. Principal components analysis revealed distinct miRNA expression profiles characteristic for each of the different tissue types. We identified several miRNAs that were unique to testis with CIS cells, foetal gonads and testis tumours. These included miRNAs from the hsa-miR-371-373 and -302-367 clusters that have previously been reported in germ cell tumours and three miRNAs (hsa-miR-96, -141 and -200c) that were also expressed in human epididymis. We found several miRNAs that were upregulated in testis tumours: hsa-miR-9, -105 and -182-183-96 clusters were highly expressed in SE, while the hsa-miR-515-526 cluster was high in EC. We conclude that the miRNA expression profile changes during testis development and that the miRNA profile of adult testis with CIS cells shares characteristic similarities with the expression in foetal gonocytes. PMID:22420006

Novotny, Guy Wayne; Belling, Kirstine C; Bramsen, Jesper Bertram; Nielsen, John E; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Almstrup, Kristian; Sonne, Si Brask; Kjems, Jørgen; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Leffers, Henrik

2012-05-24

388

DMRT1 prevents female reprogramming in the postnatal mammalian testis  

PubMed Central

Sex in mammals is determined in the foetal gonad by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome gene Sry, which controls whether bipotential precursor cells differentiate into testicular Sertoli cells or ovarian granulosa cells1. This pivotal decision in a single gonadal cell type ultimately controls sexual differentiation throughout the body. Sex determination can be viewed as a battle for primacy in the foetal gonad between a male regulatory gene network in which Sry activates Sox9 and a female network involving Wnt/?-catenin signaling (Supplemental Fig. 1)2. In females the primary sex-determining decision is not final: loss of the FOXL2 transcription factor in adult granulosa cells can reprogramme granulosa cells into Sertoli cells2. Here we show that sexual fate is also surprisingly labile in the testis: loss of the DMRT1 transcription factor3 in mouse Sertoli cells, even in adults, activates Foxl2 and reprogrammes Sertoli cells into granulosa cells. In this environment, theca cells form, oestrogen is produced, and germ cells appear feminized. Thus Dmrt1 is essential to maintain mammalian testis determination, and competing regulatory networks maintain gonadal sex long after the foetal choice between male and female. Dmrt1 and Foxl2 are conserved throughout vertebrates4,5 and Dmrt1-related sexual regulators are conserved throughout metazoans3. Antagonism between Dmrt1 and Foxl2 for control of gonadal sex may therefore extend beyond mammals. Reprogramming due to loss of Dmrt1 also may help explain the etiology of human syndromes linked to DMRT1, including disorders of sexual differentiation6 and testicular cancer7.

Matson, Clinton K.; Murphy, Mark W.; Sarver, Aaron L.; Griswold, Michael D.; Bardwell, Vivian J.; Zarkower, David

2011-01-01

389

Quantification of sweat gland innervation  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate a novel method to quantify the density of nerve fibers innervating sweat glands in healthy control and diabetic subjects, to compare the results to an unbiased stereologic technique, and to identify the relationship to standardized physical examination and patient-reported symptom scores. Methods: Thirty diabetic and 64 healthy subjects had skin biopsies performed at the distal leg and distal and proximal thigh. Nerve fibers innervating sweat glands, stained with PGP 9.5, were imaged by light microscopy. Sweat gland nerve fiber density (SGNFD) was quantified by manual morphometry. As a gold standard, three additional subjects had biopsies analyzed by confocal microscopy using unbiased stereologic quantification. Severity of neuropathy was measured by standardized instruments including the Neuropathy Impairment Score in the Lower Limb (NIS-LL) while symptoms were measured by the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument. Results: Manual morphometry increased with unbiased stereology (r = 0.93, p < 0.01). Diabetic subjects had reduced SGNFD compared to controls at the distal leg (p < 0.001), distal thigh (p < 0.01), and proximal thigh (p < 0.05). The SGNFD at the distal leg of diabetic subjects decreased as the NIS-LL worsened (r = ?0.89, p < 0.001) and was concordant with symptoms of reduced sweat production (p < 0.01). Conclusions: We describe a novel method to quantify the density of nerve fibers innervating sweat glands. The technique differentiates groups of patients with mild diabetic neuropathy from healthy control subjects and correlates with both physical examination scores and symptoms relevant to sudomotor dysfunction. This method provides a reliable structural measure of sweat gland innervation that complements the investigation of small fiber neuropathies. GLOSSARY AOI = area of interest; CI = confidence interval; ICC = intraclass correlation coefficient; IENFD = intraepidermal nerve fiber density; IgG = immunoglobulin G; NIS-LL = Neuropathy Impairment Score in the Lower Limb; PLP = paraformaldehyde-lysine-periodate; QSART = quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test; SGNFD = sweat gland nerve fiber density; TH = tyrosine hydroxylase.

Gibbons, Christopher H.; Illigens, Ben M. W.; Wang, Ningshan; Freeman, Roy

2009-01-01

390

Identification of Accessory Spleens During Laparoscopic Splenectomy Is Superior to Preoperative Computed Tomography for Detection of Accessory Spleens  

PubMed Central

Background: Missed accessory spleen (AcS) can cause recurrence of hematologic disease after splenectomy. The objective of the study was to determine whether detection of AcS is more accurate with preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan or with exploration during laparoscopic splenectomy. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for 75 adult patients who underwent laparoscopic splenectomy for various hematologic disorders from 1999 to 2009. Preoperative CT scans were performed in all patients. Patients were followed for recurrence of disease, and a scintigraphy scan was performed in those with suspected missed AcS. Results: The most common diagnosis was idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in 29 patients (39%), followed by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in 22 patients (29%). Sixteen AcSs were found during surgery in 15 patients (20%), and preoperative CT scan identified 2 of these. Twelve AcSs were located at the splenic hilum (75%). Nine patients experienced recurrence of their disease, and none had a missed AcS on subsequent scintigraphy. Sensitivity of exploratory laparoscopy for detection of AcS was 100%, and for preoperative CT scan was 12.5% (P = .005). Conclusion: Exploratory laparoscopy during splenectomy is more accurate than preoperative imaging with CT scan for detection of AcS. Preoperative CT scan misses AcS frequently and should not be obtained for the purpose of its identification.

Pahuja, Anil K.; Nemeth, Zoltan H.; Abkin, Alexander; Carter, Mitchel S.

2012-01-01

391

Sonography of the salivary glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Due to their superficial position, the parotid, the submandibular, and the sublingual glands can be imaged with high-resolution\\u000a transducers. In acute inflammatory diseases sonography can differentiate between obstructive or non-obstructive sialoadenitis.\\u000a Abscess formations may be detected and the maturation of the colliquation may be controlled. Abscesses may be punctured under\\u000a US guidance. In Sjögren's syndrome the sonographic changes correlate

N. Gritzmann; T. Rettenbacher; A. Hollerweger; P. Macheiner; E. Hübner

2003-01-01

392

Sonography of the salivary glands.  

PubMed

Due to their superficial position, the parotid, the submandibular, and the sublingual glands can be imaged with high-resolution transducers. In acute inflammatory diseases sonography can differentiate between obstructive or non-obstructive sialoadenitis. Abscess formations may be detected and the maturation of the colliquation may be controlled. Abscesses may be punctured under US guidance. In Sjögren's syndrome the sonographic changes correlate with the histological destruction, and in acute forms hypervascularization is found in color Doppler. In fibrotic cases the stimulation-induced hyperemia is impaired. In sialoadenosis inflammatory and tumorous lesions can be ruled out by sonography. Tumors of the salivary glands can be visualized with high sensitivity. Like other imaging methods the specificity in assessment of the histology of a tumor is low. Multilocular lesions, such as sarcoidosis, lymphoma, metastases, or cystadenolymphoma, are discussed. In deep located, malignant tumors or when the tumor cannot be delineated completely, MR or CT are obligatory to delineate the tumor. Sonography enables the diagnosis of cysts or ranulae. The accuracy of sonography in assessment of sialolithiasis is approximately 90%. Non-opaque stones can be visualized, too; however, small stones of less than 2 mm are difficult to detect since the posterior shadow may be missing. The concrements can be differentiated into intraductal or intraglandular stones. Indirect signs, such as ductal dilatations or inflammatory changes, may be found. Pseudotumorous lesions, such as hypertrophy of the masseter muscle, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, or lymphoepithelial lesions in AIDS, are discussed. In children the main differential diagnosis of salivary gland pathologies are addressed. In many diseases sonography is the first-line imaging modality in assessment of salivary glands. PMID:12695816

Gritzmann, N; Rettenbacher, T; Hollerweger, A; Macheiner, P; Hübner, E

2002-09-05

393

Sécrétions apocrines et glandes annexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resume  Le spermatozoïde quittant le testicule est incapable d’activité transcriptionnelle ou traductionnelle. Malgré cela, la composition\\u000a en macromolécules de la surface du spermatozoïde subit des modifications majeures au cours de son passage dans le tractus\\u000a reproducteur mâle. Ceci s’explique par l’interaction entre les sécrétions des différentes glandes du tractus reproducteur\\u000a mâle et le spermatozoïde. Le mécanisme d’ancrage à la surface du

Robert Sullivan; Gilles Frenette; Christine Legare

2005-01-01

394

[Ultrasound of the salivary glands].  

PubMed

In acute inflammatory diseases sonography can differentiate between obstructive or non-obstructive sialoadenitis. Abscess formations may be detected and the maturation of the colliquation may be controlled. Abscesses may be punctured under US guidance. In Sjögren's syndrome the sonographic changes correlate with the histological destruction, in acute forms hypervascularisation is found in color Doppler. In fibrotic cases the stimulation-induced hyperemia is impaired. In sialoadenosis inflammatory and tumorous lesions can be ruled out by sonography. Tumors of the salivary glands can be visualized with high sensitivity. Like other imaging methods the specificity in assessment of the histology of a tumor is low. Multilocular lesions as sarcoidosis, lymphoma, metastases or cystadenolymphoma are discussed. In deep located, malignant tumors or when the tumor cannot be delineated completely, MR or CT are obligatory to delineate the tumor. Sonography enables the diagnosis of cysts or ranulae. The accuracy of sonography in assessment of sialolithiasis is about 90 %. Non-opaque stones can be visualized, too. However, small stones of less than 2 mm are difficult to detect since the posterior shadow may be missing. The concrements can be differentiated into intraductal or intraglandular stones. Indirect signs like ductal dilatations or inflammatory changes may be found. Pseudotumorous lesions as hypertrophy of the masseter muscle, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or lymphoepithelial lesions in AIDS are discussed. In children the main differential diagnosis of salivary gland pathologies are addressed. In many diseases sonography is the first line imaging modality in assessment of salivary glands. PMID:19148852

Gritzmann, N

2009-01-15

395

VPAC receptors: structure, molecular pharmacology and interaction with accessory proteins  

PubMed Central

The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide with wide distribution in both central and peripheral nervous systems, where it plays important regulatory role in many physiological processes. VIP displays a large biological functions including regulation of exocrine secretions, hormone release, fetal development, immune responses, etc. VIP appears to exert beneficial effect in neuro-degenerative and inflammatory diseases. The mechanism of action of VIP implicates two subtypes of receptors (VPAC1 and VPAC2), which are members of class B receptors belonging to the super-family of GPCR. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the structure and molecular pharmacology of VPAC receptors. The structure–function relationship of VPAC1 receptor has been extensively studied, allowing to understand the molecular basis for receptor affinity, specificity, desensitization and coupling to adenylyl cyclase. Those studies have clearly demonstrated the crucial role of the N-terminal ectodomain (N-ted) of VPAC1 receptor in VIP recognition. By using different approaches including directed mutagenesis, photoaffinity labelling, NMR, molecular modelling and molecular dynamic simulation, it has been shown that the VIP molecule interacts with the N-ted of VPAC1 receptor, which is itself structured as a ‘Sushi’ domain. VPAC1 receptor also interacts with a few accessory proteins that play a role in cell signalling of receptors. Recent advances in the structural characterization of VPAC receptor and more generally of class B GPCRs will lead to the design of new molecules, which could have considerable interest for the treatment of inflammatory and neuro-degenerative diseases. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Secretin Family (Class B) G Protein-Coupled Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.166.issue-1

Couvineau, Alain; Laburthe, Marc

2012-01-01

396

Regulation of the epithelial sodium channel by accessory proteins.  

PubMed Central

The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is of fundamental importance in the control of sodium fluxes in epithelial cells. Modulation of sodium reabsorption through the distal nephron ENaC is an important component in the overall control of sodium balance, blood volume and thereby of blood pressure. This is clearly demonstrated by rare genetic disorders of sodium-channel activity (Liddle's syndrome and pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1), associated with contrasting effects on blood pressure. The mineralocorticoid aldosterone is a well-established modulator of sodium-channel activity. Considerable insight has now been gained into the intracellular signalling pathways linking aldosterone-mediated changes in gene transcription with changes in ion transport. Activating pathways include aldosterone-induced proteins and especially the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) and the small G-protein, K-Ras 2A. Targeting of the ENaC for endocytosis and degradation is now emerging as a major mechanism for the down-regulation of channel activity. Several proteins acting in concert are an intrinsic part of this process but Nedd4 (neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated 4) is of central importance. Other mechanisms known to interact with ENaC and affect sodium transport include channel-activating protease 1 (CAP-1), a membrane-anchored protein, and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator. The implications of research on accessory factors controlling ENaC activity are wide-ranging. Understanding cellular mechanisms controlling ENaC activity may provide a more detailed insight not only of ion-channel abnormalities in cystic fibrosis but also of the link between abnormal renal sodium transport and essential hypertension.

Gormley, Kelly; Dong, Yanbin; Sagnella, Giuseppe A

2003-01-01

397

EFFECT OF INFLAMMATION ON LACRIMAL GLAND FUNCTION  

PubMed Central

The lacrimal gland is the main contributor to the aqueous layer of the tear film. It secretes proteins, electrolytes and water, which helps to nourish and protect the ocular surface. Lacrimal gland secretion is primarily under neural control, which is achieved through a neural reflex arc. Stimuli to the ocular surface activate afferent sensory nerves in the cornea and conjunctiva. This in turn activates efferent parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves in the lacrimal gland to stimulate secretion. Sex steroid hormones are also important regulators of lacrimal gland functions. A decrease or lack of lacrimal gland secretion is the leading cause of aqueous tear deficient dry eye syndrome (DES). It has been suggested that DES is an inflammatory disorder that affects the ocular surface and the lacrimal gland. In several pathological instances, the lacrimal gland can become a target of the immune system and show signs of inflammation. This can result from autoimmune diseases (Sjögren's syndrome), organ transplantation (graft versus host disease), or simply as a result of aging. The hallmarks of lacrimal gland inflammation are the presence of focal lymphocytic infiltrates and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. The mechanisms leading to lacrimal gland dysfunction are still poorly understood. Apoptosis, production of autoantibodies, hormonal imbalance, alterations in signaling molecules, neural dysfunction, and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines have been proposed as possible mediators of lacrimal gland insufficiency in disease states.

Zoukhri, Driss

2005-01-01

398

The impact of long-term exposure to space environment on adult mammalian organisms: a study on mouse thyroid and testis.  

PubMed

Hormonal changes in humans during spaceflight have been demonstrated but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. To clarify this point thyroid and testis/epididymis, both regulated by anterior pituitary gland, have been analyzed on long-term space-exposed male C57BL/10 mice, either wild type or pleiotrophin transgenic, overexpressing osteoblast stimulating factor-1. Glands were submitted to morphological and functional analysis.In thyroids, volumetric ratios between thyrocytes and colloid were measured. cAMP production in 10(-7)M and 10(-8)M thyrotropin-treated samples was studied. Thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were quantitized by immunoblotting and localized by immunofluorescence. In space-exposed animals, both basal and thyrotropin-stimulated cAMP production were always higher. Also, the structure of thyroid follicles appeared more organized, while thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were overexpressed. Unlike the control samples, in the space samples thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were both observed at the intracellular junctions, suggesting their interaction in specific cell membrane microdomains.In testes, immunofluorescent reaction for 3?- steroid dehydrogenase was performed and the relative expressions of hormone receptors and interleukin-1? were quantified by RT-PCR. Epididymal sperm number was counted. In space-exposed animals, the presence of 3? and 17? steroid dehydrogenase was reduced. Also, the expression of androgen and follicle stimulating hormone receptors increased while lutenizing hormone receptor levels were not affected. The interleukin 1 ? expression was upregulated. The tubular architecture was altered and the sperm cell number was significantly reduced in spaceflight mouse epididymis (approx. -90% vs. laboratory and ground controls), indicating that the space environment may lead to degenerative changes in seminiferous tubules.Space-induced changes of structure and function of thyroid and testis/epididymis could be responsible for variations of hormone levels in human during space missions. More research, hopefully a reflight of MDS, would be needed to establish whether the space environment acts directly on the peripheral glands or induces changes in the hypotalamus-pituitary-glandular axis. PMID:22558148

Masini, Maria Angela; Albi, Elisabetta; Barmo, Cristina; Bonfiglio, Tommaso; Bruni, Lara; Canesi, Laura; Cataldi, Samuela; Curcio, Francesco; D'Amora, Marta; Ferri, Ivana; Goto, Katsumasa; Kawano, Fuminori; Lazzarini, Remo; Loreti, Elisabetta; Nakai, Naoya; Ohira, Takashi; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Palmero, Silvio; Prato, Paola; Ricci, Franco; Scarabelli, Linda; Shibaguchi, Tsubasa; Spelat, Renza; Strollo, Felice; Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco Saverio

2012-04-25

399

Reproductive Organ of Blow Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Ultrastructural of Testis  

PubMed Central

This work presents the ultrastructure of testis of the medically important blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) using light microscopy and electron microscopy. Reproductive organ of males was dissected to determine the testis in the pupal stage, 3-day-old flies and 7-day-old flies and observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEM displayed a smooth surface which is occasionally penetrated by tracheoles. TEM of the testis in the pupal stage presents the thick testis wall covering underdeveloped cells containing a variable size of an electron-dense globule. For the 3-day-old males, the testicular wall is formed by an external layer, a peritoneal sheath, a muscular layer, a basement membrane, and a follicular epithelium. Follicular epithelium presented developing spermatozoa. Regarding the 7-day-old males, development of spermatozoa is apparent, displaying nucleus, centriolar adjunct, axoneme, and mitochondrial derivatives, with the 9 + 9 + 2 microtubule pattern of axoneme.

Sukontason, Kabkaew L.; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Chaisri, Urai; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sanford, Michelle; Sukontason, Kom

2011-01-01

400

Diethylstilbestrol impairs the morphology and function of mouse gubernaculum testis in culture.  

PubMed

Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a nonsteroidal synthetic estrogen widely used in estrogen therapy. In animal models, exposure to DES disrupts the outgrowth of the gubernacula, leading to testis maldescent. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of DES on gubernaculum are direct or indirect, and the underlying mechanisms are largely obscure. In this study, mouse gubernaculum testis cells were isolated and treated by DES, and cell morphology and function were examined. The results showed that DES changed the morphology and inhibited the proliferation of gubernacular cells. Furthermore, DES increased intracellular [Ca(2+)] and induced F-actin rearrangement and stress fiber formation in gubernaculum testis cells in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these data suggest that DES impairs the morphology and inhibits the proliferation and contractility of gubernaculum testis cells. The experimental model we established and our observations based on this model help provide new insight into the role of DES in the etiology of cryptorchidism. PMID:22945456

Zhang, Xuan; Li, Jian-hong; Ma, Lian; Huang, Tian-hua; Jiang, Xue-wu

2012-09-04

401

GPR56 Is Essential for Testis Development and Male Fertility in Mice  

PubMed Central

Testis development is essential for male fertility and continuation of the mammalian species. Essential structural components of testes are seminiferous tubules, which are lined by Sertoli cells and provide nutrients and physical protection for the maturation of sperm. Seminiferous tubule formation is initiated in embryos as testis cords and relies on their remodeling for maturation during development. Recently, 3-D image analyses showed that testis cords in different parts of embryonic gonads undergo distinct remodeling processes. How this asymmetric remodeling is regulated has not been investigated. We report here that the absence of an adhesion G protein-coupled receptor, GPR56, leads to partial disruption of seminiferous tubules and reduced fertility in male mice. The defects appear to originate asymmetrically in embryonic gonads, but subsequent to the initial establishment of testis cords, suggesting that GPR56 might act to establish a spatial and/or temporal cue for asymmetric cord remodeling during male gonad development.

Chen, Guangchun; Yang, Liquan; Begum, Shahinoor; Xu, Lei

2010-01-01

402

Cavernous Hemangiolymphangioma of the Testis without Cutaneous Hemangiomatosis in an Elderly Patient  

PubMed Central

Hemangiolymphangioma is an extremely rare malformation of both the lymphatic and blood vessels. To date, however, there are no reports in the literature of a hemangiolymphangioma of the testis. An 84-year-old man visited our hospital for investigation of a 1-month episode of a rapidly growing mass in his right scrotum. Scrotal ultrasonography revealed a multilobulated mass with septation in the testis. Testicular tumor markers were within the normal limit. Radical orchiectomy was performed. At surgery, a red, wide-based, nodular tumor was found on the testis. Histological examination of the resected specimen showed it to be a cavernous hemangiolymphangioma. Here we report this first case of a cavernous hemangiolymphangioma of the testis without cutaneous hemangiomatosis in an elderly patient.

Shin, Yu Seob; Doo, A Ram; Kim, Myung Ki; Jeong, Young Beom

2012-01-01

403

Transcutaneous high-intensity focused ultrasonography can cure testicular cancer in solitary testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo report the long-term results in 7 patients (including the 5-year results in 3 patients) after high-intensity focused ultrasonography (HIFU) combined with irradiation to treat testicular tumors in a solitary testis.

C. Kratzik; G. Schatzl; J. Lackner; M. Marberger

2006-01-01

404

The absence of premalignant changes in the cryptorchid testis before adulthood.  

PubMed

Previous investigators have reported that premalignant changes in the form of abnormal germ cells can be detected in the cryptorchid and infertile adult testis. These cells are characterized by a thin rim of pale-staining cytoplasm, a large hyperchromatic nucleus and prominent nucleoli. We studied 113 biopsies from 102 patients to determine if these abnormal germ cells occur in the nonadult cryptorchid testis. The patients ranged in age from 3 months to 16 years. Evaluation of testicular tissue by light microscopy disclosed histological alterations in the undescended testis, which were those commonly ascribed to the undescended testis. However, none of the changes could be interpreted as premalignant. The abnormal germ cells described by other investigators were not found in any of these specimens. PMID:6142124

Muffly, K E; McWhorter, C A; Bartone, F F; Gardner, P J

1984-03-01

405

Early prepubertal testis criteria, seminiferous epithelium and hormone concentrations as related to testicular development in beef bulls.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to evaluate testis size, spermatogenesis and hormone concentrations before and when peripheral testosterone reached 1 ng/ml as related to further gonad development of beef bulls (n=28). Blood samples were taken weekly starting at 10 weeks (wk) and when testosterone reached 1 ng/ml (AGE1), the left testis was surgically excised. From AGE1 until 54 wk, blood samples were collected to follow basal and GnRH-stimulated hormone profiles. At 54 wk, the second testis was removed. Testosterone reached 1 ng/ml at 20±0.6 wk and, at this developmental state, the seminiferous tubules occupied 57±1.1% of the testis parenchyma. At this phase, 79.3±1.4% of tubule sections had no germ cells and only 2.4±0.3% of the remaining tubules had spermatocytes as the most advanced germ cell type. Also at AGE1, testis size was correlated with the number of Sertoli cells per testis (r=0.67; P<0.05), but not (P>0.05) with the percentage of tubules with germ cells. There was a consistent increase in body weight and testis size throughout the study showing that hemicastration did not impair the development of the bulls. At 54 wk, seminiferous tubules represented 76±0.7% of the testis parenchyma and 72.3±1.7% of tubule sections were found with either round or elongated spermatids. Quantitative criteria of spermatogenesis in the second testis (excised at 54 wk) were not correlated (P>0.05) with the percentage of seminiferous tubules with germ cells in the first testis (excised at AGE1). As determined by regression analysis, testis diameter measured between 30 and 44 wk (AVTD) was associated with AGE1 and testis diameter averaged at 12 wk and AGE1 (R(2)=0.77; P<0.01). Also, AVTD was related to AGE1, testis diameter at 12 wk and concentrations of 17?-estradiol (estradiol; basal+GnRH-stimulated) averaged between 10 wk and AGE1 (R(2)=0.79; P<0.01). Yearling testis weight, in turn, was linked to AGE1 and testis weight at AGE1 (R(2)=0.49, P<0.01). In conclusion, early detection of 1 ng of testosterone/ml, larger testis size and greater estradiol before and at that developmental period positively relate to future testis attributes. When testosterone reached 1 ng/ml, the seminiferous tubules had Sertoli cells, spermatogonia and a few spermatocytes and events occurring before and at that phase are potential markers of testis growth and sperm-producing capacity of sires. PMID:21333471

Moura, Arlindo A; Souza, Carlos Eduardo A; Erickson, Bert H

2011-02-01

406

Disruption of the blood-testis barrier integrity by bisphenol A in vitro: Is this a suitable model for studying blood-testis barrier dynamics?  

PubMed Central

Bisphenol A, an estrogenic environmental toxicant, has been implicated to have hazardous effects to reproductive health in humans and rodents. However, there are conflicting reports in the literature regarding its effects to male reproductive function. In this study, it was shown that in adult rats treated with acute doses of bisphenol A, a small but statistically insignificant percentage of seminiferous tubules in the testes displayed signs of germ cell loss, consistent with some earlier reports. It also failed to disrupt the blood-testis barrier in vivo. This is possibly due to the low bioavailability of free bisphenol A in the systemic circulation. However, bisphenol A disrupted the blood-testis barrier when administered to immature 20-day-old rats, consistent with earlier reports concerning the higher susceptibility of immature rats towards bisphenol A. This observation was confirmed using primary Sertoli cells cultured in vitro with established tight junction-permeability barrier that mimicked the blood-testis barrier in vivo. The reversible disruption of Sertoli cell tight junction barrier by bisphenol A was associated with an activation of ERK, and a decline in the levels of selected proteins at the tight junction, basal ectoplasmic specialization, and gap junction at the blood-testis barrier. Studies by dual-labeled immunofluorescence analysis and biotinylation techniques also illustrated declining levels of occludin, connexin 43, and N-cadherin at the cell-cell interface following bisphenol A treatment. In summary, bisphenol A reversibly perturbs the integrity of the blood-testis barrier in Sertoli cells, which can also serve as a suitable model for studying the dynamics of the blood-testis barrier.

Li, Michelle W. M.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

2012-01-01

407

Interleukin18 is expressed in rat testis and may promote germ cell growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although host-defence mechanisms, designed to preserve the integrity of the developing germ cells are operative in the testis, the components of this protective system have yet to be characterised in detail. Here, we report that the cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) is expressed in the rat testis and may contribute to these defences. Thus, analysis by RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed pronounced

Mona-Lisa Strand; Aida Wahlgren; Konstantin Svechnikov; Cecilia Zetterström; Brian P. Setchell; Olle Söder

2005-01-01

408

Evaluation of developing rat testis by phosporus 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and DNA flowcytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the assessment of germ-cell maturation of the seminiferous tubules, DNA flowcytometry is a rapid and sensitive method.\\u000a Phosporus 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive alternative that demonstrates the metabolic status of the testis,\\u000a reflecting the type and relative proportion of germ cells in the testis. This study was designed to evaluate the utility of\\u000a 31P MRS in

M. Srinivas; M. Degaonkar; D. K. Gupta; P. Raghunathan; S. N. Das; D. K. Mitra

2001-01-01

409

Two distinct origins for Leydig cell progenitors in the fetal testis  

PubMed Central

During the differentiation of the mammalian embryonic testis, two compartments are defined: the testis cords and the interstitium. The testis cords give rise to the adult seminiferous tubules, whereas steroidogenic Leydig cells and other less well characterized cell types differentiate in the interstitium (the space between testis cords). Although the process of testis cord formation is essential for male development, it is not entirely understood. It has been viewed as a Sertoli-cell driven process, but growing evidence suggests that interstitial cells play an essential role during testis formation. However, little is known about the origin of the interstitium or the molecular and cellular diversity within this early stromal compartment. To better understand the process of mammalian gonad differentiation, we have undertaken an analysis of developing interstitial/stromal cells in the early mouse testis and ovary. We have discovered molecular heterogeneity in the interstitium and have characterized new markers of distinct cell types in the gonad: MAFB, C-MAF, and VCAM1. Our results show that at least two distinct progenitor lineages give rise to the interstitial/stromal compartment of the gonad: the coelomic epithelium and specialized cells along the gonad-mesonephros border. We demonstrate that both these populations give rise to interstitial precursors that can differentiate into fetal Leydig cells. Our analysis also reveals that perivascular cells migrate into the gonad from the mesonephric border along with endothelial cells and that these vessel-associated cells likely represent an interstitial precursor lineage. This study highlights the cellular diversity of the interstitial cell population and suggests that complex cell-cell interactions among cells in the interstitium are involved in testis morphogenesis.

DeFalco, Tony; Takahashi, Satoru; Capel, Blanche

2011-01-01

410

Screening for carcinoma in situ of the contralateral testis in patients with germinal testicular cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and fifty biopsy specimens from the contralateral testis in patients with unilateral germinal testicular cancer were analysed by light microscopy for carcinoma-in-situ changes. Changes were found in 13 (5.2%) patients. One-third of patients with an atrophic contralateral testis (volume less than or equal to 12 ml) and one-fifth of patients with a history of cryptorchidism had changes in

J G Berthelsen; N E Skakkebaek; H von der Maase; B L Sørensen; P Mogensen

1982-01-01

411

Evidence of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in the testis of prepubertal diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier, we have shown the occurrence of oxidative impairments and their progression in the testis of diabetic adult rats. This study investigated the vulnerability of immature testis to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in a prepubertal (PP) diabetic rat model. PP male rats (4\\/6-week-old) rendered diabetic by an acute dose of streptozotocin were monitored for induction of oxidative stress in

K N Chandrashekar; Muralidhara

2009-01-01

412

Novel testis- and embryo-specific isoforms of the phosphofructokinase-1 muscle type gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified novel transcriptional isoforms of the human and mouse genes encoding muscle type phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-M). These isoforms are expressed specifically in the testis and in the mid-gestation embryo, and have been termed TE-PFK-M (testis- and embryo-specific PFK-M). The 5?UTR of TE-PFK-M is composed of three newly identified exons that lie much farther upstream of the PFK-M coding region

Satoru Yamada; Hiromu Nakajima; Michael R Kuehn

2004-01-01

413

Basal cell adenocarcinoma of lacrimal gland.  

PubMed

Basal cell adenocarcinoma (BCAC) is a recently described rare salivary gland tumor. They are locally invasive and destructive tumors with rare incidence of metastasis. BCAC most commonly occur in the parotid gland followed by the submandibular and other minor salivary glands. The primary management of these tumors is surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy. Lacrimal gland is a very rare location of BCAC; only one case has been reported in English literature. We report a case of recurrent basal cell adenocarcinoma of lacrimal gland in a 75-year-old female. She had past history of local excision of a tumor in the lacrimal gland of same side 10 years back, details of which were not available with the patient. We discuss about the case and review the literature about treatment modality in basal cell adenocarcinoma. PMID:22132848

Muduly, Dillip K; Deo, S V S; Shukla, Nootan Kumar; Yadav, Rajni; Kallianpur, Ashwin A; Samantara, Subrat

2011-12-01

414

0610009K11Rik, a testis-specific and germ cell nuclear receptor-interacting protein  

SciTech Connect

Using an in silico approach, a putative nuclear receptor-interacting protein 0610009K11Rik was identified in mouse testis. We named this gene testis-specific nuclear receptor-interacting protein-1 (Tnrip-1). Tnrip-1 was predominantly expressed in the testis of adult mouse tissues. Expression of Tnrip-1 in the testis was regulated during postnatal development, with robust expression in 14-day-old or older testes. In situ hybridization analyses showed that Tnrip-1 is highly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes and spermatids. Consistent with its mRNA expression, Tnrip-1 protein was detected in adult mouse testes. Immunohistochemical studies showed that Tnrip-1 is a nuclear protein and mainly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation analyses showed that endogenous Tnrip-1 protein can interact with germ cell nuclear receptor (GCNF) in adult mouse testes. Our results suggest that Tnrip-1 is a testis-specific and GCNF-interacting protein which may be involved in the modulation of GCNF-mediated gene transcription in spermatogenic cells within the testis.

Zhang Heng; Denhard, Leslie A.; Zhou Huaxin; Liu Lanhsin [Birth Defects Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Dental Building Room 203B, 501 S. Preston Street, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Lan Zijian [Birth Defects Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Dental Building Room 203B, 501 S. Preston Street, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)], E-mail: z0lan001@gwise.louisville.edu

2008-02-22

415

Prostate gland: Structure, functions and regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. It secretes enzymes, lipids, amines and metal ions essential\\u000a for the normal function of spermatozoa. Development, differentiation and maintenance of the prostate gland depend on steroid\\u000a and peptide hormones. Beside hormones growth factors also regulate the prostate gland. This review will focus on the structure,\\u000a functions and mode of regulation

V. L. Kumar; P. K. Majumder

1995-01-01

416

Circadian clock system in the pineal gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ that functions as a central circadian oscillator in a variety of nonmammalian vertebrates.\\u000a In many cases, the pineal gland retains photic input and endocrinal-output pathways both linked tightly to the oscillator.\\u000a This contrasts well with the mammalian pineal gland equipped only with the output of melatonin production that is subject\\u000a to neuronal regulation

Yoshitaka Fukada; Toshiyuki Okano

2002-01-01

417

MRI of the Fetal Endocrine Glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Prenatal pathologies of the endocrine glands are generally rare, and reports in the literature about the use of fetal MRI\\u000a for this purpose are still scarce. However, sonography and postnatal MR literature can help to assess the examination. For\\u000a the pituitary gland, a T1w sequence is recommended to visualize the typical bright spot of the whole fetal gland. Possible\\u000a pathologies

Maria Theresa Schmook

418

A permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia with an atypically located accessory pathway successfully ablated from within the middle cardiac vein.  

PubMed

Permanent form of junctional reciprocating tachycardia (PJRT) is an uncommon form of atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia due to an accessory pathway characterized by slow and decremental retrograde conduction. The majority of accessory pathways in PJRT are localized in the posteroseptal zone. Despite the high success rate, failure may occur during endocardial radiofrequency catheter ablation due to epicardial insertion of the accessory pathway. We report a case of PJRT in a 25-year-old man in whom the accessory pathway was located epicardially in the posteroinferior region and ablated from within the middle cardiac vein by radiofrequency catheter ablation. PMID:16715194

Amasyali, Basri; Kose, Sedat; Aytemir, Kudret; Kilic, Ayhan; Kursaklioglu, Hurkan; Isik, Ersoy

2006-05-01

419

Evaluation of a Tier I Screening Battery for Detecting Endocrine-Active Compounds (EACs) Using the Positive Controls Testosterone, Coumestrol, Progesterone, and RU486  

Microsoft Academic Search

changes of the testis (Leydig cell atrophy). In the YTS, PROG activated gene transcription in the yeast containing the AR or PR. In the female battery, RU486 administration increased uterine weight and decreased uterine stromal cell proliferation. In the male battery, RU486 decreased epididymis and accessory sex gland weights and increased serum FSH and LH concentrations. In the YTS, RU486

John C. O'Connor; Leonard G. Davis; Steven R. Frame; Jon C. Cook

2000-01-01

420

Reproductive soundness of captive southern and northern white rhinoceroses ( Ceratotherium simum simum, C.s. cottoni): evaluation of male genital tract morphology and semen quality before and after cryopreservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

White rhinoceroses suffer from a low rate of reproduction in captivity. This study examines the role of male reproductive function as a contributing factor. We used ultrasonography to image accessory sex glands, testis and epididymis. Electroejaculation provided 36 ejaculates from 21 rhinoceroses. Based on the percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa, semen was categorized in three groups, high (I: >75%), intermediate

Robert Hermes; Thomas Bernd Hildebrandt; Steffen Blottner; Christian Walzer; Sandra Silinski; Marilyn L. Patton; Gudrun Wibbelt; Franz Schwarzenberger; Frank Göritz

2005-01-01

421

Profiling Gene Expression During Gland Morphogenesis of a Glanded and a Glandless Upland Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pigment gland is an important character of the Gossypium plant. With the aim of identifying genes involved in pigment gland morphogenesis in cotton, gene expression during pigment\\u000a gland morphogenesis in Chuan 2802, which is glanded both in seed and plant, and a glandless line N5 was profiled using Affymetrix\\u000a Cotton microarray. The results showed that there were 564 differentially

Ying-Fan Cai; Min Chen; Quan Sun; Yong-Fang Xie; Sheng-Wei Li; Ming-Feng Jiang; Jian-Chuan Mo; You-Lu Yuan; Yu-Zhen Shi; Huai-Zhong Jiang; Zheng Pan; Yun-Ling Gao; Peng-Sheng Ye; Hua-Lan Zeng

2009-01-01

422

Structure and diversity in mammalian accessory olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) is the first neural integrative center for the olfactory-like vomeronasal sensory system. In this article, we first briefly present an overview of vomeronasal system organization and review the history of the discovery of mammalian AOB. Next, we briefly review the evolution of the vomeronasal system in vertebrates, in particular the reptiles. Following these introductory aspects, the structure of the rodent AOB, as typical of the well-developed mammalian AOB, is presented, detailing laminar organization and cell types as well as aspects of the homology with the main olfactory bulb. Then, the evolutionary origin and diversity of the AOB in mammalian orders and species is discussed, describing structural, phylogenetic, and species-specific variation in the AOB location, shape, and size and morphologic differentiation and development. The AOB is believed to be absent in fishes but present in terrestrial tetrapods including amphibians; among the reptiles AOB is absent in crocodiles, present in turtles, snakes, and some lizards where it may be as large or larger than the main bulb. The AOB is absent in bird and in the aquatic mammals (whales, porpoises, manatees). Among other mammals, AOB is present in the monotremes and marsupials, edentates, and in the majority of the placental mammals like carnivores, herbivores, as well as rodents and lagomorphs. Most bat species do not have an AOB and among those where one is found, it shows marked variation in size and morphologic development. Among insectivores and primates, AOB shows marked variation in occurrence, size, and morphologic development. It is small in shrews and moles, large in hedgehogs and prosimians; AOB continues to persist in New World monkeys but is not found in the adults of the higher primates such as the Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. In many species where AOB is absent in the adult, it often develops in the embryo and fetus but regresses in later stages of development. Finally, new areas in vomeronasal system research such as the diversity of receptor molecules and the regional variation in receptor neuron type as well as in the output neurons of the AOB and their projection pathways are briefly discussed. In view of the pronounced diversity of size, morphologic differentiation, and phylogenetic development, the need to explore new functions for the vomeronasal system in areas other than sexual and reproductive behaviors is emphasized. PMID:9880163

Meisami, E; Bhatnagar, K P

1998-12-15

423

The emerging role of connexin 43 in testis pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Direct intercellular communication is mediated by gap junctions and their constitutive proteins, the connexins, which are organized in a hexameric arrangement forming a channel between adjacent cells. Connexins are essential for cell homeostasis and are also involved in many physiological processes such as cell growth, differentiation and death. Spermatogenesis is a sophisticated model of germ cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis, in which one connexin isoform, connexin 43, plays an essential role as evidenced by the targeted genetic deletion of Cx43 gene. A controlled balance of germ cell growth is a prerequisite to maintain either normal level of spermatozoa necessary for fertility and/or to limit an uncontrolled and anarchic germ cell proliferation, a major risk for germ cell tumor cell development. In the present review, we highlight the emerging role of connexins in testis pathogenesis, specifically in two intimately interconnected human testicular diseases: azoospermia with impaired spermatogenesis and testicular germ cell tumors, whose incidence increased during the last decades. This review proposes the gap junction protein connexin 43 as a new potential cancer diagnostic and prognostic marker, as well as a promising therapeutic target for testicular diseases. PMID:23865425

Chevallier, D; Carette, D; Gilleron, J; Segretain, D; Pointis, G

2013-09-01

424

Cancer-testis antigen expression and immunogenicity in AL amyloidosis.  

PubMed

Light-chain amyloidosis (AL) is a plasma cell dyscrasia closely related to multiple myeloma. In multiple myeloma, the cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) CT7 (MAGE-C1), CT10 (MAGE-C2) and MAGE-A CTAs are expressed in up to 80% of cases. In this study, we investigated the expression and immunogenicity of several CTAs in patients with AL amyloidosis in a total of 38 bone marrow specimens by employing standard immunohistochemistry techniques on paraffin-embedded archival tissues. Plasma samples from 35 patients (27 with matched bone marrow samples) were also analyzed by ELISA for sero reactivity to a group of full-length CTA proteins. CT7 was present in 25/38 (66%) while CT10 was demonstrated in 3/38 and GAGE in 1/38 AL amyloid cases. The expression pattern was mostly focal. There were no significant differences with regard to organ involvement, response to treatment, or prognosis in CTA positive compared to negative cases. None of the specimens showed spontaneous humoral immunity to CT7, but sero reactivity was observed in individual patients to other CTAs. This study identifies CT7 as the prevalent CTA in plasma cells of patients with AL amyloidosis. Further analyses determining the biology of CTAs in AL amyloidosis and their value as potential targets for immunotherapy are warranted. PMID:22983433

Rosenzweig, M A; Landau, H; Seldin, D; O'Hara, C; Girnius, S; Hanson, N; Frosina, D; Sedrak, C; Arcila, M; Comenzo, R L; Giralt, S; Gnjatic, S; Jungbluth, A A; Koehne, G

2012-09-14

425

Aquaporin water channels in the canine gubernaculum testis.  

PubMed

The jelly-like gubernaculum testis (GT) is a hydrated structure consisting of a concentric sheath of dense connective tissue around a loose mesenchymal core, with two cords of skeletal muscle cells asymmetrically placed alongside. Expansion of the GT occurs during the transabdominal phase of testicular descent, linked to cell proliferation together with modifications of the hydric content of the organ. The aim of this study was to detect immunohistochemically the presence of aquaporins (AQPs), integral membrane proteins permitting passive transcellular water movement, in the canine GTs. Samples (n=15) were obtained from pregnancies of 9 medium sized bitches and dissected from healthy fetuses. Five fetuses were aged 35-45 days of gestation, 10 fetuses from 46 days of gestation to delivery, thus offering us the opportunity to study the progressive maturation of the gubernacula. The presence of AQP3, 4, 7, 8 and -9 was assessed in the muscular components of the GT, some of them (AQP3, AQP4, AQP7) with increasing intensity through the second half of pregnancy up to term. AQP1 was localized in the capillary and venous endothelia in the younger fetuses, also in the artery adventitia and in the nerve perineurium in progressively older fetuses. These data demonstrate the potential importance and contribution of AQP-mediated water flux in hydration and volume modification of the growing GT in a canine model. PMID:23305875

Arrighi, Silvana; Aralla, Marina; Fracassetti, Paola; Mobasheri, Ali; Cremonesi, Fausto

2013-01-08

426

The effect of dietary supplementation with limonene or myo-inositol on the induction of neoplasia and matrix metalloproteinase and plasminogen activator activities in accessory sex organs of male Lobund-Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer, the most prevalent non-cutaneous cancer in men, is associated with increased age. This suggests that dietary chemopreventive measures could be effective in delaying the onset or decreasing the severity of the disease. We utilized the Lobund-Wistar rat nitrosomethylurea induced, testosterone promoted (NMU-T) model of male sex accessory gland cancer to test the potential chemopreventive effects of myo-inositol and limonene on tumor incidence and associated protease activities. Tumors were found to arise in the seminal vesicles and dorsal and anterior prostate lobes. There were also some tumors that appeared to arise in both the seminal vesicles and anterior prostate, and in some cases the tissue of origin was not clear. The distribution of tumors as to site of origin in limonene or myo-inositol treated animals did not vary from that of the starch fed control animals, and the number of animals presenting with metastases did not vary significantly between treatment groups. There was a statistically significant delay in onset of tumors in myo-inositol, but not limonene fed rats, at 10 months post-induction of carcinogenesis; however, at 12 and 15 months this was not significant. The ventral prostate and seminal vesicles expressed pro-MMP-2 and plasminogen activator (PA) activities. Based on sensitivity to amiloride, the PA activities were predominately urokinase (uPA) in the ventral prostate and a mixture of tissue-type activator (tPA) and uPA in the seminal vesicles of non-treated rats. Sex accessory gland tumors, and metastases, expressed increased levels PA and pro- and active forms of MMP-2 and -9. The PA activities of the tumors were a mixture of uPA and tPA. There was no difference in the levels of these protease activities based on the tissue of tumor origin, nor in tumor vs metastasis. These studies indicate that MMP and PA activities play a role in sex accessory gland tumor biology and that dietary supplementation with myo-inositol can delay but not ultimately prevent the development of such tumors. PMID:18675799

Wilson, Michael J; Lindgren, Bruce R; Sinha, Akhouri A

2008-07-17

427

[A malignant lymphoma of the testis relapsed in the contralateral scrotal skin after the radiation therapy: a case report].  

PubMed

A 71-year-old man was admitted with a swelling of the left scrotum where Galium scintigraphy was positive. He had a history of malignant lymphoma of the right testis and had undergone an orchitectomy, with adjuvant CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, predonisolone) chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the post-orchitectomy site and opposite testis. An open biopsy of his scrotum and left testis revealed relapse of the malignant lymphoma in the left scrotal skin. PMID:19048937

Shiraishi, Yusuke; Moroi, Seiji; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Hirokawa, Keiko; Kawakita, Mutsushi

2008-10-01

428

Spinal Accessory Neuropathy Associated With the Tumor Located on the Jugular Foramen  

PubMed Central

Spinal accessory neuropathy is commonly caused by iatrogenic injury or secondary to trauma or infection. Nevertheless, the tumor related palsy is rare. We present a case of an 18-year-old male patient suffering from paralysis of his right trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscle. An electrophysiologic diagnostic study confirmed the spinal accessory neuropathy of the proximal segment. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging showed the location of tumor on the jugular foramen. However, the type of the tumor was not confirmed through biopsy because the patient refused surgical procedure. Based on the study, it is hypothesized that the tumor located on the jugular foramen should be considered as a cause of the spinal accessory nerve of the proximal segment.

Lee, Soyoung; Lee, Jieun; Kim, Inhwan

2013-01-01

429

Cerebello-olivary and lateral (accessory) cuneate degeneration in a juvenile American Miniature horse.  

PubMed

A 12-month-old American Miniature horse colt was presented to the Virginia Tech Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a 7-month history of progressive ataxia. Physical examination revealed a head intention tremor, base-wide stance, and ataxia. Necropsy findings were confined to the brain. There were bilateral areas of liquefactive necrosis and cavitation corresponding to the dorsal accessory olivary and lateral (accessory) cuneate nuclei. Cerebellar folia of the dorsal vermis were thin. Microscopically, the cerebellar cortex was characterized by patchy areas of Purkinje cell loss with associated variable thinning of the molecular and granule cell layers and astrogliosis. Dorsal accessory olivary and lateral cuneate nuclei were cavitated and had mild glial response around their periphery. Additionally, a focus of necrosis and neuropil vacuolization was found in the right putamen. These findings indicate the presence of a neurodegenerative disorder centered, but not confined to, the cerebellum and its connections in this American Miniature horse colt. PMID:10810993

Fox, J; Duncan, R; Friday, P; Klein, B; Scarratt, W

2000-05-01

430

Hyperbolic deformation of the strip-equation and the accessory parameters for the torus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By applying an hyperbolic deformation to the uniformization problem for the infinite strip, we give a method for computing the accessory parameter for the torus with one source as an expansion in the modular parameter q. At O( q 0) we obtain the same equation for the accessory parameter and the same value of the semiclassical action as the one obtained from the b ? 0 limit of the quantum one point function. The procedure can be carried over to the full O( q 2) or even higher order corrections although the procedure becomes somewhat complicated. Here we compute to order q 2 the correction to the weight parameter intervening in the conformal factor and it is shown that the unwanted contribution O( q) to the accessory parameter equation cancel exactly.

Menotti, Pietro

2013-09-01

431

Peripheral targets of centrally located putative accessory neurons of MRO in the isopod Ligia exotica.  

PubMed

The three centrally located putative accessory neurons of the muscle receptor organ (MRO) of the isopod Ligia exotica were identified to the third segmental nerve (N3) of the thoracic ganglion by backfilling with Lucifer Yellow. These neurons were then studied intracellularly and extracellularly to determine whether they suppressed the stretch-activated responses of thoracic stretch receptors. Intracellular injection of depolarizing currents into these three putative accessory neurons revealed that only neuron #3 had an inhibitory effect, suggesting that it is an inhibitory accessory neuron related to thoracic stretch receptors. We searched for the peripheral targets of neurons #1 and #2 by intracellular filling with Lucifer Yellow or by recording of junctional potentials in extensor muscles, and show that they are motor neurons that innervate the deep extensor and superficial extensor muscles, respectively. PMID:12819268

Hama, Noriyuki; Okada, Yoshinori; Pollák, Edit; Molnár, László; Niida, Akiyoshi

2003-08-01

432

Identification of Three Urease Accessory Proteins That Are Required for Urease Activation in Arabidopsis1  

PubMed Central

Urease is a nickel-containing urea hydrolase involved in nitrogen recycling from ureide, purine, and arginine catabolism in plants. The process of urease activation by incorporation of nickel into the active site is a prime example of chaperone-mediated metal transfer to an enzyme. Four urease accessory proteins are required for activation in Klebsiella aerogenes. In plants urease accessory proteins have so far been only partially defined. Using reverse genetic tools we identified four genes that are necessary for urease activity in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; ecotypes Columbia and Nössen). Plants bearing T-DNA or Ds element insertions in either the structural gene for urease or in any of the three putative urease accessory genes AtureD, AtureF, and AtureG lacked the corresponding mRNAs and were defective in urease activity. In contrast to wild-type plants, the mutant lines were not able to support growth with urea as the sole nitrogen source. To investigate whether the identified accessory proteins would be sufficient to support eukaryotic urease activation, the corresponding cDNAs were introduced into urease-negative Escherichia coli. In these bacteria, urease activity was observed only when all three plant accessory genes were coexpressed together with the plant urease gene. Remarkably, plant urease activation occurred as well in cell-free E. coli extracts, but only in extracts from cells that had expressed all three accessory proteins. The future molecular dissection of the plant urease activation process may therefore be performed in vitro, providing a powerful tool to further our understanding of the biochemistry of chaperone-mediated metal transfer processes in plants.

Witte, Claus-Peter; Rosso, Mario G.; Romeis, Tina

2005-01-01

433

Status of the down-regulated canine testis using two different GNRH agonist implants in comparison with the juvenile testis.  

PubMed

Testicular function in the dog was down-regulated using two different GNRH agonist implants, with adult and juvenile testes serving as controls. Treatment resulted in an increased percentage of the interstitial area and decreased area of Leydig cell nuclei. Expression of StAR and the steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, CYP11A1) and cytochrome P450 17?-hydroxylase-17,20-lyase (P450c17, CYP17A1) in Leydig cells was blocked at the mRNA and protein level, showing no differences between the two agonists. Staining for androgen receptor (AR) by immunohistochemistry was positive in Sertoli, Leydig and peritubular cells and some spermatogonia, with in situ hybridization confirming expression in Sertoli cells. At the mRNA level, expression of AR was not affected; however, translation was blocked (reduced percentage of AR-positive Sertoli cells), with the number of nuclei in basal position being decreased. In the juvenile testes, mRNA expression of StAR, CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 was higher compared with the other groups but distinctly lower for the AR. At the protein level, the expression was at the limit of detection for StAR; AR-positive Sertoli cells were not detected. Our observations show that the down-regulated testis is different from the juvenile one rather resembling the testicular status in seasonal breeders out of season. PMID:24019508

Goericke-Pesch, S; Gentil, M; Spang, A; Kowalewski, M P; Failing, K; Hoffmann, B

2013-10-21

434

Ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy-induced accessory renal artery bleeding in an amyloidosis patient  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy is an important technique for diagnosis of glomerular diseases, and the biopsy-induced life-threatening bleeding rarely happens. Primary systemic amyloidosis is a rare disease which may lead to organ dysfunction including arterial stiffness. The accessory renal artery is a kind of renal vascular variation which goes into the renal parenchyma directly or via the renal hilum. Here we reported a rare case of percutaneous renal biopsy-induced accessory renal artery life-threatening bleeding in a renal amyloidosis patient, and our experience of successful rescue in this patient. Virtual Slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1524207344817819

2012-01-01

435

Optical diffuse reflectance accessory for measurements of skin tissue by near-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimized accessory for measuring the diffuse reflectance spectra of human skin tissue in the near-infrared spectral range is presented. The device includes an on-axis ellipsoidal collecting mirror with efficient illumination optics for small sampling areas of bulky body specimens. The optical design is supported by the results of a Monte Carlo simulation study of the reflectance characteristics of skin tissue. Because the results evolved from efforts to measure blood glucose noninvasively, the main emphasis is placed on the long-wavelength near-infrared range where sufficient penetration depth for radiation into tissue is still available. The accessory is applied for in vivo diffuse reflectance measurements.

Marbach, R.; Heise, H. M.

1995-02-01

436

Accessory lobe of the right liver mocking a pulmonary tumor in an adult woman.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of an accessory lobe of the liver in the right thoracic cavity with the past history of breast cancer. A 66-year-old woman underwent thoracotomy owing to a slowly growing suspected lung tumor identified by computed tomography. The intraoperative findings revealed an accessory lobe of the liver. If this possibility had been considered, the correct diagnosis could have been achieved using computed tomography with multi-directional scanning, so that an unnecessary operation could have been avoided. PMID:22618988

Kitamura, Yuka; Sakakura, Noriaki; Uchida, Tatsuo; Suyama, Motokazu

2012-05-23

437

ESF GROUND SUPPORT - MATERIAL DEDICATION ANALYSIS FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL AND ACCESSORIES FROM A COMMERCIAL GRADE SOURCE  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to select the critical characteristics to be verified for steel sets and accessories and the verification methods to be implemented through a material dedication process for the procurement and use of commercial grade structural steel sets and accessories (which have a nuclear safety function) to be used in ground support (with the exception of alcove ground support and alcove opening framing, which are not addressed in this analysis) for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Topopah Spring (TS) Loop. The ESF TS Loop includes the North Ramp, Main Drift, and South Ramp underground openings.

M.D. Stine

1996-01-23

438

Peroneus quartus, an accessory muscle in human: case report and its clinical importance.  

PubMed

The peroneus quartus is an accessory peroneal muscle seen in man. The term 'peroneus quartus' is often used to refer one or several of the accessory peroneal muscles. In this case, we report an unusual type of peroneus quartus which was originating from the muscular portion of the peroneus brevis and inserting onto the peroneus longus tendon. The clinical implications are emphasized with the morphological significance and literature review. The orthopedic surgeons and radiologists should be aware of the possible presence of this muscle not only because of its associated pathology, but also for its potential use in plastic surgeries. PMID:23007814

Murlimanju, B V; D'Souza, P S; Prabhu, L V; Saralaya, V V; David, S J

2012-07-01

439

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus accessory protein 4a is a type I interferon antagonist.  

PubMed

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe acute respiratory infection with as yet unclear epidemiology. We previously showed that MERS-CoV counteracts parts of the innate immune response in human bronchiolar cells. Here we analyzed accessory proteins 3, 4a, 4b, and 5 for their abilities to inhibit the type I interferon response. Accessory protein 4a was found to block interferon induction at the level of melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) activation presumably by direct interaction with double-stranded RNA. PMID:24027320

Niemeyer, Daniela; Zillinger, Thomas; Muth, Doreen; Zielecki, Florian; Horvath, Gabor; Suliman, Tasnim; Barchet, Winfried; Weber, Friedemann; Drosten, Christian; Müller, Marcel A

2013-09-11

440

Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four cases of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands arose as painless masses in patients over 60 years old, three in the parotid and one in the submandibular gland. Histologically, all the tumours were composed of small ducts with a double cell lining surrounded by a basement membrane. The inner cells were epithelial and the outer cells myoepithelial, the latter

R H Simpson; T J Clarke; P T Sarsfield; P G Gluckman

1991-01-01

441

Pleomorphic adenoma of the submandibular gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pleomorphic adenomas of the submandibular glands are exceedingly rare tumors in the pediatric practice. Patients usually present with a painless and mobile mass without any other associated symptoms. Radiologic studies are usually unable to differentiate benign from malignant tumors in most cases. Recurrences are rare with complete en bloc excision of the tumor and the submandibular gland. Except for the

Ezequiel J. Molina; Katherine Mayer; Jasvir Khurana; Harsh Grewal

2008-01-01

442

Distribution of lactoferrin in human salivary glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immunoperoxidase technique was used to study the distribution of lactoferrin (LF) in human salivary glands from autopsy tissues fixed in Carnoy's fluid for the optimal preservation of LF antigenicity. Specific LF staining was seen in the intralobular ducts of all salivary glands but never in the interlobular ducts; acinar LF was detected in most serous demilunes of the mixed

S. Reitamo; Y. T. Konttinen; M. Segerberg-Konttinen

1980-01-01

443

The fine structure of blattarian prothoracic glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructural characterization of the prothoracic glands derives interest from the fact that they are the only known source of a steroid hormone (ecdysone) among invertebrates. The present material includes nymphal glands of two blattarian species studied at graded intervals over a period of several intermolt cycles.

Berta Scharrer

1964-01-01

444

Mammary Gland Immunity and Mastitis Susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactation is considered the final phase of the mammalian reproductive cycle, and the mammary gland provides milk for nourishment and disease resistance to the newborn. However, the cellular and soluble immune components associated with mammary tissues and secretion also can play an important role in protecting the gland from infectious diseases, such as mastitis. Mastitis can affect essentially all lactating

Lorraine M. Sordillo; Katie L. Streicher

2002-01-01

445

[Meibomian gland disfunction in computer vision syndrome].  

PubMed

This article reviews ethiology and pathogenesis of dry eye syndrome due to meibomian gland disfunction (MDG). It is showed that blink rate influences meibomian gland functioning and computer vision syndrome development. Current diagnosis and treatment options of MDG are presented. PMID:21395003

Pimenidi, M K; Polunin, G S; Safonova, T N

446

Expression of Steroidogenic Factor 1 in the Testis Requires an E Box and CCAAT Box in its Promoter Proximal Region1  

PubMed Central

Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1), also known as adrenal 4-binding protein, is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family that regulates transcription of genes encoding hormones and steroidogenic enzymes important to the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The mammalian Ftz-F1 gene encodes SF-1 and is required for development of adrenal glands and gonads. To better understand the mechanisms regulating this gene in the gonads, we have examined its expression in the testis and characterized the promoter region for SF-1 in two testicular cell types. SF-1 promoter activity was examined in primary cultures of Sertoli cells and cell lines representative of Sertoli and Leydig cells. Deletion mutagenesis of the promoter identified several regions: both 5? and 3? to the transcriptional start sites that are important for transcriptional activity. Two elements, an E box and a CCAAT box, were found to be important for SF-1 transcription in the testis. An oligodeoxynucleotide containing both of these elements bound three specific protein complexes. The binding of one complex required only sequences within the E box and cross-reacted with antibodies against the basic helix-loop-helix ZIP proteins USF1 and USF2. A second specific complex required sequences within both the E box and CCAAT box for efficient binding, while a third complex predominantly interacted with sequences within the CCAAT motif. The presence of multiple protein complexes binding these sites suggests that regulation through these elements may involve interactions with different factors that depend on the state of the cell and its environment.

Daggett, Melissa A.F.; Rice, Daren A.; Heckert, Leslie L.

2006-01-01

447

Insights learned from pBTAi1, a 229-kb accessory plasmid from Bradyrhizobium sp. strain BTAi1 and prevalence of accessory plasmids in other Bradyrhizobium sp. strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In silico, physiological and in planta analyses were used to characterize pBTAi1, a 229-kb accessory plasmid from Bradyrhizobium sp. strain BTAi1, and assess its potential ecological function under free-living and symbiotic growth conditions. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of an uptake hydrogenase system, a repABC family plasmid replication module and open reading frames encoding type IV secretion system, TraI and

Eddie J Cytryn; Siriluck Jitacksorn; Eric Giraud; Michael J Sadowsky

2008-01-01

448

Sialolipoma of the parotid gland: Case report with literature review comparing major and minor salivary gland sialolipomas  

PubMed Central

Sialolipoma is a rare tumor found within both major and minor salivary glands. Here we discuss sialolipoma of the parotid gland and briefly review the English literature. Including our case, a total of 35 sialolipomas have been reported, 18 within major salivary glands and 17 within minor salivary glands. Major gland sialolipomas most often are presented in the parotid gland (77%) and those from minor glands were most often seen in the palate (41%). All lesions were well circumscribed and contained mature adipose tissue intimately admixed with benign salivary gland components. Ductal dilatation was found in 100% of minor salivary gland sialolipomas but in only 28% of major salivary gland tumors. Nerve entrapment has also rarely been noted in major salivary glands (14%) whereas myxoid degeneration has been identified in rare minor salivary glands tumors (13%). Treatment is surgical excision and is curative with no reports of recurrence.

Qayyum, Sohail; Meacham, Ryan; Sebelik, Merry; Zafar, Nadeem

2013-01-01

449

Orbital Lymphoma Mimicking Lacrimal Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the case of a patient affected by orbital lymphoma mimicking pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. Methods This was a retrospective case report. Results We present the case of a patient with 15-year history of slowly progressive left proptosis and inferomedial bulbar dislocation who had the presumptive diagnosis of lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma based on clinical and radiological features. The patient underwent lateral orbitotomy and lacrimal gland excision. Postoperative histological features were consistent with low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Conclusion The accepted clinico-radiological criteria used for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland fossa lesions might have a certain false-positive rate, even in recent years. The initial surgical approach with the appropriate choice between fine-needle aspiration biopsies, intraoperative biopsies and lacrimal gland excisions might be a challenge.

Strianese, Diego; Elefante, Andrea; Matarazzo, Francesco; Panico, Angela; Ferrara, Mariantonia; Tranfa, Fausto

2013-01-01

450

Liquid secretion properties of airway submucosal glands  

PubMed Central

The tracheobronchial submucosal glands secrete liquid that is important for hydrating airway surfaces, supporting mucociliary transport, and serving as a fluid matrix for numerous secreted macromolecules including the gel-forming mucins. This review details the essential structural elements of airway glands and summarizes what is currently known regarding the ion transport processes responsible for producing the liquid component of gland secretion. Liquid secretion most likely arises from serous cells and is principally under neural control with muscarinic agonists, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) functioning as effective secretogogues. Liquid secretion is driven by the active transepithelial secretion of both Cl? and HCO3? and at least a portion of this process is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is highly expressed in glands. The potential role of submucosal glands in cystic fibrosis lung disease is discussed.

Ballard, Stephen T; Inglis, Sarah K

2004-01-01

451

Microscopy of the echidna sublingual glands.  

PubMed

The secretory units and duct system of the echidna sublingual glands exhibit subtle architectural modifications to accommodate the viscous secretion produced by these glands. The glands are compound tubular glands, the secretory units of which are elongate with open lumina and consist only of mucous cells. Closely packed spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells invest the secretory units, but are absent around the ducts. The branched secretory tubules open into an abbreviated duct system characterized by wide lumina. Striated ducts normally associated with the second portion of the intralobular duct system are absent. The duct system shows the most obvious modification of general salivary gland architecture presumably to accommodate the viscous secretion propelled from the secretory units by surrounding myoepithelial cells. PMID:21671992

Krause, William J

2011-06-15

452

Cell biology of Leydig cells in the testis.  

PubMed

This article reviews results on differentiation, structure, and regulation of Leydig cells in the testes of rodents and men. Two different populations-fetal and adult Leydig cells-can be recognized in rodents. The cells in these two populations are different in ultrastructure, life span, capacity for androgen synthesis, and mechanisms of regulation. A brief survey on the origin, ontogenesis, characterization of precursors, ultrastructure, and functional markers of fetal and adult Leydig cells is presented, followed by an analysis of genes in Leydig cells and the role of luteinizing hormone and its receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, androgen and its receptor, anti-Müllerian hormone, estrogens, and thyroid hormones. Various growth factors modulate Leydig cell differentiation, regeneration, and steroidogenic capacity, for example, interleukin 1alpha, transforming growth factor beta, inhibin, insulin-like growth factors I and II, vascular endothelial growth factor, and relaxin-like growth factor. Retinol and retinoic acid increase basal testosterone secretion in adult Leydig cells, but decrease it in fetal Leydig cells. Resident macrophages in the interstitial tissue of the testis are important for differentiation and function of Leydig cells. Apoptosis of Leydig cells is involved in the regulation of Leydig cell number and can be induced by cytotoxins. Characteristics of aging Leydig cells in rodents seem to be species specific. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase protects testosterone synthesis in the Leydig cells of stressed rats. Last, the following aspects of human Leydig cells are briefly described: origin, differentiation, triphasic development, aging changes, pathological changes, and gene mutations leading to infertility. PMID:15037365

Haider, Syed G

2004-01-01

453

Evidence for an androgen receptor in human testis  

SciTech Connect

The present study identified and characterized an androgen-binding protein in human testicular tissue. Human testes were homogenized in dilute Tris buffer containing thioglycerol, phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, and molybdate. The supernatant (termed cytosol) was incubated with radiolabeled androgen methyltrienolone (tritium-labeled R1881), and nonspecific binding was determined by adding 100-fold excess of unlabeled R1881 together with (/sup 3/H)R1881 to cytosol. Specific binding with saturation at 24 hours was observed. Scatchard analysis of the specific binding with the use of increasing concentrations of (/sup 3/H)R1881 alone and (/sup 3/H)R1881 plus 200-fold excess unlabeled R1881 demonstrated a high-affinity (dissociation constant . 2.18 X 10(-10) mol/L), low-capacity (2924 molecules per cell) class of binding sites. A second class of lower-affinity sites was identified with a dissociation constant equaling 1.2 X 10(-8) and 26,300 molecules per cell. The bulk of the higher-affinity class of sites was precipitated at 35% ammonium sulfate. In competitive binding assays, dihydrotestosterone and testosterone greatly diminished binding to this high-affinity class of sites. Progesterone also diminished binding but to a lesser degree. Estradiol, estriol, and estrone failed to compete for these sites. Analysis of the receptor, using sucrose gradients, revealed a major peak in the 4S region and a small peak at 8S. A similar high-affinity (dissociation constant . 4.28 X 10(-9), low-capacity (4860 molecules per cell) binding protein was identified in purified nuclei. Binding to nuclear chromatin was demonstrated in the cell-free binding assay, and nuclear binding was further illustrated in the biopsy assay of intact tissue, suggesting translocation in vivo. These properties are characteristic of the androgen receptor and suggest that human testis is a target tissue for androgen, as has been found in animal tissue.

Graham, M.L.; Razel, A.J.; Spelsberg, T.C.; Coulam, C.B.

1984-11-01

454

Effect of vitamin E supplement in diet on antioxidant ability of testis in Boer goat.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the supplementation of Vitamin E in diet on the antioxidant capacity of testis in Boer goat. Twenty-four healthy, Boer male kids of similar body weight (BW) were selected at 3 months of age from the kid flock. Kids were born from does treated with simultaneous flushing and artificial insemination technology. The Boer kids were divided into four groups randomly, supplemented with 0, 80, 320 and 880 IU kid(-1)d(-1) Vitamin E, which were labeled as Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, for 150 days (5 months). Blood samples were collected at the 15th-, 30th-, 60th-, 90th-, 120th-, and 150th-day during the experimental period, and the serums were used to determine Vitamin E content. Three Boer goats in each group were slaughtered at the age of eight months at the end of the experiment. Liver and testis were collected to test the Vitamin E content and the antioxidant capacity of testis. Results showed that the content of Vitamin E in serum, liver and testis increased with the increasing addition of Vitamin E. However, the content of Vitamin E in the serum, liver and testis, in the control, was significantly lower than in Groups 2 and 3, respectively, but there was no significant difference between the control Group and Group 4. When high levels of Vitamin E (880 IU kid(-1)d(-1)) were added, contents of Vitamin E in serum, liver and testis were decreased and compared with the controls. Adding a low level (80 IU kid(-1)d(-1)) of Vitamin E can increase activity of total anti-oxidation competence (T-AOC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and decrease content of nitric oxide (NO) in testis. MDA (malondialdehyde) content was decreased significantly in Group 3 (P<0.05). Supplementing a low level (80 IU kid(-1)d(-1)) and middle level (320 IU kid(-1)d(-1)) of Vitamin E decreased activity of nitric oxide syntha (NOS) in testis (P<0.05). Vitamin E can increase activity of GSH-PX (glutathione peroxidase). These results indicate that supplementing Vitamin E protects testis from damage by preoxidation. PMID:19427140

Hong, Zhu; Hailing, Luo; Hui, Meng; Guijie, Zhang; Leyan, Yan; Dubing, Yue

2009-04-08

455

The intra-abdominal testis: lessons from the past, and ideas for the future.  

PubMed

The intra-abdominal testis (IAT) has been always an enigma for both diagnosis and treatment. Imaging techniques are known for low sensitivity for localizing the IAT. It has been universally accepted that the gold standard for localizing the IAT is diagnostic laparoscopy. Orchiopexy techniques for IAT are complicated and attended with a higher rate of failure and complication than those for the palpable testis. For the low-lying abdominal testis, a one-stage procedure without interruption of the vessels has a high success rate. The Prentiss maneuver bridges the borders of normal pathway to gain a straighter course to the scrotum. The interruption of the main vascular supply of the testis, depending on collateral circulation, has been used for many years but with questionable effects on the microscopic delicate structure of the testis. Microvascular autotransplantation was intended to avoid this effect, but it is technically demanding and requires special expertise. The principle of traction has been used in the past but was abandoned due to high rate of atrophy. Recently, traction has been revisited with a new approach with very encouraging results. The key to success in any technique for orchiopexy is the complete absence of tension. PMID:23995239

Shehata, Sameh M; Shehata, Sherif M K; A Baky Fahmy, Mohamed

2013-10-01

456

Endocrine modulation of the recipient environment affects development of bovine testis tissue ectopically grafted in mice.  

PubMed

Testis tissue xenografting is a powerful approach for the study of testis development and spermatogenesis, and for fertility preservation in immature individuals. In bovine testis xenografts, maturation and spermatogenesis are inefficient when compared to other species. To evaluate if exogenous modulation of the endocrine milieu in recipient mice will affect spermatogenic efficiency in xenografts from newborn calves, recipient mice were treated with the GnRH antagonist acyline (5 mg/kg s.c. every 2 weeks) to reduce testosterone production in xenografts, or with 6-N-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU, 0.1% in drinking water for 4 weeks), to induce transient hypothyroidism in recipient mice respectively. Both treatments altered developmental parameters of testis xenografts and reduced germ cell differentiation. While the effects of acyline treatment can be attributed to inhibition of GnRH and gonadotropin action, lower Sertoli cell numbers and decreased seminiferous tubule length observed after PTU treatment were opposite to effects reported previously in rats. Regardless of treatment, Sertoli cells underwent only partial maturation in xenografts as Müllerian inhibiting substance and androgen receptor expression were lower than in donor and adult tissue controls respectively. In conclusion, although treatments did not result in improvement of maturation of bovine testis xenografts, the current study demonstrates that exogenous modulation of the endocrine milieu to affect xenograft development in recipient mice provides an accessible model to study endocrine control of spermatogenesis in large donor species. PMID:22550313

Rodriguez-Sosa, Jose R; Costa, Guilherme M J; Rathi, Rahul; França, Luiz R; Dobrinski, Ina

2012-05-01

457

Desmoplastic melanoma: comparison of expression of differentiation antigens and cancer testis antigens.  

PubMed

Desmoplastic melanoma is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Immunohistochemical analysis with antibodies to melanoma antigens can complement morphologic evaluation. Although staining for S100 protein is generally positive, staining for other melanoma differentiation antigens, particularly gp100, Melan-A/MART1 and tyrosinase, is often negative despite being commonly positive in other melanoma types. A high clinical index of suspicion and better diagnostic techniques are essential as atypical features and incorrect diagnosis can lead to poor clinical outcomes. Antigens associated with melanoma, such as the melanocyte differentiation and cancer testis antigen, may become important targets for immune therapies. We characterized the patterns of antigen expression of desmoplastic melanoma from 32 patients, including gp100, Melan-A/MART-1, tyrosinase, MAGE-A1, MAGE-A4 and NY-ESO-1. Consistent positive staining with S100 was observed. Differentiation antigens were expressed more frequently than cancer testis antigens regardless of the histological subtype of desmoplastic melanoma. When present, cancer testis antigen expression correlated to positive staining with differentiation antigens. The diagnostic yield of desmoplastic melanoma did not increase with the addition of cancer testis antigen typing. Low levels of expression of cancer testis antigen may indicate that they are suboptimal targets for vaccine development in desmoplastic melanoma. PMID:16845331

Lim, Elgene; Browning, Judy; MacGregor, Duncan; Davis, Ian D; Cebon, Jonathan S

2006-08-01

458

Expression of Testis Specific Genes TSGA10, TEX101 and ODF3 in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world so finding new biomarkers for early detection and also study on molecular aspects of breast cancer is valuable. Cancer testis genes are a group of genes expressed solely in testis and in a range of human malignancies. Objectives In this study we determined the expression of cancer testis genes Tsga10, TEX101 and ODF3 in patients with breast cancer. Materials and Methods Fifty patients with breast cancer were enrolled in this study. Breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were also used to determine the expression of testis cancer genes. For both patients and cell lines, cancer testis genes of TSGA10, TEX101 and ODF3 were determined by RT-PCR. The presence of auto antibody against these genes in patients’ serums was carried on by ELISA method. Results Seventy percent of patients showed TSGA10 expression but none of them showed expression of TEX101 and ODF3. Fourteen percent of patients were positive for anti TSGA10 but all patients were negative for anti TEX101 and anti ODF3. Both of breast cancer cell lines exhibited very strong expression of TSGA10. Conclusions Because of the important roles of Tsga10 in cell proliferation, we concluded that this gene may have a role in proliferation and survival of breast cancer cells and could be used for diagnosis and immunotherapy of breast cancer.

Dianatpour, Mehdi; Mehdipour, Parvin; Nayernia, Karim; Mobasheri, Maryam-Beigom; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh; Savad, Shahram; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein

2012-01-01

459

Transcriptome Profiling of Testis during Sexual Maturation Stages in Eriocheir sinensis Using Illumina Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The testis is a highly specialized tissue that plays dual roles in ensuring fertility by producing spermatozoa and hormones. Spermatogenesis is a complex process, resulting in the production of mature sperm from primordial germ cells. Significant structural and biochemical changes take place in the seminiferous epithelium of the adult testis during spermatogenesis. The gene expression pattern of testis in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been performed on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for testis of E. sinensis. In two runs, we produced 25,698,778 sequencing reads corresponding with 2.31 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 342,753 contigs or 141,861 scaffold sequences, which identified 96,311 unigenes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 39,995 unigenes were annotated based on having a Blast hit in the non-redundant database or ESTscan results with a cut-off E-value above 10?5. This is the first report of a mitten crab transcriptome using high-throughput sequencing technology, and all these testes transcripts can help us understand the molecular mechanisms involved in spermatogenesis and testis maturation.

Jin, Xinkun; Wang, Ying; Chen, Lili; Liu, Lihua; Wang, Yang

2012-01-01

460

Sperm and testis mediated DNA transfer as a means of gene therapy.  

PubMed

Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have revolutionized the treatment of infertility. However, many types of infertility may still not be addressable by ART. With recent successes in identifying many of the genetic factors responsible for male infertility and the future prospect of whole individual human genome sequencing to identify disease causing genes, the possible use of gene therapy for treating infertility deserves serious consideration. Gene therapy in the sperm and testis offers both opportunities and obstacles. The opportunities stem from the fact that numerous different approaches have been developed for introducing transgenes into the sperm and testis, mainly because of the interest in using sperm mediated gene transfer and testis mediated gene transfer as ways to generate transgenic animals. The obstacles arise from the fact that it may be very difficult to carry out gene therapy of the testis and sperm without also affecting the germline. Here we consider new developments in both sperm and testis mediated gene transfer, including the use of viral vectors, as well as the technical and ethical challenges facing those who would seek to use these approaches for gene therapy as a way to treat male infertility. PMID:21222517

Parrington, John; Coward, Kevin; Gadea, Joaquin

2011-02-01

461

Evaluation of developing rat testis by phosporus 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and DNA flowcytometry.  

PubMed

For the assessment of germ-cell maturation of the seminiferous tubules, DNA flowcytometry is a rapid and sensitive method. Phosporus 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive alternative that demonstrates the metabolic status of the testis, reflecting the type and relative proportion of germ cells in the testis. This study was designed to evaluate the utility of 31P MRS in reflecting the haploid-cell population of the testis as measured by DNA flowcytometry. A single testicle was evaluated in male Wistar pre-pubertal rats at 30, 40, 50, and 60 days of age. In order to minimize the contamination of signals from the contralateral testis, scrotum, and tail, the technique was modified and the testis was evaluated ex-vivo with an intact blood supply. At 30 days of age the percentage of haploid cells was 43.6 +/- 1.8, and this increased to 72.7 +/- 1.4 at 60 days of age. During this period, the testicular phosphomonoester/adenosine triphosphate (PM/ATP) ratio changed from 1.70 +/- 0.21 to 0.32 +/- 0.08. There was a significant (P < 0.001) linear correlation between the proportion of haploid cells evaluated by DNA flowcytometry and the PM/ATP ratio evaluated by 31P MRS. 31P MRS is thus a reliable, noninvasive technique for accurately assessing the status of the seminiferous epithelium. PMID:11409170

Srinivas, M; Degaonkar, M; Gupta, D K; Raghunathan, P; Das, S N; Mitra, D K

2001-05-01

462

Identification of proacrosin binding protein sp32 precursor as a human cancer/testis antigen  

PubMed Central

Serological expression cloning of antigens eliciting a humoral immune response to a syngeneic mouse sarcoma identified pem (mouse placenta and embryonic expression gene) as a new member of the cancer/testis family. To identify the human homologue of pem, mouse pem sequences and pem-related expressed sequence tags from human testis were used as PCR primers for amplification using human testis cDNA. However, rather than pem, another gene, designated OY-TES-1, was isolated and found to be the human homologue of proacrosin binding protein sp32 precursor originally identified in mouse, guinea pig, and pig. OY-TES-1 maps to chromosome 12p12-p13 and contains 10 exons. Southern blot analysis suggests the presence of two OY-TES-1-related genes in the human genome. In normal tissues, OY-TES-1 mRNA was expressed only in testis, whereas in malignant tissues, a variable proportion of a wide array of cancers, including bladder, breast, lung, liver, and colon cancers, expressed OY-TES-1. Serological survey of 362 cancer patients with a range of different cancers showed antibody to OY-TES-1 in 25 patients. No OY-TES-1 sera reactivity was found in 20 normal individuals. These findings indicate that OY-TES-1 is an additional member of the cancer/testis family of antigens and that OY-TES-1 is immunogenic in humans.

Ono, Toshiro; Kurashige, Takushi; Harada, Naoki; Noguchi, Yuji; Saika, Takashi; Niikawa, Norio; Aoe, Motoi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Higashi, Toshihiro; Hiraki, Akio; Wada, Hisashi; Kumon, Hiromi; Old, Lloyd J.; Nakayama, Eiichi

2001-01-01

463

Identification of proacrosin binding protein sp32 precursor as a human cancer/testis antigen.  

PubMed

Serological expression cloning of antigens eliciting a humoral immune response to a syngeneic mouse sarcoma identified pem (mouse placenta and embryonic expression gene) as a new member of the cancer/testis family. To identify the human homologue of pem, mouse pem sequences and pem-related expressed sequence tags from human testis were used as PCR primers for amplification using human testis cDNA. However, rather than pem, another gene, designated OY-TES-1, was isolated and found to be the human homologue of proacrosin binding protein sp32 precursor originally identified in mouse, guinea pig, and pig. OY-TES-1 maps to chromosome 12p12-p13 and contains 10 exons. Southern blot analysis suggests the presence of two OY-TES-1-related genes in the human genome. In normal tissues, OY-TES-1 mRNA was expressed only in testis, whereas in malignant tissues, a variable proportion of a wide array of cancers, including bladder, breast, lung, liver, and colon cancers, expressed OY-TES-1. Serological survey of 362 cancer patients with a range of different cancers showed antibody to OY-TES-1 in 25 patients. No OY-TES-1 sera reactivity was found in 20 normal individuals. These findings indicate that OY-TES-1 is an additional member of the cancer/testis family of antigens and that OY-TES-1 is immunogenic in humans. PMID:11248070

Ono, T; Kurashige, T; Harada, N; Noguchi, Y; Saika, T; Niikawa, N; Aoe, M; Nakamura, S; Higashi, T; Hiraki, A; Wada, H; Kumon, H; Old, L J; Nakayama, E

2001-03-13

464

Identification of androgen receptor variants in testis from humans and other vertebrates.  

PubMed

The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The existence of alternatively spliced variants is well recognised for several members of this superfamily, most of them having functional importance. For example, several testicular oestrogen receptor variants have been suggested to play a role in the regulation of spermatogenesis. However, information on AR variants is mostly related to cancer and androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) cases. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of AR variants in the testis from humans and other vertebrates. Four AR variants [AR?2(Stop) , AR?2(23Stop) , AR?3 and AR?4(120)] were identified in human testis. AR?2(Stop) and AR?3, with exon 2 or 3 deleted, respectively, were also expressed in human liver, lung, kidney and heart. In addition, AR?2(Stop) was expressed in rat and gilthead seabream testis, while an AR?3 was detected in African clawed frog testis. This is the first report revealing the existence of AR variants in the testis of evolutionarily distant vertebrate species and in nonpathological tissues. These data suggest the functional importance of these novel AR forms and demonstrate a complexity in AR signalling that is not exclusive of pathological conditions. PMID:22734680

Laurentino, S S; Pinto, P I S; Tomás, J; Cavaco, J E; Sousa, M; Barros, A; Power, D M; Canário, A V M; Socorro, S

2012-06-26

465

The fidelity of DNA synthesis by yeast DNA polymerase zeta alone and with accessory proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA polymerase zeta (pol z) participates in several DNA transactions in eukaryotic cells that increase spontaneous and damage-induced mutagenesis. To better understand this central role in mutagenesis in vivo, here we report the fidelity of DNA synthesis in vitro by yeast pol z alone and with RFC, PCNA and RPA. Overall, the accessory proteins have little effect on the fidelity

Xuejun Zhong; Parie Garg; Stephanie A. Nick McElhinny; Carrie M Stith; Grace E. Kissling; Peter M. J. Burgers; Thomas A. Kunkel

2006-01-01

466

Accessory hepatic vein to pulmonary venous atrium as a cause of cyanosis after the Fontan operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of an accessory hepatic vein to the pulmonary venous atrium should be considered in the setting of progressive cyanosis following the Fontan procedure. An inferior vena caval angiogram with “levophase” should demonstrate it. Surgical intervention or trans-catheter occlusion should lead to prompt resolution of cyanosis.

Patricio Fernandez-Martorell; Mark S. Sklansky; Victor W. Lucas; Iraj A. Kashani; Mark W. Cocalis; Stuart W. Jamieson; Abraham Rothman

1996-01-01

467