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1

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Accessory Sex Gland and Testis from the Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis)  

PubMed Central

The accessory sex gland (ASG) is an important component of the male reproductive system, which functions to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa during male reproduction. Certain proteins secreted by the ASG are known to bind to the spermatozoa membrane and affect its function. The ASG gene expression profile in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been conducted on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for the ASG of E. sinensis using Illumina sequencing technology. This analysis yielded a total of 33,221,284 sequencing reads, including 2.6 Gb of total nucleotides. Reads were assembled into 85,913 contigs (average 218 bp), or 58,567 scaffold sequences (average 292 bp), that identified 37,955 unigenes (average 385 bp). We assembled all unigenes and compared them with the published testis transcriptome from E. sinensis. In order to identify which genes may be involved in ASG function, as it pertains to modification of spermatozoa, we compared the ASG and testis transcriptome of E. sinensis. Our analysis identified specific genes with both higher and lower tissue expression levels in the two tissues, and the functions of these genes were analyzed to elucidate their potential roles during maturation of spermatozoa. Availability of detailed transcriptome data from ASG and testis in E. sinensis can assist our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved with spermatozoa conservation, transport, maturation and capacitation and potentially acrosome activation.

He, Lin; Jiang, Hui; Cao, Dandan; Liu, Lihua; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Qun

2013-01-01

2

Accessory parotid gland tumors  

PubMed Central

Tumors of accessory parotid gland are considered in the differential diagnosis of a mid cheek mass. Parotidectomy is the procedure of choice. All pathological types of parotid main gland tumors occur in the accessory parotid gland also. Presenting as a mid cheek or infrazygomatic mass, the tumors of this accessory parotid gland are notorious for recurrences, if adequate margins are not achieved. We describe two such cases of such a tumor. 40-year-old male with a slowly progressive mid cheek mass was operated by a mid cheek incision. Histopathology of the tumor was pleomorphic adenoma. Facial nerve paresis recovered complelety in 6 months. A 52-year-old female with progressive mid cheek mass who underwent parotidectomy and neck dissection by a modified Blair's incision was diagnosed with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma with focal transformation to a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Chemotherapy with CHOP regime was initiated. There was no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up. Lymphoma of accessory parotid gland is a very rare tumor. Standard parotidectomy incision is advocated to prevent damage to facial nerve branches.

Ramachar, Sreevathsa M.; Huliyappa, Harsha A.

2012-01-01

3

[Clinical features of accessory parotid gland tumors].  

PubMed

Accessory parotid gland tumors are relatively rare; hence, adequately detailed clinical analyses of these tumors are difficult to perform at a single institution. In this report, we describe the findings for 65 patients [29 men, 36 women; median age, 51 (9-81) years] with accessory parotid gland tumors, consisting of 4 cases documented by us and 61 cases previously reported by other Japanese authors. Approximately 50% of the patients were treated in an otolaryngology department, while the remaining patients were treated in plastic surgery, oral surgery, or dermatology departments. In 4 patients, the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated that the tumor was benign; however, the postoperative histopathology results revealed malignant tumors. The frequencies of malignant and benign tumors were 44.6% (n = 29) and 55.4% (n = 36), respectively. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma were the most frequent types of malignant and benign accessory parotid gland tumors, respectively. Among the various surgical methods that were used, such as direct cheek and intraoral incisions, a standard parotidectomy incision was the most preferred treatment approach for these tumors. Recently, an endoscopic approach has also been found to yield satisfactory results. An optimal approach should be selected after evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. No definite guidelines are available regarding the choice of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy for malignant accessory parotid gland tumors. Although tumor resection (plus elective neck dissection) and postoperative radiation therapy have been frequently performed for various kinds of malignant accessory parotid gland tumors to date, additional studies are needed regarding the criteria for selecting elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy. Since the malignancy rate for accessory parotid gland tumors is higher than that for parotid gland tumors, the possibility of malignancy (especially mucoepidermoid carcinoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma) should be considered when resecting accessory parotid gland tumors, even if the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicate that the tumor is benign. PMID:24558945

Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kei; Matsushita, Naoki; Okamoto, Sachimi; Teranishi, Yuichi; Koda, Yuki; Kosugi, Yuki; Yamane, Hideo

2013-12-01

4

First Transcriptome of the Testis-Vas Deferens-Male Accessory Gland and Proteome of the Spermatophore from Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ticks are important vectors of numerous human diseases and animal diseases. Feeding stimulates spermatogenesis, mating and insemination of male factors that trigger female reproduction. The physiology of male reproduction and its regulation of female development are essentially a black box. Several transcriptomes have catalogued expression of tick genes in the salivary glands, synganglion and midgut but no comprehensive investigation has

Daniel E. Sonenshine; Brooke W. Bissinger; Noble Egekwu; Kevin V. Donohue; Sayed M. Khalil; R. Michael Roe

2011-01-01

5

First transcriptome of the testis-vas deferens-male accessory gland and proteome of the spermatophore from Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

Ticks are important vectors of numerous human diseases and animal diseases. Feeding stimulates spermatogenesis, mating and insemination of male factors that trigger female reproduction. The physiology of male reproduction and its regulation of female development are essentially a black box. Several transcriptomes have catalogued expression of tick genes in the salivary glands, synganglion and midgut but no comprehensive investigation has addressed male reproduction and mating. Consequently, a new global approach using transcriptomics, proteomics, and quantitative gene expression is needed to understand male reproduction and stimulation of female reproduction.This first transcriptome to the reproductive biology of fed male ticks, Dermacentor variabilis, was obtained by 454 pyrosequencing (563,093 reads, 12,804 contigs). Gene Ontology (Biological Processes level III) recognized 3,866 transcripts in 73 different categories; spermiogenesis; spermatogenesis; peptidases, lipases and hydrolases; oxidative and environmental stress; immune defense; and protein binding. Reproduction-associated genes included serine/threonine kinase, metalloendoproteinases, ferritins, serine proteases, trypsin, cysteine proteases, serpins, a cystatin, GPCR and others. qRT-PCR showed significant upregulation from unfed versus fed adult male reproductive organs of zinc metalloprotease, astacin metalloprotease and serine protease, enzymes important in spermiogenesis and mating activity in insects, as well as a GPCR with the greatest similarity to a SIFamide receptor known to be important in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila. Proteomics on these organs and the spermatophore by tryptic digestion/Liquid chromatography/Mass spectrometry/Mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) demonstrated expression of many of the same messages found by 454 sequencing, supporting their identification, and revealed differences in protein distribution in the reproductive system versus the spermatophore. We found Ef? but no EF ? in the transcriptome and neither of these proteins in the spermatophore. Thus, the previously described model for male regulation of female reproduction may not apply to other ticks. A new paradigm is needed to explain male stimulation of female tick reproduction. PMID:21949745

Sonenshine, Daniel E; Bissinger, Brooke W; Egekwu, Noble; Donohue, Kevin V; Khalil, Sayed M; Roe, R Michael

2011-01-01

6

First Transcriptome of the Testis-Vas Deferens-Male Accessory Gland and Proteome of the Spermatophore from Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae)  

PubMed Central

Ticks are important vectors of numerous human diseases and animal diseases. Feeding stimulates spermatogenesis, mating and insemination of male factors that trigger female reproduction. The physiology of male reproduction and its regulation of female development are essentially a black box. Several transcriptomes have catalogued expression of tick genes in the salivary glands, synganglion and midgut but no comprehensive investigation has addressed male reproduction and mating. Consequently, a new global approach using transcriptomics, proteomics, and quantitative gene expression is needed to understand male reproduction and stimulation of female reproduction. This first transcriptome to the reproductive biology of fed male ticks, Dermacentor variabilis, was obtained by 454 pyrosequencing (563,093 reads, 12,804 contigs). Gene Ontology (Biological Processes level III) recognized 3,866 transcripts in 73 different categories; spermiogenesis; spermatogenesis; peptidases, lipases and hydrolases; oxidative and environmental stress; immune defense; and protein binding. Reproduction-associated genes included serine/threonine kinase, metalloendoproteinases, ferritins, serine proteases, trypsin, cysteine proteases, serpins, a cystatin, GPCR and others. qRT-PCR showed significant upregulation from unfed versus fed adult male reproductive organs of zinc metalloprotease, astacin metalloprotease and serine protease, enzymes important in spermiogenesis and mating activity in insects, as well as a GPCR with the greatest similarity to a SIFamide receptor known to be important in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila. Proteomics on these organs and the spermatophore by tryptic digestion/Liquid chromatography/Mass spectrometry/Mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) demonstrated expression of many of the same messages found by 454 sequencing, supporting their identification, and revealed differences in protein distribution in the reproductive system versus the spermatophore. We found Ef? but no EF ? in the transcriptome and neither of these proteins in the spermatophore. Thus, the previously described model for male regulation of female reproduction may not apply to other ticks. A new paradigm is needed to explain male stimulation of female tick reproduction.

Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Bissinger, Brooke W.; Egekwu, Noble; Donohue, Kevin V.; Khalil, Sayed M.; Roe, R. Michael

2011-01-01

7

Severe subfertility in mice with androgen receptor inactivation in sex accessory organs but not in testis.  

PubMed

Androgen action on sex accessory organs influences rodent fertility, but the mechanisms remain unclear and investigation is difficult without the ability to restrict androgen action in specific tissues. We used Cre-LoxP technology to generate male mice with prostate epithelial-specific androgen receptor deficiency (denoted PEARKO). In addition to prostate, these males have reduced androgen action due to tissue-selective androgen receptor inactivation in seminal vesicle, epididymis, and vas deferens, whereas the testis is unaffected. We find that fertility of PEARKO males was severely reduced, compared with littermates with prominent defects in copulatory plug formation, which were smaller, softer, and more friable than controls. Despite normal testis sperm production, sperm numbers were reduced in caput but increased in cauda epididymis, suggesting alterations in sperm epididymal transit kinetics associated with increased rate of spontaneous acrosome reaction and abnormal flagellar morphology in PEARKO cauda epididymal sperm. Whereas the quantitative in vitro fertilizing ability of PEARKO epididymal sperm was normal, fewer fertilized oocytes were flushed from the oviducts of females after natural mating with PEARKO males. These data show that sperm formed in mice with impaired androgen action restricted to accessory glands and epididymis are quantitatively normal in number and in vitro fertilizing function but that severe in vivo subfertility reflects other functions related to sperm transport and survival in female reproductive tract that determine fertility in vivo. PMID:18356274

Simanainen, Ulla; McNamara, Keely; Davey, Rachel A; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Handelsman, David J

2008-07-01

8

Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products.  

PubMed

To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner's body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

Zizzari, Z Valentina; Smolders, Irene; Koene, Joris M

2014-01-01

9

Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products  

PubMed Central

To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner’s body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection.

2014-01-01

10

Relationship between Male Age, Accessory Gland, Sperm Transferred, and Fitness Traits in Drosophila bipectinata  

PubMed Central

The number of cells and the size of the cells in the male accessory gland, the quantity of accessory gland proteins, and their effects on fitness in males of different ages were studied in Drosophila bipectinata Duda (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Male age was significantly positively correlated with the size of accessory gland, the number of main cells of the accessory gland, the quantity of protein in unmated males, the duration of copulation, the transferred quantity of protein and sperm to the mated female, fecundity, and fertility, while male age was significantly negatively correlated with the size of main cell in the accessory gland and the quantity of protein in mated males. The size of the main cells was significantly positively correlated with the quantity of protein in unmated males but significantly negatively correlated with the size of the accessory gland and the number of main cells in the accessory gland. These results suggest that D. bipectinata young males, with their smaller size of their accessory glands and having fewer and larger main cells in their accessory glands, produced the least quantity of protein and transferred significantly less protein and sperm to the mated female than did middle and old age males. Thus, this study suggests that in D. bipectinata, male age affects the number of accessory gland cells and the quantity of protein in the accessory gland. The size and number of main cells in the accessory gland and the size of the accessory gland were related to the production of protein. Females who mated with old males obtained a fitness benefit.

Santhosh, H. T.; Krishna, M. S.

2013-01-01

11

New genes for male accessory gland proteins in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

The accessory gland of male insects produces components of the seminal fluid that alter the behavior, physiology and life span of the mated female, and contribute to her efficient storage and utilization of sperm. As a step towards understanding how this occurs, we have isolated genes encoding 12 previously unreported accessory gland-specific mRNAs from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We report here the restriction maps of the new genes, the chromosome positions--which are all autosomal--of the 11 non-repetitive genes, their expression patterns, and the sequences of the accessory gland proteins (Acps) encoded by nine of the genes. Eight of the proteins predicted from these sequences begin with putative secretion signals. Following their signal sequences, three of the predicted molecules are peptides and the other five are larger polypeptides with characteristics of cleavable prohormones. The ninth molecule, which has an N-terminal hydrophobic region but no consensus signal peptide cleavage site, is predicted to be a 716 amino acid glycoprotein. Of the nine proteins, two have intriguing similarities to sequences in protein databases. Acp76A is a 388 amino acid pro-protein which contains a signature sequence for the serpin class of protease inhibitors. The 115 amino acid Acp62F has a 28 amino acid region of high sequence similarity to a neurotoxin of the Brazilian armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer. Models are discussed in which Acp76A plays a role in the observed regulation of Acp proteolysis and/or in the coagulation of seminal fluid to form a mating plug, and in which Acp62F contributes to the reported toxicity of Drosophila seminal fluid. PMID:9474779

Wolfner, M F; Harada, H A; Bertram, M J; Stelick, T J; Kraus, K W; Kalb, J M; Lung, Y O; Neubaum, D M; Park, M; Tram, U

1997-10-01

12

Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins in adrenal gland physiology and beyond.  

PubMed

The melanocortin receptor (MCR) family consists of five G-protein-coupled receptors (MC1R-MC5R) with diverse physiological roles. MC1R controls pigmentation, MC2R is a critical component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, MC3R and MC4R have a vital role in energy homeostasis and MC5R is involved in exocrine function. The melanocortin receptor accessory protein (MRAP) and its paralogue MRAP2 are small single-pass transmembrane proteins that have been shown to regulate MCR expression and function. In the adrenal gland, MRAP is an essential accessory factor for the functional expression of the MC2R/ACTH receptor. The importance of MRAP in adrenal gland physiology is demonstrated by the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency, where inactivating MRAP mutations account for ?20% of cases. MRAP is highly expressed in both the zona fasciculata and the undifferentiated zone. Expression in the undifferentiated zone suggests that MRAP could also be important in adrenal cell differentiation and/or maintenance. In contrast, the role of adrenal MRAP2, which is highly expressed in the foetal gland, is unclear. The expression of MRAPs outside the adrenal gland is suggestive of a wider physiological purpose, beyond MC2R-mediated adrenal steroidogenesis. In vitro, MRAPs have been shown to reduce surface expression and signalling of all the other MCRs (MC1,3,4,5R). MRAP2 is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus, a site that also expresses a high level of MC3R and MC4R. This raises the intriguing possibility of a CNS role for the MRAPs. PMID:23418361

Novoselova, T V; Jackson, D; Campbell, D C; Clark, A J L; Chan, L F

2013-04-01

13

Morphological study of accessory gland of Bothrops jararaca and its secretory cycle.  

PubMed

The venom gland apparatus of Bothrops jararaca is composed of four distinct parts: main venom gland, primary duct, accessory gland and secondary duct. Despite the numerous studies concerning morphology and venom production and secretion in the main venom gland, there are few studies about the accessory gland and its secretion. We characterized the accessory gland of B. jararaca snake and determined the secretion cycle by morphological analysis using light and transmission electron microscopy. Our data showed that the accessory gland of B. jararaca has a simple secretory epithelium with at least six types of cells in the anterior region: two types of secretory cells, mitochondria-rich cells without secretory vesicles, horizontal cells, dark cells and basal cells, and in the posterior region a simple epithelium with two types of cells: seromucous cells and horizontal cells. Furthermore, the mucous secretory cells of the accessory gland show a delayed and massive exocytosis that occurs four days after the extraction of venom. Morphological analysis at different steps after venom extraction showed that the accessory gland has a long cycle of production and secretion, which is not synchronous with the main venom gland secretory cycle. PMID:22227156

Sakai, Fernanda; Carneiro, Sylvia M; Yamanouye, Norma

2012-03-01

14

Social cues of sperm competition influence accessory reproductive gland size in a promiscuous mammal  

PubMed Central

Theory predicts that males should increase overall investment in ejaculate expenditure with increasing levels of sperm competition. Since ejaculate production is costly, we may expect males to tailor their reproductive investment according to anticipated levels of sperm competition. Here, we investigate plasticity in ejaculate investment in response to cues of population average levels of sperm competition in a promiscuous mammal, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). We manipulated the social experience of experimental subjects during sexual development via differential exposure to the odour of rival males, to simulate conditions associated with relatively high or low average levels of sperm competition. Males exposed to a high level of competition developed larger major accessory reproductive glands (seminal vesicles) than those that experienced a low level of competition, suggesting that an increased investment in the production of copulatory plugs and/or mating rate may be beneficial at relatively high sperm competition levels. However, investment in sperm production, testis size and sperm motility were not altered according to social experience. Our findings emphasize the importance of non-sperm components of the ejaculate in mammalian postcopulatory sexual selection, and add to the growing evidence linking plasticity in reproductive traits to social cues of sperm competition.

Lemaitre, Jean-Francois; Ramm, Steven A.; Hurst, Jane L.; Stockley, Paula

2011-01-01

15

A case of congenital fistula from an accessory parotid gland: diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

The author reports a case of congenital fistula from an accessory parotid gland and describes its diagnosis and treatment. The patient was referred to the author's clinic for evaluation of a continuous serous discharge from a small orifice in the left cheek near the angle of the mouth. A left preauricular appendix was also noted. Fistulography detected an aberrant duct leading to an accessory parotid gland. The main parotid gland and its duct were normal. The anomalous duct was dissected in continuity with a small ellipse of skin and sutured to the buccal mucosa. The patient's recovery was uneventful. The author also discusses the embryologic origin of this rare anomaly. PMID:22278868

Pinto, Fábio Roberto

2012-01-01

16

Male Breast Cancer Originating in an Accessory Mammary Gland in the Axilla: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Carcinoma of an accessory mammary gland is an extremely rare tumor. A 61-year-old male patient presented with a hard mass measuring 85?mm × 51?mm in the left axilla. Incisional biopsy histopathologically showed an adenocarcinoma compatible with breast carcinoma originating in an accessory mammary gland. Systemic examinations revealed no evidence of malignant or occult primary lesion in the bilateral mammary glands or in other organs. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed for the locally advanced axillary tumor and reduced the tumor to 55?mm in size, and, then, he could undergo complete resection with a negative surgical margin in combination with reconstructive surgery to fill the resulting skin defect with a local flap of the latissimus dorsi muscle. The patient has presented with no metastatic lesion in four years since the operation. This unusual case shows that neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an effective and tolerated therapy for advanced accessory breast cancer in the axilla.

Yamamura, Jun; Masuda, Norikazu; Kodama, Yoshinori; Yasojima, Hiroyuki; Mizutani, Makiko; Kuriyama, Keiko; Mano, Masayuki; Nakamori, Shoji; Sekimoto, Mitsugu

2012-01-01

17

Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly (Q-fly), Bactrocera tryoni, were investigated and compared with those of other tephritid flies. Male accessory glands were found to comprise one pair of mesodermic glands and three pairs of ectodermic glands. The mesodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined, binucleate epithelial cells, which are highly microvillated and extrude electron-dense secretions by means of macroapocrine transport into a central lumen. The ectodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined epithelial cells which have wide subcuticular cavities, lined with microvilli. The electron-transparent secretions from these glands are first extruded into the cavities and then forced out through small pores of the cuticle into the gland lumen. Secretions from the two types of accessory glands then flow into the ejaculatory duct, which is highly muscular, with epithelial cells rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum and lined with a thick, deeply invaginated cuticle. While there are some notable differences, reproductive accessory glands of male Q-flies generally resemble those of the olive fruitfly, Bactrocera oleae, and to a lesser extent the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. PMID:19026762

Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Marchini, Daniela; Taylor, Phillip W

2009-05-01

18

Molecular Population Genetics of Male Accessory Gland Proteins in the Drosophila simulans Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accessory gland proteins are a major component of Drosophila seminal fluid. These proteins have a variety of functions and may be subject to sexual selection and\\/or antagonistic evolution between the sexes. Most population genetic data from these proteins are from D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Here, we extend the population genetic analysis of Acp genes to the other simulans complex

Andrew D. Kern; Corbin D. Jones; David J. Begun

2004-01-01

19

Lateral facial cleft associated with accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and peripheral facial weakness.  

PubMed

Transverse facial cleft is a very rare malformation. The Tessier no. 7 cleft is a lateral facial cleft which emanates from oral cavity and extends towards the tragus, involving both soft tissue and skeletal components. Here, we present a case having transverse facial cleft, accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and ipsilateral peripheral facial nerve weakness. After surgical repair of the cleft in 2-month of age, improvement of the facial nerve function was detected in 3-year of age. Resection of the accessory mandible was planned in 5-6 years of age. PMID:24269646

Ozçelik, D; Toplu, G; Türkseven, A; Senses, D A; Yi?it, B

2014-07-01

20

Mating-induced reduction in accessory reproductive organ size in the stalk-eyed fly Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni  

PubMed Central

Background Internal reproductive organ size is an important determinant of male reproductive success. While the response of testis length to variation in the intensity of sperm competition is well documented across many taxa, few studies address the importance of testis size in determining other components of male reproductive success (such as mating frequency) or the significance of size variation in accessory reproductive organs. Accessory gland length, but not testis length, is both phenotypically and genetically correlated with male mating frequency in the stalk-eyed fly Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni. Here we directly manipulate male mating status to investigate the effect of copulation on the size of both the testes and the accessory glands of C. dalmanni. Results Accessory gland length was positively correlated with male mating frequency. Copulation induced a significant decrease in accessory gland size. The size of the accessory glands then recovered slowly over the next 8–48 hours. Neither testis length nor testis area was altered by copulation. Conclusion These results reveal that the time course of accessory gland recovery corresponds to field observations of mating behaviour and suggest that accessory gland size may limit male mating frequency in C. dalmanni.

Rogers, David W; Chapman, Tracey; Fowler, Kevin; Pomiankowski, Andrew

2005-01-01

21

Comparative fine structural analysis of the male reproductive accessory glands in Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology and ultrastructure of the male reproductive accessory glands from Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata were comparatively investigated. In both insects, there are two types of glands, mesoderm? and ectoderm?derived, which open in the ejaculatory duct. The mesoderm?derived glands are sac?like in B. oleae and very long tubules in C. capitata, whereas the ectodermic glands, generally branched finger?like structures,

Daniela Marchini; Giovanna Del Bene

2006-01-01

22

Factors affecting Anastrepha fraterculus female receptivity modulation by accessory gland products.  

PubMed

In the context of the sterile insect technique (SIT), mass-rearing and male irradiation are imperative. Post-teneral treatments such as the addition of protein in adult's male diet and male hormonal treatment are used to improve sexual performance and to accelerate sexual maturation. In this work we investigated the effect of male accessory glands products (AGPs) on female receptivity of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), and the effect of strain rearing history, male irradiation, male diet and hormonal treatment on AGPs. Injections of aqueous extracts of male accessory glands into the abdomen of females reduced their receptivity. The AGPs from laboratory males were more effective in inhibiting female receptivity, compared to AGPs from wild males, irrespective of females' origin. The AGPs from fertile males were more effective than AGPs from sterile males. The AGPs from protein-fed males were more effective than AGPs from sugar-fed males. Finally, the AGPs of males treated with juvenile hormone were less effective in inhibiting female receptivity than AGPs of untreated males. We conclude that inhibition of sexual receptivity of A. fraterculus mated females is mediated by products in male accessory gland's and the way that these products act vary widely according to the effect of extrinsic factors. We discuss the results in the perspective of the SIT application for A. fraterculus. PMID:21907717

Abraham, Solana; Cladera, Jorge; Goane, Lucía; Teresa Vera, M

2012-01-01

23

EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems  

PubMed Central

Background Heliconius butterflies possess a remarkable diversity of phenotypes, physiologies, and behaviors that has long distinguished this genus as a focal taxon in ecological and evolutionary research. Recently Heliconius has also emerged as a model system for using genomic methods to investigate the causes and consequences of biological diversity. One notable aspect of Heliconius diversity is a dichotomy in mating systems which provides an unusual opportunity to investigate the relationship between sexual selection and the evolution of reproductive proteins. As a first step in pursuing this research, we report the generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the male accessory gland of H. erato and H. melpomene, species representative of the two mating systems present in the genus Heliconius. Results We successfully sequenced 933 ESTs clustering into 371 unigenes from H. erato and 1033 ESTs clustering into 340 unigenes from H. melpomene. Results from the two species were very similar. Approximately a third of the unigenes showed no significant BLAST similarity (E-value <10-5) to sequences in GenBank's non-redundant databases, indicating that a large proportion of novel genes are expressed in Heliconius male accessory glands. In both species only a third of accessory gland unigenes were also found among genes expressed in wing tissue. About 25% of unigenes from both species encoded secreted proteins. This includes three groups of highly abundant unigenes encoding repetitive proteins considered to be candidate seminal fluid proteins; proteins encoded by one of these groups were detected in H. erato spermatophores. Conclusion This collection of ESTs will serve as the foundation for the future identification and evolutionary analysis of male reproductive proteins in Heliconius butterflies. These data also represent a significant advance in the rapidly growing collection of genomic resources available in Heliconius butterflies. As such, they substantially enhance this taxon as a model system for investigating questions of ecological, phenotypic, and genomic diversity.

Walters, James R; Harrison, Richard G

2008-01-01

24

Short adrenergic neurons and catecholamine-containing cells in vas deferens and accessory male genital glands of different mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The adrenergic innervation and catecholamine-containing cells in the internal accessory male genital organs of the guinea-pig, rat, rabbit, cat, dog and macaque has been studied with a fluorescence microscopic method for the cellular localization of catecholamines and 5-hydroxytryptamine.2.The vas deferens and most of the accessory genital glands have a very dense supply of adrenergic terminals, which is resistant to hypogastric

Christer Owman; Nils O. Sjöstrand

1965-01-01

25

Juvenile hormone regulation of male accessory gland activity in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum  

PubMed Central

Male accessory gland proteins (Acps) act as key modulators of reproductive success in insects by influencing the female reproductive physiology and behavior. We used custom microarrays and identified 112 genes that were highly expressed in male accessory glands (MAG) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Out of these 112 identified genes, 59 of them contained sequences coding for signal peptide and cleavage site and the remaining 53 contained transmembrane domains. The expression of 14 these genes in the MAG but not in other tissues of male or female was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. In virgin males, juvenile hormone (JH) levels increased from second day post adult emergence (PAE), remained high on third day PAE and declined on fourth day PAE. The ecdysteroid titers were high soon after adult emergence but declined to minimal levels from 1-5 days PAE. Feeding of juvenile hormone analog, hydroprene, but not the ecdysteroid analog, RH-2485, showed an increase in size of MAGs, as well as an increase in total RNA and protein content of MAG. Hydroprene treatment also increased the expression Acp genes in the MAG. RNAi-mediated knock-down in the expression of JHAMT gene decreased the size of MAGs and expression of Acps. JH deficiency influenced male reproductive fitness as evidenced by a less vigor in mating behavior, poor sperm transfer, low egg and the progeny production by females mated with the JH deficient males. These data suggest a critical role for JH in the regulation of male reproduction especially through MAG secretions.

Parthasarathy, R.; Tan, A.; Sun, Z.; Chen, J.; Rainkin, M.; Palli, S. R.

2009-01-01

26

Immunolocalization of murine type VI 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the adrenal gland, testis, skin, and placenta.  

PubMed

The enzyme 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase (3?-HSD) is essential for the biosynthesis of all active steroid hormones, such as those secreted from the adrenal gland, testis, ovary, skin and placenta. The 3?-HSD enzymes exist in multiple isoforms in humans and rodents. To date, six different isoforms have been identified in the mouse, and these isoforms are speculated to play different roles in different tissues. We previously showed that the murine type VI 3?-HSD isoform (Hsd3b6) is expressed specifically in the aldosterone-producing zona glomerulosa cells within the adrenal gland and that its overexpression causes abnormally increased aldosterone synthesis, revealing a crucial (or rate-limiting) role of this enzyme in steroidogenesis. However, potential contributions of this enzyme to the steroid hormone synthesis outside the adrenal glands are poorly understood. This paucity of knowledge is partly because of the lack of isoform-specific antibody that can be used for immunohistochemistry. Here, we report the development and characterization of specific antibody to Hsd3b6 and show the results of immunohistochemistry for the adrenal gland, testis, ovary, skin and placenta. As expected, Hsd3b6 immunoreactivities within the adrenal gland were essentially confined to the zona glomerulosa cells, where aldosterone is produced. By contrast, no immunopositive cells were observed in the zona fasciculata, which is where corticosterone is produced. In the gonads, while the ovaries did not show any detectable immunoreactivity to Hsd3b6, the testes displayed intense immunoreactivities within the interstitial Leydig cells, where testosterone is produced. In the skin, positive immunoreactivities to Hsd3b6 were only seen in the sebaceous glands, suggesting a specific role of this enzyme in sebaceous function. Moreover, in the placenta, Hsd3b6 was specifically found in the giant trophoblast cells surrounding the embryonic cavity, which suggests a role for this enzyme in local progesterone production that is required for proper embryonic implantation and/or maintenance of pregnancy. Taken together, our data revealed that Hsd3b6 is localized in multiple specific tissues and cell types, perhaps thereby involved in biosynthesis of a number of tissue-specific steroid hormones with different physiological roles. PMID:24075909

Yamamura, Koki; Doi, Masao; Hayashi, Hida; Ota, Takumi; Murai, Iori; Hotta, Yunhong; Komatsu, Rie; Okamura, Hitoshi

2014-01-25

27

Congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region in an adult. The patient, a 25-year-old woman, complained of 3 masses in her right midcheek. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings showed an irregular-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the masseter muscle region, an ellipse-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the right buccal region, and a comma-shaped mass (no calcifications) with a well-defined margin separate from the parotid gland in the right accessory parotid gland region. These iconographic findings suggested that the masses were all hemangiomas separately originating from the parotid gland, accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle. The masses were completely removed through a standard parotid incision without postoperative facial palsy, skin deformity, and difficulty in secreting saliva. Findings from histologic examination of the tumor revealed multiple, thin-walled, and dilated blood vessels, confirming the diagnosis of cavernous hemangiomas. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings were extremely useful in diagnosing the mass/masses as hemangioma before surgery, clarifying relationships between the mass and adjacent structures, and determining the surgical approach to the mass/masses. PMID:24621721

Yang, Tao; Gu, Yongchun; Zhang, Li; Hua, Zequan

2014-03-01

28

Angiotensin converting enzyme in the brain, testis, epididymis, pituitary gland and adrenal gland  

SciTech Connect

(/sup 3/H)Captopril binds to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in rat tissue homogenates. The pharmacology, regional distribution and copurification of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding with enzymatic activity demonstrate the selectivity of (/sup 3/H)captopril labeling of ACE. (/sup 3/H)Captopril binding to purified ACE reveals differences in cationic dependence and anionic regulation between substrate catalysis and inhibitor recognition. (/sup 3/H)Captopril association with ACE is entropically driven. The selectivity of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding permits autoradiographic localization of the ACE in the brain, male reproductive system, pituitary gland and adrenal gland. In the brain, ACE is visualized in a striatonigral neuronal pathway which develops between 1 and 7 d after birth. In the male reproductive system, (/sup 3/H)captopril associated silver grains are found over spermatid heads and in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in stages I-VIII and XII-XIV. In the pituitary gland, ACE is localized to the posterior lobe and patches of the anterior lobe. The adrenal medulla contains moderate ACE levels while low levels are found in the adrenal cortex. Adrenal medullary ACE is increased after hypophysectomy and after reserpine treatment. The general of ligand binding techniques for the study of enzymes is demonstrated by the specific labeling of another enzyme, enkephaline convertase, in crude tissue homogenates by the inhibitor (/sup 3/H)GEMSA.

Strittmatter, S.M.

1986-01-01

29

Morphology and histology of the ductus receptaculi and accessory glands in the reproductive tract of the female cricket, Teleogryllus commodus.  

PubMed

The morphology and histology of the ductus receptaculi and accessory glands in females of the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus Walker (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) are described. Both are reproductive organs situated in the 7(th) and 8(th) abdominal segment that join the posterior part of the genital chamber. The ductus receptaculi is a long (up to 25 mm) homogeneous tube, and the accessory glands (total length: 4 to 12 mm) are a complex system of tubes and end lobes with various numbers of ramifications. Based on their external shapes the accessory glands may be subdivided into three distinct regions, a distal region mainly producing the gland's secretion, a middle conducting region, and a basal region serving for the storage and release of the secretory substances into the genital chamber of the female. In histological respects, both organs have an outer muscle coat followed by a basal lamina, one or two cell layers, the cuticular intima, and the inner lumen. The ductus receptaculi is subdivided into three histologically different regions. The region located adjacent to the receptaculum and the region neighbouring the terminal papilla consist of a single, epithelial cell layer that is not secretory. The epithelium of the middle region contains two cell layers, glandular cells and cuticula-forming cells, which are responsible for the production of the cuticular intima. The secretion of the gland cells is released into an extracellular cavity, through which it reaches the lumen via a complex network of canals running through the intima. The histology of the accessory glands is rather homogeneous among the different regions, as one layer of epithelial cells produces both the secretion and the cuticular intima. Histological variations in the distal, middle, and basal gland sections mainly concern the height of the epithelium, the thickness of the basal lamina and the cuticular intima as well as the variable presence of the outer muscle coat. In contrast to the ductus receptaculi, secretory substances produced by the accessory gland cells accumulate in the lumen by a diffusive permeation of the intima. PMID:20298118

Sturm, Robert

2008-01-01

30

Immunocytochemical localization of androgen receptor in the comb, uropygial gland, testis, and epididymis in the domestic chicken.  

PubMed

Nuclear, but not cytoplasmic androgen receptors (AR), were localized immunocytochemically in the comb, uropygial (preen) gland, testis, and epididymis of juvenile and adult cockerels. Androgen receptor immunoreactivity (AR-ir) was seen in the comb, in the stratum germinativum of the epidermis and in fibromucoid cells in the dermis in juvenile and adult cockerels. AR-ir was observed in the glandular epithelial (sebum-producing) cells lining the peripheral and middle sections of the tubules in the uropygial gland. AR-ir was not detected in innermost part of the tubules which conduct the sebum to the surface of the skin. AR-ir labeling was not observed in the uropygial gland of juveniles. In the testis, AR-ir was seen in the Leydig cells, in adults but not juveniles. The epithelial cells lining the tubules in the epididymis contained AR-ir in both juveniles and adults. PMID:8713646

Shanbhag, B A; Sharp, P J

1996-01-01

31

Effect of male accessory glands autoaggression on androgenic cytosolic and nuclear receptors of rat prostate.  

PubMed

The effect of immunization against male accessory gland (MAG) homogenates over androgenic cytosolic and nuclear receptors of rat prostate was studied. In the MAG-immunized rats the Bmax of cytosolic receptors was significantly increased (120.3 +/- 44.3 vs 47.7 +/- 24.9 fmol/mg protein, p less than 0.01, mean +/- SD). In contrast, the Bmax of nuclear receptors in the MAG-immunized rats showed no significant difference as regarded controls (kidney immunized rats) when expressed as fmol/100 micrograms DNA (196.1 +/- 84.8 vs 148.3 +/- 88.9) but it show to slight differences (p less than 0.1) when data were reported as percent of weight of tissue (2,189 +/- 918.6 vs 1,303 +/- 611.2 fmol/g wet issue). Results (mean +/- SD) on binding affinity of cytosolic receptors showed no significant differences in MAG-immunized rats as compared with controls (Kd: 1.98 +/- 0.66 vs 1.92 +/- 0.20 nM). Likewise, only a slight difference between both groups was attained for Kds of nuclear receptors (2.34 +/- 0.28 vs 1.80 +/- 0.62 nM, p less than 0.2). On the other hand, 5 alpha 1-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) values obtained in prostate homogenates were significantly decreased in MAG-immunized rats as compared with controls (17.4 +/- 2.0 vs 7.1 +/- 0.9 ng/g tissue, mean +/- SD, p less than 0.01). However, testosterone (T) levels in gland tissue showed no significant differences between both groups (2.4 +/- 0.5 vs 2.6 +/- 0.3 ng/g tissue) with an increase in the T: DHT ratio from 0.14 to 0.37.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1571949

Diserio, G P; Carrizo, A E; Pacheco-Rupil, B; Nowotny, E

1992-04-01

32

Suppression subtractive hybridization analysis reveals expression of conserved and novel genes in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: During mating, insect males eject accessory gland proteins (Acps) into the female genital tract. These substances are known to affect female post-mating behavior and physiology. In addition, they may harm the female, e.g., in reducing its lifespan. This is interpreted as a consequence of sexual antagonistic co-evolution. Whereas sexual conflict abounds in non-social species, the peculiar life history of

Angelika Oppelt; Fernanda C Humann; Marion Fuessl; Sergio V Azevedo; David S Marco Antonio; Jürgen Heinze; Klaus Hartfelder

2010-01-01

33

Molecular population genetics of male accessory gland proteins in the Drosophila simulans complex.  

PubMed Central

Accessory gland proteins are a major component of Drosophila seminal fluid. These proteins have a variety of functions and may be subject to sexual selection and/or antagonistic evolution between the sexes. Most population genetic data from these proteins are from D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Here, we extend the population genetic analysis of Acp genes to the other simulans complex species, D. mauritiana and D. sechellia. We sequenced population samples of seven Acp's from D. mauritiana, D. sechellia, and D. simulans. We investigated the population genetics of these genes on individual simulans complex lineages and compared Acp polymorphism and divergence to polymorphism and divergence from a set of non-Acp loci in the same species. Polymorphism and divergence data from the simulans complex revealed little evidence for adaptive protein evolution at individual loci. However, we observed a dramatically inflated index of dispersion for amino acid substitutions in the simulans complex at Acp genes, but not at non-Acp genes. This pattern of episodic bursts of protein evolution in Acp's provides the strongest evidence to date that the population genetic mechanisms driving Acp divergence are different from the mechanisms driving evolution at most Drosophila genes.

Kern, Andrew D; Jones, Corbin D; Begun, David J

2004-01-01

34

Male accessory gland substances from Aedes albopictus affect the locomotor activity of Aedes aegypti females  

PubMed Central

Dengue is one of the world’s most important mosquito-borne diseases and is usually transmitted by one of two vector species: Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus . These two diurnal mosquitoes are frequently found coexisting in similar habitats, enabling interactions between adults, such as cross-mating. The objective of this study was to assess cross-mating between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males under artificial conditions and evaluate the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti virgin females injected with male accessory gland (MAG) homogenates to infer the physiological and behavioural responses to interspecific mating. After seven days of exposure, 3.3-16% of Ae. aegypti females mated with Ae. albopictus males. Virgin Ae. aegypti females injected with conspecific and heterospecific MAGs showed a general decrease in locomotor activity compared to controls and were refractory to mating with conspecific males. The reduction in diurnal locomotor activity induced by injections of conspecific or heterospecific MAGs is consistent with regulation of female reproductive activities by male substances, which are capable of sterilising female Ae. aegypti through satyrisation by Ae. albopictus .

Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Codeco, Claudia Torres; Honorio, Nildimar Alves; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Lounibos, Leon Philip

2013-01-01

35

Epithelioid Myoepithelioma of the Accessory Parotid Gland: Pathological and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings  

PubMed Central

Tumors of the accessory parotid gland (APG) are rare, and pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign APG tumor subtype. Myoepithelioma of the APG is much rarer than PA, and to date, only 5 cases have been sporadically reported in the English literature. We describe the clinicopathological and MRI findings of an epithelioid myoepithelioma of the APG that was treated in our hospital. The patient's only clinical symptom was a slow-growing and painless mid-cheek mass. The tumor was suspected to be PA before surgery based on the following MRI findings: (1) a well-circumscribed and lobulated contour, (2) isointensity and hyperintensity relative to the muscle on T1- and T2-weighted images (WIs), respectively, (3) good enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-WIs, (4) peripheral hypointensity on T2-WIs, and (5) a gradual time-signal intensity curve enhancement pattern on gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI. The tumor was completely resected via a standard parotidectomy approach, and the postoperative pathological examination of the tumor, including immunohistochemistry, confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid myoepithelioma. As it is hardly possible to distinguish myoepithelioma from PA and low-grade malignant tumors preoperatively, a pathological examination using frozen sections is helpful for surgical strategy-related decisions.

Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Yamada, Kei; Yamane, Hideo; Hashimoto, Shigeo

2014-01-01

36

Immunocytochemical Localization of Androgen Receptor in the Comb, Uropygial Gland, Testis, and Epididymis in the Domestic Chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear, but not cytoplasmic androgen receptors (AR), were localized immunocytochemically in the comb, uropygial (preen) gland, testis, and epididymis of juvenile and adult cockerels. Androgen receptor immunoreactivity (AR-ir) was seen in the comb, in thestratum germinativumof the epidermis and in fibromucoid cells in the dermis in juvenile and adult cockerels. AR-ir was observed in the glandular epithelial (sebum-producing) cells lining

Bhagyashri A. Shanbhag; Peter J. Sharp

1996-01-01

37

Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female`s reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Clark, A.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Prout, T.; Harshman, L.G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-01-01

38

Diversity and partitioning of bacterial populations within the accessory nidamental gland of the squid Euprymna scolopes.  

PubMed

Microbial consortia confer important benefits to animal and plant hosts, and model associations are necessary to examine these types of host/microbe interactions. The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) is a female reproductive organ found among cephalopod mollusks that contains a consortium of bacteria, the exact function of which is unknown. To begin to understand the role of this organ, the bacterial consortium was characterized in the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, a well-studied model organism for symbiosis research. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the ANG revealed dense bacterial assemblages of rod- and coccus-shaped cells segregated by morphology into separate, epithelium-lined tubules. The host epithelium was morphologically heterogeneous, containing ciliated and nonciliated cells with various brush border thicknesses. Hemocytes of the host's innate immune system were also found in close proximity to the bacteria within the tubules. A census of 16S rRNA genes suggested that Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia bacteria were prevalent, with members of the genus Phaeobacter dominating the consortium. Analysis of 454-shotgun sequencing data confirmed the presence of members of these taxa and revealed members of a fourth, Flavobacteria of the Bacteroidetes phylum. 16S rRNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that many ANG tubules were dominated by members of specific taxa, namely, Rhodobacterales, Verrucomicrobia, or Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes, suggesting symbiont partitioning to specific host tubules. In addition, FISH revealed that bacteria, including Phaeobacter species from the ANG, are likely deposited into the jelly coat of freshly laid eggs. This report establishes the ANG of the invertebrate E. scolopes as a model to examine interactions between a bacterial consortium and its host. PMID:22504817

Collins, Andrew J; LaBarre, Brenna A; Won, Brian S Wong; Shah, Monica V; Heng, Steven; Choudhury, Momena H; Haydar, Shahela A; Santiago, Jose; Nyholm, Spencer V

2012-06-01

39

Localisation of the melanocortin-2-receptor and its accessory proteins in the developing and adult adrenal gland.  

PubMed

The melanocortin-2-receptor (MC2R)/MC2R accessory protein (MRAP) complex is critical to the production of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. Inactivating mutations in either MC2R or MRAP result in the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency. The localisation of MC2R together with MRAP within the adrenal gland has not previously been reported. Furthermore, MRAP2, a paralogue of MRAP, has been shown in vitro to have a similar function to MRAP, facilitating MC2R trafficking and responsiveness to ACTH. Despite similar MC2R accessory functions, in vivo, patients with inactivating mutations of MRAP fail to be rescued by a functioning MRAP2 gene, suggesting differences in adrenal expression, localisation and/or function between the two MRAPs. In this study on the rat adrenal gland, we demonstrate that while MRAP and MC2R are highly expressed in the zona fasciculata, MRAP2 is expressed throughout the adrenal cortex in low quantities. In the developing adrenal gland, both MRAP and MRAP2 are equally well expressed. The MC2R/MRAP2 complex requires much higher concentrations of ACTH to activate compared with the MC2R/MRAP complex. Interestingly, expression of MC2R and MRAP in the undifferentiated zone would support the notion that ACTH may play an important role in adrenal cell differentiation and maintenance. PMID:21367968

Gorrigan, Rebecca J; Guasti, Leonardo; King, Peter; Clark, Adrian J; Chan, Li F

2011-06-01

40

Transcriptional Profiles of Mating-Responsive Genes from Testes and Male Accessory Glands of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata  

PubMed Central

Background Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. Methodology/Principal Findings We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. Conclusions/Significance We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male recovery dynamics in terms of accessory gland gene expression profiles and correlated remating inhibition mechanisms may permit the improvement of pest management approaches.

Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Siciliano, Paolo; Meraldi, Alice; Falchetto, Marco; Bonomi, Angelica; Manni, Mose; Gabrieli, Paolo; Malovini, Alberto; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Aksoy, Serap; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

2012-01-01

41

Suppression subtractive hybridization analysis reveals expression of conserved and novel genes in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri  

PubMed Central

Background During mating, insect males eject accessory gland proteins (Acps) into the female genital tract. These substances are known to affect female post-mating behavior and physiology. In addition, they may harm the female, e.g., in reducing its lifespan. This is interpreted as a consequence of sexual antagonistic co-evolution. Whereas sexual conflict abounds in non-social species, the peculiar life history of social insects (ants, bees, wasps) with lifelong pair-bonding and no re-mating aligns the reproductive interests of the sexes. Harming the female during mating would negatively affect male fitness and sexual antagonism is therefore not expected. Indeed, mating appears to increase female longevity in at least one ant species. Acps are presumed to play a role in this phenomenon, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we investigated genes, which are preferentially expressed in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri, to determine which proteins might be transferred in the seminal fluid. Results By a suppression subtractive hybridization protocol we obtained 20 unique sequences (USs). Twelve had mutual best matches with genes predicted for Apis mellifera and Nasonia vitripennis. Functional information (Gene Ontology) was available only for seven of these, including intracellular signaling, energy-dependent transport and metabolic enzyme activities. The remaining eight USs did not match sequences from other species. Six genes were further analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR in three life cycle stages of male ants. A gene with carboxy-lyase activity and one of unpredicted function were significantly overexpressed in accessory glands of sexually mature males. Conclusions Our study is the first one to investigate differential gene expression in ants in a context related to mating. Our findings indicate that male accessory glands of L. gredleri express a series of genes that are unique to this species, possibly representing novel genes, in addition to conserved ones for which functions can be predicted. Identifying differentially expressed genes might help to better understand molecular mechanisms involved in reproductive processes in eusocial Hymenoptera. While the novel genes could account for rapidly evolving ones driven by intra-sexual conflict between males, conserved genes imply that rather beneficial traits might get fixed by a process described as inter-sexual cooperation between males and females.

2010-01-01

42

Aspiration biopsy of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of accessory parotid gland: another diagnostic dilemma in matrix-containing tumors of the salivary glands.  

PubMed

Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a newly described rare salivary gland tumor, which shares morphologic features with acinic cell carcinoma, low-grade cystadenocarcinoma, and secretory carcinoma of the breast. This is the first reported case of MASC of an accessory parotid gland detected by aspiration biopsy with radiologic and histologic correlation in a 34-year-old patient. Sonographically-guided aspiration biopsy showed cytologic features mimicking those of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, including sheets of bland epithelial cells, dissociated histiocytoid cells with intracytoplasmic mucinous material, and spindle cells lying in a web-like matrix. Histologic sections showed a circumscribed tumor with microcystic spaces lined by bland uniform epithelial cells and containing secretory material. The tumor cells expressed mammaglobin and BRST-2. The cytologic features, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls are discussed. The pathologic stage was pT1N0. The patient showed no evidence of disease at 1 year follow-up. PMID:22807408

Levine, Pascale; Fried, Karen; Krevitt, Lane D; Wang, Beverly; Wenig, Bruce M

2014-01-01

43

The effect of metacestodes of Hymenolepis diminuta on the bean-shaped accessory glands in male Tenebrio molitor.  

PubMed

Metacestodes of Hymenolepis diminuta affect several aspects of female reproductive physiology in Tenebrio molitor and such effects are mediated via the endocrine system. The effects on male reproduction are less well known and were studied with respect to the Bean-Shaped Accessory Glands (BAGs). The size and wet and dry weight of BAGs from infected and uninfected beetles were compared and rose to a plateau from 0-6 days post-emergence in uninfected beetles but in infected individuals continued to increase in both size and weight. These effects were density independent. Glands from both infected and uninfected beetles were assayed for trehalase activity measured by its ability to convert the sugar trehalose to glucose. The activity of this enzyme, per mg wet weight, was not affected by the parasite. However, total activity per gland increased in infected males. Total protein content and electrophoretic profiles of BAGs from infected and uninfected individuals showed no change in profile but showed an increase in all protein subunits per gland over a broad molecular weight range. PMID:9509029

Carver, F J; Hurd, H

1998-02-01

44

Is the rapid post-mating inhibition of pheromone response triggered by ecdysteroids or other factors from the sex accessory glands in the male moth Agrotis ipsilon?  

PubMed

In many animals, male copulation is dependent on the detection and processing of female-produced sex pheromones, which is generally followed by a sexual refractory post-ejaculatory interval (PEI). In the male moth, Agrotis ipsilon, this PEI is characterized by a transient post-mating inhibition of behavioral and central nervous responses to sex pheromone, which prevents males from re-mating until they have refilled their reproductive tracts for a potential new ejaculate. However, the timing and possible factors inducing this rapid olfactory switch-off are still unknown. Here, we determined the initial time delay and duration of the PEI. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that the brain, the testis and/or the sex accessory glands (SAGs) could produce a factor inducing the PEI. Lastly, we investigated the possible involvement of ecdysteroids, hormones essential for development and reproduction in insects, in this olfactory plasticity. Using brain and SAG cross-injections in virgin and newly-mated males, surgical treatments, wind tunnel behavioral experiments and EIA quantifications of ecdysteroids, we show that the PEI starts very shortly after the onset of copulation, and that SAGs contain a factor, which is produced/accumulated after copulation to induce the PEI. Moreover, SAGs were found to be the main source of ecdysteroids, whose concentration decreased after mating, whereas it increased in the haemolymph. 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) was identified as the major ecdysteroid in SAGs of A. ipsilon males. Finally, 20E injections did not reduce the behavioral pheromone response of virgin males. Altogether our data indicate that 20E is probably not involved in the PEI. PMID:23562716

Vitecek, Simon; Maria, Annick; Blais, Catherine; Duportets, Line; Gaertner, Cyril; Dufour, Marie-Cécile; Siaussat, David; Debernard, Stéphane; Gadenne, Christophe

2013-05-01

45

Detection of 90K/MAC-2BP in the seminal plasma of infertile males with accessory gland infection and the autoimmune pathogenetic hypothesis.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to evaluate 90K/MAC-2BP, a glycoprotein member of the Scavenger Receptor Cystein Rich superfamily, in the seminal plasma of infertile male patients with male accessory gland infection in order to investigate a putative autoimmune pathogenesis. 90K seminal concentration and sperm parameters were evaluated in 50 patients with male accessory gland infection at baseline and after cycles of treatment with Levofluoxacin 500 mg daily for 15 days plus serratiopeptidase 10 mg daily for 30 days. Treatment was continued for up to 6 cycles in cases of persistant bacteriospermia and/or clinical and ejaculatory signs of the disease. Patients with persistant male accessory gland infection after 6 cycles were defined as nonresponders. The same parameters were evaluated at baseline and after a 2-month period in 30 healthy controls. Patients with male accessory gland infection showed impaired sperm parameters and had lower seminal 90K concentration compared to controls. After treatment, seminal 90K level significantly increased in patients compared to controls. Twenty-two patients responded to treatment (44%), while 28 were nonresponders (56%). No difference in pretreatment and posttreatment sperm parameters and seminal 90K was observed between the 2 subgroups. Thirteen patients (26%) had identifiable bacteriospermia: significantly less pretreatment seminal 90K was observed compared to patients without bacteriospermia. Seminal 90K is decreased in patients with male accessory gland infection, and may be restored by a treatment with quinolones. However, the clinical utility of a 90K assay in these patients remains uncertain, as its level is not predictive of response to treatment. PMID:16837737

Caroppo, Ettore; Niederberger, Craig; Iacovazzi, Palma A; Correale, Mario; D'Amato, Giuseppe

2006-01-01

46

Experimental autoimmunity to rat male accessory glands (MAG): circulating antibodies, immunoglobulins bound to target glands, and immunoglobulins-secreting cells.  

PubMed

A correlation between spleen B-cell antibody production against MAG antigens and the presence of different antibodies in circulation or antibodies bound to target glands was attempted. The number of 7S and 19S Ig-secreting cells (ISC) found in the spleen and the number of ISC generated after in vitro stimulation of the cells with MAG antigens were evaluated by using the hemolytic plaque assay. Low numbers of 7S and 19S ISC--less than 0.01% of spleen cells--were generated in response to MAG immunization, and no significative increase was observed after in vitro culture of spleen cells with MAG antigens, suggesting that secretory activity of the B-cells can not be improved when liberated from humoral homeostatic mechanisms. The humoral response of MAG-immunized rats, investigated by complement fixation and immunodiffusion assays, has proved negative, and in only two out of 17 rats a weak haemagglutinating activity was observed. Attempts to detect antibodies bound to cellular MAG antigens by immunofluorescence have shown a weak fluorescence in the epithelial cells of the prostate gland in only two rats. In both cases a concomitant tissue damage was observed, but in nine out of 11 cases with histological alterations no fluorescence was observed in the target glands. The medium value of rosette-forming cells (RFC) found in the spleen of MAG-immunized rats did not significantly differ from the value of the HSA-treated control group, although both groups differ in their specific humoral response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3985255

Depiante-Depaoli, M; Pacheco-Rupil, B

1985-01-01

47

The "Vampirome": Transcriptome and proteome analysis of the principal and accessory submaxillary glands of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, a vector of human rabies  

PubMed Central

Vampire bats are notorious for being the sole mammals that strictly feed on fresh blood for their survival. While their saliva has been historically associated with anticoagulants, only one antihemostatic (plasminogen activator) has been molecularly and functionally characterized. Here, RNAs from both principal submandibular and accessory glands of Desmodus rotundus were extracted, and ~ 200 million reads were sequenced by Illumina. The principal gland was enriched with plasminogen activators with fibrinolytic properties, members of lipocalin and secretoglobin families, which bind prohemostatic prostaglandins, and endonucleases, which cleave neutrophil-derived procoagulant NETs. Anticoagulant (tissue factor pathway inhibitor, TFPI), vasodilators (PACAP and C-natriuretic peptide), and metalloproteases (ADAMTS-1) were also abundantly expressed. Members of the TSG-6 (anti-inflammatory), antigen 5/CRISP, and CCL28-like (antimicrobial) protein families were also sequenced. Apyrases (which remove platelet agonist ADP), phosphatases (which degrade procoagulant polyphosphates), and sphingomyelinase were found at lower transcriptional levels. Accessory glands were enriched with antimicrobials (lysozyme, defensin, lactotransferrin) and protease inhibitors (TIL-domain, cystatin, Kazal). Mucins, heme-oxygenase, and IgG chains were present in both glands. Proteome analysis by nano LC-MS/MS confirmed that several transcripts are expressed in the glands. The database presented herein is accessible online at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/D_rotundus/Supplemental-web.xlsx. These results reveal that bat saliva emerges as a novel source of modulators of vascular biology.

Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Assumpcao, Teresa C. F.; Ma, Dongying; Li, Yuan; Vicente, Eliane C.; Uieda, Wilson; Ribeiro, Jose M.C.

2013-01-01

48

Function and composition of male accessory gland secretions in Anopheles gambiae: a comparison with other insect vectors of infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Human malaria, a major public health burden in tropical and subtropical countries, is transmitted exclusively by the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria control strategies aimed at inducing sexual sterility in natural vector populations are an attractive alternative to the use of insecticides. However, despite their importance as disease vectors, limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms regulating fertility in Anopheles mosquitoes. In the major malaria vector, An. gambiae, the full complement of sperm and seminal fluid required for a female’s lifelong egg production is obtained from a single mating event. This single mating has important consequences for the physiology and behavior of An. gambiae females: in particular, they become refractory to further insemination, and they start laying eggs. In other insects including Drosophila, similar post-copulatory changes are induced by seminal proteins secreted by the male accessory glands and transferred to the female during mating. In this review, we analyze the current state of knowledge on the function and characterization of male seminal proteins in An. gambiae, and provide a comparative assessment of the role of these male reproductive factors in other mosquito vectors of human disease in which female post-copulatory behavior has been studied. Knowledge of the factors and mechanisms regulating fertility in An. gambiae and other vectors can help the design of novel control strategies to fight the spread of disease.

Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; Rogers, David W.; Catteruccia, Flaminia

2012-01-01

49

Male Accessory Gland Protein Reduces Egg Laying in a Simultaneous Hermaphrodite  

PubMed Central

Seminal fluid is an important part of the ejaculate of internally fertilizing animals. This fluid contains substances that nourish and activate sperm for successful fertilization. Additionally, it contains components that influence female physiology to further enhance fertilization success of the sperm donor, possibly beyond the recipient's optimum. Although evidence for such substances abounds, few studies have unraveled their identities, and focus has been exclusively on separate-sex species. We present the first detailed study into the seminal fluid composition of a hermaphrodite (Lymnaea stagnalis). Eight novel peptides and proteins were identified from the seminal-fluid-producing prostate gland and tested for effects on oviposition, hatching and consumption. The gene for the protein found to suppress egg mass production, Ovipostatin, was sequenced, thereby providing the first fully-characterized seminal fluid substance in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Thus, seminal fluid peptides and proteins have evolved and can play a crucial role in sexual selection even when the sexes are combined.

Koene, Joris M.; Sloot, Wiebe; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Cummins, Scott F.; Degnan, Bernard M.; Smith, John S.; Nagle, Gregg T.; ter Maat, Andries

2010-01-01

50

Localization and characterization of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in boar accessory sex glands, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa and activity of GPx in boar semen.  

PubMed

Boar ejaculate owes its characteristic large volume mainly to accessory sex gland (ASG) secretions. These are main contributors to the protective functions of seminal plasma, especially against oxidative damage. Numerous antioxidants have been detected in ASG secretions, and, respectively, in seminal plasma. However, as regards one key antioxidant protector -- the Se-dependent enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) -- there is no agreement yet among researchers as to its presence in boar seminal plasma. Nevertheless, the beneficial effect of dietary Se supplementation on male fertility has been widely recognized. The aim of the present study was to investigate the localization and characterization of GPx in boar ASGs, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa, as well as to evaluate GPx activity in boar semen. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated GPx presence in the epithelial cells, vacuole membranes, and vascular endothelium of boar seminal vesicle, prostate and bulbourethral glands. Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of a monomer form of GPx with MW 20 kDa in lysates from seminal vesicle, prostate, bulbourethral glands, and spermatozoa, but not in seminal plasma. Surprisingly, peroxidase activity detected in seminal plasma from normal ejaculates was nearly three times as high as in spermatozoa. Our findings confirmed the presence of immunoreactive GPx in the boar reproductive tract, while further investigation is still warranted to uncover the exact protein forms involved and their function. PMID:17964641

Jelezarsky, L; Vaisberg, Ch; Chaushev, T; Sapundjiev, E

2008-01-15

51

In vivo evidence for the crucial role of SF1 in steroid-producing cells of the testis, ovary and adrenal gland.  

PubMed

Adrenal and gonadal steroids are essential for life and reproduction. The orphan nuclear receptor SF1 (NR5A1) has been shown to regulate the expression of enzymes involved in steroid production in vitro. However, the in vivo role of this transcription factor in steroidogenesis has not been elucidated. In this study, we have generated steroidogenic-specific Cre-expressing mice to lineage mark and delete Sf1 in differentiated steroid-producing cells of the testis, the ovary and the adrenal gland. Our data show that SF1 is a regulator of the expression of steroidogenic genes in all three organs. In addition, Sf1 deletion leads to a radical change in cell morphology and loss of identity. Surprisingly, sexual development and reproduction in mutant animals were not compromised owing, in part, to the presence of a small proportion of SF1-positive cells. In contrast to the testis and ovary, the mutant adult adrenal gland showed a lack of Sf1-deleted cells and our studies suggest that steroidogenic adrenal cells during foetal stages require Sf1 to give rise to the adult adrenal population. This study is the first to show the in vivo requirements of SF1 in steroidogenesis and provides novel data on the cellular consequences of the loss of this protein specifically within steroid-producing cells. PMID:23136395

Buaas, F William; Gardiner, Jennifer R; Clayton, Sally; Val, Pierre; Swain, Amanda

2012-12-01

52

Evaluation of usefulness of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of tumours of the accessory parotid gland: a preliminary analysis of a case series in Japan.  

PubMed

Abstract Conclusion: The accuracy and sensitivity of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in this analysis were not satisfactory, and the false-negative rate seemed to be higher than for parotid tumours. The possibility of low-grade malignancy should be considered in the surgical treatment of accessory parotid gland (APG) tumours, even if the preoperative results of FNAC suggest that the tumour is benign. Objectives: Little is known about the usefulness of FNAC in the preoperative evaluation of APG tumours, probably due to the paucity of APG tumour cases. We examined the usefulness of FNAC in the detection of malignant APG tumours. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 3 cases from our hospital, along with 18 previously reported Japanese cases. We compared the preoperative FNAC results with postoperative histopathological diagnoses of APG tumours and evaluated the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and false-negative rates of FNAC in detecting malignant APG tumours. Results: There were four false-negative cases (19.0%), three of mucoepidermoid carcinomas and one of malignant lymphoma. One false-positive result was noted in the case of a myoepithelioma, which was cytologically diagnosed as suspected adenoid cystic carcinoma. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in detecting malignant tumours were 76.2%, 60.0% and 90.9%, respectively. PMID:24847949

Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Tadashi; Matsushita, Naoki; Oishi, Masahiro; Teranishi, Yuichi; Yamane, Hideo

2014-07-01

53

Effects of Pygidial Secretion (Zoopesticide) on Histopathological Changes in the Male Accessory Reproductive Glands of Adult Male Insect Odontopus varicornis in Relation to Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Indiscriminate use of pesticides for the eradication of pests causes tremendous changes to the environment and also to other nontarget organisms. To prevent such contamination of the environment and save nontarget species, zoopesticides are increasingly used as they are cost effective, eco-friendly, safe, and sustainable in the field of agriculture. The present study was undertaken to find out the effect of pygidial secretion (zoopesticide) on Odontopus varicornis. The insects were exposed to pygidial secretion for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours and its sublethal concentration was found to be about 2.8% for 48 hours. When the insects were injected with sublethal concentration 2.8% for 48 hours, the study revealed certain remarkable changes in the histopathology of the male accessory reproductive glands (MARGs) such as disintegration of epithelial cell wall, swollen nucleus, vacuolization of cytoplasm, highly pycnotic and necrotic epithelium, enlargement of epithelial cells, and disorganized tissues. It is suggested that zoopesticide causes several histopathological damages in the MARGs of O. varicornis and affects the reproductive potentiality of O. varicornis.

Lousia, M.; Selvisabhanayakam; Mathivanan, V.

2010-01-01

54

Seminal vesicles of infertile patients with male accessory gland infection: ultrasound evaluation after prolonged treatment with tadalafil, a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate possible ultrasound seminal vesicle (SV) changes in infertile patients with 'hypertrophic-congestive' (HCUF) or 'fibro-sclerotic' (FSUF) ultrasound form of male accessory gland infection (MAGI) after prolonged administration of tadalafil (TAD), a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor. Forty infertile patients with HCUF and 40 patients with FSUF and erectile dysfunction were selected and arbitrarily divided into two groups, who were prescribed TAD 5 mg daily for 3 months, the first 20 consecutive patients with HCUF (group A1) or FSUF (group A2) or placebo, the second 20 consecutive patients with HCUF (group B1) or FSUF (group B2). All patients underwent scrotal and prostate-vesicular transrectal ultrasound evaluation and semen analysis (WHO, 2010) before and after treatment. Group A1 patients showed a significant reduction in fundus/body ratio and higher pre- and post-ejaculatory body SV antero-posterior diameter difference compared with the other three groups. These patients showed also a significant increase in SV ejection fraction and a significant improvement in the total sperm count, progressive motility, seminal levels of fructose and ejaculate volume. These results suggest that infertile patients with HCUF had an improvement in SV ultrasound features suggestive of chronic inflammation after daily treatment with low doses of TAD. PMID:23116230

La Vignera, S

2013-12-01

55

20-Hydroxyecdysone accelerates the flow of cells into the G1 phase and the S phase in a male accessory gland of the mealworm pupa (Tenebrio molitor).  

PubMed

The cells of the bean-shaped accessory glands of mealworms proliferate through the first 7 days of the 9-day pupal stage. Immediately after larval-pupal ecdysis, 25-27% of the cells were in the G1 phase, 60-65% were in the G2 phase, and the balance were in S phase. Over the first 4 days of normal development, the S fraction gradually increased, to reach its highest level in the mid-pupa at the time of the major ecdysteroid peak (Delbecque et al., 1978). Thereafter, the S fraction declined until over 95% of the cells had accumulated in G2 on Day 8. When 0-day pupal glands were explanted into Landureau's S-20 medium for 6 days, the G1 fraction remained fairly constant (25-30%) while S and the G2 fractions fluctuated. On the first day in vitro, the G2 fraction declined and the S fraction rose. On the second day in basal media, the S fraction fell and G2 rose correspondingly until 70% of the cells reached G2 when cycling stopped on the third day. With addition of 20-hydroxyecdysone to 0-day cultures, the S fraction increased quite sharply. It remained large for all 6 days of the experiment in the continuing presence of hormone. A 1-day pulse of hormone produced a transient increase in S. We blocked cell cycling with hydroxyurea in a stathmokinetic experiment and showed that 20-hydroxyecdysone accelerated the flow of cells from the G2 phase to the G1 phase by 2.5-fold. An increase in the G1 fraction was detected within 10 hr of hormone administration and the effect was dose-dependent with an ED50 of 5 X 10(-7) M for 20-hydroxyecdysone. We conclude that 20-hydroxyecdysone acts at a control point in the G2 phase. Incubation of the glands with 20-hydroxyecdysone for only 30-60 min followed by washout stimulated the flow from G2 to G1 and the effect persisted after transfer of the tissues to hormone-free media. Dose-dependent stimulation also occurred with ponasterone A (ED50 3 X 10(-9] but not with cholesterol. PMID:3342931

Yaginuma, T; Kai, H; Happ, G M

1988-03-01

56

Evaluation of atorvastatin efficacy and toxicity on spermatozoa, accessory glands and gonadal hormones of healthy men: a pilot prospective clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention advocate lowering both cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol systemic levels, notably by statin intake. However, statins are the subject of questions concerning their impact on male fertility. This study aimed to evaluate, by a prospective pilot assay, the efficacy and the toxicity of a decrease of cholesterol blood levels, induced by atorvastatin on semen quality and sexual hormone levels of healthy, normocholesterolaemic and normozoospermic men. Methods Atorvastatin (10 mg daily) was administrated orally during 5 months to 17 men with normal plasma lipid and standard semen parameters. Spermatozoa parameters, accessory gland markers, semen lipid levels and blood levels of gonadal hormones were assayed before statin intake, during the treatment, and 3 months after its withdrawal. Results Atorvastatin treatment significantly decreased circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol concentrations by 42% and 24% (p?

2014-01-01

57

Male accessory gland infection frequency in infertile patients with chronic microbial prostatitis and irritable bowel syndrome: transrectal ultrasound examination helps to understand the links.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of male accessory gland infection (MAGI) in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) plus irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to compare the sperm parameters of patients with or without MAGI. In addition, another objective of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound characterization of the anatomical space between the posterior wall of the prostate and the anterior wall of the rectum using transrectal ultrasonography. Fifty consecutive patients with the following criteria were enrolled: 1) infertility, 2) diagnosis of CBP, and 3) diagnosis of IBS according to the Rome III criteria. The following 2 age-matched control groups were also studied: infertile patients with CBP alone (n = 56) and fertile men (n = 30) who had fathered a child within the previous 3 months. Patients and controls underwent an accurate patient history; administration of the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and the Rome III questionnaires for prostatitis and IBS, respectively; physical examination; semen analysis; and transrectal ultrasound evaluation (limited to patients with CBP and IBS or CBP alone). A significantly higher frequency of MAGI was found in patients with CBP plus IBS (82.0%) compared with patients with CBP alone (53.6%) or fertile men (0%). The presence of MAGI in patients with CBP plus IBS was associated with a significantly lower sperm concentration, total number, and forward motility, and with a higher seminal leukocyte concentration compared with patients with CBP alone and MAGI. Sperm normal morphology was similar in the groups of patients. All sperm parameters did not differ significantly in both groups of patients without MAGI. With ultrasound evaluation, a significantly higher frequency of dilatation of prostatic venous plexus was found in patients with CBP plus IBS (75%) compared with patients with CBP alone (10%). Patients with CBP plus IBS had a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with patients with CBP alone. This was associated with worse sperm parameters and, hence, poorer reproductive prognosis. We suggest searching for the presence of IBS in patients with prostatitis syndrome, in particular when CBP and/or worse sperm parameters are present. Finally, this is the first observation on ultrasound examination of the anatomical space between the posterior wall of the prostate and the anterior wall of the rectum reported in patients with CBP and IBS. Further studies should clarify the meaning of the ultrasound findings. PMID:21868744

Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E; Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Lucia O; La Vignera, Sandro

2012-01-01

58

Silencing of the Hsf gene, the transcriptional regulator of A. gambiae male accessory glands, inhibits the formation of the mating plug in mated females and disrupts their monogamous behaviour.  

PubMed

Discovering the molecular factors that shape the mating behaviour and the fertility of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of human malaria, is regarded as critical to better understand its reproductive success as well as for identifying new leads for malaria control measures. In A. gambiae mating induces complex behavioural and physiological changes in the females, including refractoriness to subsequent mating and induction of egg-laying. In other insects including Drosophila a group of proteins named Accessory gland proteins (Acps), produced by males and transferred with sperm to the female reproductive tract, have been implicated in this post-mating response. Although Acps represent a set of promising candidates for unravelling the mating physiology, their role in inducing behavioural changes in mated A. gambiae females remains largely unknown. In this work, we demonstrate that a down-regulation of a large fraction of Acp genes via silencing of the Acp regulating transcription factor Hsf, abolishes the formation of mating plug in mated females and fails to induce refractoriness of mated female to subsequent inseminations. A significant fraction of females mated to Hsf silenced males (66%) failed to receive the mating plug though seminal fluid had been transferred as documented by the presence of spermatozoa in the female sperm storage organ. Furthermore, nearly all females (95%) mated to HSF-silenced males were re-inseminated when exposed to males carrying EGPF marked sperm. Our findings provide evidence showing that Acp genes regulated by the transcription factor HSF play a key role in the function of the male accessory glands. PMID:23265612

Dottorini, Tania; Persampieri, Tania; Palladino, Pietro; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Crisanti, Andrea

2012-11-01

59

Proteins of the Drosophila melanogaster male reproductive system: two-dimensional gel patterns of proteins synthesized in the XO, XY, and XYY testis and paragonial gland and evidence that the Y chromosome does not code for structural sperm proteins.  

PubMed

Testes and paragonial glands of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type males were labeled in vitro using (35S)methionine, and the proteins synthesized were analyzed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Testes and paragonial glands were also labeled in vivo by feeding male larvae 35S-labeled yeast and then dissecting the adult males. Approximately 1200 proteins were resolved by autoradiography of the gels. The in vitro method was shown to be more sensitive and to allow faithful synthesis of all proteins produced in vivo. [3H]Proline was also used to label testes, and no significant differences from the 35Spattern were noted. Testes and paragonial glands from XO and XYY males were labeled in vitro with [35S]methionine, and the proteins synthesized were compared to those produced by wild-type males of identical autosomal background. No differences attributable to the Y chromosome could be detected in the testes or paragonial gland samples. Pure sperm were dissected manually from in vivo labeled males and the proteins analyzed. Ninety-two proteins were detected, which were all synthesized in comparable amounts by XO, XY, and XYY males, showing that the Y chromosome does not code for any of these structural sperm proteins. It is postulated that no Y chromosome products were detected because they are organizational or regulatory proteins present only in very small amounts in the adult testes. 35S-labeled males were also mated to unlabeled females and the transferred proteins analyzed on two-dimensional PAGE. The contributions of the testis and paragonial gland to the ejaculate were determined. PMID:6781473

Ingman-Baker, J; Candido, E P

1980-08-01

60

Testis cancer  

PubMed Central

Testis cancer is an increasing problem, especially in northern European male populations. However, survival has improved dramatically over one generation. Environmental factors may have a role in the aetiology with high oestrogen concentrations implicated. Testis cancer is subdivided between seminoma and non?seminoma. At presentation, a testicular lump is the most common finding and radical inguinal orchidectomy is recommended for most. Further multidisciplinary management is determined by histological subtype and stage and involves chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, with many patients only undergoing surveillance. There is increasing emphasis on reducing toxicity of treatments in long term survivors. Treatment refractory testis cancer remains a significant challenge.

Khan, Omar; Protheroe, Andrew

2007-01-01

61

Matching Accessories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heterodimerization enhances the complexity of ligand recognition and diversity of signaling responses of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Many accessory proteins (for ion channels or GPCRs) appear to associate with their partners relatively early in the process whereby proteins are transported to the cell surface; their roles in modulating function may have evolved out of simple proximity to a protein that once upon a time they either facilitated or accompanied through the maturation process. The receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are a family of single-transmembrane accessory proteins that heterodimerize with GPCRs and, thereby, allow individual GPCRs to recognize multiple ligands and to activate various signaling pathways in response to ligand binding. The M10 family of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1b proteins has recently been shown to associate with murine vomeronasal V2R receptors, as well as to escort them to the cell surface. The exact role of M10 in modulating V2R function (or vice versa) remains to be determined.

Steven M. Foord (Stevenage;Target Bioinformatics, GlaxoSmithKline Medicine Research Centre REV)

2003-07-08

62

Supernumerary Testis  

PubMed Central

Polyorchidism is a rare congenital anomaly of the genital tract in which more than two testes are present, usually within the scrotum. Less than 100 cases of polyorchidism have been reported in medical literature till date. The most common form is the presence of three testis referred as triorchidism or tritestis. There are characteristic sonographic features of polyorchidism, and the diagnosis is often made on the basis of ultrasonography. Magnetic resonance imaging can be used for confirmation. We present a case of polyorchidism in a 13 yrs old adolescent.

Chintamani, Jaiger; Nyapathy2, Vinay; Chauhan3, Ankitha; krishnamurthy4, Umesh

2009-01-01

63

The comparative morphology of epidermal glands in Pentatomoidea (Heteroptera).  

PubMed

The Heteroptera show a diversity of glands associated with the epidermis. They have multiple roles including the production of noxious scents. Here, we examine the cellular arrangement and cytoskeletal components of the scent glands of pentatomoid Heteroptera in three families, Pentatomidae (stink bugs), Tessaratomidae, and Scutelleridae (shield-backed bugs or jewel bugs). The glands are; (1) the dorsal abdominal glands, (2) the tubular glands of the composite metathoracic gland, and (3) the accessory gland component of the composite metathoracic gland. The dorsal abdominal glands are at their largest in nymphs and decrease in size in adults. The metathoracic gland is an adult-specific gland unit with a reservoir and multiple types of gland cells. The accessory gland is composed of many unicellular glands concentrated in a sinuous line across the reservoir wall. The lateral tubular gland is composed of two-cell units. The dorsal abdominal glands of nymphs are composed of three-cell units with a prominent cuticular component derived from the saccule cell sitting between the duct and receiving canal. The cuticular components that channel secretion from the microvilli of the secretory cell to the exterior differ in the three gland types. The significance of the numbers of cells comprising gland units is related to the role of cells in regenerating the cuticular components of the glands at moulting in nymphs. PMID:24747726

Kheyri, Homayoun; Cribb, Bronwen W; Merritt, David J

2014-05-01

64

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1163 Powerplant accessories. (a) Each engine mounted accessory...

2014-01-01

65

14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1163 Powerplant accessories. (a) Each engine mounted accessory...

2014-01-01

66

Accessory oral cavity.  

PubMed

This is a rare case report of a patient around 11 years with the complaint of extra mouth who reported to the hospital for removal of that extra mouth. On examination there was accessory oral cavity with small upper and lower lips, seven teeth and saliva was drooling out. Under general anesthesia crevicular incision from 32 to 43 was put and labial gingiva with alveolar mucosa was reflected completely and bone exposed to lower border of mandible. There were seven teeth resembling lower permanent anterior teeth in the accessory mouth, which was excised with the accessory lips. 41 extracted and osteotomy carried out extending the incision from the extracted site and osteotomy carried out. Dermoid cyst both below and above the mylohyoid muscle and rudimentary tongue found and excised and the specimen sent for histopathological examination. The wound was closed and uneventful healing noted to the satisfaction of the patient. This is a rare and interesting case which has been documented. PMID:23833508

Gnaneswaran, Manica Ramamoorthy; Varadarajan, Usha; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Kamatchi, Sangeetha

2012-07-01

67

Accessory olfactory learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning in the accessory olfactory bulb is modelled mathematically by means of a set of coupled oscillator equations to describe the ongoing activity. The modification of this activity by experience is shown to lead to a change of the transfer function of the AOB as an input-output device. This leads both to a test of the model and a means

J. G. Taylor; E. B. Keverne

1991-01-01

68

Sulpholipid formation in rat submandibular gland.  

PubMed Central

The sulphotransferase activity of rat submandibular gland differs markedly from that of testis, kidney and brain. The addition of lipid acceptors and Mn2+ (or Mg2+), which have been shown to enhance sulpholipid formation from adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-sulphatophosphate in other tissues, has either no effect or inhibits the transfer process.

Pritchard, E T

1977-01-01

69

14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1167 Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as...

2014-01-01

70

Electroporation of the Testis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mature mammalian testis is a marvelous organ that produces numerous sperm cells during its reproductive phase. This biologically significant process consists of three steps: stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, meiosis and genetic recombination, and haploid cell morphogenesis into sperm (Russell et al., 1990). The first step provides a good model for investigating the molecular mechanism of stem cell regulation. Currently, the mechanism underlying sperm cell production is a very exciting topic in regenerative medicine (Lensch et al. 2007; Okita et al., 2007). The spermatogonial stem cell system has several advantages, including the easy histological identification of stem cells (Russell et al., 1990), a clear relationship between stem cells and the supporting Sertoli cells, which provide a stem cell niche (Tadokoro et al., 2002; Yomogida et al., 2003), and a transplantation assay for stem cell activity (Oatley & Brinster, 2006). Although germline stem (GS) cells derived from the gonocytes in newborn testis constitute a suitable in vitro system for investigating the properties of spermatogonial stem cells (Kanatsu-Shinohara et al., 2003, 2004), studies using living mammalian testes continue to provide information regarding the roles of the stem cell niche. In vivo electroporation of the supporting cells in the testis will expand our ability to study it.

Yomogida, Kentaro

71

Split gland  

DOEpatents

A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

Petranto, Joseph J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

72

Split gland  

DOEpatents

A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

Petranto, J.J.

1989-09-05

73

Container Handling and Accessory Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes a method for test and evaluation of handling and accessory equipment for oversized cargo containers. It discusses test planning, preparations for test, inspection, technical performance, beach mobility, logistics-over-the-shore, te...

1978-01-01

74

Salivary gland infections  

MedlinePLUS

Salivary gland infections affect the glands that produce saliva (spit). The infection may be due to bacteria or viruses. There are three pairs of major salivary glands: Parotid glands. These are the two largest glands. ...

75

Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

Micallef, Ken

2007-01-01

76

Barrier Properties of Testis Microvessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blood-testis barrier is believed to be constituted by tight junctions between Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules and possibly by myoid cells that encircle these tubules. We now show that testis microvessels are endowed with several markers of barrier properties of brain microvessels, such as the glucose transporter, P-glycoprotein, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Quantitative EM studies show that the endothelium in

Jocelyn A. Holash; Sami I. Harik; George Perry; Patricia A. Stewart

1993-01-01

77

Endocrine glands  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it’s the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

78

Resident macrophages influence stem cell activity in the mammary gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Macrophages in the mammary gland are essential for morphogenesis of the ductal epithelial tree and have been implicated in promoting breast tumor metastasis. Although it is well established that macrophages influence normal mammopoiesis, the mammary cell types that these accessory cells influence have not been determined. Here we have explored a role for macrophages in regulating mammary stem cell

David E Gyorki; Marie-Liesse Asselin-Labat; Nico van Rooijen; Geoffrey J Lindeman; Jane E Visvader

2009-01-01

79

Salivary Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... a roadmap to this full guide. About the salivary glands The salivary glands are tissues that produce saliva. ... are often called the minor salivary glands. About salivary gland cancer Cancer begins when normal cells change and ...

80

The gliding testis: Minor degree of true undescended testis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gliding testis is located below the external ring; it can be manipulated to the upper scrotum but tends to ascend to its original position. Histologic changes can be detected in these gonads by 7 years of age. We evaluated 427 consecutive prepubertal boys referred for cryptorchidism. One hundred and twenty-three had classical undescended testes: 71 ectopic, 55 retractile, and

A. Lais; S. Caterino; M. Talamo; A. Nahom; P. Bagolan; F. Ferro

1993-01-01

81

Accessory origin of the piriformis muscle.  

PubMed

Incidental finding of an accessory slip of the piriformis muscle in the gluteal region is reported. Following routine dissection of the gluteal region in three formalin-fixed cadavers, an accessory slip of the piriformis was observed. The accessory slip was cleaned, attachments were identified, and dimensions were measured in two parts as fleshy and tendinous parts with a graduated scale to the nearest millimetre. The accessory slip was innervated by a small twig from the sciatic nerve. Having considered the available literature, the accessory slip of piriformis is rare, and if found, could be a cause for the undiagnosed chronic pain in the back and gluteal region, as this accessory slip may compress the sciatic nerve. PMID:18756338

Ravindranath, Y; Manjunath, K Y; Ravindranath, R

2008-08-01

82

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2013-04-01

83

Stretch-induced spinal accessory nerve palsy.  

PubMed

Left spinal accessory nerve palsy occurred in a young man when he quickly turned his head to the right while his shoulders were pulled down by heavy hand-held objects. Electrophysiologic studies demonstrated partial axonotmesis of the spinal accessory nerve branches innervating the sternocleidomastoid and upper and middle trapezius and complete axonotmesis of spinal accessory branches to the lower trapezius. There was a separate, although functionally minor, cervical plexus innervation of the lower trapezius. PMID:3343990

Logigian, E L; McInnes, J M; Berger, A R; Busis, N A; Lehrich, J R; Shahani, B T

1988-02-01

84

Melanocortin receptors and their accessory proteins.  

PubMed

The melanocortin receptor family consists of 5 members which belong to the GPCR superfamily. Their specific ligands, the melanocortins are peptide hormones which are formed by the proteolytic cleavage of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) protein. It is now recognised that certain GPCRs require accessory proteins for their function. Like these GPCRs the melanocortin receptor family is also known to be associated with accessory proteins that regulate their function. In this review we will summarise the accessory proteins involved in the function of the 5 melanocortin receptors and in particular focus on the melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) which is crucial for the function of the MC2R. PMID:20654690

Cooray, Sadani N; Clark, Adrian J L

2011-01-15

85

[Cowper's canals and glands. Pathological manifestations and radiologic aspects].  

PubMed

From 11 personal case studies, the authors conduct a general review of the problems raised by Cowper's glands. Cowper's glands, accessory sexual glands, are made up of main glands situated behind and on either side of the bulbar urethra right at the level of the urolgenital diaphragm and of accessory glands situated in the thickness of the bulbar spongy body. The main glands are drained by long canals (several centimeters in length) which empty into the bulbar urethra by paramedian orifices. The fusion of these canals into one single canal at the urethral opening, although rare, could lead to obstruction. These canals can be the site of cystic dilatation ranging from a few millimeters to as much as 6 cm in diameter. These cysts are rarely due to terminal canal obstruction as the result of chronic inflammatory urethritis. Most often they are congenital. The cysts which develop at the level of the accessory glands are usually obstructive while those which develop at the level of the main glands rather have a perineal expansion. The indicative signs of this particular pathology are not specific (pyuria, hematuria, enureis, known urethral stenosis, dysuria with pollakuria, perineal pain with post voiding urethral dripping). Voiding urethrography investigation (the best) shows: --either cystic dilatation seen as a lacuna on the ventral aspect of the urethra, --or opacification of the dilated cavities of the exretory canals which have been spontaneously broken or opened by endoscopic manoeuvres. The opacification of these cavities leads often to the erroneous interpretation of "diverticula" of "incomplete duplication of the urethra" and yet their essential characteristic is twofold: they are oriented in an anterior-posterior direction with respect to the urethra and lead back and away from it; they have a canal type of morphology for at least part of their course. PMID:529372

Masson, J C; Suhler, A; Garbay, B

1979-01-01

86

Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators  

SciTech Connect

The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs.

Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

1985-01-01

87

The pineal gland from development to function.  

PubMed

The pineal gland is a small neuroendocrine organ whose main and most conserved function is the nighttime secretion of melatonin. In lower vertebrates, the pineal gland is directly photosensitive. In contrast, in higher vertebrates, the direct photosensitivity of the pineal gland had been lost. Rather, the action of this gland as a relay between environmental light conditions and body functions involves reception of light information by the retina. In parallel to this sensory regression, the pineal gland (and its accessory organs) appears to have lost several functions in relation to light and temperature, which are important in lower vertebrate species. In humans, the functions of the pineal gland overlap with the functions of melatonin. They are extremely widespread and include general effects both on cell protection and on more precise functions, such as sleep and immunity. Recently, the role of melatonin has received a considerable amount of attention due to increased cancer risk in shift workers and the discovery that patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases, autism, or depression exhibit abnormal melatonin rhythms. PMID:24290350

Sapède, Dora; Cau, Elise

2013-01-01

88

TESTIS AND EPIDIDYMIS ULTRASONOGRAPHY AND FINE-NEEDLE BIOPSY IN THE RHINOCEROS FOR TUMOR AND FERTILITY DIAGNOSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound and electroejaculation have become accepted methods for the assessment of the reproductive status of male rhinoceroses. The activity status of the accessory sex glands, the amount of testicular fibrosis as sign of ageing and the semen quality in the ejaculate are characteristics, which were regarded as sufficient to allow an accurate evaluation of the current breeding status of a

R. HERMES; T. HILDEBRANDT; T. J. PORTAS; F. GÖRITZ; B. R. BRYANT; P. KRETZSCHMAR; C. WALZER; N. SCHAFFER; P. LADDS; S. BLOTTNER; SOS Rhino

89

21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872...Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a...

2009-04-01

90

21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872...Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a...

2010-04-01

91

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01...2010-04-01 false Ostomy pouch and accessories. ...876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. ...Identification. An ostomy pouch and accessories...but excludes ostomy pouches which incorporate...

2010-04-01

92

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 8 2009-04-01...2009-04-01 false Ostomy pouch and accessories. ...876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. ...Identification. An ostomy pouch and accessories...but excludes ostomy pouches which incorporate...

2009-04-01

93

21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device...

2010-04-01

94

21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device...

2009-04-01

95

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2013-04-01

96

What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... key statistics about salivary gland cancer? What is salivary gland cancer? Salivary gland cancer starts in one of ... tumors can develop in these glands. About the salivary glands Salivary glands make saliva – the lubricating fluid found ...

97

Accessory Gene Regulator Locus of Staphylococcus intermedius  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accessory gene regulator (agr) locus, a candidate system for the regulation of the production of virulence factors in Staphylococcus intermedius, has been characterized. Using PCR-based genome walking, we have obtained the first complete sequence (3,436 bp) of the accessory gene regulator (agr) gene in this organism. Sequence analysis of the agr gene has identified five open reading frames (ORFs),

Julia M. L. Sung; Peter D. Chantler; David H. Lloyd

2006-01-01

98

Experimentally induced hypo- and hyper-thyroidism influence on the antioxidant defence system in adult rat testis.  

PubMed

The objective of the present experiment was to study the effect of thyroid hormone on the antioxidant defence system of rat testis. Hypothyroidism induced in rats by 6-n propyl 2-thiouracil (PTU) treatment resulted in a reduction in body weight, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate gland. A further decrease in the weight of seminal vesicle was recorded following administration of T3 to hypothyroid rats. The oxidative stress parameters such as hydrogen peroxide and protein carbonyl content increased in the crude homogenate of testis of hypothyroid rats. T3 administration to hypothyroid rats resulted in no further change in the hydrogen peroxide level but the protein carbonyl content further elevated in the crude homogenate of testis. No significant change was observed in the endogenous lipid peroxidation level of the crude homogenate of testis whereas the FeSO4/ascorbic acid induced lipid peroxidation level decreased in hypothyroid rats and did not change further by T3 administration. Although the reduced glutathione level in the crude homogenate of testis did not change following hypothyroidism, oxidized glutathione level increased. The reduced and oxidized glutathione level decreased and increased, respectively following T3 administration to hypothyroid rats in comparison with PTU-treated rats. Activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase decreased in the post-mitochondrial fraction (PMF) of testis of hypothyroid rats. T3 injection to PTU-treated rats resulted in an elevation in the level of catalase activity only. The activity of glutathione peroxidase in the PMF of testis elevated in the hypothyroid rats and reduced following T3 treatment to hypothyroid rats. The results of the present study suggest that any alteration in the thyroid hormone level in the body affects the antioxidant defence system of testis of adult rats and, thereby, may affect the physiology of testis through oxidative stress. PMID:12780529

Choudhury, S; Chainy, G B N; Mishro, M M

2003-06-01

99

[Non palpable testis in adult: laparoscopic treatment].  

PubMed

Cryptorchidism has an incidence of 0.8 - 2%, being undescendent testis nonpalpable in 20% of the cases. The latters have an increased risk of malignant transformation, infertility and epididymal malformation. Surgical treatment of nonpalpable testis is prone to failure compared to the palpable ones. Many diagnostic methods have been described; the most promising is the use of diagnostic laparoscopy which, compared to the imaging modalities, is more reliable to determine the site of the nonpalpable testis. PMID:17785051

Liverani, A; Conte, S; Marino, G; Mari, F S; Milillo, A; Pezzatini, M

2007-01-01

100

Thymus Gland Anatomy  

MedlinePLUS

... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Thymus Gland Anatomy Adult View/Download: Small: 720x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Thymus Gland Anatomy Adult Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; illustration ...

101

Salivary gland tumors  

MedlinePLUS

Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the ducts that drain the salivary glands. ... The salivary glands are located around the mouth. They produce saliva, which moistens food to help with chewing and swallowing. ...

102

Salivary Gland Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

103

Accessory Mental Nerve: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

The presence of an Accessory Mental Nerve (AMN) is rare. The mental foramen is an important landmark in the mandible for administration of local anaesthesia and mental nerve identification and its preservation is of paramount importance in various surgical procedures. This article presents a case of an incidental finding of accessory mental nerves during open reduction and fixation of a compound fracture of left body of mandible. Knowledge on anatomic variations is helpful in diagnosis, treatment planning and management during surgical procedures.

N.S., Mamatha; N.S., Kedarnath; Singh, Madhumathi; Patel, Gourav

2013-01-01

104

The accessory costotransverse foramen: a radioanatomical study.  

PubMed

One hundred fifty-six anatomical specimens of cervical vertebrae and 55 C1 and 53 C2 vertebrae were examined for the presence of an accessory costotransverse foramen. We also reviewed 60 cervical spine computed tomographic (CT) scans. The variations of the costotransverse and accessory foramen are discussed. The frequency of the latter is 19% in the anatomical specimens and 45% in CT scans. The local anatomy and the excellent visualization on axial transverse CT are stressed. PMID:6690492

De Boeck, M; Potvliege, R; Roels, F; De Smedt, E

1984-02-01

105

HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE TESTIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This book, the first to describe how the testis is evaluated in research and toxicology testing settings, is a resource for individuals who wish to perform a systematic evaluation of the testis. he book contains 728 illustrations and drawings. The book begins with a description o...

106

Surgical approach to the palpable undescended testis.  

PubMed

An undescended testis may be associated with abnormal testicular development and function. A number of testes that are undescended at birth have been observed to descend spontaneously. The goal of orchidopexy remains to place those testes in the scrotum that would not have descended spontaneously. How long should the surgeon wait for spontaneous descent? By what age should the testis be positioned in the scrotum to avert further damage? Does earlier intervention result in a better functioning testis? Do different surgical techniques differ in their success in retaining the testis in the scrotum when dealing with the palpable undescended testis? This article reviews the current information on the timing and types of surgical intervention of the palpable undescended testes and their outcomes. PMID:24871526

Thomas, Reju J; Holland, Andrew J A

2014-07-01

107

Effects of estradiol and FSH on maturation of the testis in the hypogonadal (hpg) mouse  

PubMed Central

Background The hypogonadal (hpg) mouse is widely used as an animal model with which to investigate the endocrine regulation of spermatogenesis. Chronic treatment of these GnRH-deficient mice with estradiol is known to induce testicular maturation and restore qualitatively normal spermatogenesis. The aim of the current studies was to investigate whether these effects of estradiol are direct effects in the testis, or indirect actions via paradoxical stimulation of FSH secretion from the pituitary gland. Methods Initially, Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse tissues from hpg mice to identify potential sites of action of estradiol. In the main study, hpg mice were treated for 50 days with either an estradiol implant or daily injections of recombinant human FSH, or a combination of both, to determine whether estradiol would have an additive or synergistic effect with FSH on testis development, as assessed by histological analysis and stereological quantification of Leydig, Sertoli and germ cell proliferation. Results Western blot analysis revealed ER? immunoreactive bands of appropriate molecular weight in extracts of testis and pituitary glands from hpg mice, and immunohistochemical studies confirmed ER? in nuclei of anterior pituitary cells and Leydig and peritubular cells in hpg mice. Histological and morphometric analyses revealed that estradiol treatment alone was as effective as FSH in promoting Sertoli cell production and proliferation of the seminiferous epithelium, resulting in the production of elongating spermatids. Combined estradiol and FSH treatment did not produce a greater effect than either treatment alone, though an increased dose of FSH significantly increased seminiferous tubule volume and testis weight and increase Sertoli cell numbers further within the same time frame. In contrast, estradiol caused substantial increases in the wet weight of the seminal vesicles, whereas FSH was without effect on this tissue, and did not augment the actions of estradiol. Conclusion As ERalpha receptor is abundantly expressed in the pituitary gland of hpg mice, and estradiol did not exert effects on testis development over and above those of FSH, we conclude that the action of estradiol on testis development in hpg mice is predominantly via the stimulation of pituitary FSH release.

Baines, Helen; Nwagwu, Margaret O; Hastie, Graham R; Wiles, Roman A; Mayhew, Terry M; Ebling, Francis JP

2008-01-01

108

Unmasking of the trigemino-accessory reflex in accessory facial anastomosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo evaluate the possible blink reflex responses in facial muscles reinnervated by the accessory nerve.METHODEleven patients with a complete facial palsy were submitted to a surgical repair by an accessory facial nerve anastomosis (AFA). In this pathological group, blink reflex was studied by means of percutaneous electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve and recording from the orbicularis oculi muscle. A

Angel Esteban; Julio Prieto

1999-01-01

109

Genes promoting and disturbing testis development.  

PubMed

Mammals have an XX/XY sex chromosomal sex determination system in which males represent the heterogametic sex. The Y-linked gene, SRY, determines sex by inducing the undifferentiated, bipotential gonads to differentiate as testes, which produce androgens and promote in this way the development of a male phenotype. Thus, in mammals, sex determination can be equated to testis determination, which involves several important cell processes, including Sertoli cell differentiation, mesonephric cell migration, testis cord formation, testis-specific vascularization, and myoid and Leydig cell differentiation. Many genes are currently known to be involved in testis development. Some of them, including SF1, WT1, GATA4 and FOG2, are necessary for the formation of the bipotential, undifferentiated gonad but also have important roles in testis differentiation. Others can be considered testis-promoting, differentaition and/or maintenance genes: these include SRY, SOX9, FGF9, PTGDS, SOX8, SOX3, NR0B1, PDGFRa, DMRT1, AMH, NGF, NTF3 and NGFR as the most important examples. Finally, there is a smaller group of genes which are involved in ovarian development and which can cause aberrant testis development if mutated, including RSPO1, WNT4, CTNNB1, FST, BMP2 and FOXL2. In this paper, we review our current knowledge on the function, spatio-temporal expression pattern and mutant sexual phenotypes associated with these genes, and discuss the various roles they play in gonad development. PMID:23018237

Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Burgos, Miguel; Scherer, Gerd; Jiménez, Rafael

2012-11-01

110

Pediatric urologic oncology: bladder, prostate, testis.  

PubMed

Although treatment for bladder, prostate, and testis cancer comprises a large part of adult urologic practice, the tumors that affect these organs in children are rare. Rhabdomyosarcoma,which affects the bladder, prostate, vaginal, and paratesticular areas,is treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Most transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder and prepubertal testis tumors are managed surgically owing to the low stage at presentation. Application of the technical advances learned in adults with tumors of the bladder, prostate, and testis, combined with an understanding of the difference in tumor biology, helps urologists improve the treatment of these tumors in children. PMID:15313070

Wu, Hsi-Yang; Snyder, Howard M

2004-08-01

111

Computed tomographic imaging characteristics of the normal canine lacrimal glands  

PubMed Central

Background The canine lacrimal gland (LG) and accessory lacrimal gland of the third eyelid (TEG) are responsible for production of the aqueous portion of the precorneal tear film. Immune-mediated, toxic, neoplastic, or infectious processes can affect the glands directly or can involve adjacent tissues, with secondary gland involvement. Disease affecting these glands can cause keratoconjunctivitis sicca, corneal ulcers, and loss of vision. Due to their location in the orbit, these small structures are difficult to evaluate and measure, making cross-sectional imaging an important diagnostic tool. The detailed cross-sectional imaging appearance of the LG and TEG in dogs using computed tomography (CT) has not been reported to date. Results Forty-two dogs were imaged, and the length, width, and height were measured and the volume calculated for the LGs & TEGs. The glands were best visualized in contrast-enhanced CT images. The mean volume of the LG was 0.14 cm3 and the TEG was 0.1 cm3. The mean height, width, and length of the LG were, 9.36 mm, 4.29 mm, and 9.35 mm, respectively; the corresponding values for the TEG was 2.02 mm, 9.34 mm, and 7.90 mm. LG and TEG volume were positively correlated with body weight (p?glands.

2014-01-01

112

Controlled Speed Accessory Drive demonstration program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Controlled Speed Accessory Drive System was examined in an effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars. Concept feasibility and the performance of a typical system during actual road driving conditions were demonstrated. The CSAD system is described as a mechanical device which limits engine accessory speeds, thereby reducing parasitic horsepower losses and improving overall vehicle fuel economy. Fuel consumption data were compiled for fleets of GSA vehicles. Various motor pool locations were selected, each representing different climatic conditions. On the basis of a total accumulated fleet usage of nearly three million miles, an overall fuel economy improvement of 6 percent to 7 percent was demonstrated. Coincident chassis dynamometer tests were accomplished on selected vehicles to establish the effect of different accessory drive systems on exhaust emissions, and to evaluate the magnitude of the mileage benefits which could be derived.

Hoehn, F. W.

1981-01-01

113

Accessory breast tissue mimicking pedunculated lipoma.  

PubMed

Accessory breast tissue is an uncommon condition which occurs in 0.4-6% of women. It is mostly located in the axilla where it can cause diagnostic difficulty, especially if it is unilateral and large. Usually it is bilateral and presents as an asymptomatic mass during pregnancy or lactation. The diagnosis of ectopic breast tissue is important as it can undergo the same pathological changes that occur in a normal breast, such as mastitis, fibrocystic disease and carcinoma. We present a case of a large right-sided accessory breast in a 32-year-old woman that was clinically diagnosed as pedunculated lipoma. However, subsequent histopathological examination proved it to be an accessory breast tissue with lactational changes. PMID:25006058

Husain, Musharraf; Khan, Sabina; Bhat, Ashraf; Hajini, Firdoos

2014-01-01

114

The melanocortin receptors and their accessory proteins.  

PubMed

The five melanocortin receptors (MCRs) named MC1R-MC5R have diverse physiological roles encompassing pigmentation, steroidogenesis, energy homeostasis and feeding behavior as well as exocrine function. Since their identification almost 20 years ago much has been learnt about these receptors. As well as interacting with their endogenous ligands the melanocortin peptides, there is now a growing list of important peptides that can modulate the way these receptors signal, acting as agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists. The discovery of melanocortin 2 receptor accessory proteins as a novel accessory factor to the MCRs provides further insight into the regulation of these important G protein-coupled receptor. PMID:23404466

Ramachandrappa, Shwetha; Gorrigan, Rebecca J; Clark, Adrian J L; Chan, Li F

2013-01-01

115

21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884...Monitoring Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to...

2010-04-01

116

21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884...Monitoring Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to...

2009-04-01

117

21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884...Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to...

2009-04-01

118

21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884...Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to...

2010-04-01

119

21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120 Section...OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

120

21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120 Section...OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a)...

2009-04-01

121

21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900...Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4900 Obstetric table and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric table is a device with adjustable...

2009-04-01

122

21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900...Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4900 Obstetric table and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric table is a device with adjustable...

2010-04-01

123

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

124

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

125

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2009-04-01

126

21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884...Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to...

2013-04-01

127

21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884...Monitoring Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to...

2013-04-01

128

Adrenal Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

129

Removal of Accessory Breasts: A Novel Tumescent Liposuction Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Accessory breasts, usually with a protuberant appearance, are composed of both the central accessory breast tissue and adjacent\\u000a fat tissue. They are a palpable convexity and cosmetically unsightly. Consequently, patients often desire cosmetic improvement.\\u000a The traditional general surgical treatment for accessory breasts is removal of the accessory breast tissue, fat tissue, and\\u000a covering skin as a whole unit. A rather

Jufeng Fan

2009-01-01

130

Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory  

DOEpatents

An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

2005-05-31

131

Biting palsy of the accessory nerve.  

PubMed

A young man was bitten by his girl friend at the anterior border of the left trapezius muscle. Weakness of the trapezius resulted and a longstanding ache in the shoulder developed. Clinically and neurophysiologically, an axonotmesis type crush injury of the accessory nerve was verified. PMID:7431036

Paljärvi, L; Partanen, J

1980-08-01

132

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section 10.456 ...Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's...

2009-04-01

133

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section 10.456 ...Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's...

2010-04-01

134

Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets  

SciTech Connect

In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets.

Davis, H.H., II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

1980-01-01

135

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2013-04-01

136

Submandibular gland myoepithelioma.  

PubMed

Benign myoepithelioma is a very rare form of salivary gland tumor, composed entirely of myoepithelial cells. It accounts for approximately 1% of all salivary gland tumors and is most frequently located in the parotid gland and in the minor salivary glands of the hard palate. We describe herein the ninth reported case of myoepithelioma of the submandibular gland. Benign myoepithelioma must be differentiated from several benign and malignant epithelial and mesenchymal tumors. Immunohistochemical staining can help differentiate between these conditions, but histopathology remains the gold standard for diagnosing this neoplastic process. PMID:16076718

Testa, D; Galera, F; Insabato, L; Vassallo, A; Mesolella, M; Galli, V

2005-06-01

137

Quantitative Evaluation of the Interrelationship of Certain Endocrine Glands of Hemiechinus auritus collaris (Gray) during the Reproductive Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the alterations in the size and functions of the endocrine glands in relation to the reproductive and the seasonal sexual activity of the male hedgehog. Results show that the seasonal variations in body weight, testis, adrenal and the thyroid follow the general pattern of most of the hibernating mammals. Histometric measurements of the seminiferous tubule, Leydig’s

S. C. Asawa; R. S. Mathur

1981-01-01

138

Unusual accessory tendon connecting the hallucal extensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

During routine dissection of an adult human cadaver, a suite of tendinous anomalies was discovered in the left hallucal region.\\u000a Whereas the main tendon of the extensor hallucis longus muscle inserted normally, two accessory tendons were found coursing\\u000a medial and lateral to the main tendon. The most lateral tendon originated from a supernumerary muscle belly and merged with\\u000a the tendon

Robert V. Hill; Luke Gerges

2008-01-01

139

Morphology of lacrimal gland in pig fetuses.  

PubMed

The morphological and histological examinations of the lacrimal gland were conducted on pig fetuses coming from the 20th, 24th, 27th, 30th, 35th, 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation. The morphological examinations were carried out using the method of macroscopic preparation with a forehead magnifying glass and binocular (magnification 1.5-5.0x). In order to better visualize the anatomical elements, 60-80% absolute alcohol and 0.5-4% acetic acid solution were used for the examinations. On the 20th, 24th, 27th, and 30th day of gestation the whole fetuses were collected for the histological examinations. The whole eyeball with developing accessory organs was collected from the pig fetuses on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation only the lacrimal gland was collected. Staining with H-E and Azan method was performed. On the 20th, 24th, 27th, 30th and 35th day of gestation ectodermal cells were not found in the collected material. On the 50th and 63rd day of gestation the connective tissue divides the gland parenchyma into indistinct lobes composed of gland cells. On the 94th day of gestation the number of lobes is substantially higher than on the 50th and 63rd day of gestation, while the number of lobules forming lobes decreases. On the 112th day of gestation each lobe is composed of 8-22 excretory ducts made up of the simple cuboid epithelium with a round nucleus arranged less or more peripherally. PMID:18197904

Kle?kowska-Nawrot, J; Dziegiel, P

2008-02-01

140

[Bartholin's gland carcinoma].  

PubMed

Bartholin gland carcinoma is a rare tumor. Treatment is not consensual due to the absence of prospective and randomized controlled trials. Bartholin gland carcinoma is actually treated similarly to primary median squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Here we report two cases of 42- and 67-year-old females who developed respectively an adenoid cystic carcinoma, and a squamous carcinoma of Bartholin gland. PMID:24951185

Chraibi, Z; Hebert, T; Body, G; Arbion, F; Ouldamer, L

2014-01-01

141

Submandibular gland tumors.  

PubMed

Tumors involving the submandibular gland are rare. However, the incidence of malignancy is much higher than in the parotid (approaching 50 percent). In addition, the 5-year survival rate in patients with malignant tumors of the submandibular gland is much poorer in our series--28 percent versus 71.8 percent for the parotid gland. Because of the poor prognosis in patients with malignant tumors involving the submandibular gland we feel that composite resections should be carried out for all tumors except low-grade mucoepidermoid tumors. In addition, postoperative radiation should be given for specific indications (detailed in the article). PMID:202980

Hanna, D C; Clairmont, A A

1978-02-01

142

Torsion of the appendix testis in an undescended testis: a case report.  

PubMed

We present the first case of torsion of an appendix testis in a cryptorchid testicle. The difficulties in history, physical examination and imaging posed by such a presentation are presented as well as management considerations. PMID:23783052

Nicolay, Leslie; Gitlin, Jordan; Palmer, Lane S

2013-06-01

143

The Male Genital System and Reproductive Cycle of Elephantulus myurus jamesoni (Chubb)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of the structure of the testis, epididymis, vas deferens and accessory sexual glands in a number of males of Elephantulus myurus jamesoni (Chubb), killed at different periods of the year. The testes are retained in the abdominal cavity and contain very litle connective tissue and interstitial cells; a mediastinum testis is absent and the rete testis

Zelda G. Stoch

1954-01-01

144

[Torsion and seminoma in a cryptorchid testis].  

PubMed

Presentation of one case of seminoma on cryptorchid testicle which presented with torsion of spermatic cord clinically mimicking an inguinal incarcerated hernia. Despite the infrequency of the picture, the high association rate of neoplastic disease in cryptorchid testis which become twisted and force the adoption of oncological criteria for their treatment is highlighted. PMID:7915866

Torrús Tendero, P L; Merenciano Cortina, F J; Sánchez Marcos, M; Pelluch Auladell, A; García Tabar, P; Megias Garrigós, J; Mira Llinares, A

1994-05-01

145

Pathological Changes of Traumatic Dislocated Testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a 17-year-old patient with a right testicular dislocation. In this case, dislocated testis had been considered as hematoma and therefore remained untreated for 4 months. The patient underwent right orchiopexy 4 months after the injury. Intraoperative testicular biopsy revealed impaired spermatogenesis and existence of many alternative Sertoli cells, but no atrophy of seminiferous tubules. Six months after the

Shinsuke Hayami; Manabu Ishigooka; Yasuhiro Suzuki; Isoji Sasagawa; Teruhiro Nakada; Katuyuki Mitobe

1996-01-01

146

Cancer\\/testis antigens, gametogenesis and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer\\/testis (CT) antigens, of which more than 40 have now been identified, are encoded by genes that are normally expressed only in the human germ line, but are also expressed in various tumour types, including melanoma, and carcinomas of the bladder, lung and liver. These immunogenic proteins are being vigorously pursued as targets for therapeutic cancer vaccines. CT antigens are

Otavia L. Caballero; Achim Jungbluth; Yao-Tseng Chen; Lloyd J. Old; Andrew J. G. Simpson

2005-01-01

147

Epigenetic Regulation of Sox30 Is Associated with Testis Development in Mice  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation is involved in tissue-specific and developmentally regulated gene expression. Here, we screened a novel methylation gene Sox30, whose methylation might contribute to its regulation and testis development in mice. Sox30 is a member of Sox transcription factors, and is considered to be involved in spermatogonial differentiation and spermatogenesis. However, the precise function and regulatory expression pattern remain unclear. In the present study, we found that Sox30 is highly expressed in adult testes but not in ovaries. Sox30 expression begins in early development, and in the testes, it is specifically increased coincidentally with development until adulthood. Moreover, Sox30 is expressed not only in testis germ cells, but also in sertoli cells. Sox30 is hypo-methylated in testis, epididymis and lung of adult mice, in which Sox30 is expressed. By contrast, Sox30 is hypermethylated in ovary, heart, brain, liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, muscle, intestine, pituitary gland, blood and hippocampus of adult mice, in which the Sox30 is absent. Importantly, decreased methylation at CpG islands of Sox30 is observed in mouse developmental testes after birth, which is associated with enhanced Sox30 expression. However, the hypermethylated status of Sox30 is maintained in ovaries that does not express Sox30 during this period. Further, following demethylation treatment using 5-aza-dC, Sox30 expression is restored in GC2, TM3 and TM4 cell lines. This observation convincingly confirms that methylation really contributes to Sox30 silencing. In summary, we show that Sox30 expression is under the control of DNA methylation status, and this expression pattern is associated with testis development in mice.

Han, Fei; Dong, Yan; Liu, Wenbin; Ma, Xuexiang; Shi, Ronghui; Chen, Hongqiang; Cui, Zhihong; Ao, Lin; Zhang, Huidong; Cao, Jia; Liu, Jinyi

2014-01-01

148

Salivary Gland Secretion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

Dorman, H. L.; And Others

1981-01-01

149

Ultrastructure and cytochemistry of salivary glands of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae.  

PubMed

Podisus nigrispinus Dallas (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a zoophytophagous insect with a potential for use as a biological control agent in agriculture because nymphs and adults actively prey on various insects by inserting mouthparts and regurgitating the contents of the salivary glands inside the prey, causing rapid paralysis and death. However, the substances found in saliva of P. nigrispinus that causes the death of the prey are unknown. As a first step to identify the component of the saliva of P. nigrispinus, this study evaluated the ultrastructure and cytochemistry of the salivary glands of P. nigrispinus. The salivary system of P. nigrispinus has a pair of principal salivary glands, which are bilobed with a short anterior lobe and a long posterior lobe, and a pair of tubular accessory glands. The principal gland epithelium is composed of a single layer of cells enclosing a large lumen. Epithelial cells of the principal salivary gland vary from cubic to columnar shape, with one or two spherical and well-developed nuclei. Cells of the anterior lobe of the principal salivary gland have an apical surface with narrow, short, and irregular plasma membrane foldings; apical and perinuclear cytoplasm rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum; and mitochondria with tubular cristae. The basal portion of the secretory cells has mitochondria associated with many basal plasma membrane infoldings that are short but form large extracellular canals. Secretory granules with electron-dense core and electron-transparent peripheral are dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Cells of the posterior lobe of the principal salivary gland are similar to those of the anterior lobe, except for the presence of mitochondria with transverse cristae. The accessory salivary gland cells are columnar with apical microvilli, have well-developed nucleus and cytoplasm rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum, and have secretory granules. Cytochemical tests showed positive reactions for carbohydrate, protein, and acid phosphatase in different regions of the glandular system. The principal salivary glands of P. nigrispinus do not have muscle cells attached to its wall, suggesting that saliva-releasing mechanism may occurs with the participation of some thorax muscles. The cytochemical and ultrastructural features suggest that the principal and accessory salivary glands play a role in protein synthesis of the saliva. PMID:24022679

Martínez, Luis Carlos; Fialho, Maria do Carmo Queiroz; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

2014-05-01

150

An accessory flexor digitorum longus muscle.  

PubMed

An accessory flexor digitorum longus muscle (M. flexor digitorum longus accessorius) in a 60-year-old male cadaver was encountered during routine dissections in our laboratory. The muscle originated from the deep transverse fascia of the leg, covering flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, and tibialis posterior muscles, and additionally from some fibres of these muscles. After the tendon of the muscle passed behind the medial malleolus, it inserted into the tendon of the flexor digitorum longus muscle where the latter separated into four digital tendons. PMID:8273449

Yüksel, M; Ondero?lu, S; Yener, N; Yüksel, E

1993-01-01

151

11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes in the testis and male reproductive tract of the boar (Sus scrofa domestica) indicate local roles for glucocorticoids in male reproductive physiology.  

PubMed

11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11betaHSD) enzymes modulate the target cell actions of corticosteroids by catalysing metabolism of the physiological glucocorticoid (GC), cortisol, to inert cortisone. Recent studies have implicated GCs in boar sperm apoptosis. Hence, the objective of this study was to characterise 11betaHSD enzyme expression and activities in the boar testis and reproductive tract. Although 11betaHSD1 and 11betaHSD2 mRNA transcripts and proteins were co-expressed in all tissues, cortisol-cortisone interconversion was undetectable in the corpus and cauda epididymides, vas deferens, vesicular and prostate glands, irrespective of nucleotide cofactors. In contrast, homogenates of boar testis, caput epididymidis and bulbourethral gland all displayed pronounced 11betaHSD activities in the presence of NADPH/NADP(+) and NAD(+), and the penile urethra exhibited NAD(+)-dependent 11beta-dehydrogenase activity. In kinetic studies, homogenates of boar testis, caput epididymidis and bulbourethral gland oxidised cortisol with K(m) values of 237-443 and 154-226 nmol/l in the presence of NADP(+) and NAD(+) respectively. Maximal rates of NADP(+)-dependent cortisol oxidation were 7.4- to 28.5-fold greater than the V(max) for NADPH- dependent reduction of cortisone, but were comparable with the rates of NAD(+)-dependent cortisol metabolism. The relatively low K(m) estimates for NADP(+) -dependent cortisol oxidation suggest that either the affinity of 11betaHSD1 has been increased or the cortisol inactivation is catalysed by a novel NADP(+)-dependent 11betaHSD enzyme in these tissues. We conclude that in the boar testis, caput epididymidis and bulbourethral gland, NADP(+)- and NAD(+)-dependent 11betaHSD enzymes catalyse net inactivation of cortisol, consistent with a physiological role in limiting any local actions of GCs within these reproductive tissues. PMID:17709565

Sharp, Victoria; Thurston, Lisa M; Fowkes, Robert C; Michael, Anthony E

2007-09-01

152

The Subgenus 'Persicargas' (Ixodoidea: Argasidae: 'Argas'). 21. The effect of Some Factors in the Process of Mating on Egg Development and Oviposition in A. (P.) arboreus' Kaiser, Hoogstraal and Kohls.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Injection of male accessory gland and/or testis extracts into the hemocoel of fed, virgin female Argas (Persicargas) arboreus induced ova development and ovulation as in normally mated females. Ovulated eggs degenerated in the overy lumen, oviduct, and ut...

G. M. Khalil N. M. Shanbaky

1975-01-01

153

Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.  

PubMed

This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice. PMID:24642774

Oxenham, Julie

154

Gland With Cantilever Seal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single-piece gland forms tight seal on probe or tube containing liquid or gas at high pressure. Gland and probe align as assembled by simple torquing procedure. Disconnected easily and reused at same site. Made from any of wide variety of materials so compatible with application. Cantilever ring at top of gland bites into wall of tube or probe, sealing it. Wall of tube or probe must be thick enough to accommodate deformation without rupturing. Maximum deformation designed in coordination with seating and deformation of boss or conical seal.

Melton, Patrick B.

1989-01-01

155

Where to Find Hair Loss Accessories and Breast Cancer Products  

MedlinePLUS

Where to Find Hair Loss Accessories and Breast Cancer Products Cancer treatments can cause major changes in the way you look – like surgery that ... to find a retailer near you. Wigs and hair loss accessories This is a list of retailers that ...

156

21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. ...Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a...AC-powered, in which a patient sits. The device is...to properly position a patient to perform dental procedures... Class I. The dental chair without the...

2010-04-01

157

21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. ...Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a...AC-powered, in which a patient sits. The device is...to properly position a patient to perform dental procedures... Class I. The dental chair without the...

2009-04-01

158

21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. ...Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a...AC-powered, in which a patient sits. The device is...to properly position a patient to perform dental procedures... Class I. The dental chair without the...

2013-04-01

159

Salivary gland derived peptides as a new class of anti-inflammatory agents: review of preclinical pharmacology of C-terminal peptides of SMR1 protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limitations of steroidal and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have prompted investigation into other biologically based therapeutics, and identification of immune selective anti-inflammatory agents of salivary origin. The traditional view of salivary glands as accessory digestive structures is changing as their importance as sources of systemically active immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory factors is recognized. Salivary gland involvement in maintenance of whole

Ronald D Mathison; Joseph S Davison; A Dean Befus; Daniel A Gingerich

2010-01-01

160

Involvement of melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs) in the function of melanocortin receptors.  

PubMed

The melanocortin system integrates different agonists, competitive or inverse agonists, and receptors. Recent investigations have also discovered a specific system of melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs) that are involved in the regulation of the functional expression of these receptors. MRAP1 mutations are responsible for type 2 familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD2), a rare autosomal disorder characterized by high plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) levels but severe cortisol deficiency. ACTH binds melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), a G protein-coupled receptor, in the adrenal gland to promote corticosteroid synthesis. In the absence of MRAP1, MC2R cannot translocate from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane and ACTH-induced signaling is extinguished. A second MRAP protein, called MRAP2, also modulates MC2R activity. MRAPs also interact with the other melanocortin receptors, adjusting their pharmacological properties. In this paper, we briefly review the MRAP system and its interaction with melanocortin receptors. PMID:23410915

Cerdá-Reverter, J M; Agulleiro, M J; Cortés, R; Sánchez, E; Guillot, R; Leal, E; Fernández-Durán, B; Puchol, S; Eley, M

2013-07-01

161

Expression of connexin 43 in human testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to further characterize the Sertoli cell state of differentiation, we investigated the expression of connexin 43\\u000a (cx43) protein in the testis of adult men both with normal spermatogenesis and associated with spermatogenic impairment, since\\u000a cx43 is first expressed during puberty. Cx43 protein was found as a single 43-kDa band on western blots of extracts of normal\\u000a human testicular

K. Steger; Frank Tetens; Martin Bergmann

1999-01-01

162

Methylation Patterns of Testis-Specific Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methylation patterns of genes expressed in the mouse male germ line have been examined. Int-1, Hox-2.1, and Prm-1, all of which contain 5' CpG islands, were found to be completely unmethylated at many sites in these domains, both in somatic tissues and in sperm DNA. Many other testis-specific genes have a similar structure and are probably also constitutively unmethylated.

Mira Ariel; John McCarrey; Howard Cedar

1991-01-01

163

[Meibomian gland morphology study progression].  

PubMed

The meibomian gland (MG) in the eyelids, which is the largest sebaceous gland throughout the body, synthesize and secrete lipids to form the superficial tear film layer. It plays a key role in maintaining the ocular surface health. Abnormalities in meibomian gland morphology lead to meibomian gland dysfunction, which is the main cause of evaporative dry eye. Study on meibomian gland morphology will contribute significantly to the diagnosis and treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. This review is just focusing on the current studies about techniques to visualize the morphology of the MG and changes of meibomian gland morphology related to diseases. PMID:24931156

Wang, Yuqian; Dong, Nuo; Wu, Huping

2014-04-01

164

The Treatment of the Incompletely Descended Testis  

PubMed Central

(1) Under three years of age the diagnosis of the incompletely descended testis is uncertain. (2) The policy of awaiting spontaneous descent may be pursued until 10 years of age but, unless the testis lies in the superior scrotal position, this policy should not be persisted in thereafter. (3) Hormonal therapy may be employed before operative treatment as a means of determining testes which will descend spontaneously. It should only be used in the prepuberty period. (4) Operative treatment may be safely carried out at any age after 3 years and should be completed before puberty. The optimum period is between 8 and 11 years. The Bevan operation may be successful when the testis is very mobile but the most consistent results are obtained by the septal transposition or Keetley-Torek operations. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22

Wilson, D. S. Poole

1939-01-01

165

Adrenal Gland Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... of salt and water Controlling the "fight or flight" response to stress Maintaining pregnancy Initiating and controlling ... overview of the adrenal glands: Beyond fight or flight . Retrieved June 29, 2012 from http://www.endocrineweb. ...

166

Salivary gland biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

... 21. Lacey J.Diagnostic Imaging and Fine-Needle Aspiration of the Salivary Glands. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia, ...

167

Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones  

MedlinePLUS

... Citation Help Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life ...

168

Glycosylation pattern in the appendix testis in children with cryptorchidism.  

PubMed

In humans, at about week 6, sex cords develop within the forming testes. Testes normally descend to the scrotum; cryptorchidism occurs when one or two testes do not descend to scrotum and in some case are accompanied by the appendix testis. The appendix testis is a small sessile or polypoid structure located at the antero superior pole of the testis, adjacent to the head of the epididymis. Glycans can be involved in development of the appendix testis and cryptorchidism. In this work, lectin histochemistry was used to evaluate glycans expression in appendix testis in children with cryptorchidism. Our results showed that lectin from Lens culinaris, Ulex europaeus I., Canavalia ensiformis, Artocarpus integrifolia, Glycine max, and Griffonia simplicifolia recognizes epithelial and estromal cells. Not interaction was observed with lectin from Amaranthus leucocarpus, while lectin from Dolichus biflorus lectin only recognizes epithelial cells. Our results suggest that O-glycans linked in some glycoproteins represent important elements in appendix testis development. PMID:21229461

Lopez, Gerardo; Jmenez, Salvador; Martinez, Ruth; Pina, Maria del Socorro; Gallegos, Belem; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Zenteno, Edgar; Hernández, Pedro

2011-01-01

169

Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

SciTech Connect

Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

Mishkin, F.S.

1981-10-01

170

Accessory mental foramen: a rare anatomical finding  

PubMed Central

Accessory mental foramen (AMF) is a rare anatomical variation with a prevalence ranging from 1.4 to 10%. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more AMF during surgical procedures involving the mandible. Careful surgical dissection should be performed in the region so that the presence of AMF can be detected and the occurrence of a neurosensory disturbance or haemorrhage can be avoided. Although this anatomical variation is rare, it should be kept in mind that an AMF may exist. Trigeminal neuralgia was diagnosed. On the basis of diagnostic test results, peripheral neurectomy of mental nerve was planned. Failure to do neurectomy of mental nerve branch in the reported case, coming out from AMF, would have resulted in recurrence of pain and eventually failure of the procedure.

Thakur, Gagan; Thomas, Shaji; Thayil, Sumeeth Cyriac; Nair, Preeti P

2011-01-01

171

Hunting for eruption ages in accessory minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal in geochronology is to provide precise and accurate ages for tephras that serve as chronostratigraphic markers for constraining the timing and rates of volcanism, sedimentation, climate change, and catastrophic events in Earth history. Zircon remains the most versatile accessory mineral for dating silicic tephras due to its common preservation in distal pyroclastic deposits, as well as the robustness of its U-Pb and U-series systems even after host materials have been hydrothermally altered or weathered. Countless studies document that zircon may be complexly zoned in age due to inheritance, contamination, recycling of antecrysts, protracted crystallization in long-lived magma reservoirs, or any combination of these. Other accessory minerals such as allanite or chevkinite can retain similar records of protracted crystallization. If the goal is to date the durations of magmatic crystallization, differentiation, and/or magma residence, then these protracted chronologies within and between accessory minerals are a blessing. However, if the goal is to date the timing of eruption with high precision, i.e., absolute ages with millennial-scale uncertainties, then this age zoning is a curse. Observations from ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of Pleistocene zircon and allanite provide insight into the record of near-eruption crystallization in accessory minerals and serve as a guide for high-precision whole-crystal dating. Although imprecise relative to conventional techniques, ion probe analysis allows high-spatial resolution 238U-230Th dating that can document multi-millennial age distributions at the crystal scale. Analysis of unpolished rims and continuous depth profiling of zircon from small and large volume eruptions (e.g., Coso, Mono Craters, Yellowstone) reveals that the final several micrometers of crystallization often yield ages that are indistinguishable from associated eruption ages from the 40Ar/39Ar or (U-Th)/He methods. Using this approach, we have derived relatively precise (± ~ 5%, 2?) U-Th isochron ages from the unpolished rims of pumice-derived allanite and zircon from late Pleistocene Wilson Creek Formation tephras in eastern California, whose ages are controversial and have been difficult to resolve via 40Ar/39Ar and radiocarbon dating. Allanite and zircon rims from Ashes 7-19 in the lower portion of Wilson Creek sediments yield stratigraphically consistent ages of ca. 27 ka to ca. 62 ka, with a minority of crystals identifiable as xenocrysts from early Mono Craters rhyolites. Model ages for the interiors of allanite crystals are mostly < 10 k.y. older than their rims. Tephra deposited during the geomagnetic excursion debated to be either the Mono Lake or Laschamp event yields a rim isochron age of ca. 41 ka. This age is indistinguishable from an independent age of 41 ka derived at the latter excursion's type locality in France (Singer et al., 2009) as well as from age-models for deep-sea sediments. The results are in excellent agreement with a previously determined chronology derived from magnetostratigraphy (Zimmerman et al., 2006). Refs: Singer et al., 2009, EPSL 286: 80-88; Zimmerman et al., 2006, EPSL 252: 94-106

Vazquez, J. A.

2012-12-01

172

Unusual accessory tendon connecting the hallucal extensors.  

PubMed

During routine dissection of an adult human cadaver, a suite of tendinous anomalies was discovered in the left hallucal region. Whereas the main tendon of the extensor hallucis longus muscle inserted normally, two accessory tendons were found coursing medial and lateral to the main tendon. The most lateral tendon originated from a supernumerary muscle belly and merged with the tendon of extensor hallucis brevis to form a composite tendon. The most medial tendon crossed the metatarsophalangeal joint and joined the composite tendon deep to the tendon of extensor hallucis longus. A terminal tendon, consisting of these three contributions, inserted upon the proximal hallucal phalanx. This variant likely arose due to atypical differentiation of the common extensor muscle mass during development, and is of particular significance to clinicians performing arthroscopy, tendon transfers, and other surgical procedures. PMID:19159364

Hill, Robert V; Gerges, Luke

2008-12-01

173

[Juxtabulbar neurinoma of the spinal accessory nerve].  

PubMed

A 27-year-old woman presented with right spinal accessory juxtabulbar schwannoma, associated with hydrocephalus. The only specific clinical symptom was long-standing weakness of the right trapezius. C.T. scan evoked a cerebellar tumor, whilst the jugular foramen appeared normal. Vertebral angiography was not decisive. M.R.I. suggested an extra-axial tumor. Post-operative evolution was entirely favourable. Schwannomas of the 9th, 10th and 11th cranial nerves are generally located at the level of the jugular foramen but can also be observed along the extracranial path of these nerves. An intracranial paramedial, or so-called "intracisternal" localization is rare and is best diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:1461336

Fransen, P; Dooms, G; Mathurin, P; Thauvoy, C; Stroobandt, G

1992-01-01

174

Unmasking of the trigemino-accessory reflex in accessory facial anastomosis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the possible blink reflex responses in facial muscles reinnervated by the accessory nerve.?METHOD—Eleven patients with a complete facial palsy were submitted to a surgical repair by an accessory facial nerve anastomosis (AFA). In this pathological group, blink reflex was studied by means of percutaneous electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve and recording from the orbicularis oculi muscle. A control group comprised seven normal people and seven patients with a complete Bell's facial palsy; in this group, responses on the sternocleidomastoideus (SCM) muscles were studied after supraorbital nerve stimulation.?RESULTS—All the patients with AFA showed a consistent degree of facial reinnervation. Ten out of the 11 patients with AFA showed reflex responses; in six, responses were configured by a double component pattern, resembling the R1 and R2 components of the blink reflex; three patients had an R1-like response and one patient showed a unique R2 component. Mean values of latencies were 15.2 (SD 4.6) ms for the R1 and 85.3 (SD 9.6) ms for the R2. In the control group, eight out of 14 people had evidence of reflex responses in the SCM muscles; these were almost exclusively configured by a bilateral late component (mean latency 63.5 (SD15.9) ms) and only one of the subjects showed an early response at 11ms.?CONCLUSION—The trigemino-accessory reflex response in the pathological group was more complex and of a significantly higher incidence than in the control group. These differences could be tentatively explained by a mechanism of synaptic plasticity induced by the impairment of the efferent portion of the reflex. This could unmask the central linking between the trigeminal and the accessory limbs of the reflex. The findings described could be a demonstration of neurobionomic function in the repairing process of the nervous system.??

Esteban, A.; Prieto, J.

1999-01-01

175

Characterization and cellular localization of PSG in rat testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to establish the rat testis as a model system for studying the human pregnancy-specific b1-glycoprotein (PSG), expression and cellular distribution of PSG in rat testis were examined. Three partial PSG cDNAs, namely, rnCGM6, rnGCM7, and rnCGM8 were obtained when rat testis cDNA libraries were screened with a human placental PSG cDNA probe. Unlike the human PSGs, the rat

Le Ann Blomberg; Shao-Ming Wu; Ghenima Dirami; Martin Dym; Janice Y. Chou; Wai-Yee Chan

1997-01-01

176

Proteomic analysis of Drosophila mojavensis male accessory glands suggests novel classes of seminal fluid proteins.  

PubMed

Fruit-flies of the genus Drosophila are characterized by overwhelming variation in fertilization traits such as copulatory plug formation, sperm storage organ use, and nutritional ejaculatory donation. Despite extensive research on the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster, little is known about the molecular underpinnings of these interspecific differences. This study employs a proteomic approach to pin-point candidate seminal fluid proteins in Drosophila mojavensis, a cactophilic fruit-fly that exhibits divergent reproductive biology when compared to D. melanogaster. We identify several classes of candidate seminal fluid proteins not previously documented in the D. melanogaster male ejaculate, including metabolic enzymes, nutrient transport proteins, and clotting factors. Conversely, we also define 29 SFPs that are conserved despite >40 million years of Drosophila evolution. We discuss our results in terms of universal processes in insect reproduction, as well as the specialized reproductive biology of D. mojavensis. PMID:19328853

Kelleher, Erin S; Watts, Thomas D; LaFlamme, Brooke A; Haynes, Paul A; Markow, Therese A

2009-01-01

177

Tokens of love: Functions and regulation of drosophila male accessory gland products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A male fruit fly influences the behavior and physiology of his mate via molecules that he transmits to her'in his semen. The mated female fly has an elevated rate of egg laying, a decreased receptivity to mating and a shorter life span; she also stores sperm from the mating. Molecular genetic analyses possible in this insect model system permit the

Mariana F. Wolfner

1997-01-01

178

Expression of the DBA/2J Ren-2 gene in the adrenal gland of transgenic mice.  

PubMed Central

To characterize further the tissue-specific control of the mouse Ren-2 gene, and in particular its expression in the adrenal gland, we have introduced the DBA/2 Ren-2 gene into the genome of Ren-1c/Ren-1c mice. Here we report our observations on Ren-2 transgenic mice. Expression was found in the correct spectrum of tissues and included appropriate hormonal control in the submandibular gland. Quantitatively transcript levels varied both positively (adrenal gland and sex-accessory tissue) and negatively (submandibular gland and kidney) with respect to normal Ren-2 expression. In the DBA/2 inbred mouse strain expression in the female adrenal gland cycles during oestrus between the X-zone and the zona fasciculata. Transgene expression within the adrenal gland was restricted to the X-zone. Therefore this phenotype, which is characteristic of most two-renin-gene strains of mice, contrasts with that found in the strain DBA/2 from which the transgene was derived. This suggests that cell-specific expression in the DBA/2 adrenal gland is mediated in trans by at least one additional locus. We demonstrate that suitable genetic crosses of the transgenic mice can partially restore the cycling phenotype. Images

Mullins, J J; Sigmund, C D; Kane-Haas, C; Gross, K W; McGowan, R A

1989-01-01

179

Perineal Accessory Scrotum with Congenital Lipoma: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

A case of accessory scrotum in a 1-year-old boy is reported because of its rarity. A boy presented with a tumor mass attached with scrotum-like skin on its tip in the right side of perineum between the scrotum and anus. Both testes had descended into the scrotum. There was no other urological anomaly. Histological findings of the tumor indicated perineal lipoma, and the scrotum-like portion accessory scrotum. An overview of sequences during the normal development of male external genitalia has been provided and the deranged mechanism resulting in this anomaly has been reviewed with hypothesis regarding etiology of accessory scrotum.

Chatterjee, Souvik; Gajbhiye, Vishal; Nath, Sasanka; Ghosh, Dipak; Chattopadhyay, Sarbani; Das, Sukanta Kumar

2012-01-01

180

Salivary gland organogenesis.  

PubMed

Our understanding of vertebrate salivary gland organogenesis has been largely informed by the study of the developing mouse submandibular gland (SMG), which will be the major focus of this review. The mouse SMG has been historically used as a model system to study epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, growth factor-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, and branching morphogenesis. SMG organogenesis involves interactions between a variety of cell types and their stem/progenitor cells, including the epithelial, neuronal, and mesenchymal cells, and their ECM microenvironment, or niche. Here, we will review recent literature that provides conceptual advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of salivary gland development. We will describe SMG organogenesis, introduce the model systems used to study development, and outline the key signaling pathways and cellular processes involved. We will also review recent research focusing on the identification of stem/progenitor cells in the SMG and how they are directed along a series of cell fate decisions to form a functional gland. The mechanisms that drive SMG organogenesis provide a template to regenerate functional salivary glands in patients who suffer from salivary hypofunction due to irreversible glandular damage after irradiation or removal of tumors. Additionally, these mechanisms may also control growth and development of other organ systems. PMID:23801668

Knosp, Wendy M; Knox, Sarah M; Hoffman, Matthew P

2012-01-01

181

Effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba in mature rat testis function.  

PubMed

Mature male albino Wistar rats (180-220 g) were given by gastric intubation Hibiscus macranthus Hochst A ex Rich (Malvaceae) and Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) aqueous extract from both fresh and dry leaves, at a dose equivalent to 0.720 or 0.108 g of plant, respectively per kg body weight. This was to evaluate their effects on male reproductive function. Control groups were treated equally, but given water instead of the extract. After the treatment periods, animals were killed, their blood collected, the testes and some annex glands removed for histological and biochemical analysis. Results showed that the extract from fresh leaves significantly increased the body weight of rats by 17% from day 7 as compared to controls, whereas the increase was less pronounced (4%) when the rats were given dry leaf extract. The weight of seminal vesicles of rats given the extracts also increased after 15 days. The histological analysis of testis showed abundant spermatozoa in the lumen of the seminiferous tubulus from day 7 in rats fed with the extract when compared to the controls. The serum level of testosterone was significantly increased on the 15th day by 80% in rats given both types of extracts compared to the controls. Testis of treated rats showed high testosterone production in vitro (136 and 62%, respectively for treated and control after 15 days, compared to those of 3 days). Activity of prostatic acid phosphatase was high in prostate, testis and serum of treated rats in all experimental period. From these findings and observation, it was concluded that the aqueous extract of H. macranthus and B. alba had anabolizing and virilizing effects. PMID:10465653

Moundipa, F P; Kamtchouing, P; Koueta, N; Tantchou, J; Foyang, N P; Mbiapo, F T

1999-05-01

182

Effects of seminal vesicle and coagulating gland ablation on fertility in rats.  

PubMed

In rats the secretions of the seminal vesicles and coagulating glands clot after ejaculation in the female tract to form a copulatory plug. The plug plays a critical role in transcervical sperm transport. Factors that influence the secretions of accessory sex glands have the potential to alter fertility without adverse effects on the gametes themselves. In the present study, the effect of surgical removal of the rat seminal vesicles and coagulating glands (SVx) on mating and fertility was investigated. SVx males were completely infertile by natural mating. Observed mating of SVx males with LHRH synchronized females confirmed that mating performance was normal and that they were capable of ejaculating sperm but could not produce copulatory plugs. In the absence of the copulatory plug, no sperm was transported into the uterus. Epididymal sperm obtained from the same males were capable of fertilization after intrauterine insemination and gave comparable numbers of embryos and unfertilized oocytes as sham operated controls. These findings underscore the importance of examining the role of both males and females during insemination and that observed matings, uterine sperm counts, and intrauterine insemination are useful adjuncts to routine fertility assessment when effects on the accessory sex glands are suspected. PMID:1806140

Cukierski, M A; Sina, J L; Prahalada, S; Robertson, R T

1991-01-01

183

Fertility and unilateral undescended testis in the rat model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertility potential in patients with unilateral (UL) undescended testis is a debated topic. An experimental study was done in rats by surgically creating a UL undescended testis and studying its effect on their potential to father offspring when housed with female rats. No difference in fertility potential was observed in the various groups in this study. Since fertility was tested

S. Agarwala; D. K. Mitra

1996-01-01

184

Genome-wide analysis of cancer/testis gene expression  

PubMed Central

Cancer/Testis (CT) genes, normally expressed in germ line cells but also activated in a wide range of cancer types, often encode antigens that are immunogenic in cancer patients, and present potential for use as biomarkers and targets for immunotherapy. Using multiple in silico gene expression analysis technologies, including twice the number of expressed sequence tags used in previous studies, we have performed a comprehensive genome-wide survey of expression for a set of 153 previously described CT genes in normal and cancer expression libraries. We find that although they are generally highly expressed in testis, these genes exhibit heterogeneous gene expression profiles, allowing their classification into testis-restricted (39), testis/brain-restricted (14), and a testis-selective (85) group of genes that show additional expression in somatic tissues. The chromosomal distribution of these genes confirmed the previously observed dominance of X chromosome location, with CT-X genes being significantly more testis-restricted than non-X CT. Applying this core classification in a genome-wide survey we identified >30 CT candidate genes; 3 of them, PEPP-2, OTOA, and AKAP4, were confirmed as testis-restricted or testis-selective using RT-PCR, with variable expression frequencies observed in a panel of cancer cell lines. Our classification provides an objective ranking for potential CT genes, which is useful in guiding further identification and characterization of these potentially important diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

Hofmann, Oliver; Caballero, Otavia L.; Stevenson, Brian J.; Chen, Yao-Tseng; Cohen, Tzeela; Chua, Ramon; Maher, Christopher A.; Panji, Sumir; Schaefer, Ulf; Kruger, Adele; Lehvaslaiho, Minna; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Jongeneel, C. Victor; Simpson, Andrew J. G.; Old, Lloyd J.; Hide, Winston

2008-01-01

185

Tubular Ectasia of the Rete Testis: A Diagnostic Dilemma  

PubMed Central

Tubular ectasia of the rete testis is a pathologically benign process with complex and varied aetiology. It must be differentiated from neoplastic disease of the testis clinically with patient age, mode of presentation, tumour marker status and the characteristic ultrasound and Doppler study findings. Awareness and diagnosis of this clinical entity can prevent unnecessary surgical intervention in these patients.

Nair, Rajesh; Abbaraju, J; Rajbabu, K; Anjum, F; Sriprasad, S

2008-01-01

186

Cancer\\/testis antigens and gametogenesis: a review and \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes expressed both in normal testis and in malignancies (Cancer\\/ Testis associated genes – CTA) have become the most extensively studied antigen group in the field of tumour immunology. Despite this, many fundamentally important questions remain unanswered: what is the connection between germ-cell specific genes and tumours? Is the expression of these genes yet another proof for the importance of

Martins Kalejs; Jekaterina Erenpreisa

2005-01-01

187

21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4350 Cryosurgical unit and accessories. (a) Identification â(1)...

2013-04-01

188

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

189

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2013-04-01

190

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2013-04-01

191

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2013-04-01

192

21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic fluid pressure with a catheter placed...

2013-04-01

193

Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging  

PubMed Central

Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands.

Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

2012-01-01

194

Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... Board , 4/2014 Risk Factors Cancer.Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Symptoms ... and health care choices. The cause(s) of most salivary gland cancers are unknown, but the following factors may ...

195

Accessory cardiac bronchus: 3D CT demonstration in nine cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Accessory cardiac bronchus (ACB) has been described mainly as isolated case reports in the literature. We report nine consecutive\\u000a cases of ACB, which occurred in five males and four females and were detected in 11,159 routine spiral CT examinations of\\u000a the chest, performed between 1994 and 1998. Frequency of the anomaly was 0.08 %. Accessory cardiac bronchus originated from

B. Ghaye; X. Kos; R. F. Dondelinger

1999-01-01

196

Replantation of the testis: report of a case.  

PubMed

To our knowledge there has been no report to date of successful testis replantation after complete traumatic severance of the funiculus within the scrotum. We report a case in which both funiculi were cut completely (one of which was severed 0.8 cm. proximal to the upper pole of the testis, and the other just at the junction of the funiculus and the testis). We successfully rejoined the testis with the funicular stump to the proximal cut end of the right side using a microsurgical technique. The total ischemia period of the replanted testis was 6 hours. The penis was erect 4 days postoperatively and blood testosterone level was within the normal range. At testicular biopsy 120 days postoperatively the germ cells could be seen in various stages of development and the appearance of the Leydig cells was normal. PMID:3343750

Xu, Y M; Wu, P; Cai, P C; Cheng, Z C

1988-03-01

197

Accessory soleus muscle: a problem of awareness.  

PubMed

Reports of accessory soleus muscle are rare, perhaps as a result of it often remaining unrecognized. It presents as a swelling behind the ankle and may be mistaken for a tumour or inflammatory lesion, as occurred in the first of a series of three cases. The other two were incidental findings, one in a 30 year old man with an open tibial fracture and the other in a 9 month old child with a club foot. Patients present with either pain or a diagnostic problem. When large, it may make wearing of footwear difficult. Computerized tomography with electromyography enables confirmation of the diagnosis. Pain is relieved by epimysiotomy and when encountered incidentally during surgery, incision of the epimysium is all that is needed. Excision of the muscle may be considered only if wearing of footwear is difficult. The significance of its presence in a case of club foot is unknown. Disinsertion of its insertion was all that was required to obtain surgical correction of the deformity in the present case. Awareness of the condition will prevent unnecessary surgery in asymptomatic cases. PMID:8010925

Chittaranjan, B S; Babu, N V; Abraham, G

1994-07-01

198

Accessory brachialis muscle: a case report.  

PubMed

Variations of arm flexors are not uncommon with the exception of brachialis muscle. The role of brachialis is critical as it is the primary flexor of the elbow joint. Variations of brachialis are rare in literature. We present a case of an accessory-brachialis muscle (AcBr), found during routine cadaveric dissection. The AcBr originated from the lateral aspect of the brachialis muscle and lateral intermuscular septum. During its course towards the elbow, it crossed over the radial nerve and the distal tendon splits into two. The medial slip ran over the ulnar artery and merged with the deep fascia covering the pronator teres muscle, whereas lateral slip was inserted to the fascia covering the supinator. In the ipsilateral arm, an additional lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm (LCNF) was found coursing over the brachialis muscle medial to the LCNF. Clinical consideration of the present variations has been discussed. The present variation should be considered in the etiology of radial-tunnel syndrome (RTS). PMID:18487066

Pai, M M; Nayak, S R; Vadgaonkar, R; Ranade, A V; Prabhu, L V; Thomas, M; Sugavasi, R

2008-03-01

199

Tight junctions in the testis: new perspectives.  

PubMed

In the testis, tight junctions (TJs) are found between adjacent Sertoli cells at the level of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) where they coexist with basal ectoplasmic specializations and desmosome-gap junctions. The BTB physically divides the seminiferous epithelium into two distinct compartments: a basal compartment where spermatogonia and early spermatocytes are found, and an adluminal compartment where more developed germ cells are sequestered from the systemic circulation. In order for germ cells (i.e. preleptotene spermatocytes) to enter the adluminal compartment, they must cross the BTB, a cellular event requiring the participation of several molecules and signalling pathways. Still, it is not completely understood how preleptotene spermatocytes traverse the BTB at stage VIII of the seminiferous epithelial cycle. In this review, we discuss largely how TJ proteins are exploited by viruses and cancer cells to cross endothelial and epithelial cells. We also discuss how this information may apply to future studies investigating the movement of preleptotene spermatocytes across the BTB. PMID:20403874

Mruk, Dolores D; Cheng, C Y

2010-05-27

200

Expression of connexin 43 in human testis.  

PubMed

In order to further characterize the Sertoli cell state of differentiation, we investigated the expression of connexin 43 (cx43) protein in the testis of adult men both with normal spermatogenesis and associated with spermatogenic impairment, since cx43 is first expressed during puberty. Cx43 protein was found as a single 43-kDa band on western blots of extracts of normal human testicular material. Cx43 immunoreactivity was generally present between Leydig cells. Within the normal seminiferous epithelium cx43 immunoreactivity was localized between adjacent Sertoli cells, except at stages II and III of the seminiferous epithelial cycle when primary spermatocytes cross from the basal to the adluminal compartment suggesting a stage-dependent Sertoli cell function. While testes with hypospermatogenesis and spermatogenic arrest at the level of round spermatids or spermatocytes revealed a staining pattern similar to that of normal adult testis, the seminiferous tubules showing spermatogenic arrest at the level of spermatogonia and Sertoli-cell-only syndrome were completely immunonegative. We therefore assume that severe spermatogenic impairment is associated with a population of Sertoli cells exhibiting a stage of differentiation deficiency. PMID:10502068

Steger, K; Tetens, F; Bergmann, M

1999-09-01

201

Cancer/testis antigens and urological malignancies  

PubMed Central

Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are a group of tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) that display normal expression in the adult testis—an immune-privileged organ—but aberrant expression in several types of cancers, particularly in advanced cancers with stem cell-like characteristics. There has been an explosion in CTA-based research since CTAs were first identified in 1991 and MAGE-1 was shown to elicit an autologous cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in a patient with melanoma. The resulting data have not only highlighted a role for CTAs in tumorigenesis, but have also underscored the translational potential of these antigens for detecting and treating many types of cancers. Studies that have investigated the use of CTAs for the clinical management of urological malignancies indicate that these TAAs have potential roles as novel biomarkers, with increased specificity and sensitivity compared to those currently used in the clinic, and therapeutic targets for cancer immunotherapy. Increasing evidence supports the utilization of these promising tools for urological indications.

Kulkarni, Prakash; Shiraishi, Takumi; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Kim, Robert; Mooney, Steven M.; Getzenberg, Robert H.

2012-01-01

202

NGF content and expression in the rat pituitary gland and regulation by thyroid hormone.  

PubMed

The involvement of nerve growth factor (NGF) in neuroendocrine regulation is supported by several lines of evidence. In this paper, we investigated the NGF content and expression in the pituitary gland and other endocrine organs during dysendocrine states (thyroidectomized, adrenalectomized and gonadectomized male rats). We found an increase of NGF-IR in the pituitary gland and testis of hypothyroid rats whereas no differences were found in the adrenal gland and blood. Also, NGF mRNA expression had increased in the anterior pituitary of hypothyroid rats whereas it had not changed after adrenalectomy and gonadectomy. Moreover, other neurotrophins and neurotrophin high-affinity receptors were unchanged in the anterior pituitary of hypothyroid rats. These data indicate that pituitary NGF is selectively modulated by thyroid status of the animal, further supporting a close link between NGF and thyroid hormone. PMID:9427507

Calzà, L; Giardino, L; Aloe, L

1997-11-01

203

Dax1 regulates testis cord organization during gonadal differentiation.  

PubMed

Mutations of the DAX1 nuclear receptor gene cause adrenal hypoplasia congenita, an X-linked disorder characterized by adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Targeted deletion of Dax1 in mice also reveals primary testicular dysgenesis, which is manifest by obstruction of the rete testis by Sertoli cells and hyperplastic Leydig cells, leading to seminiferous tubule dilation and degeneration of germ cells. Because Dax1 is expressed early in gonadal development, and because Sertoli and Leydig cells are located ectopically in the adult, we hypothesized that these testis abnormalities are the result of an early defect in testis development. In Dax1(-/Y) males, the gonad develops normally until 12.5 dpc. However, by 13.5 dpc, the testis cords are disorganized and incompletely formed in Dax1-deficient mice. The number of germ and Sertoli cells is unchanged, and the expression of Sertoli-specific markers appears to be normal. However, the number of peritubular myoid cells, which normally surround the testis cords, is reduced. BrdU labeling of peritubular myoid cells is low, consistent with decreased proliferation. The basal lamina produced by peritubular myoid and Sertoli cells is disrupted, leading to open and incompletely formed testis cords. Leydig cells, which normally reside in the peritubular space and extend from the coelomic surface to the dorsal surface of the gonad, are restricted to the coelomic surface of Dax1-deficient testis. We conclude that Dax1 plays a crucial role in testis differentiation by regulating the development of peritubular myoid cells and the formation of intact testis cords. The developmental abnormalities in the Dax1-deficient testis lay the foundation for gonadal dysgenesis and infertility in adult mice and, potentially in humans with DAX1 mutations. PMID:12538527

Meeks, Joshua J; Crawford, Susan E; Russell, Theron A; Morohashi, Ken-ichiro; Weiss, Jeffrey; Jameson, J Larry

2003-03-01

204

Identification of a dendritic cell population in normal testis and in chronically inflamed testis of rats with autoimmune orchitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) in the rat is the primary chronic animal model for the investigation of one of the main causes of male infertility, viz., testicular inflammation. Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen-presenting cells that play a fundamental role in autoimmune disease. We investigated the number of DC in normal testis and examined whether DC infiltrated the testis during

Claudia Rival; Livia Lustig; Radu Iosub; Vanesa A. Guazzone; Eva Schneider; Andreas Meinhardt; Monika Fijak

2006-01-01

205

Effect of the anti-androgenic endocrine disruptor vinclozolin on embryonic testis cord formation and postnatal testis development and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vinclozolin is a systemic dicarboximide fungicide that is used on fruits, vegetables, ornamental plants, and turf grass. Vinclozolin and its metabolites are known to be endocrine disruptors and act as androgen receptor antagonists. The hypothesis tested in the current study is that transient embryonic exposure to an anti-androgenic endocrine disruptor at the time of testis determination alters testis development and

Mehmet Uzumcu; Hiroetsu Suzuki; Michael K Skinner

2004-01-01

206

Bioartificial Lacrimal Gland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention provides a bioartificial lacrimal gland which contains at least one unit that includes (a) a permeable housing having an interior and an exterior; (b) an outlet connecting the housing interior to the housing exterior; and (c) a popul...

A. K. Mircheff J. Jacob M. Trousdale R. E. Smith S. C. Yiu

2004-01-01

207

The permeability of the microvasculature of the perfused rat testis to small hydrophilic substances.  

PubMed

The permeability-surface area products (PS) for sodium, Cr-EDTA, and cyanocobalamine (CoB12) have been determined in isolated perfused rat testes, using the single-passage multiple tracer technique, with albumin as the reference tracer. The validity of using albumin was established from its recovery in the perfusate leaving the testis, which was 98.73+/-0.48% of that for Cr-labeled red cells. The PS values obtained for Na, Cr-EDTA, and CoB12 were correlated with perfusate flow, both below and above levels that were equivalent to normal rates of blood flow in the testis (0.3 mL/[g x min]). The values found at the highest flow rates obtained (between 2.7 and 3.5 mL/[g x min]) were 2230+/-240 microL/(g x min) (n = 8) for sodium, 1460+/-140 microL/(g x min) (n = 7) for Cr-EDTA, and 850+/-80 microL/(g x min) (n = 7) for CoB12. These values are similar to those reported at equivalent flow rates for heart muscle and greater than those reported for skeletal muscle, both of which have unfenestrated capillaries similar to testis, but are less than the values for pancreas and salivary gland, which have fenestrated capillaries and are similar to most other endocrine tissues. However, the permeability coefficients for these markers in the testis (calculated using published values for the surface area of the testicular microvasculature) appear to be considerably greater than for any other tissue studied thus far. By extrapolating extraction values, either linearly or logarithmically, to obtain maximal values for PS for Cr-EDTA and CoB12, and comparing the ratio of these PS area values with the ratio of the diffusion coefficients of these molecules, it can be calculated that the equivalent pore radius for the testicular endothelium is between 5 and 6 nm, comparable to those calculated for other nonfenestrated endothelia. PMID:10819453

Bustamante, J C; Setchell, B P

2000-01-01

208

Radioisotope study of salivary glands  

SciTech Connect

The book discusses the use of radioisotope methods in the diagnosis of salivary gland diseases. Anatomical and physiological features of the salivary gland are summarized and radiotracer deposition processes are described. Clinical applications of scintigraphy are detailed. The degree of functional impairment due to various inflammatory diseases is contrasted by means of semiquantitative computerized methods with follow-up therapeutic results. Post-irradiatory involvement and possible functional recovery of salivary glands are also considered. The contents discussed are: Salivary Gland Physiology and Radioisotope Uptake. Radioisotope Study of Salivary Glands. Radioisotope Studies Under Normal Conditions. Survey of Radiographic Methods. Dosimetric Assessment. Conclusions and Index.

De Rossi, G.

1987-01-01

209

Cancer testis antigen expression in testicular germ cell tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

Cancer testis antigens are encoded by germ line-associated genes that are present in normal germ cells of testis and ovary but not in differentiated tissues. Their expression in various human cancer types has been interpreted as 're-expression' or as intratumoral progenitor cell signature. Cancer testis antigen expression patterns have not yet been studied in germ cell tumorigenesis with specific emphasis on intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified as a precursor lesion for testicular germ cell tumors. Immunohistochemistry was used to study MAGEA3, MAGEA4, MAGEC1, GAGE1 and CTAG1B expression in 325 primary testicular germ cell tumors, including 94 mixed germ cell tumors. Seminomatous and non-seminomatous components were separately arranged and evaluated on tissue microarrays. Spermatogonia in the normal testis were positive, whereas intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified was negative for all five CT antigens. Cancer testis antigen expression was only found in 3% (CTAG1B), 10% (GAGE1, MAGEA4), 33% (MAGEA3) and 40% (MAGEC1) of classic seminoma but not in non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumors. In contrast, all spermatocytic seminomas were positive for cancer testis antigens. These data are consistent with a different cell origin in spermatocytic seminoma compared with classic seminoma and support a progression model with loss of cancer testis antigens in early tumorigenesis of testicular germ cell tumors and later re-expression in a subset of seminomas. PMID:24232866

Bode, Peter K; Thielken, Andrea; Brandt, Simone; Barghorn, André; Lohe, Bernd; Knuth, Alexander; Moch, Holger

2014-06-01

210

Premalignancy of the testis and paratestis.  

PubMed

There has been great progress in the understanding of the molecular events involved in normal germ cell maturation and testicular tumour pathobiology. Identification of the molecules involved in these processes has provided a number of new immunohistochemical markers for intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified (IGCNU) and germ cell tumours. OCT4, the most important of the newer markers, is highly sensitive and specific for IGCNU and is superior to older immunohistochemical markers for this purpose. However, germ cell maturation delay is a potential pitfall in the application of this marker. In contrast to the type II testicular germ cell tumours, relatively little is known about premalignant lesions of testicular sex cord-stromal tumours, malignancies of the rete testis and epididymis, and paratesticular malignancies. PMID:23478232

Emerson, Robert E; Cheng, Liang

2013-04-01

211

Drugs and the blood-testis barrier  

PubMed Central

The functional and morphological evidence for the blood–testis barrier is discussed, together with evidence for the various processes (simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion) by which various substances enter the seminiferous tubule. Data are presented to show that methylmethane-sulfonate (MMS) and dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA) both enter the seminiferous tubules rapidly, although from the published rates of methylation of testicular DNA, by these two compounds, it might be expected that the entry of DMNA would be slower than that of MMS. It appears, however, that DMNA in blood is gradually converted to some nonpermeant compound. The possibility, as yet unsubstantiated, is discussed that a nontoxic permeant precursor may be converted into a nonpermeant toxic substance inside the tubules, thereby effectively concentrating the toxic compound inside the tubules.

Setchell, B. P.; Main, S. J.

1978-01-01

212

Torsion of Testis in an Infant with Unilateral UDT.  

PubMed

Torsion of an undescended testis is uncommon. Torsion of a cryptorchid testicle presents a nonspecific symptomatology. Clinical suspicion indicates emergent surgical exploration, irrespective of Doppler ultrasound with its inherent false negative results. Management of the contralateral testis is controversial. We emphasize the need of a complete physical examination of the child who goes to the emergency room with nonspecific symptoms of abdominal pain and ipsilateral empty hemiscrotum to rule out torsion of a cryptorchid testicle. Herein, we report a one-year-old infant with missed torsion of undescended left testis. PMID:21076534

Moslemi, Mohammad Kazem; Abedinzadeh, Mehdi; Al-Mousawi, Shabir

2010-01-01

213

Torsion of Testis in an Infant with Unilateral UDT  

PubMed Central

Torsion of an undescended testis is uncommon. Torsion of a cryptorchid testicle presents a nonspecific symptomatology. Clinical suspicion indicates emergent surgical exploration, irrespective of Doppler ultrasound with its inherent false negative results. Management of the contralateral testis is controversial. We emphasize the need of a complete physical examination of the child who goes to the emergency room with nonspecific symptoms of abdominal pain and ipsilateral empty hemiscrotum to rule out torsion of a cryptorchid testicle. Herein, we report a one-year-old infant with missed torsion of undescended left testis.

Moslemi, Mohammad Kazem; Abedinzadeh, Mehdi; Al-Mousawi, Shabir

2010-01-01

214

Intervention of D-glucose ameliorates the toxicity of streptozotocin in accessory sex organs of rat  

SciTech Connect

Streptozotocin (STZ) is a naturally occurring compound isolated from Streptomyces achromogens. It is used extensively for inducing diabetes in experimental animals. Diabetes mellitus is known to have proven adverse effects on male sexual organs and their reproductive functions. The atrophy of prostate gland and other organs of the genitourinary tract were observed in experimental diabetic animals. STZ exhibits a structural resemblance to D-glucose due to the presence of sugar moiety in its structure. Pancreatic {beta}-cells mainly contain GLUT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Possibly due to structural resemblance, STZ and D-glucose, share a common recognition site for entry into the {beta}-cells. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of D-glucose on STZ-induced toxicity in accessory sex organs of male rats. Animals were kept on overnight fasting. One group received vehicle and served as negative control, while all other groups were given STZ (45 mg/kg). Animals that received only STZ served as positive control. The effect of D-glucose was studied on STZ treated animals with different dosage of D-glucose (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg). Restoration of body weight, plasma glucose and plasma insulin was evident only at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of D-glucose. The protective effect of D-glucose is evident only when it is administered simultaneously with STZ. In the present investigation, we report that simultaneous administration of D-glucose along with STZ ameliorates STZ-induced toxicity. This is evident from the restoration of accessory sex organ's weight, cellular morphology as well as insulin level.

Vikram, A.; Tripathi, D.N.; Ramarao, P. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab-160062 (India); Jena, G.B. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab-160062 (India)], E-mail: gbjena@gmail.com

2008-01-01

215

Zonal organization of the mammalian main and accessory olfactory systems.  

PubMed Central

Zonal organization is one of the characteristic features observed in both main and accessory olfactory systems. In the main olfactory system, most of the odorant receptors are classified into four groups according to their zonal expression patterns in the olfactory epithelium. Each group of odorant receptors is expressed by sensory neurons distributed within one of four circumscribed zones. Olfactory sensory neurons in a given zone of the epithelium project their axons to the glomeruli in a corresponding zone of the main olfactory bulb. Glomeruli in the same zone tend to represent similar odorant receptors having similar tuning specificity to odorants. Vomeronasal receptors (or pheromone receptors) are classified into two groups in the accessory olfactory system. Each group of receptors is expressed by vomeronasal sensory neurons in either the apical or basal zone of the vomeronasal epithelium. Sensory neurons in the apical zone project their axons to the rostral zone of the accessory olfactory bulb and form synaptic connections with mitral tufted cells belonging to the rostral zone. Signals originated from basal zone sensory neurons are sent to mitral tufted cells in the caudal zone of the accessory olfactory bulb. We discuss functional implications of the zonal organization in both main and accessory olfactory systems.

Mori, K; von Campenhause, H; Yoshihara, Y

2000-01-01

216

Accessory tragus: a possible sign of Goldenhar syndrome.  

PubMed

The accessory tragus is a relatively common benign congenital anomaly. The tragus is a cartilaginous projection that normally occurs anterior to the external auditory meatus. Although aberrancy of the tragus may occur in isolation and is exclusively derived from the first branchial arch, it may occasionally signal a defect in the first or second branchial arches. Thus it may be a sign of other syndromes, such as oculoauricularvertebral dysplasia (Goldenhar syndrome). In fact, accessory tragus is a constant feature of this syndrome and may be associated with other syndromes. Accessory tragi are polypoid and should be distinguished from acrochordon (skin tags), as the shave excision commonly employed for skin tags may expose cartilage and cause slow healing or chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis. PMID:21916271

Rankin, James S; Schwartz, Robert A

2011-08-01

217

Morphological and Surgical Overview of Adolescent Testis Affected by Varicocele  

PubMed Central

Varicocele is a common pathology of the testis frequently associated with infertility. For its management, a fine morphological study of the testis, both macroscopically and microscopically, and an accurate choice of surgical procedure are mandatory. The present review focuses its attention on the anatomic substrates of adolescent varicocele and its pathophysiologic modifications. The comprehensive assessment of all the reported alterations should be considered by the clinician before deciding the type of treatment and the timing.

Santoro, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

218

Morphological and surgical overview of adolescent testis affected by varicocele.  

PubMed

Varicocele is a common pathology of the testis frequently associated with infertility. For its management, a fine morphological study of the testis, both macroscopically and microscopically, and an accurate choice of surgical procedure are mandatory. The present review focuses its attention on the anatomic substrates of adolescent varicocele and its pathophysiologic modifications. The comprehensive assessment of all the reported alterations should be considered by the clinician before deciding the type of treatment and the timing. PMID:24348160

Santoro, Giuseppe; Romeo, Carmelo

2013-01-01

219

Deneysel hipertiroidinin erişkin sıçan testis dokusunda oluşturduğu histolojik değişiklikler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histologic changes of adult rat testis in experimental hyperthyroidism Aim: It was aimed to investigate histologic changes of adult rat testis in experimental hyperthyroidism. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar albino rats, weighting 230-280 gr were used. Rats in group I (Control group) were given daily s.c. injections of 0.025 N NaOH in saline, rats in group II received daily

Meltem Özgüner; Altuğ Şenol; Mehmet Ural; Mehmet İşler

220

Transgenerational epigenetic programming of the embryonic testis transcriptome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic exposure to the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin during gonadal sex determination appears to promote an epigenetic reprogramming of the male germ line that is associated with transgenerational adult-onset disease states. Transgenerational effects on the embryonic day 16 (E16) testis demonstrated reproducible changes in the testis transcriptome for multiple generations (F1–F3). The expression of 196 genes was found to be influenced,

Matthew D. Anway; Stephen S. Rekow; Michael K. Skinner

2008-01-01

221

Atypical course of the rare accessory extensor carpi radialis muscle.  

PubMed Central

The description of a bilaterally well developed, bicipital and bipennate accessory extensor carpi radialis muscle is reported. The muscle arose between the origins of the long and short radial carpal extensor muscles and inserted by 2 tendons into the 1st 2 metacarpal bones. The ulnar tendinous insertion was simultaneously the origin of abductor pollicis brevis. Both heads of the accessory extensor carpi radialis muscle were innervated by a branch of the deep branch of the radial nerve. The present observation supplements our knowledge on variations in the antebrachial and carpal regions, which are important in hand surgery. Images Fig. 1

Khaledpour, C; Schindelmeiser, J

1994-01-01

222

An Accessory Peroneocalcaneus Internus Muscle with MRI and US Correlation  

PubMed Central

The peroneocalcaneus internus (PCI) is a rare accessory muscle of the medial ankle with typical MRI anatomic features allowing differentiation from the more common accessory flexor digitorum longus muscle. To our knowledge, there have been no previously published sonographic images of the peroneocalcaneus internus. A PCI is typically an incidental, asymptomatic finding, but knowledge of the entity may avoid confusion when initially encountered by diagnostic ultrasound. We review the anatomic imaging features which allow for a confident imaging diagnosis and the clinical relevance of this anomaly.

Howe, Benjamin Matthew; Murthy, Naveen Srinivasa

2012-01-01

223

Hedgehog signalling promotes germ cell survival in the rat testis.  

PubMed

Hedgehog (Hh) signalling has a crucial role in testis development. Sertoli cell-derived desert hedgehog (DHH) guides the formation of testis cords and differentiation of foetal-type Leydig cells. Dhh mutant mice are infertile due to a block in germ cell differentiation, hypogonadism and hypoandrogenism. Hh signalling pathway components are also expressed in postnatal testis. In the rat testis the transcription factor of the Hh pathway, glioma-associated oncogene homologue (GLI1), is expressed by a wide variety of germ cells. This suggests that Hh signalling is involved in spermatogenesis at many different levels. Our data show that canonical Hh signalling is turned off in early condensing spermatids that strongly express the negative regulator of the pathway, suppressor of fused (SUFU). Most of the Hh pathway specific mRNAs display the highest values in stages II-VI of the rat seminiferous epithelial cycle. The key endocrine regulator of germ cell differentiation, FSH, down-regulates Dhh mRNA levels in vitro. Hh signalling inhibition in vitro leads to massive apoptosis of germ cells. In prepubertal rat testis imatinib mesylate-induced inhibition of tyrosine kinases impinges on Dhh transcript levels and Hh signalling. Our data indicate that Hh signalling is part of the paracrine signalling network in the rat testis. It promotes the survival of germ cells and is suppressed by FSH. PMID:21893610

Mäkelä, Juho-Antti; Saario, Vuokko; Bourguiba-Hachemi, Sonia; Nurmio, Mirja; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Parvinen, Martti; Toppari, Jorma

2011-11-01

224

Ultrastructural Morphology of the Male and Female Genital Tracts of Psoroptes spp. (Acari: Astigmata: Psoroptidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of the male and female genital systems of the astigmatid mite Psoroptesovis (Hering) is described. The male genital system is composed of a paired testis, fused at its proximal part, two vasa deferentia, an ejaculatory duct, into which a single accessory gland opens, and a copulatory organ. The testis is characterized by a peripheric syncytial cell surrounding spermatogonia,

Mireille Lekimme; Michèle Leclercq-Smekens; Chantal Devignon; Thierry Leclipteux; Yves Poumay; Bertrand Losson

2005-01-01

225

Taxonomy of Salivary Gland Neoplasm  

PubMed Central

Classification of neoplasms of any organ should be predicted on the patterns of differentiation that reflect the organization and cell types of the parental tissue. The ability to classify a neoplasm instills confidence in its predicted biologic behavior and the selection of treatment. There has not been a single universally used classification system for salivary gland tumor. Histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts and the developing information on various molecular parameters will have significant influence on the classification of salivary glands tumors. In this article we would highlight the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts in salivary gland neoplasms and elaborate on the taxonomic system of classification of salivary gland neoplasms.

Sreeja, C.; Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Satish, Muthu Kumar

2014-01-01

226

Morphology and preliminary enzyme characterization of the salivary glands from the predatory bug Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).  

PubMed

Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) is a common predator in agricultural and natural systems in Neotropical America. Its feeding strategy involves extra-oral digestion and to better understand this process its salivary glands were extracted and subjected to morphological and preliminary enzyme characterization. The salivary glands of P. nigrispinus are formed by a pair of main and accessory gland complexes. The main salivary glands are further divided into an anterior and a posterior lobe. The compartmentalization of the salivary gland complex is likely to be important for the production, activation and release of the digestive enzymes used in the extra-oral digestion of prey items. Proteases and lipase, important digestive enzymes involved in zoophagy, were detected in the salivary glands of P. nigrispinus. The prevailing trypsin-like protease activity was characterized by using the serine-protease substrate N-alpha-benzoyl-L-Arg-p-nitroanilidine (L-BApNA) and the trypsin inhibitors tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) and benzamidine. The KM value obtained for trypsin-like activity was 1.57 mm and the different peaks of optimum pH and temperature activity suggest the presence of multiple forms of this enzyme in P. nigrispinus. Detection of amylase activity in the salivary glands of this predator suggests its ability to digest starch and obtain nutrients from plants, which may have adaptative value under prey scarcity. PMID:16768813

Oliveira, J A; Oliveira, M G A; Guedes, R N C; Soares, M J

2006-06-01

227

Fertility and unilateral undescended testis in the rat model III: ultrastructural changes in the contralateral descended testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertility is decreased in rats with experimentally-created unilateral undescended testis (UUDT). Although light microscopy\\u000a has shown changes in the UDT, it has consistently failed to demonstrate any significant damage in the contralateral descended\\u000a testis (CDT) of these animals in previous experimental studies utilizing the same model. To study the ultrastructural details\\u000a of the CDT and the ipsilateral UDT using transmission

L. Nambirajan; S. Agarwala; A. K. Dinda; D. K. Mitra

2002-01-01

228

21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories...Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic...

2010-04-01

229

21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories...Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic...

2009-04-01

230

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

2013-04-01

231

29 CFR 1919.28 - Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto. 1919...OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification...Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons ...proof testsâcranes and gear accessory...

2010-07-01

232

29 CFR 1919.27 - Unit proof tests-winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tests-winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto. 1919...OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification...Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons ...winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto....

2009-07-01

233

29 CFR 1919.28 - Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto. 1919...OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification...Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons ...proof testsâcranes and gear accessory...

2009-07-01

234

29 CFR 1919.27 - Unit proof tests-winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tests-winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto. 1919...OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification...Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons ...winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto....

2010-07-01

235

Study of Reduction of Accessory Horsepower Requirements. Seventh Quarterly Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported for a program whose objective is to evolve and define an accessory drive system that will minimize system power consumption of driven accessories on an internal combustion engine in a passenger automobile. Although the primary goal is...

1976-01-01

236

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...devices intended for use during surgical procedures to provide power to operate various accessories or attachments to cut hard tissue or bone and soft tissue. Accessories or attachments may include a bur, chisel (osteotome), dermabrasion...

2010-04-01

237

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...devices intended for use during surgical procedures to provide power to operate various accessories or attachments to cut hard tissue or bone and soft tissue. Accessories or attachments may include a bur, chisel (osteotome), dermabrasion...

2009-04-01

238

Effect of pinealectomy and testosterone on gonadal regression and accessory sex organs in Indian palm squirrel, Funambulus pennanti.  

PubMed

Indian palm squirrel (Funambulus pennanti), is a tropical seasonal breeder presents a short gonadal regression period (October-November), concomitant with declining plasma testosterone level. If pinealectomized (Px), however, squirrels maintain full gonadal activity and plasma testosterone levels. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine if the Px and exogenous testosterone in intact and Px squirrels would prevent natural gonadal regression. Experiment was performed during testicular regression phase (i.e. August end to November) revealed that both the Px (60 days) and exogenous testosterone (100 micrograms/day/squirrel/30 days) prevented gonadal and accessory sex organ regression. This could be due to negative feedback by testosterone treatment which was more obvious in intact than the Px squirrels. A decline in day time plasma melatonin level after testosterone treatment was also indicative of inverse relationship between the gonadal and pineal hormones which in turn did not allow the collapse of accessory sex organs. Further, the pineal gland is under direct control of steroid hormones since receptors and aromatizing enzymes are noted in the same. Therefore, a pineal secreted melatonin stimulation of hypothalamic negative feedback centers for gonadal regression could be suggested in this tropical rodent as receptors for melatonin have been detected in above areas. PMID:9357162

Haldar, C; Vidhu, S

1997-06-01

239

Radiation therapy of seminoma of the testis.  

PubMed

This study is a review of 66 patients with a diagnosis of testicular seminoma, treated at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Louisville, from 1959 to 1978. Sixty-four of the patients were diagnosed as pure seminomas and two as spermatocytic type. The age of the patients ranged from 16 to 75 years with a median of 39. Fifty-four patients (82%) presented with swelling or mass in the testis, 7 patients with pain, 1 patient with hydrocele, and 4 patients had seminoma diagnosed incidentally. The distribution was equal for both right and left sides. There were 39 (59%) and 27 (41%) patients in stages I and II, respectively. All stage I patients received only infradiaphragmatic irradiation by a "hockey stick" field, and the majority of them received a dose of 3,200-3,600 rads in 3-4 weeks time. Stage II patients received elective irradiation to the mediastinum and neck region, in addition to the infradiaphragmatic irradiation. The 5-year actuarial survival rates for stage I and II seminomas are 96% and 92%, respectively. There were no serious complications during follow-up. The role of elective irradiation in stage I disease is discussed with a brief review of the literature. PMID:3968883

Jose, B; Perkins, P L; Kays, H; Chu, A M; Sharma, S C

1985-01-01

240

Sertolin mediates blood-testis barrier restructuring.  

PubMed

Two important events that occur during mammalian spermatogenesis are the release of elongated spermatids at late stage VIII of the seminiferous epithelial cycle and the restructuring of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) during stages VIII-XI. Still, it is not completely understood how these cellular events are accomplished within the seminiferous epithelium. In the present study, we investigate how sertolin, a protein that was initially identified, cloned, and partially characterized by our laboratory, functions in these critical events. Sertolin was found at the BTB, as well as at the apical ectoplasmic specialization and apical tubulobulbar complex, where it colocalized with epidermal growth factor receptor kinase substrate 8 and actin-related protein 3, two actin-regulatory proteins. Knockdown of sertolin by RNA interference showed Sertoli cell barrier function to be enhanced when assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance measurements and immunolocalization experiments. By contrast, the integrity of the BTB was disrupted when sertolin was overexpressed in vitro and in vivo. Sertolin overexpression also prompted germ cell loss from the seminiferous epithelium. Taken collectively, these results suggest that sertolin may be involved in coordinating spermatid release and BTB restructuring during spermatogenesis in the rat. PMID:24467744

Li, Michelle W M; Cheng, C Yan; Mruk, Dolores D

2014-04-01

241

Influence of ribosomal protein l39-L in the drug resistance mechanisms of lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Background: Cancer constitutes a key pressure on public health regardless of the economy state in different countries. As a kind of highly malignant epithelial tumor, lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma can occur in any part of the body, such as salivary gland, submandibular gland, trachea, lung, breast, skin and lacrimal gland. Chemotherapy is one of the key treatment techniques, but drug resistance, especially MDR, seriously blunts its effects. As an element of the 60S large ribosomal subunit, the ribosomal protein L39-L gene appears to be documented specifically in the human testis and many human cancer samples of different origins. Materials and Methods: Total RNA of cultured drug-resistant and susceptible lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cells was seperated, and real time quantitative RT-PCR were used to reveal transcription differences between amycin resistant and susceptible strains of lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cells. Viability assays were used to present the amycin resistance difference in a RPL39-L transfected lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line as compared to control vector and null-transfected lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cell lines. Results: The ribosomal protein L39-L transcription level was 6.5-fold higher in the drug-resistant human lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line than in the susceptible cell line by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The ribosomal protein L39-L transfected cells revealed enhanced drug resistance compared to plasmid vector-transfected or null-transfected cells as determined by methyl tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR) incorporation. Conclusions: The ribosomal protein L39-L gene could possibly have influence on the drug resistance mechanism of lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cells. PMID:24998577

Ye, Qing; Ding, Shao-Feng; Wang, Zhi-An; Feng, Jie; Tan, Wen-Bin

2014-01-01

242

Giant salivary calculi of the submandibular gland  

PubMed Central

Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. A case of an unusually large sialolith arising in the submandibular gland is presented, along with a review of the management of giant salivary gland calculi.

Fowell, C; MacBean, A

2012-01-01

243

49 CFR 192.147 - Flanges and flange accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...flange accessory (other than cast iron) must meet the minimum...able to withstand the maximum pressure at which the pipeline is...flange on a flanged joint in cast iron pipe must conform in dimensions...to ASME/ANSI B16.1 and be cast integrally with the pipe,...

2013-10-01

244

Evolutionary dynamics of the accessory genome of Listeria monocytogenes.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85-3.14 Mb, encode 2,822-3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II. PMID:23825666

den Bakker, Henk C; Desjardins, Christopher A; Griggs, Allison D; Peters, Joseph E; Zeng, Qiandong; Young, Sarah K; Kodira, Chinnappa D; Yandava, Chandri; Hepburn, Theresa A; Haas, Brian J; Birren, Bruce W; Wiedmann, Martin

2013-01-01

245

Hearing Aid Accessories for Adults: The Remote FM Microphone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The primary goal was to determine the benefits and limitations of a remote FM microphone as a hearing aid accessory. A secondary goal was to determine the predictors of aided and FM-assisted speech perception by adults with hearing loss, in quiet and in noise, using methods derived from Articulation Index theory. Design: Twelve adults with mild to severe hearing

Arthur Boothroyd

2004-01-01

246

Schwannoma of the Spinal Accessory Nerve: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We are reporting a rare case of a schwannoma which originated from the cervical portion of the spinal accessory nerve, which was located in the left posterior triangle of the neck and did not have any neurological deficit, which was diagnosed by the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan and confirmed histopathologically after surgery.

Kohli, Ritesh; Singh, Surinder; Gupta, Sahwani K.; Matreja, Prithpal S.

2013-01-01

247

The sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system  

PubMed Central

Background A dual olfactory system, represented by two anatomically distinct but spatially proximate chemosensory epithelia that project to separate areas of the forebrain, is known in several classes of tetrapods. Lungfish are the earliest evolving vertebrates known to have this dual system, comprising a main olfactory and a vomeronasal system (VNO). Lampreys, a group of jawless vertebrates, have a single nasal capsule containing two anatomically distinct epithelia, the main (MOE) and the accessory olfactory epithelia (AOE). We speculated that lamprey AOE projects to specific telencephalic regions as a precursor to the tetrapod vomeronasal system. Results To test this hypothesis, we characterized the neural circuits and molecular profiles of the accessory olfactory epithelium in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Neural tract-tracing revealed direct and reciprocal connections with the dorsomedial telencephalic neuropil (DTN) which in turn projects directly to the dorsal pallium and the rostral hypothalamus. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that the main and the accessory olfactory epithelia have virtually identical profiles of expressed genes. Real time quantitative PCR confirmed expression of representatives of all 3 chemoreceptor gene families identified in the sea lamprey genome. Conclusion Anatomical and molecular evidence shows that the sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system that may serve a chemosensory function.

2013-01-01

248

Clothing/Apparel and Accessories Merchandising. A Suggested Interdisciplinary Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide contains three sections: introduction, curriculum material, and an annotated bibliography. Introductory information provides an overview of the clothing/apparel and accessories merchandising area, aptitudes needed, and career opportunities; discusses potential career ladders, which are divided into entry level, middle…

Wray, Ralph D.; Hayden, Margaret B.

249

Uranium Series Accessory Crystal Dating of Magmatic Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex and protracted crystallization histories over geologic timescales are recorded in accessory minerals (e.g., zircon, allanite). Although magmatic crystallization was traditionally assumed to occur essentially instantaneously for the purposes of interpreting mineral geochronometers with low absolute time resolution for ancient samples, it emerged relatively recently that magmatic crystallization can occur over extended durations. This discovery arose from applying high-spatial-resolution accessory mineral dating techniques for uranium series isotopes to young volcanic and cognate plutonic rocks. The emerging pattern from these studies is that individual crystals and crystal populations record crystallization episodes lasting from <1,000 to many hundreds of thousands of years. Accessory mineral dating of volcanic rocks and cognate plutonic xenoliths opens new research avenues for crystal age fingerprinting that correlates pyroclastic deposits, lavas, and plutonic rocks by using characteristic age distributions. It also provides direct observations on magmatic accumulation and residence times, and the preeruptive configuration of subterraneous magma bodies and intrusive complexes with implications for the forecasting of volcanic eruptions. Awareness of potentially protracted crystallization in igneous rocks should guide the interpretation of accessory mineral ages.

Schmitt, Axel K.

2011-05-01

250

The Effects of Accessory Stimuli on Information Processing: Evidence from Electrophysiology and a Diffusion Model Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

People typically respond faster to a stimulus when it is accompanied by a task-irrelevant accessory stimulus presented in another perceptual modality. However, the mechanisms responsible for this accessory-stimulus effect are still poorly understood. We examined the effects of auditory accessory stimulation on the processing of visual stimuli using scalp electrophysiology (Experiment 1) and a diffusion model analysis (Experiment 2). In

Marieke Jepma; Eric-Jan Wagenmakers; Guido P. H. Band; Sander Nieuwenhuis

2008-01-01

251

Transcriptional regulation of cell adhesion at the blood-testis barrier and spermatogenesis in the testis.  

PubMed

Spermatogenesis involves precise co-ordination of multiple cellular events that take place in the seminiferous epithelium composed of Sertoli cells and developing germ cells during the seminiferous epithelial cycle. Given the cyclic and co-ordinated nature of spermatogenesis, temporal and spatial expression of certain genes pertinent to a specific cellular event are essential. As such, transcriptional regulation is one of the major regulatory machineries in controlling the cell type- and stage-specific gene expression, some of which are under the influence of gonadotropins (e.g., FSH and LH) and sex steroids (e.g., testosterone and estradiol-17beta). Recent findings regarding transcriptional control of spermatogenesis, most notably target genes at the Sertoli-Sertoli and Sertoli-spermatid interface at the site of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES), respectively, involving in cell adhesion are reviewed and discussed herein. This is a much neglected area of research and a concerted effort by investigators is needed to understand transcriptional regulation of cell adhesion function in the testis particularly at the BTB during spermatogenesis. PMID:23397630

Lui, Wing-Yee; Cheng, C Yan

2012-01-01

252

TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF CELL ADHESION AT THE BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER AND SPERMATOGENESIS IN THE TESTIS  

PubMed Central

Spermatogenesis involves precise co-ordination of multiple cellular events that take place in the seminiferous epithelium composed of Sertoli cells and developing germ cells during the seminiferous epithelial cycle. Given the cyclic and co-ordinated nature of spermatogenesis, temporal and spatial expression of certain genes pertinent to a specific cellular event are essential. As such, transcriptional regulation is one of the major regulatory machineries in controlling the cell type- and stage-specific gene expression, some of which are under the influence of gonadotropins (e.g., FSH and LH) and sex steroids (e.g., testosterone and estradiol-17?). Recent findings regarding transcriptional control of spermatogenesis, most notably target genes at the Sertoli-Sertoli and Sertoli-spermatid interface at the site of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES), respectively, involving in cell adhesion are reviewed and discussed herein. This is a much neglected area of research and a concerted effort by investigators is needed to understand transcriptional regulation of cell adhesion function in the testis particularly at the BTB during spermatogenesis.

Lui, Wing-Yee; Cheng, C. Yan

2014-01-01

253

Controlled Speed Accessory Drive Program: Programmatic environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

This document is a programmatic environmental assessment of the Department of Energy's Controlled Speed Accessory Drive (CSAD) program and alternatives. Its purpose is to evaluate CSAD alternatives to assure that environmental priorities are considered at the earliest meaningful point in the decision-making process, and to facilitate the choice of preferable options. This document accords with both the letter and the spirit of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements as interpreted and standardized by the Council on Environmental Quality. The major conclusions reached in this assessment are as follows: (1) controlled speed accessory drive bolted onto existing automobile designs may not provide adequate engine cooling when operated at high ambient temperatures or under heavy loading; (2) when the CSAD is adopted for production, the emissions effect of controlled speed accessory drive will not be a problem. Auto emissions are already controlled by existing regulations, and automobiles with a CSAD must meet the same emission standards as non-CSAD vehicles; (3) the nature of the impact is such that significant expansion of the market will not affect it. The one adverse environmental concern, the engine cooling problem, will probably be remedied by proper optimization of automobiles for controlled speed accessory drive, or, until the problem can be alleviated, it will delay commercialization of the drive. No safety hazard will be introduced to the American roadways. In addition, no adverse environmental concerns directly related to the Controlled Speed Accessory Drive demonstration program are anticipated. Therefore, it is recommended that a finding of no significant impact be prepared.

Not Available

1980-04-14

254

Signalling pathways regulating the blood-testis barrier.  

PubMed

Throughout mammalian spermatogenesis, preleptotene/leptotene spermatocytes traverse the blood-testis barrier during stages VIII-XI of the seminiferous epithelial cycle while trapped within a dynamic intermediate compartment that is sealed at north and south poles by tight junctions, basal ectoplasmic specializations, desmosomes and gap junctions. In order for spermatocytes to gain entry into the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium for continued development, 'old' junctions present above migrating spermatocytes disassemble, while 'new' junctions assemble simultaneously below these germ cells. In this way, the integrity of the blood-testis barrier and the homeostasis of the seminiferous epithelium can remain intact during spermatogenesis. Previous studies have shown an array of cellular events, including protein internalization and cytoskeletal remodeling, to underline blood-testis barrier restructuring, whereas other studies have reported BTB dysfunction to associate with activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Herein, we discuss the signaling pathways and mechanisms involved in blood-testis barrier restructuring in the mammalian testis. PMID:23262290

Lie, Pearl P Y; Cheng, C Yan; Mruk, Dolores D

2013-03-01

255

Wt1 negatively regulates ?-catenin signaling during testis development  

PubMed Central

?-Catenin, as an important effector of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and as a regulator of cell adhesion, has been demonstrated to be involved in multiple developmental processes and tumorigenesis. ?-Catenin expression was found mainly on the Sertoli cell membrane starting from embryonic day 15.5 in the developing testes. However, its potential role in Sertoli cells during testis formation has not been examined. To determine the function of ?-catenin in Sertoli cells during testis formation, we either deleted ?-catenin or expressed a constitutively active form of ?-catenin in Sertoli cells. We found that deletion caused no detectable abnormalities. However, stabilization caused severe phenotypes, including testicular cord disruption, germ cell depletion and inhibition of Müllerian duct regression. ?-Catenin stabilization caused changes in Sertoli cell identity and misregulation of inter-Sertoli cell contacts. As Wt1 conditional knockout in Sertoli cells causes similar phenotypes to our stabilized ?-catenin mutants, we then investigated the relationship of Wt1 and ?-catenin in Sertoli cells and found Wt1 inhibits ?-catenin signaling in these cells during testis development. Wt1 deletion resulted in upregulation of ?-catenin expression in Sertoli cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our study indicates that Sertoli cell expression of ?-catenin is dispensable for testis development. However, the suppression of ?-catenin signaling in these cells is essential for proper testis formation and Wt1 is a negative regulator of ?-catenin signaling during this developmental process.

Chang, Hao; Gao, Fei; Guillou, Florian; Taketo, Makoto M.; Huff, Vicki; Behringer, Richard R.

2014-01-01

256

Morphometric study of Rynchotus rufescens testis throughout the year.  

PubMed

The research aimed to study the morphologic variation of the testis, seeking to promote the selection and genetic control of those that present appreciable spermatic production throughout the year. Testis morphology of the Rynchotus rufescens partridge was investigated, analyzing the testis weight, the seminiferous tubules diameter, the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium, the amount of meiotic figures and the thickness of the tunica albuginea. Sixty male partridges were used, divided in 12 groups, and one group per month had the testis collected for the histological routine and the sections were stained using the Hematoxilin-Eosin technique. For the histological sections analysis, morphometric measures were taken, with the aid of an Image Analyzer and the resulting data were submitted to analysis of variance and to Tukey's test. Based on the histological modifications of the seminiferous epithelium and the morphometric analysis, the partridge testis morphology could be divided in four successive phases throughout the year. The reproductive phase occurred in the spring, characterized by the complete spermatogenesis process. The regression phase occurred in the summer, with the involution of the seminiferous epithelium. The rest phase took place in the fall, with spermatogonias presence and some spermatocytes beginning the meiosis. The phase of recrudescence occurred in the winter, with the recovery of the seminiferous epithelium and absence of spermatozoa. In conclusion, the characteristics analyzed revealed a variation over the year, with greater production of spermatozoa in the spring and less in the winter. PMID:17876449

Baraldi-Artoni, S M; Bottino, F; Oliveira, D; Sobue Franzo, V; Amoroso, L; Orsi, A M; Cruz, C

2007-05-01

257

Microanatomical study of testis in juvenile ostrich (Struthio camelus).  

PubMed

The majority of investigations on the testis, as the main organ of male reproductive system, have been performed in mammalian species, with few studies on bird species. Thus, the structure of the ostrich testis remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the microanatomical characteristics of the testis in five juvenile ostriches. A stereological study was performed according to the Delesse principle. The mean volume fraction of the seminiferous tubules was 0.569, and the mean volume of the seminiferous tubules in an average testis was 1.04 cm(3). The Paraffin-embedded sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, Alcian blue, and periodic acid-Schiff stains. Histological studies revealed that the spermatogonial stem cells and Sertoli cells were localized inside the seminiferous tubules, close to the basement membrane. Inside the tubules a few meiotic cells up to the spermatozoa stage were located in a centripetal manner. Outside the tubules, one to three layers of euchromatic peritubular myoid cells were present, surrounded by loose interstitial connective tissue. A thick tunica albuginea contained many myoid cells and some rete ducts, with the latter extending from the hilus to the free surface of the testis. Straight seminiferous tubules were distributed in the lateral surfaces and hilar portions of the capsule but were rare in the free surface. These capsular rete ducts may participate in testicular fluid transit from the distal tubules through the capsule. PMID:23558799

Hassanzadeh, Belal; Nabipour, Abolghasem; Rassouli, Morteza Behnam; Dehghani, Hesam

2013-06-01

258

Analysis of factors decreasing testis weight in MRL mice.  

PubMed

MRL/MpJ (MRL) mouse testes have several unique characteristics, including the appearance of oocytes, the occurrence of metaphase-specific apoptosis of meiotic spermatocytes, and the presence of heat-shock-resistant spermatocytes. In the present study we used chromosomal mapping to determine the genomic background associated with small testis size in MRL mice. We prepared and analyzed C57BL/6-based congenic mice carrying MRL mouse loci. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis revealed susceptibility loci for small testis size at 100 cM on chromosome (Chr) 1 and at around 80 cM on Chr 2. Analysis with B6.MRLc1 and B6.MRLc2 congenic mice and double-congenic mice confirmed the QTL data and showed that low testis weight in MRL mice was caused by germ cell apoptosis. Through histological examinations we found that B6.MRLc1 and B6.MRLc2 mice showed stage-specific apoptosis in their testes, the former at metaphase stage XII and the later at pachytene stage IV. Metaphase-specific apoptosis of spermatocytes occurs due to mutation of the exonuclease 1 (Exo1) gene located at 100 cM on Chr 1. Thus, the mutation of the Exo1 gene is also responsible for low testis weight caused by metaphase-specific apoptosis. In conclusion, testis weight is reduced in MRL mice due to apoptosis of germ cells caused by mutations in loci on Chrs 1 and 2. PMID:20157820

Otsuka, Saori; Namiki, Yuka; Ichii, Osamu; Hashimoto, Yoshiharu; Sasaki, Nobuya; Endoh, Daiji; Kon, Yasuhiro

2010-04-01

259

Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

2013-02-27

260

Pituitary Gland Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Excessive secretion of pituitary hormones, as well as their deficiency, may cause a constellation of clinical and pathological\\u000a manifestations involving major organ systems of the body, including the skin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a There are no specific cutaneous signs or symptoms that are pathognomonic for the main manifestations of pituitary gland diseases\\u000a such as acromegaly, hyperprolactinemia, Cushing’s disease, or hypopituitarism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In

Martina Montinari; Franco Rongioletti

261

Neurologic disorders associated with disease of the ovaries and testis.  

PubMed

The spectrum of neurologic complications of disease of the testis and ovaries includes complications of established neoplastic and non-neoplastic disorders affecting the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). It also includes diverse CNS presentations that precede a known diagnosis of testis or ovarian tumors. Well-defined clinical phenotypes, imaging characteristics, and specific serum markers allow clinical recognition and search for a primary gonadal neoplasm. Androgen receptor abnormalities and primary ovarian failure frequently occur in a number of inherited disorders that also affect the CNS and PNS. Moreover, the integrity and normal function of the ovaries and testis may be affected in common neurologic disorders leading in part to infertility in male patients. PMID:24365352

Kattah, Jorge C; Kattah, William C

2014-01-01

262

Biological damage in testis by Iodine125 in partially blocked thyroid of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Degeneration of testis has been observed after administration of Iodine-125 in potassiumperchlorate treated rats. Histological damage is associated with loss of DNA, RNA, acid phosphatase, total adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and Na\\/K dependent ATPase. Iodine-125 induced atrophic testis shows higher content of sodium and lower levels of potassium as compared to control testis. Damage of testis by Iodine-125 has been

G. S. Gupta; V. K. Chopra

1977-01-01

263

Metabolic effects of unilateral orchiectomy on the guinea pig testis.  

PubMed

Six months after unilateral orchiectomy, there was a significant increase in the RNA and DNA content of contralateral testes as compared with the testes of age-matched normal guinea pigs. The ratio of RNA to DNA was not affected by orchiectomy, suggesting that the compensatory growth was secondary to hyperplasia rather than hypertrophy. Tritiated thymidine uptake by the contralateral testis was elevated at 2 weeks and 2,4 and 6 months after orchiectomy, confirming that increased metabolic activity occurred in the remaining testis after hemicastration. PMID:832731

Noller, D W; Howards, S S; Panko, W

1977-02-01

264

Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumor of the Rete Testis  

PubMed Central

A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm.

Sajadi, Kamran P.; Dalton, Rory R.; Brown, James A.

2009-01-01

265

Testicular Xenografts: A Novel Approach to Study Cytotoxic Damage in Juvenile Primate Testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underlying primary damage to the testis caused by chemotherapeutic regimens during childhood is largely unknown. Xenografting of monkey testes was successfully applied in maturation of juvenile testis to the point of complete spermatogenesis. This allows us to manipulate developing primate testis without direct treatment of patients. This new model is validated establishing the effects of cyto- toxic treatment in

Kirsi Jahnukainen; Jens Ehmcke; Stefan Schlatt

2006-01-01

266

Calcium signaling in lacrimal glands.  

PubMed

Lacrimal glands provide the important function of lubricating and protecting the ocular surface. Failure of proper lacrimal gland function results in a number of debilitating dry eye diseases. Lacrimal glands secrete lipids, mucins, proteins, salts and water and these secretions are at least partially regulated by neurotransmitter-mediated cell signaling. The predominant signaling mechanism for lacrimal secretion involves activation of phospholipase C, generation of the Ca(2+)-mobilizing messenger, IP3, and release of Ca(2+) stored in the endoplasmic reticulum. The loss of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum then triggers a process known as store-operated Ca(2+) entry, involving a Ca(2+) sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum, STIM1, which activates plasma membrane store-operated channels comprised of Orai subunits. Recent studies with deletions of the channel subunit, Orai1, confirm the important role of SOCE in both fluid and protein secretion in lacrimal glands, both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:24507443

Putney, James W; Bird, Gary S

2014-06-01

267

[Pseudotumoral hyperplasia of Brunner's glands].  

PubMed

Hyperplasia of Brünner's glands is a dysembryoplastic or hyperplasic lesion with an elective location of the proximal duodenum. Symptoms are often non-specific but severe manifestations can occur (haemorrhage, duodenal obstruction). Two cases of hyperplasia of Brünner's glands were reported due to their particularly large size and a misguiding clinical appearance. Difficulties in diagnosis due to this rare benign entity were discussed. PMID:8143953

Maurel, J; Diallo, G; Ongot, M C; Verwaerde, J C; Mandard, J C; Segol, P; Gignoux, M

1993-01-01

268

Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland.  

PubMed

We are reporting a case of thyroid gland tuberculosis presenting as a painless hard nodular swelling of the thyroid with concomitant pulmonarytuberculosis in a 53-year-old adult diabetic male. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed epitheloid cell granuloma without any acid fast bacillus. He made an uneventful recovery with anti tuberculous drugs. Though rare, tuberculosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of nodular or diffuse enlargement of thyroid gland. PMID:23236703

Das, S K; Bairagya, T D; Bhattacharya, S; Barman, D C

2012-01-01

269

[Bilateral sarcoidosis of parotid glands].  

PubMed

We describe an unusual case of sarcoidosis in which the patient presented with a bilateral swelling of the parotid salivary glands and no other manifestation of the disease. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unknown cause in which there may be multiple exocrine involvement, including the salivary glands. This case emphasises the importance of including sarcoidosis in the differential diagnosis of bilateral parotid swelling. PMID:22533935

Hahn, Pernille; Krogdahl, Annelise; Godballe, Christian

2012-04-23

270

The ectopic posterior pituitary gland.  

PubMed

An ectopic posterior pituitary gland is a rare condition and may present with an empty pituitary fossa, hypoplasia or absence of the infundibular stalk and resultant short stature due to growth hormone deficiency. The location of the ectopic lobe can vary, but it is most commonly situated along the median eminence in the floor of the third ventricle. We report a case of an ectopic posterior pituitary gland, describe the causes and discuss the diagnostic imaging features. PMID:24209704

Mahomed, Nasreen; Motshudi, Thapelo

2013-11-01

271

Sebaceous gland lipids  

PubMed Central

The principal activity of mature sebaceous glands is producing and secreting sebum, which is a complex mixture of lipids. Sebum composition is different among species and this difference is probably due to the function that sebum has to absolve. In human sebum there are unique lipids, such as squalene and wax esters not found anywhere else in the body nor among the epidermal surface lipids. Moreover, they correspond to major components supplying the skin with protection. However, the ultimate role of human sebum, as well the metabolic pathways regulating its composition and secretion rate, are far from a complete understanding. Increased sebum secretion is considered, among all features, the major one involved in the pathophysiology of acne. Along with increased sebum secretion rate, quali- and quantitative modifications of sebum are likely to occur in this pathology. Understanding the factors and mechanisms that regulate sebum production is needed in order to identify new targets that can be addressed to achieve a selective modulation of lipid biosynthesis as a novel therapeutic strategy to correct lipid disregulations in acne and other disorders of the pilosebaceous unit.

Ottaviani, Monica; Camera, Emanuela; Mastrofrancesco, Arianna

2009-01-01

272

Scent glands in legume flowers.  

PubMed

Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied. PMID:23574349

Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

2013-04-10

273

Function of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in mammary gland epithelial cells[S  

PubMed Central

Previously, we have shown that Pck1 expression in mammary gland adipocytes and white adipose tissue maintains triglyceride stores through glyceroneogenesis, and these lipids were used for synthesis of milk triglycerides during lactation. Reduced milk triglycerides during lactation resulted in patterning of the newborn for insulin resistance. In this study, the role of Pck1 in mammary gland epithelial cells was analyzed. The developmental expression of Pck1 decreased in isolated mouse mammary gland epithelial cells through development and during lactation. Using HC11, a clonal mammary epithelial cell line, we found that both Janus kinase 2 signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 and the AKT pathways contributed to the repression of Pck1 mRNA by prolactin. These pathways necessitate three accessory factor regions of the Pck1 promoter for repression by prolactin. Using [U-13C6]glucose, [U-13C3]pyruvate, and [U-13C3]glycerol in HC11 cells, we determined that Pck1 functions in the pathway for the conversion of gluconeogenic precursors to glucose and contributes to glycerol-3-phosphate synthesis through glyceroneogenesis. Therefore, Pck1 plays an important role in both the mammary gland adipocytes and epithelial cells during lactation.

Hsieh, Chang-Wen; Huang, Charles; Bederman, Ilya; Yang, Jianqi; Beidelschies, Michelle; Hatzoglou, Maria; Puchowicz, Michelle; Croniger, Colleen M.

2011-01-01

274

Improvement of mercuric chloride-induced testis injuries and sperm quality deteriorations by Spirulina platensis in rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) on mercury (II) chloride (HgCl(2))-induced oxidative damages and histopathological alterations in the testis of Wistar albino rats. The animals were divided into four equal groups, i) control, ii) HgCl(2), iii) S. platensis and iv) combination of HgCl(2)+S. platensis. Oxidative stress, induced by a single dose of HgCl(2) (5 mg/kg, bw; subcutaneously, s.c.), substantially decreased (P<0.01) the activity level of testicular key enzymatic antioxidant biomarkers (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT and glutathione peroxidase, GPx), oxidative stress makers (blood hydroperoxide; testicular reduced glutathione, GSH and malondialdehyde, MDA), and testicular mercury levels. Moreover, HgCl(2) administration resulted in a significant (P<0.01) increase in the number of sperms with abnormal morphology and decrease in epididymal sperm count, motility, plasma testosterone level and testicular cholesterol. Furthermore, HgCl(2) exposure induced histopathological changes to the testis including morphological alterations of the seminiferous tubules, and degeneration and dissociation of spermatogenic cells. Notably, oral pretreatment of animals with Spirulina (300 mg/kg, bw) lowered the extent of the observed HgCl(2)-mediated toxicity, whereby significantly reducing the resulting lipid peroxidation products, mercury accumulation in the testis, histopathological changes of the testes and spermatozoal abnormalities. In parallel, the pretreatment with Spirulina also completely reverted the observed Hg-Cl(2)-induced inhibition in enzymatic activities of antioxidant biomarkers (SOD, CAT and GPx) back to control levels. The pretreatment of rats with S. platensis significantly recovered the observed HgCl(2)-mediated decrease in the weight of accessory sex organs. Taken together, our findings clearly highlight the role of S. platensis as a protective modulator of HgCl(2)-induced testicular injuries and suggest some therapeutic potential in mammals. Further investigation of therapeutic strategies employing Spirulina against heavy metals toxicity in humans is therefore warranted. PMID:23555627

El-Desoky, Gaber E; Bashandy, Samir A; Alhazza, Ibrahim M; Al-Othman, Zeid A; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A M; Yusuf, Kareem

2013-01-01

275

Morphometric analysis of Leydig cells in the normal rat testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leydig cells are thought to be the source of most, if not all, the testosterone produced by the testis . The goal of this study was to obtain quantitative infor- mation about rat Leydig cells and their organelles that might be correlated with pertinent physiological and biochemicaldata available either now or in the future . Morphometric analysis of Leydig cells

HIROSHI MORI; A. KENT CHRISTENSEN

1980-01-01

276

Expression of neurotrophin receptors in the developing and adult testis.  

PubMed

Nerve growth factor (NGF) and the other members of the family of neurotrophic factors (the neurotrophin) are essential for neuronal development and differentiation. Neurotrophins interact with two types of cell surface receptors: a low-affinity receptor (p75 NGF-R) and a high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptor belonging to the trk proto-oncogene family, both expressed in the nervous system and in certain non-neuronal tissues. Recently, NGF immunoreactivity and mRNA have been detected in the testis of the adult mouse, rat and human. In the present report we demonstrate the expression of p75 NGF-R during early gonadal development, by mesenchymal cells of the embryonic mouse and rat testis. In the embryonic testis p75 NGF-R-positive cells are spread through the interstitial compartment; during postnatal development they become organized in a cellular layer that surrounds differentiating myoid cells of the seminiferous tubule. Our results also show the expression in the peripuberal and adult mouse and rat testis, of an abundant and shorter transcript of 3.2 kb that cross-hybridizes to the receptor mRNA (3.7 kb). This new mRNA species, which appears at the beginning of spermatogenesis, is expressed by pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids. PMID:11322334

Russo, M A; Giustizieri, M L; Farini, D; Siracusa, G

1995-01-01

277

Postsurgical changes in the testis: a diagnostic dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postsurgical changes in the testicle following epididymal surgery may mimic neoplastic transformation on ultrasound evaluation. We report a case in which postoperative ultrasound findings following epididymectomy, which in retrospect were consistent with tubular ectasia of the rete testis, resulted in unnecessary testicular biopsy and orchiectomy.

Marie-Blanche Tchetgen; J. Stuart Wolf

1998-01-01

278

Mesothelioma of the testis and nephrotic syndrome: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Paraneoplastic glomerulopathies are rare manifestations of neoplastic disease to be distinguished from iatrogenic renal damage. Solid tumors are preferentially associated with membranous nephropathy, whereas Hodgkin's lymphomas are associated with minimal change disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 63-year-old Caucasian male diagnosed with a mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis who, secondary to this, also presented with a nephrotic syndrome

Justine Bacchetta; Dominique Ranchère; Frédérique Dijoud; Jean-Pierre Droz

2009-01-01

279

Epidermal growth factor mediates spermatogonial proliferation in newt testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex processes of spermatogenesis are regulated by various factors. The aim of the current study is to determine the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on spermatogonial proliferation and clarify the mechanism causing the proliferation in newt testis. In the organ culture, EGF stimulated spermatogonial proliferation, but not their differentiation into spermatocytes. cDNA cloning identified 3 members of the

Keisuke Abé; Ko Eto; Shin-ichi Abé

2008-01-01

280

Sublethal effects of diazinon on the structure of the testis of bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus: a microscopic analysis.  

PubMed

A histopathological analysis of the testis exposed to diazinon, an organophosphorus pesticide was conducted. The testis from the control fish exhibited a normal histological structure with a round, oval or somewhat rectangular shaped with closely associated seminiferous tubules. The seminiferous tubules were surrounded by a layer of connective tissue with myoid cells, Leydig cells, blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves. Upon exposure for 24 h, the overall structure of the testis looked disrupted and more often the sperm cells appeared to be somewhat larger, but spermatid were smaller than that of the control group. The 48 h exposure caused more dense and closely associated seminiferous tubules. The 72 h exposure induced dilation of the seminiferous tubules and their lumen. Ninety-six hours exposure induced more loose and disrupted structures. In this group (96 h), there was a significant reduction in both lumen and seminiferous tubule size in comparison with the control, 24, 48, and 72 h groups. After 2 weeks of exposure hardly any lumen was seen, which imparted more dense and compacted structures. The biometric analysis gave a highly significant increase in the diameter of the seminiferous lumen. After 48 h of exposure a significant reduction was seen in diameter in comparison with that of the control group. Seventy-two hour exposure indicated an increase in diameter, whereas 96 h exhibited another decrease. One week caused the diameter to increase whereas 2 weeks of exposure caused them to decrease again. The increase in diameter of the seminiferous tabule may be caused by weakening of the surrounding connective tissue and myoid cells, due to exposure to diazinon. The change in the diameters of the seminiferous tabules was very irregular. No apparent co-relation was found between the size of the fish, body weight and weight of the testis after they have been subjected to different exposure periods. There was significant change in the germ cells' diameters. As the germ cells are the essential first step in the process of spermatogenesis, their size reduction may hinder the production of viable spermatozoa, endangering the population dynamics. In order to find out the pathways of this pesticide effects, we propose to study the histopathology of pituitary gland a vital organ of the reproductive axis. PMID:12826413

Dutta, H M; Meijer, H J M

2003-01-01

281

Morphology of the third eyelid and superficial gland of the third eyelid on pig fetuses.  

PubMed

The morphological and histological examinations of the third eyelid and superficial gland of the third eyelid were conducted in pig fetuses coming from the 20th, 24th, 27th, 30th, 35th, 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation. The morphological examinations were carried out by applying the method of macroscopic preparation with a forehead magnifying glass and binocular (magnification 1.5-5.0x). In order to make anatomical elements more visible, 60-80% absolute alcohol and 0.5-4% acetic acid solution were used for the examinations. On the 20th, 24th, 27th and 30th day of gestation, the whole fetuses were collected for the histological examinations. The whole eyeball with developing accessory organs was collected from the pig fetuses on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation, only the superficial gland with the third eyelid was collected. Staining with haematoxylin-eosin (H-E) and Azan method was performed. On the 20th, 24th, 27th and 30th day of gestation, the primordia of the glandular epithelium were not found in the examined material. The process of the third eyelid and superficial gland formation starts on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th and 63rd day of gestation, the gland surrounding the cartilage of the third eyelid is composed of the high amount of loose connective tissue and gland cells which give rise to excretory segments. On the 94th day of gestation, the gland lobes become visible, the efferent ducts form. On the 112th day, the cartilage of the third eyelid assumes the appearance of the mature hyaline cartilage. The excretory segments are composed of simple cuboid epithelium with a large, round nucleus arranged less or more peripherally. Their number increases 2- or even 3-fold at the end of gestation. PMID:18021352

Kle?kowska-Nawrot, J; Dziegiel, P

2007-12-01

282

Morphology of deep gland of the third eyelid in pig foetuses.  

PubMed

The morphological and histological examinations of the deep gland of the third eyelid were carried out on pig foetuses coming from the 35th, 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation. The morphological examinations were conducted using the method of macroscopic preparation with a forehead magnifying glass and binocular (magnification 1.5-5.0x). In order to make anatomical elements more visible, 60-80% absolute alcohol and 0.5-4% acetic acid solution were used for the examinations. For the histological examinations, the whole eyeball with developing accessory organs was collected from the pig foetuses on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation only the deep gland of the third eyelid was collected. Staining with haematoxylin-eosin and Azan method was performed. It was found during the examinations that the process of the formation of the deep gland of the third eyelid starts on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th day of gestation, the gland cells are evenly distributed in the connective tissue stroma. On the 63rd day of gestation, the connective tissue divides the gland parenchyma into indistinct lobes composed of 6-15 lobules. On the 94th day of gestation, the gland lobes become visible; the efferent ducts are situated in the central part of the lobe. On the 112th day of gestation, the lobes are composed of a high number of lobules composed of two kinds of excretory ducts. The first type of the excretory ducts is lined with the simple cuboid epithelium whose nuclei are situated at the base of the cell. The other type of the excretory ducts is lined with the simple cuboid epithelium whose nuclei are round and arranged less or more peripherally. PMID:18197898

Kle?kowska-Nawrot, J; Dziegiel, P

2008-02-01

283

Post-hatching development of Alligator mississippiensis ovary and testis  

PubMed Central

We investigated ovary and testis development of Alligator mississippiensis during the first five months post-hatch. To better describe follicle assembly and seminiferous cord development, we employed histochemical techniques to detect carbohydrate-rich extracellular matrix components in one-week, one-month, three-month, and five-month-old gonads. We found profound morphological changes in both ovary and testis. During this time, oogenesis progressed up to diplotene arrest and meiotic germ cells increasingly interacted with follicular cells. Concomitant with follicles becoming invested with full complements of granulosa cells, a periodic acid Schiff’s (PAS)-positive basement membrane formed. As follicles enlarged and thecal layers were observed, basement membranes and thecal compartments gained periodic acid-methionine silver (PAMS)-reactive fibers. The ovarian medulla increased first PAS- and then PAMS-reactivity as it fragmented into wide lacunae lined with low cuboidal to squamous epithelia. During this same period, testicular germ cells found along the tubule margins were observed progressing from spermatogonia to round spermatids located within the center of tubules. Accompanying this meiotic development, interstitial Leydig cell clusters become more visible and testicular capsules thickened. During the observed testis development, the thickening tunica albuginea and widening interstitial tissues showed increasing PAS- and PAMS-reactivity. We observed putative inter-sex structures in both ovary and testis. On the coelomic aspect of testes were cell clusters with germ cell morphology and at the posterior end of ovaries, we observed “medullary rests” resembling immature testis cords. We hypothesize laboratory conditions accelerated gonad maturation due to optimum conditions, including nutrients and temperature. Laboratory alligators grew more rapidly and with increased body conditions compared to previous measured, field-caught animals. Additionally, we predict the morphological maturation observed in these gonads is concomitant with increased endocrine activities.

Moore, Brandon C.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Botteri, Nicole L.; Lawler, Ashley N.; Mathavan, Ketan K.; Guillette, Louis J.

2009-01-01

284

Cancer/testis (CT) antigens, carcinogenesis and spermatogenesis  

PubMed Central

During spermatogenesis, spermatogonial stem cells, undifferentiated and differentiated spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa all express specific antigens, yet the functions of many of these antigens remain unexplored. Studies in the past three decades have shown that many of these transiently expressed genes in developing germ cells are proto-oncogenes and oncogenes, which are expressed only in the testis and various types of cancers in humans and rodents. As such, these antigens are designated cancer/testis antigens (CT antigens). Since the early 1980s, about 70 families of CT antigens have been identified with over 140 members are known to date. Due to their restricted expression in the testis and in various tumors in humans, they have been used as the target of immunotherapy. Multiple clinical trials at different phases are now being conducted with some promising results. Interestingly, in a significant number of cancer patients, antibodies against some of these CT antigens were detected in their sera. However, antibodies against these CT antigens in humans under normal physiological conditions have yet to be reported even though many of these antigens are residing outside of the blood-testis barrier (BTB), such as in the basal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium and in the stem cell niche in the testis. In this review, we summarize latest findings in the field regarding several selected CT antigens which may be intimately related to spermatogenesis due to their unusual restricted expression during different discrete events of spermatogenesis, such as cell cycle progression, meiosis and spermiogenesis. This information should be helpful to investigators in the field to study the roles of these oncogenes in spermatogenesis.

2011-01-01

285

Revascularization of the testis using a vascular induction technique: a potential approach for staged orchiopexy in high-undescended testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to determine whether a fasciovascular flap as a vascular carrier could be used to revascularize the undescended testis for avoiding the hazardous effects of the Fowler-Stephens procedure, high division of the spermatic vessels, and for bringing high-undescended testes into the scrotum. A total of 25 Wistar rats were divided into five groups of five rats

AliR?za Erçöçen; Kazutaka Soejima; Hiroyuki Sakurai; Sibel Yenidünya; Yuji Kikuchi; Motohiro Nozaki

2004-01-01

286

Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

2013-09-04

287

Localization of multidrug resistance-associated proteins along the blood-testis barrier in rat, macaque, and human testis.  

PubMed

The blood-testis barrier (BTB) prevents the entry of many drugs into seminiferous tubules, which can be beneficial for therapy not intended for the testis but may decrease drug efficacy for medications requiring entry to the testis. Previous data have shown that some of the transporters in the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) family (ABCC) are expressed in the testis. By determining the subcellular localization of these transporters, their physiologic function and effect on drug disposition may be better predicted. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we determined the site of expression of the MRP transporters expressed in the testis, namely, MRP1, MRP4, MRP5, and MRP8, from immature and mature rats, rhesus macaques, and adult humans. We determined that in all species MRP1 was restricted to the basolateral membrane of Sertoli cells, MRP5 is located in Leydig cells, and MRP8 is located in round spermatids, whereas MRP4 showed species-specific localization. MRP4 is expressed on the basolateral membrane of Sertoli cells in human and nonhuman primates, but on the apical membrane of Sertoli cells in immature and mature rats, representing a potential caution when using rat models as a means for studying drug disposition across the BTB. These data suggest that MRP1 may limit drug disposition into seminiferous tubules, as may MRP4 in human and nonhuman primates but not in rats. These data also suggest that MRP5 and MRP8 may not have a major impact on the penetration of drugs across the BTB. PMID:24130369

Klein, David M; Wright, Stephen H; Cherrington, Nathan J

2014-01-01

288

A rare cause of chronic abdominal pain: recurrent sub-torsions of an accessory spleen.  

PubMed

Accessory spleen is defined as one, two, or three nodules of additional ectopic splenic parenchyma hung by a vascular pedicle generally near the spleen. Despite a relatively high frequency (from 10 to 30 % of the population based on autopsy studies), most accessory spleens are asymptomatic. Although cases of accessory spleen were clearly described in the literature, this perplexing diagnosis is often delayed and rarely made preoperatively. We report episodic recurrences of abdominal pain in a 66-year-old man attributed to iterative sub-torsions of an accessory spleen, as well as a comprehensive review of the literature. PMID:23760734

Lhuaire, Martin; Sommacale, Daniele; Piardi, Tullio; Grenier, Philippe; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Avisse, Claude; Kianmanesh, Reza

2013-10-01

289

The role of accessory obturator arteries in prostatic arterial embolization.  

PubMed

In 9 of 491 patients (1.8%) who underwent prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) for benign prostatic hyperplasia from March 2009-November 2013, prostatic arteries arose from the external iliac artery via an accessory obturator artery (AOA). Computed tomography angiography performed before the procedure identified the variant and allowed planning before the procedure. The nine AOAs were catheterized from a contralateral femoral approach. Bilateral PAE was technically successful in the nine patients. There was a mean decrease in international prostate symptom score of 6.5 points and a mean prostate volume reduction of 15.1% (mean follow-up, 4.8 mo) in the nine patients. PMID:24857944

Bilhim, Tiago; Pisco, Joao; Pinheiro, Luís Campos; Rio Tinto, Hugo; Fernandes, Lúcia; Pereira, José A

2014-06-01

290

Thermomechanical milling of accessory lithics in volcanic conduits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accessory lithic clasts recovered from pyroclastic deposits commonly result from the failure of conduit wall rocks, and represent an underutilized resource for constraining conduit processes during explosive volcanic eruptions. The morphological features of lithic clasts provide distinctive 'textural fingerprints' of processes that have reshaped them during transport in the conduit. Here, we present the first study focused on accessory lithic clast morphology and show how the shapes and surfaces of these accessory pyroclasts can inform on conduit processes. We use two main types of accessory lithic clasts from pyroclastic fallout deposits of the 2360 B.P. subplinian eruption of Mount Meager, British Columbia, as a case study: (i) rough and subangular dacite clasts, and (ii) variably rounded and smoothed monzogranite clasts. The quantitative morphological data collected on these lithics include: mass, volume, density, 2-D image analysis of convexity (C), and 3-D laser scans for sphericity (?) and smoothness (S). Shaping and comminution (i.e. milling) of clasts within the conduit are ascribed to three processes: (1) disruptive fragmentation due to high-energy impacts between clasts or between clasts and conduit walls, (2) ash-blasting of clasts suspended within the volcanic flux, and (3) thermal effects. We use a simplified conduit eruption model to predict ash-blasting velocities and lithic residence times as a function of clast size and source depth, thereby constraining the lithic milling processes. The extent of shape and surface modification (i.e. rounding and honing) is directly proportional to clast residence times within the conduit prior to evacuation. We postulate that the shallow-seated dacite clasts remain subangular and rough due to short (<2 min) residence times, whereas monzogranite clasts are much more rounded and smoothed due to deeper source depths and consequently longer residence times (up to ˜1 h). Larger monzogranite clasts are smoother than smaller clasts due to longer residence times and to greater differential velocities within the ash-laden jet. Lastly, our model residence times and mass loss estimates for rounded clasts are used to estimate minimum attrition rates due to volcanic ash-blasting within the conduit (e.g., 12 cm3?s-1 for 25 cm clasts, sourced at 2500 m depth).

Campbell, Michelle E.; Russell, James K.; Porritt, Lucy A.

2013-09-01

291

Antegrade or Retrograde Accessory Pathway Conduction: Who Dies First?  

PubMed Central

A 36 year-old man with Wolff Parkinson White syndrome due to a left-sided accessory pathway (AP) was referred for catheter ablation. Whether abolition of antegrade and retrograde AP conduction during ablation therapy occurs simultaneously, is unclear. At the ablation procedure, radiofrequency delivery resulted in loss of preexcitation followed by a short run of orthodromic tachycardia with eccentric atrial activation, demonstrating persistence of retrograde conduction over the AP after abolition of its antegrade conduction. During continued radiofrequency delivery at the same position, the fifth non-preexcitated beat failed to conduct retrogradely and the tachycardia ended. In this case, antegrade AP conduction was abolished earlier than retrograde conduction.

Hadid, Claudio; Di Toro, Dario; Gallino, Sebatian; Labadet, Carlos

2012-01-01

292

Accessory muscular bundles arising from biceps femoris muscle.  

PubMed

Two kinds of accessory muscle bundles arising from the long head of the biceps femoris muscle were encountered in a 20-year-old Turkish female cadaver during routine dissections. The one occurred on both sides, each arising from the lower portion of the long head of the muscle and passed deep to the fascia of the popliteal fossa to be inserted into the crural fascia. The other one which was observed only on the right side, arose from the upper portion of this head to be inserted into the semitendinosus muscle. PMID:7645372

Sinav, A; Gümü?alan, Y; Arifo?lu, Y; Ondero?lu, S

1995-06-01

293

[Carcinosarcoma of the submaxillary gland].  

PubMed

Salivary gland carcinosarcoma is a rare neoplasm, with a poor prognosis, that should not be confused with the more common carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma, in which the epithelial component alone is malignant. The authors report one case of carcinosarcoma of the submandibular gland, with no previous history of pre-existent tumor. The tumor exhibited two intermingled and very atypical cellular components, one undifferentiated and the other with a chondroid pattern. Immunostaining with epithelial markers in the undifferentiated area allowed to distinguish this tumor from salivary gland sarcomas. In addition, the positivity for EMA, vimentin, and S100 protein in the two predominant components suggested a common origin for the different tumoral cell types, and led to discuss the nomenclature and the still unclarified cellular origin of these tumors. PMID:9162155

Julié, C; Aidan, D; Arkwright, S; Brocheriou, C; Vildé, F

1997-03-01

294

Social dominance rank and accessory sex glands in wild adult male house mice born to food-deprived mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food deprivation after weaning often has greater effects on the reproduction of females than males. However, if animals are deprived prenatally (i.e., through deprivation of the mother during gestation), the reproduction of males may be more negatively impacted because it may decrease their ability to compete with other males and their attractiveness to females. We tested the predictions that adult

Douglas Meikle; Michael Westberg

2001-01-01

295

Effects of mating and accessory gland injections on olfactory-mediated behavior in the female mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, exhibits a preferential switch in certain olfactory-mediated behaviors as a result of mating. Unmated, laboratory-reared, virgin females chose the odor of male-produced pheromone over host fruit odor (guava) in a dual-choice flight tunnel bioassay. Females continued to preferentially respond to the male pheromone for several weeks if not allowed to mate. Mated females

Eric B. Jang

1995-01-01

296

The computational analysis of human testis transcriptome reveals closer ties to pluripotency  

PubMed Central

AIMS: The purpose of this study was to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEG) in human testis and also evaluate the relationship between human testis, human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESC), mouse testis and mouse ESCs (mESC). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: It is a prospective analysis designed computationally. Methods and Material: The microarray data for human testis, hESCs, mouse testis and mESCs were obtained from NCBI-GEO and analyzed for identification of DEGs. The results were then compared with mouse testis and extended to ESCs. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Data was analyzed in R using various Bioconductor packages. To identify DEGs, 2-fold cut-off and a False Discovery Rate (FDR) below 0.01 criterions was used. RESULTS: A total 2868 transcripts (DEGs) were found to be significantly up-regulated and 2011 transcripts significantly down-regulated in human testis compared to other normal tissues. Of the up-regulated transcripts, 232 transcripts were grouped as unclassified i.e. had unknown annotations at the time of analysis. Gene Ontology (GO) based functional annotation of testis specific DEGs indicate that most of the DEGs (~80%) are involved in various metabolic processes. Pathway analysis shows over-representation of Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis pathway. A core group of 67 transcripts were found to be common among human testis, mouse testis, hESCs and mESCs. CONCLUSIONS: Testis seems to be metabolically very active relative to other normal tissues as indicated by functional annotation. The comparison of human and mouse testis shows conserved functions and pathways involved in both species. Large numbers of genes were found conserved between testis and ESCs suggesting very close expression level relationship between reproductive organs and complex phenomenon such as dedifferentiation and reprogramming.

Anand, MT; Prasad, Burra VLS

2012-01-01

297

Melatonin, the Pineal Gland and Circadian Rhythms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rat pineal is a component of the circadian clock. Exogenous melatonin entrains the rat clock and does not require the presence of the pineal gland. The pineal gland is important for circadian rhythmicity. Pinealectomy exacerbates the disruptive effect...

V. M. Cassone

1995-01-01

298

Oncocytic Sialolipoma of the Submandibular Gland  

PubMed Central

Sialolipoma, a rare tumor of the salivary gland, is a recently described variant of salivary gland lipoma. Oncocytic sialolipoma was first described by Pusiol et al. in 2009. We report the case of an oncocytic sialolipoma of the submandibular gland in a 43-year-old female. Excision of the tumor was performed with preservation of the submandibular gland. The tumor had a thin, fibrous capsule and consisted of abundant adipose tissue, an oncocytic nodule, and scattered normal glandular structures surrounded by adipose tissue. Four cases of sialolipoma of the submandibular gland, including the present case, were reviewed. All 4 tumors were developed on the right submandibular glands, with a composition of adipose tissue as high as that of sialolipoma of the parotid gland; in contrast to previous reports, three cases were in females. As newly described tumor type, care should be taken to distinguish oncocytic sialolipoma from other salivary gland neoplasms such as simple lipoma, pleomorphic adenoma, or oncocytoma.

Ahn, Dongbin; Park, Tae In; Park, Junesik

2014-01-01

299

Oncocytic sialolipoma of the submandibular gland.  

PubMed

Sialolipoma, a rare tumor of the salivary gland, is a recently described variant of salivary gland lipoma. Oncocytic sialolipoma was first described by Pusiol et al. in 2009. We report the case of an oncocytic sialolipoma of the submandibular gland in a 43-year-old female. Excision of the tumor was performed with preservation of the submandibular gland. The tumor had a thin, fibrous capsule and consisted of abundant adipose tissue, an oncocytic nodule, and scattered normal glandular structures surrounded by adipose tissue. Four cases of sialolipoma of the submandibular gland, including the present case, were reviewed. All 4 tumors were developed on the right submandibular glands, with a composition of adipose tissue as high as that of sialolipoma of the parotid gland; in contrast to previous reports, three cases were in females. As newly described tumor type, care should be taken to distinguish oncocytic sialolipoma from other salivary gland neoplasms such as simple lipoma, pleomorphic adenoma, or oncocytoma. PMID:24917915

Ahn, Dongbin; Park, Tae In; Park, Junesik; Heo, Sung Jae

2014-06-01

300

Development of sexual dimorphism in the Drosophila testis  

PubMed Central

The creation of sexual dimorphism in the gonads is essential for producing the male and female gametes required for sexual reproduction. Sexual development of the gonads involves both somatic cells and germ cells, which often undergo sex determination by different mechanisms. While many sex-specific characteristics evolve rapidly and are very different between animal species, gonad function and the formation of sperm and eggs appear more similar and may be more conserved. Consistent with this, the doublesex/mab3 Related Transcription factors (DMRTs) are important for gonad sexual dimorphism in a wide range of animals, including flies, worms and mammals. Here we explore how sexual dimorphism is regulated in the Drosophila gonad, focusing on recent discoveries relating to testis development. We will discuss how sex determination in both the germline and the soma are utilized to create a testis, including the role of the key somatic sex determination factor doublesex.

Whitworth, Cale; Jimenez, Erin; Van Doren, Mark

2012-01-01

301

Fibrolipoma of a cryptorchid testis in a young bull.  

PubMed

A six-month-old Japanese Black bull was found to have no left testis in the scrotum. A fist-sized mass was palpated per rectum. Two months later, hCG was injected and blood samples were collected before and after injection. No testosterone response to hCG was observed. On the cut surface of the excised mass, most of the mass was composed of homogeneous adipose-like tissue. The rest of the surface was composed of a well-circumscribed testicular parenchyma-like tissue (18 × 16 × 15 mm). Histology revealed diffusely distributed mature adipocytes and septa of fibrous connective tissue. Neither germ cells nor spermatozoa were observed in the seminiferous tubules. A diagnosis was made of fibrolipoma and aspermatogenesis of the left cryptorchid testis. PMID:21617332

Osawa, Takeshi; Miura, Moe; Yamagishi, Norio; Kim, Danil; Fukuda, Naruhiko; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Jun; Goryo, Masanobu

2011-09-01

302

Epidemiology of cancer of the testis in upstate New York.  

PubMed

We collected data on the 434 individuals reported with cancer of the testis to the New York State Tumor Registry, 1960-64, from upstate New York. We compared these with the 410 members of a random sample of the upstate population interviewed from 1959 to 1962. A high risk of developing cancer of the testis was associated with professional occupations, native-born parentage, rural residence, and having been married, especially while young. These findings paralleled some other studies, as well as our earlier inquiry. Each of these factors carried a higher risk even when considered in the context of the other traits, and risk increased with an increase in the number of characteristics possessed. PMID:192897

Graham, S; Gibson, R; West, D; Swanson, M; Burnett, W; Dayal, H

1977-05-01

303

Transvenous radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrioventricular accessory pathways.  

PubMed

Transvenous delivery of radiofrequency energy is an attractive new technique in nonsurgical treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. We used radiofrequency catheter ablation in two patients with tachycardias complicating the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. The first patient was a 28-year-old male who had suffered cardiac arrest from rapid preexcited atrial fibrillation (shortest RR interval of 180 ms) due to a left anterolateral free wall accessory pathway. The accessory pathway was mapped by means of positioning a 7F quadripolar catheter with a 4 mm tip to obtain the shortest atrial to ventricular timing during preexcited sinus rhythm. Unmodulated radiofrequency energy (750 KHz) was applied unipolarly between the distal pole of the catheter against an indifferent plate at the back. Using an applied energy of 30W, this resulted in the disappearance of both anterograde and retrograde conduction. The second patient was a 26-year-old man with concealed left posterolateral pathway. This was ablated at the site which corresponded to the shortest ventriculatrial timing during sustained atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia. There was no complication from this procedure and both patients were discharged on the fourth day after the procedure and returned to work soon afterwards. Radiofrequency ablation is a safe and effective means for the treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardias. PMID:1598608

Lau, C P; Tai, Y T

1992-02-01

304

Simon effect with and without awareness of the accessory stimulus.  

PubMed

The authors investigated whether a Simon effect could be observed in an accessory-stimulus Simon task when participants were unaware of the task-irrelevant accessory cue. In Experiment 1A a central visual target was accompanied by a suprathreshold visual lateral cue. A regular Simon effect (i.e., faster cue-response corresponding reaction times [RTs]) was found. Experiment 1B demonstrated that this effect cannot be attributed to perceptual grouping of the target and cue. Experiments 2A, 2B, and 2C showed a reverse Simon effect (i.e., faster noncorresponding RTs) when participants were not aware of the cue. In this condition, the Simon effect would occur relative to the reorientation of attention from the cue, which would initially capture attention, toward the target. This conclusion is supported by the results of Experiments 3A and 3B, in which the reorientation of attention was induced by having the target flash after its onset. With suprathreshold cues either a reverse or regular Simon effect was observed by using a 100-ms or > or = 200-ms onset flashing interval, respectively, whereas with subthreshold cues a reverse Simon effect was found irrespective of the interval length. PMID:16634670

Treccani, Barbara; Umiltà, Carlo; Tagliabue, Mariaelena

2006-04-01

305

Nipple adenoma arising from axillary accessory breast: a case report  

PubMed Central

Nipple adenoma is a relatively rare benign breast neoplasm, and cases of the disease arising from the axillary accessory breast have very seldom been reported in the English literature. We report a case of nipple adenoma arising from axillary accessory breast including clinical and pathological findings. An 82-year-old woman presented with the complaint of a small painful mass in the right axilla. Physical examination confirmed a well-defined eczematous crusted mass that was 8 mm in size. The diagnosis of nipple adenoma was made from an excisional specimen on the basis of characteristic histological findings. Microscopic structural features included a compact proliferation of small tubules lined by epithelial and myoepithelial cells, and the merging of glandular epithelial cells of the adenoma into squamous epithelial cells in the superficial epidermal layer. Because clinically nipple adenoma may resemble Paget’s disease and pathologically can be misinterpreted as tubular carcinoma, the correct identification of nipple adenoma is an important factor in the differential diagnosis for axillary tumor neoplasms. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1186821489769063

2012-01-01

306

Antagonism of Innate Immunity by Paramyxovirus Accessory Proteins  

PubMed Central

Paramyxovirinae, a subfamily of Paramyxoviridae, are negative strand RNA viruses comprised of many important human and animal pathogens, which share a high degree of genetic and structural homology. The accessory proteins expressed from the P/V/C gene are major factors in the pathogenicity of the viruses, because of their ability to abrogate various facets of type I interferon (IFN) induction and signaling. Most of the paramyxoviruses exhibit a commonality in their ability to antagonize innate immunity by blocking IFN induction and the Jak/STAT pathway. However, the manner in which the accessory proteins inhibit the pathway differs among viruses. Similarly, there are variations in the capability of the viruses to counteract intracellular detectors (RNA helicases, mda-5 and RIG-I). Furthermore, a functional specificity in the antagonism of the IFN response has been reported, suggesting that specificity in the circumvention of innate immunity restricts viral host range. Available evidence indicates that paramyxoviruses employ specific strategies to antagonize the IFN response of their specific hosts, which is one of the major factors that determine viral pathogenicity and host range.

Chambers, Raychel; Takimoto, Toru

2009-01-01

307

Catheter Ablation of Multiple Accessory Pathways in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

A 23-year-old male with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) experienced self-limiting palpitations at age 19 years for the first time. Palpitations recurred not earlier than at age 23 years, and were attributed to narrow complex tachycardia, which could be terminated with adenosine. Since electrocardiography showed a delta-wave, Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome was diagnosed, ajmaline prescribed and radio-frequency catheter ablation of three accessory pathways carried out one week later. One day after ablation, however, a relapse of the supraventricular tachycardia occurred and was terminated with ajmaline. Re-entry tachycardia occurred a second time six days after ablation, and as before, it was stopped only with ajmaline. Despite administration of verapamil to prevent tachycardia, it occurred a third time four months after ablation. This case shows that cardiac involvement in DMD may manifest also as WPW-syndrome. In these patients, repeated radio-frequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways may be necessary to completely block the re-entry mechanism.

Stollberger, Claudia; Steger, Christine; Gatterer, Edmund

2013-01-01

308

Focal adhesion kinase is a blood-testis barrier regulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammalian testes, such as rats, the mechanism(s) that regulate blood-testis barrier (BTB) restructuring at stages VIII-IX of the seminiferous epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis to facilitate the transit of preleptotene\\/leptotene spermatocytes is not known. This is due to the lack of information on the regulatory proteins at the BTB. Herein, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase, is

Erica R. Siu; Elissa W. P. Wong; Dolores D. Mruk; Catarina S. Porto; C. Yan Cheng

2009-01-01

309

Testis-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: origin and evolution  

PubMed Central

Background Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) catalyses one of the glycolytic reactions and is also involved in a number of non-glycolytic processes, such as endocytosis, DNA excision repair, and induction of apoptosis. Mammals are known to possess two homologous GAPD isoenzymes: GAPD-1, a well-studied protein found in all somatic cells, and GAPD-2, which is expressed solely in testis. GAPD-2 supplies energy required for the movement of spermatozoa and is tightly bound to the sperm tail cytoskeleton by the additional N-terminal proline-rich domain absent in GAPD-1. In this study we investigate the evolutionary history of GAPD and gain some insights into specialization of GAPD-2 as a testis-specific protein. Results A dataset of GAPD sequences was assembled from public databases and used for phylogeny reconstruction by means of the Bayesian method. Since resolution in some clades of the obtained tree was too low, syntenic analysis was carried out to define the evolutionary history of GAPD more precisely. The performed selection tests showed that selective pressure varies across lineages and isoenzymes, as well as across different regions of the same sequences. Conclusions The obtained results suggest that GAPD-1 and GAPD-2 emerged after duplication during the early evolution of chordates. GAPD-2 was subsequently lost by most lineages except lizards, mammals, as well as cartilaginous and bony fishes. In reptilians and mammals, GAPD-2 specialized to a testis-specific protein and acquired the novel N-terminal proline-rich domain anchoring the protein in the sperm tail cytoskeleton. This domain is likely to have originated by exonization of a microsatellite genomic region. Recognition of the proline-rich domain by cytoskeletal proteins seems to be unspecific. Besides testis, GAPD-2 of lizards was also found in some regenerating tissues, but it lacks the proline-rich domain due to tissue-specific alternative splicing.

2011-01-01

310

Exclusive nuclear location of estrogen receptors in Squalus testis.  

PubMed Central

An estrogen (E)-binding molecule having both occupied and unoccupied sites is restricted to nuclear subfractions in the testis of the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). We investigated the hypothesis that a species characterized by high body-fluid osmolarity (1010 mosM) has an estrogen receptor (ER) that binds to chromatin with high affinity and consequently resists redistribution during tissue processing. Although the steroid binding and sedimentation properties of the Squalus nuclear ER conformed to those of classical ER, its elution maximum from DNA-cellulose was unusually high (0.55 M NaCl). A tendency to adhere tightly to cell nuclei was reflected in the high salt concentration (0.43 M KCl) required to extract 50% of the receptors from the nuclear compartment during homogenization and in the stability of the nuclear ER population in the presence of high concentrations of a nonionic solute (urea) or increased buffer volume. Mixing and redistribution experiments showed that nuclear ER could be quantitatively and qualitatively measured in cytosolic extracts, ruling out the possibility that soluble receptors were being masked. Although Squalus oviduct ER was similar to that of testis, ER in the testis and liver of a related elasmobranch (Potamotrygon) that maintains osmotic equilibrium at 300 mosM more closely resembled mammalian ER in its elution maximum from DNA-cellulose (0.22 M NaCl) and cytosolic/nuclear ratios in low-salt buffers. We conclude that Squalus testis has a single ER pool located exclusively in the nuclear compartment. These observations support a revised concept of steroid action and further indicate that the chromatin affinity of the hormone-ER complex is an important factor in determining subfractional distribution during tissue processing.

Callard, G V; Mak, P

1985-01-01

311

Expression of cancer-testis antigens in hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the expression of cancer-testis (CT) antigens MAGE-1, SSX-1 ,CTp11 and HCA587 genes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the possibility of applying these antigens as targets for specific immunotherapy for HCC. METHODS: Expression levels of MAGE-1, SSX-1, CTp11 and HCA587 mRNA were detected with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in HCC tissues and corresponding adjacent non-cancerous tissues

Li Zhao; Dong-Cheng Mou; Xi-Sheng Leng; Ji-Run Peng; Wan-Xiang Wang; Lei Huang; Shu Li; Ji-Ye Zhu

2004-01-01

312

Integrative Discovery of Epigenetically Derepressed Cancer Testis Antigens in NSCLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCancer\\/testis antigens (CTAs) were first discovered as immunogenic targets normally expressed in germline cells, but differentially expressed in a variety of human cancers. In this study, we used an integrative epigenetic screening approach to identify coordinately expressed genes in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose transcription is driven by promoter demethylation.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsOur screening approach found 290 significant genes from

Chad A. Glazer; Ian M. Smith; Michael F. Ochs; Shahnaz Begum; William Westra; Steven S. Chang; Wenyue Sun; Sheetal Bhan; Zubair Khan; Steven Ahrendt; Joseph A. Califano; Alfons Navarro

2009-01-01

313

Analysis of factors decreasing testis weight in MRL mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

MRL\\/MpJ (MRL) mouse testes have several unique characteristics, including the appearance of oocytes, the occurrence of metaphase-specific\\u000a apoptosis of meiotic spermatocytes, and the presence of heat-shock-resistant spermatocytes. In the present study we used chromosomal\\u000a mapping to determine the genomic background associated with small testis size in MRL mice. We prepared and analyzed C57BL\\/6-based\\u000a congenic mice carrying MRL mouse loci. Quantitative

Saori Otsuka; Yuka Namiki; Osamu Ichii; Yoshiharu Hashimoto; Nobuya Sasaki; Daiji Endoh; Yasuhiro Kon

2010-01-01

314

Polarity Proteins and Cell-Cell Interactions in the Testis  

PubMed Central

In mammalian testes, extensive junction restructuring takes place in the seminiferous epithelium at the Sertoli–Sertoli and Sertoli–germ cell interface to facilitate the different cellular events of spermatogenesis, such as mitosis, meiosis, spermiogenesis, and spermiation. Recent studies in the field have shown that Rho GTPases and polarity proteins play significant roles in the events of cell–cell interactions. Furthermore, Rho GTPases, such as Cdc42, are working in concert with polarity proteins in regulating cell polarization and cell adhesion at both the blood–testis barrier (BTB) and apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES) in the testis of adult rats. In this chapter, we briefly summarize recent findings on the latest status of research and development regarding Cdc42 and polarity proteins and how they affect cell–cell interactions in the testis and other epithelia. More importantly, we provide a new model in which how Cdc42 and components of the polarity protein complexes work in concert with laminin fragments, cytokines, and testosterone to regulate the events of cell–cell interactions in the seminiferous epithelium via a local autocrine-based regulatory loop known as the apical ES—BTB—basement membrane axis. This new functional axis coordinates various cellular events during different stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle of spermatogenesis.

Wong, Elissa W.P.; Cheng, C. Yan

2009-01-01

315

Testis determination in mammals: more questions than answers.  

PubMed

In humans, testis development depends on a regulated genetic hierarchy initiated by the Y-linked SRY gene. Failure of testicular determination results in the condition termed 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis (GD). Several components of the testis determining pathway have recently been identified though it has been difficult to articulate a cascade with the known elements of the system. It seems, however, that early gonadal development is the result of a network of interactions instead of the outcome of a linear cascade. Accumulating evidence shows that testis formation in man is sensitive to gene dosage. Haploinsufficiency of SF1, WT1 and SOX9 is responsible for 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. Besides, data on SRY is consistent with possible dosage anomalies in certain cases of male to female sex reversal. 46,XY GD due to monosomy of distal 9p and 10q might also be associated with an insufficient gene dosage effect. Duplications of the locus DSS can lead to a failure of testicular development and a duplication of the region containing SOX9 has been implicated in XX sex reversal. Transgenic studies in mouse have shown, however, that this mammal is less sensitive to gene dosage than man. Here, we will try to put in place the known pieces of the jigsaw puzzle that is sex determination in mammals, as far as current knowledge obtained from man and animal models allows. We are certain that from this attempt more questions than answers will arise. PMID:11420125

Veitia, R A; Salas-Cortés, L; Ottolenghi, C; Pailhoux, E; Cotinot, C; Fellous, M

2001-06-20

316

Lacrimal glands in cystic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Cystic fibrosis is a systemic disease involving defective mucus secretion in different parts of the body resulting in a wide range of systemic complications. We are presenting the histology of the lacrimal gland from a 25 year old male with cystic fibrosis using light microscopy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report.

Alghadyan, Abdulrahman; Aljindan, Mohana; Alhumeidan, Adra; Kazi, Gholam; Mcmhon, Robert

2013-01-01

317

Electrical recordings from the accessory olfactory bulb in VNO-AOB ex vivo preparations.  

PubMed

Electrical recordings from individual accessory olfactory bulb neurons allow exploration of the functional properties of this important pheromonal processing circuit. Several approaches to performing such recordings have been used. Here, we describe ex vivo methods that we have found useful for recording from accessory olfactory bulb neurons using simple extracellular glass electrodes. PMID:24014366

Meeks, Julian P; Holy, Timothy E

2013-01-01

318

Crystallization of accessory phases in magmas by local saturation adjacent to phenocrysts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accessory minerals commonly occur attached to or included in the major crystalline phases of felsic and some intermediate igneous rocks. Apatite is particularly common as inclusions, but Fe-Ti oxides, pyrrhotite, zircon, monazite, chevkinite and xenotime are also known from silicic rocks. Accessories may nucleate near the host crystal/ liquid interface as a result of local saturation owing to formation of a differentiated chemical boundary layer in which accessory mineral solubility would be lower than in the surrounding liquid. Differentiation of this boundary layer would be greatest adjacent to ferromagnesian phenocrysts, especially Fe-Ti oxides; it is with oxides that accessories are most commonly associated in rocks. A boundary layer may develop if the crystal grows more rapidly than diffusion can transport incorporated and rejected elements to and from the phenocryst. Diffusion must dominate over convection as a mode of mass transfer near the advancing crystal/liquid interface in order for a boundary layer to exist. Accumulation of essential structural constituent elements of accessory minerals owing to their slow diffusion in evolved silicate melt also may force local saturation, but this is not a process that applies to all cases. Local saturation is an attractive mechanism for enhancing fractionation during crystallization differentiation. If accessory minerals attached to or included in phenocrysts formed because of local saturation, their host phenocrysts must have grown rapidly when accessories nucleated in comparison to lifetimes of magma reservoirs. Some inconsistencies remain in a local saturation origin for accessory phases that cannot be evaluated without additional information. ?? 1989.

Bacon, C. R.

1989-01-01

319

Pdgfr-? mediates testis cord organization and fetal Leydig cell development in the XY gonad  

PubMed Central

During testis development, the rapid morphological changes initiated by Sry require the coordinate integration of many signaling pathways. Based on the established role of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family of ligands and receptors in migration, proliferation, and differentiation of cells in various organ systems, we have investigated the role of PDGF in testis organogenesis. Analysis of expression patterns and characterization of the gonad phenotype in Pdgfr-??/? embryos identified PDGFR-? as a critical mediator of signaling in the early testis at multiple steps of testis development. Pdgfr-??/? XY gonads displayed disruptions in the organization of the vasculature and in the partitioning of interstitial and testis cord compartments. Closer examination revealed severe reductions in characteristic XY proliferation, mesonephric cell migration, and fetal Leydig cell differentiation. This work identifies PDGF signaling through the ? receptor as an important event downstream of Sry in testis organogenesis and Leydig cell differentiation.

Brennan, Jennifer; Tilmann, Christopher; Capel, Blanche

2003-01-01

320

Successful Accessory Renal Artery Denervation in a Patient with Resistant Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Renal sympathetic denervation is safe and effective in patients with resistant hypertension. In all of the studies of renal artery denervation, patients with accessory renal arteries are excluded. So there is not any data regarding renal sympathetic denervation applied to the accessory renal arteries. We present a young female patient with resistant hypertension despite use of five different antihypertensive drugs. The patient had a well developed (diameter >4 mm) left renal accessory. We believe that if we omitted the well developed accessory renal artery, we would not have maintained adequate blood pressure control. Thus, we applied radiofrequency ablation to both renal arteries and left accessory artery. Immediately after the procedure, the patient's blood pressure was reduced to 110/60 mmHg and this effect was continued during the first month of follow-up.

Atas, Halil; Durmus, Erdal; Sunbul, Murat; Mutlu, Bulent

2014-01-01

321

Health warning labelling practices on narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories  

PubMed Central

Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing around the globe despite current evidence that smoke emissions are toxic and contain carcinogenic compounds. Objective To evaluate current health warning labelling practices on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories. Methods All waterpipe tobacco products, as well as waterpipe accessories, were purchased from Lebanon and a convenience sample was obtained from Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Palestine, Syria, Jordan, Bahrain, Canada, Germany and South Africa. Findings Of the total number of waterpipe tobacco products collected from Lebanon, the majority had textual health warning labels covering on average only 3.5% of total surface area of the package. Misleading descriptors were commonplace on waterpipe tobacco packages and related accessories. Conclusions There are no WHO FCTC compliant waterpipe-specific health warning labels on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories. Introducing health warnings on waterpipe tobacco products and accessories will probably have worldwide public health benefits.

Khalil, Joanna

2010-01-01

322

Successful percutaneous epicardial ablation of an accessory pathway located at the right atrial appendage.  

PubMed

In patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, difficulty in ablation of accessory pathways is associated with failures and recurrences. Epicardially located accessory pathways may require different management strategies when conventional ablation attempts fail. In particular, an epicardial accessory pathway communicating the right atrial appendage to the right ventricle is an extraordinary situation resulting in difficulties in ablation. Hereby, we report on a challenging case of percutaneous epicardial ablation of an epicardial accessory pathway located at right atrial appendage in a 28-year-old man with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, who had a prior history of unsuccessful endocardial ablation. Percutaneous epicardial ablation may be a viable option obviating the necessity of surgical ablation procedures for difficult ablation cases with epicardial accessory pathways. PMID:21983769

Köse, Sedat; Ba?ar?c?, Ibrahim; Kabul, Kutsi Hasan; Barç?n, Cem

2011-10-01

323

Filamin A Is a Regulator of Blood-Testis Barrier Assembly during Postnatal Development in the Rat Testis  

PubMed Central

The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis. A delay in its assembly during postnatal development leads to meiotic arrest. Also, a disruption of the BTB by toxicants in adult rats leads to a failure in spermatogonial differentiation. However, the regulation of BTB assembly remains unknown. Herein, filamin A, an actin filament cross-linker that is known to maintain and regulate cytoskeleton structure and function in other epithelia, was shown to be highly expressed during the assembly of Sertoli cell BTB in vitro and postnatal development of BTB in vivo, perhaps being used to maintain the actin filament network at the BTB. A knockdown of filamin A by RNA interference was found to partially perturb the Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ) permeability barrier both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, this down-regulating effect on the TJ barrier function after the knockdown of filamin A was associated with a mis-localization of both TJ and basal ectoplasmic specialization proteins. Filamin A knockdown also induced a disorganization of the actin filament network in Sertoli cells in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these findings illustrate that filamin A regulates BTB assembly by recruiting these proteins to the microenvironment in the seminiferous epithelium to serve as the building blocks. In short, filamin A participates in BTB assembly by regulating protein recruitment during postnatal development in the rat testis.

Su, Wenhui; Mruk, Dolores D.; Lie, Pearl P. Y.; Lui, Wing-yee

2012-01-01

324

Experimental testicular teratoma promotes formation of humoral immune responses in the host testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The testis is an immunologically privileged site. Very little is known about the factors regulating formation of immune responses elicited by a neoplasm in the testis. We have studied the immune response of the host testis against experimental testicular teratoma in mouse by localizing adhesion molecules (CD106, CD54, CD49d\\/CD29, CD44, CD18, CD8 and CD4), cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and

J Sundström; E Veräjänkorva; E Salminen; L. J Pelliniemi; P Pöllänen

1999-01-01

325

Testis size variation in the greenfinch Carduelis chloris ?: relevance for some recent models of sexual selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific evidence that testis size responds to selection caused by sperm competition has been obtained from many taxa.\\u000a However, little is known about the sources of intraspecific variation in testis size, although such variation may have functional\\u000a significance. Variation in testis size and asymmetry was studied within and between eight geographically separated (and genetically\\u000a differentiated) populations of greenfinches Carduelis chloris.

Juha Merilä; Ben C. Sheldon

1999-01-01

326

Effects of ACTH and expression of the melanocortin-2 receptor in the neonatal mouse testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ACTH has been shown to stimulate androgen production by the fetal\\/neonatal mouse testis through the melanocortin type 2 receptor (MC2R). This study was designed to localize the expression of MC2R in the neonatal mouse testis and characterize the effects of ACTH on testicular androgen production. Using immunohistochemistry, MC2R was localized to the fetal-type Leydig cell population of the neonatal testis.

Heather Johnston; Peter J King; Peter J O'Shaughnessy

2007-01-01

327

The reptilian thyroid and parathyroid glands.  

PubMed

The field of reptilian clinical endocrinology is still in its infancy. The thyroid and parathyroid glands are intimately involved with many basic metabolic functions. These glands have been the subject of extensive research studies in reptilian species; however, the effects of abnormal gland function have been poorly documented in clinical cases. These glands play a major role in maintaining physiologic homeostasis in all vertebrates. With the advent of more sensitive assays, it should be possible to measure the small amounts of hormones found in reptilian species. The purpose of this article is to review the literature regarding clinical endocrinology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands in reptiles. PMID:18165144

Rivera, Sam; Lock, Brad

2008-01-01

328

Safety and efficacy of a modified catheter-mediated ablation of accessory pathways.  

PubMed

Fifty-one consecutive patients underwent modified catheter-mediated direct-current ablation of accessory pathways. Energy was delivered through the distal pair of electrodes (dual electrode configuration) of a 6F quadripolar catheter to the internal surface of the right or left atrioventricular (AV) annulus. In an attempt to prevent the later resumption of accessory pathway conduction, one additional shock was given after the initial successful interruption of accessory pathways. A mean of 2.7 shocks with cumulative energy of 453 +/- 32 Joules/patient interrupted the accessory pathways in 47 patients and modified the accessory pathway conduction in 2 patients. Forty-eight patients were asymptomatic and free of any antiarrhythmic agents with a follow-up ranging from 3-20 months (mean 12 +/- 1 months), without early or late serious complications (AV block or tamponade). Conduction characteristics, concealed or manifest, and recording of accessory pathway activity did not affect the outcome. Mean cumulative energy and number of applications of energy to achieve a successful outcome were lower in patients with concealed (376 +/- 31 Joules, 2.4 +/- 0.2 shocks) than manifest accessory pathways (516 +/- 50 Joules, 2.9 +/- 0.2 shocks). At the successful ablation sites, the mean shortest retrograde ventriculoatrial interval during orthodromic reentrant tachycardia (VA') was 80 +/- 3 msec (78% had VA' less than 90 msec) and was not different between concealed and manifest accessory pathways; the mean shortest antegrade AV interval was 47 +/- 3 msec in manifest preexcitation; the mean ratio of atrial to ventricular wave amplitude was not significantly different between left-sided (0.8 +/- 0.1) and right-sided (1.1 +/- 0.2) accessory pathways (p greater than 0.05). A successful outcome was achieved in 94% of 51 patients. This procedure is relatively safe and effective, regardless of the location of the accessory pathway. PMID:1522687

Chen, S A; Tsang, W P; Wang, D C; Hsia, C P; Chen, J W; Chiang, C E; Ting, C T; Wang, S P; Chiang, B N; Chang, M S

1992-05-01

329

A lesson in the management of testicular cancer in a patient with a solitary testis  

PubMed Central

Five per cent of patients with germ cell tumours of the testis will develop a further tumour in the contralateral testis. Standard treatment in such cases is a second orchidectomy, resulting in infertility, hormone replacement, and psychological morbidity. In this case report we explore the role of testis conservation in these patients and also show that there is a risk of removing a potentially normal testis if a histological diagnosis is not sought prior to orchidectomy.???Keywords: testicular germ cell tumours; carcinoma-in-situ; orchidectomy

Sawyer, E; Oliver, R; Tobias, J; Badenoch, D

1999-01-01

330

Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha isoform in rat testis: cDNA cloning, characterization, and biochemical comparison of the recombinant testis and liver enzymes.  

PubMed

Previous data indicated a tissue-specific regulation of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex, especially in the brain and testis. The lack of biochemical data on the rat testis PDH limits comparative analysis between testis and liver enzymes. Therefore, we have isolated a cDNA clone encoding rat testis PDH E1 alpha isoform, determined its nucleotide sequence, studied the tissue-specific expression, and characterized the recombinant protein produced in bacteria, compared to the liver counterpart. Our cDNA clone (2.2 kb) contained the identical open reading frame (from nt 974 to 2149) with that previously reported (Cullingford et al., 1993 Biochim Biophys Acta 1216:149-153) but contained a long 5' untranslated region, which has little identity to the other clone. Northern blot confirmed testis-specific expression of this isoform. Genomic DNA analyses by PCR amplification suggested this clone is a gene product distinct from its X-linked somatic counterpart. Our biochemical and kinetic analyses revealed that the purified recombinant rat testis PDH E1 (containing both E1 alpha and E1 beta subunits) was enzymatically active and phosphorylated in vitro by purified PDH-kinase p48 or p45, similar to the recombinant human liver enzyme. Our current data thus indicate that the differential regulation of testis PDH observed in the animal model may result from differential modulation of PDH-kinase or -phosphatase in this tissue rather than the presence of functionally different PDH E1 subunit. PMID:9787790

Jeng, J; Kallarakal, A T; Kim, S F; Popov, K M; Song, B J

1998-05-01

331

Simultaneous Accessory Pathway and AV Node Mechanical Block  

PubMed Central

We report a clinical case of a 22-year-old female referred to our institution due to palpitations and preexcitation. Her ECG suggested a right superior paraseptal accessory pathway (AP), which was localised during the electrophysiological study at the superior paraseptal region in close proximity to the His recordings. Reproducible orthodromic reciprocating tachycardia was induced by atrial pacing with extrastimuli. Cryo-mapping performed in the area of earliest atrial activation was not able to terminate the tachycardia. A second attempt, slightly more posterior, caused mechanical block of the AP, which rendered the tachycardia non-inducible. More pressure with the ablation catheter determined a Wenckebach type supra-hisian AV block, which was transient but reproducible. Given this finding no ablation was done. Simultaneous block to the AP and the atrioventricular node has rarely been reported using radiofrequency energy. However, to our knowledge this phenomenon has not been previously reported in large series using cryo-thermal energy.

Garofalo, Daniel; Gallanti, Alfonso Gomez; Rama, David Filgueiras; Peinado, Rafael Peinado

2013-01-01

332

[An epidermoid cyst derived from an intrapancreatic accessory spleen].  

PubMed

A 43-year-old female patient had high levels of CA19-9 marker; an abdominal ultrasound revealed a cyst. Further investigations with computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and endoscopic ultrasound CT identified a multilocular cystic lesion on the pancreatic tail. An abnormal wall was noted, and different signal strengths were measured in each cyst. Thus, a mucinous cystic tumor was diagnosed, and distal pancreatectomy combined with splenectomy was performed. During the surgery, we identified a multilocular pancreatic cyst with internal bleeding at its distal end. The lesion was ultimately diagnosed as an epidermoid cyst of an intrapancreatic accessory spleen. This diagnosis was based on the histological observation that the vascular construction of the cystic wall was equivalent to that of the spleen, and that its internal tissue was covered by squamous epithelium. PMID:24598102

Shinohara, Fumi; Furukawa, Yoshinari; Itsuki, Hiroshi; Sakano, Ayaka; Hananoki, Mutsumi; Kurushima, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Nori; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Fujihara, Megumu

2014-03-01

333

Congenital anomaly of combined tracheal and accessory cardiac bronchus.  

PubMed

The presence of congenital tracheobronchial abnormalities remain rare and have been reported to range from 0.1% to 2% in the literature. The most commonly described abnormalities are the tracheal bronchus and the accessory cardiac bronchus. We present the case of a 67-year-old man presenting for evaluation of interstitial lung disease, on computed tomography found to have presence of both the anomalies; the findings later confirmed on bronchoscopy. We believe this report is important as it adds more descriptive information regarding this unusual presentation, including bronchoscopic and computed tomographic images. We believe that it is imperative that bronchoscopists are cognizant of these congenital abnormalities and their combinations. Inability to properly characterize these abnormalities has a potential leading to unnecessary investigations of these relatively benign entities. PMID:23328152

Gilbert, Christopher R; Cox, Phillip D; Toth, Jennifer W; Kaifi, Jussuf T; Reed, Michael F

2013-01-01

334

Identification and significance of accessory minerals from a bituminous coal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used to study the in situ accessory minerals in polished blocks and pellets of petrographically analysed samples of the Waynesburg coal (hvb). Individual grains from the low-temperature ash (LTA) of the same coal were also studied. The visual resolution of the SEM permitted the detection of submicron mineral grains, which could then be analysed by the attached energy-dispersive system. Emphasis was placed on the highly reflective grains in the carbominerite bands. Among the most abundant accessory minerals observed were rutile, zircon, and rare-earth-bearing minerals. Small (1-5 ??m) particles of what may be authigenic iron-rich chromite and a nickel silicate form rims on quartz grains. The SEM also permits the observation of grain morphology and mineral intergrowths. These data are useful in determining authigenicity and diagenic alteration. Substances in density splits of LTA include authigenic, detrital, extraterrestrial magnetite, tourmaline, and evaporite (?) minerals, and a fluorine-bearing amphibole. This analytical approach allows the determination of specific sites for many of the trace elements in coals. In the Waynesburg coal, most of the chromium is in the iron-chromium rims, the fluorine is in the amphibole, and the rare-earth elements are in rare-earth-bearing minerals. The ability to relate trace-element data to specific minerals will aid in predicting the behaviour of elements in coal during combustion, liquefaction, gasification, weathering, and leaching processes. This ability also permits insight into the degree of mobility of these elements in coal and provides clues to sedimentological and diagenetic conditions. ?? 1978.

Finkelman, R. B.; Stanton, R. W.

1978-01-01

335

Differences in Accessory Pathway Location by Sex and Race  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The etiology of accessory pathway formation (AP) is generally unknown. OBJECTIVE Using sex and race as proxies to distinguish genetically different individuals, we sought to test the hypothesis that AP formation is genetically mediated by examining whether AP location differs by sex and/or race. METHODS This was a single center, retrospective cohort study of 282 consecutive patients undergoing their first electrophysiology study that revealed at least one AP between 2004–2008. Sex and race were compared to AP location determined by the invasive electrophysiology study. RESULTS Eighty-nine males (52%) and 40 (36%) females had a left posterior AP (p=0.006). Sixty-four females (57%) had a right annular AP compared to 55 (32%) males (p<0.001). After adjusting for age and race, females had a 2.8 fold greater odds of having a right annular AP compared to males (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70–4.65 greater odds, p<0.001). While right anterior (free wall) pathways were rare in all other races (12%), a significantly larger proportion of Asians (n=10, 26%) had a right anterior AP (p=0.017). After adjusting for sex and age, Asians had a 3.8 fold greater odds of having a right anterior accessory pathway compared to other races (95% CI 1.5–9.4 greater odds, p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS Females more commonly had right annular APs, and Asians had right anterior APs substantially more frequently than other races. These findings suggest that the pathogenesis of AP formation may have a genetic component.

Hsu, Jonathan C; Tannel, Ronn E; Lee, Byron K; Scheinman, Melvin M; Badhwar, Nitish; Lee, Randall J; Tseng, Zian H; Olgin, Jeffrey E; Marcus, Gregory M

2009-01-01

336

Fetal development of the retrohepatic inferior vena cava and accessory hepatic veins: Re-evaluation of the Alexander Barry's hypothesis.  

PubMed

The retrohepatic inferior vena cava (IVC) is commonly considered to originate from the right vitelline or omphalomesenteric vein. In contrast, Alexander Barry hypothesized that one of the hepatic veins grows to merge with the subcardinal vein and develops into the retrohepatic IVC. We re-examined fetal development of the retrohepatic IVC and other related veins using serial histological sections of 20 human fetuses between 6 and 16 weeks of gestation. At 6-7 weeks, when a basic configuration of the portal-hepatic vein systems had just been established, one of hepatic veins (i.e., the posterocaudal vein in the present study) had grown caudally to reach the posterocaudal surface of the liver, and notably, extended into the primitive right adrenal gland (five of the eight early-staged fetuses). Because the inferior right hepatic vein (IRHV) and retrohepatic IVC appeared at the same developmental stage, it is likely that any peripheral remnants of the posterocaudal vein would continue to function as primary drainage territory for the IRHV. The caudate vein developed rapidly in accordance with marked caudal and leftward extension of Spiegel's lobe at 12-16 weeks. Thin accessory hepatic veins developed later than the caudate vein and IRHV. The present results supported Barry's hypothesis. PMID:20112350

Jin, Zhe Wu; Cho, Baik Hwan; Murakami, Gen; Fujimiya, Mineko; Kimura, Wataru; Yu, Hee Chul

2010-04-01

337

Unusual parotid gland foreign body.  

PubMed

A foreign body in the parotid gland whether from the oral cavity or through the skin is extremely uncommon. A case is described of the tip of a golden-colored pencil accidentally piercing the deep lobe after a fall. Emergency surgical removal was performed, and the diagnosis of the foreign body was quite easy. In contrast, determination of the location in the gland had to be done by a microscope, with fluoroscopy during the operation and was quite difficult. During removal, great attention was paid to avoiding facial nerve injury. This was done by identifying the facial trunk at the pointer using a microscope. The dissolved material including copper and zinc metal powder, paste, and clay, was found in the deep lobe associated with the surrounding abscess. Although these materials are assumed to be harmless to human tissues, the complete and immediate removal is to prevent salivary fistule resulting from inflammation. PMID:10628547

Nakagawa, H; Kimura, H; Junicho, M; Watanabe, Y

1999-12-15

338

Tuberculosis of the Parotid Gland  

PubMed Central

Parotid gland involvement is extremely rare, even in countries in which tuberculosis is endemic. Clinically, it usually presents as a slow-growing mass indistinguishable from a malignancy. On imaging too, tuberculosis of the parotid may mimic neoplasm. The diagnosis of parotid tuberculosis needs a high degree of clinical suspicion. This paper highlights the clinical presentation, imaging findings, and importance of FNAC in diagnosis of this rare entity.

Gupta, Vivek; Patankar, Kiran; Shinde, Archana; Bhosale, Charu; Tamhane, Ajitey

2012-01-01

339

The Mammary Gland Vasculature Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concomitant with the extensive growth and differentiation of the mammary epithelium during pregnancy and lactation, and epithelial\\u000a involution after weaning, the vasculature of the mammary gland undergoes repeated cycles of expansion and regression. Vascular\\u000a expansion is effected by sprouting angiogenesis, intussusception and conceivably also vasculogenesis. The capacity of the\\u000a epithelial cells to stimulate vascular growth and differentiation is dependent on

Anne-Catherine Andres; Valentin Djonov

2010-01-01

340

Sonography of the salivary glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Due to their superficial position, the parotid, the submandibular, and the sublingual glands can be imaged with high-resolution\\u000a transducers. In acute inflammatory diseases sonography can differentiate between obstructive or non-obstructive sialoadenitis.\\u000a Abscess formations may be detected and the maturation of the colliquation may be controlled. Abscesses may be punctured under\\u000a US guidance. In Sjögren's syndrome the sonographic changes correlate

N. Gritzmann; T. Rettenbacher; A. Hollerweger; P. Macheiner; E. Hübner

2003-01-01

341

Crystallization of accessory phases in magmas by local saturation adjacent to phenocrysts  

SciTech Connect

Accessory minerals commonly occur attached to or included in the major crystalline phases of felsic and some intermediate igneous rocks. Apatite is particularly common an inclusions, but Fe-Ti oxides, pyrrhotite, zircon, monazite, chevkinite and xenotime are also known from silicic rocks. Accessories may nucleate near the host crystal/liquid interface as a result of local saturation owing to formation of a differentiated chemical boundary layer in which accessory mineral solubility would be lower than in the surrounding liquid. Diffusion must dominate over convection as a mode of mass transfer near the advancing crystal/liquid interface in order for a boundary layer to exist. Accumulation of essential structural constituent elements of accessory minerals owing to their slow diffusion in evolved silicate melt also may force local saturation, but this is not a process that applies to all cases. Local saturation is an attractive mechanism for enhancing fractionation during crystallization differentiation. If accessory minerals attached to or included in phenocrysts formed because of local saturation, their host phenocrysts must have grown rapidly when accessories nucleated in comparison to lifetimes of magma reservoirs. Some inconsistencies remain in a local saturation origin for accessory phases that cannot be evaluated without additional information.

Bacon, C.R. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1989-05-01

342

Focal adhesion kinase is a blood-testis barrier regulator.  

PubMed

In mammalian testes, such as rats, the mechanism(s) that regulate blood-testis barrier (BTB) restructuring at stages VIII-IX of the seminiferous epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis to facilitate the transit of preleptotene/leptotene spermatocytes is not known. This is due to the lack of information on the regulatory proteins at the BTB. Herein, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase, is shown to structurally interact with occludin and ZO-1 to form a functional protein complex at the BTB. Its expression at the BTB in the seminiferous epithelium is stage specific, being lowest at stage VIII-IX tubules, analogous to the expression pattern of occludin. Using primary Sertoli cells cultured in vitro with an established tight junction (TJ) permeability barrier that mimics the BTB in vivo, the knockdown of FAK by RNAi led to a transient disruption of the TJ barrier. This was accompanied by a loss of association between occludin and ZO-1, likely the result of reduced occludin phosphorylation at Tyr and Ser residues, but not Thr, which in turn led to a redistribution of occludin at the Sertoli-Sertoli cell interface, moving from cell membrane into cell cytosol, thereby disrupting the BTB. These findings suggest that a similar mechanism is in place in the testis in vivo to regulate BTB restructuring to facilitate the transit of primary spermatocytes. Furthermore, FAK was shown to be a molecular target of cadmium because its knockdown would desensitize Sertoli cells to cadmium-induced TJ barrier disruption. In summary, FAK is a unique regulator of BTB dynamics in the testis. PMID:19470647

Siu, Erica R; Wong, Elissa W P; Mruk, Dolores D; Porto, Catarina S; Cheng, C Yan

2009-06-01

343

Testis response to low doses of cadmium in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Although it is well known that cadmium (Cd) causes adverse effects on male rat reproductive organs, few studies have quantified alterations caused by its low doses. Quantification of these alterations, especially in the testis, was measured using morphometry. A single dose of cadmium chloride (1 or 1.2 mg/kg BW) was injected i.p. in adult rats, killed after 7 or 56 days. The lower dose caused slight alterations as measured by morphometrical analysis. The higher dose caused significant reduction in testis and epididymis weight, gonadossomatic index and length of seminiferous tubule (ST) after 7 and 56 days. Cadmium significantly reduced the ST diameter after 56 days. Decreased volume density of ST, after 7 and 56 days, was accompanied by an increase in interstitium volume density. The damage caused by the dose of 1.2 mg/kg can be clearly observed with light microscope. After 7 days, the tubule lumens were filled with degenerated germ cells and multinucleated spermatid aggregates. Vacuolization of the seminiferous epithelium was also observed. After 56 days, increased damage resulted in vacuolated ST, consisting only of Sertoli cells. Scanning electron microscopy examination of the testis showed that, in the group cadmium treated (1.2 mg/kg) and killed after 56 days, the interstitial tissue presents a compact and fibrous appearance with absence of fenestrae. The seminiferous epithelium height diminished and the absence of spermatozoa can be noted. The results show that a very small difference of Cd dose causes a sudden increase in testicular damage, apparently overpowering this tissue's natural defences. PMID:20015210

de Souza Predes, Fabricia; Diamante, Maria Aparecida S; Dolder, Heidi

2010-04-01

344

Testis Scintigraphy in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a pediatric malignancy associated with remissions and relapses. Common relapsing sitesare meninges, testis and ovary. Testicular scintigraphy is a highly specific modality used mainly in the differential diagnosis of testicular torsion and epidydimitis/epidydimo-orchitis. There is only one interesting image on leukemic infiltration with scrotal scintigraphy in the literature. The aim of this case presentation is to report that although the scintigraphic appearance of testicular torsion was observed in a patient with the diagnosis of ALL, testicular ALL infiltration was revealed in pathologic examination. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Sencan Eren, Mine; Koc, Murat; Oren, Hale; Ozkal, Sermin; Durak, Hatice

2014-01-01

345

[Ultrasound-guided biopsy of the testis: indications and results].  

PubMed

Ultrasound examination of the testis is the imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of intratesticular focal lesions. In spite of its high sensibility, eco-Doppler-elastography is lacking of specificity in discrimination between benign and malign lesions, not always allowing us to make a definitive diagnosis of malignancy. When a diagnostic doubt persists, for such lesions that are indeterminate at clinical and radiological evaluation, it is possible to recur to ultrasound-guided testicular needle biopsy. This paper describes the main application scenarios of testicular fine-needle aspiration under ultrasound guidance and the experience in our institute. PMID:24042419

Genovese, Eugenio Annibale; Capasso, Raffaella; Izzo, Andrea; Cesarano, Elviro; La Porta, Michele; Amato, Mario; D'Andrea, Alfredo; Coppolino, Francesco; Fonio, Paolo

2013-01-01

346

Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Arising From Dense Accessory Breast Visualized With 99mTc-MIBI Breast-Specific ? Imaging.  

PubMed

Primary accessory breast cancer is extremely rare, and the diagnostic efficacy of Tc-MIBI breast-specific ? imaging (BSGI) has not been reported elsewhere. We present a case of primary carcinoma arising from dense accessory breast that was visualized with BSGI. A 43-year-old female patient with a palpable axillary mass underwent mammography, which showed dense parenchyma on both of the anatomic and accessory breasts with no abnormality. Subsequent BSGI showed no abnormal uptake in bilateral anatomic breasts, but focal abnormal uptake was noted in the accessory breast. Permanent pathologic evaluation confirmed invasive ductal carcinoma (not otherwise specified type) of the accessory breast. PMID:24445272

Yoon, Hai-Jeon; Sung, Sun Hee; Moon, Byung In; Kim, Bom Sahn

2014-08-01

347

The Effects of Accessory Stimuli on Information Processing: Evidence from Electrophysiology and a Diffusion Model Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract & People typically respond,faster to a stimulus,when,it is accompanied,by a task-irrelevant accessory stimulus presented in another perceptual modality. However, the mechanisms responsible,for this accessory-stimulus effect are still poorly understood.,We examined,the effects of auditory,accessory stimulation on the processing,of visual stimuli using scalp elec- trophysiology,(Experiment 1) and,a diffusion model,analysis (Experiment 2). In accordance with previous studies, lateral- ized readiness,potentials indicated that

Marieke Jepma; Eric-jan Wagenmakers; Guido P. H. Band; Sander Nieuwenhuis

2009-01-01

348

Immunohistochemical demonstration of cytoskeletal proteins in the ovine testis during postnatal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution pattern of actin, desmin, vimentin and tubulin in the ovine testis during postnatal development was investigated by means of immunohistochemical methods. The postnatal development of the ovine testis can be divided into five phases. Phases I through III represent the prepubertal period, phase IV puberty and phase V the postpubertal adult stage. In peritubular cells a-smooth muscle actin

Klaus Steger; Karl-Heinz Wrobel

1994-01-01

349

Cytokines and junction restructuring during spermatogenesis—a lesson to learn from the testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mammalian testis, preleptotene and leptotene spermatocytes residing in the basal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium must traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) at late stage VIII through early stage IX of the epithelial cycle during spermatogenesis, entering the adluminal compartment for further development. However, until recently the regulatory mechanisms that regulate BTB dynamics remained largely unknown. We provide a

Weiliang Xia; Dolores D. Mruk; Will M. Lee; C. Yan Cheng

2005-01-01

350

The effect of prophylactic melatonin administration on reperfusion damage in experimental testis ischemia-reperfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: Torsion of testis, which is a urologic emergency case, is generally treated by surgical detorsion procedure. However, the resulting reperfusion and both ipsilateral and contralateral testis damage caused thereby are important prob- lems. This study aims at investigating the administration of prophylactic mela- tonin in order to reduce free radical damage that is caused due to reperfusion after experimental

Ahmet Ozturk; Abdulkerim Kasim Baltaci; Rasim Mogulkoc; Bahadir Ozturk

351

Effects of different storage protocols on cat testis tissue potential for xenografting and recovery of spermatogenesis.  

PubMed

The loss of genetic diversity due to premature death of valuable individuals is a significant problem in animal conservation programs, including endangered felids. Testis tissue xenografting has emerged as a system to obtain spermatozoa from dead immature animals, however protocols to store this tissue before xenografting are still lacking. This study focused on testis tissue cryopreservation and storage from the domestic cat (Felis catus) classified as "pre-pubertal" and "pubertal" according to spermatogenesis development. Grafts from testis tissue cryopreserved with DMSO 1.4M, recovered after 10 weeks xenografting, presented seminiferous tubules with no germ cells. On the contrary, testis tissue from pre-pubertal animals preserved in ice-cold medium for 2 to 5 days presented no loss of viability or spermatogenic potential, while the number of grafts of pubertal cat testis tissue with germ cells after 10 weeks of xenografting decreased with increasing storage time. Nevertheless, even grafts from pre-pubertal cat testis tissue presented lower anti-DDX4 and anti-BOULE staining (proteins necessary for the meiosis completion), when compared with adult cat testis. Finally, a strong correlation found between testis weight and xenograft outcome may help choose good candidates for xenografting. PMID:21958640

Mota, Paula C; Ehmcke, Jens; Westernströer, Birgit; Gassei, Kathrin; Ramalho-Santos, João; Schlatt, Stefan

2012-01-15

352

Hyperthyroidism in the developing rat testis is associated with oxidative stress and hyperphosphorylated vimentin accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperthyroidism was induced in rats and somatic indices and metabolic parameters were analyzed in testis. In addition, the morphological analysis evidenced testes maturation and intense protein synthesis and processing, supporting the enhancement in vimentin synthesis in hyperthyroid testis. Furthermore, vimentin phosphorylation was increased, indicating an accumulation of phosphorylated vimentin associated to the cytoskeleton, which could be a consequence of the

Ariane Zamoner; Kátia Padilha Barreto; Danilo Wilhelm Filho; Fabíola Sell; Viviane Mara Woehl; Fátima Costa Rodrigues Guma; Fátima Regina Mena Barreto Silva; Regina Pessoa-Pureur

2007-01-01

353

Expression of multiple cancer-testis antigen genes in gastrointestinal and breast carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) such as MAGE are selectively expressed in various types of human neoplasms but not in normal tissues other than testis. This characteristic feature of CTAs makes them promising antigens for cancer-specific immunotherapy. A critical requirement for this therapy is identification of promising antigens. In this study, we investigated the expression of 6 genes recently identified by serological

K Mashino; N Sadanaga; F Tanaka; H Yamaguchi; H Nagashima; H Inoue; K Sugimachi; M Mori

2001-01-01

354

Distribution and fine structure of the lymphatic system in the human testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of lymph vessels in the human testis was investigated using ink injection methods, and light and electron microscopy. Lymph capillaries occur in the septula testis but are absent in the intertubular tissue. They consist of endothelial cells provided with an incomplete basal lamina and anchoring filaments of the adjacent connective tissue. Frequently, the endothelial cells are separated by

A. F. Holstein; G. E. Orlandini; R. Möller

1979-01-01

355

Contribution to the origin and development of the appendices of the testis and epididymis in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydatids, as appendices of testis or epididymis, were discovered by Morgagni in 1703 and 1705 and published by him in 1761. Hydatids are considered to be remnants of the cranial part of the Müllerian duct (MD), Wolffian duct (WD), or mesonephric tubules. They are localized as sessile or pedunculated appendices at the cranial pole of testis and at the head

Monika Jacob; Klaus Barteczko

2005-01-01

356

Restricted Arp3 expression in the testis prevents blood-testis barrier disruption during junction restructuring at spermatogenesis.  

PubMed

In epithelia, a primary damage of tight junctions (TJ) always leads to a secondary disruption of adherens junction (AJ), and vice versa. This response, if occurring in the testis, would disrupt spermatogenesis because the blood-testis barrier (BTB) must remain intact during the transit of spermatids in the seminiferous epithelium, which is associated with extensive apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES, a testis-specific AJ type) restructuring. As such, apical ES restructuring accompanied with the transit of developing spermatids during spermiogenesis must be segregated from the BTB to avoid an immunological barrier breakdown in all stages of the seminiferous epithelial cycle, except at stage VIII when spermiation and BTB restructuring take place concurrently. We report herein a mechanism involving restricted spatial and temporal expression of Arp2/3 complex and N-WASP, whose actin branching activity associated with apical ES and BTB restructuring in the seminiferous epithelium. High expression of Arp3 at the apical ES was shown to correlate with spermatid movement and proper spermatid orientation. Likewise, high Arp3 level at the BTB associated with its restructuring to accommodate the transit of preleptotene spermatocytes at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle. These findings were validated by in vitro and in vivo studies using wiskostatin, an inhibitor that blocks N-WASP from activating Arp2/3 complex to elicit actin branching. Inhibition of actin branching caused a failure of spermatid transit plus a loss of proper orientation in the epithelium, and a "tightened" Sertoli cell TJ permeability barrier, supporting the role of Arp2/3 complex in segregating the events of AJ and BTB restructuring. PMID:20534520

Lie, Pearl P Y; Chan, Apple Y N; Mruk, Dolores D; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

2010-06-22

357

Viruses and Salivary Gland Disease (SGD)  

PubMed Central

Viral infections are often associated with salivary gland pathology. Here we review the pathogenesis of HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIV-SGD), a hallmark of diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome. We investigate the presence and contributions of viral diseases to the pathogenesis of salivary gland diseases, particularly HIV-SGD. We have detected BK viral shedding in the saliva of HIV-SGD patients consistent with viral infection and replication, suggesting a role for oral transmission. For further investigation of BKV pathogenesis in salivary glands, an in vitro model of BKV infection is described. Submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) gland salivary cell lines were capable of permissive BKV infection, as determined by BKV gene expression and replication. Analysis of these data collectively suggests the potential for a BKV oral route of transmission and salivary gland pathogenesis within HIV-SGD.

Jeffers, L.; Webster-Cyriaque, J.Y.

2011-01-01

358

Activins and inhibins in mammalian testis development: new models, new insights.  

PubMed

The discovery of activin and inhibins as modulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis has set the foundation for understanding their central importance to many facets of development and disease. This review contains an overview of the processes and cell types that are central to testis development and spermatogenesis and then provides an update focussed on information gathered over the past five years to address new concepts about how these proteins function to control testis development in fetal and juvenile life. Current knowledge about the interactive nature of the transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) superfamily signalling network is applied to recent findings about activins and inhibins in the testis. Information about the regulated synthesis of signalling components and signalling regulators in the testis is integrated with new concepts that demonstrate their functional significance. The importance of activin bioactivity levels or dosage in controlling balanced growth of spermatogonial cells and their niche at different stages of testis development is highlighted. PMID:22406273

Barakat, B; Itman, C; Mendis, S H; Loveland, K L

2012-08-15

359

Circadian clock system in the pineal gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ that functions as a central circadian oscillator in a variety of nonmammalian vertebrates.\\u000a In many cases, the pineal gland retains photic input and endocrinal-output pathways both linked tightly to the oscillator.\\u000a This contrasts well with the mammalian pineal gland equipped only with the output of melatonin production that is subject\\u000a to neuronal regulation

Yoshitaka Fukada; Toshiyuki Okano

2002-01-01

360

Parathyroid gland function in secondary hyperparathyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parathyroid glands play a critical role in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis. It has been suggested that the set-point for calcium-regulated parathyroid hormone (PTH) release is higher in uremic patients than normal subjects. However, these assessments of parathyroid gland function have been performed using methods that differed from the original four-parameter model. Dynamic testing of the parathyroid glands has

Isidro B. Salusky; William G. Goodman

1996-01-01

361

Cystic rete testis with testicular dysplasia in a rabbit.  

PubMed

An 8-year-old intact rabbit was presented to a veterinary hospital with a complaint of enlarged left scrotum. Histological examination revealed a single large cyst adjacent to an efferent ductule-like tissue. The cyst wall was composed of monolayer cuboidal cells surrounded by dysplastic testicular tissue, and the seminiferous tubules were not developed at all. The epithelial cells of the cyst possessed the same properties as the epithelial cells of the rete testis that were positive for CD 10 and cytokeratin 18, negative for p63 and lacked desmin-positive muscular layer. The dysplastic testicular tissue was composed of two types of cells: small pleomorphic cells with a condensed nucleus (sex cord-like cells) and large round cells with cytoplasmic lipid droplets (Leydig cells). Both of these cells were positive for vimentin and melan A that are consistent with the staining pattern of Sertoli cells and Leydig cells. This is the first report to demonstrate cystic rete testis with testicular dysplasia in animals. PMID:24430659

Chambers, James K; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Murata, Yousuke; Watanabe, Ken-Ichi; Ise, Kenichiro; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

2014-06-01

362

Effects of hyperthermia and radiation on mouse testis stem cells  

SciTech Connect

The response of mouse testis stem cells to hyperthermia and combined hyperthermia-radiation treatments was assayed by spermatogenic colony regrowth, sperm head counts, testis weight loss, and fertility. With the use of spermatogenic colony assay, thermal enhancement ratios at an isosurvival level of 0.1 were 1.27 at 41 degrees, 1.80 at 42 degrees, and 3.97 at 43 degrees for testes exposed to heat for 30 min prior to irradiation. Sperm head counts were reduced by heat alone from a surviving fraction of 0.58 at 41 degrees to 0.003 at 42.5-43.5 degrees. Curves for sperm head survival measured 56 days after the testes had been heated for 30 min prior to irradiation were biphasic and showed a progressive downward displacement to lower survival with increasing temperature. The 41, 42, and 43 degrees curves were displaced downward by factors of 2, 58, and 175, respectively. The proportion of animals remaining sterile after 30 min of heat (41-43 degrees) and the median sterility period in days increased with increasing temperature. The minimum sperm count necessary to regain fertility was 13% of the normal mouse level.

Reid, B.O.; Mason, K.A.; Withers, H.R.; West, J.

1981-11-01

363

Cystic Rete Testis with Testicular Dysplasia in a Rabbit  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT An 8-year-old intact rabbit was presented to a veterinary hospital with a complaint of enlarged left scrotum. Histological examination revealed a single large cyst adjacent to an efferent ductule-like tissue. The cyst wall was composed of monolayer cuboidal cells surrounded by dysplastic testicular tissue, and the seminiferous tubules were not developed at all. The epithelial cells of the cyst possessed the same properties as the epithelial cells of the rete testis that were positive for CD 10 and cytokeratin 18, negative for p63 and lacked desmin-positive muscular layer. The dysplastic testicular tissue was composed of two types of cells: small pleomorphic cells with a condensed nucleus (sex cord-like cells) and large round cells with cytoplasmic lipid droplets (Leydig cells). Both of these cells were positive for vimentin and melan A that are consistent with the staining pattern of Sertoli cells and Leydig cells. This is the first report to demonstrate cystic rete testis with testicular dysplasia in animals.

CHAMBERS, James K.; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; MURATA, Yousuke; WATANABE, Ken-ichi; ISE, Kenichiro; MIWA, Yasutsugu; NAKAYAMA, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

364

The descent of testis and reason for failed descent.  

PubMed

Although an enormous number of theories have been proposed to explain the descent of testis, none has provided a satisfactory explanation that covers the whole spectrum. Recent evidence suggests a hitherto unrecognized mechanism. This novel explanation precisely defihes all of the factors proven to be involved in the process, and links the features associated with normal or failed descent. The gubernaculum gives rise to both smooth and striated muscles. The testis is descended through the processus vaginalis via the propulsive force generated by the muscles. Propulsion describes the risk of torsion. Failure in descent in associated with a diminution in smooth muscle content, and a decrease in sympathetic tonus that depends on androgens. Alterations in G-protein linked signaling due to differences in primary messengers resulting from changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic tonuses provide the basis for blunting of testosterone response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and the decrease in fertility, but also for the increase in the risk of malignancy. PMID:15499793

Tanyel, F Cahit

2004-01-01

365

Hormone glycosylation required for lutropin receptor recognition in sheep testis.  

PubMed

The high affinity binding sites for ovine pituitary lutropin (oLH) present in DLS-1 sheep testis recognized only the fully glycosylated ovine or bovine hormone (bLH) in receptor binding assays using 125I-labeled oLH. Chemically deglycosylated (DG-) oLH or bLH which were fully active with other lutropin receptors (rat/pig) were completely inert in the DLS-1 receptor assay. In the same membranes, the FSH (follitropin) receptor reacted well with both glycosylated FSH and DG-oFSH. In recombination studies, lutropin formed by glycosylated native alpha- and beta-subunits of the hormone was fully active but when one of the subunits was in the deglycosylated form, receptor binding activity was greatly reduced. The presence of glycosylated alpha-subunit in the recombined hormone gave rise to 5x more activity than DG-alpha + beta. All these preparations were fully active in the rat/pig receptor assays for LH. These results demonstrate that lutropin hormone glycosylation is essential for optimum receptor recognition in the sheep testis, further emphasizing the importance of correct glycosylation in oLH alpha hormone function. PMID:2125005

Sairam, M R; Bhargavi, G N; Yarney, T A

1990-12-10

366

Accessory Mineral Geochronology and Trace Element Fingerprinting of Metamorphic Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zircon and monazite are the most versatile tools for geochronological studies in magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. New trace element techniques are now used to link growth and modification to pressure and temperature evolution of magmatic and metamorphic rocks and to coexisting minerals. Studies on the distribution of rare earth elements (REE) have mainly focused on garnet and zircon relationships and which distribution patterns constitute equilibrium under different metamorphic conditions. But a more detailed understanding of the growth and modification processes of accessory phases is needed to provide better constraints for genetic models and multiple method datasets (U-Pb, REE, trace element thermometry, imaging) is essential. We use this approach on examples from high-temperature low-pressure granulites of Rogaland (SW Norway) and UHT medium pressure granulites from the Labwor Hills (Uganda) to illustrate the influence of major and accessory mineral reactions on the trace element signature of zircon and monazite. Relatively flat zircon HREE patterns, often associated with coexisting garnet, can also be found in orthopyroxene-bearing, garnet free assemblages. The zircon-opx distribution patterns are similar to zircon-garnet pairs from UHT leucosomes and granulites. Some garnet-bearing granulites are characterized by zircon overgrowths with xenotime inclusions and elevated Y- and HREE-contents, interpreted to reflect garnet breakdown at high T. Zircon and monazite in Labwor Hills metasedimentary granulites both have modified domains. Monazite has low Th rims that yield erroneous high chemical ages, interpreted to be due to loss of Th, while remnants of radiogenic Pb remain during the recrystallization process. Zircon in contrast has high Th rims and domains along sealed cracks that are characterized by anomalously high Th/U ratios (not previously associated with metamorphic growth or modification) and unusual REE patterns. These features are interpreted to result from fluid-influenced recrystallization that lead to coeval leaching of Th from monazite and precipitation of high Th zircon. These results can also help reevaluate the interpretation of detrital zircon, i.e. the practice of invoking metamorphic zircon growth based only on low Th/U or granulite conditions on flat HREE patterns should be abandoned.

Moller, A.

2009-05-01

367

The Effect of Orally Administered L-carnitine on Testis Tissue, Sperm Parameters and Daily Sperm Production in Adult Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate body and testis weight, testis tis- sue, counts, motility, viability, morphology, and chromatin quality of epididymal sperm, as well as the testicular spermatid number (TSN) per gram of testis, and daily sperm produc- tion (DSP) in L-carnitine treated mice. Materials and Methods: In the present study, adult male NMRI mice (mean

Zohre Zare; Hosein Eimani; Moslem Mohammadi; Mahmood Mofid; Hosein Dashtnavard

368

The expression of neurotrophins and their receptors in the prenatal and adult human testis: evidence for functions in Leydig cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated local functions for neurotrophins in the developing and mature testis of rodents. To examine whether these signaling molecules are present and also potentially active in the human testis, we characterized immunohistochemically the expression and cellular localization of the known neurotrophins and their receptors during prenatal testicular development as well as in the adult human testis. Results

Dieter Müller; Michail S. Davidoff; Oliver Bargheer; Hans-J. Paust; Wolfgang Pusch; Yvetta Koeva; Davor Ježek; Adolf F. Holstein; Ralf Middendorff

2006-01-01

369

21 CFR 884.4160 - Unipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...temperatures by directing a high frequency electrical current through the tissue between an energized...may include the following accessories: an electrical generator, probes and electrical cables, and a patient grounding...

2013-04-01

370

49 CFR 178.255-7 - Protection of valves and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...valves, fittings, accessories, safety devices, gauging devices, and...shall be designed with a minimum factor of safety of four to withstand loadings...

2013-10-01

371

26 CFR 48.4062(b)-1 - Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(b)-1 Rebuilt parts or accessories...

2013-04-01

372

21 CFR 878.4200 - Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4200 Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

373

21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

374

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4820 Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments. (a)...

2013-04-01

375

A variation of the extensor hallucis longus muscle (accessory extensor digiti secundus muscle).  

PubMed

An accessory muscle adjacent to the extensor hallucis longus muscle (EHL) was observed between the EHL and the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) in the anterior side of both legs of the cadaver of a 72-year-old male, during educational dissection, and it was observed that the tendon of this muscle extended to the second toe. The tendon of this muscle united with the second toe tendon of the EDL. These common tendons appeared before reaching the toe media phalanxes and extended to the related media phalanxes of toe. However, an additional tendon separating from this accessory muscle tendon united with the EHL tendon at the left foot. This accessory muscle, unlike the variations identified to date, is considered to extend to the second toe, and the name "accessory extensor digiti secundus muscle" is offered. PMID:21559883

Tezer, Murat; Cicekcibasi, Aynur Emine

2012-06-01

376

Pollution Prevention Assessment for a Manufacturer of Automotive Lighting Equipment and Accessories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The WMAC team at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures automotive lighting equipment and accessories. Plant operations include plastic injection molding, metal pressing and punching, painting, and assembly. The ...

M. Fleischman B. Couch A. Handmaker G. P. Looby

1995-01-01

377

CONTRIBUTION OF THYROID GLAND ULTRASOUND FOR SCREENING OF PATIENTS WITH SUSPECTED SUBCLINICAL THYROID GLAND DISORDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tajtakova M, Langer P, Semanova Z, Tomkova Z: Contribution of Thyroid Gland Ultrasound for Screening of Patients with Suspected Subclinical Thyroid Gland Disorders Bratisl Lek Listy 1999; 100 (4): 196ñ199 Thyroid gland ultrasonography is recommended in patients with nonspecific clinical symptoms such as fatigue, weightgain, dry skin, amnesic symptoms, depression, bradycardia, abnor- mal myocardial contractility, increased diastolic pressure, hy- percholesterolemia,

TAJTAKOVA M; LANGER P; SEMANOVA Z; TOMKOVA Z

1999-01-01

378

The ABCs of Accessory Breast Tissue: Basic Information Every Radiologist Should Know.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. Accessory breast tissue, residual breast tissue persisting from embryologic development, is found in up to 6% of the population, most commonly in the axilla along the "milk line." CONCLUSION. Radiologists should be able to recognize the imaging appearance of this normal variant on multiple modalities, while at the same time understanding that the same spectrum of pathologic processes that occur in normal breast tissue can occur in accessory breast tissue as well. PMID:24758674

Defilippis, Ersilia M; Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan

2014-05-01

379

Health warning labelling practices on narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWaterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing around the globe despite current evidence that smoke emissions are toxic and contain carcinogenic compounds.ObjectiveTo evaluate current health warning labelling practices on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories.MethodsAll waterpipe tobacco products, as well as waterpipe accessories, were purchased from Lebanon and a convenience sample was obtained from Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Palestine, Syria, Jordan,

Rima Nakkash; Joanna Khalil

2010-01-01

380

An accessory flexor digitorum longus muscle with high division of the tibial nerve.  

PubMed

An accessory flexor digitorum longus muscle associated with a high division of the tibial nerve was encountered during routine dissection in the right leg of a newborn cadaver. The tibial nerve divided into its two terminal branches at a higher level than normal with a small branch from the tibial nerve contributing to one of the terminal branches. In addition, an accessory flexor digitorum longus muscle was observed to pass between the terminal branches of the tibial nerve. PMID:11370145

Kurtoglu, Z; Uluutku, M H; Can, M A; Onderoglu, S

2001-01-01

381

Two speed accessory transmission with optional neutral mode  

SciTech Connect

An underdrive accessory transmission associated with an engine is described comprising: a planetary gear set comprising a sun gear having an integrally formed shaft planet gears positioned about and drivingly engaging the sun gear, a planet gear carrier, and a ring gear positioned about and drivingly engaging the planet gears, wherein the ring gear provides rotational input to the transmission from the engine; a fixed cover for the transmission; cone clutch slidably affixed on the shaft of the sun gear and being capable of axial movement along the shaft; means for sliding the cone clutch axially along the shaft of the sun gear; an output shaft, the planet gear carrier being affixed about the output shaft; and a one way clutch and support bearing being positioned between the sun gear and the output shaft. The clutch allows the output shaft to rotate only in the direction of engine rotation, wherein the cone clutch provides a direct drive from the engine to the output shaft when it is engaged with the ring gear, the cone clutch provides a neutral mode of operation when it is disengaged from both the ring gear and the transmission cover, and the cone clutch provides an underdrive to the output shaft when it is engaged with the cover.

Sivalingam, R.

1987-11-17

382

Os intermetatarseum: a heritable accessory bone of the human foot.  

PubMed

The os intermetatarseum is a relatively common accessory bone of the human foot located at the tarsometatarsal border between the first and second metatarsals. It can occur as an independent ossicle or as an osseous spur projecting from the proximal ends of the first two metatarsals, or the distal end of the first cuneiform. To determine the frequency of this congenital defect in native North American groups and East Asians from Japan, the skeletons of 846 Native Americans and 125 modern Japanese and Ainu were examined for the presence of the os intermetatarseum. The North American skeletons are from archaeological sites in various parts of Canada and the United States, including the Arctic coast, the Subarctic, the Aleutian Islands, the Northern Plains, the Illinois River area, and the Southwest. Overall frequencies ranged from no occurrence among the Arctic samples to 8% of individuals from Pecos Pueblo. Second metatarsal spurs occurred in particularly high frequencies among American Indians, whereas the East Asians were only found to have os intermetatarseums associated with the first cuneiform. Because pedigrees have shown the os intermetatarseum to be an inherited defect, its high frequency among some Native Americans may be due, in part, to a higher degree of genetic relatedness among the individuals in the North American samples than among the relatively modern East Asians. PMID:9786334

Case, D T; Ossenberg, N S; Burnett, S E

1998-10-01

383

A unipolar coronary sinus mapping study of patients with left-sided atrioventricular accessory pathways.  

PubMed

So-called unipolar 'PQS pattern' is widely accepted as a hallmark of successful catheter ablation of the left-sided atrioventricular accessory pathway. However, the unipolar nature of the electrogram and the site-dependent appearance of this characteristic pattern are poorly understood. Therefore, unipolar coronary sinus (CS) mapping was performed using a multipolar fine electrode in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome associated with an antegrade left-sided accessory pathway (case group) and those with a concealed left-sided accessory pathway or atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (control group) under sinus rhythm and fixed high right atrial, CS ostial, and distal pacing. In both groups, the unipolar CS atrial electrogram showed intrinsic negative deflection (initial positive followed by negative parts) with considerable variation depending on the recording site. This unipolar configuration of the atrial electrogram was not influenced by different activation sequences during pacing at various sites. The case group exhibited a unipolar 'PQS pattern' at successful ablation sites for the left lateral to anterolateral accessory pathway. However, this was not true for the left posteroseptal accessory pathway, possibly because the negative part of the atrial electrogram distorted the 'PQS pattern' as an intervening dip. In conclusion, the site-dependent variations of the unipolar CS atrial electrogram underlie the limited usefulness of the 'PQS pattern' in left posteroseptal accessory pathway localization. PMID:16157957

Kubota, Satoko; Nakasuga, Kazuta; Maruyama, Toru; Ueda, Norihiro; Ito, Hiroyuki; Kaji, Yoshikazu; Harada, Mine

2005-07-01

384

Characterization of the B6.61 polymerase ribozyme accessory domain  

PubMed Central

The “RNA world” hypothesis rests on the assumption that RNA polymerase ribozymes can replicate RNA without the use of protein. In the laboratory, in vitro selection has been used to create primitive versions of such polymerases. The best variant to date is a ribozyme called B6.61 that can extend a RNA primer template by 20 nucleotides (nt). This polymerase has two domains: the recently crystallized Class I ligase core, responsible for phosphodiester bond formation, and the poorly characterized accessory domain that makes polymerization possible. Here we find that the accessory domain is specified by a 37-nt bulged stem–loop structure. The accessory domain is positioned by a tertiary interaction between the terminal AL4 loop of the accessory and the J3/4 triloop found within the ligase core. This docking interaction is associated with an unwinding of the A3 and A4 helixes that appear to facilitate the correct positioning of an essential 8-nt purine bulge found between the two helices. This, together with other constraints inferred from tethering the accessory domain to a range of sites on the ligase core, indicates that the accessory domain is draped over the vertex of the ligase core tripod structure. This geometry suggests how the purine bulge in the polymerase replaces the P2 helix in the Class I ligase with a new structure that may facilitate the stabilization of incoming nucleotide triphosphates.

Wang, Qing S.; Cheng, Leslie K.L.; Unrau, Peter J.

2011-01-01

385

What Are the Key Statistics about Salivary Gland Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... for salivary gland cancer? What are the key statistics about salivary gland cancer? Salivary gland cancers are ... be better or worse than this.) For more statistics related to survival, see the section “ Survival rates ...

386

MR anatomy of salivary glands in the dog.  

PubMed

This retrospective analysis documented the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of normal salivary glands based on 101 studies in dogs with no detectable disease in the splanchnocranium. Surface, signal intensity, homogeneity, structure, symmetry and the relationship of glands to surrounding tissues were noted, and gland topography was assessed with E12 plastinated embedded sections. Signal intensity of salivary glands was isointense (7-40%) to hyperintense (60-90%) to muscle tissue on T1- and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Salivary glands had an increased T1 signal after contrast medium was applied. Salivary gland structure appeared homogeneous in mandibular and major sublingual glands and heterogeneous in zygomatic and parotid glands. Consistent landmarks were the external auditory canal for parotid glands, the digastric muscle for mandibular and major sublingual glands, and the pterygopalatine fossa for zygomatic glands. The minor sublingual and ventral buccal glands could not be localized with low-field MRI. PMID:22034923

Weidner, S; Probst, A; Kneissl, S

2012-04-01

387

Morphogenesis of the thyroid gland.  

PubMed

Congenital hypothyroidism is mainly due to structural defects of the thyroid gland, collectively known as thyroid dysgenesis. The two most prevalent forms of this condition are abnormal localization of differentiated thyroid tissue (thyroid ectopia) and total absence of the gland (athyreosis). The clinical picture of thyroid dysgenesis suggests that impaired specification, proliferation and survival of thyroid precursor cells and loss of concerted movement of these cells in a distinct spatiotemporal pattern are major causes of malformation. In normal development the thyroid primordium is first distinguished as a thickening of the anterior foregut endoderm at the base of the prospective tongue. Subsequently, this group of progenitors detaches from the endoderm, moves caudally and ultimately differentiates into hormone-producing units, the thyroid follicles, at a distant location from the site of specification. In higher vertebrates later stages of thyroid morphogenesis are characterized by shape remodeling into a bilobed organ and the integration of a second type of progenitors derived from the caudal-most pharyngeal pouches that will differentiate into C-cells. The present knowledge of thyroid developmental dynamics has emerged from embryonic studies mainly in chicken, mouse and more recently also in zebrafish. This review will highlight the key morphogenetic steps of thyroid organogenesis and pinpoint which crucial regulatory mechanisms are yet to be uncovered. Considering the co-incidence of thyroid dysgenesis and congenital heart malformations the possible interactions between thyroid and cardiovascular development will also be discussed. PMID:20026174

Fagman, Henrik; Nilsson, Mikael

2010-07-01

388

OPERATIONS ON THE ADRENAL GLANDS  

PubMed Central

Various conditions of the adrenal gland are amenable to surgical treatment. Removal of a pheochromocytoma is almost always indicated when the tumor is diagnosed. The results of extirpation have been excellent in cases in which patients were operated upon before the onset of chronic hypertension. Removal of the “nerve cell” tumors of the adrenal is indicated if metastasis cannot be demonstrated. Hypofunction of the adrenal cortex may be partially alleviated by the repeated implantation of pellets of desoxycorticosterone acetate. Hyperfunction of the adrenal cortex causes a variety of clinical manifestations depending upon which of the numerous hormones are affected. Removal of a cortical tumor alleviates these symptoms. These tumors are malignant in more than 50 per cent of cases, and recurrence is frequent. Bilateral hyperplasia of the glands rather than a tumor may be present. In such circumstances, resection of 95 per cent of the adrenal tissue is effective in controlling the symptoms of the disease. Total bilateral excision of the adrenals is, at present, under investigation as a means of treatment for a variety of conditions. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.

Longmire, William P.; Barker, Wiley F.

1952-01-01

389

UROPYGIAL GLAND SIZE AND AVIAN HABITAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological role of the uropygial gland is still controversial. Certain authors state that its function could be closely connected to the hydrophobic properties of its secretion, that may be essential for plumage waterproofing. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that the degree of this gland's develop- ment should be greater in aquatic birds than in terrestrial species. In order to

Diego Montalti; Alfredo Salibián

390

Mantle irradiation of the major salivary glands  

SciTech Connect

Radiation given to the mantle field for treatment of Hodgkin's disease impinges on the submandibular and parotid glands at levels that have been both measured and calculated to be the complete tumor dose. This dosage is above the level of irradiation that has been shown to cause partial or complete loss of salivary gland function.

Kaplan, P.

1985-11-01

391

Functional scintigraphy of the adrenal gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 30 years nuclear medicine imaging of the adrenal gland and its lesions has been achieved by the exploitation of a number of physiological characteristics of this organ. By seeking and utilising features which are quantitatively or qualitatively different from those of the adjacent tis- sues, functional depiction of the adrenal gland and its diseases, which in most

Domenico Rubello; Chuong Bui; Dario Casara; Milton D Gross; Lorraine M Fig; Brahm Shapiro

2002-01-01

392

Identification of Accessory Spleens During Laparoscopic Splenectomy Is Superior to Preoperative Computed Tomography for Detection of Accessory Spleens  

PubMed Central

Background: Missed accessory spleen (AcS) can cause recurrence of hematologic disease after splenectomy. The objective of the study was to determine whether detection of AcS is more accurate with preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan or with exploration during laparoscopic splenectomy. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for 75 adult patients who underwent laparoscopic splenectomy for various hematologic disorders from 1999 to 2009. Preoperative CT scans were performed in all patients. Patients were followed for recurrence of disease, and a scintigraphy scan was performed in those with suspected missed AcS. Results: The most common diagnosis was idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in 29 patients (39%), followed by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in 22 patients (29%). Sixteen AcSs were found during surgery in 15 patients (20%), and preoperative CT scan identified 2 of these. Twelve AcSs were located at the splenic hilum (75%). Nine patients experienced recurrence of their disease, and none had a missed AcS on subsequent scintigraphy. Sensitivity of exploratory laparoscopy for detection of AcS was 100%, and for preoperative CT scan was 12.5% (P = .005). Conclusion: Exploratory laparoscopy during splenectomy is more accurate than preoperative imaging with CT scan for detection of AcS. Preoperative CT scan misses AcS frequently and should not be obtained for the purpose of its identification.

Pahuja, Anil K.; Nemeth, Zoltan H.; Abkin, Alexander; Carter, Mitchel S.

2012-01-01

393

Testis-specific transcription initiation sites of rat farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase mRNA.  

PubMed Central

A variety of rat tissues were screened at low stringency with a rat farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) synthetase cDNA. In testis, an FPP synthetase-related RNA was detected that was larger than the liver FPP synthetase mRNA and was present at very high levels comparable with liver FPP synthetase RNA levels obtained from rats fed diets supplemented with cholestyramine and mevinolin. Sequence analysis of testis cDNA clones, together with primer extension and S1 nuclease experiments, indicated that testis FPP synthetase transcripts contain an extended 5' untranslated region. The 5' extension contained one or two out-of-frame upstream ATGs, depending on the site of transcription initiation. Protein in vitro translation studies indicated that the extended 5' untranslated region may play a role in regulating the translation of the FPP synthetase polypeptide in rat testis. Southern blot analysis with a probe containing both testis and liver 5' untranslated sequences provided evidence that both liver and testis transcripts derive from the same gene. The data suggest that an upstream testis-specific promoter results in the abundant production of FPP synthetase transcripts that are translated at low efficiency; another promoter functions in liver and other somatic tissues and directs the regulated synthesis of shorter discrete transcripts. Images

Teruya, J H; Kutsunai, S Y; Spear, D H; Edwards, P A; Clarke, C F

1990-01-01

394

Distribution of transglutaminase in quail uropygial glands.  

PubMed

The holocrine secretion of the uropygial gland has been explained as autolysis due to intracellular lysosomal enzymes. In the present study, the distribution of transglutaminase, a marker of epidermal differentiation, in quail uropygial glands was observed by histochemical methods to confirm whether a mechanism similar to epidermal differentiation also exists in the uropygial gland. The transglutaminase activity was positive in the deep and shallow portions of the secretory tubules as well as the transitional and degenerating cell layers of the uropygial gland. This activity was stronger in the deep portions than the shallow portions. These findings suggest that the process of secretion in the quail uropygial gland involves not only the autolysis due to lysosomal enzymes but also a mechanism similar to that of epidermal differentiation, and that a phenomenon similar to epidermal differentiation is more evident in the deep portions than the shallow portions. PMID:7756426

Suzuki, T; Maruyama, T; Morohashi, M

1995-02-01

395

NETRIN and SLIT guide salivary gland migration.  

PubMed

Directed migration is pivotal for the proper placement and function of nearly all organs. The majority of known guidance molecules involved in directed migration have been identified from studies of migrating axons during nervous system development. Here, we show that at least two of these axon guidance molecules, NETRIN and SLIT, act through their canonical receptors, to guide Drosophila embryonic salivary glands. NETRIN serves as a chemo-attractant while SLIT functions antagonistically to NETRIN as a chemo-repellent during salivary gland migration. CNS midline expression of both NETRIN and SLIT directs the glands to move unswervingly parallel to the CNS. NETRIN expression is also required in the visceral mesoderm, along which the glands move during their migration. We propose that analogous to axon guidance, a balance between chemo-attractants and chemo-repellents is required for the proper migratory path of the developing salivary glands. PMID:15950216

Kolesnikov, Tereza; Beckendorf, Steven K

2005-08-01

396

Orbital Lymphoma Mimicking Lacrimal Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the case of a patient affected by orbital lymphoma mimicking pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. Methods This was a retrospective case report. Results We present the case of a patient with 15-year history of slowly progressive left proptosis and inferomedial bulbar dislocation who had the presumptive diagnosis of lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma based on clinical and radiological features. The patient underwent lateral orbitotomy and lacrimal gland excision. Postoperative histological features were consistent with low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Conclusion The accepted clinico-radiological criteria used for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland fossa lesions might have a certain false-positive rate, even in recent years. The initial surgical approach with the appropriate choice between fine-needle aspiration biopsies, intraoperative biopsies and lacrimal gland excisions might be a challenge.

Strianese, Diego; Elefante, Andrea; Matarazzo, Francesco; Panico, Angela; Ferrara, Mariantonia; Tranfa, Fausto

2013-01-01

397

Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination  

SciTech Connect

The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

1984-08-01

398

Ultrastructure of spermatogenesis in the testis of Paragonimus heterotremus.  

PubMed

Lung fluke, Paragonimus heterotremus, is a flatworm causing pulmonary paragonimiasis in cats, dogs, and humans in Southeast Asia. We examined the ultrastructure of the testis of adult P. heterotremus with special attention to spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The full sequence of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, from the capsular basal lamina to the luminal surface, was demonstrated. The sequence comprises spermatogonia, spermatocytes with obvious nuclear synaptonemal complexes, spermatids, and eventual spermatozoa. Moreover, full steps of spermatid differentiation were shown which consisted of 1) early stage, 2) differentiation stage representing the flagella, intercentriolar body, basal body, striated rootlets, and electron dense nucleus of thread-like lamellar configuration, and 3) growing spermatid flagella. Detailed ultrastructure of 2 different types of spermatozoa was also shown in this study. PMID:24516272

Uabundit, Nongnut; Kanla, Pipatphong; Puthiwat, Phongphithak; Arunyanart, Channarong; Chaiciwamongkol, Kowit; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M; Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi

2013-12-01

399

Dynamics of INSL3 peptide expression in the rodent testis.  

PubMed

The Leydig cell-specific factor insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) is involved in testicular descent during embryo development, and has been suggested to regulate spermatogenesis and bone metabolism in the adult. Using a new, sensitive assay specific for rodent INSL3, we have mapped the secretion of INSL3 into peripheral blood in mice and during postnatal male rat development (in female rats, circulating INSL3 is at the level of detection). Maximum INSL3 is measured at Postnatal Day (PD) 40 in the rat and decreases to a significantly lower, stable value by PD60, indicating an "overshoot" effect in the establishment of Leydig cell functionality during the first wave of spermatogenesis. Aging rats ( approximately 24 mo) have markedly reduced circulating INSL3 levels, as do humans. Treatment of young adult rats with ethane dimethylsulfonate (EDS) leads to loss of mature Leydig cells and no detectable INSL3 in peripheral blood. INSL3 can be detected first at Day 27 after EDS treatment, returning to near normal levels by Day 37. Both primary rat Leydig cells and the mouse MA-10 tumor cell line secrete substantial amounts of INSL3 into the culture media in a constitutive manner, unregulated by common effectors, including hCG. Analysis of different testicular fluid compartments shows highest INSL3 concentration in the interstitial fluid (391.4 +/- 47.8 ng/ml). However, INSL3 evidently traverses the blood-testis barrier to enter the seminiferous compartment, rete testis, and epididymis in sufficient concentration to be able to address the specific INSL3 receptors (RXFP2) on post-meiotic germ cells and in the epididymis. PMID:19420383

Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Heng, Kee; Hafen, Bettina; Setchell, Brian; Ivell, Richard

2009-09-01

400

DMRT1 prevents female reprogramming in the postnatal mammalian testis  

PubMed Central

Sex in mammals is determined in the foetal gonad by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome gene Sry, which controls whether bipotential precursor cells differentiate into testicular Sertoli cells or ovarian granulosa cells1. This pivotal decision in a single gonadal cell type ultimately controls sexual differentiation throughout the body. Sex determination can be viewed as a battle for primacy in the foetal gonad between a male regulatory gene network in which Sry activates Sox9 and a female network involving Wnt/?-catenin signaling (Supplemental Fig. 1)2. In females the primary sex-determining decision is not final: loss of the FOXL2 transcription factor in adult granulosa cells can reprogramme granulosa cells into Sertoli cells2. Here we show that sexual fate is also surprisingly labile in the testis: loss of the DMRT1 transcription factor3 in mouse Sertoli cells, even in adults, activates Foxl2 and reprogrammes Sertoli cells into granulosa cells. In this environment, theca cells form, oestrogen is produced, and germ cells appear feminized. Thus Dmrt1 is essential to maintain mammalian testis determination, and competing regulatory networks maintain gonadal sex long after the foetal choice between male and female. Dmrt1 and Foxl2 are conserved throughout vertebrates4,5 and Dmrt1-related sexual regulators are conserved throughout metazoans3. Antagonism between Dmrt1 and Foxl2 for control of gonadal sex may therefore extend beyond mammals. Reprogramming due to loss of Dmrt1 also may help explain the etiology of human syndromes linked to DMRT1, including disorders of sexual differentiation6 and testicular cancer7.

Matson, Clinton K.; Murphy, Mark W.; Sarver, Aaron L.; Griswold, Michael D.; Bardwell, Vivian J.; Zarkower, David

2011-01-01

401

Steroidogenesis of the testis -- new genes and pathways.  

PubMed

Defects of androgen biosynthesis cause 46,XY disorder of sexual development (DSD). All steroids are produced from cholesterol and the early steps of steroidogenesis are common to mineralocorticoid, glucocorticoid and sex steroid production. Genetic mutations in enzymes and proteins supporting the early biosynthesis pathways cause adrenal insufficiency (AI), DSD and gonadal insufficiency. The classic androgen biosynthesis defects with AI are lipoid CAH, CYP11A1 and HSD3B2 deficiencies. Deficiency of CYP17A1 rarely causes AI, and HSD17B3 or SRD5A2 deficiencies only cause 46,XY DSD and gonadal insufficiency. All androgen biosynthesis depends on 17,20 lyase activity of CYP17A1 which is supported by P450 oxidoreductase (POR) and cytochrome b5 (CYB5). Therefore 46,XY DSD with apparent 17,20 lyase deficiency may be due to mutations in CYP17A1, POR or CYB5. Illustrated by patients harboring mutations in SRD5A2, normal development of the male external genitalia depends largely on dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which is converted from circulating testicular testosterone (T) through SRD5A2 in the genital skin. In the classic androgen biosynthetic pathway, T is produced from DHEA and androstenedione/-diol in the testis. However, recently found mutations in AKR1C2/4 genes in undervirilized 46,XY individuals have established a role for a novel, alternative, backdoor pathway for fetal testicular DHT synthesis. In this pathway, which has been first elucidated for the tammar wallaby pouch young, 17-hydroxyprogesterone is converted directly to DHT by 5?-3? reductive steps without going through the androgens of the classic pathway. Enzymes AKR1C2/4 catalyse the critical 3?HSD reductive reaction which feeds 17OH-DHP into the backdoor pathway. In conclusion, androgen production in the fetal testis seems to utilize two pathways but their exact interplay remains to be elucidated. PMID:24793988

Flück, Christa E; Pandey, Amit V

2014-05-01

402

Blueberry Extracts Protect Testis from Hypobaric Hypoxia Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats  

PubMed Central

Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia causes oxidative damage to male rat reproductive function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of a blueberry extract (BB-4) in testis of rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Morphometric analysis, cellular DNA fragmentation, glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were evaluated. Our results showed that supplementation of BB-4 reduced lipid peroxidation, decreased apoptosis, and increased GR and SOD activities in rat testis under hypobaric hypoxia conditions (P < 0.05). Therefore, this study demonstrates that blueberry extract significantly reduced the harmful effects of oxidative stress caused by hypobaric hypoxia in rat testis by affecting glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities.

Zepeda, Andrea; Aguayo, Luis G.; Fuentealba, Jorge; Figueroa, Carolina; Acevedo, Alejandro; Salgado, Perla; Calaf, Gloria M.; Farias, Jorge

2012-01-01

403

Regulation of the epithelial sodium channel by accessory proteins.  

PubMed Central

The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is of fundamental importance in the control of sodium fluxes in epithelial cells. Modulation of sodium reabsorption through the distal nephron ENaC is an important component in the overall control of sodium balance, blood volume and thereby of blood pressure. This is clearly demonstrated by rare genetic disorders of sodium-channel activity (Liddle's syndrome and pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1), associated with contrasting effects on blood pressure. The mineralocorticoid aldosterone is a well-established modulator of sodium-channel activity. Considerable insight has now been gained into the intracellular signalling pathways linking aldosterone-mediated changes in gene transcription with changes in ion transport. Activating pathways include aldosterone-induced proteins and especially the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) and the small G-protein, K-Ras 2A. Targeting of the ENaC for endocytosis and degradation is now emerging as a major mechanism for the down-regulation of channel activity. Several proteins acting in concert are an intrinsic part of this process but Nedd4 (neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated 4) is of central importance. Other mechanisms known to interact with ENaC and affect sodium transport include channel-activating protease 1 (CAP-1), a membrane-anchored protein, and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator. The implications of research on accessory factors controlling ENaC activity are wide-ranging. Understanding cellular mechanisms controlling ENaC activity may provide a more detailed insight not only of ion-channel abnormalities in cystic fibrosis but also of the link between abnormal renal sodium transport and essential hypertension.

Gormley, Kelly; Dong, Yanbin; Sagnella, Giuseppe A

2003-01-01

404

The Impact of Long-Term Exposure to Space Environment on Adult Mammalian Organisms: A Study on Mouse Thyroid and Testis  

PubMed Central

Hormonal changes in humans during spaceflight have been demonstrated but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. To clarify this point thyroid and testis/epididymis, both regulated by anterior pituitary gland, have been analyzed on long-term space-exposed male C57BL/10 mice, either wild type or pleiotrophin transgenic, overexpressing osteoblast stimulating factor-1. Glands were submitted to morphological and functional analysis. In thyroids, volumetric ratios between thyrocytes and colloid were measured. cAMP production in 10?7M and 10?8M thyrotropin-treated samples was studied. Thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were quantitized by immunoblotting and localized by immunofluorescence. In space-exposed animals, both basal and thyrotropin-stimulated cAMP production were always higher. Also, the structure of thyroid follicles appeared more organized, while thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were overexpressed. Unlike the control samples, in the space samples thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were both observed at the intracellular junctions, suggesting their interaction in specific cell membrane microdomains. In testes, immunofluorescent reaction for 3?- steroid dehydrogenase was performed and the relative expressions of hormone receptors and interleukin-1? were quantified by RT-PCR. Epididymal sperm number was counted. In space-exposed animals, the presence of 3? and 17? steroid dehydrogenase was reduced. Also, the expression of androgen and follicle stimulating hormone receptors increased while lutenizing hormone receptor levels were not affected. The interleukin 1 ? expression was upregulated. The tubular architecture was altered and the sperm cell number was significantly reduced in spaceflight mouse epididymis (approx. ?90% vs. laboratory and ground controls), indicating that the space environment may lead to degenerative changes in seminiferous tubules. Space-induced changes of structure and function of thyroid and testis/epididymis could be responsible for variations of hormone levels in human during space missions. More research, hopefully a reflight of MDS, would be needed to establish whether the space environment acts directly on the peripheral glands or induces changes in the hypotalamus-pituitary-glandular axis.

Masini, Maria Angela; Albi, Elisabetta; Barmo, Cristina; Bonfiglio, Tommaso; Bruni, Lara; Canesi, Laura; Cataldi, Samuela; Curcio, Francesco; D'Amora, Marta; Ferri, Ivana; Goto, Katsumasa; Kawano, Fuminori; Lazzarini, Remo; Loreti, Elisabetta; Nakai, Naoya; Ohira, Takashi; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Palmero, Silvio; Prato, Paola; Ricci, Franco; Scarabelli, Linda; Shibaguchi, Tsubasa; Spelat, Renza; Strollo, Felice; Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco Saverio

2012-01-01

405

Effects of chronic administration of Stevia rebaudiana on fertility in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study conducted on prepubertal male rats showed that chronic administration (60 days) of a Stevia rebaudiana aqueous extract produced a decrease in final weight of testis, seminal vesicle and cauda epididymidis. In addition, the fructose content of the accessory sex glands and the epididymal sperm concentration are decreased. Stevia treatment tended to decrease the plasma testosterone level, probably by

M. S Melis

1999-01-01

406

Expression of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 2 (HAI-2) in human testis: identification of a distinct transcription start site for the HAI-2 gene in testis.  

PubMed

Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1) and type 2 (HAI-2) are recently identified integral membrane Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitors. They have important regulatory roles in pericellular activation of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) which is critically involved in the development and regeneration of various tissues. Recent reports suggest that HGF/SF is also involved in testicular development and spermatogenesis. In this study, we analyzed the expression of HAIs in the testis. In human testis, HAI-2 was strongly expressed whereas HAI-1 mRNA was hardly detectable. Of interest was the observation that the mRNA size of HAI-2 was shorter in the testis (1.2 kb) than those in the other tissues such as placenta (1.5 kb). Subsequent experiments revealed that there are two major transcription start sites of the HAI-2 gene, which are -30 bp and -360 bp upstream from the translation initiation ATG codon. Although the latter site appeared to be mainly used in the placenta and other non-testicular organs, only the former site is used in testis, resulting in the -300 bp shorter mRNA. An immunohistochemical study using a specific monoclonal antibody raised against human HAI-2 protein indicated that HAI-2 is expressed exclusively in primary spermatocytes. These results suggest a distinct regulation of HAI-2 gene expression in testis and that HAI-2 may play a role in the process of spermatogenesis. PMID:12553733

Yamauchi, Masamichi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Naganuma, Seiji; Koono, Masashi; Hasui, Yoshihiro; Osada, Yukio; Kataoka, Hiroaki

2002-12-01

407

De novo morphogenesis of testis tissue: an improved bioassay to investigate the role of VEGF165 during testis formation.  

PubMed

De novo formation of testis tissue from single-cell suspensions allows manipulation of different testicular compartments before grafting to study testicular development and the spermatogonial stem cell niche. However, the low percentages of newly formed seminiferous tubules supporting complete spermatogenesis and lack of a defined protocol have limited the use of this bioassay. Low spermatogenic efficiency in de novo formed tissue could result from the scarcity of germ cells in the donor cell suspension, cell damage caused by handling or from hypoxia during tissue formation in the host environment. In this study, we compared different proportions of spermatogonia in the donor cell suspension and the use of Matrigel as a scaffold to support de novo tissue formation and spermatogenesis. Then, we used the system to investigate the role of vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165) during testicular morphogenesis on blood vessel and seminiferous tubule formation, and on presence of germ cells in the de novo developed tubules. Our results show that donor cell pellets with 10×10(6) porcine neonatal testicular cells in Matrigel efficiently formed testis tissue de novo. Contrary to what was expected, the enrichment of the cell suspension with germ cells did not result in higher numbers of tubules supporting spermatogenesis. The addition of VEGF165 did not improve blood vessel or tubule formation, but it enhanced the number of tubules containing spermatogonia. These results indicate that spermatogenic efficiency was improved by the addition of Matrigel, and that VEGF165 may have a protective role supporting germ cell establishment in their niche. PMID:24803491

Dores, Camila; Dobrinski, Ina

2014-07-01

408

Roles of adrenal and gonadal steroids and season in uropygial gland function in male pigeons, Columba livia.  

PubMed

To gauge the relative regulative roles of adrenal, gonadal, and thyroid hormones on uropygial gland of male adult pigeons, morphometric, histological, and histochemical observations have been made on a seasonal basis in normal as well as experimentally manipulated birds. Normal birds showed a parallel adrenal-gonadal-uropygial relationship and inverse adrenal-thyroid, thyroid-gonadal, and thyroid-uropygial relationships. Induced hypocorticalism by dexamethasone in the breeding season and hypercorticalism by ACTH or corticosterone treatment in the nonbreeding season were marked by inhibitory and stimulatory changes respectively in the uropygial gland and testis and by inverse thyroid activity. Further, cyproterone acetate treatment in the breeding season completely suppressed testicular functions and increased thyroid activity without affecting either adrenal or uropygial weight, structure, and functions. Based on the observations it is concluded that adrenal steroids are principally involved in regulating the uropygial gland while the gonadal steroids are involved in qualitative aspects of secretion during the breeding phase and thyroid hormones in maintaining the general metabolic profile. PMID:8282171

Asnani, M V; Ramachandran, A V

1993-11-01

409

Biological roles of uterine glands in pregnancy.  

PubMed

All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, uterine receptivity, and stromal cell decidualization in humans and animal models. The infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss observed in the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model unequivocally supports a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid in survival and development of the conceptus. Further, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation as well as stromal cell decidualization. Similarly in humans, uterine glands and their secretory products are likely critical regulators of blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus growth and development during the first trimester. Circumstantial evidence suggests that deficient glandular activity may be a causative factor in pregnancy failure and complications in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of fertility and pregnancy problems in mammals. PMID:24959816

Spencer, Thomas E

2014-09-01

410

Interactions between developing nerves and salivary glands  

PubMed Central

Our aim is to provide a summary of the field of salivary gland development and regeneration from the perspective of what is known about the function of nerves during these processes. The primary function of adult salivary glands is to produce and secrete saliva. Neuronal control of adult salivary gland function has been a focus of research ever since Pavlov’s seminal experiments on salivation in dogs. Less is known about salivary gland innervation during development and how the developing nerves influence gland organogenesis and regeneration. Here, we will review what is known about the communication between the autonomic nervous system and the epithelium of the salivary glands during organogenesis. An important emerging theme is the instructive role of the nervous system on the epithelial stem/progenitor cells during development as well as regeneration after damage. We will provide a brief overview of the neuroanatomy of the salivary glands and discuss recent literature that begins to integrate neurobiology with epithelial organogenesis, which may provide paradigms for exploring these interactions in other organ systems.

Ferreira, Joao N; Hoffman, Matthew P

2013-01-01

411

On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells, but is also caused by damage to the extracellular environment, preventing proper cell functioning.

Konings, Antonius W.T. [Department of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P. [Department of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Vissink, Arjan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)

2005-07-15

412

Reproductive Organ of Blow Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Ultrastructural of Testis  

PubMed Central

This work presents the ultrastructure of testis of the medically important blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) using light microscopy and electron microscopy. Reproductive organ of males was dissected to determine the testis in the pupal stage, 3-day-old flies and 7-day-old flies and observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEM displayed a smooth surface which is occasionally penetrated by tracheoles. TEM of the testis in the pupal stage presents the thick testis wall covering underdeveloped cells containing a variable size of an electron-dense globule. For the 3-day-old males, the testicular wall is formed by an external layer, a peritoneal sheath, a muscular layer, a basement membrane, and a follicular epithelium. Follicular epithelium presented developing spermatozoa. Regarding the 7-day-old males, development of spermatozoa is apparent, displaying nucleus, centriolar adjunct, axoneme, and mitochondrial derivatives, with the 9 + 9 + 2 microtubule pattern of axoneme.

Sukontason, Kabkaew L.; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Chaisri, Urai; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sanford, Michelle; Sukontason, Kom

2011-01-01

413

Temporary stretch of the testicular pedicle may damage the vas deferens and the testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/PurposeThe authors aimed to investigate the effects of temporary stretching of the spermatic cord, a commonly performed manipulation during inguinal surgery, on the vas deferens and the testis.

Haluk Ceylan; Metin Karakök; Emin Güldür; Beyhan Cengiz; Cahit Ba?c?; Erol Mir

2003-01-01

414

Cavernous haemangioma of the testis mimicking as testicular malignancy in an adolescent.  

PubMed

Haemangioma of the testis is a rare condition. This benign vascular neoplasm may arise either within the testicular parenchyma (intratesticular) as in this case or from adnexal structures of the testis (extratesticular). Intratesticular haemangioma is rarer than extratesticular form. Intratesticular vascular neoplasms are extremely rare tumours and mostly seen in children or young adults. There are 21 reported testicular haemangioma cases in the literature as indexed in PubMed. Since 2007, only 19 cases of cavernous haemangioma have been reported in the literature in PubMed and other indexed sites. We report a case of cavernous haemangioma of the testis to attract attention to testicular haemangioma and also to prevent invasive surgery of the testis. PMID:24215057

Naveed, S; Quari, H; Sharma, H

2013-11-01

415

Cystic Dysplasia of the Rete Testis: A Benign Congenital Lesion Associated With Ipsilateral Urological Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeCystic dysplasia of the rete testis is a benign congenital lesion that can mimic testicular cancer. We report 6 cases, review the literature, discuss the embryological etiology and make management recommendations.

Louis J. Wojcik; Katrine Hansen; David A. Diamond; Martin Koyle; Stephen A. Koff; Douglas E. Coplen; Anthony A. Caldamone

1997-01-01

416

Mammary gland tumors in captive African hedgehogs.  

PubMed

From December 1995 to July 1999, eight mammary gland tumors were diagnosed in eight adult captive female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). The tumors presented as single or multiple subcutaneous masses along the cranial or caudal abdomen that varied in size for each hedgehog. Histologically, seven of eight (88%) mammary gland tumors were malignant. Tumors were classified as solid (4 cases), tubular (2 cases), and papillary (2 cases). Seven tumors had infiltrated into the surrounding stroma and three tumors had histologic evidence of neoplastic vascular invasion. Three hedgehogs had concurrent neoplasms. These are believed to be the first reported cases of mammary gland tumors in African hedgehogs. PMID:10813628

Raymond, J T; Gerner, M

2000-04-01

417

[Primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland].  

PubMed

Malignant primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland is a rare disease generally occurring women in the 6(th) or 7(th) decade of life. The principal clinical sign is giant goiter rapidly leading to sings of compression, raising the question of differential diagnosis with anaplastic cancer. The radiological findings in our patient were suggestive of malignancy due to the locoregional invasion. Immunohistochemistry study of the surgical specimen was required to reach the definitive diagnosis of thyroid gland primary lymphoma. Diagnosis of malignant primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland made at the stage of extensive locoregional extension compromises prognosis. Our patient died after one session of chemotherapy. PMID:12193880

Ibnou Soufyane, N; Chadli, A; El Ghomari, H; Essodegui, F; Marouan, F; El Farouqi, A; Ababou, M R; Kafih, M

2002-06-01

418

[Laparoscopic interventions for adrenal gland tumor].  

PubMed

Clinical course, hormonal characteristics and efficacy of rehabilitation were studied by the authors in 12 patients with suprarenal gland tumor, operated, using minimally invasive endoscopic intervention--laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA). Efficacy, indications, contraindications, role of LA in the treatment of surgical adrenal diseases were analyzed. LA is characterized by invasiveness and traumaticity, adequate radicalism, quick rehabilitation, and good remote results. LA is indicated for the treatment of majority of hyperplastic and tumoral diseases of suprarenal glands: it is possible to operate 60% of patients with surgical diseases of suprarenal glands using endoscopic technology. PMID:16719074

Diachenko, V V; Nichita?lo, M E; Kvacheniuk, A N; Gul'ko, O N

2006-01-01

419

Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the sublingual gland.  

PubMed

A case of mucinous (colloid) adenocarcinoma of the sublingual gland is reported. Adenocarcinomas associated with large pools of extracellular mucin are extremely rare in the major salivary glands. Analysis of the tumor for cytokeratin expression, estrogen and progesterone receptors was performed. Predominantly, the tumor expressed cytokeratins 7, 8, 18 and 19 that are commonly found in simple epithelia, and to a lesser degree cytokeratins 4 and 13 which are usually found in complex epithelia. Staining for estrogen and progesterone receptors was negative. No other cancer has been detected for three years after the first examination. The tumor is considered to be a primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the sublingual gland. PMID:9176796

Krogdahl, A S; Schou, C

1997-04-01

420

Metabolomic evaluation of rat liver and testis to characterize the toxicity of triazole fungicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of two triazole fungicides, myclobutanil and triadimefon, on endogenous rat metabolite profiles in blood serum, liver, and testis was assessed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for 14 days with myclobutanil or triadimefon, at two dose levels for each triazole. Following exposure, serum, liver, and testis were collected and

Drew R. Ekman; Hector C. Keun; Charles D. Eads; Carrie M. Furnish; Rachel N. Murrell; John C. Rockett; David J. Dix

2006-01-01

421

Cytokines and junction restructuring events during spermatogenesis in the testis: An emerging concept of regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During spermatogenesis in mammalian testes, junction restructuring takes place at the Sertoli–Sertoli and Sertoli–germ cell interface, which is coupled with germ cell development, such as cell cycle progression, and translocation of the germ cell within the seminiferous epithelium. In the rat testis, restructuring of the blood–testis barrier (BTB) formed between Sertoli cells near the basement membrane and disruption of the

Michelle W. M. Li; Dolores D. Mruk; Will M. Lee; C. Yan Cheng

2009-01-01

422

Radiation damage to mouse testis cells from (\\/sup 99m\\/Tc) pertechnetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation dose and the biologic damage to mouse testis from intravenously administered (\\/sup 99m\\/Tc) pertechnetate were studied. The dose was measured for penetrating radiations from \\/sup 99m\\/Tc, using calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters and calculations from the uptake of the nuclide in the testis, and was found to be 4.9 rads per mCi of ⁹⁹Tc. The biologic damage was measured by

T. A. Mian; N. Suzuki; H. J. Glenn; T. P. Haynie; M. L. Meistrich

1977-01-01

423

Immunohistopathology of the contralateral testis of rats undergoing experimental torsion of the spermatic cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To evaluate the immunohistopathological changes in the contralateral testis of rats after an experimental spermatic cord torsion.Methods:Male Sprague–Dawley rats of 45–50 days old were subjected to a 720° unilateral spermatic cord torsion for 10, 30 and 80 days (experimental group, E), respectively or sham operation (control group, C). Histopathology of the contralateral testis as well as germ cell apoptosis were

Marcelo G. Rodriguez; Claudia Rival; Maria S. Theas; Livia Lustig

2006-01-01

424

The changes of heavy metal and metallothionein distribution in testis induced by cadmium exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium (Cd) is known to cause various disorders in the testis, and metallothionein (MT) is known as a protein, which has\\u000a a detoxification function for heavy metals. However, the changes of Fe, Cu, and Zn distribution in the testis induced by Cd\\u000a exposure have not been well examined. Moreover, only a few studies have been reported on the localization of

Takahiko Kusakabe; Katsuyuki Nakajima; Keiji Suzuki; Kyoumi Nakazato; Hisashi Takada; Takahiro Satoh; Masakazu Oikawa; Kenji Kobayashi; Hiroshi Koyama; Kazuo Arakawa; Takeaki Nagamine

2008-01-01

425

Tubular damage caused by local thermal injury or microembolization of the rat testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The damage of seminiferous tubules produced by local thermal coagulation at the testicular capsule was studied in the rat\\u000a testis histologically and microangiographically. In the shorter portion of the damaged tubules, the germinal epithelium degenerates\\u000a and the degeneration advances into the rete testis between 8 and 16 days after the injury. The degenerated seminiferous epithelium\\u000a shows no signs of recovery

H. Suoranta

1971-01-01

426

Effects of TGFbeta2 on wild-type and Tgfbr3 knockout mouse fetal testis.  

PubMed

TGFBR3 (betaglycan), a TGFbeta superfamily coreceptor, is essential for normal seminiferous cord and Leydig cell development in the fetal mouse testis and has been associated with testicular dysgenesis syndrome in men. However, the mechanisms underlying TGFBR3-regulated testis development are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that loss of Tgfbr3 compromises the functions of TGFbeta2 in the differentiating fetal testis. Analysis of expression of transcripts encoding the TGFbeta superfamily members showed a predominance of TGFbeta mRNAs during the critical window of development when testis structure is established (11.5-14.5 days postcoitum [dpc]). When cultured under basal conditions for 2 days, explants of 13.5 dpc wild-type fetal testis/mesonephros complexes exhibited structure and gene expression profiles resembling those observed in vivo between 13.5-15.5 dpc. Similarly, development of Tgfbr3 knockout testis explants recapitulated the dysgenesis and decreased somatic cell marker expression previously observed in vivo. TGFbeta2 treatment partially rescued cord development in 11.5-13.5 dpc Tgfbr3 knockout explants but did not significantly alter somatic or germ cell gene expression. In contrast, TGFbeta2 treatment of wild-type explants disrupted cord structure and significantly downregulated the somatic and steroidogenic cell markers Amh, Sf1, Star, Cyp11a, Hsd3b1, and Cyp17a1. We conclude that 1) the compromised cord development in Tgfbr3 null fetal testis is due to, at least in part, disrupted TGFbeta2 function; 2) the reduction in steroidogenesis observed in the Tgfbr3 null testis may be regulated by additional TGFBR3 ligands, rather than TGFbeta2; and 3) both cord maintenance and somatic cell development are highly sensitive to the levels of TGFbeta2. PMID:23303681

Sarraj, Mai A; Escalona, Ruth M; Western, Patrick; Findlay, Jock K; Stenvers, Kaye L

2013-03-01

427

Induction of oxidative stress by organic hydroperoxides in testis and epididymal sperm of rats in vivo.  

PubMed

The present study describes the extent and pattern of oxidative stress induction in testis and epididymal sperm of rats following in vivo exposure to repeated sublethal doses of 2 model pro-oxidants, namely, t-butyl hydroperoxide (tbHP) and cumene hydroperoxide (cHP). Single sublethal (1/40, 1/20, and 1/10 LD(50)) doses of hydroperoxides (HP) administered intraperitoneally to male rats (CFT-Wistar strain) failed to induce any significant increase in malondialdehyde or reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in testis or epididymal sperm. However, repeated doses for 1 or 2 weeks induced a marked dose-related enhancement of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and ROS levels in both testis and epididymal sperm. Further evidence, such as significant perturbations in both enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants and enhanced levels of protein carbonyls in testis, suggested induction of oxidative stress. In testis, moderate depletion in reduced glutathione levels and marked diminution in ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol content were accompanied by increased activities of various antioxidant enzymes, namely glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, and catalase, in both the HP treatments. Furthermore, significant alterations in the specific activities of testicular enzymes such as LDH-X, G-6-PDH, and SDH indicated altered testicular physiology. Both HP at higher doses induced significant DNA damage (determined by fluorimetric analysis of DNA unwinding assay) in testis and epididymal sperm. Increased total iron levels in testis of HP-treated rats are indicative of the possible involvement of iron-mediated free radical reactions in this model. These findings provide an account of early oxidative damage in testis and epididymal sperm following short-term exposure to HP in vivo, and this model is being further exploited for understanding the consequences of chronic oxidative stress-mediated alterations for the physiology of male reproductive system and its implications for fertility. PMID:16928893

Kumar, Thimmappa R; Muralidhara

2007-01-01

428

Phenotypic plasticity in sperm production rate: there’s more to it than testis size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary theory predicts that males should produce more sperm when sperm competition is high. Because sperm production\\u000a rate is difficult to measure in most organisms, comparative and experimental studies have typically used testis size instead,\\u000a while assuming a good correspondence between testis size and sperm production rate. Here we evaluate this common assumption\\u000a using the marine flatworm Macrostomum lignano, in

Lukas Schärer; Dita B. Vizoso

2007-01-01

429

New exocrine glands in ants: the hypostomal gland and basitarsal gland in the genus Melissotarsus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fisher and Robertson (Insect Soc 46: 78-83, 1999) discovered the production of silk-like secretions emerging from slit-shaped openings along the anterior margin of the ventral hypostoma of Melissotarsus ant workers. The current histological study describes a hitherto unknown hypostomal gland from which this silk-like substance originates. In addition, this study describes a new basitarsal gland in the three pairs of legs of Melissotarsus workers.

Hölldobler, Bert; Obermayer, Malu; Plowes, Nicola J. R.; Fisher, Brian L.

2014-06-01

430

Evolution of the mammary gland from the innate immune system?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The mammary gland is a skin gland unique to the class Mammalia. Despite a growing molecular and histological understanding of the development and physiology of the mammarygland,itsfunctionalandmorphologicalorigins have remained speculative. Numerous theories on the origin of the mammary gland and lactation exist. The purpose of the mammary gland is to provide the newborn with copious amounts of milk, a

Claudia Vorbach; Mario R. Capecchi; Josef M. Penninger

2006-01-01

431

0610009K11Rik, a testis-specific and germ cell nuclear receptor-interacting protein  

PubMed Central

Using an in silico approach, a putative nuclear receptor-interacting protein 0610009K11Rik was identified in mouse testis. We named this gene as testis-specific nuclear receptor-interacting protein-1 (Tnrip-1). Tnrip-1 was predominantly expressed in the testis of adult mouse tissues. Expression of Tnrip-1 in the testis was regulated during postnatal development, with robust expression in 14-day-old or older testes. In situ hybridization analyses showed that Tnrip-1 is highly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes and spermatids. Consistent with its mRNA expression, Tnrip-1 protein was detected in adult mouse testes. Immunohistochemical studies showed that Tnrip-1 is a nuclear protein and mainly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation analyses showed that endogenous Tnrip-1 protein can interact with germ cell nuclear receptor (GCNF) in adult mouse testes. Our results suggest that Tnrip-1 is a testis-specific and GCNF-interacting protein which may be involved in modulation of GCNF-mediated gene transcription in spermatogenic cells within the testis.

Zhang, Heng; Denhard, Leslie A.; Zhou, Huaxin; Liu, Lan-Hsin; Lan, Zi-Jian

2008-01-01

432

Ontogenesis and cell specific localization of Fas ligand expression in the rat testis.  

PubMed

Over the past few years, a number of experimental evidences suggested the involvement of Fas Ligand (FasL) expressing Sertoli cells to induce apoptosis of Fas bearing germ cells. However, the FasL expression during testicular development and its cell specific localization within the testis is still a matter of debate. In the present study, we have monitored FasL expression during rat testis development by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and evaluated cell specific localization of FasL expression, by in situ RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, on adult rat testis. RT-PCR analysis, performed on total RNA from rat testes obtained from 1 day up to 1-year-old animals, demonstrated the presence of FasL transcripts at all developmental stages examined. In situ RT-PCR analysis clearly indicated the presence of FasL mRNA in Sertoli cells of adult testis, while we could never detect FasL transcripts in germ cells. Immunohistochemistry experiments showed a strong immunostaining for FasL in Sertoli cells of adult testis and again, no immunopositivity was observed in germ cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that FasL expression in rat testis is present from the early postnatal days up to the adult, and the Sertoli cells is the main FasL expressing cell within the seminiferous tubule. PMID:15379972

D'Abrizio, Piera; Baldini, Enke; Russo, Paola F; Biordi, Leda; Graziano, Filomena M; Rucci, Nadia; Properzi, Giuliana; Francavilla, Sandro; Ulisse, Salvatore

2004-10-01

433

Teasing out the role of aromatase in the healthy and diseased testis  

PubMed Central

Scientific discoveries over the past decade have shifted the stereotypical view of androgens as male hormones and estrogens as female hormones. It is now recognized that a delicate balance of both androgens and estrogens, a process controlled by aromatase, is fundamental for normal testicular development and fertility. While the site-specific actions of these two classes of steroids within the testis are becoming better documented, the role and regulation of estrogen biosynthesis by aromatase within the testis remains unclear. The majority of data comes from a wide range of animal species, particularly genetically modified mouse models; aromatase knockout (ArKO) and overexpressing (AROM+), with limited information on humans, however the existence of congenital aromatase mutations has provided some insight into its effects on individual parameters of the testis. This review dissects out the localization and activity of aromatase in the healthy and diseased testis, addresses the cellular insult to the testis that occurs in its absence and over abundance and proposes potential molecular mechanisms of aromatase regulation in the testis.

Haverfield, Jenna T; Ham, Seungmin; Brown, Kristy A; Simpson, Evan R

2011-01-01

434

Androcam is a tissue-specific light chain for myosin VI in the Drosophila testis.  

PubMed

Myosin VI, a ubiquitously expressed unconventional myosin, has roles in a broad array of biological processes. Unusual for this motor family, myosin VI moves toward the minus (pointed) end of actin filaments. Myosin VI has two light chain binding sites that can both bind calmodulin (CaM). However unconventional myosins could use tissue-specific light chains to modify their activity. In the Drosophila testis, myosin VI is important for maintenance of moving actin structures, called actin cones, which mediate spermatid individualization. A CaM-related protein, Androcam (Acam), is abundantly expressed in the testis and like myosin VI, accumulates on these cones. We have investigated the possibility that Acam is a testis-specific light chain of Drosophila myosin VI. We find that Acam and myosin VI precisely colocalize at the leading edge of the actin cones and that myosin VI is necessary for this Acam localization. Further, myosin VI and Acam co-immunoprecipitate from the testis and interact in yeast two-hybrid assays. Finally Acam binds with high affinity to peptide versions of both myosin VI light chain binding sites. In contrast, although Drosophila CaM also shows high affinity interactions with these peptides, we cannot detect a CaM/myosin VI interaction in the testis. We conclude that Acam and not CaM acts as a myosin VI light chain in the Drosophila testis and hypothesize that it may alter the regulation of myosin VI in this tissue. PMID:16790438

Frank, Deborah J; Martin, Stephen R; Gruender, Bridget N T; Lee, Yung-Sheng R; Simonette, Rebecca A; Bayley, Peter M; Miller, Kathryn G; Beckingham, Kathleen M

2006-08-25

435

Selection for testis size and correlated responses of female reproductive traits in golden hamsters.  

PubMed

Golden hamsters were selected for large (high selection direction: H) and small (low selection direction: L) testis size, as measured in live males at age 13 weeks over six generations. The selection response and correlated responses in female reproductive traits were evaluated in terms of the divergence between H and L lines for testis size. In males, the differences in testis size at 13 weeks, testis weight at 19 weeks, and body weight at 13 and 19 weeks were significant at the 1% level from generation 1 onward. The realized heritability of testis size, as estimated from regression of the selection responses on effective selection differentials, was 0.29. This was similar to the heritability estimated by using the multiple-trait animal model restricted maximum likelihood (0.30). In females, significant differences in ovulation rate at the 5% level were detected in generations 5 and 6. Litter size 1 day after birth also diverged between the H and L lines, but the difference was not consistently significant. The realized genetic correlation between testis size and ovulation rate was 0.67. PMID:23607527

Furukawa, Tsutomu; Awata, Takashi; Satoh, Masahiro

2013-05-01

436

[Pheochromocytomas as adrenal gland incidentalomas].  

PubMed

Adrenal incidentalomas are a heterogeneous group of pathological entities, including benign or malignant adrenocortical or medullary tumors, hormonally active or inactive lesions, which are identified incidentally during the examination of nonadrenal-related abdominal complaints. About 1.5% to 23% of adrenal incidentalomas are pheochromocytomas. Composite pheochromocytoma is a rare tumour of adrenal medulla with divergente clinical course. This type of pheochromocytoma is designated "composite" or "mixed," depending on whether pheochromocytoma and nonpheochromocytoma components show the same embryologic origin. Nonpheochromocytoma components found in the composite pheochromocytoma include ganglioneuroma, ganglioneuroblastoma, neuroblastoma, and malignant schwannoma. The biologic behavior of composite pheochromocytomas may be as difficult to predict as more traditional pheochromocytomas; based on the number of cases reported to date the presence of areas resembling ganglioneuroblastoma or neuroblastoma does not necessary indicate a poor prognosis. Some may behave in a malignant fashion with metastasis by a component of the tumour which has neural features. Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are well-defined entities. Some of their nonsporadic associations and unusual morphological appearances are not universally appreciated. We report on a rare association of left adrenal CP, with typical right adrenal phochromocytoma and retroperitoneal paraganglioma, and a review of literature. We analyzed the clinical and immunohistochemical features in a 24-year-old woman with composite pheochromocytoma localized in the left adrenal gland and associated with blood pressure of 200/140 mmHg. Abdominal computed tomography and 131-J MIBG revealed a 65 x 60 mm mass in the right adrenal gland, but no revealed 45 x 40 mm retroperitoneal mass and 20 x 20 mm mass in the left adrenal region. Serum and urinary adrenaline levels were high, and catecholamine levels in the blood sample of the selective adrenal vein, were also high. Bilateral adrenalectomy and retroperitoneal mass were surgically removed without complications. Clinical symptoms were absent 6 years after surgery. After surgery the patient gave birth to two healthy babies. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that tumour cells of right adrenal pheochromocytoma and retroperitoneal paraganglioma were strongly positive for neurone specific enolase, synaptophisin and chromogranin A. The left adrenal tumour showed pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuroma and neuroblastoma components. Immunoreactivity of this tumour added several features to the wide immunohistochemical spectrum. This case demonstrates the indolent behavior of sporadic-type CP and retroperitoneal paraganglioma in an adult patient. Unusual morphological features of CP occur in a substantial number of cases and may cause diagnostic problems. PMID:12584998

Cerovi?, Snezana; Cizmi?, Milica; Milovi?, Novak; Ajdinovi?, Boris; Brajuskovi?, Goran

2002-07-01

437

Accessory roots in maxillary molar teeth: a review and endodontic considerations.  

PubMed

Maxillary molar teeth may have accessory roots. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss the endodontic implications of this anatomical variation. A review of the literature was undertaken to identify studies and reported cases where accessory roots have been recorded in maxillary molar teeth. The results show that although the prevalence of accessory roots in maxillary molar teeth is low, they can exist in all three types of maxillary molar teeth, and they may be located palatally, buccally, mesially or distally. Hence, it is essential that dentists undertaking root canal treatment thoroughly assess all teeth to determine how many roots are present in order to provide the best possible outcome of treatment for the patient. PMID:22624750

Ahmed, H M A; Abbott, P V

2012-06-01

438

Simultaneous occurrence of an aberrant right subclavian artery and accessory lobe of the liver.  

PubMed

We herein report a case showing the simultaneous occurrence of an aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) and accessory lobe of the liver in a 75-year-old female cadaver. In the thorax, the left aortic arch branched into the right common carotid artery, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery, and ARSA, in that order. The ARSA was dilated at its origin to form Kommerell's diverticulum and coursed behind the esophagus. This diverticulum seemed to press the esophagus. A right-sided thoracic duct was identified that emptied into the angulus venosus. In the right-sided neck, a nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve was found. In the abdominal cavity, an accessory lobe protruded from the anterior margin of the left liver lobe. The accessory lobe was separated from the left lobe by a transverse furrow on the anterior side. We discuss possible common causes of these anomalies during development. PMID:21331760

Kaidoh, Toshiyuki; Inoué, Takao

2011-09-01

439

Meningioma of the accessory nerve extending from the jugular foramen into the parapharyngeal space.  

PubMed

A 35-year-old man presented with pain in the right shoulder and neck for 18 months. The neurological examination revealed complete accessory nerve palsy on the right side without further deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a right parapharyngeal tumour expanding into the posterior fossa through the jugular foramen without dural attachment and absence of invasion into the middle ear cavity or internal auditory meatus. Intraoperative inspection disclosed a tumour originating from the accessory nerve. Histological diagnosis revealed a meningothelial meningioma with invasion of the epineural space. To the knowledge of the authors this is the first report of an accessory nerve meningioma in the jugular foramen associated with a posterior fossa component and extension into the parapharyngeal space. PMID:15877177

Tatagiba, M; Koerbel, A; Bornemann, A; Freudenstein, D

2005-08-01

440

Accessory lateral rectus in a patient with normal ocular motor control.  

PubMed

: Although supernumerary extraocular muscles are common in monkeys and other species, they are relatively rare in humans and typically are noted in the context of childhood strabismus. We present a case of an incidentally found unilateral accessory lateral rectus muscle in a 51-year-old woman with normal ocular motor control. In this patient, the accessory lateral rectus was approximately 10% the size of a normally sized lateral rectus muscle. It originated from the orbital apex, traveled between the optic nerve and the lateral rectus and attached to the superolateral aspect of the globe. This unique case demonstrates that accessory lateral rectus in humans may have no impact on eye movement and ocular alignment. PMID:24796602

Liao, Yaping Joyce; Hwang, Jaclyn J

2014-06-01

441

Epidermoid cyst arising from an intrapancreatic accessory spleen: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

We describe an epidermoid cyst arising from an accessory spleen of the pancreas. A 56-year-old female with iron deficiency anemia presented with dizziness. During the clinical workup, a 2×4 cm-sized mass was incidentally detected in the tail of the pancreas in a computed tomography (CT) scan. Under a clinical diagnosis of pancreatic cystic malignant tumor, a distal pancreatectomy was carried out. Grossly, the lesion was composed of a solid and cystic portion. Microscopic analysis revealed that the solid portion was an intrapancreatic accessory spleen and the cystic portion was an epidermoid cyst. An epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen is extremely rare and hence difficult to diagnose pre-operatively. Taking into account the possibility of such a cyst in the differential diagnosis of intrapancreatic cystic lesion is recommended.

HONG, RAN; CHOI, NAMKYU; SUN, KYUNGHOON; LIM, SHARON; HAN, YUNJU

2013-01-01

442

The morphometry of the accessory leaflets of the tricuspid valve in a four cuspidal model.  

PubMed

The tricuspid valve is of great importance because of the progress made in operative techniques and invasive cardiology accidents. This structure is more differentiated during evolution than the mitral valve. Accessory leaflets, their frequency and role are still controversial, despite the fact that they have been known from the beginning of the 20th century. The number of leaflets in the tricuspid valve grows in an evolutionary line, but the rules governing their appearance are still not known. The samples were taken from a group of 107 human adult hearts. The four-cuspidal form of the tricuspid valve was used as the simplest model to show the appearance of accessory leaflets for anatomical and