Sample records for testis accessory gland

  1. First Transcriptome of the Testis-Vas Deferens-Male Accessory Gland and Proteome of the Spermatophore from Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel E. Sonenshine; Brooke W. Bissinger; Noble Egekwu; Kevin V. Donohue; Sayed M. Khalil; R. Michael Roe

    2011-01-01

    Ticks are important vectors of numerous human diseases and animal diseases. Feeding stimulates spermatogenesis, mating and insemination of male factors that trigger female reproduction. The physiology of male reproduction and its regulation of female development are essentially a black box. Several transcriptomes have catalogued expression of tick genes in the salivary glands, synganglion and midgut but no comprehensive investigation has

  2. Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner’s body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

  3. Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products.

    PubMed

    Zizzari, Z Valentina; Smolders, Irene; Koene, Joris M

    2014-01-01

    To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner's body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

  4. Regucalcin Expression in Bovine Tissues and Its Regulation by Sex Steroid Hormones in Accessory Sex Glands

    PubMed Central

    Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Divari, Sara; Mulasso, Chiara; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca T.

    2014-01-01

    Regucalcin (RGN) is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle. PMID:25415588

  5. Trehalase from the bean-shaped accessory glands and the spermatophore of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshinobu Yaginuma; George M. Happ

    1988-01-01

    InTenebrio molitor, male adults transfer sperm to the female via a spermatophore or sperm sac. The spermatophore is formed from secretions of the bean-shaped accessory glands (BAGs) and the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of the male beetle. Trehalase is found in the adult BAGs. During the pupal stage, the activity in the BAGs was very low. After adult ecdysis, the

  6. Male Accessory Gland Secretory Proteins in a Few Members of the Drosophila nasuta Subgroup

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ravi Ram; S. R. Ramesh

    2001-01-01

    Male accessory gland secretory proteins in seven members of the Drosophila nasuta subgroup have been analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The study revealed remarkable simplicity in the patterns. The protein fractions, which migrate in three groups, could be categorized as “major” and “minor.” The number of major fractions varies from a maximum of eight to a minimum of four. Group I consists

  7. Sexual Selection on Accessory Glands, Genitalia and Protarsal Pads in the Whirligig Beetle Dineutus nigrior Roberts

    E-print Network

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht

    Sexual Selection on Accessory Glands, Genitalia and Protarsal Pads in the Whirligig Beetle Dineutus­male competition (e.g. Simmons & Tomkins 1996; Bean & Cook 2001; Kelly 2005; Kodric-Brown et al. 2006 selection the trait often exhibits positive allometry. Mating behavior in whirligig beetles consists

  8. Immunohistochemical characterisation of cholinergic nerve fibres supplying accessory genital glands in the pig

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. KLIMCZUK; J. KALECZYC; A. FRANKE-RADOWIECKA; K. CZAJA; P. PODLASZ; M. LAKOMY

    2005-01-01

    Our previous immunohistochemical investigations revealed three major populations of nerve fibres supplying the porcine accessory genital glands (AGG) including noradrenergic, non-noradrenergic putative cholin - ergic and sensory nerve terminals (Kaleczyc et al., 1997). However, it is still unclear whether the non-noradrenergic nerve fibres are cholinergic in nature. The knowledge of the population of cholinergic nerve fibres in mammalian AGG based

  9. Cloning of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Precursor and Receptor in Rat Thymus, Adrenal Gland, and Testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEAN-JACQUES MONTAGNE; ALI LADRAM; PIERRE NICOLAS; MARC BULANT

    1999-01-01

    TRH is a hypophysiotropic peptide that acts mainly via the hypo- thalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, but TRH immunoreactivity is also detected in several peripheral tissues. PCR with two pairs of primers enabling amplification of three fragments of TRH complementary DNA (cDNA) was used to demonstrate local production of TRH. Prod- ucts of the expected size were detected in the testis, adrenal gland,

  10. Cyclic guanosine 3'-5'-monphosphate. High levels in the male accessory gland of Acheta domesticus and related crickets.

    PubMed

    Fallon, A M; Wyatt, G R

    1975-12-01

    Guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic GMP) was found in the accessory gland of reproductively mature male house crickets (Acheta domesticus (L.)) up to the exceptionally high level of 500 pmol/mg protein (10(-4) mol/kg wet weight). The identity of cricket cyclic GMP was confirmed by enzymatic and spectral analysis. A survey of 10 closely related species of Orthoptera indicated that high levels of cyclic GMP in the accessory gland occur in the subfamily Gryllinae, to which A. domesticus belongs. In these crickets, cyclic GMP in the accessory gland increases together with protein content during two weeks after the final molt. Levels are not augmented by dissection, and are independent of the presence of sperm in the seminal vesicles and of the production of spermatophores by the gland. The function of cyclic GMP in the accessory gland is not yet understood. PMID:172136

  11. The eyestalk-androgenic gland-testis endocrine axis in the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus.

    PubMed

    Khalaila, Isam; Manor, Rivka; Weil, Simy; Granot, Yosef; Keller, Rainer; Sagi, Amir

    2002-06-15

    In decapod crustaceans, a number of neurohormones regulating a variety of physiological processes, including reproduction, are to be found in the X-organ-sinus gland complex of the eyestalk. Bilateral eyestalk ablation was thus performed in mature males of the Australian red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus with the aim of studying the role of eyestalk-borne hormones on spermatogenic activity in the testis and on the androgenic gland (AG). The latter gland controls the differentiation and functioning of male sexual characteristics in crustaceans. Eyestalk ablation caused hypertrophy of the AG, as indicated by an increase in gland weight (3.9 +/- 0.44 mg vs < 0.1mg in intact males) and by overexpression of AG polypeptides. In the testes of eyestalk-ablated males, empty spermatogenic lobules were common, while lobules containing primary spermatocytes were infrequent. These findings were reflected in decreased amounts of DNA in these testes and a consequent increase in the relative weights of the sperm ducts. Since it was found that eyestalk ablation affected both the AG and the reproductive system, in vitro experiments were conducted to study the direct effects of the sinus gland on the AG and testes and of the AG on the testes. Sinus gland extracts inhibited by 30% the incorporation of radiolabeled amino acids into AG polypeptides and almost totally inhibited the secretion of radiolabeled AG polypeptides into the culture medium. However, sinus gland extracts had no significant effects on testicular tissue. On the other hand, AG extracts affected the in vitro phosphorylation of a testicular polypeptide (of 28 kDa), in a time- and dose-dependent manner, suggesting a direct effect of AG-borne hormones on the testes. The above findings, together with the evidence for direct inhibition by the sinus gland on the AG, suggest an endocrine axis-like relationship between the sinus gland, the AG, and the male reproductive system in decapod crustaceans. PMID:12383442

  12. Glycosaminoglycans in the accessory sex glands, testes and seminal plasma of alpaca and ram.

    PubMed

    Kershaw-Young, Claire M; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2012-01-01

    The viscous nature of alpaca semen limits its use in cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies. The cause and source of this viscosity is unknown although it has been postulated, but never proven, that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) secreted by the bulbourethral gland are responsible. The present study investigated the concentration and composition of GAGs in alpaca seminal plasma, testes, bulbourethral gland and prostate gland and compared them to those in the ram to determine the relationship between seminal plasma GAGs and viscosity and to identify the source of seminal plasma GAGs. Alpaca seminal plasma contained more GAGs than ram (P<0.001) and the predominant GAG, keratan sulfate, was correlated with viscosity (P=0.05, R(2)=0.2635). The alpaca bulbourethral gland contained most GAGs compared with prostate or testis (P<0.001). In the ram, the prostate contained most GAGs. These findings suggest that GAGs, particularly keratan sulfate, may be the cause of seminal plasma viscosity in alpacas, and that the seminal plasma GAGs originate from the bulbourethral gland. PMID:22281083

  13. Immunolocalization of murine type VI 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the adrenal gland, testis, skin, and placenta.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Koki; Doi, Masao; Hayashi, Hida; Ota, Takumi; Murai, Iori; Hotta, Yunhong; Komatsu, Rie; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2014-01-25

    The enzyme 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase (3?-HSD) is essential for the biosynthesis of all active steroid hormones, such as those secreted from the adrenal gland, testis, ovary, skin and placenta. The 3?-HSD enzymes exist in multiple isoforms in humans and rodents. To date, six different isoforms have been identified in the mouse, and these isoforms are speculated to play different roles in different tissues. We previously showed that the murine type VI 3?-HSD isoform (Hsd3b6) is expressed specifically in the aldosterone-producing zona glomerulosa cells within the adrenal gland and that its overexpression causes abnormally increased aldosterone synthesis, revealing a crucial (or rate-limiting) role of this enzyme in steroidogenesis. However, potential contributions of this enzyme to the steroid hormone synthesis outside the adrenal glands are poorly understood. This paucity of knowledge is partly because of the lack of isoform-specific antibody that can be used for immunohistochemistry. Here, we report the development and characterization of specific antibody to Hsd3b6 and show the results of immunohistochemistry for the adrenal gland, testis, ovary, skin and placenta. As expected, Hsd3b6 immunoreactivities within the adrenal gland were essentially confined to the zona glomerulosa cells, where aldosterone is produced. By contrast, no immunopositive cells were observed in the zona fasciculata, which is where corticosterone is produced. In the gonads, while the ovaries did not show any detectable immunoreactivity to Hsd3b6, the testes displayed intense immunoreactivities within the interstitial Leydig cells, where testosterone is produced. In the skin, positive immunoreactivities to Hsd3b6 were only seen in the sebaceous glands, suggesting a specific role of this enzyme in sebaceous function. Moreover, in the placenta, Hsd3b6 was specifically found in the giant trophoblast cells surrounding the embryonic cavity, which suggests a role for this enzyme in local progesterone production that is required for proper embryonic implantation and/or maintenance of pregnancy. Taken together, our data revealed that Hsd3b6 is localized in multiple specific tissues and cell types, perhaps thereby involved in biosynthesis of a number of tissue-specific steroid hormones with different physiological roles. PMID:24075909

  14. Angiotensin converting enzyme in the brain, testis, epididymis, pituitary gland and adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Strittmatter, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)Captopril binds to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in rat tissue homogenates. The pharmacology, regional distribution and copurification of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding with enzymatic activity demonstrate the selectivity of (/sup 3/H)captopril labeling of ACE. (/sup 3/H)Captopril binding to purified ACE reveals differences in cationic dependence and anionic regulation between substrate catalysis and inhibitor recognition. (/sup 3/H)Captopril association with ACE is entropically driven. The selectivity of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding permits autoradiographic localization of the ACE in the brain, male reproductive system, pituitary gland and adrenal gland. In the brain, ACE is visualized in a striatonigral neuronal pathway which develops between 1 and 7 d after birth. In the male reproductive system, (/sup 3/H)captopril associated silver grains are found over spermatid heads and in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in stages I-VIII and XII-XIV. In the pituitary gland, ACE is localized to the posterior lobe and patches of the anterior lobe. The adrenal medulla contains moderate ACE levels while low levels are found in the adrenal cortex. Adrenal medullary ACE is increased after hypophysectomy and after reserpine treatment. The general of ligand binding techniques for the study of enzymes is demonstrated by the specific labeling of another enzyme, enkephaline convertase, in crude tissue homogenates by the inhibitor (/sup 3/H)GEMSA.

  15. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects.

    PubMed

    Hentze, Julie L; Moeller, Morten E; Jørgensen, Anne F; Bengtsson, Meghan S; Bordoy, Anna M; Warren, James T; Gilbert, Lawrence I; Andersen, Ole; Rewitz, Kim F

    2013-01-01

    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E), the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot), an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH. PMID:23383307

  16. Positive Selection Drives the Evolution of the Acp29AB Accessory Gland Protein in Drosophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Montserrat Aguade

    ABSTRACT Nucleotide sequence,variation at the Acp29AB gene region,has been,surveyed,in Drosophila melanogaster from Spain (12 lines), Ivory Coast (14 lines), and Malawi (13 lines) and in one line of D. simulans. The z1.7-kb region studied encompasses,the Acp29AB gene,that codes for a male accessory gland protein and its flanking regions. Seventy-seven nucleotide,and 8 length polymorphisms,were detected. Nonsynonymous polymorphism was an order of

  17. Chronic prostatitis and male accessory gland infection - is there an impact on male infertility (diagnosis and therapy)?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Everaert; A. Mahmoud; C. Depuydt; M. Maeyaert; F. Comhaire

    2003-01-01

    Summary. The aim of this article was to discuss by means of a review of the literature and own study material the multifactorial aetiology of male infer- tility, extrapolate this hypothesis to male accessory gland infection (MAGI) and relate it to chronic prostatitis and its treatment. Infertility is a multifac- torial disease and diagnosis and therapy must be oriented as

  18. The RED domain of Paired is specifically required for Drosophila accessory gland maturation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Li, Ping; Xue, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved paired domain consists of the N-terminal PAI and the C-terminal RED domains, each containing a helix–turn–helix motif capable of binding DNA. Despite its conserved sequence, the physiological functions of the RED domain remain elusive. Here, we constructed a prd transgene expressing a truncated Paired (Prd) protein without the RED domain, and examined its rescue ability in prd mutants. We found that the RED domain is specifically required for the expression of Acp26Aa and sex peptide in male accessory glands, and the induction of female post-mating response. Our data thus identified an important physiological function for the evolutionarily conserved RED domain. PMID:25694546

  19. Persistence of ultrasound alterations after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin in patients with male accessory gland infection

    PubMed Central

    La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A; Calogero, Aldo E; Bellanca, Salvatore; Salmeri, Mario; Vicari, Enzo

    2012-01-01

    No studies have evaluated the ultrasound features of the male sex accessory glands in infertile patients with bacterial male accessory gland infection (MAGI) according to the microbiological outcomes of bacterial cultures (absent, partial or complete) following antibiotic therapy administration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound characteristics of the prostate, seminal vesicles, and epididymal tracts after treatment with levofloxacin (a common quinolone antibiotic), in patients with infections caused by Escherichia coli (a Gram-negative bacterium) according to the Naber's classification, which includes the following categories: eradication, eradication with superinfection, persistence and persistence with superinfection. The study was conducted in 100 patients aged 25±8 years (range: 20–40 years) with bacterial MAGI and bacterial cultures positive only for E. coli (colony forming units ?106 per ml). Retrospective analysis was conducted only on patients treated with oral levofloxacin (500 mg) administered once daily for 28 days who were recruited over the last 5 years. Following antibiotic treatment, patients with microbiological persistence or persistence with superinfection had a significantly higher percentage of ultrasound abnormalities suggestive of prostato-vesiculitis (PV) (30.2% and 36.0%, respectively) or prostato-vesiculo-epididymitis (PVE) (60.2% and 70.0%, respectively) compared with patients with microbiological eradication (PV=10.2% and PVE=8.2%, respectively) or eradication with superinfection (PV=18.8% and PVE=21.2%, respectively). In conclusion, patients with microbiological persistence or persistence plus superinfection showed the highest prevalence of complicated forms of MAGI (PV and PVE), compared with patients with microbiological eradication or eradication with superinfection. PMID:23064686

  20. Morphology and Ultrastructure of the Accessory Glands in the Female Genital Tract of the House Cricket, Acheta domesticus

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The accessory glands in the genital tract of female Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) were investigated in detail. The glands are situated within the 7th and 8th abdominal segment and lead to the genital chamber lateral to the terminal papilla of the ductus receptaculi. The shape of the gland is characterized by a complex system of tubules, including numerous ramifications. The gland's size ranges from 2 to 4 mm. The epithelium is constructed according to a simple scheme and consists of a cuticular intima at the luminal side, one layer of gland cells, and a basallamina at the outermost side. The observed morphology of the accessory glands widely corresponds with that in other cricket species (e.g., Teleogryllus commodus). This is also true for the structure of a single gland cell, which can be subdivided into a basal part with nucleus and intracellular cisternae, as well as an apical part with all those compartments responsible for the production of the secretion. The secretion itself may be classified as lipophilic and is produced for the first time 4 to 6 days after the imaginai moult. Several endogenic functions of the secretion are discussed (lubricant for oviposition, support for introducing the tube of the spermatophore into the ductus receptaculi, etc.). PMID:23425229

  1. Morphology and ultrastructure of the accessory glands in the female genital tract of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The accessory glands in the genital tract of female Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) were investigated in detail. The glands are situated within the 7(th) and 8(th) abdominal segment and lead to the genital chamber lateral to the terminal papilla of the ductus receptaculi. The shape of the gland is characterized by a complex system of tubules, including numerous ramifications. The gland's size ranges from 2 to 4 mm. The epithelium is constructed according to a simple scheme and consists of a cuticular intima at the luminal side, one layer of gland cells, and a basallamina at the outermost side. The observed morphology of the accessory glands widely corresponds with that in other cricket species (e.g., Teleogryllus commodus). This is also true for the structure of a single gland cell, which can be subdivided into a basal part with nucleus and intracellular cisternae, as well as an apical part with all those compartments responsible for the production of the secretion. The secretion itself may be classified as lipophilic and is produced for the first time 4 to 6 days after the imaginai moult. Several endogenic functions of the secretion are discussed (lubricant for oviposition, support for introducing the tube of the spermatophore into the ductus receptaculi, etc.). PMID:23425229

  2. Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.

    PubMed

    Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2014-10-01

    Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands. PMID:25160003

  3. Structure and expression of a Drosophila male accessory gland gene whose product resembles a peptide pheromone precursor.

    PubMed

    Monsma, S A; Wolfner, M F

    1988-09-01

    The accessory gland of male insects is a genital tissue that secretes many components of the ejaculatory fluid, some of which affect the female's receptivity to courtship and her rate of oviposition. We have examined the structure and expression of two tightly linked genes that are expressed exclusively in the male accessory glands of adult Drosophila melanogaster. The two genes are transcribed from the same strand of DNA, and are separated by 20 bases. Both genes are regulated by the sex determination hierarchy and are expressed in the absence of germ cells. Immunological analysis reveals the protein products of at least one of these genes in the secretion of the accessory gland. The proteins are transferred to the female fly during copulation and are rapidly altered in the female genital tract. The predicted sequence of one protein has features of a peptide hormone precursor, and a region in which 11 of 17 amino acids are identical to egg-laying hormone (ELH) of the California sea hare, Aplysia californica. PMID:3142802

  4. Male accessory gland substances from Aedes albopictus affect the locomotor activity of Aedes aegypti females

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Codeço, Claudia Torres; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Lounibos, Leon Philip

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is one of the world’s most important mosquito-borne diseases and is usually transmitted by one of two vector species: Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus . These two diurnal mosquitoes are frequently found coexisting in similar habitats, enabling interactions between adults, such as cross-mating. The objective of this study was to assess cross-mating between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males under artificial conditions and evaluate the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti virgin females injected with male accessory gland (MAG) homogenates to infer the physiological and behavioural responses to interspecific mating. After seven days of exposure, 3.3-16% of Ae. aegypti females mated with Ae. albopictus males. Virgin Ae. aegypti females injected with conspecific and heterospecific MAGs showed a general decrease in locomotor activity compared to controls and were refractory to mating with conspecific males. The reduction in diurnal locomotor activity induced by injections of conspecific or heterospecific MAGs is consistent with regulation of female reproductive activities by male substances, which are capable of sterilising female Ae. aegypti through satyrisation by Ae. albopictus . PMID:24473799

  5. Prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in patients with male accessory gland infection.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S; Vicari, E; Condorelli, R A; Franchina, C; Scalia, G; Morgia, G; Perino, A; Schillaci, R; Calogero, A E

    2015-04-01

    The frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the semen of patients with male accessory gland infection (MAGI) was evaluated. One hundred infertile patients with MAGI were classified into group A: patients with an inflammatory MAGI (n = 48) and group B: patients with a microbial form (n = 52). Healthy age-matched fertile men (34.0 ± 4.0 years) made up the control group (n = 20). Amplification of HPV DNA was carried out by HPV-HS Bio nested polymerase chain reaction for the detection of HPV DNA sequences within the L1 ORF. Ten patients in group A (20.8%) and 15 patients in group B (28.8%) had a HPV infection; two controls (10.0%) had HPV infection. Patients with MAGI had a significantly higher frequency of HPV infection compared with controls; patients with a microbial MAGI had significantly higher frequency of HPV infection compared with patients with an inflammatory form (both P < 0.05). Patients with MAGI and HPV had a slight, but significantly lower sperm progressive motility and normal morphology compared with patients with MAGI HPV-negative (P < 0.05). Elevated frequency of HPV infection occurred in patients with MAGI, suggesting that HPV should be investigated in the diagnostic work-up of these patients. PMID:25684094

  6. Male accessory gland inflammation prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly reflecting autonomic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E; La Vignera, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Male accessory gland inflammation or infection (MAGI) is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type 2 diabetes (DM2); specifically, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2 patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles (SVs) in DM2 patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2 patients (i.e. patients with and without symptoms that possibly reflect DAN) and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2 patients with a mean (± s.e.m.) age of 42.0 ± 6.0 years (range: 34–47 years) were classified according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly reflect DAN (group A: DM2 with symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 28 patients and group B: DM2 without symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 32 patients). The patients in Group A exhibited a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in group B patients (P < 0.05); moreover, the Group A patients exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis (P < 0.05). Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in group A compared with group B. PMID:24799635

  7. Bone morphogenetic protein- and mating-dependent secretory cell growth and migration in the Drosophila accessory gland

    PubMed Central

    Leiblich, Aaron; Marsden, Luke; Gandy, Carina; Corrigan, Laura; Jenkins, Rachel; Hamdy, Freddie; Wilson, Clive

    2012-01-01

    The paired male accessory glands of Drosophila melanogaster enhance sperm function, stimulate egg production, and reduce female receptivity to other males by releasing a complex mixture of glycoproteins from a secretory epithelium into seminal fluid. A small subpopulation of about 40 specialized secretory cells, called secondary cells, resides at the distal tip of each gland. We show that these cells grow via mechanisms promoted by mating. If aging males mate repeatedly, a subset of these cells delaminates from and migrates along the apical surface of the glandular epithelium toward the proximal end of the gland. Remarkably, these secretory cells can transfer to females with sperm during mating. The frequency of this event increases with age, so that more than 50% of triple-mated, 18-d-old males transfer secondary cells to females. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling specifically in secondary cells is needed to drive all of these processes and is required for the accessory gland to produce its normal effects on female postmating behavior in multiply mated males. We conclude that secondary cells are secretory cells with unusual migratory properties that can allow them to be transferred to females, and that these properties are a consequence of signaling that is required for secondary cells to maintain their normal reproductive functions as males age and mate. PMID:23129615

  8. Comparative genomics of Roseobacter clade bacteria isolated from the accessory nidamental gland of Euprymna scolopes.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrew J; Fullmer, Matthew S; Gogarten, Johann P; Nyholm, Spencer V

    2015-01-01

    The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) of the female Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, houses a consortium of bacteria including members of the Flavobacteriales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia but is dominated by members of the Roseobacter clade (Rhodobacterales) within the Alphaproteobacteria. These bacteria are deposited into the jelly coat of the squid's eggs, however, the function of the ANG and its bacterial symbionts has yet to be elucidated. In order to gain insight into this consortium and its potential role in host reproduction, we cultured 12 Rhodobacterales isolates from ANGs of sexually mature female squid and sequenced their genomes with Illumina sequencing technology. For taxonomic analyses, the ribosomal proteins of 79 genomes representing both roseobacters and non-roseobacters along with a separate MLSA analysis of 33 housekeeping genes from Roseobacter organisms placed all 12 isolates from the ANG within two groups of a single Roseobacter clade. Average nucelotide identity analysis suggests the ANG isolates represent three genera (Leisingera, Ruegeria, and Tateyamaria) comprised of seven putative species groups. All but one of the isolates contains a predicted Type VI secretion system, which has been shown to be important in secreting signaling and/or effector molecules in host-microbe associations and in bacteria-bacteria interactions. All sequenced genomes also show potential for secondary metabolite production, and are predicted to be involved with the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and/or siderophores. An AHL bioassay confirmed AHL production in three tested isolates and from whole ANG homogenates. The dominant symbiont, Leisingera sp. ANG1, showed greater viability in iron-limiting conditions compared to other roseobacters, possibly due to higher levels of siderophore production. Future comparisons will try to elucidate novel metabolic pathways of the ANG symbionts to understand their putative role in host development. PMID:25755651

  9. Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Prout, T.; Harshman, L.G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female`s reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Diversity and Partitioning of Bacterial Populations within the Accessory Nidamental Gland of the Squid Euprymna scolopes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andrew J.; LaBarre, Brenna A.; Wong Won, Brian S.; Shah, Monica V.; Heng, Steven; Choudhury, Momena H.; Haydar, Shahela A.; Santiago, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Microbial consortia confer important benefits to animal and plant hosts, and model associations are necessary to examine these types of host/microbe interactions. The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) is a female reproductive organ found among cephalopod mollusks that contains a consortium of bacteria, the exact function of which is unknown. To begin to understand the role of this organ, the bacterial consortium was characterized in the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, a well-studied model organism for symbiosis research. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the ANG revealed dense bacterial assemblages of rod- and coccus-shaped cells segregated by morphology into separate, epithelium-lined tubules. The host epithelium was morphologically heterogeneous, containing ciliated and nonciliated cells with various brush border thicknesses. Hemocytes of the host's innate immune system were also found in close proximity to the bacteria within the tubules. A census of 16S rRNA genes suggested that Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia bacteria were prevalent, with members of the genus Phaeobacter dominating the consortium. Analysis of 454-shotgun sequencing data confirmed the presence of members of these taxa and revealed members of a fourth, Flavobacteria of the Bacteroidetes phylum. 16S rRNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that many ANG tubules were dominated by members of specific taxa, namely, Rhodobacterales, Verrucomicrobia, or Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes, suggesting symbiont partitioning to specific host tubules. In addition, FISH revealed that bacteria, including Phaeobacter species from the ANG, are likely deposited into the jelly coat of freshly laid eggs. This report establishes the ANG of the invertebrate E. scolopes as a model to examine interactions between a bacterial consortium and its host. PMID:22504817

  11. Induction of Excessive Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Drosophila Male Accessory Gland Results in Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Clement Y.; Avila, Frank W.; Clark, Andrew G.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when misfolded proteins accumulate in the lumen of the ER. A cell responds to ER stress with the unfolded protein response (UPR), a complex program of transcriptional and translational changes aimed at clearing misfolded proteins. Secretory tissues and cells are particularly well adapted to respond to ER stress because their function requires high protein production and secretory load. The insect male accessory gland (AG) is a secretory tissue involved in male fertility. The AG secretes many seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) essential for male reproduction. Among adult Drosophila tissues, we find that genes upregulated by ER stress are most highly expressed in the AG, suggesting that the AG is already undergoing high levels of ER stress due to its normal secretory functions. We hypothesized that induction of excessive ER stress in the AG above basal levels, would perturb normal function and provide a genetic tool for studying AG and SFP biology. To test this, we genetically induced excessive ER stress in the AG by conditional 1) expression of a misfolded protein or 2) knockdown of the UPR regulatory protein, BiP. Both genetic manipulations induced excessive ER stress in the AG, as indicated by the increase in Xbp1 splicing, a marker of ER stress. Both models resulted in a large decrease in or loss of SFP production and male infertility. Sperm production, motility, and transfer appeared unaffected. The induction of strong ER stress in the insect male AG may provide a simple way for studying or manipulating male fertility, as it eliminates AG function while preserving sperm production. PMID:25742606

  12. Comparative genomics of Roseobacter clade bacteria isolated from the accessory nidamental gland of Euprymna scolopes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andrew J.; Fullmer, Matthew S.; Gogarten, Johann P.; Nyholm, Spencer V.

    2015-01-01

    The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) of the female Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, houses a consortium of bacteria including members of the Flavobacteriales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia but is dominated by members of the Roseobacter clade (Rhodobacterales) within the Alphaproteobacteria. These bacteria are deposited into the jelly coat of the squid’s eggs, however, the function of the ANG and its bacterial symbionts has yet to be elucidated. In order to gain insight into this consortium and its potential role in host reproduction, we cultured 12 Rhodobacterales isolates from ANGs of sexually mature female squid and sequenced their genomes with Illumina sequencing technology. For taxonomic analyses, the ribosomal proteins of 79 genomes representing both roseobacters and non-roseobacters along with a separate MLSA analysis of 33 housekeeping genes from Roseobacter organisms placed all 12 isolates from the ANG within two groups of a single Roseobacter clade. Average nucelotide identity analysis suggests the ANG isolates represent three genera (Leisingera, Ruegeria, and Tateyamaria) comprised of seven putative species groups. All but one of the isolates contains a predicted Type VI secretion system, which has been shown to be important in secreting signaling and/or effector molecules in host–microbe associations and in bacteria–bacteria interactions. All sequenced genomes also show potential for secondary metabolite production, and are predicted to be involved with the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and/or siderophores. An AHL bioassay confirmed AHL production in three tested isolates and from whole ANG homogenates. The dominant symbiont, Leisingera sp. ANG1, showed greater viability in iron-limiting conditions compared to other roseobacters, possibly due to higher levels of siderophore production. Future comparisons will try to elucidate novel metabolic pathways of the ANG symbionts to understand their putative role in host development. PMID:25755651

  13. Structure, histochemistry and seasonal variations of the male reproductive accessory glands in the Pallas's mastiff bat, Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae).

    PubMed

    Christante, Caroline M; Beguelini, Mateus R; Puga, Cintia C I; Negrin, Ana C; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-01-01

    Due to their wide geographical distribution, bats suffer considerable influence from abiotic factors on their reproductive strategies, detected through behavioural or functional assessment of the gonads and accessory glands. The present study aimed to characterise anatomically and morphologically the reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) of Molossus molossus (Molossidae) and evaluate their seasonal variations. The RAGs were removed, fixed, sectioned after histological processing and submitted to the following stains: haematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid--Schiff (PAS) and Gömöri's reticulin. Our data demonstrated that the RAGs of M. molossus are composed of a semi-lobed prostatic complex associated with the urethra and a pair of inguinal bulbourethral glands. Histology and three-dimensional reconstruction of the prostatic complex demonstrated the existence of two regions: ventral and dorsal (named according to the position around the urethra). The two regions had distinctive morphological and histological differences, with the ventral region being the most prominent and the dorsal formed by four lobes. Considering the seasonal evaluation, we can infer that the prostatic complex of M. molossus is active throughout the seasons in São Paulo State (Brazil) and, although each of the prostatic regions has inherent characteristics, they synchronise to establish the main reproductive peak in spring (early rainy season). PMID:25482215

  14. Transcriptional Profiles of Mating-Responsive Genes from Testes and Male Accessory Glands of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Siciliano, Paolo; Meraldi, Alice; Falchetto, Marco; Bonomi, Angelica; Manni, Mosè; Gabrieli, Paolo; Malovini, Alberto; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Aksoy, Serap; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. Methodology/Principal Findings We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. Conclusions/Significance We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male recovery dynamics in terms of accessory gland gene expression profiles and correlated remating inhibition mechanisms may permit the improvement of pest management approaches. PMID:23071645

  15. Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Clark, A G; Aguadé, M; Prout, T; Harshman, L G; Langley, C H

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophilia melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female's reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes, Glucose dehydrogenase (Gld), and Esterase-6 (Est-6). Acp genes encode proteins that are in some cases known to be transmitted to the female in the seminal fluid and are likely candidates for genes that might mediate the phenomenon of sperm displacement. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. PMID:7705622

  16. The effect of metacestodes of Hymenolepis diminuta on the bean-shaped accessory glands in male Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Carver, F J; Hurd, H

    1998-02-01

    Metacestodes of Hymenolepis diminuta affect several aspects of female reproductive physiology in Tenebrio molitor and such effects are mediated via the endocrine system. The effects on male reproduction are less well known and were studied with respect to the Bean-Shaped Accessory Glands (BAGs). The size and wet and dry weight of BAGs from infected and uninfected beetles were compared and rose to a plateau from 0-6 days post-emergence in uninfected beetles but in infected individuals continued to increase in both size and weight. These effects were density independent. Glands from both infected and uninfected beetles were assayed for trehalase activity measured by its ability to convert the sugar trehalose to glucose. The activity of this enzyme, per mg wet weight, was not affected by the parasite. However, total activity per gland increased in infected males. Total protein content and electrophoretic profiles of BAGs from infected and uninfected individuals showed no change in profile but showed an increase in all protein subunits per gland over a broad molecular weight range. PMID:9509029

  17. Adaptive Evolution of Recently Duplicated Accessory Gland Protein Genes in Desert Drosophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley J. Wagstaff; David J. Begun

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between animal mating system variation and patterns of protein polymorphism and divergence is poorly understood. Drosophila provides an excellent system for addressing this issue, as there is abundant interspecific mating system variation. For example, compared toD.melanogaster subgroup species, repleta group species have higher remating rates, delayed sexual maturity, and several other interesting differences. We previously showed that accessory

  18. Detection of 90K/MAC-2BP in the seminal plasma of infertile males with accessory gland infection and the autoimmune pathogenetic hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Caroppo, Ettore; Niederberger, Craig; Iacovazzi, Palma A; Correale, Mario; D'Amato, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate 90K/MAC-2BP, a glycoprotein member of the Scavenger Receptor Cystein Rich superfamily, in the seminal plasma of infertile male patients with male accessory gland infection in order to investigate a putative autoimmune pathogenesis. 90K seminal concentration and sperm parameters were evaluated in 50 patients with male accessory gland infection at baseline and after cycles of treatment with Levofluoxacin 500 mg daily for 15 days plus serratiopeptidase 10 mg daily for 30 days. Treatment was continued for up to 6 cycles in cases of persistant bacteriospermia and/or clinical and ejaculatory signs of the disease. Patients with persistant male accessory gland infection after 6 cycles were defined as nonresponders. The same parameters were evaluated at baseline and after a 2-month period in 30 healthy controls. Patients with male accessory gland infection showed impaired sperm parameters and had lower seminal 90K concentration compared to controls. After treatment, seminal 90K level significantly increased in patients compared to controls. Twenty-two patients responded to treatment (44%), while 28 were nonresponders (56%). No difference in pretreatment and posttreatment sperm parameters and seminal 90K was observed between the 2 subgroups. Thirteen patients (26%) had identifiable bacteriospermia: significantly less pretreatment seminal 90K was observed compared to patients without bacteriospermia. Seminal 90K is decreased in patients with male accessory gland infection, and may be restored by a treatment with quinolones. However, the clinical utility of a 90K assay in these patients remains uncertain, as its level is not predictive of response to treatment. PMID:16837737

  19. The gross and micro anatomy of the accessory sex glands of the male agouti (Dasyprocta leporina).

    PubMed

    Mollineau, W M; Adogwa, A O; Garcia, G W

    2009-06-01

    This study was a follow up to the study on the gross anatomy of the male agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) reproductive system. The seminal vesicles of the agouti are lobulated structures. The mean diameter of the large lumen is 883.6 +/- 76.83 microm. The mucosa (24.1 +/- 0.92 microm), which is lined by pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium is thrown into folds, which often branch. The lamina muscularis mucosa is thin and is made of loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. The mucosa of the leaf-like coagulating glands of the agouti is folded. The mean diameter of the lumen is 488.3 +/- 41.96 microm. The mucosa contains tubuloalveolar glands, which have a mean length of 199.5 +/- 28.83 microm. The thin epithelium, 15.0 +/- 1.25-microm wide, consists mostly of pseudo-stratified columnar cells. The epithelium also has surface modifications in the form of apical blebs and cilia. The epithelium of the agouti's lobulated prostate gland is also folded creating a large lumen with a mean diameter of 995.5 +/- 55.70 microm. The mucosa contains tubular and tubuloalveolar glands, each having a mean length of 134.4 +/- 13.59 microm. The epithelium (13.9 +/- 1.16 microm) consists of pseudo-stratified columnar cells. The pea-shaped bulbourethral gland (BG) of the agouti consists of convoluted tubular, mucous secretory units, which are irregularly shaped each with a mean length of 177.9 +/- 7.10 microm and a mean width of 63.5 +/- 3.97 microm. The BG of the agouti are ventro-lateral to the rectum and dorsally positioned to the pubic symphysis, and connected to the urethra by short ducts. PMID:19007350

  20. [The value of biopsy of the accessory labial salivary glands for the diagnosis of amylosis].

    PubMed

    Chomette, G; Auriol, M; Habib, K; Biaggi, A

    1992-01-01

    Diagnosis of amyloidosis depends on the demonstration of amyloid deposits in biopsies using specific stains. Recently, in addition to classical biopsies (kidney, liver, gum, skin, rectal mucosa), labial salivary gland biopsy has been recommended as safe diagnostic method. In our recruitment, it allowed the fortuitous discovery of amyloidosis in three patients suffering from rheumatoid polyarthritis or spondylarthritis. In five other patients (2 cases of familial amyloidosis, 1 dysglobulinemia, 2 primary cardiac amyloidosis), biopsy was performed for systematic search of amyloidosis. In five of these eight cases, a sicca syndrome was associated with the salivary deposits. These deposits were stained with congo red viewed in polarized light and with T thioflavine. Besides, Wright's method allowed to know the AL or AA type of amyloidosis and thus to guide the treatment. On the whole, labial salivary gland biopsy is a highly sensitive method for diagnosis of primary and secondary amyloidosis. PMID:1371889

  1. The “Vampirome”: Transcriptome and proteome analysis of the principal and accessory submaxillary glands of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, a vector of human rabies

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Assumpção, Teresa C. F.; Ma, Dongying; Li, Yuan; Vicente, Eliane C.; Uieda, Wilson; Ribeiro, José M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Vampire bats are notorious for being the sole mammals that strictly feed on fresh blood for their survival. While their saliva has been historically associated with anticoagulants, only one antihemostatic (plasminogen activator) has been molecularly and functionally characterized. Here, RNAs from both principal submandibular and accessory glands of Desmodus rotundus were extracted, and ~ 200 million reads were sequenced by Illumina. The principal gland was enriched with plasminogen activators with fibrinolytic properties, members of lipocalin and secretoglobin families, which bind prohemostatic prostaglandins, and endonucleases, which cleave neutrophil-derived procoagulant NETs. Anticoagulant (tissue factor pathway inhibitor, TFPI), vasodilators (PACAP and C-natriuretic peptide), and metalloproteases (ADAMTS-1) were also abundantly expressed. Members of the TSG-6 (anti-inflammatory), antigen 5/CRISP, and CCL28-like (antimicrobial) protein families were also sequenced. Apyrases (which remove platelet agonist ADP), phosphatases (which degrade procoagulant polyphosphates), and sphingomyelinase were found at lower transcriptional levels. Accessory glands were enriched with antimicrobials (lysozyme, defensin, lactotransferrin) and protease inhibitors (TIL-domain, cystatin, Kazal). Mucins, heme-oxygenase, and IgG chains were present in both glands. Proteome analysis by nano LC-MS/MS confirmed that several transcripts are expressed in the glands. The database presented herein is accessible online at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/D_rotundus/Supplemental-web.xlsx. These results reveal that bat saliva emerges as a novel source of modulators of vascular biology. PMID:23411029

  2. A Syringe-Like Love Dart Injects Male Accessory Gland Products in a Tropical Hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Joris M.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner’s hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner’s hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals. PMID:23894565

  3. Trehalase in the spermatophore from the bean-shaped accessory gland of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor : purification, kinetic properties and localization of the enzyme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yaginuma; T. Mizuno; C. Mizuno; M. Ikeda; T. Wada; K. Hattori; O. Yamashita; G. M. Happ

    1996-01-01

    Trehalase from the bean-shaped accessory glands of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, was purified by acid treatment, with subsequent chromatography on columns of DEAE-cellulofine and Sephacryl S-300. The molecular masses of the native and the denatured forms were estimated to be 43 and 62 kDa by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE, respectively, an indication that the trehalase may be composed

  4. The growth arrest specific gene ( gas6 ) protein is expressed in abnormal embryos sired by male golden hamsters with accessory sex glands removed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Y. Jiang; K. H. Lee; C. Schneider; W. S. O; P. L. Tang; P. H. Chow

    2001-01-01

    Expression of growth arrest specific gene (gas6) and its receptors in embryonic and uterine tissues in normal pregnancy and pregnancy that produces abnormal embryos sired by hamsters with partial or total deletion of male accessory sex glands was studied by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, reverse-transcription polymerization reaction and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay. At oestrus, very strong gas6 mRNA and Gas6 expression

  5. Extracellular localization of cyclic GMP in the house cricket male accessory reproductive gland and its fate in mating.

    PubMed

    Murtaugh, M P; Kapoor, C L; Denlinger, D L

    1985-03-01

    The male accessory reproductive gland (ARG) of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.), contains an exceedingly high concentration of cyclic GMP, about 1,000 pmol/mg protein. Immunofluorescent localization and radioimmunoassay measurements show that cyclic GMP is concentrated in a small number of tubules. It accumulates in the tubule lumina where it is protected from degradation by phosphodiesterases. Cyclic GMP is secreted by the ARG and is incorporated into spermatophores. Over 80% of spermatophore cyclic GMP is found in the handle-capillary tube, a thin conduit through which sperm pass during transfer to the female. The concentration of cyclic GMP in the insemination fluid is about 20 microM but does not appear to be specifically associated with the sperm. Cyclic GMP enters the female spermatheca during insemination but disappears rapidly. Physiological effects of cyclic GMP on sperm were not observed nor was an effect of cyclic GMP observed on egg laying by mated females. Cyclic AMP was localized on sperm flagella in the spermatophore and in the spermatheca. These studies indicate that cyclic nucleotides have important roles in insect reproduction and that the house cricket is a good model for elucidating these functions. PMID:2982997

  6. Function and composition of male accessory gland secretions in Anopheles gambiae: a comparison with other insect vectors of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; Rogers, David W.; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2012-01-01

    Human malaria, a major public health burden in tropical and subtropical countries, is transmitted exclusively by the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria control strategies aimed at inducing sexual sterility in natural vector populations are an attractive alternative to the use of insecticides. However, despite their importance as disease vectors, limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms regulating fertility in Anopheles mosquitoes. In the major malaria vector, An. gambiae, the full complement of sperm and seminal fluid required for a female’s lifelong egg production is obtained from a single mating event. This single mating has important consequences for the physiology and behavior of An. gambiae females: in particular, they become refractory to further insemination, and they start laying eggs. In other insects including Drosophila, similar post-copulatory changes are induced by seminal proteins secreted by the male accessory glands and transferred to the female during mating. In this review, we analyze the current state of knowledge on the function and characterization of male seminal proteins in An. gambiae, and provide a comparative assessment of the role of these male reproductive factors in other mosquito vectors of human disease in which female post-copulatory behavior has been studied. Knowledge of the factors and mechanisms regulating fertility in An. gambiae and other vectors can help the design of novel control strategies to fight the spread of disease. PMID:22943543

  7. Male Accessory Gland Protein Reduces Egg Laying in a Simultaneous Hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Joris M.; Sloot, Wiebe; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Cummins, Scott F.; Degnan, Bernard M.; Smith, John S.; Nagle, Gregg T.; ter Maat, Andries

    2010-01-01

    Seminal fluid is an important part of the ejaculate of internally fertilizing animals. This fluid contains substances that nourish and activate sperm for successful fertilization. Additionally, it contains components that influence female physiology to further enhance fertilization success of the sperm donor, possibly beyond the recipient's optimum. Although evidence for such substances abounds, few studies have unraveled their identities, and focus has been exclusively on separate-sex species. We present the first detailed study into the seminal fluid composition of a hermaphrodite (Lymnaea stagnalis). Eight novel peptides and proteins were identified from the seminal-fluid-producing prostate gland and tested for effects on oviposition, hatching and consumption. The gene for the protein found to suppress egg mass production, Ovipostatin, was sequenced, thereby providing the first fully-characterized seminal fluid substance in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Thus, seminal fluid peptides and proteins have evolved and can play a crucial role in sexual selection even when the sexes are combined. PMID:20404934

  8. Effect of Male Accessory Gland Products on Egg Laying in Gastropod Molluscs

    PubMed Central

    van Iersel, Sander; Swart, Elferra M.; Nakadera, Yumi; van Straalen, Nico M.; Koene, Joris M.

    2014-01-01

    In internally fertilizing animals, seminal fluid is usually added to the spermatozoa, together forming the semen or ejaculate. Besides nourishing and activating sperm, the components in the seminal fluid can also influence female physiology to augment fertilization success of the sperm donor. While many studies have reported such effects in species with separate sexes, few studies have addressed this in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals. This video protocol presents a method to study effects of seminal fluid in gastropods, using a simultaneously hermaphroditic freshwater snail, the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, as model organism. While the procedure is shown using complete prostate gland extracts, individual components (i.e., proteins, peptides, and other compounds) of the seminal fluid can be tested in the same way. Effects of the receipt of ejaculate components on egg laying can be quantified in terms of frequency of egg laying and more subtle estimates of female reproductive performance such as egg numbers within each egg masses. Results show that seminal fluid proteins affect female reproductive output in this simultaneous hermaphrodite, highlighting their importance for sexual selection. PMID:24998794

  9. Effect of male accessory gland products on egg laying in gastropod molluscs.

    PubMed

    van Iersel, Sander; Swart, Elferra M; Nakadera, Yumi; van Straalen, Nico M; Koene, Joris M

    2014-01-01

    In internally fertilizing animals, seminal fluid is usually added to the spermatozoa, together forming the semen or ejaculate. Besides nourishing and activating sperm, the components in the seminal fluid can also influence female physiology to augment fertilization success of the sperm donor. While many studies have reported such effects in species with separate sexes, few studies have addressed this in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals. This video protocol presents a method to study effects of seminal fluid in gastropods, using a simultaneously hermaphroditic freshwater snail, the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, as model organism. While the procedure is shown using complete prostate gland extracts, individual components (i.e., proteins, peptides, and other compounds) of the seminal fluid can be tested in the same way. Effects of the receipt of ejaculate components on egg laying can be quantified in terms of frequency of egg laying and more subtle estimates of female reproductive performance such as egg numbers within each egg masses. Results show that seminal fluid proteins affect female reproductive output in this simultaneous hermaphrodite, highlighting their importance for sexual selection. PMID:24998794

  10. Comparative analysis of the male reproductive accessory glands of bat species from the five Brazilian Subfamilies of the family Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Martins, Fabiane F; Puga, Cintia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to morphologically characterize and compare the male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) of bats belonging to the five Brazilian subfamilies of the family Phyllostomidae (Carollia perspicillata-Carollinae; Desmodus rotundus-Desmodontinae; Glossophaga soricina-Glossophaginae; Phyllostomus discolor-Phyllostominae and Platyrrhinus lineatus-Stenodermatinae). The study demonstrated that the RAGs of phyllostomid bats were comprised of a pair of extra-abdominal bulbourethral glands and an intra-abdominal complex, composed of paraurethral glands and a prostate with two (Desmodontinae and Stenodermatinae) or three (Carollinae, Glossophaginae and Phyllostominae) different regions, with the absence of the seminal vesicles; this pattern possibly evolved from a process of compaction of the prostatic regions from an ancestor with three regions. J. Morphol. 276:470-480, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25471705

  11. Hormonal Regulation of MicroRNA Expression in Steroid Producing Cells of the Ovary, Testis and Adrenal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhigang; Shen, Wen-Jun; Cortez, Yuan; Tang, Xudong; Liu, Li-Fen; Kraemer, Fredric B.; Azhar, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the emerging roles of miRNAs as potential posttranscriptional/posttranslational regulators of the steroidogenic process in adrenocortical and gonadal cells, we sought to determine miRNA profiles in rat adrenals from animals treated with vehicle, ACTH, 17?-E2 or dexamethasone. Key observations were also confirmed using hormone (Bt2cAMP)-treated mouse Leydig tumor cells, MLTC-1, and primary rat ovarian granulosa cells. Methodology RNA was extracted from rat adrenal glands and miRNA profiles were established using microarray and confirmed with qRT-PCR. The expression of some of the hormone-sensitive miRNAs was quantified in MLTC-1 and granulosa cells after stimulation with Bt2cAMP. Targets of hormonally altered miRNAs were explored by qRT-PCR and Western blotting in adrenals and granulosa cells. Results Adrenals from ACTH, 17?-E2 and dexamethasone treated rats exhibited miRNA profiles distinct from control animals. ACTH up-regulated the expression of miRNA-212, miRNA-182, miRNA-183, miRNA-132, and miRNA-96 and down-regulated the levels of miRNA-466b, miRNA-214, miRNA-503, and miRNA-27a. The levels of miR-212, miRNA-183, miRNA-182, miRNA-132, miRNA-370, miRNA-377, and miRNA-96 were up-regulated, whereas miR-125b, miRNA-200b, miR-122, miRNA-466b, miR-138, miRNA-214, miRNA-503 and miRNA27a were down-regulated in response to 17?-E2 treatment. Dexamethasone treatment decreased miRNA-200b, miR-122, miR-19a, miRNA-466b and miRNA27a levels, but increased miRNA-183 levels. Several adrenal miRNAs are subject to regulation by more than one hormone. Significant cAMP-induced changes in certain miRNAs were also noted in MLTC-1 and granulosa cells. Some of the hormone-induced miRNAs in steroidogenic cells were predicted to target proteins involved in lipid metabolism/steroidogenesis. We also obtained evidence that miR-132 and miRNA-214 inhibit the expression of SREBP-1c and LDLR, respectively. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that expression of a number of miRNAs in steroidogenic cells of the testis, ovary and adrenal glands is subject to hormonal regulation and that miRNAs and their regulation by specific hormones are likely to play a key role in posttranscriptional/posttranslational regulation of steroidogenesis. PMID:24205079

  12. In vivo evidence for the crucial role of SF1 in steroid-producing cells of the testis, ovary and adrenal gland

    PubMed Central

    Buaas, F. William; Gardiner, Jennifer R.; Clayton, Sally; Val, Pierre; Swain, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Adrenal and gonadal steroids are essential for life and reproduction. The orphan nuclear receptor SF1 (NR5A1) has been shown to regulate the expression of enzymes involved in steroid production in vitro. However, the in vivo role of this transcription factor in steroidogenesis has not been elucidated. In this study, we have generated steroidogenic-specific Cre-expressing mice to lineage mark and delete Sf1 in differentiated steroid-producing cells of the testis, the ovary and the adrenal gland. Our data show that SF1 is a regulator of the expression of steroidogenic genes in all three organs. In addition, Sf1 deletion leads to a radical change in cell morphology and loss of identity. Surprisingly, sexual development and reproduction in mutant animals were not compromised owing, in part, to the presence of a small proportion of SF1-positive cells. In contrast to the testis and ovary, the mutant adult adrenal gland showed a lack of Sf1-deleted cells and our studies suggest that steroidogenic adrenal cells during foetal stages require Sf1 to give rise to the adult adrenal population. This study is the first to show the in vivo requirements of SF1 in steroidogenesis and provides novel data on the cellular consequences of the loss of this protein specifically within steroid-producing cells. PMID:23136395

  13. In vivo evidence for the crucial role of SF1 in steroid-producing cells of the testis, ovary and adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Buaas, F William; Gardiner, Jennifer R; Clayton, Sally; Val, Pierre; Swain, Amanda

    2012-12-01

    Adrenal and gonadal steroids are essential for life and reproduction. The orphan nuclear receptor SF1 (NR5A1) has been shown to regulate the expression of enzymes involved in steroid production in vitro. However, the in vivo role of this transcription factor in steroidogenesis has not been elucidated. In this study, we have generated steroidogenic-specific Cre-expressing mice to lineage mark and delete Sf1 in differentiated steroid-producing cells of the testis, the ovary and the adrenal gland. Our data show that SF1 is a regulator of the expression of steroidogenic genes in all three organs. In addition, Sf1 deletion leads to a radical change in cell morphology and loss of identity. Surprisingly, sexual development and reproduction in mutant animals were not compromised owing, in part, to the presence of a small proportion of SF1-positive cells. In contrast to the testis and ovary, the mutant adult adrenal gland showed a lack of Sf1-deleted cells and our studies suggest that steroidogenic adrenal cells during foetal stages require Sf1 to give rise to the adult adrenal population. This study is the first to show the in vivo requirements of SF1 in steroidogenesis and provides novel data on the cellular consequences of the loss of this protein specifically within steroid-producing cells. PMID:23136395

  14. Cryopreservation of aoudad (Ammotragus lervia sahariensis) sperm obtained by transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands and electroejaculation.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Moreno, J; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Esteso, M C; López-Sebastián, A; Guerra, R; Ruiz, M J; Mendoza, N; Luna, C; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Hildebrandt, T B

    2013-01-15

    This study examines (1) the effectiveness of transrectal, ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands (TUMASG) combined with electroejaculation for obtaining aoudad (Ammotragus lervia sahariensis) sperm samples for cryopreservation, and (2) the effectiveness of a Tris-citric acid-glucose-based medium (TCG; usually used for freezing ibex sperm) and a TES-Tris-glucose-based medium (TTG; typically used in the cryopreservation of mouflon sperm) as sperm extenders. After TUMASG, just one to three electrical pulses were required for ejaculation to occur in five of the six animals studied; one ejaculated after TUMASG alone. Transrectal, ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands would therefore appear to be useful in obtaining sperm samples from this species, requiring few subsequent electrical electroejaculation stimuli and sometimes none at all. After thawing, the membrane integrity (assessed by nigrosin-eosin staining) of sperm extended with TTG was greater than that of sperm extended with TCG (P < 0.05). The total percentage of sperm showing an intact acrosome, as assessed by fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut (Arachis hypogea) agglutinin, was also higher in the TTG-extended sperm (P < 0.05), and the percentage of dead sperm with a damaged acrosome was lower (P < 0.05). No differences were seen between TCG and TTG in terms of apoptotic manifestations (DNA damage, caspase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and plasmalemma stability). Therefore, TTG appears to be a better extender than TCG for cryopreserving aoudad sperm. PMID:23158213

  15. Steroid hormone production in testis, ovary, and adrenal gland of immature rats irradiated in utero with /sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Inano, H.; Suzuki, K.; Ishii-Ohba, H.; Imada, Y.; Kumagai, R.; Kurihara, S.; Sato, A.

    1989-02-01

    Pregnant rats received whole-body irradiation at 20 days of gestation with 2.6 Gy lambda rays from a 60Co source. Endocrinological effects before maturation were studied using testes and adrenal glands obtained from male offspring and ovaries from female offspring irradiated in utero. Seminiferous tubules of the irradiated male offspring were remarkably atrophied with free germinal epithelium and containing only Sertoli cells. Female offspring also had atrophied ovaries. Testicular tissue obtained from intact and 60Co-irradiated rats was incubated with 14C-labeled pregnenolone, progesterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione as a substrate. Intermediates for androgen production and catabolic metabolites were isolated after the incubation. The amounts of these metabolites produced by the irradiated testes were low in comparison with the control. The activities of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase, C17,20-lyase, and delta 4-5 alpha-reductase in the irradiated testes were 30-40% of those in nonirradiated testes. Also, the activities of 17 beta- and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were 72 and 52% of the control, respectively. In adrenal glands, the 21-hydroxylase activity of the irradiated animals was 38% of the control, but the delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity was comparable to that of the control. On the other hand, the activity of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of the irradiated ovary was only 19% of the control. These results suggest that 60Co irradiation of the fetus in utero markedly affects the production of steroid hormones in testes, ovaries, and adrenal glands after birth.

  16. Effect of semen collection by transrectal massage of accessory sexual glands or artificial vagina on the outcome of breeding soundness examinations of Italian yearling beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Sylla, Lakamy; Palombi, Claudio; Stradaioli, Giuseppe; Vagniluca, Antonio; Monaci, Maurizio

    2015-03-15

    Although semen quality is one of the major traits that influence breeding soundness examination outcomes in bulls, field conditions occasionally do not allow for the collection of semen samples by means of an artificial vagina. The aims of the present study were to report the results of a large number of semen collections that were performed via the transrectal massage (TRM) of the accessory sexual glands of Italian yearling beef bulls and compare this semen collection method to the artificial vagina (AV) method in term of breeding soundness examination outcomes; furthermore, we determined whether the breed affected the semen characteristics. In the TRM group (n = 475), the semen samples were collected via TRM of the accessory sexual glands, and in the AV group (n = 502), the AV method was used. In the TRM group, semen samples were obtained from 81.3% of the bulls and penile protrusion was observed in 87.6% of the animals during semen collection. The sperm concentrations (920.5 ± 439.0 vs. 281.0 ± 259.8 × 10(6)/mL) and the percentages of total abnormal spermatozoa (22.8 ± 15.0 vs. 18.8 ± 12.9) were significantly higher in the AV group than those in the TRM group. The percentage of bulls that did not meet the minimum requirement for normal cells (?70%) was 6.2% higher in the AV group than that in the TRM group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the samples collected from Chianina bulls by TRM exhibited a lower percentage of motile sperm and a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa when compared with the other two breeds. The major drawbacks of the TRM technique were the inability to conduct complete evaluation of the libido and mating ability of the yearling bulls, a significant reduction of the number of spermatozoa collected, and an increase in the variability of the semen characteristics due to breed. In conclusion, despite the drawbacks, TRM guarantees that semen evaluation can be conducted in cases in which the semen samples cannot be collected with the AV method. PMID:25488791

  17. Effects of Pygidial Secretion (Zoopesticide) on Histopathological Changes in the Male Accessory Reproductive Glands of Adult Male Insect Odontopus varicornis in Relation to Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Lousia, M.; Selvisabhanayakam; Mathivanan, V.

    2010-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides for the eradication of pests causes tremendous changes to the environment and also to other nontarget organisms. To prevent such contamination of the environment and save nontarget species, zoopesticides are increasingly used as they are cost effective, eco-friendly, safe, and sustainable in the field of agriculture. The present study was undertaken to find out the effect of pygidial secretion (zoopesticide) on Odontopus varicornis. The insects were exposed to pygidial secretion for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours and its sublethal concentration was found to be about 2.8% for 48 hours. When the insects were injected with sublethal concentration 2.8% for 48 hours, the study revealed certain remarkable changes in the histopathology of the male accessory reproductive glands (MARGs) such as disintegration of epithelial cell wall, swollen nucleus, vacuolization of cytoplasm, highly pycnotic and necrotic epithelium, enlargement of epithelial cells, and disorganized tissues. It is suggested that zoopesticide causes several histopathological damages in the MARGs of O. varicornis and affects the reproductive potentiality of O. varicornis. PMID:21042469

  18. Variation and Genomic Localization of Genes Encoding DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER Male Accessory Gland Proteins Separated by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Michael; Wilson, Thomas G.

    1986-01-01

    Accessory gland proteins from Drosophila melanogaster males have been separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into nine major bands. When individual males from 175 strains were examined, considerable polymorphism for nearly one-half of the major protein bands was seen, including null alleles for three bands. Variation was observed not only among long-established laboratory strains but also among stocks recently derived from natural populations. There was little difference in the amount of variation between P and M strains, indicating that P element mutagenesis is not a factor producing the variation. Codominant expression of variants for each of five bands was found in heterozygotes, suggesting structural gene variation and not posttranslational modification variation. Stocks carrying electrophoretic variants of four of the major proteins were used to map the presumed structural genes for these proteins; the loci were found to be dispersed on the second chromosome. Since males homozygous for variant proteins were fertile, the polymorphism seems to have little immediate effect on successful sperm transfer. We propose that a high degree of polymorphism can be tolerated because these proteins play a nutritive rather than enzymatic role in Drosophila reproduction. PMID:3095182

  19. Seminal vesicles of infertile patients with male accessory gland infection: ultrasound evaluation after prolonged treatment with tadalafil, a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible ultrasound seminal vesicle (SV) changes in infertile patients with 'hypertrophic-congestive' (HCUF) or 'fibro-sclerotic' (FSUF) ultrasound form of male accessory gland infection (MAGI) after prolonged administration of tadalafil (TAD), a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor. Forty infertile patients with HCUF and 40 patients with FSUF and erectile dysfunction were selected and arbitrarily divided into two groups, who were prescribed TAD 5 mg daily for 3 months, the first 20 consecutive patients with HCUF (group A1) or FSUF (group A2) or placebo, the second 20 consecutive patients with HCUF (group B1) or FSUF (group B2). All patients underwent scrotal and prostate-vesicular transrectal ultrasound evaluation and semen analysis (WHO, 2010) before and after treatment. Group A1 patients showed a significant reduction in fundus/body ratio and higher pre- and post-ejaculatory body SV antero-posterior diameter difference compared with the other three groups. These patients showed also a significant increase in SV ejection fraction and a significant improvement in the total sperm count, progressive motility, seminal levels of fructose and ejaculate volume. These results suggest that infertile patients with HCUF had an improvement in SV ultrasound features suggestive of chronic inflammation after daily treatment with low doses of TAD. PMID:23116230

  20. Evaluation of atorvastatin efficacy and toxicity on spermatozoa, accessory glands and gonadal hormones of healthy men: a pilot prospective clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention advocate lowering both cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol systemic levels, notably by statin intake. However, statins are the subject of questions concerning their impact on male fertility. This study aimed to evaluate, by a prospective pilot assay, the efficacy and the toxicity of a decrease of cholesterol blood levels, induced by atorvastatin on semen quality and sexual hormone levels of healthy, normocholesterolaemic and normozoospermic men. Methods Atorvastatin (10 mg daily) was administrated orally during 5 months to 17 men with normal plasma lipid and standard semen parameters. Spermatozoa parameters, accessory gland markers, semen lipid levels and blood levels of gonadal hormones were assayed before statin intake, during the treatment, and 3 months after its withdrawal. Results Atorvastatin treatment significantly decreased circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol concentrations by 42% and 24% (p?

  1. Contribution of the secretory material of caecilian (amphibia: Gymnophiona) male Mullerian gland to motility of sperm: a study in Uraeotyphlus narayani.

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Mathew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2005-02-01

    Caecilians are a unique group of limbless burrowing amphibians with discontinuous distribution. Several caecilian species are viviparous, and all practice internal fertilization. In amniotic vertebrates the sperm undergo post-testicular physiological maturation when they are initiated into motility under the influence of an epididymal secretion. Further, during ejaculation mammalian sperm are suspended in a fluid secreted by the male accessory sex glands, viz., prostate gland and seminal vesicles. Caecilians lack comparable glands, but still practice internal fertilization. Uniquely, male caecilians retain the Mullerian ducts in the adults as a pair of functional glands. It has long been hypothesized, based on indirect evidence, that the Mullerian gland would be a male accessory sex gland, secreting a fluid in which sperm are suspended during ejaculation and which would also provide nutritional support to the ejaculated sperm. In the present study, the secretory material of the Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani was mixed with sperm obtained from the testis, and the changes in motility were recorded. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm possess a perforatorium of the acrosome proceeding deep into the endonuclear canal of the nucleus. The midpiece is characterized by closely applied centrioles, the anterior ends of the axoneme and axial fiber, and a mitochondrial sheath. The long tail has an undulating membrane on one side, supported by the axoneme and an axial fiber. The live sperm possess a mitochondrial vesicle, also known as the cytoplasmic droplet, anywhere along the head and the midpiece, as in anuran sperm, which is shed from sperm that have ceased motility. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm are motile the moment they are released directly from the testis, indicating that the sperm do not require post-testicular physiological maturation. On being mixed with the secretory material of the Mullerian gland, the spermatozoa are enhanced in speed as well as duration of motility. Therefore, the caecilian male Mullerian gland is considered to be the male accessory sex gland. PMID:15605393

  2. Proteins of the accessory sex glands associated with the oocyte-penetrating capacity of cauda epididymal sperm from holstein bulls of documented fertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arlindo A. Moura; David A. Chapman; Gary J. Killian

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that ac- cessory sex gland fluid (AGF) from high fertility (HF) bulls influenced the oocyte-penetrating capacity of cauda epididymal sperm from low fertility (LF) bulls, based on in vitro fertilization (IVF) assays. The present study determined if AGF proteins were associated with these effects. Nineteen IVF assays with 12 bulls were grouped as follows. Group I (n

  3. Testicular development, ultrasonographic and histological appearance of the testis in ram lambs immunized against recombinant LHRH fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Ulker, Hasan; Kanter, Mehmet; Gökdal, Ozdal; Aygün, Turgut; Karaku?, Ferda; Sakarya, Mehmet E; deAvila, David M; Reeves, Jerry J

    2005-04-01

    Sixteen native ram lambs weaned at 10 wk of age were divided into two groups. Eight animals were immunized against LHRH with a mixture of two fusion proteins: ovalbumin-LHRH-7 and thioredoxin-LHRH-7. The immunized lambs received a primary immunization plus two booster immunizations at 4 and 12 wks. Animals in the control group (n=8) were not treated. Scrotal measurements and blood samples were taken at 2-week intervals. Beginning at 25 wk of age, semen was collected and sexual behaviour was evaluated on a weekly basis. At 35 and 37 wk of age testes and accessory glands of all animals were subjected to ultrasound scanning. At 37 wk of age animals were slaughtered and testes were evaluated histologically. Serum LHRH antibodies (P<0.01) were detected in animals of the immunized group which had reduced serum testosterone concentrations (P<0.01). Testicular development was suppressed in the immunized animals (P<0.01). Immunized animals exhibited mounting activity 5 wks later than control animals. No mature spermatozoa containing ejaculates were collected from immunized animals. Control animals had moderately echogenic ultrasonographic appearance at 37 wk age, whereas immunized animals had hypoechogenic images. Mean seminiferous tubule diameter in immunized lambs was significantly smaller than that in control lambs. Basal membrane was thickened and hyalinized; there was an increase in peritubular connective tissue. No proliferating spermatogonia or mature spermatozoa were present in the tubules in these animals. There were no differences in the ultrasonographic appearance of prostate and vesicular gland between control and immunized animals. The LHRH recombinant fusion proteins were effective in immunological castration in ram lambs when started at 10 wk of age as noted by differences in serum testosterone, testicular histology and ultrasonographic appearance of testis and weight of accessory sex glands. Determining the effects of immunization on ultrasonographic appearance of the testis related to time after immunization requires further investigations. PMID:15766801

  4. The histological changes in the testis, epididymis and prostate gland of the red-bellied tree squirrel, Callosciurus erythraeus, during the growth and reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    T'sui, W H; Huang, C C

    1985-07-01

    The male reproductive glands of the red-bellied tree squirrel, Callosciurus erythraeus, in the infantile, and prepubertal males, as well as sexually functional, degenerating and redeveloping adults were studied histologically. In the infant, testes are characterized with solid seminiferous tubules filled with primordial germ cells and Sertoli cells. Interstitial cells are sparse. The prostate is composed of condensed cell cords grouped into lobules dispersed with interlobular tissues rich in fibroblasts. In the epididymis the highly convoluted tubule is lined with a simple cuboidal or columnar epithelium and thin smooth musculature without. In the prepubertal male, germ cells are engaged actively in mitosis. Primary spermatocytes are readily recognized. Leydig cells appear in groups in the interstitial tissue. In the prostate, cell cords become highly branched and collecting tubules make their appearance. The tubules in the epididymis are enlarged in diameter but their peripheral musculature becomes thinner. In functional males, meiosis is active and bundles of spermatozoa are scattered along the central lumen. Leydig cells have their cytoplasm highly enriched. The prostate is in the secretory phase. The tubule in the epididymis is filled with sperm. In the degenerating adult, meiosis is interrupted and necrotic germ cells are detached from germinal epithelium. In the prostate, secretory and collecting ducts are eventually reduced to condensed lobules separated by interlobular fibrous tissue. The tubule in the epididymis often fills with necrotic germ cells but no sperm. In the redeveloping adult, the histology of the testes, prostate and epididymis is similar to that of the prepubertal male. However, there is more fibrous tissue in the interlobular septa in the prostate gland and thick musculature at the periphery of the tubule in the epididymis. PMID:4070510

  5. Matching Accessories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Steven M. Foord (Stevenage; Target Bioinformatics, GlaxoSmithKline Medicine Research Centre REV)

    2003-07-08

    Heterodimerization enhances the complexity of ligand recognition and diversity of signaling responses of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Many accessory proteins (for ion channels or GPCRs) appear to associate with their partners relatively early in the process whereby proteins are transported to the cell surface; their roles in modulating function may have evolved out of simple proximity to a protein that once upon a time they either facilitated or accompanied through the maturation process. The receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are a family of single-transmembrane accessory proteins that heterodimerize with GPCRs and, thereby, allow individual GPCRs to recognize multiple ligands and to activate various signaling pathways in response to ligand binding. The M10 family of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1b proteins has recently been shown to associate with murine vomeronasal V2R receptors, as well as to escort them to the cell surface. The exact role of M10 in modulating V2R function (or vice versa) remains to be determined.

  6. Adrenal glands

    MedlinePLUS

    The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands, one gland is located on top of each kidney. ... Each adrenal gland is about the size of the thumb. The outer part of the gland is called the cortex. ...

  7. The transmediastinal arteries of the human testis: an anatomical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Pais; P. Fontoura; J. A. Esperança-Pina

    2004-01-01

    Although the arterial supply of the human testis via the testicular artery is a well-studied subject, the pattern of approach that this vessel takes when reaching the gland is, on the other hand, not as well described. Based on the observation of angiological preparations of 196 adult human testes, the authors describe the presence of transmediastinal testicular vessels in one

  8. Proteins of the Drosophila melanogaster male reproductive system: Two-dimensional gel patterns of proteins synthesized in the XO, XY, and XYY testis and paragonial gland and evidence that the Y chromosome does not code for structural sperm proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Ingman-Baker; E. Peter M. Candido

    1980-01-01

    Testes and paragonial glands of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type males were labeled in vitro using [35S]methionine, and the proteins synthesized were analyzed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Testes and paragonial glands were also labeled in vivo by feeding male larvae 35S-labeled yeast and then dissecting the adult males. Approximately 1200 proteins were resolved by autoradiography of the gels. The in vitro method

  9. Review of accessory tragus with highlights of its associated syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bahrani, Bahar; Khachemoune, Amor

    2014-12-01

    Accessory tragus is a developmental defect involving malformation of part of the external ear. It is a moderately rare congenital condition reported in 1858 by Birkett for the first time. Histological features of accessory tragus include a thin layer of stratum corneum with a rugated epidermis, presence of eccrine glands, and irregular spatial positioning of vellus hair follicles accompanied by sebaceous glands. Accessory tragus is commonly a limited deformity; however, it can be a sign of associated congenital syndromes. It has been shown to be associated with Goldenhar syndrome, Townes-Brocks syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, VACTERL syndrome, and Wolf-Hirschhron syndrome. Surgical excision, the most common form of management of accessory tragus lesions, typically leads to a positive outcome. An extensive search was performed using pubmed.gov, Embase, MedLine, and Googlescholar.com using key words: accessory tragus, congenital malformations of ear, first branchial arch, and embryology. In this paper, we review the clinical and histological presentation, associated syndromes, management, and outcome of accessory tragus. PMID:25266223

  10. Electroporation of the Testis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yomogida, Kentaro

    The mature mammalian testis is a marvelous organ that produces numerous sperm cells during its reproductive phase. This biologically significant process consists of three steps: stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, meiosis and genetic recombination, and haploid cell morphogenesis into sperm (Russell et al., 1990). The first step provides a good model for investigating the molecular mechanism of stem cell regulation. Currently, the mechanism underlying sperm cell production is a very exciting topic in regenerative medicine (Lensch et al. 2007; Okita et al., 2007). The spermatogonial stem cell system has several advantages, including the easy histological identification of stem cells (Russell et al., 1990), a clear relationship between stem cells and the supporting Sertoli cells, which provide a stem cell niche (Tadokoro et al., 2002; Yomogida et al., 2003), and a transplantation assay for stem cell activity (Oatley & Brinster, 2006). Although germline stem (GS) cells derived from the gonocytes in newborn testis constitute a suitable in vitro system for investigating the properties of spermatogonial stem cells (Kanatsu-Shinohara et al., 2003, 2004), studies using living mammalian testes continue to provide information regarding the roles of the stem cell niche. In vivo electroporation of the supporting cells in the testis will expand our ability to study it.

  11. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... gland is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus decides which hormones the pituitary should release by sending it either ... the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland releases the following hormones: GH (growth hormone) – increases size of muscle and ...

  12. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePLUS

    ... parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. They all secrete saliva into your mouth, the parotid through tubes that drain saliva, called salivary ducts, near your upper teeth, submandibular ...

  13. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it’s the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

  14. [Late results of testis homotransplantation].

    PubMed

    Wang, L L

    1989-11-01

    15 patients with testis dysplasia and traumatic anorchidism were treated with testis homotransplantation. 14 of 15 cases have been followed up for 1.5 to 5 years. The transplanted testes of 14 cases were with moderate hardness and obvious improvement of secondary sex characters and sexual function have been observed in these patients. The size of the transplanted testes was as big as that of international testis model 15 in 11 cases. The transplanted testes of 3 cases atrophied 9 to 14 months after operation. The sperms were found in semen or urine collected from the bladders after prostatic massage in 3 cases. Sperm count and sperm motility were normal in 2 cases. The wife of 1 case was impregnated and bore a boy in the fourth year after operation. The value of serum testosterone became normal (450-900 ng/dl) from preoperative low level. Therapeutic effectiveness of testis homotransplantation was evaluated and treatment of rejective reaction of the testis homotransplantation was discussed in the paper. PMID:2632193

  15. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) innervation of the human eyelid glands.

    PubMed

    Seifert, P; Spitznas, M

    1999-06-01

    This study was conducted to obtain morphological proof of innervating nerve fibres in the glands of the human eyelid (accessory lacrimal glands of Wolfring, meibomian glands, goblet cells, glands of Zeis, glands of Moll, sweat glands, glands of lanugo hair follicles) and identification of the secretomotorically active neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as a common transmitter. Epoxy-embedded ultrathin sections of tissue samples from human eyelids were studied using electron microscopy. Paraffin sections fixed in Bouin-Hollande solution were immunostained with rabbit antiserum against VIP. With the electron microscope we were able to identify nerves in the glandular stroma of all the glands examined with the exception of goblet cells. Intraepithelial single axons were only seen in the parenchyma of Wolfring glands. The morphological findings corresponded with the immunological finding of VIP-positive, nerve-like structures in the same locations, with the exception of lanugo hair follicle glands, and goblet cells. Our findings indicate that the glands of the eyelids and main lacrimal gland represent a functional unit with VIP as a possible common stimulating factor. PMID:10375432

  16. Cancer of the accessory breast--a case report.

    PubMed

    Madej, B; Balak, B; Winkler, I; Burdan, F

    2009-01-01

    Breast neoplasm may develop in ectopically located glandular tissue. This paper presents an interesting and rare case of a 50-year-old female who despite regular mammography screening examination developed an invasive accessory breast cancer. Clinical examination revealed a 2 cm - tumour localized 4 cm below the left inframammary fold. The lesion was immobile, the skin and the atrophic nipple were retracted, the tumour infiltrated the thoracic wall. Oligobiopsy and additional examinations showed an invasive stage IIIB ductal breast cancer (Bloom II, G-2). The receptor status was: ER(+), PGR(+), HER2(-). The increased level of cancer antigen 15.3 was found. The patient was submitted to pre-operative chemotherapy. She also underwent surgery and subsequently post-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. On the basis of the presented case, it could be concluded that the accessory mammary glands are out of the image of screening breast examinations. Accessory breast cancer is usually diagnosed by clinical examination and ultrasonography. Preventive resection of accessory breast in women at high risk of developing breast cancer can be considered as the treatment of choice in most patients. PMID:19808163

  17. Subunits of flagellar accessory tubules.

    PubMed

    Shay, J W; Dobson, W J; Simmons, E E; Biesele, J J; Breland, O P

    1969-01-01

    Many sperm flagella contain a central pair of singlet tubules surrounded by nine doublet tubules. Insect sperm flagella, however, usually contain in addition to the typical 9+2 arrangement of tubules, an additional row of nine singlet tubules which are called accessory tubules. Each of these accessory tubules in the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) contains a single central prototubule surrounded by an array of 15 or 16 peripheral prototubules. The number of prototubules in the accessory tubules of Leptinotarsa decemlineata was determined with an electron microscope and image details were reinforced by the rotation techniques of Markham. PMID:18631486

  18. ACCESSORY RENAL VESSELS

    PubMed Central

    Ali Mohammed, Ammar Mohammed; Elseed Abdalrasol, Rami Gusm; Alamin Abdalhai, Khatim; Gommaa Hamad, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the variations of the renal artery has grown in importance with increasing of renal transplants, vascular reconstructions and various surgical and radiologic techniques performing in recent years. We report the presence of unilateral doubled renal vessels, discovered on routine dissection of a male cadaver, on the right side; additional renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta. In addition the right suprarenal gland received arteries from right renal and inferior phrenic arteries only. The right inferior phrenic originated from the right renal artery. PMID:23322980

  19. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you can't live ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not ...

  20. [Torsion of the appendix testis].

    PubMed

    Chou, Y H; Chan, H K; Huang, C N; Huang, C H

    1999-06-01

    The differential diagnosis of an acute scrotum includes spermatic cord torsion, torsion of a testicular appendage, torsion of spermatocele, epididymitis, orchitis, trauma, hernia, testicular segmental infraction and tumor. Among these, torsion of appendix testis could got dramatic improvement if accurately diagnosed and treated. 5 patients of torsion of appendix testis have been identified in our hospital in the recent 5 years. Ages ranged from 9 to 13 years old (mean age 11). The lesions were on the right side in 2 cases and left side in 3 cases. Duration of scrotal pain ranged from 2 to 7 days (mean of 4 days). The urine analyses were normal in all cases. The white blood counts were all within normal limits with mean of 5.72 x 10(3)/ul. No abnormality in passing urine or other infectious sign could be detected. Doppler ultrasonography or nuclear medicine testicular scan were performed selectively due to clinical availability. The result was equivocal and did not support a definite diagnosis. All 5 cases received surgical treatment. The necrotic testicular appendix was excised and reactive hydrocele treated. All the patients were discharged from the hospital the day after operation and recovered quickly. The pathological report revealed congestion and extensive hemorrhagic necrosis of the testicular appendix. Advances in technology have been helpful in improving the accuracy of diagnosis but technology is not infallible and an over reliance on it can also result in misdiagnosis. Various reports supporting the use of scrotal ultrasound in evaluating cases of acute scrotum pain. Ultrasonography has definitely helped in detecting scrotal pathology but its limitations need to be appreciated. Because of the difficulty of making an accurate diagnosis in acute scrotum, misdiagnosis and delayed operation offer result in disappointment of testis salvage rates. We have supported a policy of early scrotal exploration in any case suspicious of torsion of appendix testis. PMID:10441939

  1. TESTIS AND EPIDIDYMIS ULTRASONOGRAPHY AND FINE-NEEDLE BIOPSY IN THE RHINOCEROS FOR TUMOR AND FERTILITY DIAGNOSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. HERMES; T. HILDEBRANDT; T. J. PORTAS; F. GÖRITZ; B. R. BRYANT; P. KRETZSCHMAR; C. WALZER; N. SCHAFFER; P. LADDS; S. BLOTTNER; SOS Rhino

    Ultrasound and electroejaculation have become accepted methods for the assessment of the reproductive status of male rhinoceroses. The activity status of the accessory sex glands, the amount of testicular fibrosis as sign of ageing and the semen quality in the ejaculate are characteristics, which were regarded as sufficient to allow an accurate evaluation of the current breeding status of a

  2. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2) of this section, be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. ...mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the gearbox oil system and the accessory system....

  3. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2) of this section, be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. ...mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the gearbox oil system and the accessory system....

  4. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2) of this section, be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. ...mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the gearbox oil system and the accessory system....

  5. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2) of this section, be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. ...mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the gearbox oil system and the accessory system....

  6. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2) of this section, be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. ...mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the gearbox oil system and the accessory system....

  7. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A wheelchair accessory is a device...

  8. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A wheelchair accessory is a device...

  9. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special accessories. 15.27 Section 15.27 Telecommunication...DEVICES General § 15.27 Special accessories. (a) Equipment marketed...equipment is marketed. Where special accessories, such as shielded cables...

  10. Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

  11. news update Fashion Accessory Design

    E-print Network

    Evans, Paul

    news update let's talk Fashion Accessory Design Fashion Design Fashion Knitwear Design and Knitted in the fashion and textile industry. Through Texprint, Alice will receive mentoring and benefit from being and fashion fabrics. Following an exhibition in London, Alice will have her own stand at the Texprint Village

  12. Endothelial cell migration directs testis cord formation.

    PubMed

    Combes, Alexander N; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Davidson, Tara; Dejana, Elisabetta; Harley, Vincent; Sinclair, Andrew; Koopman, Peter

    2009-02-01

    While the molecular cues initiating testis determination have been identified in mammals, the cellular interactions involved in generating a functional testis with cord and interstitial compartments remain poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that testis cord formation relies on cell migration from the adjacent mesonephros, and have implicated immigrant peritubular myoid cells in this process. Here, we used recombinant organ culture experiments to show that immigrant cells are endothelial, not peritubular myoid or other interstitial cells. Inhibition of endothelial cell migration and vascular organisation using a blocking antibody to VE-cadherin, also disrupted the development of testis cords. Our data reveal that migration of endothelial cells is required for testis cord formation, consistent with increasing evidence of a broader role for endothelial cells in establishing tissue architecture during organogenesis. PMID:19041858

  13. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Larynx & Trachea Bronchi, Bronchial Tree, & Lungs Review Quiz Digestive System General Structure Regions of the Digestive System Mouth Pharynx & Esophagus Stomach Small & Large Intestine Accessory ...

  14. The Number of Grafted Fragments Affects the Outcome of Testis Tissue Xenografting from Piglets into Recipient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Sepideh; Honaramooz, Ali

    2011-01-01

    To optimize the procedure for testis tissue xenografting, we grafted 2, 4, 8, or 16 small fragments of immature porcine testis tissue under the back skin of immunodeficient castrated mice (n = 10 mice/group). At 8 months post grafting, the graft recovery rate did not differ between groups; however, not only the total but also the average graft weights were higher (by ?12-fold and ?2.5-fold, resp.) in mice receiving 16 fragments than those receiving 2 fragments (P < .05). The recipient mice with 16 fragments had the largest vesicular glands (indicators of testosterone release by the grafts) compared with those with 2 fragments (P = .007). The grafts in the group of 16 fragments also had more (P < .05) percentage of tubules with round spermatids than those of the group of mice receiving 2 fragments. Therefore, recipient mice can be grafted with at least 16 testis tissue fragments for optimal results. PMID:20814434

  15. Modification of accessory molecule signaling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary K. Crow; Springer Semin

    2006-01-01

    The concept of costimulation, the requirement for an independent accessory cellular activation signal that supplements the\\u000a signal delivered to a lymphocyte by antigen, has been a focal point of progress in understanding the regulation of the immune\\u000a system. While considerable attention has been directed to new developments related to the activation of cells of the innate\\u000a immune system through Toll-like

  16. Genes promoting and disturbing testis development.

    PubMed

    Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Burgos, Miguel; Scherer, Gerd; Jiménez, Rafael

    2012-11-01

    Mammals have an XX/XY sex chromosomal sex determination system in which males represent the heterogametic sex. The Y-linked gene, SRY, determines sex by inducing the undifferentiated, bipotential gonads to differentiate as testes, which produce androgens and promote in this way the development of a male phenotype. Thus, in mammals, sex determination can be equated to testis determination, which involves several important cell processes, including Sertoli cell differentiation, mesonephric cell migration, testis cord formation, testis-specific vascularization, and myoid and Leydig cell differentiation. Many genes are currently known to be involved in testis development. Some of them, including SF1, WT1, GATA4 and FOG2, are necessary for the formation of the bipotential, undifferentiated gonad but also have important roles in testis differentiation. Others can be considered testis-promoting, differentaition and/or maintenance genes: these include SRY, SOX9, FGF9, PTGDS, SOX8, SOX3, NR0B1, PDGFRa, DMRT1, AMH, NGF, NTF3 and NGFR as the most important examples. Finally, there is a smaller group of genes which are involved in ovarian development and which can cause aberrant testis development if mutated, including RSPO1, WNT4, CTNNB1, FST, BMP2 and FOXL2. In this paper, we review our current knowledge on the function, spatio-temporal expression pattern and mutant sexual phenotypes associated with these genes, and discuss the various roles they play in gonad development. PMID:23018237

  17. Characterization of ocular gland morphology and tear composition of pinnipeds

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Robin Kelleher; Doane, Marshall G.; Knop, Erich; Knop, Nadja; Dubielzig, Richard R.; Colitz, Carmen M. H.; Argüeso, Pablo; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The importance of tear film integrity to ocular health in terrestrial mammals is well established, however, in marine mammals, the role of the tear film in protection of the ocular surface is not known. In an effort to better understand the function of tears in maintaining health of the marine mammal eye surface, we examined ocular glands of the California sea lion, and began to characterize the biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds. Procedures Glands dissected from California sea lion eyelids and adnexa were examined for gross morphology, sectioned for microscopic analysis, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The tear film was examined using interferometry. Tears were collected from humans and pinnipeds for analysis of protein and carbohydrate content. Results The sea lion has sebaceous glands in the lid, but these glands are different in size and orientation compared to typical meibomian glands of terrestrial mammals. Two other accessory ocular glands located dorsotemporally and medially appeared to be identical in morphology, with tubulo-acinar morphology. An outer lipid layer on the ocular surface of the sea lion was not detected using interferometry, consistent with the absence of typical meibomian glands. Similar to human tears, the tears of pinnipeds contain several proteins but the ratio of carbohydrate to protein was greater than that in human tears. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the ocular gland architecture and biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds have evolved to adapt to the challenges of an aquatic environment. PMID:23067374

  18. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

  19. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

  20. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

  1. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

  2. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  3. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  4. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  5. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  6. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  9. Engine starter and accessory drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Stockton, T.R.

    1986-10-07

    An engine starter and accessory drive system is described which consists of: an accessory drive means; a planetary gearset having a sun gear driveably connected to the accessory drive means, a ring gear, a carrier and planet pinions rotatably mounted on the carrier, fixed to the engine crankshaft, meshing with the sun gear and with the ring gear; means for holding the ring gear against rotation; and a starter motor and first clutch means for providing a one-way driving connection between the motor and the accessory drive means.

  10. Effect of long-term testosterone propionate or human chorionic gonadotrophin administration on reproductive glands in adult male rabbits.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Raouf, M; Hussein, H A

    2015-05-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the effect of testosterone propionate (TP) or human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) treatment on reproductive glands in sexually mature male rabbits. A total 36 adult male rabbits were randomly distributed to six equal groups. The first control group (CON), the second treated with low-dose TP (TPL), the third treated with high-dose TP (TPH), the fourth treated with low-dose hCG (CGL), the fifth treated with medium-dose hCG (CGM) and sixth treated with high-dose hCG (CGH). At the 16th post-treatment week, the animals were sacrificed, and the testes and accessory sex glands dissected, weighted and stored at -20 °C until assay. Testosterone propionate treatment in both doses resulted in reduction (P < 0.01) in testicular weight and increase (P < 0.01) in weight of vesicular gland, paraprostate and proprostate glands. High-dose TP increased the weight of prostate and bulbouretheral gland (BUG). Testosterone propionate increased total androgen (P < 0.01) with Testosterone (T) predominating in serum, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) predominating in testes and most accessory sex glands. High dose of hCG increased the weight of proprostate and paraprostate glands. Androgen level in serum, testes and accessory sex glands increased (P < 0.01) after hCG treatment. PMID:24811403

  11. Primary Carcinoid Tumor of the Testis

    PubMed Central

    Petrossian, Albert A.; Habibi, Joseph; Rapp, David E.; Ramnani, Dharamdas

    2015-01-01

    Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis are a rare entity comprising less than 1% of all testicular neoplasms. Their presence should be considered particularly when evaluating a testicular lesion in an older male patient. Immunohistochemical studies may aid in diagnosis and radiographic evaluation is important to rule out metastatic origin. Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis are associated with an excellent prognosis; however, surveillance is important given rare reports of delayed metastases.

  12. Primary carcinoid tumor of the testis.

    PubMed

    Petrossian, Albert A; Habibi, Joseph; Rapp, David E; Ramnani, Dharamdas

    2015-01-01

    Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis are a rare entity comprising less than 1% of all testicular neoplasms. Their presence should be considered particularly when evaluating a testicular lesion in an older male patient. Immunohistochemical studies may aid in diagnosis and radiographic evaluation is important to rule out metastatic origin. Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis are associated with an excellent prognosis; however, surveillance is important given rare reports of delayed metastases. PMID:25763289

  13. Selective constraint dominates the evolution of genes expressed in a novel reproductive gland.

    PubMed

    Finseth, Findley R; Bondra, Eliana; Harrison, Richard G

    2014-12-01

    One striking pattern in molecular evolution is that genes encoding proteins involved in reproduction tend to evolve rapidly. Seminal fluid proteins frequently exhibit this pattern and directly affect multiple reproductive processes including enhancing sperm performance and mediating postmating sexual selection. Here, we investigate molecular evolutionary patterns of genes expressed in the foam gland of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), a novel reproductive phenotype. Foam provides an interesting contrast to seminal fluid because it plays a similar functional role, yet is produced, stored, and transferred to females independent of semen. We combined RNA-Seq and comparative genomics to examine evolutionary rates of genes with enriched expression in the foam gland of Japanese quail and those that exhibit enriched expression in two other tissues (testis and liver) and with broadly expressed genes. Overall, we found pronounced heterogeneity in evolutionary rates. Foam gland genes evolved under strong evolutionary constraint, whereas testis genes evolved rapidly and sometimes adaptively. These striking differences were robust to variation in gene expression. Genes with enriched expression in the foam gland did not show major shifts in selective pressure after the quail and chicken lineages split; in contrast, testis-expressed genes experienced a burst of accelerated evolution specifically along the Coturnix lineage. Our work demonstrates that, as a class, genes expressed in the novel foam gland experience different selection regimes than genes expressed in many other tissues producing seminal fluid proteins. Our results also highlight the importance of selective constraint in shaping the evolution of male reproductive genes. PMID:25193339

  14. Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.

    2010-06-15

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power. Two studies were conducted at ORNL. One was to put an additional winding in the motor slots to magnetically link with the high frequency of the controllable zero-sequence stator currents that do not produce any zero-sequence harmonic torques. The second approach was to utilize the corners of the square stator punching for the high-frequency transformers of the dc/dc inverter. Both approaches were successful. This CRADA validated the feasibility of GM’s desire to use the motor’s magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply. Three joint U.S. patents with GM were issued to ORNL and GM by the U.S. Patent Office for the research results produced by this CRADA.

  15. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872...DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a... Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually...of endosseous dental implants and abutments,...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872...DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a... Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually...of endosseous dental implants and abutments,...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872...DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a... Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually...of endosseous dental implants and abutments,...

  18. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

  2. 21 CFR 870.4200 - Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. 870.4200 Section...870.4200 Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. (a) Identification. Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment is a device that...

  3. 21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900 Section 884.4900... § 884.4900 Obstetric table and accessories. (a) Identification. An...type of device may include the following accessories: patient equipment, support...

  4. 14 CFR 121.251 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 121.251 Section...Airworthiness Requirements § 121.251 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent...of the exhaust system from the engine accessory...

  5. 49 CFR 393.3 - Additional equipment and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Additional equipment and accessories. 393.3 Section 393.3...SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION...3 Additional equipment and accessories. Nothing contained in...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section 868.5860... § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices...

  7. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section 872.4200...872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered,...

  8. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149 Section...Airworthiness Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent...of the exhaust system from the engine accessory...

  9. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640...Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A...type of device includes the following accessories: signal analysis and display...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872.6250...Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually...

  11. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120 Section 872.4120...4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device...

  12. 49 CFR 192.147 - Flanges and flange accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Flanges and flange accessories. 192.147 Section 192.147 Transportation...Components § 192.147 Flanges and flange accessories. (a) Each flange or flange accessory (other than cast iron) must meet...

  13. 21 CFR 884.4120 - Gynecologic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Gynecologic electrocautery and accessories. 884.4120 Section 884.4120...4120 Gynecologic electrocautery and accessories. (a) Identification. ...of device may include the following accessories: an electrical generator, a...

  14. Computed tomographic imaging characteristics of the normal canine lacrimal glands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The canine lacrimal gland (LG) and accessory lacrimal gland of the third eyelid (TEG) are responsible for production of the aqueous portion of the precorneal tear film. Immune-mediated, toxic, neoplastic, or infectious processes can affect the glands directly or can involve adjacent tissues, with secondary gland involvement. Disease affecting these glands can cause keratoconjunctivitis sicca, corneal ulcers, and loss of vision. Due to their location in the orbit, these small structures are difficult to evaluate and measure, making cross-sectional imaging an important diagnostic tool. The detailed cross-sectional imaging appearance of the LG and TEG in dogs using computed tomography (CT) has not been reported to date. Results Forty-two dogs were imaged, and the length, width, and height were measured and the volume calculated for the LGs & TEGs. The glands were best visualized in contrast-enhanced CT images. The mean volume of the LG was 0.14 cm3 and the TEG was 0.1 cm3. The mean height, width, and length of the LG were, 9.36 mm, 4.29 mm, and 9.35 mm, respectively; the corresponding values for the TEG was 2.02 mm, 9.34 mm, and 7.90 mm. LG and TEG volume were positively correlated with body weight (p?glands. PMID:24886364

  15. Lacrimal gland (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The lacrimal gland lies within the orbit on the outer portion of the upper eye. The gland continually secretes tears which moisten, lubricate, and protect the surface of the eye. Excess tears drain into small ducts which ...

  16. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  17. Bartholin's Gland Cyst

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the glands, the fluid backs up. It causes a round swelling called a cyst (say: "sis- ... cyst and to find out whether it's infected. Causes & Risk Factors Are Bartholin's gland cysts caused by ...

  18. Three Accessories for a Rotating Platform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, James A.; Fryer, Oscar G.

    1980-01-01

    Describes three accessories developed to be used in conjunction with the rotating platform or turntable. Three demonstrations using these accessories are included. These demonstrations are: (a) conservation of angular momentum; (b) gravity-defying goblets; and (c) direct measurement of centripetal force. (HM)

  19. An accessory limb with an imperforate anus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kun-Bo; Kim, Yeon-Mee; Park, Ji-Yong; Chung, Mi-Lim; Jung, Yu-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Congenital accessory limbs are very rare anomalies with many causative factors. We describe the case of a 1-day-old female neonate-born to a healthy, 27-year-old mother-who presented with an accessory limb (foot) attached to the buttock and an imperforate anus. We also provide a review of the relevant literature. PMID:25317418

  20. Gas turbine engine with convertible accessories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargisson, D. F.; Adamson, A. P. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    Drive means for connecting a gas turbine engine to its accessories are so constructed as to allow the accessories to be selectively positioned to any one of several predetermined circumferential positions about the perimeter of the engine. This feature permits convenient mounting of the same engine upon vehicles demanding radically different engine mounting arrangements.

  1. Preservation and transplantation of porcine testis tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, W.; Snedaker, A. K.; Megee, S.; Rathi, R.; Chen, F.; Honaramooz, A.; Dobrinski, I.

    2009-01-01

    Grafting of immature mammalian testis tissue to mouse hosts can preserve the male germline. To make this approach applicable to a clinical or field situation, it is imperative that the testis tissue and/or spermatozoa harvested from grafted tissue are preserved successfully. The aim of the present study was to evaluate protocols for the preservation of testis tissue in a porcine model. Testis tissue was stored at 4°C for short-term preservation or cryopreserved by slow-freezing, automated slow-freezing or vitrification for long-term storage. Preserved tissue was transplanted ectopically to mouse hosts and recovered xenografts were analysed histologically. In addition, spermatozoa were harvested from xenografts and cryopreserved. Total cell viability and germ cell viability remained high after tissue preservation. Complete spermatogenesis occurred in xenografts preserved by cooling up to 48 h, whereas spermatogenesis progressed to round spermatids in the xenografts that were frozen–thawed before grafting. Approximately 50% of spermatozoa harvested from xenografts remained viable after freezing and thawing. The in vivo developmental potential of cryopreserved tissue was reduced despite high post-thaw viability. Therefore, it is important to evaluate germ cell differentiation in vivo in addition to cell viability in vitro when optimising freezing protocols for testis tissue. PMID:19261226

  2. Bilateral cystic rete testis in an alpaca (Lama pacos).

    PubMed

    Kutzler, Michelle A; Shoemaker, Michelle; Valentine, Beth A; Bildfell, Robert J; Tornquist, Susan J

    2006-05-01

    A 9-year-old intact male alpaca (Lama pacos) was examined because of marked enlargement of the left scrotum. Ultrasound examination revealed a thin-walled anechoic structure in the area of the left testis. Aspirated fluid contained spermatozoa, many of which had abnormal morphology. Castration was performed and the left testis was markedly enlarged with a clear fluid-filled cyst. The cyst was lined by a single layer of squamous to cuboidal epithelial cells consistent with those originating from rete testis. The right testis was of a comparable size and shape to that of normal alpaca testis, but the rete testis was mildly to moderately dilated. Additional findings included chronic inflammation of the right testis and epididymis and epididymal fibrosis with ductal hyperplasia on the left. The diagnosis was bilateral cystic rete testis, most likely secondary to chronic inflammation. PMID:16789724

  3. Rete testis adenomatous hyperplasia: our experience.

    PubMed

    Martino, Giovanni; Pasta, Vittorio; Ciardi, Antonio; Palmieri, Andrea; Marinaccio, Lucia; Malavenda, Maria Stella; Monti, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The word "adenomatous hyperplasia of rete testis" (AHRT) was used by M. Nistal et Al. for the first time in an article about the cystic dysplasia of the testis (1976). AHRT is a benign lesion of the testis. The patient who came to our attention was studied with a testicular echo color Doppler that identified a solid, well circumscribed and hypoechoic mass of 4.5 x3.8mm as diameter, localized in the upper third of the right testicle and with a perilesional vascularization pattern. The preoperative study was based on an accurate medical history, on an ultrasound with contrast and on a RMI. The treatment consisted in an echo guided excisional biopsy of the testicular lesion, considering this as the best approach for those testicular neoformation difficult to define, with a lot of benefits for the patients, especially for those monorchid. PMID:24311150

  4. Secretory and basal cells of the epithelium of the tubular glands in the male Mullerian gland of the caecilian Uraeotyphlus narayani (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Matthew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2004-12-01

    Caecilians are exceptional among the vertebrates in that males retain the Mullerian duct as a functional glandular structure. The Mullerian gland on each side is formed from a large number of tubular glands connecting to a central duct, which either connects to the urogenital duct or opens directly into the cloaca. The Mullerian gland is believed to secrete a substance to be added to the sperm during ejaculation. Thus, the Mullerian gland could function as a male accessory reproductive gland. Recently, we described the male Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and histochemistry. The present TEM study reports that the secretory cells of both the tubular and basal portions of the tubular glands of the male Mullerian gland of this caecilian produce secretion granules in the same manner as do other glandular epithelial cells. The secretion granules are released in the form of structured granules into the lumen of the tubular glands, and such granules are traceable to the lumen of the central duct of the Mullerian gland. This is comparable to the situation prevailing in the epididymal epithelium of several reptiles. In the secretory cells of the basal portion of the tubular glands, mitochondria are intimately associated with fabrication of the secretion granules. The structural and functional organization of the epithelium of the basal portion of the tubular glands is complicated by the presence of basal cells. This study suggests the origin of the basal cells from peritubular tissue leukocytes. The study also indicates a role for the basal cells in acquiring secretion granules from the neighboring secretory cells and processing them into lipofuscin material in the context of regression of the Mullerian gland during the period of reproductive quiescence. In these respects the basal cells match those in the epithelial lining of the epididymis of amniotes. PMID:15487004

  5. Accessory liver lobes: anatomical description and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Glenisson, M; Salloum, C; Lim, C; Lacaze, L; Malek, A; Enriquez, A; Compagnon, P; Laurent, A; Azoulay, D

    2014-12-01

    Accessory liver lobes are a rare condition and appear to be due to excessive development of the liver. The presence of an accessory hepatic lobe is often diagnosed incidentally and sometimes revealed if it develops torsion, especially in pedunculated forms. In most cases, the accessory lobe is located below the liver, i.e., infrahepatic. Riedel's lobe is the best-known example of an accessory lobe, corresponding to hypertrophy of segments V and VI. While accessories lobes can simulate tumors, there have also been reports of hepatocellular tumor(s) that developed in these accessory lobes. Based on a review of the literature, this update focuses on accessory hepatic lobes. PMID:25448768

  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Lane 1= adrenal gland, 2=brain, 3=heart,

    E-print Network

    Clapham, David E.

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Lane 1= adrenal gland, 2=brain, 3=heart, 4=kidney, 5=liver, 6=lung, 7=mamm ary gland, 8=pancreas, 9=placenta, 10=prostate, 11=salivary gland, 12=muscle, 13= small intestine, 14=spleen, 15=stomach, 16=testis, 17=thymus, 18=trachea, 19

  7. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking must be...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Unless other means are provided, torque limiting means...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...engine involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking must be...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking must be...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking must be...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking must be...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Unless other means are provided, torque limiting means...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...engine involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking must be...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...engine involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking must be...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Unless other means are provided, torque limiting means...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Unless other means are provided, torque limiting means...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...engine involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking must be...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking must be...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Unless other means are provided, torque limiting means...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...engine involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking must be...

  2. Giant epithelial cyst of the accessory spleen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Mori; Taro Ishii; Toru Iida; Fumihiko Tanaka; Hajime Takikawa; Kota Okinaga

    2003-01-01

    Splenic cysts are uncommon, and cysts derived from the accessory spleen are rare. We report a case of a huge splenic cyst\\u000a derived from the accessory spleen in the omentum, concomitant with multiple epithelial cysts of the primary spleen. Both serum\\u000a and cystic fluid concentrations of carbohydrate antigen (CA)19-9 were markedly elevated. A huge monolocular cyst occupied\\u000a the entire abdomen.

  3. Motile Sperm in Human Testis Biopsy Specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM W. JOW; JOPH STECKEL; PETER N. SCHLEGEL; MARGRET S. MAGID

    We prospectively studied 62 consecutive infertile men who underwent 100 intraoperative wet prep cytological examinations of testis biopsy material obtained simultaneously with permanently fixed specimens. Wet preps were performed by placing a small sam- pIe of fresh testicular tissue on a slide, adding a drop of Ringer's lactate, and compressing the specimen under a glass coverslip. Among these 100 wet

  4. Functional Analysis of the Cooled Rat Testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. ZHANG; R. V. SHORT; T. MEEHAN; D. M. DE KRETSER; M. B. RENFREE; K. L. LOVELAND

    2004-01-01

    Direct cooling of the testis results in the depletion of most germ cells in vivo. Germ cell-depleted testes are now com- monly used to investigate spermatogenic regeneration and can serve as recipients for germ cell transplantation. The present study explored the effects of cooling rat testes on the depletion of endog- enous germ cells, spermatogenic regeneration, and Sertoli cell func-

  5. Free Radicals in Adolescent Varicocele Testis

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Carmelo; Santoro, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relationship between the structure and function of the testis and the oxidative and nitrosative stress, determined by an excessive production of free radicals and/or decreased availability of antioxidant defenses, which occur in the testis of adolescents affected by varicocele. Moreover, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidative stress were provided. We conducted a PubMed and Medline search between 1980 and 2014 using “adolescent,” “varicocele,” “free radicals,” “oxidative and nitrosative stress,” “testis,” and “seminiferous tubules” as keywords. Cross-references were checked in each of the studies, and relevant articles were retrieved. We conclude that increased concentration of free radicals, generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in adolescent affected by varicocele, can harm germ cells directly or indirectly by influencing nonspermatogenic cells and basal lamina. With regard to few available data in current literature, further clinical trials on the pre- and postoperative ROS and RNS levels together with morphological studies of the cellular component of the testis are fundamental for complete comprehension of the role played by free radicals in the pathogenesis of adolescent varicocele and could justify its pharmacological treatment with antioxidants. PMID:25580183

  6. Malignant mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis testis

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, G.; Munn, C.S.; Kiser, L.C.; Wetzner, S.M.; Tarabulcy, E. (New England Baptist Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis is rare, but sometimes curable. It is similar to malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum and of the pleura, and is likewise associated with asbestos exposure. We report a case, with correlative computed tomography, ultrasound, and gross pathology images that demonstrate tiny tumor implants studding the vaginalis testis. The literature is reviewed.

  7. A cellular study of human testis development.

    PubMed

    Ostrer, H; Huang, H Y; Masch, R J; Shapiro, E

    2007-01-01

    This study catalogs the cellular events underlying the formation of a human testis. These events were identified by immunocytochemistry using antibodies that served as markers for specific cell types, then contrasted with the events occurring in the developing mouse testis. The presence of germ cells in the embryonic gonadal ridge and of coelomic epithelial cells that give rise to Sertoli cells was observed at 7 weeks. This was followed by the appearance of Sertoli cells in testicular tubules and of Leydig cells at 9 weeks and by the appearance of vascular endothelial cells and peritubular myoid cells at 12 weeks. Overall the temporal sequence of events in humans was similar, albeit longer, than what occurs in mice. Notably, Leydig cell differentiation occurs earlier in the sequence of events and germ cell maturation occurs during fetal life. The candidate testis-determining genes, FGF9, GATA4, FOG2, EMX2, and CBX2 were expressed at 7 weeks suggesting a role in early gonadal development, such as that observed in mice. In addition, expression of FGF9 in germ cells following testis determination suggests a role in germ cell maturation. PMID:18391539

  8. Torsion of a Large Appendix Testis Misdiagnosed as Pyocele

    PubMed Central

    Meher, Susanta; Rath, Satyajit; Sharma, Rakesh; Sasmal, Prakash Kumar; Mishra, Tushar Subhadarshan

    2015-01-01

    Torsion of the appendix testis is not an uncommon cause of acute hemiscrotum. It is frequently misdiagnosed as acute epididymitis, orchitis, or torsion of testis. Though conservative management is the treatment of choice for this condition, prompt surgical intervention is warranted when testicular torsion is suspected. We report a case of torsion of a large appendix testis misdiagnosed as pyocele. Emergency exploration of it revealed a large appendix testis with torsion and early features of gangrene. After excision of the appendix testis, the wound was closed with an open drain. The patient had an uneventful and smooth postoperative recovery.

  9. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Patients with salivary gland disease present with certain objective and/or subjective signs. An accurate diagnosis for these patients requires a range of techniques that includes the organized integration of information derived from their history, clinical examination, imaging, serology, and histopathology. This article highlights the signs and symptoms of the salivary gland disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center, and emphasizes the methodology used to achieve a definitive diagnosis and therapy. PMID:25443682

  10. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  11. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  12. INVIVOGENETRANSFER TOSALIVARY GLANDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Baum; B. C. O'Connell

    Considerable progress hasoccurred recently intransferring foreign genes todifferent tissues invivo. Genetrans- fer tosalivary glands hasmirrored progress inthegeneral field. Mostsalivary studies haveutilized replication-deficient, recom- binant adenoviruses asgenetransfer vectors inratmodels. These vectors areable totransduce almost all ratsalivary epithe- lial cell types andlead torelatively highlevels oftransgene expression. Additionally, successful, though quite modest, gene transfer tosalivary glands hasbeenachieved withretroviral vectors andwithdifferent plasmid conjugates (liposomes;

  13. Expression of connexin 43 in human testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Steger; Frank Tetens; Martin Bergmann

    1999-01-01

    In order to further characterize the Sertoli cell state of differentiation, we investigated the expression of connexin 43\\u000a (cx43) protein in the testis of adult men both with normal spermatogenesis and associated with spermatogenic impairment, since\\u000a cx43 is first expressed during puberty. Cx43 protein was found as a single 43-kDa band on western blots of extracts of normal\\u000a human testicular

  14. Thyroid Hormone Function in the Rat Testis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are emerging regulators of testicular function since Sertoli, germ, and Leydig cells are found to express thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). These testicular cells also express deiodinases, which are capable of converting the pro-hormone T4 to the active thyroid hormone T3, or inactivating T3 or T4 to a non-biologically active form. Furthermore, thyroid hormone transporters are also found in the testis. Thus, the testis is equipped with the transporters and the enzymes necessary to maintain the optimal level of thyroid hormone in the seminiferous epithelium, as well as the specific TRs to execute thyroid hormone action in response to different stages of the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. Studies using genetic models and/or goitrogens (e.g., propylthiouracil) have illustrated a tight physiological relationship between thyroid hormone and testicular function, in particular, Sertoli cell differentiation status, mitotic activity, gap junction function, and blood–testis barrier assembly. These findings are briefly summarized and discussed herein. PMID:25414694

  15. Thyroid Hormone and Leptin in the Testis

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Cristiane Fonte; Zamoner, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is primarily expressed in white adipose tissue; however, it is expressed in the hypothalamus and reproductive tissues as well. Leptin acts by activating the leptin receptors (Ob-Rs). Additionally, the regulation of several neuroendocrine and reproductive functions, including the inhibition of glucocorticoids and enhancement of thyroxine and sex hormone concentrations in human beings and mice are leptin functions. It has been suggested that thyroid hormones (TH) could directly regulate leptin expression. Additionally, hypothyroidism compromises the intracellular integration of leptin signaling specifically in the arcuate nucleus. Two TH receptor isoforms are expressed in the testis, TRa and TRb, with TRa being the predominant one that is present in all stages of development. The effects of TH involve the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli and Leydig cells during development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis. In this context, TH disorders are associated with sexual dysfunction. An endocrine and/or direct paracrine effect of leptin on the gonads inhibits testosterone production in Leydig cells. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effects of both hormones in the testis during hypothyroidism. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge regarding leptin and TH in the testis. PMID:25505448

  16. Controlled Speed Accessory Drive demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    A Controlled Speed Accessory Drive System was examined in an effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars. Concept feasibility and the performance of a typical system during actual road driving conditions were demonstrated. The CSAD system is described as a mechanical device which limits engine accessory speeds, thereby reducing parasitic horsepower losses and improving overall vehicle fuel economy. Fuel consumption data were compiled for fleets of GSA vehicles. Various motor pool locations were selected, each representing different climatic conditions. On the basis of a total accumulated fleet usage of nearly three million miles, an overall fuel economy improvement of 6 percent to 7 percent was demonstrated. Coincident chassis dynamometer tests were accomplished on selected vehicles to establish the effect of different accessory drive systems on exhaust emissions, and to evaluate the magnitude of the mileage benefits which could be derived.

  17. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section...PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section...PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives, such as diamond chips, that are glued to shellac-based paper. The device is intended to remove excessive restorative materials,...

  20. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120 Section...OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a)...

  1. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120 Section...OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120 Section...OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884...Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to...

  4. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884...Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...accessory compartment diaphragm. 23.1192 Section 23.1192 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem...

  6. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories....

  7. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories....

  8. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories....

  9. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories....

  10. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories....

  11. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories....

  12. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories....

  13. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories....

  14. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories....

  15. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories....

  16. Reducing Exposure: Hands-free Kits and Other Accessories

    MedlinePLUS

    ... kits Hand-free kits may include audio or Bluetooth headsets and various types of body-worn accessories ... Other Accessories Interference with Pacemakers and Other Medical Devices Hearing Aids and Cell Phones Children and Cell ...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section...PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  18. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories,...

  19. 21 CFR 884.1720 - Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories. 884.1720 ...Devices § 884.1720 Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A gynecologic laparoscope is a device used to...

  20. 21 CFR 884.1720 - Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories. 884.1720 ...Devices § 884.1720 Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A gynecologic laparoscope is a device used to...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives, such as diamond chips, that are glued to shellac-based paper. The device is intended to remove excessive restorative materials,...

  2. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives, such as diamond chips, that are glued to shellac-based paper. The device is intended to remove excessive restorative materials,...

  3. 21 CFR 884.1175 - Endometrial suction curette and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Endometrial suction curette and accessories. 884.1175...Devices § 884.1175 Endometrial suction curette and accessories. (a) Identification. An endometrial suction curette is a device used to...

  4. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

  5. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

  6. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

  7. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

  8. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

  9. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Thymus Gland Anatomy Adult View/Download: Small: 720x576 View Download Add ... Search | Accessibility | Staff U.S. Department of Health and Human Services | National Institutes of Health | National Cancer Institute | ...

  10. Pineal and Pituitary Glands

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Casefinding Anticipated Impact on Registries Review Brain & CNS Tumors Signs & Symptoms Anatomy Neurons & Glial Cells Brain Meninges Spinal Cord Cranial Nerves Pineal and Pituitary Glands Abstracting, Coding, & Staging Topographic Sites Histological Types ...

  11. Lacrimal gland anatomy (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The lacrimal gland is located within the orbit above the lateral end of the eye. It continually releases fluid which cleanses and protects the eye's surface as it lubricates and moistens it. These lacrimal secretions are commonly known ...

  12. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the salivary glands. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund VJ, et al., eds. Cummings Otolaryngology Head and ... NCCN Guidelines): Head and neck cancers. Version 2.2013. Available at: http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_ ...

  13. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is encased within the prostate gland. As a man ages, the prostate typically enlarges in size in ... urinate, and incontinence. Less than half of all men with BPH have symptoms of the disease, or ...

  14. Adrenal glands (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.

  15. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harmon H. Davis; Ajit Varki; W. A. Heaton; B. A. Siegel

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets.

  16. Nonobstructing Accessory Mitral Valve Tissue and Ventricular Septal Defect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Izumoto; Kazuaki Ishihara; Masaaki Ogawa; Yutaka Fujii; Kotaro Oyama; Kohei Kawazoe

    1996-01-01

    A 4-month-old boy with ventricular septal defect was found to have accessory mitral valve tissue attached to the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. Operation was successfully performed to excise the accessory mitral tissue in the left ventricular outflow tract and close the ventricular septal defect. Most previously reported cases with accessory mitral valve tissue were associated with left ventricular

  17. 49 CFR 390.17 - Additional equipment and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Additional equipment and accessories. 390.17 Section 390.17 Transportation...390.17 Additional equipment and accessories. Nothing in this subchapter shall...prohibit the use of additional equipment and accessories, not inconsistent with or...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192 Section...Fire Protection § 25.1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating...system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm that...

  19. Nectar-Secreting Glands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis Darwin

    1877-01-01

    I HAVE briefly described in vol. xv. of the Linnæan Society's Journal, the nectar-glands found at the base of the fronds of the brake fern (Pteris aquilina) which are visited by ants for the sake of their sweet secretion. This case seemed to me to show in a striking manner that extra-floral nectar-glands are not necessarily protective in function, because

  20. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  1. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

  7. Tracminer: traction-enhancing mining equipment accessory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Armada; Mario Maza; Jean-Guy Fontaine; Pablo Gonzalez de Santos; Vasilios Papantoniou

    1997-01-01

    Explains how the Tracminer project aimed to provide a robust, low cost device to be mounted as an accessory on the motorized wheels of traction machines, in order to increase grip on loose soils. The main goal was to provide a device increasing by 30-40 per cent the traction capacity of the given machine in soft or marshy soil working

  8. Home Economics Careers in Apparel and Accessories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    This course of study on careers in apparel and accessories is one of a series on home economics careers designed to assist teacher-coordinators in Texas in promotion and/or teaching home economics cooperative education programs. The course of study consists of (1) an overview and job description, (2) a job analysis, (3) a course outline, (4)…

  9. Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory

    DOEpatents

    Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

    2005-05-31

    An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

  10. Department of Pharmacology Shared Equipment Centrifugation & Accessories

    E-print Network

    Department of Pharmacology Shared Equipment Centrifugation & Accessories 1 Sorvall RC-5B High Speed Centrifuge (2-233) 2 Sorvall RC-5C+ High Speed Centrifuges (2-233) 1 Beckman LE80 Ultracentrifuge (2-233) 1 Thermo-Sorvall Discovery M150 Ultracentrifuge (2-270) 1 Eppendorf High Speed 581OR Tabletop Centrifuge (2

  11. Salivary gland derived peptides as a new class of anti-inflammatory agents: review of preclinical pharmacology of C-terminal peptides of SMR1 protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald D Mathison; Joseph S Davison; A Dean Befus; Daniel A Gingerich

    2010-01-01

    The limitations of steroidal and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have prompted investigation into other biologically based therapeutics, and identification of immune selective anti-inflammatory agents of salivary origin. The traditional view of salivary glands as accessory digestive structures is changing as their importance as sources of systemically active immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory factors is recognized. Salivary gland involvement in maintenance of whole

  12. Treatment Options for Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) Treatment Options for Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment of recurrent salivary gland cancer may include the ...

  13. The intertubular compartment morphometry in capybaras ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Costa; T. A. R. Paula; S. L. P. Matta

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the intertubule element volume density, individual and total Leydig cells volume, Leydig cell number per testis and per gram of testis, and leydigosomatic index in adult capybaras. Eight capybaras from a commercial abattoir were utilized. The intertubular compartment volume density and the Leydig cells were 45.2 and 31.13%, respectively. The individual

  14. Replantation of the testis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y M; Wu, P; Cai, P C; Cheng, Z C

    1988-03-01

    To our knowledge there has been no report to date of successful testis replantation after complete traumatic severance of the funiculus within the scrotum. We report a case in which both funiculi were cut completely (one of which was severed 0.8 cm. proximal to the upper pole of the testis, and the other just at the junction of the funiculus and the testis). We successfully rejoined the testis with the funicular stump to the proximal cut end of the right side using a microsurgical technique. The total ischemia period of the replanted testis was 6 hours. The penis was erect 4 days postoperatively and blood testosterone level was within the normal range. At testicular biopsy 120 days postoperatively the germ cells could be seen in various stages of development and the appearance of the Leydig cells was normal. PMID:3343750

  15. Histological changes in male accessory reproductive organs in rats exposed to cigarette smoke and the protective effect of honey supplementation.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mahaneem; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Jaafar, Hasnan

    2012-01-01

    The effect of cigarette smoke (CS) on histology of male accessory reproductive organs and the possible protective effect of honey supplementation in rats were investigated in this study. Rats received distilled water, honey, CS exposure or honey plus CS exposure. Honey (1.2 g/kg body weight/day) was administered by gavage and CS exposure (3 times per day) was done in a chamber for 13 weeks. CS exposure significantly increased relative weight of epididymis and ventral prostate. There were also significantly increased number of clear cells and epithelial height of cauda epididymis as well as severe interstitial oedema and decreased epithelial height of prostate gland. However, with the supplementation of honey, these histological changes were significantly reversed suggesting the protective effect of honey against the toxic effect of CS on male accessory reproductive organs in rats. PMID:23983363

  16. Percutaneous laser balloon coagulation of accessory pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMath, Linda P.; Schuger, Claudio D.; Crilley, Richard J.; Spears, J. Richard

    1991-05-01

    Nonsurgical ablation techniques have been proposed to cease conduction through accessory pathways which electrically connect the atrium and ventricle. The intent of this research was to investigate further the potential use of laser energy, delivered via a balloon catheter in the canine coronary sinus to photocoagulate the myocardial fibers responsible for accessory pathway conduction. Based on histological evaluation of the lesions created in acute and chronic studies, the extent of coagulation necrosis is sufficient to ablate most pathways which lie adjacent to the coronary sinus. Results from surface temperature measurements using repetitive laser exposures suggest that optical and/or thermal changes occurring in the myocardium are of greater importance than those occurring in the adipose tissue. Since the laser balloon catheter is surrounded by various tissue types, a Monte Carlo model was developed to determine the distribution of light in the atrioventricular groove.

  17. Molecular aspects of viviparous reproductive biology of the tsetse fly ( Glossina morsitans morsitans): Regulation of yolk and milk gland protein synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey M. Attardo; Nurper Guz; Patricia Strickler-Dinglasan; Serap Aksoy

    2006-01-01

    Tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) viviparous reproductive physiology remains to be explored at the molecular level. Adult females carry their young in utero for the duration of embryonic and larval development, all the while supplying their offspring with nutrients in the form of a “milk” substance secreted from a modified accessory gland. Flies give birth to fully developed third instar larvae

  18. The permeability of the microvasculature of the perfused rat testis to small hydrophilic substances.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, J C; Setchell, B P

    2000-01-01

    The permeability-surface area products (PS) for sodium, Cr-EDTA, and cyanocobalamine (CoB12) have been determined in isolated perfused rat testes, using the single-passage multiple tracer technique, with albumin as the reference tracer. The validity of using albumin was established from its recovery in the perfusate leaving the testis, which was 98.73+/-0.48% of that for Cr-labeled red cells. The PS values obtained for Na, Cr-EDTA, and CoB12 were correlated with perfusate flow, both below and above levels that were equivalent to normal rates of blood flow in the testis (0.3 mL/[g x min]). The values found at the highest flow rates obtained (between 2.7 and 3.5 mL/[g x min]) were 2230+/-240 microL/(g x min) (n = 8) for sodium, 1460+/-140 microL/(g x min) (n = 7) for Cr-EDTA, and 850+/-80 microL/(g x min) (n = 7) for CoB12. These values are similar to those reported at equivalent flow rates for heart muscle and greater than those reported for skeletal muscle, both of which have unfenestrated capillaries similar to testis, but are less than the values for pancreas and salivary gland, which have fenestrated capillaries and are similar to most other endocrine tissues. However, the permeability coefficients for these markers in the testis (calculated using published values for the surface area of the testicular microvasculature) appear to be considerably greater than for any other tissue studied thus far. By extrapolating extraction values, either linearly or logarithmically, to obtain maximal values for PS for Cr-EDTA and CoB12, and comparing the ratio of these PS area values with the ratio of the diffusion coefficients of these molecules, it can be calculated that the equivalent pore radius for the testicular endothelium is between 5 and 6 nm, comparable to those calculated for other nonfenestrated endothelia. PMID:10819453

  19. Queen Conch (Strombus gigas) Testis Regresses during the Reproductive Season at Nearshore Sites in the Florida Keys

    PubMed Central

    Spade, Daniel J.; Griffitt, Robert J.; Liu, Li; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Feswick, April; Glazer, Robert A.; Barber, David S.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Queen conch (Strombus gigas) reproduction is inhibited in nearshore areas of the Florida Keys, relative to the offshore environment where conchs reproduce successfully. Nearshore reproductive failure is possibly a result of exposure to environmental factors, including heavy metals, which are likely to accumulate close to shore. Metals such as Cu and Zn are detrimental to reproduction in many mollusks. Methodology/Principal Findings Histology shows gonadal atrophy in nearshore conchs as compared to reproductively healthy offshore conchs. In order to determine molecular mechanisms leading to tissue changes and reproductive failure, a microarray was developed. A normalized cDNA library for queen conch was constructed and sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences GS-FLX pyrosequencer, producing 27,723 assembled contigs and 7,740 annotated transcript sequences. The resulting sequences were used to design the microarray. Microarray analysis of conch testis indicated differential regulation of 255 genes (p<0.01) in nearshore conch, relative to offshore. Changes in expression for three of four transcripts of interest were confirmed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis indicated changes in biological processes: respiratory chain (GO:0015992), spermatogenesis (GO:0007283), small GTPase-mediated signal transduction (GO:0007264), and others. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that Zn and possibly Cu were elevated in some nearshore conch tissues. Conclusions/Significance Congruence between testis histology and microarray data suggests that nearshore conch testes regress during the reproductive season, while offshore conch testes develop normally. Possible mechanisms underlying the testis regression observed in queen conch in the nearshore Florida Keys include a disruption of small GTPase (Ras)-mediated signaling in testis development. Additionally, elevated tissue levels of Cu (34.77 ng/mg in testis) and Zn (831.85 ng/mg in digestive gland, 83.96 ng/mg in testis) nearshore are similar to reported levels resulting in reproductive inhibition in other gastropods, indicating that these metals possibly contribute to NS conch reproductive failure. PMID:20856805

  20. Management of Salivary Gland Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura D. Locati; Marco Guzzo; Patrizia Olmi; Lisa Licitra

    \\u000a Carcinomas of the salivary glands are uncommon representing only 2–6.5% of all head and neck cancer and less than 1% of all\\u000a cancers. About 85% of salivary gland tumors arise in the parotid glands and approximately 75% of these are benign while about\\u000a 75% of tumors arising from minor salivary glands are malignant. The latest WHO’s histological classification (2005) includes

  1. [Traumatic dislocation of the testis. Report of three cases].

    PubMed

    Gimbergues, P; Guy, L; Boyer, L; Boiteux, J P

    1999-04-01

    The authors report three cases of traumatic dislocation of the testis. Each case concerned a young patient, victim of a motorbike accident with direct trauma to the perineum and scrotum on the reservoir. Preoperative radiological assessment consisted of ultrasound, computed tomography, or even magnetic resonance imaging, depending on the case. Surgical exploration revealed 3 traumatic dislocations of the testis, including one with associated torsion of the spermatic cord. One case also presented fracture of the contralateral testis, which was not dislocated. Each case was repaired by repositioning of the testis in the scrotum. The fractured testis could not be preserved. A review of the literature confirmed the rarity of these traumatic lesions. Dislocations are usually inguinal, sometimes bilateral, and can be ectopic. Spermatic cord lesions may also be associated. The authors define the place of radiological assessment, which can guide the diagnosis and therapeutic strategy. Surgical exploration, allowing assessment of the lesions, is required in every case. Repositioning of the testis in the scrotum ensures cure when the testis is still viable. PMID:10370960

  2. Drugs and the blood-testis barrier

    PubMed Central

    Setchell, B. P.; Main, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    The functional and morphological evidence for the blood–testis barrier is discussed, together with evidence for the various processes (simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion) by which various substances enter the seminiferous tubule. Data are presented to show that methylmethane-sulfonate (MMS) and dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA) both enter the seminiferous tubules rapidly, although from the published rates of methylation of testicular DNA, by these two compounds, it might be expected that the entry of DMNA would be slower than that of MMS. It appears, however, that DMNA in blood is gradually converted to some nonpermeant compound. The possibility, as yet unsubstantiated, is discussed that a nontoxic permeant precursor may be converted into a nonpermeant toxic substance inside the tubules, thereby effectively concentrating the toxic compound inside the tubules. PMID:17539156

  3. 30 CFR 75.1106-5 - Maintenance and tests of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and equipment; requirements...nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and equipment; requirements...gages, and other cylinder accessories shall be maintained in a...

  4. Interfacial behaviour of bovine testis hyaluronidase

    PubMed Central

    Belem-Gonçalves, Silvia; Tsan, Pascale; Lancelin, Jean-Marc; Alves, Tito L. M.; Salim, Vera M.; Besson, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    The interfacial properties of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were investigated by demonstrating the association of hyaluronidase activity with membranes prepared from bovine testis. Protein adsorption to the air/water interface was investigated using surface pressure-area isotherms. In whichever way the interfacial films were obtained (protein injection or deposition), the hyaluronidase exhibited a significant affinity for the air/water interface. The isotherm obtained 180 min after protein injection into a pH 5.3 subphase was similar to the isotherm obtained after spreading the same amount of protein onto the same subphase, indicating that bovine testicular hyaluronidase molecules adopted a similar arrangement and/or conformation at the interface. Increasing the subphase pH from 5.3 to 8 resulted in changes of the protein isotherms. These modifications, which could correspond to the small pH-induced conformational changes observed by Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy, were discussed in relation to the pH influence on the hyaluronidase activity. Adding hyaluronic acid, the enzyme substrate, to the subphase tested the stability of the interfacial properties of hyaluronidase. The presence of hyaluronic acid in the subphase did not modify the protein adsorption and allowed substrate binding to a preformed film of hyaluronidase at pH 5.3, the optimal pH for the enzyme activity. Such effects of hyaluronic acid were not observed when the subphase was constituted of pure water, a medium where the enzyme activity was negligible. These influences of hyaluronic acid were discussed in relation to the modelled structure of bovine testis hyaluronidase where a hydrophobic region was proposed to be opposite of the catalytic site. PMID:16771711

  5. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  8. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  11. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

  14. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  17. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  20. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  5. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  6. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  9. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

  11. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

  13. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

  15. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

  17. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  19. Cytochrome P450c17 (Steroid 17alpha -hydroxylase\\/17,20 Lyase): Cloning of Human Adrenal and Testis cDNAs Indicates the Same Gene is Expressed in Both Tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bon-Chu Chung; James Picado-Leonard; Mitsuru Haniu; Michael Bienkowski; Peter F. Hall; John E. Shively; Walter L. Miller

    1987-01-01

    P450c17 is the single enzyme mediating both 17alpha -hydroxylase (steroid 17alpha -monooxygenase, EC 1.14.99.9) and 17,20 lyase activities in the synthesis of steroid hormones. It has been suggested that different P450c17 isozymes mediate these activities in the adrenal gland and testis. We sequenced 423 of the 509 amino acids (83%) of the porcine adrenal enzyme; based on this partial sequence,

  20. Ameboid cells in spermatogenic cysts of caecilian testis.

    PubMed

    Smita, Mathew; Jancy, M George; Akbarsha, M A; Oommen, Oommen V

    2005-03-01

    Sertoli cells constitute a permanent feature of the testis lobules in caecilians irrespective of the functional state of the testis. The developing germ cells are intimately associated with the Sertoli cells, which are adherent to the basal lamina, until spermiation. There are irregularly shaped cells in the cores of the testis lobules that interact with germ cells at the face opposite to their attachment with Sertoli cells. These irregularly shaped (ameboid) cells first appear in the lumen of the cysts containing primary spermatocytes and are continually present until spermiation. We did not observe any cytoplasmic continuity between a Sertoli cell and an ameboid cell. Both light microscopic and TEM observations reveal a phagocytic role for the ameboid cells: they scavenge the residual bodies shed by spermatozoa. Organization of the ameboid cells is grossly different from that of the spermatogenic and Sertoli cells. They appear to develop from the epithelium at the juncture of the collecting ductule with the testis lobule. PMID:15688448

  1. Positive Selection on Nucleotide Substitutions and Indels in Accessory Gland Proteins of the Drosophila pseudoobscura Subgroup

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheri Dixon Schully; Michael E. Hellberg

    2006-01-01

    Genes encoding reproductive proteins often diverge rapidly due to positive selection on nucleotide substitutions. While this\\u000a general pattern is well established, the extent to which specific reproductive genes experience similar selection in different\\u000a clades has been little explored, nor have possible targets of positive selection other than nucleotide substitutions, such\\u000a as indels, received much attention. Here, we inspect for the

  2. The impact of epididymal and accessory sex gland function on sperm motility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Elzanaty; J. Richthoff; J. Malm; A. Giwercman

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the regulation of sperm motility, which is an important predictor of male fertility. However, both testicular and post-testicular factors may be involved, although the impact of the latter has been relatively poorly investigated. METHODS: In semen samples from 301 young men from the general Swedish population (mean SD age 18.2 0.4 years), we assessed sperm

  3. Spermatogenesis, Overview 539 treatments with secretion of female accessory gland and

    E-print Network

    Hess, Rex A.

    Reproduction. Pergamon, New York. Gillett, C. 0 988). Arthropoda-Insecta. In Reproductive Biology.), pp. 33-55. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Hinsch, G. W. (1990). Arthropoda-Crustacca. In Reproduc tive. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Reger, J. F., and Fitzgerald, M. E. C. (1983). Arthropoda

  4. Proteomic analysis of Drosophila mojavensis male accessory glands suggests novel classes of seminal fluid proteins

    E-print Network

    Dean, Matthew D.

    , and nutritional ejaculatory donation. Despite extensive research on the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster model D. melanogaster. In these animals, no fewer than 138 unique proteins in an array of biochemical the most divergent between closely related organisms. In particular, the genus Drosophila exhibits

  5. EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems

    E-print Network

    Walters, James R.; Harrison, Richard G.

    2008-12-08

    at 95° then 6 min at 68°, and a final extension step of 6 min at 68°. Primers provided by the manufacturer were used for these reactions. Seventy-five ?L of the PCR-amplified cDNA were cleaned with Qiaquick PCR clean-up kits (Qiagen, Valencia, CA... labeling kit (BioRad). This probe was added to the hybridization buffer at the same time as the probe generated from female cDNA. See Additional file 6 for primer details. Clones which failed to hybridize were manually picked into 50 ?L 5 mM Tris (pH 8...

  6. Morphological and Surgical Overview of Adolescent Testis Affected by Varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Varicocele is a common pathology of the testis frequently associated with infertility. For its management, a fine morphological study of the testis, both macroscopically and microscopically, and an accurate choice of surgical procedure are mandatory. The present review focuses its attention on the anatomic substrates of adolescent varicocele and its pathophysiologic modifications. The comprehensive assessment of all the reported alterations should be considered by the clinician before deciding the type of treatment and the timing. PMID:24348160

  7. The pattern of lymphatic drainage of the rat testis.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Clavier, R; Harrison, R G

    1978-01-01

    The basic pattern of the lymphatic drainage of the testis is described in the mature albino rat following studies in vivo and the examination of dissected specimens in vitro. Microlymphography was undertaken using various contrast media. Three groups of lymphatics leave the surface of the testis--superior, medial and inferior, from the upper pole, from the mediastinum and from the lower pole respectively. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Figs. 5 and 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:701199

  8. Human testis expresses a specific poly(A)-binding protein.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Human testis expresses a specific poly(A)-binding protein. C. Féral, G. Guellaën and A. Pawlak, mRNA stability and translation initiation are greatly under the control of poly(A)-binding proteins (PABP). Here, we cloned a new human testis specific PABP (PABP3) of 631 a.a. (70.1 kDa) with 92

  9. 76 FR 585 - In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories and Packaging Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ...In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories and Packaging Thereof...after importation of certain handbags. luggage, accessories and packaging thereof by...after importation of certain handbags, luggage, accessories and packaging thereof...

  10. 49 CFR 178.255-7 - Protection of valves and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Protection of valves and accessories. 178.255-7 Section 178.255-7...178.255-7 Protection of valves and accessories. (a) All valves, fittings, accessories, safety devices, gauging...

  11. Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis: a bilateral and synchronous case. Should testis-sparing surgery be mandatory?

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Marco; Algaba, Ferran; Saldaña, Lily; Bujons, Ana; Caffaratti, Jorge; Garat, Jose M; Villavicencio, Humberto

    2014-09-01

    Granulosa cell tumor of the testis is an infrequent stromal cell tumor that can be distinguished into adult and juvenile, the latter being more common. Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis is a rare pathologic finding, accounting for 1.2%-3.9% of prepubertal testicular tumors. It is considered as a benign stromal sex cord tumor and is usually unilateral. Although radical surgery was previously considered the treatment of choice, testis-sparing surgery is now recommended in all cases where applicable. We report a bilateral synchronous juvenile granulosa cell tumor in a 6-month-old child treated with testis-sparing surgery and provide a review of the literature. PMID:25053523

  12. Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.

    PubMed

    Oxenham, Julie

    This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice. PMID:24642774

  13. Accessory and anomalous atrioventricular valvar tissue causing outflow tract obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doff B. McElhinney; V. Mohan Reddy; Norman H. Silverman; Frank L. Hanley

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of accessory or anomalous atrioventricular valvar apparatus on relief of outflow tract obstruction.Background. Outflow tract obstruction due to accessory tissue or anomalous attachments of the atrioventricular valvar apparatus is an unusual but well-recognized problem. In addition to obstruction, anomalous attachments of the atrioventricular valvar apparatus may interfere with procedures

  14. Simon Effect with and without Awareness of the Accessory Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treccani, Barbara; Umilta, Carlo; Tagliabue, Mariaelena

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated whether a Simon effect could be observed in an accessory-stimulus Simon task when participants were unaware of the task-irrelevant accessory cue. In Experiment 1A a central visual target was accompanied by a suprathreshold visual lateral cue. A regular Simon effect (i.e., faster cue-response corresponding reaction times…

  15. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

  16. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

  17. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

  18. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

  19. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

  20. Sources of the porcine testis innervation.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, W

    2010-12-01

    This study was carried out on three adult male pigs of the large White Polish breed weighing 110-130 kg each. The animals were anaesthetised and injected with retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB) into right testis. Three weeks later, the pigs were deeply anaesthetised and perfused transcardially with fixative (4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7.4). Collected ganglia were cut with freezing microtome into 12-?m-thick sections. The sections were examined under a fluorescent microscope (Zeiss). FB-positive neurones were found in pelvic ganglia (anterior pelvic ganglion) (15.4% of all FB(+) neurones), prevertebral ganglia (caudal mesenteric, testicular, aortico-renal and renal ganglia) (59% of all FB(+) neurones), sympathetic chain ganglia (last four lumbar and first three sacral ganglia) (18.1% of all FB(+) neurones) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) (first three lumbar and first three sacral ganglia) (7.4% of all FB(+) neurones). The majority of FB-positive nerve cell bodies were observed in ipsilateral ganglia, but they were also found in contralateral ganglia (approximately 85% and 15% respectively). Thus, FB-positive neurones were located in the left prevertebral, sympathetic chain and DRG, but surprisingly, they were absent in left anterior pelvic ganglia. PMID:21105891

  1. Sertolin Mediates Blood-Testis Barrier Restructuring

    PubMed Central

    Li, Michelle W. M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2014-01-01

    Two important events that occur during mammalian spermatogenesis are the release of elongated spermatids at late stage VIII of the seminiferous epithelial cycle and the restructuring of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) during stages VIII–XI. Still, it is not completely understood how these cellular events are accomplished within the seminiferous epithelium. In the present study, we investigate how sertolin, a protein that was initially identified, cloned, and partially characterized by our laboratory, functions in these critical events. Sertolin was found at the BTB, as well as at the apical ectoplasmic specialization and apical tubulobulbar complex, where it colocalized with epidermal growth factor receptor kinase substrate 8 and actin-related protein 3, two actin-regulatory proteins. Knockdown of sertolin by RNA interference showed Sertoli cell barrier function to be enhanced when assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance measurements and immunolocalization experiments. By contrast, the integrity of the BTB was disrupted when sertolin was overexpressed in vitro and in vivo. Sertolin overexpression also prompted germ cell loss from the seminiferous epithelium. Taken collectively, these results suggest that sertolin may be involved in coordinating spermatid release and BTB restructuring during spermatogenesis in the rat. PMID:24467744

  2. Accessory Gene Regulator Locus of Staphylococcus intermedius

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Julia M. L.; Chantler, Peter D.; Lloyd, David H.

    2006-01-01

    The accessory gene regulator (agr) locus, a candidate system for the regulation of the production of virulence factors in Staphylococcus intermedius, has been characterized. Using PCR-based genome walking, we have obtained the first complete sequence (3,436 bp) of the accessory gene regulator (agr) gene in this organism. Sequence analysis of the agr gene has identified five open reading frames (ORFs), agrB, agrD, agrC, agrA, and hld. The translated ORF contained amino acid motifs characteristic of the response regulator and histidine protein kinase signal transducer of the classic two-component regulatory system. Sequencing of the agrD PCR products amplified from DNA from 20 different isolates has facilitated detection of genetic variation in the putative autoinducing peptide (AIP) within the agr gene of S. intermedius, revealing the presence of at least three agr specificity groups within this species. Classification of the agr gene from S. intermedius was supported by phylogenetic analysis. Real-time PCR also revealed that the effector molecule of the agr system, RNAIII, was regulated in an autocrine manner in S. intermedius and demonstrated positive correlation with the temporal gene expression patterns of luk and entC. Transcription of RNAIII was also dependent on self secreted cues. Cyclic self and nonself peptides were synthesized on the basis of the novel AIPs produced by S. intermedius, which lack the cysteine necessary to form the thiolactone ring in analogous peptides from Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Experiments with these synthetic cyclic peptides indicated that self peptides led to up-regulation of RNAIII—findings in support of the assumption that activation of the agr gene is initiated by growth- and species-specific factors generated during bacterial growth. PMID:16622233

  3. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  4. Secretion of D-aspartic acid by the rat testis and its role in endocrinology of the testis and spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    D'Aniello, A; Di Fiore, M M; D'Aniello, G; Colin, F E; Lewis, G; Setchell, B P

    1998-09-25

    The D-isomer of aspartic acid (D-Asp) has been found in rat testes. In the present study, samples of testicular venous blood plasma, rete testis fluid, interstitial extracellular fluid, luminal fluid from the seminiferous tubules, testicular parenchymal cells, epididymal spermatozoa and peripheral blood plasma were collected and analyzed for D-Asp by two methods, an enzymatic and a chromatographic HPLC method. The two methods gave very similar results for all samples. The highest concentrations of D-Asp (about 120 nmol/ml) were found in testicular venous blood plasma, with slightly lower concentrations in rete testis fluid (95 nmol/ml) and epididymal spermatozoa (80 nmol/g wet weight). Lower levels were found in testicular parenchymal cells (which would comprise mostly spermatids and spermatocytes), luminal fluid from the seminiferous tubules and interstitial extracellular fluid (26, 23 and 11 nmol/ml respectively). However, these values were all higher than those for peripheral blood plasma (6 nmol/ml). It would appear that D-Asp is being secreted by the testis mostly into the venous blood, passing thence into the rete testis fluid and being incorporated into the spermatozoa at the time or after they leave the testis. The distribution of D-Asp is thus quite different from that of testosterone, and its role and the reason for its high concentration in the male reproductive tract remain to be elucidated. PMID:9771887

  5. Naloxone has a local effect on the testis of immature rats.

    PubMed

    Gerendai, I; Nemeskéri, A; Csernus, V

    1983-01-01

    Local effect of naloxone on testicular weight, compensatory hypertrophy, and differentiation of the testis and serum testosterone level has been studied in immature rats. A single injection of naloxone in a dose of 2 micrograms/testis under the testicular capsule significantly increased the testicular weight, promoted testicular differentiation and enhanced the rate of compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining testis in unilaterally orchidectomized animals. Data suggest that naloxone has a direct effect on the testis of immature rats. PMID:6638541

  6. Pseudoneoplastic lesions of the testis and paratesticular structures

    PubMed Central

    Mikuz, G.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Trias, I.; Arce, Y.; Montironi, R.; Egevad, L.; Scarpelli, M.; Lopez-Beltran, A.

    2007-01-01

    Pseudotumors or tumor-like proliferations (non-neoplastic masses) and benign mimickers (non-neoplastic cellular proliferations) are rare in the testis and paratesticular structures. Clinically, these lesions (cysts, ectopic tissues, and vascular, inflammatory, or hyperplastic lesions) are of great interest for the reason that, because of the topography, they may be relevant as differential diagnoses. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the pseudoneoplasic entities arising in the testis and paratesticular structures; emphasis is placed on how the practicing pathologist may distinguish benign mimickers and pseudotumors from true neoplasia. These lesions can be classified as macroscopic or microscopic mimickers of neoplasia. PMID:17805564

  7. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  8. [Revisiting meibomian gland dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Baudouin, C

    2014-12-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunctions (MGD) are frequent affections, sometimes asymptomatic, more often responsible for disabling, potentially severe, manifestations. MGD is indeed the most frequent cause of dry eye, through the induction of tear film instability. However, eyelid inflammation, microbial proliferation that modifies melting temperature of meibum, frequent association with skin diseases, as well as potentially severe corneal complications make them complex multifactorial disorders. Complementary mechanisms combine to actually result in a vicious circle, or more accurately a double vicious cycle. The first one is self-stimulated by the microbiological changes, which create their own conditions for MGD development. The second one is related to tear film instability that results from MGD and is also self-stimulated through hyperosmolarity and inflammatory phenomena, which are both consequence and cause of dry eye. We herein propose a new pathophysiological schema on MGD, in order to better identify mechanisms and more efficiently target therapeutics. PMID:25455142

  9. Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in prostate and testis of wild animals and some histological remarks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Van Camp; M. Van Sande

    1988-01-01

    The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme pattern of prostate and of testis of 27 wild animals showed that in several species more than 5 isoenzymes are detected, with electrophoretic mobilities different to those found in humans. The LDH-X band, found in testis from mature humans is also observed in the testis of wild animals. However, in several species more than one

  10. Testosterone regulates FGF-2 expression during testis maturation by an IRES-dependent translational mechanism.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Testosterone regulates FGF-2 expression during testis maturation by an IRES- dependent, France Key words: / FGF-2 / testis maturation/ IRES / translation control/ testosterone/ transgenic mouse Running Title : FGF-2 IRES is regulated by testosterone during testis maturation. § These authors equally

  11. Expression of MAGE--A restricted to testis and ovary or to various cancers in dogs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yin-Chu; Hsu, Wei-Li; Chiu, Cheng-Yang; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chang, Chao-Chin; Chang, Shih-Chieh

    2013-05-15

    Expression of MAGE-A protein, a family of cancer/testis antigens, was investigated in normal and neoplastic canine tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis of cross-reactions between a mouse anti-human MAGE-A proteins including MAGE-A1, -A2, -A3, -A4, -A6, -A10, and -A12 monoclonal antibody and canine proteins, showed positive immunoreactivity only in testicular spermatogonia and spermatocytes, and ovary oocytes. The immunoreaction was negative in all other tissues tested, including normal tissues of the skin, gingiva, muscle, adipose, connective, salivary gland, lymph node, intestinal mucosa, mammary gland, liver, cartilage, oviduct, endometrium, cerebrum and cerebellum. Use of a scoring system in the investigated tumors showed positive immunoreactivity in 75% (21/28) of melanomas including oral, cutaneous, eyelid, and interdigital melanomas; in 68.7% (22/32) of oral and nasal tumors; in 52.5% (21/40) discrete round cell tumors; and in 40.5% (15/37) of soft tissue sarcomas. Different tumor types also showed large difference in percentage of MAGE-A expression. Although oral squamous cell carcinomas, multicentric lymphomas and extraosseous osteosarcomas showed no expression, overexpression occurred in oral melanomas (81.82%, 18/21), malignant nasal tumors (100%, 3/3) and in transmissible venereal tumors (100%, 10/10). Based on the characteristic expression of MAGE-A in canine germ cells and in various neoplasms, MAGE-A has potential use as an indicator of malignancy but is probably unsuitable for strictly diagnostic purposes (i.e., diagnosis of tumor type). PMID:23466080

  12. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and accessories. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and accessories. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and accessories. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and accessories. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and accessories. (a)...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-3 - Parts and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-3 Parts and accessories. (a) In general. The tax attaches with respect to parts...

  18. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories...a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic fluid...

  19. What next for accessory dwellings? : getting from bylaws to buildings

    E-print Network

    Stege, Elinor Hope

    2009-01-01

    Accessory dwellings-secondary, self-contained housing units on the same property as a primary residence, either attached to or detached from the main dwelling, and subordinate in size, location and appearance-are recognized ...

  20. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Sterility Review Guidance 2/12/90 (K-90),” and (iii) “Guidance (‘Guidelines’) for Evaluation of Laproscopic Bipolar and Thermal Coagulators (and Accessories),” (2) International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-AM2...

  1. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Sterility Review Guidance 2/12/90 (K-90),” and (iii) “Guidance (‘Guidelines’) for Evaluation of Laproscopic Bipolar and Thermal Coagulators (and Accessories),” (2) International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-AM2...

  2. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Sterility Review Guidance 2/12/90 (K-90),” and (iii) “Guidance (‘Guidelines’) for Evaluation of Laproscopic Bipolar and Thermal Coagulators (and Accessories),” (2) International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-AM2...

  3. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Sterility Review Guidance 2/12/90 (K-90),” and (iii) “Guidance (‘Guidelines’) for Evaluation of Laproscopic Bipolar and Thermal Coagulators (and Accessories),” (2) International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-AM2...

  4. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Sterility Review Guidance 2/12/90 (K-90),” and (iii) “Guidance (‘Guidelines’) for Evaluation of Laproscopic Bipolar and Thermal Coagulators (and Accessories),” (2) International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-AM2...

  5. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.600 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  10. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  15. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  19. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  2. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  3. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

  4. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

  6. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 19 CFR 10.1020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General....

  9. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous...abutments, aid in the fabrication of dental prosthetics, and be used as an accessory with...pieces used for fabrication of dental prosthetics, and trial abutments. (b)...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous...abutments, aid in the fabrication of dental prosthetics, and be used as an accessory with...pieces used for fabrication of dental prosthetics, and trial abutments. (b)...

  11. 21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

  12. 21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

  13. 21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

  14. 21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

  15. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...time (e.g., perinatal monitoring during labor) or in an immediately perceptible form (e.g., use of the ultrasonic stethoscope). This generic type of device may include the following accessories: signal analysis and display equipment,...

  16. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...time (e.g., perinatal monitoring during labor) or in an immediately perceptible form (e.g., use of the ultrasonic stethoscope). This generic type of device may include the following accessories: signal analysis and display equipment,...

  17. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to be used to reconstruct maxillofacial deficiencies. The kit contains surgical instruments and materials used to make maxillofacial impressions before molding an external prosthesis. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  18. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to be used to reconstruct maxillofacial deficiencies. The kit contains surgical instruments and materials used to make maxillofacial impressions before molding an external prosthesis. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  19. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to be used to reconstruct maxillofacial deficiencies. The kit contains surgical instruments and materials used to make maxillofacial impressions before molding an external prosthesis. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  20. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to be used to reconstruct maxillofacial deficiencies. The kit contains surgical instruments and materials used to make maxillofacial impressions before molding an external prosthesis. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  1. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to be used to reconstruct maxillofacial deficiencies. The kit contains surgical instruments and materials used to make maxillofacial impressions before molding an external prosthesis. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  2. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...appliance and accessories is a device intended for use in orthodontic treatment. The device is affixed to a tooth so that pressure can be exerted on the teeth. This device includes the preformed orthodontic band, orthodontic band material,...

  3. 21 CFR 884.1640 - Culdoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...instrument or device delivery system; do not have adapters, connectors, channels, or do not have portals for electrosurgical, laser, or other power sources. Such culdoscope accessory instruments include: lens cleaning brush, biopsy brush, clip...

  4. 21 CFR 884.1690 - Hysteroscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...instrument or device delivery system; do not have adapters, connectors, channels, or do not have portals for electrosurgical, laser, or other power sources. Such hysteroscope accessory instruments include: lens cleaning brush, cannula (without...

  5. 21 CFR 884.1640 - Culdoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...instrument or device delivery system; do not have adapters, connectors, channels, or do not have portals for electrosurgical, laser, or other power sources. Such culdoscope accessory instruments include: lens cleaning brush, biopsy brush, clip...

  6. 21 CFR 884.1690 - Hysteroscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...instrument or device delivery system; do not have adapters, connectors, channels, or do not have portals for electrosurgical, laser, or other power sources. Such hysteroscope accessory instruments include: lens cleaning brush, cannula (without...

  7. 21 CFR 884.1690 - Hysteroscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...instrument or device delivery system; do not have adapters, connectors, channels, or do not have portals for electrosurgical, laser, or other power sources. Such hysteroscope accessory instruments include: lens cleaning brush, cannula (without...

  8. 21 CFR 884.1720 - Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...instrument or device delivery system, do not have adapters, connector channels, or do not have portals for electrosurgical, lasers, or other power sources. Such gynecologic laparosope accessory instruments include: the lens cleaning brush,...

  9. 21 CFR 884.1690 - Hysteroscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...instrument or device delivery system; do not have adapters, connectors, channels, or do not have portals for electrosurgical, laser, or other power sources. Such hysteroscope accessory instruments include: lens cleaning brush, cannula (without...

  10. 21 CFR 884.1720 - Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...instrument or device delivery system, do not have adapters, connector channels, or do not have portals for electrosurgical, lasers, or other power sources. Such gynecologic laparosope accessory instruments include: the lens cleaning brush,...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

  12. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

  13. 21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  14. 21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  15. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

  16. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

  20. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

  2. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

  3. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

  6. Choosing the correct accessory for each stoma type: an update.

    PubMed

    Burch, Jennie

    There are many people with a stoma that report a good quality of life. However, for many, problems can be encountered that can directly affect them. The use of a stoma accessory, in addition to the stoma appliance, can often benefit people with a stoma in relation to treating sore skin or preventing appliances from leakage. This article focuses on some of the more common stoma accessories, including when and why they should be used. PMID:24037328

  7. Bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt: is accessory pulsatile flow, good or bad?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry J. C. M. van de Wal; Ruth Ouknine; Daniel Tamisier; Marilyne Lévy; Pascal R. Vouhé; Francine Leca

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the effect and long-term outcome of accessory pulsatile blood flow versus classical bi-directional cavopulmonary connection (BCPC). Methods: Retrospective review of the medical and surgical records. Results: Two-hundred and five patients (119 boys, 86 girls) underwent BCPC from 1990 to 1996. Accessory pulsatile flow was present in 68%, flow being maintained through the pulmonary trunc in 46%, systemic-to-pulmonary

  8. The pigment glands of cottonseed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte H. Boatner; Catherine M. Hall

    1946-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The efficacy of a given solvent for the extraction of the gland pigments of cottonseed has been shown to be determined not\\u000a only by its solvent power for the pigments but also by its ability to attack the pigment glands and the extent to which these\\u000a glands are exposed to its action, which in turn depends upon the

  9. An unusual cause of subtalar pain and instability: accessory calcaneus.

    PubMed

    Boulet, C; De Maeseneer, M; Everaert, H; Kichouh, M; De Mey, J; Shahabpour, M

    2012-01-01

    We report on a 45-yr-old male sports instructor with chronic pain and instability of the ankle. He was a recreational basketball player, but because of repeated ankle sprains and chronic subtalar pain this activity became impossible. The radiologic findings were compatible with the diagnosis of accessory calcaneus. In an initial therapeutic approach the patient was treated conservatively with taping and physical therapy, but this failed to relieve the symptoms. Next, a ligamentoplasty was performed. The instability improved, but the pain remained the same. Finally the accessory calcaneus was resected and short term follow-up was unremarkable. Accessory calcaneus is an uncommon anatomical variation that may cause subtalar pain and instability. Resection of the accessory bone may be necessary to provide relief of symptoms. Accessory calcaneus can be well demonstrated on CT, SPECT-CT, and MR. MR and nuclear medicine can indicate instability of the accessory bone by showing bone marrow edema on MR or uptake on fusion imaging. PMID:23405487

  10. The accessory foramen ovale of the skull: an osteological study.

    PubMed

    Abd Latiff, A; Das, S; Sulaiman, I Maatoq; Hlaing, K Pa Pa; Suhaimi, F Haji; Ghazalli, H; Othman, F

    2009-01-01

    The sphenoid bone is known to have several foramina and the foramen ovale is one amongst them. The foramen ovale transmits the mandibular nerve, accessory meningeal artery, lesser petrosal nerve and the emissary veins. There have been past reports on the variations of the different foramina present in the skull but there are no reports on the variations of the skull foramina from any of the South-East Asian countries. The present study aims to highlight the presence of an accessory foramen ovale in the skull in Malaysian population. Both sides of fifteen adult skulls (n = 30) were taken for observation of any variations in the foramen ovale. We observed the presence of accessory foramen ovale on the left side of a single skull (3.33%). The minute accessory foramen ovale was located 0.1 cm medial to the normal foramen ovale. The anomalous accessory foramen ovale was circular in shape and measured 0.1 cm in diameter. Anatomical knowledge of the foramen ovale is important for all neurosurgical procedures involving the trigeminal nerve and administration of anaesthesia in the mandibular nerve. Interestingly, the percutaneous biopsy of the cavernous sinus is also performed through the foramen ovale. Prior knowledge of the presence of an accessory foramen ovale may be important for academic, anthropological, forensic and clinical purpose and the present study aims to highlight such. PMID:19795082

  11. Morphometric analysis of Leydig cells in the normal rat testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HIROSHI MORI; A. KENT CHRISTENSEN

    1980-01-01

    Leydig cells are thought to be the source of most, if not all, the testosterone produced by the testis . The goal of this study was to obtain quantitative infor- mation about rat Leydig cells and their organelles that might be correlated with pertinent physiological and biochemicaldata available either now or in the future . Morphometric analysis of Leydig cells

  12. Altered expression of progesterone receptors in testis of infertile men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shadaan Abid; Jyotsna Gokral; Anurupa Maitra; Pervin Meherji; Seema Kadam; Eusebio Pires; Deepak Modi

    2008-01-01

    Progesterone has been implicated in the process of spermatogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the association of progesterone receptor (PR) expression with spermatogenesis in the testis of infertile men. PR mRNA and protein were assessed by in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in testicular biopsies obtained from 18 infertile men. The extent of spermatogenesis was assessed by Johnsen scoring. None of the

  13. Dual role of immune cells in the testis

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Cecilia V.; Theas, María S.; Jacobo, Patricia V.; Jarazo-Dietrich, Sabrina; Guazzone, Vanesa A.; Lustig, Livia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe how the immune cells present in the testis interact with the germinal epithelium contributing to survival or apoptosis of germ cells (GCs). Physiologically, the immunosuppressor testicular microenvironment protects GCs from immune attack, whereas in inflammatory conditions, tolerance is disrupted and immune cells and their mediators respond to GC self antigens, inducing damage of the germinal epithelium. Considering that experimental models of autoimmune orchitis have clarified the local immune mechanisms by which protection of the testis is compromised, we described the following topics in the testis of normal and orchitic rats: (1) cell adhesion molecule expression of seminiferous tubule specialized junctions and modulation of blood-testis barrier permeability by cytokines (2) phenotypic and functional characteristics of testicular dendritic cells, macrophages, effector and regulatory T cells and mast cells and (3) effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6 and FasL) and the nitric oxide-nitric oxide synthase system on GC apoptosis. PMID:23687616

  14. Original article Selection on testis size as an indicator

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Selection on testis size as an indicator of maturity in growing animals. II Genetics, University of Edinburgh, 2 West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JN; 2AFRC Institute of Animal Correlated responses in reproductive rate WG Hill PJ Marks2 JC Jenkins1 RB Land2 1 Institute of Animal

  15. Inhibins, activins and follistatin: actions on the testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. de Kretser; K. L. Loveland; T. Meehan; M. K. O'Bryan; D. J. Phillips; N. G. Wreford

    2001-01-01

    While the early studies of the inhibins, activins and follistatins concentrated on their role as endocrine regulators of FSH secretion, recent data has emphasized the local actions of the activins and follistatin. Inhibin, through its capacity to suppress FSH secretion can modulate numerous processes within the testis. However, to date, evidence to support a local role for inhibin is limited.

  16. Original article Selection on testis size as an indicator

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , University of Edinburgh, West Mains- Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JN; 2AFRC Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics Research, Edinburgh Research Station, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9PS, UK* (Received 2 October 1989 of sexual maturity. growth / maturity / testis/ selection / mouse Résumé - Sélection par la taille des

  17. Total RNA isolation from stallion sperm and testis biopsies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pranab J. Das; Nandina Paria; Ashley Gustafson-Seabury; Monika Vishnoi; Sankar P. Chaki; Charles C. Love; Dickson D. Varner; Bhanu P. Chowdhary; Terje Raudsepp

    2010-01-01

    Sperm mRNA transcriptional profiles can be used to evaluate male fertility, yet differences between species in sperm attributes and packaging require adjustments in sperm RNA isolation protocols. The objective was to optimize RNA isolation methodology for fresh, frozen, and extended ejaculates, and epididymal sperm of stallions. Additionally, a protocol for RNA isolation from testis biopsies was established. Separation of sperm

  18. Condition dependence of testis size in small mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde; John S. Millar; Graham J. Hickling

    2005-01-01

    Sperm competition is a common phenomenon across the animal kingdom and is recognized as a major factor in the sexual selection of males. Intraspecific variation in testis size (ejaculate investment) has been implicated as an important factor in male reproductive success because larger testes produce higher quality ejaculates. Sexual selection theory predicts that traits associated with male-male competition or female

  19. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/ ... menu on the side of your screen. A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of ...

  20. What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... its stage ) are important in predicting outcome. Other rare salivary gland cancers Several other types of cancer ... have a poorer outlook. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma: This rare tumor tends to be low grade, but it ...

  1. Drug transporters, the blood–testis barrier, and spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Linlin; Mruk, Dolores D; Cheng, C Yan

    2015-01-01

    The blood–testis barrier (BTB), which is created by adjacent Sertoli cells near the basement membrane, serves as a ‘gatekeeper’ to prohibit harmful substances from reaching developing germ cells, most notably postmeiotic spermatids. The BTB also divides the seminiferous epithelium into the basal and adluminal (apical) compartment so that postmeiotic spermatid development, namely spermiogenesis, can take place in a specialized microenvironment in the apical compartment behind the BTB. The BTB also contributes, at least in part, to the immune privilege status of the testis, so that anti-sperm antibodies are not developed against antigens that are expressed transiently during spermatogenesis. Recent studies have shown that numerous drug transporters are expressed by Sertoli cells. However, many of these same drug transporters are also expressed by spermatogonia, spermatocytes, round spermatids, elongating spermatids, and elongated spermatids, suggesting that the developing germ cells are also able to selectively pump drugs ‘in’ and/or ‘out’ via influx or efflux pumps. We review herein the latest developments regarding the role of drug transporters in spermatogenesis. We also propose a model utilized by the testis to protect germ cell development from ‘harmful’ environmental toxicants and xenobiotics and/or from ‘therapeutic’ substances (e.g. anticancer drugs). We also discuss how drug transporters that are supposed to protect spermatogenesis can work against the testis in some instances. For example, when drugs (e.g. male contraceptives) that can perturb germ cell adhesion and/or maturation are actively pumped out of the testis or are prevented from entering the apical compartment, such as by efflux pumps. PMID:21134990

  2. Cancer/testis (CT) antigens, carcinogenesis and spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    During spermatogenesis, spermatogonial stem cells, undifferentiated and differentiated spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa all express specific antigens, yet the functions of many of these antigens remain unexplored. Studies in the past three decades have shown that many of these transiently expressed genes in developing germ cells are proto-oncogenes and oncogenes, which are expressed only in the testis and various types of cancers in humans and rodents. As such, these antigens are designated cancer/testis antigens (CT antigens). Since the early 1980s, about 70 families of CT antigens have been identified with over 140 members are known to date. Due to their restricted expression in the testis and in various tumors in humans, they have been used as the target of immunotherapy. Multiple clinical trials at different phases are now being conducted with some promising results. Interestingly, in a significant number of cancer patients, antibodies against some of these CT antigens were detected in their sera. However, antibodies against these CT antigens in humans under normal physiological conditions have yet to be reported even though many of these antigens are residing outside of the blood-testis barrier (BTB), such as in the basal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium and in the stem cell niche in the testis. In this review, we summarize latest findings in the field regarding several selected CT antigens which may be intimately related to spermatogenesis due to their unusual restricted expression during different discrete events of spermatogenesis, such as cell cycle progression, meiosis and spermiogenesis. This information should be helpful to investigators in the field to study the roles of these oncogenes in spermatogenesis. PMID:22319669

  3. Intervention of D-glucose ameliorates the toxicity of streptozotocin in accessory sex organs of rat

    SciTech Connect

    Vikram, A.; Tripathi, D.N.; Ramarao, P. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab-160062 (India); Jena, G.B. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab-160062 (India)], E-mail: gbjena@gmail.com

    2008-01-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is a naturally occurring compound isolated from Streptomyces achromogens. It is used extensively for inducing diabetes in experimental animals. Diabetes mellitus is known to have proven adverse effects on male sexual organs and their reproductive functions. The atrophy of prostate gland and other organs of the genitourinary tract were observed in experimental diabetic animals. STZ exhibits a structural resemblance to D-glucose due to the presence of sugar moiety in its structure. Pancreatic {beta}-cells mainly contain GLUT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Possibly due to structural resemblance, STZ and D-glucose, share a common recognition site for entry into the {beta}-cells. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of D-glucose on STZ-induced toxicity in accessory sex organs of male rats. Animals were kept on overnight fasting. One group received vehicle and served as negative control, while all other groups were given STZ (45 mg/kg). Animals that received only STZ served as positive control. The effect of D-glucose was studied on STZ treated animals with different dosage of D-glucose (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg). Restoration of body weight, plasma glucose and plasma insulin was evident only at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of D-glucose. The protective effect of D-glucose is evident only when it is administered simultaneously with STZ. In the present investigation, we report that simultaneous administration of D-glucose along with STZ ameliorates STZ-induced toxicity. This is evident from the restoration of accessory sex organ's weight, cellular morphology as well as insulin level.

  4. Spiroplasma citri Movement into the Intestines and Salivary Glands of Its Leafhopper Vector, Circulifer tenellus.

    PubMed

    Kwon, M O; Wayadande, A C; Fletcher, J

    1999-12-01

    ABSTRACT Spiroplasma citri, a helical, wall-less prokaryote in the class Molli-cutes, is transmitted by the beet leafhopper, Circulifer tenellus. Invasion of leafhopper tissues and cytopathological effects by S. citri were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. All eight cell types of the principle salivary glands, as well as the adjacent muscle cells and the cells of the accessory salivary glands, were colonized by the spiroplas-mas. In both midgut epithelia and salivary gland cells, spiroplasmas usually occurred in membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles that often were located near the cell periphery. In several salivary gland cells, spiroplas-mas were also observed within membranous pockets apparently formed by invagination of the plasmalemma beneath intact basal lamina. These observations are consistent with spiroplasma entry into the insect cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Cytopathological effects of spiroplasma infection in salivary cells included loss of membrane and basal lamina integrity, presence in some cells of irregular inclusion-like structures containing dense matrices of filamentous material that labeled with anti S. citri antibodies, and apparent disorganization of the endoplasmic reticulum. Compared to the tightly aligned fiber bundles in healthy muscle cells, bundles in spiroplasma-containing muscle cells appeared fragmented and loosely arranged. Such symptoms could contribute to the reduction in longevity and fecundity that has been previously reported for S. citri-infected C. tenellus. PMID:18944638

  5. The extensive set of accessory Pseudomonas aeruginosa genomic components.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Sarah; Klockgether, Jens; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Khaledi, Ariane; Schniederjans, Monika; Chouvarine, Philippe; Tümmler, Burkhard; Häussler, Susanne

    2014-07-01

    Up to 20% of the chromosomal Pseudomonas aeruginosa DNA belong to the so-called accessory genome. Its elements are specific for subgroups or even single strains and are likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Similarities of the accessory genomic elements to DNA from other bacterial species, mainly the DNA of ?- and ?-proteobacteria, indicate a role of interspecies HGT. In this study, we analysed the expression of the accessory genome in 150 clinical P. aeruginosa isolates as uncovered by transcriptome sequencing and the presence of accessory genes in eleven additional isolates. Remarkably, despite the large number of P. aeruginosa strains that have been sequenced to date, we found new strain-specific compositions of accessory genomic elements and a high portion (10-20%) of genes without P. aeruginosa homologues. Although some genes were detected to be expressed/present in several isolates, individual patterns regarding the genes, their functions and the possible origin of the DNA were widespread among the tested strains. Our results demonstrate the unaltered potential to discover new traits within the P. aeruginosa population and underline that the P. aeruginosa pangenome is likely to increase with increasing sequence information. PMID:24766399

  6. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-02

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  7. Gamma-ray irradiation promotes premature meiosis of spontaneously differentiating testis–ova in the testis of p53-deficient medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, T; Oda, S; Li, Z; Kimori, Y; Kamei, Y; Ishikawa, T; Todo, T; Mitani, H

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the roles of p53 in impaired spermatogenic male germ cells of p53-deficient medaka were investigated by analyzing histological changes, and gene expressions of 42Sp50, Oct 4 and vitellogenin (VTG2) by RT-PCR or in situ hybridization in the testes. We found that a small number of oocyte-like cells (testis–ova) differentiated spontaneously in the cysts of type A and early type B spermatogonia in the p53-deficient testes, in contrast to the wild-type (wt) testes in which testis–ova were never found. Furthermore, ionizing radiation (IR) irradiation increased the number of testis–ova in p53-deficient testes, increased testis–ova size and proceeded up to the zygotene or pachytene stages of premature meiosis within 14 days after irradiation. However, 28 days after irradiation, almost all the testis–ova were eliminated presumably by p53-independent apoptosis, and spermatogenesis was restored completely. In the wt testis, IR never induced testis–ova differentiation. This is the first study to demonstrate the pivotal role of the p53 gene in the elimination of spontaneous testis–ova in testes, and that p53 is not indispensable for the restoration of spermatogenesis in the impaired testes in which cell cycle regulation is disturbed by IR irradiation. PMID:23034330

  8. The computational analysis of human testis transcriptome reveals closer ties to pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Anand, MT; Prasad, Burra VLS

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: The purpose of this study was to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEG) in human testis and also evaluate the relationship between human testis, human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESC), mouse testis and mouse ESCs (mESC). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: It is a prospective analysis designed computationally. Methods and Material: The microarray data for human testis, hESCs, mouse testis and mESCs were obtained from NCBI-GEO and analyzed for identification of DEGs. The results were then compared with mouse testis and extended to ESCs. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Data was analyzed in R using various Bioconductor packages. To identify DEGs, 2-fold cut-off and a False Discovery Rate (FDR) below 0.01 criterions was used. RESULTS: A total 2868 transcripts (DEGs) were found to be significantly up-regulated and 2011 transcripts significantly down-regulated in human testis compared to other normal tissues. Of the up-regulated transcripts, 232 transcripts were grouped as unclassified i.e. had unknown annotations at the time of analysis. Gene Ontology (GO) based functional annotation of testis specific DEGs indicate that most of the DEGs (~80%) are involved in various metabolic processes. Pathway analysis shows over-representation of Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis pathway. A core group of 67 transcripts were found to be common among human testis, mouse testis, hESCs and mESCs. CONCLUSIONS: Testis seems to be metabolically very active relative to other normal tissues as indicated by functional annotation. The comparison of human and mouse testis shows conserved functions and pathways involved in both species. Large numbers of genes were found conserved between testis and ESCs suggesting very close expression level relationship between reproductive organs and complex phenomenon such as dedifferentiation and reprogramming. PMID:23531778

  9. Salivary gland cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Nör, Jacques E

    2013-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggests the existence of a tumorigenic population of cancer cells that demonstrate stem cell-like properties such as self-renewal and multipotency. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC), are able to both initiate and maintain tumor formation and progression. Studies have shown that CSC are resistant to traditional chemotherapy treatments preventing complete eradication of the tumor cell population. Following treatment, CSC are able to re-initiate tumor growth leading to patient relapse. Salivary gland cancers are relatively rare but constitute a highly significant public health issue due to the lack of effective treatments. In particular, patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma, the two most common salivary malignancies, have low long-term survival rates due to the lack of response to current therapies. Considering the role of CSC in resistance to therapy in other tumor types, it is possible that this unique sub-population of cells is involved in resistance of salivary gland tumors to treatment. Characterization of CSC can lead to better understanding of the pathobiology of salivary gland malignancies as well as to the development of more effective therapies. Here, we make a brief overview of the state-of-the-science in salivary gland cancer, and discuss possible implications of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the treatment of salivary gland malignancies. PMID:23810400

  10. ALTERATIONS IN THE DEVELOPING TESTIS TRANSCRIPTOME FOLLOWING EMBRYONIC VINCLOZOLIN EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Tracy M.; Savenkova, Marina I.; Settles, Matthew; Anway, Matthew D.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigates the direct effects of in utero vinclozolin exposure on the developing F1 generation rat testis transcriptome. Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to vinclozolin during embryonic gonadal sex determination induces epigenetic modifications of the germ line and transgenerational adult onset disease states. Microarray analyses were performed to compare control and vinclozolin treated testis transcriptomes at embryonic day 13, 14 and 16. A total of 576 differentially expressed genes were identified and the major cellular functions and pathways associated with these altered transcripts were examined. The sets of regulated genes at the different development periods were found to be transiently altered and distinct. Categorization by major known functions of altered genes was performed. Specific cellular process and pathway analyses suggest the involvement of Wnt and calcium signaling, vascular development and epigenetic mechanisms as potential mediators of the direct F1 generation actions of vinclozolin. PMID:20566332

  11. Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis.

    PubMed

    Sajadi, Kamran P; Dalton, Rory R; Brown, James A

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm. PMID:19125206

  12. Development of sexual dimorphism in the Drosophila testis

    PubMed Central

    Whitworth, Cale; Jimenez, Erin; Van Doren, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The creation of sexual dimorphism in the gonads is essential for producing the male and female gametes required for sexual reproduction. Sexual development of the gonads involves both somatic cells and germ cells, which often undergo sex determination by different mechanisms. While many sex-specific characteristics evolve rapidly and are very different between animal species, gonad function and the formation of sperm and eggs appear more similar and may be more conserved. Consistent with this, the doublesex/mab3 Related Transcription factors (DMRTs) are important for gonad sexual dimorphism in a wide range of animals, including flies, worms and mammals. Here we explore how sexual dimorphism is regulated in the Drosophila gonad, focusing on recent discoveries relating to testis development. We will discuss how sex determination in both the germline and the soma are utilized to create a testis, including the role of the key somatic sex determination factor doublesex. PMID:23087832

  13. Stoma appliances and accessories: getting it right for the patient.

    PubMed

    Burch, Jennie

    2014-09-24

    This article will examine some of the appliances and accessories that can be used to care for a stoma. There are three types of stoma that can be surgically formed and each will be discussed. Furthermore, there will be brief explanations of why stomas might be formed and what the output from each stoma type will be. Complications are associated with stomas, such as sore skin, which is commonly seen within the first few months after the stoma is formed. This important topic is examined and some of the accessories that can be used to treat these issues will be explored. To aid the reader to undertake their own research on the topic, the websites from some of the stoma manufacturers are included. These websites contain more details about appliances, accessories and information for people with a stoma that can be of benefit to nurses too. PMID:25251316

  14. Analysis of MicroRNA Expression in the Prepubertal Testis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2010-01-01

    Only thirteen microRNAs are conserved between D. melanogaster and the mouse; however, conditional loss of miRNA function through mutation of Dicer causes defects in proliferation of premeiotic germ cells in both species. This highlights the potentially important, but uncharacterized, role of miRNAs during early spermatogenesis. The goal of this study was to characterize on postnatal day 7, 10, and 14 the content and editing of murine testicular miRNAs, which predominantly arise from spermatogonia and spermatocytes, in contrast to prior descriptions of miRNAs in the adult mouse testis which largely reflects the content of spermatids. Previous studies have shown miRNAs to be abundant in the mouse testis by postnatal day 14; however, through Next Generation Sequencing of testes from a B6;129 background we found abundant earlier expression of miRNAs and describe shifts in the miRNA signature during this period. We detected robust expression of miRNAs encoded on the X chromosome in postnatal day 14 testes, consistent with prior studies showing their resistance to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Unexpectedly, we also found a similar positional enrichment for most miRNAs on chromosome 2 at postnatal day 14 and for those on chromosome 12 at postnatal day 7. We quantified in vivo developmental changes in three types of miRNA variation including 5? heterogeneity, editing, and 3? nucleotide addition. We identified eleven putative novel pubertal testis miRNAs whose developmental expression suggests a possible role in early male germ cell development. These studies provide a foundation for interpretation of miRNA changes associated with testicular pathology and identification of novel components of the miRNA editing machinery in the testis. PMID:21206922

  15. Testis-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: origin and evolution

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) catalyses one of the glycolytic reactions and is also involved in a number of non-glycolytic processes, such as endocytosis, DNA excision repair, and induction of apoptosis. Mammals are known to possess two homologous GAPD isoenzymes: GAPD-1, a well-studied protein found in all somatic cells, and GAPD-2, which is expressed solely in testis. GAPD-2 supplies energy required for the movement of spermatozoa and is tightly bound to the sperm tail cytoskeleton by the additional N-terminal proline-rich domain absent in GAPD-1. In this study we investigate the evolutionary history of GAPD and gain some insights into specialization of GAPD-2 as a testis-specific protein. Results A dataset of GAPD sequences was assembled from public databases and used for phylogeny reconstruction by means of the Bayesian method. Since resolution in some clades of the obtained tree was too low, syntenic analysis was carried out to define the evolutionary history of GAPD more precisely. The performed selection tests showed that selective pressure varies across lineages and isoenzymes, as well as across different regions of the same sequences. Conclusions The obtained results suggest that GAPD-1 and GAPD-2 emerged after duplication during the early evolution of chordates. GAPD-2 was subsequently lost by most lineages except lizards, mammals, as well as cartilaginous and bony fishes. In reptilians and mammals, GAPD-2 specialized to a testis-specific protein and acquired the novel N-terminal proline-rich domain anchoring the protein in the sperm tail cytoskeleton. This domain is likely to have originated by exonization of a microsatellite genomic region. Recognition of the proline-rich domain by cytoskeletal proteins seems to be unspecific. Besides testis, GAPD-2 of lizards was also found in some regenerating tissues, but it lacks the proline-rich domain due to tissue-specific alternative splicing. PMID:21663662

  16. Inducible Male Infertility by Targeted Cell Ablation in Zebrafish Testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-Chun Hsu; Min-Fon Hou; Jiann-Ruey Hong; Jen-Leih Wu; Guor Mour Her

    2010-01-01

    To generate a zebrafish model of inducible male sterility, we expressed an Escherichia coli nitroreductase (Ntr) gene in the male germ line of zebrafish. The Ntr gene encodes an enzyme that can convert prodrugs such\\u000a as metronidazole (Met) to cytotoxins. A fusion protein eGFP:Ntr (fusing Ntr to eGFP) under control of???2 kb putative promoters\\u000a of the zebrafish testis-specific genes, A-kinase anchoring

  17. Review of Salivary Gland Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    To, Victor Shing Howe; Chan, Jimmy Yu Wai; Tsang, Raymond K. Y.; Wei, William I.

    2012-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours most often present as painless enlarging masses. Most are located in the parotid glands and most are benign. The principal hurdle in their management lies in the difficulty in distinguishing benign from malignant tumours. Investigations such as fine needle aspiration cytology and MRI scans provide some useful information, but most cases will require surgical excision as a means of coming to a definitive diagnosis. Benign tumours and early low-grade malignancies can be adequately treated with surgery alone, while more advanced and high-grade tumours with regional lymph node metastasis will require postoperative radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy remains largely palliative. This paper highlights some of the more important aspects in the management of salivary gland tumours. PMID:23724273

  18. [Salivary gland tumors in children].

    PubMed

    Thariat, Juliette; Vedrine, Pierre-Olivier; Orbach, Daniel; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Badoual, Cécile; Butori, Catherine; Teissier, Natacha; Toussaint, Bruno; Castillo, Laurent

    2011-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors in children are rare: they correspond to 8-10% of head and neck pediatric tumors. Clinicians of all disciplines should be aware of this diagnosis in front of non-inflammatory mass of the parotid or in the territory of other salivary glands. In children, 50% of salivary gland tumors are malignant which contrasts with a 10-25% risk in adults. Epithelial tumors are the most common, mucoepidermoïd carcinomas of the parotid in particular. Surgery is the treatment of choice in epithelial tumors. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be indicated in case of unfavorable prognostic factors but must be balanced with the risk of radiation-induced growth defects and secondary cancer. The role of chemotherapy is limited in these tumors, but should be discussed in case of an inoperable or metastatic lesion. PMID:21690035

  19. Testis-specific expression of the human MYCL2 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, N G; Pomponio, R J; Mutter, G L; Morton, C C

    1991-01-01

    We have characterized the expression of MYCL2, an intronless X-linked gene related to MYCL1. RNase protection analysis of a panel of human normal and tumor tissues has revealed that MYCL2 is expressed almost exclusively in human adult normal testis; much lower levels of transcript were detected in one human lung adenocarcinoma. No MYCL2 transcript was found in human testis RNA obtained from second trimester fetuses. This observation suggests a germ cell rather than somatic cell origin of the transcript and possible developmental regulation of MYCL2. Northern blot analysis of poly(A)+ RNA from adult human normal testis with an antisense riboprobe revealed a transcript of approximately 4.8-kb, which is in agreement with the size predicted from the MYCL2 nucleotide sequence. Antisense transcripts were found spanning regions of MYCL2 corresponding to all three exons of MYCL1. No sizable open reading frame was seen for the MYCL2 antisense transcripts suggesting that they may represent either regulatory sequences or an intron of a gene encoded by the complementary strand. RNase protection assays and the 5' RACE protocol (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends) were used to address the localization of the transcription start site of the MYCL2 sense transcript and different putative promoters and transcription regulatory elements have been identified. Images PMID:1711681

  20. Gata4 regulates testis expression of Dmrt1.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ning; Heckert, Leslie L

    2004-01-01

    The doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (Dmrt1) is a putative transcriptional regulator that is expressed exclusively in the gonads and is required for postnatal testis differentiation. Here we describe the transcriptional mechanisms regulating testis-specific expression of the Dmrt1 gene. Transient-transfection analysis identified a region of the promoter between kb -3.2 and -2.8 that is important for Sertoli cell-specific expression. DNase I footprinting revealed four sites of DNA-protein interaction within this region, three of which were prominent in primary Sertoli cells. Analysis of these sites, using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, revealed that Gata4 and another unknown factor bound within these regions. Further transient-transfection assays of various mutant promoters established the functional relevance of the Gata4-response and unknown factor-response elements, while studies of Dmrt1 expression in 13.5 days postcoitum Fog2 null gonads supported the in vivo importance of Gata4's regulation. As a whole, these studies identify Gata4 as an important regulator in the Dmrt1 transcriptional machinery that is responsible for robust expression of Dmrt1 in the testis. PMID:14673170

  1. An Accessory Peroneocalcaneus Internus Muscle with MRI and US Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Benjamin Matthew; Murthy, Naveen Srinivasa

    2012-01-01

    The peroneocalcaneus internus (PCI) is a rare accessory muscle of the medial ankle with typical MRI anatomic features allowing differentiation from the more common accessory flexor digitorum longus muscle. To our knowledge, there have been no previously published sonographic images of the peroneocalcaneus internus. A PCI is typically an incidental, asymptomatic finding, but knowledge of the entity may avoid confusion when initially encountered by diagnostic ultrasound. We review the anatomic imaging features which allow for a confident imaging diagnosis and the clinical relevance of this anomaly. PMID:23378873

  2. Osteochondrosis of the accessory ossification centre of the medial malleolus.

    PubMed

    Farsetti, Pasquale; Dragoni, Massimiliano; Potenza, Vito; Caterini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a painful accessory ossification centre of the medial malleolus in an 11-year-old girl who was not involved in sports activities. The patient was treated conservatively, with complete clinical and radiographic healing of the medial malleolus 6 months after the first presentation. We ruled out the uncommon pathological conditions causing chronic pain in the medial malleolus during skeletal growth, such as traction apophysitis of the medial malleolus, osteochondrosis, osteochondritis or avascular necrosis of the distal tibial epiphysis. We speculate that this painful condition may be classified as an osteochondrosis of the accessory ossification centre of the medial malleolus. PMID:25438106

  3. Inadequate detection of accessory spleens and splenosis with laparoscopic splenectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-F. Gigot; F. Jamar; A. Ferrant; B. E. van Beers; B. Lengele; S. Pauwels; J. Pringot; P.-J. Kestens; P. Gianello; R. Detry

    1998-01-01

    Background: The ultimate goal of surgery for hematological disorders is the complete removal of both the spleen and accessory spleens\\u000a in order to avoid recurrence of the disease. Whereas splenectomy by open surgery provides excellent results, the validity\\u000a of laparoscopic splenectomy in this regard remains unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the detection of accessory spleens

  4. 77 FR 5420 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories Inc. High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...Aeronautical Accessories Inc. High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly AGENCY: Federal...Accessories Inc. (AAI) High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly (aft crosstube...of a crosstube, collapse of the landing gear, and subsequent loss of control of...

  5. 77 FR 67261 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Forward Crosstube...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Forward Crosstube Assembly AGENCY: Federal...Accessories, Inc. (AAI) high landing gear forward crosstube assemblies (crosstubes...of a crosstube, collapse of the landing gear, and subsequent loss of control of...

  6. 77 FR 37768 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ...Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly AGENCY: Federal...Accessories, Inc. (AAI), High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly (aft crosstube...of a crosstube, collapse of the landing gear, and subsequent loss of control of...

  7. 77 FR 27663 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc. High Landing Gear Forward Crosstube...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ...Aeronautical Accessories, Inc. High Landing Gear Forward Crosstube Assembly AGENCY: Federal...Accessories, Inc. (AAI) high landing gear forward crosstube assemblies (crosstubes...of a crosstube, collapse of the landing gear, and subsequent loss of control of...

  8. 22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software, and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software, and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software, and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

  9. 22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

  10. 22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

  11. 22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

  12. 22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

  13. 21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories...Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic...

  14. 21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories...Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic...

  15. 21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories...Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic...

  16. 21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories...Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic...

  17. 21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories...Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic...

  18. 77 FR 22802 - Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Determination Not To Review an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ...COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-754] Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Determination Not To...within the United States after importation of certain handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof by reason of...

  19. 76 FR 24522 - In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ...Investigation No. 337-TA-754] In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Commission...within the United States after importation of certain handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof by reason of...

  20. 41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39...installation of accessory equipment. The modification of a GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle...installation of accessory equipment on these...

  1. 41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39...installation of accessory equipment. The modification of a GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle...installation of accessory equipment on these...

  2. 41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39...installation of accessory equipment. The modification of a GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle...installation of accessory equipment on these...

  3. 41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39...installation of accessory equipment. The modification of a GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle...installation of accessory equipment on these...

  4. 41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39...installation of accessory equipment. The modification of a GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle...installation of accessory equipment on these...

  5. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and...

  6. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and...

  7. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and...

  8. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and...

  9. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and...

  10. 75 FR 10327 - Advance Accessory Systems, Shelbyville, MI; Notice of Termination of Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...and Training Administration [TA-W-71,233] Advance Accessory Systems, Shelbyville, MI; Notice of Termination of Certification...to a worker petition filed on behalf of workers at Advance Accessory Systems, Shelbyville, Michigan. The petitioning group...

  11. Myelolipomas of both adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jai Seong; Shin, Yu Seob; Kim, Myung Ki; Kim, Hyung Jin

    2011-08-01

    Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, nonfunctional benign tumor that is composed of mature adipose tissue and hematopoietic elements. In the past, these tumors were accidentally discovered at autopsy. Today, they are found much more frequently and incidentally, mainly because of the widespread use of noninvasive imaging with ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Most lesions are asymptomatic, small, and unilateral, but a number of bilateral tumors have been reported. We report here on a case of a 48-year-old man with incidentally found myelolipomas of both adrenal glands. In particular, a giant myelolipoma of the left adrenal gland was treated by transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy. PMID:21927708

  12. Intraspecific variation in testis asymmetry in birds: evidence for naturally occurring compensation

    PubMed Central

    Calhim, Sara; Birkhead, Tim R.

    2009-01-01

    In many taxa, the left and right testes often differ in size. The compensation hypothesis states that one testis of the pair serves as a ‘back-up’ for any reduced function in the other and provides a mechanism to explain intraspecific variation in degree and direction of gonad asymmetry. Although testis asymmetry is common in birds, evidence for natural testis compensation is unknown. Using a novel quantitative approach that can be applied to any bilateral organ or structure, we show that testis compensation occurs naturally in birds and can be complete when one testis fails to develop. Owing to a recurrent risk of testis impairment and an evolutionary trade-off between natural and sexual selections acting on the arrangement of internal organs in species with abdominal and/or seasonal testes, compensation adds an important, but neglected, dimension to measures of male reproductive investment. PMID:19324740

  13. Accessory lobes of the liver: A report of 3 cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenglin; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Ziqin; Xie, Tingting; Ding, Heyu; Deng, Qianhua; Yuan, Zhidong

    2012-01-01

    Summary This article is about 3 cases of accessory lobes of the liver. Case One involved a pedunculated accessory lobe of the liver (ALL), Case Two involved a true ectopic liver, and Case Three involved a sessile accessory lobe of the liver. All 3 cases were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confirmed by surgical and histological examination. The pertinent literature on accessory lobes of the liver is also reviewed. PMID:25343077

  14. Oncocytic sialolipoma of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dongbin; Park, Tae In; Park, Junesik; Heo, Sung Jae

    2014-06-01

    Sialolipoma, a rare tumor of the salivary gland, is a recently described variant of salivary gland lipoma. Oncocytic sialolipoma was first described by Pusiol et al. in 2009. We report the case of an oncocytic sialolipoma of the submandibular gland in a 43-year-old female. Excision of the tumor was performed with preservation of the submandibular gland. The tumor had a thin, fibrous capsule and consisted of abundant adipose tissue, an oncocytic nodule, and scattered normal glandular structures surrounded by adipose tissue. Four cases of sialolipoma of the submandibular gland, including the present case, were reviewed. All 4 tumors were developed on the right submandibular glands, with a composition of adipose tissue as high as that of sialolipoma of the parotid gland; in contrast to previous reports, three cases were in females. As newly described tumor type, care should be taken to distinguish oncocytic sialolipoma from other salivary gland neoplasms such as simple lipoma, pleomorphic adenoma, or oncocytoma. PMID:24917915

  15. Oncocytic Sialolipoma of the Submandibular Gland

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Dongbin; Park, Tae In; Park, Junesik

    2014-01-01

    Sialolipoma, a rare tumor of the salivary gland, is a recently described variant of salivary gland lipoma. Oncocytic sialolipoma was first described by Pusiol et al. in 2009. We report the case of an oncocytic sialolipoma of the submandibular gland in a 43-year-old female. Excision of the tumor was performed with preservation of the submandibular gland. The tumor had a thin, fibrous capsule and consisted of abundant adipose tissue, an oncocytic nodule, and scattered normal glandular structures surrounded by adipose tissue. Four cases of sialolipoma of the submandibular gland, including the present case, were reviewed. All 4 tumors were developed on the right submandibular glands, with a composition of adipose tissue as high as that of sialolipoma of the parotid gland; in contrast to previous reports, three cases were in females. As newly described tumor type, care should be taken to distinguish oncocytic sialolipoma from other salivary gland neoplasms such as simple lipoma, pleomorphic adenoma, or oncocytoma. PMID:24917915

  16. What Does the Thyroid Gland Do?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it helps other cells do their job. hypothyroidism (hi-poh-THY-royd-izm): when your thyroid gland ... thyroid hormone (“hypo” means ‘under’ or ‘below’). hyperthyroidism (hi-purr-THY-royd-izm): when your thyroid gland ...

  17. Secretion of D-aspartic acid by the rat testis and its role in endocrinology of the testis and spermatogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antimo D'Aniello; Maria Maddalena Di Fiore; Gemma D'Aniello; Frantz E. Colin; Giavonni Lewis; Brian P. Setchell

    1998-01-01

    The D-isomer of aspartic acid (D-Asp) has been found in rat testes. In the present study, samples of testicular venous blood plasma, rete testis fluid, interstitial extracellular fluid, luminal fluid from the seminiferous tubules, testicular parenchymal cells, epididymal spermatozoa and peripheral blood plasma were collected and analyzed for D-Asp by two methods, an enzymatic and a chromatographic HPLC method. The

  18. Testis size variation in the greenfinch Carduelis chloris ?: relevance for some recent models of sexual selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juha Merilä; Ben C. Sheldon

    1999-01-01

    Interspecific evidence that testis size responds to selection caused by sperm competition has been obtained from many taxa.\\u000a However, little is known about the sources of intraspecific variation in testis size, although such variation may have functional\\u000a significance. Variation in testis size and asymmetry was studied within and between eight geographically separated (and genetically\\u000a differentiated) populations of greenfinches Carduelis chloris.

  19. Pathology of testis and epididymis in native goats in southern Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kafi; A. Oryan; N. Morgan-Azghadi

    2007-01-01

    A slaughterhouse-based survey was conducted to determine the type and the prevalence of lesions in the testis and epididymis\\u000a of native bucks reared in southern Iran. Testis, epididymis, and tunica, which belonged to 425 bucks of various age groups,\\u000a were inspected. The specimens were collected randomly during a 6-month period. Various abnormalities in testis and the epididymis\\u000a were observed. Grossly,

  20. Accessory Veins in Nonmaturing Autogenous Arteriovenous Fistulae: Analysis of Anatomic Features and Impact on Fistula Maturation.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Bjorn I; Grimm, Lars J; Ronald, James; Smith, Tony P; Kim, Charles Y

    2014-12-01

    The appropriate management of nonmaturing arteriovenous (AV) fistulae continues to be a controversial issue. While coil embolization of accessory side-branch veins can be performed to encourage maturation of nonmaturing AV fistulae, the true efficacy and optimal patient population are not well understood. Fistulagrams performed on nonmaturing AV fistulae were retrospectively reviewed in 145 patients (86 males, median age 63 years) for the presence of accessory veins. Fistula and accessory vein measurements were obtained, as were rates of eventual fistula maturation after accessory vein coil embolization. Of 145 nonmaturing fistulae, 49 (34%) had a stenosis without any accessory veins, 76 (52%) had a stenosis and one or more accessory veins, and 20 (14%) had an accessory vein without concurrent stenosis. Eighteen AV fistulae had one or more accessory veins without coexisting stenosis. Nine fistulae had a caliber decrease immediately downstream from the accessory vein. Coil embolization of dominant accessory veins with a caliber decrease immediately downstream (n = 6) resulted in a 100% eventual fistula maturation rate versus 67% for fistulae without this configuration (n = 6, p = 0.15). Accessory vein size was not correlated with maturation rates (p = 0.51). The majority of nonmaturing fistulae with accessory veins had a coexisting stenosis. Higher maturation rates may result with selected anatomic parameters, although additional studies with more robust sample sizes are needed prior to definitive conclusions. PMID:25482275

  1. 26 CFR 48.4062(b)-1 - Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 true Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis. 48...4062(b)-1 Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis. The sale price of a rebuilt part or accessory on which the tax is to be...

  2. 75 FR 67634 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Antilock Brake Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ...FMCSA-2010-0186] RIN-2126-AB27 Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Antilock...direct final rule titled ``Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Antilock...direct final rule entitled ``Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation:...

  3. 26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 true Specific parts or accessories. 48.4062(a)-1 Section 48...4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. Spark plugs, storage batteries...a), are considered parts of, or accessories for, such articles whether or not...

  4. Involvement of D-Asp in P450 aromatase activity and estrogen receptors in boar testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Lamanna; L. Assisi; V. Botte; M. M. Di Fiore

    2007-01-01

    Summary.  Mammalian testis contains D-aspartic acid (D-Asp), which enhances testosterone production. D-Asp, on other hand, also stimulates\\u000a 17?-estradiol synthesis in the ovary of some lower vertebrates. We studied boar testis in order to determine if D-Asp intervenes\\u000a in 17?-estradiol synthesis in the testis of those mammals which produce significant amounts of estrogens as well as testosterone.\\u000a The boar testis contains D-Asp

  5. Parotid gland function after radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Maria Roesink

    2005-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment for head and neck cancer patients. Unfortunately, it produces serious acute and long-term side effects to the oral cavity. One severe complication is the loss of salivary gland function, which can persists for many years. Saliva has multiple functions relating to speech, taste perception, mastication, and swallowing and bolus formation. Cleansing and dental and mucosal

  6. Tissue-specific transcriptomics in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Nathan W; Veltsos, Paris; Tan, Yew-Foon; Millar, A Harvey; Ritchie, Michael G; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-02-01

    Field crickets (family Gryllidae) frequently are used in studies of behavioral genetics, sexual selection, and sexual conflict, but there have been no studies of transcriptomic differences among different tissue types. We evaluated transcriptome variation among testis, accessory gland, and the remaining whole-body preparations from males of the field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. Non-normalized cDNA libraries from each tissue were sequenced on the Roche 454 platform, and a master assembly was constructed using testis, accessory gland, and whole-body preparations. A total of 940,200 reads were assembled into 41,962 contigs, to which 36,856 singletons (reads not assembled into a contig) were added to provide a total of 78,818 sequences used in annotation analysis. A total of 59,072 sequences (75%) were unique to one of the three tissues. Testis tissue had the greatest proportion of tissue-specific sequences (62.6%), followed by general body (56.43%) and accessory gland tissue (44.16%). We tested the hypothesis that tissues expressing gene products expected to evolve rapidly as a result of sexual selection--testis and accessory gland--would yield a smaller proportion of BLASTx matches to homologous genes in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster compared with whole-body tissue. Uniquely expressed sequences in both testis and accessory gland showed a significantly lower rate of matching to annotated D. melanogaster genes compared with those from general body tissue. These results correspond with empirical evidence that genes expressed in testis and accessory gland tissue are rapidly evolving targets of selection. PMID:23390599

  7. Accessory proteins of SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ding Xiang; Fung, To Sing; Chong, Kelvin Kian-Long; Shukla, Aditi; Hilgenfeld, Rolf

    2014-09-01

    The huge RNA genome of SARS coronavirus comprises a number of open reading frames that code for a total of eight accessory proteins. Although none of these are essential for virus replication, some appear to have a role in virus pathogenesis. Notably, some SARS-CoV accessory proteins have been shown to modulate the interferon signaling pathways and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The structural information on these proteins is also limited, with only two (p7a and p9b) having their structures determined by X-ray crystallography. This review makes an attempt to summarize the published knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins, with an emphasis on their involvement in virus-host interaction. The accessory proteins of other coronaviruses are also briefly discussed. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10 years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses" (see Introduction by Hilgenfeld and Peiris (2013)). PMID:24995382

  8. The sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A dual olfactory system, represented by two anatomically distinct but spatially proximate chemosensory epithelia that project to separate areas of the forebrain, is known in several classes of tetrapods. Lungfish are the earliest evolving vertebrates known to have this dual system, comprising a main olfactory and a vomeronasal system (VNO). Lampreys, a group of jawless vertebrates, have a single nasal capsule containing two anatomically distinct epithelia, the main (MOE) and the accessory olfactory epithelia (AOE). We speculated that lamprey AOE projects to specific telencephalic regions as a precursor to the tetrapod vomeronasal system. Results To test this hypothesis, we characterized the neural circuits and molecular profiles of the accessory olfactory epithelium in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Neural tract-tracing revealed direct and reciprocal connections with the dorsomedial telencephalic neuropil (DTN) which in turn projects directly to the dorsal pallium and the rostral hypothalamus. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that the main and the accessory olfactory epithelia have virtually identical profiles of expressed genes. Real time quantitative PCR confirmed expression of representatives of all 3 chemoreceptor gene families identified in the sea lamprey genome. Conclusion Anatomical and molecular evidence shows that the sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system that may serve a chemosensory function. PMID:23957559

  9. Encoding Pheromonal Signals in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb of

    E-print Network

    Fee, Michale S.

    Encoding Pheromonal Signals in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb of Behaving Mice Minmin Luo,1 * Michale S. Fee,2 Lawrence C. Katz1 Many mammalian species rely on pheromones--semiochemicals produced how the central nervous system integrates the complex repertoire of pheromones, we recorded from

  10. Accessory cells in the immune defense of the dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Jontell, M; Bergenholtz, G

    1992-01-01

    This communication focuses on the participation of accessory cells in the initial recognition and processing of antigenic substances in the dental pulp. Immunohistochemical analyses have demonstrated the presence of two types of accessory cells--one with a dendritic morphology located in the periphery of the pulp and one with a macrophage-like appearance located more centrally. Functional studies in vitro have provided evidence for the dendritic cells being the most significant of the two cells regarding their capacity to induce T-cell proliferation. Studies on ontogeny have revealed that the appearance of pulp accessory cells is delayed compared to other peripheral tissues. In experimentally induced pulp lesions a rapid increase of cells with morphologic and phenotypic features similar to normally occurring accessory cells was found. These data demonstrate that the dental pulp contains the necessary cellular constituents to mount an immunologic defense reaction. Future studies should focus on elucidating possible interactions between these immune cells and the neurovascular system of the pulp. PMID:1508890

  11. RESEARCH Open Access Are accessory hearing structures linked to inner

    E-print Network

    Ladich, Friedrich

    RESEARCH Open Access Are accessory hearing structures linked to inner ear morphology? Insights from, the connection between anterior swim bladder extensions and the inner ears enhances sound transmission coincide with differences in inner ear morphology and thus compared Steatocranus tinanti (vestigial swim

  12. Evolutionary dynamics of the accessory genome of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    den Bakker, Henk C; Desjardins, Christopher A; Griggs, Allison D; Peters, Joseph E; Zeng, Qiandong; Young, Sarah K; Kodira, Chinnappa D; Yandava, Chandri; Hepburn, Theresa A; Haas, Brian J; Birren, Bruce W; Wiedmann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85-3.14 Mb, encode 2,822-3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II. PMID:23825666

  13. Two speed accessory transmission with optional neutral mode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sivalingam

    1987-01-01

    An underdrive accessory transmission associated with an engine is described comprising: a planetary gear set comprising a sun gear having an integrally formed shaft planet gears positioned about and drivingly engaging the sun gear, a planet gear carrier, and a ring gear positioned about and drivingly engaging the planet gears, wherein the ring gear provides rotational input to the transmission

  14. Morphology and volatile compounds of metathoracic scent gland in Tessaratoma papillosa (Drury) (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, D; Gao, J; Wang, Y; Jiang, J; Li, R

    2012-08-01

    Tessaratoma papillosa (Drury) (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae) is a serious insect pest of litchi and longan in South China. When disturbed, this insect could release large quantities of disagreeable odorous volatiles from its scent gland. Knowledge on the scent gland and its secretion is crucial for developing the semiochemical methods to manage this pest. Morphology and ultrastructure of the metathoracic scent glands (MTGs) were studied under stereo and scanning electron microscopy, and the volatile compounds of MTGs from both male and female T. papillosa were analyzed with coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The MTG complex is located between the metathorax and the first abdominal segment at the ventral surface of the insect, which has a well-developed single double valve cystic-shaped orange median reservoir, paired colorless lateral glands in both sides, and a long and wavy tubular accessory gland that inlays tightly into the ventral edge around the median reservoir. The MTG opens to the body surface through paired ostioles located between the meso- and metacoxae of the evaporatorium with mushroom bodies. The GC-MS analyses showed that female and male adults have nine major volatile components in common. Tridecane is the most abundant in both females and males, reaching up to 47.1% and 51.8% of relative amount, respectively. The minor component is benzophenone with only 0.28% and 0.14%. Furthermore, undecane, tetradecane, 3-methyl-tridecane, and cyclopentadecane were found only in males. The possible function of volatile compounds of MTG contents in T. papillosa is addressed. PMID:23950062

  15. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph. PMID:24862590

  16. Testicular microlithiasis in acquired undescended testis after orchidopexy at diagnosis.

    PubMed

    van der Plas, E; Meij-de Vries, A; Goede, J; van der Voort-Doedens, L; Zijp, G; Hack, W

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis (TM) in surgically corrected acquired undescended testis (UDT). The prevalence of TM was assessed by ultrasound. Boys and young men who had undergone orchidopexy (ORP) for acquired UDT in mid or late childhood were observed to study the long-term testicular volume. During this examination, the presence or absence of TM was also assessed. TM was defined as echogenic foci without shadowing within the testis parenchyma. We included 106 patients who had undergone ORP at the Medical Center Alkmaar (1986-1999) and 155 patients who had undergone ORP at the Juliana Children's Hospital (1996-2009). The majority of patients were white, Caucasian (82%). The median age at follow-up, 25.8 years (range 14.0-31.6 years) was higher in Medical Center Alkmaar than in Juliana Children's Hospital 13.4 years (range 5.1-26.6 years). From 2009 to 2011, these 261 patients (median age 18.9 years) underwent an ultrasound examination. Median follow-up after ORP was 11.3 years (range 1.4-23.5 years); age at ORP ranged from 2.1 to 16.2 years, with a median of 8.5 years. TM was found in 17 (6.5%) patients (median age at follow-up 20.4 years; range 11-28). No significant association was found with the incidence of TM and the operated testis, the age at ORP or the racial variance (p > 0.05). ORP at diagnosis for acquired UDT is associated with a 6.5% prevalence of TM in boys and young adults. PMID:24106044

  17. Steroid signaling promotes stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila testis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yijie; Ma, Qing; Cherry, Christopher M; Matunis, Erika L

    2014-10-01

    Stem cell regulation by local signals is intensely studied, but less is known about the effects of hormonal signals on stem cells. In Drosophila, the primary steroid twenty-hydroxyecdysone (20E) regulates ovarian germline stem cells (GSCs) but was considered dispensable for testis GSC maintenance. Male GSCs reside in a microenvironment (niche) generated by somatic hub cells and adjacent cyst stem cells (CySCs). Here, we show that depletion of 20E from adult males by overexpressing a dominant negative form of the Ecdysone receptor (EcR) or its heterodimeric partner ultraspiracle (usp) causes GSC and CySC loss that is rescued by 20E feeding, uncovering a requirement for 20E in stem cell maintenance. EcR and USP are expressed, activated and autonomously required in the CySC lineage to promote CySC maintenance, as are downstream genes ftz-f1 and E75. In contrast, GSCs non-autonomously require ecdysone signaling. Global inactivation of EcR increases cell death in the testis that is rescued by expression of EcR-B2 in the CySC lineage, indicating that ecdysone signaling supports stem cell viability primarily through a specific receptor isoform. Finally, EcR genetically interacts with the NURF chromatin-remodeling complex, which we previously showed maintains CySCs. Thus, although 20E levels are lower in males than females, ecdysone signaling acts through distinct cell types and effectors to ensure both ovarian and testis stem cell maintenance. PMID:25093968

  18. Germ cell development in the human and marmoset fetal testis and the origins of testicular germ cell tumours 

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Roderick T.

    2010-01-01

    Normal germ cell development in the human testis is crucial for subsequent fertility and reproductive health. Disruption of testis development in fetal life can result in deleterious health consequences such as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS...

  19. Carcinosarcoma of the Thyroid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Ekici, Mehmet Fatih; Kocak, Cengiz; Bayhan, Zülfü; Zeren, Sezgin; Yaylak, Faik; Metineren, Mehmet Hüseyin; Kocak, Fatma Emel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Surgeon has significant role in the management of such rare and controversial clinical entities related to thyroid gland. In this case report we have presented an elderly patient with rapid enlargement in thyroid that was related to carcinosarcoma. Case Presentation. A 60-year-old lady was presented with rapid enlargement of the thyroid gland. A fine needle aspiration of the nodule in right lobe was performed several weeks before presentation to our clinic. End diagnosis was a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with spindle cell component. Thus the nodule was recognized to be a carcinosarcoma. Conclusion. Thyroid surgery merits a multidisciplinary approach. Indeed the surgeon should make a conclusive decision in some controversial and rare clinical entities such as carcinosarcoma. PMID:25705539

  20. Differentiation of the fetal gonad of Macaca fascicularis with special reference to the testis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Differentiation of the fetal gonad of Macaca fascicularis with special reference to the testis D. C of differentiation (37 to 39 days) were the same in the testis and the ovary. We observed an antero posterior and centrifugal diffe- rentiation of the sex cords in the blastema from the peripheral mesenchyma of the meso

  1. Effects of different storage protocols on cat testis tissue potential for xenografting and recovery of spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mota, Paula C; Ehmcke, Jens; Westernströer, Birgit; Gassei, Kathrin; Ramalho-Santos, João; Schlatt, Stefan

    2012-01-15

    The loss of genetic diversity due to premature death of valuable individuals is a significant problem in animal conservation programs, including endangered felids. Testis tissue xenografting has emerged as a system to obtain spermatozoa from dead immature animals, however protocols to store this tissue before xenografting are still lacking. This study focused on testis tissue cryopreservation and storage from the domestic cat (Felis catus) classified as "pre-pubertal" and "pubertal" according to spermatogenesis development. Grafts from testis tissue cryopreserved with DMSO 1.4M, recovered after 10 weeks xenografting, presented seminiferous tubules with no germ cells. On the contrary, testis tissue from pre-pubertal animals preserved in ice-cold medium for 2 to 5 days presented no loss of viability or spermatogenic potential, while the number of grafts of pubertal cat testis tissue with germ cells after 10 weeks of xenografting decreased with increasing storage time. Nevertheless, even grafts from pre-pubertal cat testis tissue presented lower anti-DDX4 and anti-BOULE staining (proteins necessary for the meiosis completion), when compared with adult cat testis. Finally, a strong correlation found between testis weight and xenograft outcome may help choose good candidates for xenografting. PMID:21958640

  2. Intraspecific variation in testis size of small mammals: implications for muscle mass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde; John S. Millar; Graham J. Hickling

    2003-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in testis size is usually interpreted in the context of sperm competition, yet an uncon - sidered consequence of increased testis size may be an increase in the production of testosterone, which can affect the growth of muscle mass. After muscle mass is corrected for body size, male small mammals have more muscle mass than females, which suggests

  3. The vitamin D receptor localization and mRNA expression in ram testis and epididymis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hui; Huang, Yang; Jin, Guang; Xue, Yanrong; Qin, Xiaowei; Yao, Xiaolei; Yue, Wenbing

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of present study were to investigate the presence of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in testis and epididymis of ram by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to locate VDR in testis and epididymis by immunohistochemistry and to compare difference of VDR expression between testis and epididymis before and after sexual maturation by Real time-PCR and Western blot. The results showed that VDR exists in the testis and epididymis of ram while VDR protein in testis and epididymis was localized in Leydig cells, spermatogonial stem cells, spermatocytes, Sertoli cells and principal cells. For the adult ram, the amounts of VDR mRNA and VDR protein were less (p < 0.01) in testis than compared with caput, corpus and cauda epididymis. For prepubertal ram, the result showed the same trend (p < 0.01). However, the expression levels of VDR mRNA and VDR protein in caput, corpus, cauda epididymis and testis showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) between adult and prepubertal. In conclusion, VDR exists in testis and epididymis of ram, suggesting 1?,25-(OH)(2)VD(3) may play a role in ram reproduction. PMID:25582701

  4. Novel Development-Related Alternative Splices in Human Testis Identified by cDNA Microarrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    XIAOYAN HUANG; JIANMIN LI; LI LU; MIN XU; JUNHUA XIAO; LANLAN YIN; HU ZHU; ZUOMIN ZHOU; JIAHAO SHA

    2005-01-01

    Alternative splicing of premessenger RNA is an im- portant regulatory mechanism that increases the diversity of proteins transcribed from a single gene. This is particularly important in the testis because germ cell expansion and differentiation require many cellular changes and regulatory steps. To investigate novel devel- opment-related alternative splicings in the human testis, comple- mentary DNA microarray studies were conducted

  5. Gene expression profiles in testis of pigs with extreme high and low levels of androstenone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maren Moe; Theo Meuwissen; Sigbjørn Lien; Christian Bendixen; Xuefei Wang; Lene Nagstrup Conley; Ingunn Berget; Håvard Tajet; Eli Grindflek

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Boar taint is a major obstacle when using uncastrated male pigs for swine production. One of the main compounds causing this taint is androstenone, a pheromone produced in porcine testis. Here we use microarrays to study the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously in testis of high and low androstenone boars. The study allows identification of genes and pathways

  6. Primary adenocarcinoma of rete testis with distinct biphasic pattern: An extremely rare entity and diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prithwijit; Saha, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinoma of rete testis is one of the rarest intrascrotal tumors. Very few cases have been reported in the literature. In addition, presence of biphasic component creates difficulty in the diagnosis. We present here a unique third case of rete testis adenocarcinoma having distinct cytologically malignant spindle cell component in a young male who presented with recurrent hydrocele. PMID:25810664

  7. Expression of a candidate sex-determining gene during mouse testis differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Koopman; Andrea Münsterberg; Blanche Capel; Nigel Vivian; Robin Lovell-Badge

    1990-01-01

    THE development of a eutherian mammal as a male is a consequence of testis formation in the embryo, which is thought to be initiated by a gene on the Y chromosome. In the absence of this gene, ovaries are formed and female characteristics develop1. Sex determination therefore hinges on the action of this testis-determining gene, known as Tdy in mice

  8. Primary adenocarcinoma of rete testis with distinct biphasic pattern: An extremely rare entity and diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Prithwijit; Saha, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinoma of rete testis is one of the rarest intrascrotal tumors. Very few cases have been reported in the literature. In addition, presence of biphasic component creates difficulty in the diagnosis. We present here a unique third case of rete testis adenocarcinoma having distinct cytologically malignant spindle cell component in a young male who presented with recurrent hydrocele.

  9. Latitudinal variation in testis size in six species of North American songbirds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor E. Pitcher; Bridget J. M. Stutchbury

    1998-01-01

    Six songbird species were studied to determine how testis size varies in relation to latitude, using data from breeding areas at latitudes 7?N to 69?N. Three of the species (Carpodacus mexicanus, Vireo olivaceus, Geothylpis trichas) exhibited a significant positive relationship, one (Passerculus sandwichensis) a significant negative relationship, and two (Agelaius phoeniceus, Spizella passerina) no significant association between relative testis mass

  10. Distribution and fine structure of the lymphatic system in the human testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Holstein; G. E. Orlandini; R. Möller

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of lymph vessels in the human testis was investigated using ink injection methods, and light and electron microscopy. Lymph capillaries occur in the septula testis but are absent in the intertubular tissue. They consist of endothelial cells provided with an incomplete basal lamina and anchoring filaments of the adjacent connective tissue. Frequently, the endothelial cells are separated by

  11. Application of morphometric techniques to postnatal rat testes in organ culture: insights into testis growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Schlatt; Yang Zhengwei; Terri Meehan; David M. de Kretser; Kate Lakoski Loveland

    1999-01-01

    The extent of Sertoli cell proliferation during fetal and neonatal development determines the final adult testis size and potential for sperm output. To gain further knowledge of the factors that regulate Sertoli cell proliferation, the present study used a new approach to analyse changes in morphology and proliferation in the postnatal testis by combining organ culture with morphometric analysis. Fragments

  12. Cystadenoma of the rete testis: a case report and literature review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    García-Morúa A; Triana-Vázquez F; Gutiérrez-García JD; Martínez-Montelongo R; Gómez-Guerra LS

    2008-01-01

    The rete testis is a complex organization of interconnected ducts, situated in the upper part of the testicle, covered by a fibrous stroma and the tunica albuginea, a frequent site of benign cyst changes. On rare occasions cystadenomas or cystadenocarcinoma occur in the rete testis. Benign cystic lesions can be categorized as cystic dysplasia, cystic transformation, cystadenoma or simple cyst.

  13. Cistadenoma de la rete-testis: reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura

    Microsoft Academic Search

    García-Morúa A; Triana-Vázquez F; Gutiérrez-García JD; Martínez-Montelongo R; Gómez-Guerra LS

    2008-01-01

    The rete-testis is a complex organization of interconnected ducts, situated in the upper part of the testicle, covered by a fibrous stroma and the tunica albuginea, a frequent site of benign cyst changes. On rare occasions cystadenomas or cystadenocarcinoma occur in the rete-testis. Benign cystic lesions can be categorized as cystic dysplasia, cystic transformation, cystadenoma or simple cyst. These are

  14. Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study G. S in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram. The results in these three species were more or less similar. Peroxidase of buffalo, goat and ram. (1) Present address :Reproductive Biology Lab., Dept. of Biology, Guru Nanak Dev

  15. Dominance, plasma testosterone levels, and testis size in house mice artificially selected for high activity levels

    E-print Network

    Garland Jr., Theodore

    Dominance, plasma testosterone levels, and testis size in house mice artificially selected for high replicate lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior were compared with four random-bred control lines with respect to dominance, testis size, and plasma testosterone level. Behavior was measured

  16. Expression of a novel HsMCAK mRNA splice variant, tsMCAK gene, in human testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Jun Cheng; Zuo Min Zhou; Jian Min Li; Hui Zhu; Hu Zhu; Ya Dong Zhou; Li Rong Wang; Min Lin; Jia Hao Sha

    2002-01-01

    Identification of specifically expressed genes in the adult or fetal testis is very important for the study of genes related to the development and function of the testis. In this study, a human adult testis cDNA microarray was constructed and hybridized with 33P-labeled human adult and embryo testis cDNA probes, respectively. After differential display analyzing, a number of new genes

  17. Male reproductive toxic effects of carbendazim: hitherto unreported targets in testis.

    PubMed

    Kadalmani, B; Girija, R; Faridha, A; Akbarsha, M A

    2002-01-01

    Carbendazim (MBC), a widely used fungicide, is toxic to male reproductive mechanisms. Various cellular targets in the testis for MBC action are being understood only recently and still more targets have been conceived. The present study was aimed at finding such newer targets. Male rats were administered through oral route a single dose of carbendazim (400 mg/kg) and the testis was studied adopting routine histological technique. It has been observed that pachytene spermatocytes could also be targets for MBC action in the testis. The study also reports selective loss of step 14 spermatids, asynchrony of the stages in the spermatogenic cycle and development of Sertoli cell fibrosis of the seminiferous tubules of carbendazim-treated rats. From the different kinds of responses seen in the seminiferous tubules in the same testis to MBC, particularly in the Sertoli cell, MBC action in the testis appears dependent on the stage in the spermatogenic cycle at first exposure. PMID:12561966

  18. A Case of Cystic Dysplasia of the Rete Testis in a 17-Months-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Poupalou, Anna; Spyridis, George; Vakaki, Marina; Giamarelou, Panagiota; Petousis, George; Nikolaidis, Pantelis

    2011-01-01

    Cystic dysplasia of the testis (CDT) is a benign, congenital malformation of the testis and a rare cause of painless scrotal swelling in children, mimicking testicular cancer. It is commonly unilateral, often associated with ipsilateral wolffian duct and ureteral abnormalities. Cystic dysplasia of the rete testis (CDT) represents a diagnostic challenge made easier if age, precise localisation, typical ultrasonographic features, the presence or absence of associated genitourinary malformations, as well as tumor markers are considered. The definite treatment of such a benign lesion is testis-sparing surgery, however in most cases watch and wait strategy can be recommended. We present a case of cystic dysplasia of the testis in a 17-month-old boy with right multicystic dysplastic kidney, epididymal cyst, history of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), as well as of solitary umbilical artery. We performed epididymidal cyst enucleation and right testicular biopsy. PMID:21765843

  19. EFFECT OF INFLAMMATION ON LACRIMAL GLAND FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Zoukhri, Driss

    2005-01-01

    The lacrimal gland is the main contributor to the aqueous layer of the tear film. It secretes proteins, electrolytes and water, which helps to nourish and protect the ocular surface. Lacrimal gland secretion is primarily under neural control, which is achieved through a neural reflex arc. Stimuli to the ocular surface activate afferent sensory nerves in the cornea and conjunctiva. This in turn activates efferent parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves in the lacrimal gland to stimulate secretion. Sex steroid hormones are also important regulators of lacrimal gland functions. A decrease or lack of lacrimal gland secretion is the leading cause of aqueous tear deficient dry eye syndrome (DES). It has been suggested that DES is an inflammatory disorder that affects the ocular surface and the lacrimal gland. In several pathological instances, the lacrimal gland can become a target of the immune system and show signs of inflammation. This can result from autoimmune diseases (Sjögren's syndrome), organ transplantation (graft versus host disease), or simply as a result of aging. The hallmarks of lacrimal gland inflammation are the presence of focal lymphocytic infiltrates and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. The mechanisms leading to lacrimal gland dysfunction are still poorly understood. Apoptosis, production of autoantibodies, hormonal imbalance, alterations in signaling molecules, neural dysfunction, and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines have been proposed as possible mediators of lacrimal gland insufficiency in disease states. PMID:16309672

  20. Xenografting of sheep testis tissue and isolated cells as a model for preservation of genetic material from endangered ungulates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucia Arregui; Rahul Rathi; Susan O Megee; Ali Honaramooz; Montserrat Gomendio; Eduardo R S Roldan; Ina Dobrinski

    2008-01-01

    Recoveryof germ cells could be an option for preservation of the genetic pool of endangered animals. In immature males, xenografting of testis tissue provides the opportunity to recover sperm from these animals. In adult animals, xenografting has been less successful, but de novo morphogenesis offunctional testis tissue from dissociated testis cells could be an alternative. To assess the potential use