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Sample records for testis accessory gland

  1. Steroidogenesis by testis and accessory glands of the Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus, during reproductive season.

    PubMed

    Modesto, Teresa; Freitas, Ana M M S; Canario, Adelino V M

    2015-11-01

    In teleost fish sex steroids are essential for gonadal function and have marked effects in reproductive and agonistic behavior and in the expression of secondary sexual characteristics. The Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus, has two male morphotypes: type I males are territorial nest-holders and have large accessory glands while type II males are smaller, have a relatively large testis and small accessory glands. In the present study, the steroidogenic activity of the testis and accessory testicular glands of the Lusitanian toadfish were examined in vitro as well as their presence in urine. The testis of type I males produced 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and 11?-hydroxy-4-androstene-3,17-dione (11?A) from tritiated 17-hydroxyprogesterone, while those of type II males produced testosterone (T) and 11?,17?-dihydroxy-4-andosten-3-one (11?T), but not 11KT. Additionally, the testis and accessory glands of both morphs produced mostly 5?,3?-reduced and 17,20?-hydroxylated metabolites. Type I, but not of type II, males synthesised 5?-reduced androgens in their accessory glands. The presence of 11?A exclusively in the urine of type I males during reproductive season suggests an association with maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics and behavior in this morph. The urine of both types of males contained two 5?-androstane and 5?-pregnane glucuronides. Among the latter steroids, those that are 17,21-dihydroxylated are potentially metabolites from cortisol and were found only in type I males during the spawning season. The diversity of metabolites produced by the testis and accessory glands and the presence of some in urine is suggestive of a potential role in chemical communication and reproductive behavior. PMID:26435361

  2. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Accessory Sex Gland and Testis from the Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    He, Lin; Jiang, Hui; Cao, Dandan; Liu, Lihua; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Qun

    2013-01-01

    The accessory sex gland (ASG) is an important component of the male reproductive system, which functions to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa during male reproduction. Certain proteins secreted by the ASG are known to bind to the spermatozoa membrane and affect its function. The ASG gene expression profile in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been conducted on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for the ASG of E. sinensis using Illumina sequencing technology. This analysis yielded a total of 33,221,284 sequencing reads, including 2.6 Gb of total nucleotides. Reads were assembled into 85,913 contigs (average 218 bp), or 58,567 scaffold sequences (average 292 bp), that identified 37,955 unigenes (average 385 bp). We assembled all unigenes and compared them with the published testis transcriptome from E. sinensis. In order to identify which genes may be involved in ASG function, as it pertains to modification of spermatozoa, we compared the ASG and testis transcriptome of E. sinensis. Our analysis identified specific genes with both higher and lower tissue expression levels in the two tissues, and the functions of these genes were analyzed to elucidate their potential roles during maturation of spermatozoa. Availability of detailed transcriptome data from ASG and testis in E. sinensis can assist our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved with spermatozoa conservation, transport, maturation and capacitation and potentially acrosome activation. PMID:23342039

  3. Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner’s body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

  4. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Accessory Parotid Gland: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Das, Somdipto; Nayak, Umanath K; Buggavetti, Rahul; Sekhar, Shobana

    2016-05-01

    The accessory parotid gland is salivary gland tissue separated from the main gland at a variable distance. This gland is histologically similar to the main gland, but has a higher incidence of malignant neoplasms than the main gland. Regarding the various malignant neoplasms, studies have shown higher incidences of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, with less than 2% being adenoid cystic carcinoma. We present a case of swelling in the midcheek region that, after clinical examination, was diagnosed as a case of neoplasm of the accessory parotid gland. On the basis of auxiliary investigations including intraoperative frozen section, it was concluded that it was adenoid cystic carcinoma, grade I, and after wide surgical resection, the tumor was removed without undergoing superficial parotidectomy. The patient received postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and was followed for 14 months without any recurrence or substantial facial asymmetry. PMID:26851989

  5. Regucalcin Expression in Bovine Tissues and Its Regulation by Sex Steroid Hormones in Accessory Sex Glands

    PubMed Central

    Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Divari, Sara; Mulasso, Chiara; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca T.

    2014-01-01

    Regucalcin (RGN) is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle. PMID:25415588

  6. Pleomorphic adenoma of an accessory submandibular salivary gland: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rajiv S; Meshram, Deepashree; Jangam, Sagar S; Singh, Jatinder S

    2015-10-01

    An accessory submandibular salivary gland is a rare anatomical variant, and a tumour within one is even rarer. We describe a 54-year-old man who presented with a slowly-enlarging mass in the right submandibular region which on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seemed to be close to, but not arising from, the right submandibular salivary gland. This was found to be a benign pleomorphic adenoma arising from an accessory submandibular salivary gland. To our knowledge it is only the second report of a pleomorphic adenoma that developed within an accessory submandibular salivary gland. PMID:26123656

  7. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student’s t test was used to compare the length of Stensen’s duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen’s duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis. PMID:26913509

  8. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student's t test was used to compare the length of Stensen's duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen's duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis. PMID:26913509

  9. Male Accessory Gland Infection: Relevance of Serum Total Testosterone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, R. A.; Calogero, A. E.; Vicari, E.; Favilla, V.; Cimino, S.; Russo, G. I.; Morgia, G.; La Vignera, S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the different ultrasound characterization of fertile symptomatic patients with MAGI (male accessory gland infection) according to different serum concentrations of total T (TT). We analyzed the ultrasound and hormonal data of 200 patients aged between 24.0 and 67.0 years. Patients were divided into six groups according to the sextile distribution of TT. Patients with serum concentrations of TT < 3.6 ng mL−1 had a higher mean duration of symptoms compared to the other examined groups. Patients with serum concentrations of TT > 6.6 ng mL−1 showed a frequency of ultrasound criteria suggestive for bilateral form of prostatitis and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis and significantly lower compared to the other examined groups. At multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and BMI, TT was an independent predictive factor of prostatovesiculitis (OR = 0.818 [95% CI: 0.675–0.992]; P < 0.01) and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (OR = 0.714 [95% CI: 0.578–0.880]; P < 0.01), which represent the main forms of complicated MAGI. The results of this study suggest that male hypogonadism could be associated with a different ultrasound characterization of these patients. PMID:25276133

  10. Male breast cancer originating in an accessory mammary gland in the axilla: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Jun; Masuda, Norikazu; Kodama, Yoshinori; Yasojima, Hiroyuki; Mizutani, Makiko; Kuriyama, Keiko; Mano, Masayuki; Nakamori, Shoji; Sekimoto, Mitsugu

    2012-01-01

    Carcinoma of an accessory mammary gland is an extremely rare tumor. A 61-year-old male patient presented with a hard mass measuring 85 mm × 51 mm in the left axilla. Incisional biopsy histopathologically showed an adenocarcinoma compatible with breast carcinoma originating in an accessory mammary gland. Systemic examinations revealed no evidence of malignant or occult primary lesion in the bilateral mammary glands or in other organs. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed for the locally advanced axillary tumor and reduced the tumor to 55 mm in size, and, then, he could undergo complete resection with a negative surgical margin in combination with reconstructive surgery to fill the resulting skin defect with a local flap of the latissimus dorsi muscle. The patient has presented with no metastatic lesion in four years since the operation. This unusual case shows that neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an effective and tolerated therapy for advanced accessory breast cancer in the axilla. PMID:23251170

  11. Study on development of accessory sex glands in prepubertal kids using two-dimensional ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Sonu; Luthra, R. A.; Chandolia, R. K.; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Parveen; Devender; Kumar, Ankit; Bishnoi, Nidhi; Bishnoi, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to study growth pattern of accessory sex glands in prepubertal kids from 2 weeks to 6 months of age using two-dimensional ultrasonography. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on six Beetal kids. The scanning of accessory sex glands was done in standing position using rectal probe and measurements were recorded. Data collected were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan multiple range test was performed using the SPSS (16.0) system for windows. Results: With the advancement of age all the dimensions of glands increased. Both the lobes of prostate gland showed an increase in width with advancement of age. Width of prostate above the urethra (W1) showed a significant increase at 2, 10, and 20 weeks of age, whereas non-significant increase from 2 to 8, 10 to 19, and 20 to 24 weeks of age was recorded. Width of prostate below the urethra (W2) showed a significant increase at 20 weeks of age, whereas non-significant increase was recorded during rest of period of growth. Left and right bulbourethral gland showed a similar pattern of growth with the advancement of age. The circumference dimensions increased significantly at 2, 16, 20, and 21 weeks of age for both glands. The increase was non-significant from 4 to 14, 16 to 19, and 20 to 23 weeks of age. The same pattern was observed for left and right seminal vesicular gland. Conclusion: Significant growth in three accessory sex glands in prepubertal kids was not observed at the same age. The trend observed was that the prostate was the first gland to show significant growth at 10 weeks of age followed by a significant increase in seminal vesicles and bulbourethral gland at 14 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. PMID:27182127

  12. The eyestalk-androgenic gland-testis endocrine axis in the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus.

    PubMed

    Khalaila, Isam; Manor, Rivka; Weil, Simy; Granot, Yosef; Keller, Rainer; Sagi, Amir

    2002-06-15

    In decapod crustaceans, a number of neurohormones regulating a variety of physiological processes, including reproduction, are to be found in the X-organ-sinus gland complex of the eyestalk. Bilateral eyestalk ablation was thus performed in mature males of the Australian red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus with the aim of studying the role of eyestalk-borne hormones on spermatogenic activity in the testis and on the androgenic gland (AG). The latter gland controls the differentiation and functioning of male sexual characteristics in crustaceans. Eyestalk ablation caused hypertrophy of the AG, as indicated by an increase in gland weight (3.9 +/- 0.44 mg vs < 0.1mg in intact males) and by overexpression of AG polypeptides. In the testes of eyestalk-ablated males, empty spermatogenic lobules were common, while lobules containing primary spermatocytes were infrequent. These findings were reflected in decreased amounts of DNA in these testes and a consequent increase in the relative weights of the sperm ducts. Since it was found that eyestalk ablation affected both the AG and the reproductive system, in vitro experiments were conducted to study the direct effects of the sinus gland on the AG and testes and of the AG on the testes. Sinus gland extracts inhibited by 30% the incorporation of radiolabeled amino acids into AG polypeptides and almost totally inhibited the secretion of radiolabeled AG polypeptides into the culture medium. However, sinus gland extracts had no significant effects on testicular tissue. On the other hand, AG extracts affected the in vitro phosphorylation of a testicular polypeptide (of 28 kDa), in a time- and dose-dependent manner, suggesting a direct effect of AG-borne hormones on the testes. The above findings, together with the evidence for direct inhibition by the sinus gland on the AG, suggest an endocrine axis-like relationship between the sinus gland, the AG, and the male reproductive system in decapod crustaceans. PMID:12383442

  13. Ultrastructure of the principal and accessory submandibular glands of the common vampire bat.

    PubMed

    Tandler, B; Toyoshima, K; Phillips, C J

    1990-12-01

    The principal and accessory submandibular glands of the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, were examined by electron microscopy. The secretory endpieces of the principal gland consist of serous tubules capped at their blind ends by mucous acini. The substructure of the mucous droplets and of the serous granules varies according to the mode of specimen preparation. With ferrocyanide-reduced osmium postfixation, the mucous droplets are moderately dense and homogeneous; the serous granules often have a polygonal outline and their matrix shows clefts in which bundles of wavy filaments may be present. With conventional osmium postfixation, the mucous droplets have a finely fibrillogranular matrix; the serous granules are homogeneously dense. Mucous cells additionally contain many small, dense granules that may be small peroxisomes, as well as aggregates of 10-nm cytofilaments. Intercalated duct cells are relatively unspecialized. Striated ducts are characterized by highly folded basal membranes and vertically oriented mitochondria. Luminal surfaces of all of the secretory and duct cells have numerous microvilli, culminating in a brush borderlike affair in the striated ducts. The accessory gland has secretory endpieces consisting of mucous acini with small mucous demilunes. The acinar mucous droplets contain a large dense region; the lucent portion has punctate densities. Demilune mucous droplets lack a dense region and consist of a light matrix in which fine fibrillogranular material is suspended. A ring of junctional cells, identifiable by their complex secretory granules, separates the mucous acini from the intercalated ducts. The intercalated ducts lack specialized structure. Striated ducts resemble their counterparts in the principal gland. As in the principal gland, all luminal surfaces are covered by an array of microvilli. At least some of the features of the principal and accessory submandibular glands of the vampire bat may be structural adaptations to the exigencies posed by the exclusively sanguivorous diet of these animals and its attendant extremely high intake of sodium chloride. PMID:2285039

  14. Postoperative evaluation of the surgical treatment of accessory teat and gland cistern complexes in dairy cows.

    PubMed Central

    Schmit, K A; Arighi, M; Dobson, H

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the long-term evaluation of a method of surgically repairing the abnormal condition of accessory teat and gland cistern complexes in dairy cattle. A prospective evaluation of three cows that had undergone the procedure was done. These cows were evaluated from four months to one year, postoperatively. A thorough history, physical examination, contrast radiography, and ultrasonic examination were done on each cow. A retrospective evaluation of an additional 13 cows that had also undergone the procedure was obtained four months to three years following the surgery, via owner communication. The prospective portion of this study demonstrated patency of the communication between main and accessory teat cisterns. Postoperative complications included initial slow milking and mild swelling of the involved teat. These problems resolved in all cows one to two months postoperatively. None of the 16 cows that had undergone the surgery either developed or was treated for mastitis. Likewise, none of these cows was sold or slaughtered as a result of postoperative teat problems or unsatisfactory milk production. Our study demonstrated that this particular method of surgical correction of accessory teat and gland cistern complexes is effective, is esthetically acceptable, produces minimal associated complications, and preserves the milk production capacity of the gland. Images Figure 2. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8044754

  15. Angiotensin converting enzyme in the brain, testis, epididymis, pituitary gland and adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Strittmatter, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)Captopril binds to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in rat tissue homogenates. The pharmacology, regional distribution and copurification of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding with enzymatic activity demonstrate the selectivity of (/sup 3/H)captopril labeling of ACE. (/sup 3/H)Captopril binding to purified ACE reveals differences in cationic dependence and anionic regulation between substrate catalysis and inhibitor recognition. (/sup 3/H)Captopril association with ACE is entropically driven. The selectivity of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding permits autoradiographic localization of the ACE in the brain, male reproductive system, pituitary gland and adrenal gland. In the brain, ACE is visualized in a striatonigral neuronal pathway which develops between 1 and 7 d after birth. In the male reproductive system, (/sup 3/H)captopril associated silver grains are found over spermatid heads and in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in stages I-VIII and XII-XIV. In the pituitary gland, ACE is localized to the posterior lobe and patches of the anterior lobe. The adrenal medulla contains moderate ACE levels while low levels are found in the adrenal cortex. Adrenal medullary ACE is increased after hypophysectomy and after reserpine treatment. The general of ligand binding techniques for the study of enzymes is demonstrated by the specific labeling of another enzyme, enkephaline convertase, in crude tissue homogenates by the inhibitor (/sup 3/H)GEMSA.

  16. Accessory Gland as a Site for Prothoracicotropic Hormone Controlled Ecdysone Synthesis in Adult Male Insects

    PubMed Central

    Hentze, Julie L.; Moeller, Morten E.; Jørgensen, Anne F.; Bengtsson, Meghan S.; Bordoy, Anna M.; Warren, James T.; Gilbert, Lawrence I.; Andersen, Ole; Rewitz, Kim F.

    2013-01-01

    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E), the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot), an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH. PMID:23383307

  17. The Toll/NF-κB pathway in cuttlefish symbiotic accessory nidamental gland.

    PubMed

    Cornet, Valérie; Henry, Joël; Corre, Erwan; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

    2015-11-01

    The female genital apparatus of decapod cephalopods contains a symbiotic accessory nidamental gland (ANG) that harbors bacterial symbionts. Although the ANG bacterial consortium is now well described, the impact of symbiosis on Sepia officinalis innate immunity pathways remains unknown. In silico analysis of the de novo transcriptome of ANG highlighted for the first time the existence of the NF-κB pathway in S. officinalis. Several signaling components were identified, i.e. five Toll-like receptors, eight signaling cascade features, and the immune response target gene iNOS, previously described as being involved in the initiation of bacterial symbiosis in a cephalopod gland. This work provides a first key for studying bacterial symbiosis and its impact on innate immunity in S. officinalis ANG. PMID:26143243

  18. Recently Evolved Genes Identified From Drosophila yakuba and D. erecta Accessory Gland Expressed Sequence Tags

    PubMed Central

    Begun, David J.; Lindfors, Heather A.; Thompson, Melissa E.; Holloway, Alisha K.

    2006-01-01

    The fraction of the genome associated with male reproduction in Drosophila may be unusually dynamic. For example, male reproduction-related genes show higher-than-average rates of protein divergence and gene expression evolution compared to most Drosophila genes. Drosophila male reproduction may also be enriched for novel genetic functions. Our earlier work, based on accessory gland protein genes (Acp's) in D. simulans and D. melanogaster, suggested that the melanogaster subgroup Acp's may be lost and/or gained on a relatively rapid timescale. Here we investigate this possibility more thoroughly through description of the accessory gland transcriptome in two melanogaster subgroup species, D. yakuba and D. erecta. A genomic analysis of previously unknown genes isolated from cDNA libraries of these species revealed several cases of genes present in one or both species, yet absent from ingroup and outgroup species. We found no evidence that these novel genes are attributable primarily to duplication and divergence, which suggests the possibility that Acp's or other genes coding for small proteins may originate from ancestrally noncoding DNA. PMID:16361246

  19. Synchronous ipsilateral carcinoma of the accessory mammary gland and primary lymphoma of the breast with subsequent rectal carcinoma: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Akihiro; Kasai, Hide; Koyama, Yoshinori; Koide, Naohiko; Iijima, Akihiro; Shimojo, Hisashi; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi

    2014-01-01

    A case of synchronous carcinoma of the accessory mammary gland and primary breast lymphoma with subsequent rectal carcinoma has not been reported previously. We present a very rare case of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the left breast diagnosed simultaneously with invasive lobular carcinoma of the left axillary accessory mammary gland and rectal adenocarcinoma. An 82-year-old Japanese woman presented with two palpable masses on the left chest wall. She was given a diagnosis of suspected breast malignant tumor and axillary accessory mammary gland. She underwent excision of the axillary accessory mammary gland and left mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection. Histopathological examination revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the breast and invasive lobular carcinoma of the axillary accessory mammary gland with lymph nodes metastasis. Three months after the surgery, primary rectal adenocarcinoma was also detected by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Hartmann's operation was performed, since which time the patient has been doing well. PMID:25217973

  20. Juvenile hormone regulation of male accessory gland activity in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, R.; Tan, A.; Sun, Z.; Chen, J.; Rainkin, M.; Palli, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    Male accessory gland proteins (Acps) act as key modulators of reproductive success in insects by influencing the female reproductive physiology and behavior. We used custom microarrays and identified 112 genes that were highly expressed in male accessory glands (MAG) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Out of these 112 identified genes, 59 of them contained sequences coding for signal peptide and cleavage site and the remaining 53 contained transmembrane domains. The expression of 14 these genes in the MAG but not in other tissues of male or female was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. In virgin males, juvenile hormone (JH) levels increased from second day post adult emergence (PAE), remained high on third day PAE and declined on fourth day PAE. The ecdysteroid titers were high soon after adult emergence but declined to minimal levels from 1-5 days PAE. Feeding of juvenile hormone analog, hydroprene, but not the ecdysteroid analog, RH-2485, showed an increase in size of MAGs, as well as an increase in total RNA and protein content of MAG. Hydroprene treatment also increased the expression Acp genes in the MAG. RNAi-mediated knock-down in the expression of JHAMT gene decreased the size of MAGs and expression of Acps. JH deficiency influenced male reproductive fitness as evidenced by a less vigor in mating behavior, poor sperm transfer, low egg and the progeny production by females mated with the JH deficient males. These data suggest a critical role for JH in the regulation of male reproduction especially through MAG secretions. PMID:19324087

  1. Juvenile hormone regulation of male accessory gland activity in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, R; Tan, A; Sun, Z; Chen, Z; Rankin, M; Palli, S R

    2009-07-01

    Male accessory gland proteins (Acps) act as key modulators of reproductive success in insects by influencing the female reproductive physiology and behavior. We used custom microarrays and identified 112 genes that were highly expressed in male accessory glands (MAG) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Out of these 112 identified genes, 59 of them contained sequences coding for signal peptide and cleavage site and the remaining 53 contained transmembrane domains. The expression of 14 of these genes in the MAG but not in other tissues of male or female was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. In virgin males, juvenile hormone (JH) levels increased from second day post adult emergence (PAE), remained high on third day PAE and declined on fourth day PAE. The ecdysteroid titers were high soon after adult emergence but declined to minimal levels from 1 to 5 days PAE. Feeding of juvenile hormone analog, hydroprene, but not the ecdysteroid analog, RH-2485, showed an increase in size of MAGs, as well as an increase in total RNA and protein content of MAG. Hydroprene treatment also increased the expression of Acp genes in the MAG. RNAi-mediated knock-down in the expression of JHAMT gene decreased the size of MAGs and expression of Acps. JH deficiency influenced male reproductive fitness as evidenced by a less vigor in mating behavior, poor sperm transfer, low egg and the progeny production by females mated with the JH deficient males. These data suggest a critical role for JH in the regulation of male reproduction especially through MAG secretions. PMID:19324087

  2. Morphology and Ultrastructure of the Accessory Glands in the Female Genital Tract of the House Cricket, Acheta domesticus

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The accessory glands in the genital tract of female Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) were investigated in detail. The glands are situated within the 7th and 8th abdominal segment and lead to the genital chamber lateral to the terminal papilla of the ductus receptaculi. The shape of the gland is characterized by a complex system of tubules, including numerous ramifications. The gland's size ranges from 2 to 4 mm. The epithelium is constructed according to a simple scheme and consists of a cuticular intima at the luminal side, one layer of gland cells, and a basallamina at the outermost side. The observed morphology of the accessory glands widely corresponds with that in other cricket species (e.g., Teleogryllus commodus). This is also true for the structure of a single gland cell, which can be subdivided into a basal part with nucleus and intracellular cisternae, as well as an apical part with all those compartments responsible for the production of the secretion. The secretion itself may be classified as lipophilic and is produced for the first time 4 to 6 days after the imaginai moult. Several endogenic functions of the secretion are discussed (lubricant for oviposition, support for introducing the tube of the spermatophore into the ductus receptaculi, etc.). PMID:23425229

  3. Selenophosphate synthetase in the male accessory glands of an insect without selenoproteins.

    PubMed

    Fuessl, Marion; Reinders, Jrg; Oefner, Peter J; Heinze, Jrgen; Schrempf, Alexandra

    2014-12-01

    Selenoproteins (containing the 21st proteinogenic amino acid selenocysteine) play important roles throughout all domains of life. Surprisingly, a number of taxa have small selenoproteomes, and Hymenopteran insects appear to have fully lost selenoproteins. Nevertheless, their genomes contain genes for several proteins of the selenocysteine insertion machinery, including selenophosphate synthetase 1 (SELD/SPS1). At present, it is unknown whether this enzyme has a selenoprotein-independent function, and whether the gene is actually translated into a protein in Hymenoptera. Here, we report that SELD/SPS1 is present as a protein in the accessory glands of males of the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior. It appears to be more abundant in the glands of winged disperser males than in those of wingless, local fighter males. Mating increases the lifespan and fecundity of queens in C. obscurior, and mating with winged males has a stronger effect on queen fitness than mating with a wingless male. SELD/SPS 1 has been suggested to play an important role in oxidative stress defense, and might therefore be involved in the life-prolonging effect of mating. PMID:25308180

  4. Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.

    PubMed

    Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2014-10-01

    Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands. PMID:25160003

  5. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males. PMID:25660692

  6. Structure and expression of a Drosophila male accessory gland gene whose product resembles a peptide pheromone precursor.

    PubMed

    Monsma, S A; Wolfner, M F

    1988-09-01

    The accessory gland of male insects is a genital tissue that secretes many components of the ejaculatory fluid, some of which affect the female's receptivity to courtship and her rate of oviposition. We have examined the structure and expression of two tightly linked genes that are expressed exclusively in the male accessory glands of adult Drosophila melanogaster. The two genes are transcribed from the same strand of DNA, and are separated by 20 bases. Both genes are regulated by the sex determination hierarchy and are expressed in the absence of germ cells. Immunological analysis reveals the protein products of at least one of these genes in the secretion of the accessory gland. The proteins are transferred to the female fly during copulation and are rapidly altered in the female genital tract. The predicted sequence of one protein has features of a peptide hormone precursor, and a region in which 11 of 17 amino acids are identical to egg-laying hormone (ELH) of the California sea hare, Aplysia californica. PMID:3142802

  7. Male accessory gland substances from Aedes albopictus affect the locomotor activity of Aedes aegypti females

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Codeço, Claudia Torres; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Lounibos, Leon Philip

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is one of the world’s most important mosquito-borne diseases and is usually transmitted by one of two vector species: Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus . These two diurnal mosquitoes are frequently found coexisting in similar habitats, enabling interactions between adults, such as cross-mating. The objective of this study was to assess cross-mating between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males under artificial conditions and evaluate the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti virgin females injected with male accessory gland (MAG) homogenates to infer the physiological and behavioural responses to interspecific mating. After seven days of exposure, 3.3-16% of Ae. aegypti females mated with Ae. albopictus males. Virgin Ae. aegypti females injected with conspecific and heterospecific MAGs showed a general decrease in locomotor activity compared to controls and were refractory to mating with conspecific males. The reduction in diurnal locomotor activity induced by injections of conspecific or heterospecific MAGs is consistent with regulation of female reproductive activities by male substances, which are capable of sterilising female Ae. aegypti through satyrisation by Ae. albopictus . PMID:24473799

  8. Nutrition regulation of male accessory gland growth and maturation in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingjing; Anciro, Ashlee L; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway is known to control growth, development and reproduction. Insulin-like peptide mediated body size plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster has been reported. Here, our studies showed that IIS pathway and nutrition regulate growth and maturation of the male accessory gland (MAG) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The size of MAG increased from day 1 to day 5 post-adult emergence (PAE). This increase in the size of MAG is contributed by an increase in cell size, but not cell number. The growth of MAG was impaired after double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated knockdown in the expression of genes coding for ILP3, InR, Chico, PI3k, AKT, and GATA1 involved in IIS pathway. Interestingly, starvation showed similar effects on the growth and maturation of MAG. The phenotypes observed in animals where IIS signaling pathway genes were knocked down are similar to the phenotypes observed after starving beetles for 5 days PAE. These data suggest that nutrition signals working through IIS pathway regulate maturation of MAG by promoting the growth of MAG cells. PMID:26035685

  9. Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.G.; Prout, T.; Harshman, L.G.

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female`s reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Diversity and Partitioning of Bacterial Populations within the Accessory Nidamental Gland of the Squid Euprymna scolopes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andrew J.; LaBarre, Brenna A.; Wong Won, Brian S.; Shah, Monica V.; Heng, Steven; Choudhury, Momena H.; Haydar, Shahela A.; Santiago, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Microbial consortia confer important benefits to animal and plant hosts, and model associations are necessary to examine these types of host/microbe interactions. The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) is a female reproductive organ found among cephalopod mollusks that contains a consortium of bacteria, the exact function of which is unknown. To begin to understand the role of this organ, the bacterial consortium was characterized in the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, a well-studied model organism for symbiosis research. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the ANG revealed dense bacterial assemblages of rod- and coccus-shaped cells segregated by morphology into separate, epithelium-lined tubules. The host epithelium was morphologically heterogeneous, containing ciliated and nonciliated cells with various brush border thicknesses. Hemocytes of the host's innate immune system were also found in close proximity to the bacteria within the tubules. A census of 16S rRNA genes suggested that Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia bacteria were prevalent, with members of the genus Phaeobacter dominating the consortium. Analysis of 454-shotgun sequencing data confirmed the presence of members of these taxa and revealed members of a fourth, Flavobacteria of the Bacteroidetes phylum. 16S rRNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that many ANG tubules were dominated by members of specific taxa, namely, Rhodobacterales, Verrucomicrobia, or Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes, suggesting symbiont partitioning to specific host tubules. In addition, FISH revealed that bacteria, including Phaeobacter species from the ANG, are likely deposited into the jelly coat of freshly laid eggs. This report establishes the ANG of the invertebrate E. scolopes as a model to examine interactions between a bacterial consortium and its host. PMID:22504817

  11. Comparative genomics of Roseobacter clade bacteria isolated from the accessory nidamental gland of Euprymna scolopes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andrew J.; Fullmer, Matthew S.; Gogarten, Johann P.; Nyholm, Spencer V.

    2015-01-01

    The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) of the female Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, houses a consortium of bacteria including members of the Flavobacteriales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia but is dominated by members of the Roseobacter clade (Rhodobacterales) within the Alphaproteobacteria. These bacteria are deposited into the jelly coat of the squid’s eggs, however, the function of the ANG and its bacterial symbionts has yet to be elucidated. In order to gain insight into this consortium and its potential role in host reproduction, we cultured 12 Rhodobacterales isolates from ANGs of sexually mature female squid and sequenced their genomes with Illumina sequencing technology. For taxonomic analyses, the ribosomal proteins of 79 genomes representing both roseobacters and non-roseobacters along with a separate MLSA analysis of 33 housekeeping genes from Roseobacter organisms placed all 12 isolates from the ANG within two groups of a single Roseobacter clade. Average nucelotide identity analysis suggests the ANG isolates represent three genera (Leisingera, Ruegeria, and Tateyamaria) comprised of seven putative species groups. All but one of the isolates contains a predicted Type VI secretion system, which has been shown to be important in secreting signaling and/or effector molecules in host–microbe associations and in bacteria–bacteria interactions. All sequenced genomes also show potential for secondary metabolite production, and are predicted to be involved with the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and/or siderophores. An AHL bioassay confirmed AHL production in three tested isolates and from whole ANG homogenates. The dominant symbiont, Leisingera sp. ANG1, showed greater viability in iron-limiting conditions compared to other roseobacters, possibly due to higher levels of siderophore production. Future comparisons will try to elucidate novel metabolic pathways of the ANG symbionts to understand their putative role in host development. PMID:25755651

  12. Large tonsillolith associated with the accessory duct of the ipsilateral submandibular gland: support for saliva stasis hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pirkl, I; Filipović, B; Goranović, T; Šimunjak, B

    2015-01-01

    Tonsillolith is a calcified mass in the tonsil and/or its surrounding tissue, which is considered to be caused by chronic tonsillitis. However, here we hypothesized that a tonsillolith can also be formed by chronic saliva stasis in the tonsillar tissue, without any signs of chronic inflammation. We present the case of a 32-year-old male patient with a large tonsillolith. We reviewed his medical files, pre-operative imaging and intraoperative findings. During a standard tonsillectomy, we encountered a large tonsillolith measuring 3.1 × 2.6 cm. Additionally, a careful dissection of the lower pole of the remaining tonsillar tissue revealed a large fistulous tract filled with saliva. Post-operative examination of the pre-operative CT scan found a hypodense fistulous tract extending from the lower tonsillar pole towards the left submandibular gland, measuring 36 mm in length, which was diagnosed as an accessory duct of the submandibular gland. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a large tonsillolith associated with the accessory duct of the ipsilateral major salivary gland. Furthermore, from the aetiopathological view, this finding supports the saliva stasis hypothesis for formation of the tonsillolith. However, larger studies, including a detailed radiological analysis as in our case, are needed to further investigate this possible aetiology of tonsilloliths. PMID:25993312

  13. Aspiration biopsy of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of accessory parotid gland: another diagnostic dilemma in matrix-containing tumors of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Levine, Pascale; Fried, Karen; Krevitt, Lane D; Wang, Beverly; Wenig, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a newly described rare salivary gland tumor, which shares morphologic features with acinic cell carcinoma, low-grade cystadenocarcinoma, and secretory carcinoma of the breast. This is the first reported case of MASC of an accessory parotid gland detected by aspiration biopsy with radiologic and histologic correlation in a 34-year-old patient. Sonographically-guided aspiration biopsy showed cytologic features mimicking those of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, including sheets of bland epithelial cells, dissociated histiocytoid cells with intracytoplasmic mucinous material, and spindle cells lying in a web-like matrix. Histologic sections showed a circumscribed tumor with microcystic spaces lined by bland uniform epithelial cells and containing secretory material. The tumor cells expressed mammaglobin and BRST-2. The cytologic features, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls are discussed. The pathologic stage was pT1N0. The patient showed no evidence of disease at 1 year follow-up. PMID:22807408

  14. Proteome profiling reveals tissue-specific protein expression in male and female accessory glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhaoming; Wang, Xiaohuan; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Liping; Chen, Quanmei; Zhang, Xiaolu; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-05-01

    Male accessory gland (MAG) and female accessory gland (FAG) of the reproductive system are, respectively, responsible for producing seminal proteins and adhesive proteins during copulation and ovulation. Seminal proteins are ejaculated to female along with sperms, whereas adhesive proteins are excreted along with eggs. Proteins from the male and female reproductive organs are usually indicative of rapid adaptive evolution. Understanding the reproductive isolation and species divergence requires identifying reproduction-related proteins from many different species. Here, we present our proteomic analyses of male and female accessory glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Using LC/MS-MS, we identified 2133 MAG proteins and 1872 FAG proteins. In total, 652 proteins were significant more abundant in the MAG than in the FAG, including growth factors, odorant-binding proteins, enzymes, and proteins of unknown function. Growth factors and odorant-binding proteins are potential signaling molecules, whereas most of proteins of unknown function were found to be Lepidoptera-specific proteins with high evolutionary rates. Microarray experiments and semi-quantitative RT-PCR validated that MAG-specific proteins were expressed exclusively in male moths. Totally, 192 proteins were considered as FAG-specific proteins, including protease inhibitors, enzymes, and other proteins. Protease inhibitors were found to be the most abundant FAG-specific proteins, which may protect eggs from infection by inhibiting pathogen-derived proteases. These results provide comprehensive insights into copulation and oviposition. Moreover, the newly identified Lepidoptera-specific MAG proteins provide useful data for future research on the evolution of reproductive proteins in insects. PMID:26822097

  15. Transcriptional Profiles of Mating-Responsive Genes from Testes and Male Accessory Glands of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Ribeiro, Jos M. C.; Siciliano, Paolo; Meraldi, Alice; Falchetto, Marco; Bonomi, Angelica; Manni, Mos; Gabrieli, Paolo; Malovini, Alberto; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Aksoy, Serap; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. Methodology/Principal Findings We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. Conclusions/Significance We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male recovery dynamics in terms of accessory gland gene expression profiles and correlated remating inhibition mechanisms may permit the improvement of pest management approaches. PMID:23071645

  16. Suppression subtractive hybridization analysis reveals expression of conserved and novel genes in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background During mating, insect males eject accessory gland proteins (Acps) into the female genital tract. These substances are known to affect female post-mating behavior and physiology. In addition, they may harm the female, e.g., in reducing its lifespan. This is interpreted as a consequence of sexual antagonistic co-evolution. Whereas sexual conflict abounds in non-social species, the peculiar life history of social insects (ants, bees, wasps) with lifelong pair-bonding and no re-mating aligns the reproductive interests of the sexes. Harming the female during mating would negatively affect male fitness and sexual antagonism is therefore not expected. Indeed, mating appears to increase female longevity in at least one ant species. Acps are presumed to play a role in this phenomenon, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we investigated genes, which are preferentially expressed in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri, to determine which proteins might be transferred in the seminal fluid. Results By a suppression subtractive hybridization protocol we obtained 20 unique sequences (USs). Twelve had mutual best matches with genes predicted for Apis mellifera and Nasonia vitripennis. Functional information (Gene Ontology) was available only for seven of these, including intracellular signaling, energy-dependent transport and metabolic enzyme activities. The remaining eight USs did not match sequences from other species. Six genes were further analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR in three life cycle stages of male ants. A gene with carboxy-lyase activity and one of unpredicted function were significantly overexpressed in accessory glands of sexually mature males. Conclusions Our study is the first one to investigate differential gene expression in ants in a context related to mating. Our findings indicate that male accessory glands of L. gredleri express a series of genes that are unique to this species, possibly representing novel genes, in addition to conserved ones for which functions can be predicted. Identifying differentially expressed genes might help to better understand molecular mechanisms involved in reproductive processes in eusocial Hymenoptera. While the novel genes could account for rapidly evolving ones driven by intra-sexual conflict between males, conserved genes imply that rather beneficial traits might get fixed by a process described as inter-sexual cooperation between males and females. PMID:20825642

  17. Lead accumulation, oxidative damage and histopathological alteration in testes and accessory glands of freshwater crab, Sinopotamon henanense, induced by acute lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Hou, Yu-hua; Ma, Dan-dan; Jing, Wei-xin; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Wang, Lan

    2015-07-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most toxic environmental pollutants and known to exert multiple toxic effects including gonadotoxic and spermiotoxic effects. In order to understand toxic mechanisms of lead (Pb) on the testes and the accessory glands of crabs, we investigated Pb accumulation in testes and accessory glands and the survival rate of sperms of freshwater crab, Sinopotamon henanense. The tissue damaging effects of Pb was also investigated by histopathological examination and analyses of antioxidant enzymes as well as lipid peroxidation. Crabs were exposed to different Pb concentrations (0, 3.675, 7.35, 14.7, 29.4 and 58.8 mg/L) for 3, 5 and 7 days. The results showed that Pb levels in testes and accessory glands increased significantly following Pb exposure for 5 and 7 days in almost all treated groups, and survival rate of sperm decreased with increasing Pb concentrations at 5 and 7 days. Morphological changes identified histologically were discovered in testes, including a disordered arrangement of germ cells, a decreased number of sperm in the lumina of the seminiferous tubules, extensive necrosis in the germinal layer of the seminiferous tubules, etc. At the same time, histological abnormalities were discovered in accessory glands, the wall cells were separated from the basement membrane, and wall cells were missing partly. The activities of SOD, GPx and CAT in testes showed no statistically significant changes compared to the control for 3 days, and initially increased and subsequently decreased with increasing Pb concentrations at 5 and 7 days. The antioxidant enzyme activities in accessory glands initially increased and subsequently decreased with increasing Pb concentrations and Pb exposure. This was accompanied with an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in a concentration-dependent manner. These results showed that acute Pb exposure led to a reduction of survival rate of sperm and harmful effects at the cellular level of crab testes and accessory glands, which are most likely linked to Pb-induced oxidative stress. PMID:25828889

  18. Protein and Peptide Composition of Male Accessory Glands of Apis mellifera Drones Investigated by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Blenau, Wolfgang; Koeniger, Gudrun; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, reproductive females usually mate early in their life with more than 10 males in free flight, often within 10 minutes, and then store male gametes for up to five years. Because of the extreme polyandry and mating in free flight special adaptations in males are most likely. We present here the results of an investigation of the protein content of four types of male reproductive glands from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone, namely seminal vesicles (secretion in ejaculate), as well as bulbus, cornua and mucus glands (secretions for the mating plug). Using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry and a combination of database searching and de novo sequencing techniques it was possible to identify 50 different proteins in total, inside all mentioned glands, except in the mucus gland. Most of the proteins are unique for a specific gland type, only one of them (H9KEY1/ATP synthase subunit O) was found in three glands, and 7 proteins were found in two types of glands. The identified proteins represent a wide variety of biological functions and can be assigned to several physiological classes, such as protection, energy generation, maintaining optimal conditions, associated mainly with vesicula seminalis; signaling, cuticle proteins, icarpin and apolipoproteins located mainly in the bulbus and cornua glands; and some other classes. Most of the discovered proteins were not found earlier during investigation of semen, seminal fluid and tissue of reproductive glands of the bee drone. Moreover, we provide here the origin of each protein. Thus, the presented data might shed light on the role of each reproductive gland. PMID:25955586

  19. Protein and Peptide Composition of Male Accessory Glands of Apis mellifera Drones Investigated by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Blenau, Wolfgang; Koeniger, Gudrun; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, reproductive females usually mate early in their life with more than 10 males in free flight, often within 10 minutes, and then store male gametes for up to five years. Because of the extreme polyandry and mating in free flight special adaptations in males are most likely. We present here the results of an investigation of the protein content of four types of male reproductive glands from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone, namely seminal vesicles (secretion in ejaculate), as well as bulbus, cornua and mucus glands (secretions for the mating plug). Using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry and a combination of database searching and de novo sequencing techniques it was possible to identify 50 different proteins in total, inside all mentioned glands, except in the mucus gland. Most of the proteins are unique for a specific gland type, only one of them (H9KEY1/ATP synthase subunit O) was found in three glands, and 7 proteins were found in two types of glands. The identified proteins represent a wide variety of biological functions and can be assigned to several physiological classes, such as protection, energy generation, maintaining optimal conditions, associated mainly with vesicula seminalis; signaling, cuticle proteins, icarpin and apolipoproteins located mainly in the bulbus and cornua glands; and some other classes. Most of the discovered proteins were not found earlier during investigation of semen, seminal fluid and tissue of reproductive glands of the bee drone. Moreover, we provide here the origin of each protein. Thus, the presented data might shed light on the role of each reproductive gland. PMID:25955586

  20. Photoperiod regulates growth of male accessory glands through juvenile hormone signaling in the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus.

    PubMed

    Urbanov, Veronika; Bazalov, Olga; Van??kov, Hanka; Dolezel, David

    2016-03-01

    Adult reproductive diapause is characterized by lower behavioral activity, ceased reproduction and absence of juvenile hormone (JH). The role of JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in female reproduction is well established; however, its function in male reproductive development and behavior is unclear. In the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, circadian genes are essential for mediating photoperiodically-dependent growth of the male accessory glands (MAGs). The present study explores the role of circadian genes and JH receptor in male diapause in the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus. These data indicate that circadian factors Clock, Cycle and Cry2 are responsible for photoperiod measurement, whereas Met andits partner protein Taiman participate in JH reception. Surprisingly, knockdown of the JH receptor neither lowered locomotor activity nor reduced mating behavior of males. These data suggest existence of a parallel, JH-independent or JH-upstream photoperiodic regulation of reproductive behavior. PMID:26826599

  1. Trehalase from male accessory gland of an insect, Tenebrio molitor. cDNA sequencing and developmental profile of the gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Takiguchi, M; Niimi, T; Su, Z H; Yaginuma, T

    1992-01-01

    A cDNA of alpha alpha-trehalase (EC 3.2.1.28) from a cDNA library of male bean-shaped accessory gland of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, has been isolated by the homology screening approach. Sequence analysis of the cDNA (1830 bp) revealed that the cDNA encoded a protein of 555 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 64457. The deduced amino acid sequence had significant similarities to rabbit small intestine and Escherichia coli trehalases. Northern blotting and semi-quantitative PCR analyses revealed that a trehalase transcript with about 2.0 kb was abundant in bean-shaped accessory glands. In the glands, the amount of trehalase transcript increased from 1 to 2 days after adult ecdysis. These tissue- and stage-specific gene expressions of trehalase corresponded to the tissue- and stage-specificity of trehalase activity. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4 PMID:1445264

  2. A Syringe-Like Love Dart Injects Male Accessory Gland Products in a Tropical Hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Joris M.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner’s hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner’s hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals. PMID:23894565

  3. A syringe-like love dart injects male accessory gland products in a tropical hermaphrodite.

    PubMed

    Koene, Joris M; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner's hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner's hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals. PMID:23894565

  4. The “Vampirome”: Transcriptome and proteome analysis of the principal and accessory submaxillary glands of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, a vector of human rabies

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Assumpção, Teresa C. F.; Ma, Dongying; Li, Yuan; Vicente, Eliane C.; Uieda, Wilson; Ribeiro, José M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Vampire bats are notorious for being the sole mammals that strictly feed on fresh blood for their survival. While their saliva has been historically associated with anticoagulants, only one antihemostatic (plasminogen activator) has been molecularly and functionally characterized. Here, RNAs from both principal submandibular and accessory glands of Desmodus rotundus were extracted, and ~ 200 million reads were sequenced by Illumina. The principal gland was enriched with plasminogen activators with fibrinolytic properties, members of lipocalin and secretoglobin families, which bind prohemostatic prostaglandins, and endonucleases, which cleave neutrophil-derived procoagulant NETs. Anticoagulant (tissue factor pathway inhibitor, TFPI), vasodilators (PACAP and C-natriuretic peptide), and metalloproteases (ADAMTS-1) were also abundantly expressed. Members of the TSG-6 (anti-inflammatory), antigen 5/CRISP, and CCL28-like (antimicrobial) protein families were also sequenced. Apyrases (which remove platelet agonist ADP), phosphatases (which degrade procoagulant polyphosphates), and sphingomyelinase were found at lower transcriptional levels. Accessory glands were enriched with antimicrobials (lysozyme, defensin, lactotransferrin) and protease inhibitors (TIL-domain, cystatin, Kazal). Mucins, heme-oxygenase, and IgG chains were present in both glands. Proteome analysis by nano LC-MS/MS confirmed that several transcripts are expressed in the glands. The database presented herein is accessible online at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/D_rotundus/Supplemental-web.xlsx. These results reveal that bat saliva emerges as a novel source of modulators of vascular biology. PMID:23411029

  5. Function and composition of male accessory gland secretions in Anopheles gambiae: a comparison with other insect vectors of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; Rogers, David W.; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2012-01-01

    Human malaria, a major public health burden in tropical and subtropical countries, is transmitted exclusively by the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria control strategies aimed at inducing sexual sterility in natural vector populations are an attractive alternative to the use of insecticides. However, despite their importance as disease vectors, limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms regulating fertility in Anopheles mosquitoes. In the major malaria vector, An. gambiae, the full complement of sperm and seminal fluid required for a female’s lifelong egg production is obtained from a single mating event. This single mating has important consequences for the physiology and behavior of An. gambiae females: in particular, they become refractory to further insemination, and they start laying eggs. In other insects including Drosophila, similar post-copulatory changes are induced by seminal proteins secreted by the male accessory glands and transferred to the female during mating. In this review, we analyze the current state of knowledge on the function and characterization of male seminal proteins in An. gambiae, and provide a comparative assessment of the role of these male reproductive factors in other mosquito vectors of human disease in which female post-copulatory behavior has been studied. Knowledge of the factors and mechanisms regulating fertility in An. gambiae and other vectors can help the design of novel control strategies to fight the spread of disease. PMID:22943543

  6. Male accessory gland protein reduces egg laying in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.

    PubMed

    Koene, Joris M; Sloot, Wiebe; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Cummins, Scott F; Degnan, Bernard M; Smith, John S; Nagle, Gregg T; ter Maat, Andries

    2010-01-01

    Seminal fluid is an important part of the ejaculate of internally fertilizing animals. This fluid contains substances that nourish and activate sperm for successful fertilization. Additionally, it contains components that influence female physiology to further enhance fertilization success of the sperm donor, possibly beyond the recipient's optimum. Although evidence for such substances abounds, few studies have unraveled their identities, and focus has been exclusively on separate-sex species. We present the first detailed study into the seminal fluid composition of a hermaphrodite (Lymnaea stagnalis). Eight novel peptides and proteins were identified from the seminal-fluid-producing prostate gland and tested for effects on oviposition, hatching and consumption. The gene for the protein found to suppress egg mass production, Ovipostatin, was sequenced, thereby providing the first fully-characterized seminal fluid substance in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Thus, seminal fluid peptides and proteins have evolved and can play a crucial role in sexual selection even when the sexes are combined. PMID:20404934

  7. Effect of Male Accessory Gland Products on Egg Laying in Gastropod Molluscs

    PubMed Central

    van Iersel, Sander; Swart, Elferra M.; Nakadera, Yumi; van Straalen, Nico M.; Koene, Joris M.

    2014-01-01

    In internally fertilizing animals, seminal fluid is usually added to the spermatozoa, together forming the semen or ejaculate. Besides nourishing and activating sperm, the components in the seminal fluid can also influence female physiology to augment fertilization success of the sperm donor. While many studies have reported such effects in species with separate sexes, few studies have addressed this in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals. This video protocol presents a method to study effects of seminal fluid in gastropods, using a simultaneously hermaphroditic freshwater snail, the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, as model organism. While the procedure is shown using complete prostate gland extracts, individual components (i.e., proteins, peptides, and other compounds) of the seminal fluid can be tested in the same way. Effects of the receipt of ejaculate components on egg laying can be quantified in terms of frequency of egg laying and more subtle estimates of female reproductive performance such as egg numbers within each egg masses. Results show that seminal fluid proteins affect female reproductive output in this simultaneous hermaphrodite, highlighting their importance for sexual selection. PMID:24998794

  8. Comparative analysis of the male reproductive accessory glands of bat species from the five Brazilian subfamilies of the family Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Martins, Fabiane F; Puga, Cintia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to morphologically characterize and compare the male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) of bats belonging to the five Brazilian subfamilies of the family Phyllostomidae (Carollia perspicillata-Carollinae; Desmodus rotundus-Desmodontinae; Glossophaga soricina-Glossophaginae; Phyllostomus discolor-Phyllostominae and Platyrrhinus lineatus-Stenodermatinae). The study demonstrated that the RAGs of phyllostomid bats were comprised of a pair of extra-abdominal bulbourethral glands and an intra-abdominal complex, composed of paraurethral glands and a prostate with two (Desmodontinae and Stenodermatinae) or three (Carollinae, Glossophaginae and Phyllostominae) different regions, with the absence of the seminal vesicles; this pattern possibly evolved from a process of compaction of the prostatic regions from an ancestor with three regions. PMID:25471705

  9. Hormonal Regulation of MicroRNA Expression in Steroid Producing Cells of the Ovary, Testis and Adrenal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhigang; Shen, Wen-Jun; Cortez, Yuan; Tang, Xudong; Liu, Li-Fen; Kraemer, Fredric B.; Azhar, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the emerging roles of miRNAs as potential posttranscriptional/posttranslational regulators of the steroidogenic process in adrenocortical and gonadal cells, we sought to determine miRNA profiles in rat adrenals from animals treated with vehicle, ACTH, 17α-E2 or dexamethasone. Key observations were also confirmed using hormone (Bt2cAMP)-treated mouse Leydig tumor cells, MLTC-1, and primary rat ovarian granulosa cells. Methodology RNA was extracted from rat adrenal glands and miRNA profiles were established using microarray and confirmed with qRT-PCR. The expression of some of the hormone-sensitive miRNAs was quantified in MLTC-1 and granulosa cells after stimulation with Bt2cAMP. Targets of hormonally altered miRNAs were explored by qRT-PCR and Western blotting in adrenals and granulosa cells. Results Adrenals from ACTH, 17α-E2 and dexamethasone treated rats exhibited miRNA profiles distinct from control animals. ACTH up-regulated the expression of miRNA-212, miRNA-182, miRNA-183, miRNA-132, and miRNA-96 and down-regulated the levels of miRNA-466b, miRNA-214, miRNA-503, and miRNA-27a. The levels of miR-212, miRNA-183, miRNA-182, miRNA-132, miRNA-370, miRNA-377, and miRNA-96 were up-regulated, whereas miR-125b, miRNA-200b, miR-122, miRNA-466b, miR-138, miRNA-214, miRNA-503 and miRNA27a were down-regulated in response to 17α-E2 treatment. Dexamethasone treatment decreased miRNA-200b, miR-122, miR-19a, miRNA-466b and miRNA27a levels, but increased miRNA-183 levels. Several adrenal miRNAs are subject to regulation by more than one hormone. Significant cAMP-induced changes in certain miRNAs were also noted in MLTC-1 and granulosa cells. Some of the hormone-induced miRNAs in steroidogenic cells were predicted to target proteins involved in lipid metabolism/steroidogenesis. We also obtained evidence that miR-132 and miRNA-214 inhibit the expression of SREBP-1c and LDLR, respectively. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that expression of a number of miRNAs in steroidogenic cells of the testis, ovary and adrenal glands is subject to hormonal regulation and that miRNAs and their regulation by specific hormones are likely to play a key role in posttranscriptional/posttranslational regulation of steroidogenesis. PMID:24205079

  10. Patterns of transcriptome divergence in the male accessory gland of two closely related species of field crickets.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Jose A; Larson, Erica L; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Harrison, Richard G

    2013-02-01

    One of the central questions in evolutionary genetics is how much of the genome is involved in the early stages of divergence between populations, causing them to be reproductively isolated. In this article, we investigate genomic differentiation in a pair of closely related field crickets (Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus). These two species are the result of allopatric divergence and now interact along an extensive hybrid zone in eastern North America. Genes encoding seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) are often divergent between species, and it has been hypothesized that these proteins may play a key role in the origin and maintenance of reproductive isolation between diverging lineages. Hence, we chose to scan the accessory gland transcriptome to enable direct comparisons of differentiation for genes known to encode SFPs with differentiation in a much larger set of genes expressed in the same tissue. We have characterized differences in allele frequency between two populations for >6000 SNPs and >26,000 contigs. About 10% of all SNPs showed nearly fixed differences between the two species. Genes encoding SFPs did not have significantly elevated numbers of fixed SNPs per contig, nor did they seem to show larger differences than expected in their average allele frequencies. The distribution of allele frequency differences across the transcriptome is distinctly bimodal, but the relatively high proportion of fixed SNPs does not necessarily imply "ancient" divergence between these two lineages. Further studies of linkage disequilibrium and introgression across the hybrid zone are needed to direct our attention to those genome regions that are important for reproductive isolation. PMID:23172857

  11. [Mycoplasmas and antibodies anti-Chlamydia in semen of infertile men and their relationship with seminal quality and markers of male accessory sex glands].

    PubMed

    Lozano-Hernández, Ricardo; Vivas-Acevedo, Giovanny; Muñoz de Vera, María Gladys

    2012-06-01

    Male infertility may be due to inflammation or infection of the genital tract among other causes. Male accessory sex glands and sperm function may also be involved in the problem of infertility. This study tries to associate the most frequent bacteria in semen of infertile men including Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum with the seminal characteristics and levels of fructose, citric acid and alpha-neutral glucosidase as markers of the accessory glands. Detection of antibodies anti Chlamydia trachomatis indicated that it was the most prevalent germ. Antibodies (Ab) anti-Chlamydia, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were associated with a decrease of the glandular markers fructose and alpha-neutral glucosidase. On the other hand, there were increased pH and leukocytospermia in men positive for antibodies anti-Chlamydia. Microbiological and biochemical evaluation of semen could orient more about the spread of infection and allow for the selection of the most effective therapy. We find that microbiological and glandular accessory markers assessments in semen are important to diagnose and to treat infections. PMID:22978046

  12. Proteome analysis of male accessory gland secretions in oriental fruit flies reveals juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting impact on female reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Dong; Li, Hui-Min; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the accessory gland proteins (Acps) secreted by male accessory glands (MAGs) account for the majority of seminal fluids proteins. Mixed with sperm, they are transferred to the female at mating and so impact reproduction. In this project, we identified 2,927 proteins in the MAG secretions of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, an important agricultural pest worldwide, using LC-MS analysis, and all sequences containing open reading frames were analyzed using signalP. In total, 90 Acps were identified. About one third (26) of these 90 Acps had a specific functional description, while the other two thirds (64) had no functional description including dozens of new classes of proteins. Hence, several of these novel Acps were abundant in the MAG secretions, and we confirmed their MAG-specific expression by qPCR. Finally and interestingly, one of these novel proteins was functionally predicted as juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting the impact of Acps with reproductive events in the female. Our results will aid in the development of an experimental method to identify Acps in insects, and in turn this information with new Acps in B. dorsalis will pave the way of further exploration their function in reproduction and potential development as new insecticide targets. PMID:26582577

  13. Synthesis, depletion and cell-type expression of a protein from the male accessory glands of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso-Parra, Catalina; Avila, Frank W.; Deewatthanawong, Prasit; Sirot, Laura K.; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes aegypti males transfer sperm and seminal fluid proteins (Sfps), primarily produced by male accessory glands (AGs), to females during mating. When collectively injected or transplanted into females, AG tissues and/or seminal fluid homogenates have profound effects on Aedes female physiology and behavior. To identify targets and design new strategies for vector control, it is important to understand the biology of the AGs. Thus, we examined characteristics of AG secretion and development in Ae. aegypti, using the AG-specific seminal fluid protein, AAEL010824, as a marker. We showed that AAEL010824 is first detectable by 12h post-eclosion, and increases in amount over the first 3 days of adult life. We then showed that the amount of AAEL0010824 in the AG decreases after mating, with each successive mating depleting it further; by 5 successive matings with no time for recovery, its levels are very low. AAEL010824 levels in a depleted male are replenished by 48hr post-mating. In addition to examining the level of AAEL010824 protein, we also characterized the expression of its gene. We did this by making a transgenic mosquito line that carries an Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) fused to the AAEL0010824 promoter that we defined here. We showed that AAEL010824 is expressed in the anterior cells of the accessory glands, and that its RNA levels also respond to mating. In addition to further characterizing AAEL010824 expression, our results with the EGFP fusion provide a promoter for driving AG expression. By providing this information on the biology of an important male reproductive tissue and the production of one of its seminal proteins, our results lay the foundation for future work aimed at identifying novel targets for mosquito population control. PMID:25107876

  14. The Female Post-Mating Response Requires Genes Expressed in the Secondary Cells of the Male Accessory Gland in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sitnik, Jessica L; Gligorov, Dragan; Maeda, Robert K; Karch, François; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2016-03-01

    Seminal proteins from the Drosophila male accessory gland induce post-mating responses (PMR) in females. The PMR comprise behavioral and physiological changes that include increased egg laying, decreased receptivity to courting males, and changes in the storage and use of sperm. Many of these changes are induced by a "sex peptide" (SP) and are maintained by SP's binding to, and slow release from, sperm. The accessory gland contains two secretory cell types with distinct morphological and developmental characteristics. Products of these "main" and "secondary" cells work interdependently to induce and maintain the PMR. To identify individual genes needed for the morphology and function of secondary cells, we studied iab-6(cocu) males, whose secondary cells have abnormal morphology and fail to provide products to maintain the PMR. By RNA-seq, we identified 77 genes that are downregulated by a factor of >5× in iab-6(cocu) males. By functional assays and microscopy, we tested 20 candidate genes and found that at least 9 are required for normal storage and release of SP in mated females. Knockdown of each of these 9 genes consequently leads to a reduction in egg laying and an increase in receptivity over time, confirming a role for the secondary cells in maintaining the long-term PMR. Interestingly, only 1 of the 9 genes, CG3349, encodes a previously reported seminal fluid protein (Sfp), suggesting that secondary cells may perform essential functions beyond the production and modification of known Sfps. At least 3 of the 9 genes also regulate the size and/or abundance of secondary cell vacuoles, suggesting that the vacuoles' contents may be important for the machinery used to maintain the PMR. PMID:26746709

  15. Steroid hormone production in testis, ovary, and adrenal gland of immature rats irradiated in utero with /sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Inano, H.; Suzuki, K.; Ishii-Ohba, H.; Imada, Y.; Kumagai, R.; Kurihara, S.; Sato, A.

    1989-02-01

    Pregnant rats received whole-body irradiation at 20 days of gestation with 2.6 Gy lambda rays from a 60Co source. Endocrinological effects before maturation were studied using testes and adrenal glands obtained from male offspring and ovaries from female offspring irradiated in utero. Seminiferous tubules of the irradiated male offspring were remarkably atrophied with free germinal epithelium and containing only Sertoli cells. Female offspring also had atrophied ovaries. Testicular tissue obtained from intact and 60Co-irradiated rats was incubated with 14C-labeled pregnenolone, progesterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione as a substrate. Intermediates for androgen production and catabolic metabolites were isolated after the incubation. The amounts of these metabolites produced by the irradiated testes were low in comparison with the control. The activities of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase, C17,20-lyase, and delta 4-5 alpha-reductase in the irradiated testes were 30-40% of those in nonirradiated testes. Also, the activities of 17 beta- and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were 72 and 52% of the control, respectively. In adrenal glands, the 21-hydroxylase activity of the irradiated animals was 38% of the control, but the delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity was comparable to that of the control. On the other hand, the activity of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of the irradiated ovary was only 19% of the control. These results suggest that 60Co irradiation of the fetus in utero markedly affects the production of steroid hormones in testes, ovaries, and adrenal glands after birth.

  16. [Role of biopsy of the accessory salivary glands in Löfgren's syndrome and other forms of sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Michon-Pasturel, U; Hachulla, E; Bloget, F; Labalette, P; Hatron, P Y; Devulder, B; Janin, A

    1996-01-01

    The diagnosis of sarcoidosis requires histopathological analysis. Easy accessible site of biopsy is seldom. A systematic labial salivary gland biopsy was performed in 62 suspected sarcoidosis: 22 patients with Löfgren syndrome (group I), and 40 patients with systemic sarcoidosis (group II). Systematic bronchial biopsy was performed in eight patients of group I and ten patients of group II. If systematic biopsies were negative, direct biopsies were performed (lymph node, skin, kidney, liver). In group I, 8/22 labial salivary gland biopsies and 1/8 bronchial biopsies were positive; in group II, 17/40 labial salivary gland biopsies and 5/10 bronchial biopsies were positive. In the other patients, direct biopsies were positive: 27 lymph nodes, eight skin, eight hepatic, four kidney biopsies. In conclusion, labial salivary gland biopsy (even in the absence of sicca syndrome) is more reliable than systematic bronchial biopsies, particularly in Löfgren syndrome and may avoid in 30 to 50% of the cases more aggressive and dangerous biopsies such as liver, kidney or deep lymph nodes biopsies. PMID:8758530

  17. Fine structure of the vagina, accessory glands, uterus, oviducts and Gene's organ in the unfed tick, Ornithodoros (Pavlovskyella) erraticus (Ixodoidea: Argasidae).

    PubMed

    el Shoura, S M

    1988-03-01

    The fine structure of the reproductive system of the unfed female Ornithodoros (Pavloskyella) erraticus is described. The vagina consisting of vestibular (VV) and cervical (CV) regions is formed of a single epithelial layer lined with cuticle and surrounded by muscle layers. Epithelial cells of VV show no signs of activity, while those of CV have structural features of transporting epithelia. A pair of tubular accessory glands opening at the junction of the two vaginal regions consist of a layer of microvillate columnar cells containing rough endoplasmic reticulum; this is possibly involved in the formation of colloidal material which presumably coats the egg surface during its passage through the vagina. The bilobed uterus opening into the cervical vagina secretes material that is possibly responsible for the release of sperm from the endospermatophore. The paired oviducts joining the uterine lobes anteriorly have distinctive distal (DO) and proximal (PO) parts as well as 'ampullae' (AMP) at their junction. DO cells contain many lysosome-like structures which probably play a role in breaking down some sperms ascending to the ovary. Cells of AMP are packed with rickettsia-like Wolbachia, while those of PO contain a few granules. Gene's organ, present in female ticks only, consists of a stalk and two horns of epithelium lined internally by a cuticular layer. Bundles of microtubules are detected in the horn cell cytoplasm. This organ functions to waterproof the eggs with a waxy layer just before they are deposited. PMID:3409790

  18. Variation and Genomic Localization of Genes Encoding DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER Male Accessory Gland Proteins Separated by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Michael; Wilson, Thomas G.

    1986-01-01

    Accessory gland proteins from Drosophila melanogaster males have been separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into nine major bands. When individual males from 175 strains were examined, considerable polymorphism for nearly one-half of the major protein bands was seen, including null alleles for three bands. Variation was observed not only among long-established laboratory strains but also among stocks recently derived from natural populations. There was little difference in the amount of variation between P and M strains, indicating that P element mutagenesis is not a factor producing the variation. Codominant expression of variants for each of five bands was found in heterozygotes, suggesting structural gene variation and not posttranslational modification variation. Stocks carrying electrophoretic variants of four of the major proteins were used to map the presumed structural genes for these proteins; the loci were found to be dispersed on the second chromosome. Since males homozygous for variant proteins were fertile, the polymorphism seems to have little immediate effect on successful sperm transfer. We propose that a high degree of polymorphism can be tolerated because these proteins play a nutritive rather than enzymatic role in Drosophila reproduction. PMID:3095182

  19. Transcriptome analysis to identify genes for peptides and proteins involved in immunity and reproduction from male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct of Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Liu, Shi-Huo; Wang, Tao; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-06-01

    In the male reproductive system of insects, the male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct (MAG/ED) are important organs and their primary function is to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa. Proteins secreted by the MAG/ED are also known to induce post-mating changes and immunity responses in the female insect. To understand the gene expression profile in the MAG/ED of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), that is an important pest in fruits, we performed an Illumina-based deep sequencing of mRNA. This yielded 54,577,630 clean reads corresponding to 4.91Gb total nucleotides that were assembled and clustered to 30,669 unigenes (average 645bp). Among them, 20,419 unigenes were functionally annotated to known proteins/peptides in Gene Orthology, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway databases. Typically, many genes were involved in immunity and these included microbial recognition proteins and antimicrobial peptides. Subsequently, the inducible expression of these immunity-related genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis when insects were challenged with immunity-inducible factors, suggesting their function in guaranteeing fertilization success. Besides, we identified some important reproductive genes such as juvenile hormone- and ecdysteroid-related genes in this de novo assembly. In conclusion, this transcriptomic sequencing of B. dorsalis MAG/ED provides insights to facilitate further functional research of reproduction, immunity and molecular evolution of reproductive proteins in this important agricultural pest. PMID:26297881

  20. Shewanella pealeana sp. nov., a member of the microbial community associated with the accessory nidamental gland of the squid Loligo pealei.

    PubMed

    Leonardo, M R; Moser, D P; Barbieri, E; Brantner, C A; MacGregor, B J; Paster, B J; Stackebrandt, E; Nealson, K H

    1999-10-01

    A new, mesophillic, facultatively anaerobic, psychrotolerant bacterium, strain ANG-SQ1T (T = type strain), was isolated from a microbial community colonizing the accessory nidamental gland of the squid Loligo pealei. It was selected from the community on the basis of its ability to reduce elemental sulfur. The cells are motile, Gram-negative rods (2.0-3.0 microns long, 0.4-0.6 micron wide). ANG-SQ1T grows optimally over the temperature range of 25-30 degrees C and a pH range of 6.5-7.5 degrees C in media containing 0.5 M NaCl. 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that this organism belongs to the gamma-3 subclass of the Proteobacteria. The closest relative of ANG-SQ1T is Shewanella gelidimarina, with a 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 97.0%. Growth occurs with glucose, lactate, acetate, pyruvate, glutamate, citrate, succinate, Casamino acids, yeast extract or peptone as sole energy source under aerobic conditions. The isolate grows anaerobically by the reduction of iron, manganese, nitrate, fumarate, trimethylamine-N-oxide, thiosulfate or elemental sulfur as terminal electron acceptor with lactate. Growth of ANG-SQ1T was enhanced by the addition of choline chloride to growth media lacking Casamino acids. The addition of leucine or valine also enhanced growth in minimal growth media supplemented with choline. The results of both phenotypic and genetic characterization indicate that ANG-SQ1T is a Shewanella species. Thus it is proposed that this new isolate be assigned to the genus Shewanella and that it should be named Shewanella pealeana sp. nov., in recognition of its association with L. pealei. PMID:10555311

  1. Dissection and weighing of accessory sex glands after formalin fixation, and a 5-day assay using young mature rats are reliable and feasible in the Hershberger assay.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Sunami, O; Kunimatsu, T; Kamita, Y; Okuno, Y; Seki, T; Nakatsuka, I; Matsuo, M

    2001-05-11

    The rodent Hershberger assay has been used predominantly by the pharmaceutical industry to evaluate androgenic and antiandrogenic chemicals for potential therapeutic use. However, this assay has not yet been formally validated and standardized for use in toxicology testing. There are many variations in the protocol used for this assay. The weight of androgen-dependent tissues is a definitive endpoint in the Hershberger assay. To find out the reliable assay protocol with feasibility, although many possible factors may affect assay reliability, the present study consist of a series of three separate experiments focused on method of dissection and weighing of accessory sex glands (ASGs: ventral and dorso-lateral prostate, seminal vesicles together with coagulating glands, and Cowper's glands), animal age and number of doses. Furthermore, male pubertal assay, an alternative to the Hershberger assay, was also examined its reliability. Experiment 1 explored whether reliably accurate ASG weights can be obtained after formalin fixation. The ASGs were collected from castrated male rats (11 weeks of age) treated daily with corn oil, or testosterone propionate (TP, 0.25 mg/kg/day, s.c.) and p,p'-DDE (0 or 100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 5 days. One day after the final treatment, the ASGs were removed carefully and weighed separately, and then fixed overnight in a 10% neutral-buffered formalin and weighed again. After that, the tissues were dried overnight in an oven and weighed again. A high correlation between fresh and fixed tissue weights, and a high correlation between fixed and dried tissue weights were noted. The changes in the tissue weight due to fixation were marginal and were proportional to the fresh weights of the individual tissue. Standard deviation of the fixed tissue weight in each group and the magnitude of responses to TP or p,p'-DDE in fixed tissues were equivalent to those in fresh or dried tissues. These findings indicate that formalin fixation does not interfere with interpretation of assay results, and this procedure was used in the subsequent experiments. Experiments 2 and 3 explored whether animal age or treatment duration altered assay sensitivity. In Experiment 2, antiandrogenic effect of p,p'-DDE (100 mg/kg/day) was detected after 5-and 10-day treatment irrespective of animal age (7 vs 11 weeks). In Experiment 3, antiandrogenic effects of flutamide (1 and 10 mg/kg/day) and p,p'-DDE (10 and 100 mg/kg/day) were compared between two different protocols, the 10-day assay using peripubertal rats and the 5-day assay using young mature rats. Results demonstrated that both protocols could significantly detect antiandrogenic effects of flutamide and p,p'-DDE. These findings demonstrate that (1) dissection and weighing of ASGs after formalin fixation is reliable in the Hershberger assay, (2) when this procedure is used, the 5-day Hershberger assay using young mature rats, expected to be more feasible assay than the 10-day assay using peripubertal rats, is also reliable as well as the 10-day assay using peripubertal rats. Furthermore, we confirmed that male pubertal assay with use of dissection and weighing of fixed tissues also reliable. PMID:11337110

  2. Contribution of the secretory material of caecilian (amphibia: Gymnophiona) male Mullerian gland to motility of sperm: a study in Uraeotyphlus narayani.

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Mathew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2005-02-01

    Caecilians are a unique group of limbless burrowing amphibians with discontinuous distribution. Several caecilian species are viviparous, and all practice internal fertilization. In amniotic vertebrates the sperm undergo post-testicular physiological maturation when they are initiated into motility under the influence of an epididymal secretion. Further, during ejaculation mammalian sperm are suspended in a fluid secreted by the male accessory sex glands, viz., prostate gland and seminal vesicles. Caecilians lack comparable glands, but still practice internal fertilization. Uniquely, male caecilians retain the Mullerian ducts in the adults as a pair of functional glands. It has long been hypothesized, based on indirect evidence, that the Mullerian gland would be a male accessory sex gland, secreting a fluid in which sperm are suspended during ejaculation and which would also provide nutritional support to the ejaculated sperm. In the present study, the secretory material of the Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani was mixed with sperm obtained from the testis, and the changes in motility were recorded. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm possess a perforatorium of the acrosome proceeding deep into the endonuclear canal of the nucleus. The midpiece is characterized by closely applied centrioles, the anterior ends of the axoneme and axial fiber, and a mitochondrial sheath. The long tail has an undulating membrane on one side, supported by the axoneme and an axial fiber. The live sperm possess a mitochondrial vesicle, also known as the cytoplasmic droplet, anywhere along the head and the midpiece, as in anuran sperm, which is shed from sperm that have ceased motility. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm are motile the moment they are released directly from the testis, indicating that the sperm do not require post-testicular physiological maturation. On being mixed with the secretory material of the Mullerian gland, the spermatozoa are enhanced in speed as well as duration of motility. Therefore, the caecilian male Mullerian gland is considered to be the male accessory sex gland. PMID:15605393

  3. Evaluation of atorvastatin efficacy and toxicity on spermatozoa, accessory glands and gonadal hormones of healthy men: a pilot prospective clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention advocate lowering both cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol systemic levels, notably by statin intake. However, statins are the subject of questions concerning their impact on male fertility. This study aimed to evaluate, by a prospective pilot assay, the efficacy and the toxicity of a decrease of cholesterol blood levels, induced by atorvastatin on semen quality and sexual hormone levels of healthy, normocholesterolaemic and normozoospermic men. Methods Atorvastatin (10 mg daily) was administrated orally during 5 months to 17 men with normal plasma lipid and standard semen parameters. Spermatozoa parameters, accessory gland markers, semen lipid levels and blood levels of gonadal hormones were assayed before statin intake, during the treatment, and 3 months after its withdrawal. Results Atorvastatin treatment significantly decreased circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol concentrations by 42% and 24% (p < 0.0001) respectively, and reached the efficacy objective of the protocol. During atorvastatin therapy and/or 3 months after its withdrawal numerous semen parameters were significantly modified, such as total number of spermatozoa (-31%, p < 0.05), vitality (-9.5%, p < 0.05), total motility (+7.5%, p < 0.05), morphology (head, neck and midpiece abnormalities, p < 0.05), and the kinetics of acrosome reaction (p < 0.05). Seminal concentrations of acid phosphatases (p < 0.01), α-glucosidase (p < 0.05) and L-carnitine (p < 0.05) were also decreased during the therapy, indicating an alteration of prostatic and epididymal functions. Moreover, we measured at least one altered semen parameter in 35% of the subjects during atorvastatin treatment, and in 65% of the subjects after withdrawal, which led us to consider that atorvastatin is unsafe in the context of our study. Conclusions Our results show for the first time that atorvastatin significantly affects the sperm parameters and the seminal fluid composition of healthy men. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02094313. PMID:25016482

  4. Sexual behavior attenuates the effects of chronic stress in body weight, testes, sexual accessory glands, and plasma testosterone in male rats.

    PubMed

    Retana-Mrquez, S; Vigueras-Villaseor, R M; Jurez-Rojas, L; Aragn-Martnez, A; Torres, G Reyes

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether continuous sexual behavior could attenuate the effects of chronic stress on spermatogenesis, sexual glands, plasma testosterone and corticosterone in sexually experienced male rats. Rats were exposed to stress by immersion in cold water (ICW) daily for 20 or 50 consecutive days. Plasma testosterone and corticosterone, masculine sexual behavior, as well as the number of offspring, the epithelial area of seminiferous, prostatic and seminal glands were assessed. In stressed males, body and testicular weights decreased, male sexual behavior was disrupted, and adrenal weights increased. In males stressed for 50 days, prostate and seminal glands had lower weights compared with controls. Prostate and seminal epithelial areas also decreased in these males. Seminiferous tubules in testes from rats stressed for 20 or 50 days showed several degenerative signs, such as vacuoles in the basal epithelium, with picnotic indicia; moderate to severe exfoliation of degenerative germinal cells in the tubule lumen was also observed. In males stressed for 50 days a significant decrease in seminiferous epithelial area was observed from stages I-VIII, regardless of copulation. The litters from females that copulated with males stressed for 50 days decreased significantly. Chronic stress caused increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, which were higher in males stressed for 20 days than in males stressed for 50 days. Testosterone decreased in stressed males and it was lower in males stressed for 50 days. In stressed males allowed to copulate, body and testicular weights were similar to controls. Adrenal, seminal glands, and prostate weights, as well as epithelial areas of males stressed for 50 days allowed to copulate were also similar to controls. Corticosterone was lower than in males stressed for 50 days, but still higher than in controls. Testosterone in males stressed for 50 days and allowed to copulate was higher than in stressed males not allowed to copulate and control males without copulation, but still lower than in control copulating males. These results show that chronic stress causes germ cell loss in testes and a decrease in prostate and seminal epithelium, possibly as a result of testosterone decrease, affecting fertility. Continuous copulation can attenuate the effects of stress on testosterone levels and on the epithelial area in male sexual glands, but not on the seminiferous epithelium after 50 days of stress. PMID:25236886

  5. Physiological responses and characteristics of sperm collected after electroejaculation or transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands in anesthetized mouflons (Ovis musimon) and Iberian ibexes (Capra pyrenaica).

    PubMed

    Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; López-Sebastián, Antonio; Esteso, Milagros; Pradiee, Jorgea; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Castaño, Cristina; Labrador, Beatriz; Santiago-Moreno, Julián

    2015-10-15

    The objective was to characterize the stress response and the seminal parameters obtained with electroejaculation (EE) or transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands (TUMASG) in two captive but nondomestic ruminants, the mouflons and the Iberian ibex under general anesthesia. In mouflons, the physiological responses (heart and respiratory rate, rectal temperature, cortisol, creatine kinase, potassium and glucose concentrations) changed similarly with both procedures. The TUMASG procedure was faster than EE in mouflons (21.7 ± 1.4 vs. 12.4 ± 1.2 minutes, P < 0.01). In ibexes, respiratory rate, cortisol and creatine kinase concentration changes were greater with EE than with TUMASG (final respiratory rate: 62.7 ± 5.5 vs. 38.1 ± 5.6 breaths/min [P < 0.05]; final cortisol: 51.4 ± 5.1 vs. 25.3 ± 5.6 ng/mL [P < 0.001]; and final creatine kinase: 300.9 ± 99.9 vs. 87.1 ± 16.9 U/L [P < 0.001]). Electroejaculation provided better results in some sperm parameters (mouflons: sperm score: 3.4 ± 0.3 vs. 2.6 ± 0.2 [P < 0.01]; total number of sperm ejaculated: 982.4 ± 299 vs. 710.0 ± 542.2 [P < 0.05]; ibexes: sperm with progressive motility: 47.7 ± 6.2 vs. 20.5 ± 8.3 [P < 0.05]). The transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands appears to be an alternative technique to collect sperm from wild ruminants, reducing the need for electrical stimuli and thus decreasing the undesired responses of EE in the more sensitive species. On the other hand, better fresh sperm may be collected with EE. However, TUMASG provides practical advantages in animal welfare, firstly in these wild species more sensible to stress management and capture myopathy. PMID:26174035

  6. Accessory Scrotum With Perineal Lipoma: Pathologic Evaluation Including Androgen Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Keitaro; Mizuno, Kentaro; Nishio, Hidenori; Moritoki, Yoshinobu; Kamisawa, Hideyuki; Kurokawa, Satoshi; Kohri, Kenjiro; Hayashi, Yutaro

    2014-01-01

    Accessory scrotum is an unusual developmental anomaly defined as additional scrotal tissue in addition to a normally developed scrotum. The accessory scrotum arises posterior to the normally located scrotum and does not contain a testis. We report a case of an 18-month-old boy with an accessory scrotum attached to a perineal lipoma. We resected both and determined histologically that they were of the same tissue as the scrotum, including the presence of androgen receptor expression. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case to assess androgen receptor expression in an accessory scrotum using immunostaining. PMID:26958486

  7. Adrenal glands

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is located on top of each kidney. ... Each adrenal gland is about the size of the top part of the thumb. The outer part of the gland is ...

  8. The Laser Accessory Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Ashvin

    1988-09-01

    Wandering through the exhibit hall yesterday, I noticed that if you look at the laser companies and if you look at the accessory companies, there are pretty much the same number of accessory booths as well as the laser companies. There was one difference. Laser company booths are all sexy looking, very flashy, big booths. Whereas if you look at the accessories booths, they were small, not so prominent.

  9. Testis tumor associated to microlithiasis

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Maciel, Felipe; Monnerat, Andrea Lima C.; Fernandes, Marcia Antunes; Dekermache, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To discuss the relationship between testicular microlithiasis and testis tumors in children and to consider the chances of testis preserving surgery in specific cases. CASE DESCRIPTION: Pre-adolescent presenting testicular microlithiasis and a larger left testis, corresponding to a cystic testicular tumor. The tumor was excised, with ipsilateral testis preservation. Histology diagnosed a testis dermoid tumor. COMMENTS: The relationship between testis tumors and testicular microlithiasis is ill defined in children. Pediatric urologists need to develop specific follow-up protocols for pre-pubertal children. PMID:24473964

  10. Cancer of the Testis

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 8,720 % of All New Cancer Cases 0.5% Estimated Deaths in 2016 380 % of All Cancer Deaths ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 240,372 men living with testis cancer in ...

  11. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... salivary gland tumors usually show up as painless enlargements of these glands. Tumors rarely involve more than ... otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon should check these enlargements. Malignant tumors of the major salivary glands can ...

  12. Electroporation of the Testis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yomogida, Kentaro

    The mature mammalian testis is a marvelous organ that produces numerous sperm cells during its reproductive phase. This biologically significant process consists of three steps: stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, meiosis and genetic recombination, and haploid cell morphogenesis into sperm (Russell et al., 1990). The first step provides a good model for investigating the molecular mechanism of stem cell regulation. Currently, the mechanism underlying sperm cell production is a very exciting topic in regenerative medicine (Lensch et al. 2007; Okita et al., 2007). The spermatogonial stem cell system has several advantages, including the easy histological identification of stem cells (Russell et al., 1990), a clear relationship between stem cells and the supporting Sertoli cells, which provide a stem cell niche (Tadokoro et al., 2002; Yomogida et al., 2003), and a transplantation assay for stem cell activity (Oatley & Brinster, 2006). Although germline stem (GS) cells derived from the gonocytes in newborn testis constitute a suitable in vitro system for investigating the properties of spermatogonial stem cells (Kanatsu-Shinohara et al., 2003, 2004), studies using living mammalian testes continue to provide information regarding the roles of the stem cell niche. In vivo electroporation of the supporting cells in the testis will expand our ability to study it.

  13. Bilateral Gigantomastia, Multiple Synchronous Nodular Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia Involving Breast and Bilateral Axillary Accessory Breast Tissue, and Perianal Mammary-Type Hamartoma of Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Malcolm M; Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kreuzberg, Boris; Suvova, Bozena; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2016-05-01

    Mammary-type fibroepithelial lesions involving ectopic breast and anogenital region are rare and usually coexist with normal orthotopic breast. We present what we believe to be a unique case of synchronous bilateral gestational gigantomastia resembling fibrous mastopathy, synchronous rapidly growing pregnancy-associated nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia involving right breast and bilateral axillary ectopic breast tissue, and metachronous perianal mammary-type hamartoma involving anogenital mammary-like glands occurring in a 34-year-old patient with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Also, we review the literature concerning these lesions. PMID:26863057

  14. Timing in the Testis.

    PubMed

    Bittman, Eric L

    2016-02-01

    The testis provides not just one but several models of temporal organization. The complexity of its rhythmic function arises in part from its compartmentalization and diversity of cell types: not only does the testis produce gametes, but it also serves as the major source of circulating androgens. Within the seminiferous tubules, the germ cells divide and differentiate while in intimate contact with Sertoli cells. The tubule is highly periodic: a spermatogenic wave travels along its length to determine the timing of the commitment of spermatogonia to differentiate, the phases of meiotic division, and the rate of differentiation of the postmeiotic germ cells. Recent evidence indicates that oscillations of retinoic acid play a major role in determining periodicity of the seminiferous epithelium. In the interstitial space, Leydig cells produce the steroid hormones required both for the completion of spermatogenesis and the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics throughout the body. This endocrine output also oscillates; although the pulse generator lies outside the gonad, the steroidogenic function of Leydig cells is tuned to a regular episodic input. While the oscillations of the intratubular and interstitial cells have multihour (ultradian) and multiday (infradian) periodicities, respectively, the functions of both compartments also display dramatic seasonal rhythms. Furthermore, circadian rhythms are evident in some of the cell types, although their amplitude and pervasiveness are not as great as in many other tissues of the same organism, and their detection may require methods that recognize the heterogeneity of the testis. This review examines the periodicity of testicular function along multiple time scales. PMID:26656623

  15. Barrier properties of testis microvessels.

    PubMed Central

    Holash, J A; Harik, S I; Perry, G; Stewart, P A

    1993-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier is believed to be constituted by tight junctions between Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules and possibly by myoid cells that encircle these tubules. We now show that testis microvessels are endowed with several markers of barrier properties of brain microvessels, such as the glucose transporter, P-glycoprotein, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Quantitative EM studies show that the endothelium in testis, as in brain, is continuous and has long junctional profiles and few vesicles. However, a small proportion of testis capillaries have expansions in their junctional clefts suggestive of patent paracellular channels, which may explain their higher permeability. Because barrier features are thought to be induced and/or maintained in brain microvessels by astrocytes, we assessed whether astrocyte-like cells exist in the testis. We found that the intertubular Leydig cells, adjacent to microvessels, express the astrocyte markers: glial fibrillary acidic protein, glutamine synthetase, and S-100 protein. We suggest that the testis endothelium contributes to the blood-testis barrier and that these endothelial barrier features are influenced by Leydig cells. We believe that the endothelial and the epithelial (Sertoli) components of the blood-testis barrier are "in series" and complement each other in achieving a stable milieu for spermatogenesis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7902579

  16. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... gland is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus decides which hormones the pituitary should release by sending it either ... the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland releases the following hormones: GH (growth hormone) – increases size of muscle and ...

  17. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  18. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  19. Neurotoxic esterase in rooster testis.

    PubMed

    Lotti, M; Wei, E T; Spear, R C; Becker, C E

    1985-01-01

    Neurotoxic esterase (NTE) is the putative target protein in the nervous system for the initiation of organophosphorus-induced delayed neuropathy. Here it is reported that NTE activity is present in rooster testis. Complete titration of rooster testis phenyl valerate esterases with paraoxon shows that about 15% of the enzymic activity is resistant to paraoxon. NTE activity after complete mipafox titration accounts for 30% of paraoxon-resistant phenyl valerate esterases and corresponds to 7.93 +/- 0.39 nmol/min/mg of protein (mean +/- SD, n = 7). Testis NTE is inhibited in vitro similarly to brain NTE by several organophosphorus compounds. Subcellular fractionation studies of the testis indicate that most NTE activity is particle bound. Testis NTE is also inhibited in vivo by several organophosphorus esters but to a lesser extent than brain NTE. Birds doses with organophosphorus compounds, causing delayed neuropathy, became grossly ataxic, but no testicular pathology was noted by light microscopy in roosters killed 15 days after administration. Serum testosterone levels also measured 15 days after dosing were not different from those of a control group. Recovery of NTE activity was faster in testis than in brain (4 days vs 6 days to recover to 50% of initial activity) in animals that received a high dose of an organophosphorus ester which cause delayed neuropathy. PMID:3966239

  20. Cancer of the accessory breast--a case report.

    PubMed

    Madej, B; Balak, B; Winkler, I; Burdan, F

    2009-01-01

    Breast neoplasm may develop in ectopically located glandular tissue. This paper presents an interesting and rare case of a 50-year-old female who despite regular mammography screening examination developed an invasive accessory breast cancer. Clinical examination revealed a 2 cm - tumour localized 4 cm below the left inframammary fold. The lesion was immobile, the skin and the atrophic nipple were retracted, the tumour infiltrated the thoracic wall. Oligobiopsy and additional examinations showed an invasive stage IIIB ductal breast cancer (Bloom II, G-2). The receptor status was: ER(+), PGR(+), HER2(-). The increased level of cancer antigen 15.3 was found. The patient was submitted to pre-operative chemotherapy. She also underwent surgery and subsequently post-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. On the basis of the presented case, it could be concluded that the accessory mammary glands are out of the image of screening breast examinations. Accessory breast cancer is usually diagnosed by clinical examination and ultrasonography. Preventive resection of accessory breast in women at high risk of developing breast cancer can be considered as the treatment of choice in most patients. PMID:19808163

  1. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... section, be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b... Controls and Accessories § 23.1163 Powerplant accessories. (a) Each engine mounted accessory must— (1) Be approved for mounting on the engine involved and use the provisions on the engines for mounting; or...

  2. 14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accessory attachments. 33.25 Section 33.25... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.25 Accessory attachments. The engine must operate properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive...

  3. 14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessory attachments. 33.25 Section 33.25... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.25 Accessory attachments. The engine must operate properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive...

  4. 14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accessory attachments. 33.25 Section 33.25... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.25 Accessory attachments. The engine must operate properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive...

  5. 14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accessory attachments. 33.25 Section 33.25... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.25 Accessory attachments. The engine must operate properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive...

  6. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it’s the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

  7. Accessory drive for a turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Brogdon, J.W.; Allen, K.D.; Barton, J.S.; Hicks, R.J.

    1987-02-03

    This patent describes, in combination: a radial flow turbine engine having a main shaft and a casing with air inlets open radially at one end, and an accessory drive comprising: an accessory housing positioned axially adjacent the one end of the turbine engine casing, a gear ring rotatably mounted within the accessory housing, means for mechanically drivingly connecting the gear ring to the turbine main shaft, the connecting means comprising a planetary gear arrangement contained in the accessory housing, the accessory housing having apertures open to the gear ring and circumferentially spaced from each other, at least one accessory having a driven gear, and means for mounting the at least one accessory to the accessory housing so that the accessory registers with one of the plurality of apertures and so that the gear ring meshes with the driven gear, wherein each aperture is adapted for connection with a separate accessory.

  8. The rodent accessory olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Mucignat-Caretta, Carla

    2010-10-01

    The accessory olfactory system contributes to the perception of chemical stimuli in the environment. This review summarizes the structure of the accessory olfactory system, the stimuli that activate it, and the responses elicited in the receptor cells and in the brain. The accessory olfactory system consists of a sensory organ, the vomeronasal organ, and its central projection areas: the accessory olfactory bulb, which is connected to the amygdala and hypothalamus, and also to the cortex. In the vomeronasal organ, several receptors-in contrast to the main olfactory receptors-are sensitive to volatile or nonvolatile molecules. In a similar manner to the main olfactory epithelium, the vomeronasal organ is sensitive to common odorants and pheromones. Each accessory olfactory bulb receives input from the ipsilateral vomeronasal organ, but its activity is modulated by centrifugal projections arising from other brain areas. The processing of vomeronasal stimuli in the amygdala involves contributions from the main olfactory system, and results in long-lasting responses that may be related to the activation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal axis over a prolonged timeframe. Different brain areas receive inputs from both the main and the accessory olfactory systems, possibly merging the stimulation of the two sensory organs to originate a more complex and integrated chemosensory perception. PMID:20607541

  9. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) innervation of the human eyelid glands.

    PubMed

    Seifert, P; Spitznas, M

    1999-06-01

    This study was conducted to obtain morphological proof of innervating nerve fibres in the glands of the human eyelid (accessory lacrimal glands of Wolfring, meibomian glands, goblet cells, glands of Zeis, glands of Moll, sweat glands, glands of lanugo hair follicles) and identification of the secretomotorically active neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as a common transmitter. Epoxy-embedded ultrathin sections of tissue samples from human eyelids were studied using electron microscopy. Paraffin sections fixed in Bouin-Hollande solution were immunostained with rabbit antiserum against VIP. With the electron microscope we were able to identify nerves in the glandular stroma of all the glands examined with the exception of goblet cells. Intraepithelial single axons were only seen in the parenchyma of Wolfring glands. The morphological findings corresponded with the immunological finding of VIP-positive, nerve-like structures in the same locations, with the exception of lanugo hair follicle glands, and goblet cells. Our findings indicate that the glands of the eyelids and main lacrimal gland represent a functional unit with VIP as a possible common stimulating factor. PMID:10375432

  10. Moult-related changes in ampullate silk gland morphology and usage in the araneid spider Araneus cavaticus.

    PubMed

    Townley, M A; Tillinghast, E K; Cherim, N A

    1993-04-29

    Major ampullate (MaA) and minor ampullate (MiA) silk glands of juvenile Araneus cavaticus (third to penultimate instars) were examined by dissection at various times relative to ecdysis. Several days before ecdysis the larger pairs of MaA and MiA glands become non-functional and remain so until ecdysis. Nevertheless, proecdysial spiders are able to draw ampullate fibres due to the presence of smaller pairs of MaA and MiA glands which are functional at this time. Indeed, it appears that these smaller ampullate glands are intended for use only during proecdysis. Thus, larger MaA and MiA glands and smaller MaA and MiA glands are typically not used concurrently (a brief transitional period is an exception). The smaller ampullate glands functioning in one juvenile stadium regress in the following stadium and become (what have previously been referred to as) accessory MaA and MiA glands. These nonfunctional accessory ampullate glands do not re-develop into functional smaller ampullate glands until the following stadium. Thus, a given pair of smaller MaA or MiA glands is only functional in every other juvenile stadium. However, because there are two sets of smaller/accessory MaA and MiA glands which function alternately, the spider is able to produce ampullate fibres during the proecdysial portion of each stadium. A new terminology for the larger, smaller and accessory ampullate glands is proposed which emphasizes the kinship between the two sets of smaller/accessory ampullate glands. PMID:8099743

  11. 4- Pubertal and Adult Testis.

    PubMed

    Nistal, Manuel; Paniagua, Ricardo; Gonzalez-Peramato, Pilar; Reyes-Múgica, Miguel

    2014-07-30

    Abstract The testis is a complex organ that undergoes significant changes from puberty to adulthood. An accurate knowledge of its histology, ultrastructure and physiological-morphological maturation process is required in order to interpret the many variations within the normal and abnormal (pathological) conditions. Here we describe in detail the different testicular compartments, showing correlations with the process of spermatogenesis at the histological and ultrastructural level. PMID:25075958

  12. Review: The Lacrimal Gland and Its Role in Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Conrady, Christopher D.; Joos, Zachary P.; Patel, Bhupendra C. K.

    2016-01-01

    The human tear film is a 3-layered coating of the surface of the eye and a loss, or reduction, in any layer of this film may result in a syndrome of blurry vision and burning pain of the eyes known as dry eye. The lacrimal gland and accessory glands provide multiple components to the tear film, most notably the aqueous. Dysfunction of these glands results in the loss of aqueous and other products required in ocular surface maintenance and health resulting in dry eye and the potential for significant surface pathology. In this paper, we have reviewed products of the lacrimal gland, diseases known to affect the gland, and historical and emerging dry eye therapies targeting lacrimal gland dysfunction. PMID:27042343

  13. Review: The Lacrimal Gland and Its Role in Dry Eye.

    PubMed

    Conrady, Christopher D; Joos, Zachary P; Patel, Bhupendra C K

    2016-01-01

    The human tear film is a 3-layered coating of the surface of the eye and a loss, or reduction, in any layer of this film may result in a syndrome of blurry vision and burning pain of the eyes known as dry eye. The lacrimal gland and accessory glands provide multiple components to the tear film, most notably the aqueous. Dysfunction of these glands results in the loss of aqueous and other products required in ocular surface maintenance and health resulting in dry eye and the potential for significant surface pathology. In this paper, we have reviewed products of the lacrimal gland, diseases known to affect the gland, and historical and emerging dry eye therapies targeting lacrimal gland dysfunction. PMID:27042343

  14. Accessory chemosignaling mechanisms in primates.

    PubMed

    Evans, C S

    2006-06-01

    Accessory olfaction is defined as the chemoreceptive system that employs the vomeronasal complex (VNC) and its distinct central projections to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) and limbic/cortical systems. Comparisons of the structural and functional features of primate accessory olfaction can now be made at many levels. Advances in the understanding of molecular mechanisms of odorant transfer and detection, physiological analyses of signal processing, and appreciation of ontogenetic timetables have clarified the contribution of accessory chemoreception to the sensory map. Two principal functions dominate: the decoding of social information through the uptake of signals (often fluid-borne), and the provision of an essential pathway for the "migration" of presumptive neurocrine (GnRH) cells from the olfactory placode to the hypothalamus. VN "smelling" (vomerolfaction) is now seen to overlap with primary olfaction. Both systems detect signal compounds along the spectrum of volatility/molecular weight, and neither is an exclusive sensor. Both main and accessory chemoreception seem to require collaborative molecular devices to assist in odorant transfer (binding proteins) and (for the VNO) signal recognition (MHC1 proteins). Most adaptive-selective features of primate chemocommunication variously resemble those of other terrestrial mammals. VN function, along with its genome, has been maintained within the Strepsirrhines and tarsiers, reduced in Platyrrhines, and nearly extinguished at the Catarrhine up to hominin levels. It persists as an intriguing ancient sense that retains key features of past evolutionary events. PMID:16715503

  15. A novel false-positive cause in testis scintigraphy in the diagnosis of testis torsion

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Zehra Pinar; Onur, Rahmi; Balci, Tansel Ansal

    2012-01-01

    Testis scintigraphy is the most reliable modality in the diagnosis of testis torsion since it directly reflects the vascularity of the testis. The ‘rim sign’ is considered as the pathognomonic sign of the missed torsion. However, there are some possible false-positive cases. In this case report, we would like to present an unexpected false-positive cause of the ‘rim sign’ in testis scintigraphy in an 18-year-old male patient. PMID:22987904

  16. Regulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by accessory proteins.

    PubMed

    Rotin, D

    2000-09-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) plays a key role in the regulation of fluid absorption in the kidney, lung, colon and exocrine glands, and in the regulation of blood pressure. Abnormal functioning of ENaC is associated with several human diseases, including pseudohypoaldosteronism type I, Liddle's syndrome, pulmonary edema, and cystic fibrosis. ENaC is regulated by several hormones, ions and accessory proteins. This review focuses on the regulation of ENaC by recently described accessory proteins, mainly Nedd4, syntaxin 1A, CFTR, sgk, K-Ras2A and Cap-1. PMID:10990373

  17. Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins in adrenal disease and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, David S.; Ramachandrappa, Shwetha; Clark, Adrian J.; Chan, Li F.

    2015-01-01

    Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs) are regulators of the melanocortin receptor family. MRAP is an essential accessory factor for the functional expression of the MC2R/ACTH receptor. The importance of MRAP in adrenal gland physiology is demonstrated by the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 2. The role of its paralog melanocortin-2-receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2), which is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus including the paraventricular nucleus, has recently been linked to mammalian obesity. Whole body deletion and targeted brain specific deletion of the Mrap2 gene result in severe obesity in mice. Interestingly, Mrap2 complete knockout (KO) mice have increased body weight without detectable changes to food intake or energy expenditure. Rare heterozygous variants of MRAP2 have been found in humans with severe, early-onset obesity. In vitro data have shown that Mrap2 interaction with the melanocortin-4-receptor (Mc4r) affects receptor signaling. However, the mechanism by which Mrap2 regulates body weight in vivo is not fully understood and differences between the phenotypes of Mrap2 and Mc4r KO mice may point toward Mc4r independent mechanisms. PMID:26113808

  18. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Powerplant accessories. (a) Each engine mounted accessory must— (1) Be approved for mounting on the engine involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing...

  19. 14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Powerplant accessories. (a) Each engine-mounted accessory must— (1) Be approved for mounting on the engine involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Unless other means are provided,...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Powerplant accessories. (a) Each engine mounted accessory must— (1) Be approved for mounting on the engine involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or...

  1. 14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... drive splines, or coupling by engine oil, must include provisions for sealing to prevent unacceptable... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.25 Accessory attachments. The engine must operate properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25.1167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1167 Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25... Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as part of an engine— (a) The engine with gearbox and connecting transmissions and shafts attached must be subjected...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25... Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as part of an engine— (a) The engine with gearbox and connecting transmissions and shafts attached must be subjected...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25... Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as part of an engine— (a) The engine with gearbox and connecting transmissions and shafts attached must be subjected...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25... Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as part of an engine— (a) The engine with gearbox and connecting transmissions and shafts attached must be subjected...

  7. Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

  8. HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE TESTIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book, the first to describe how the testis is evaluated in research and toxicology testing settings, is a resource for individuals who wish to perform a systematic evaluation of the testis. he book contains 728 illustrations and drawings. The book begins with a description o...

  9. [Is fetal testis in danger?].

    PubMed

    Delbs, Graldine; Levacher, Christine; Duquenne, Clotilde; Habert, Ren

    2005-12-01

    Estrogens are classically known to play a major role in female reproduction, but there is now compelling evidence that they may also be involved in the regulation of male reproductive function. In humans, a decrease in sperm count and an increase in the incidences of testicular cancer, cryptorchidism and hypospadia have been observed in many countries over the last 50 years. Male reproductive alterations were also observed in wildlife. Such male reproductive disorders have been attributed to the increase in concentration of xenobiotics, and of xenoestrogens in particular, in the environment and in food. Epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have suggested that excessive exposure to estrogens during fetal/neonatal life can lead to reproductive disorders in adulthood. Using an in vitro model, we showed that estrogens directly affected the development of the fetal testis. Lastly, we clearly demonstrated that the fetal and neonatal testis is very sensitive to estrogens since the invalidation of estrogen receptor alpha leads to an increase of steroidogenesis and the invalidation of estrogen receptor beta enhances the development of the germ cell lineage in the male. PMID:16324650

  10. What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... statistics about salivary gland cancer? What is salivary gland cancer? Salivary gland cancer starts in one of ... can develop in these glands. About the salivary glands Salivary glands make saliva – the lubricating fluid found ...

  11. [Aging of the human testis].

    PubMed

    Sibert, Louis; Lacarrire, Emeric; Safsaf, Athmane; Rives, Nathalie

    2014-02-01

    The morphological and histological changes related to testicular aging are: volume decrease, arteriolar sclerosis, degeneration of Leydig cells and Sertoli, depletion of germ cells and thickening of the tunica albuginea testis. The participation in testicular androgen decline in aging is related to the decrease in the number of Leydig cells associated with alterations in the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis Sperm volume, concentration and total number, motility and morphology of sperm decrease with aging male. The interindividual variability of sperm parameters, the variability of methodologies for data collection and selection of patients must be careful in interpreting the published results. Overall, the quality of sperm decreases progressively with age, without any age limit that can be individualized. Alterations of spermatogenesis do not seem significantly compromising fertility in the elderly. The clinical impact of testicular aging implies androgen production decrease and diseases associated with aging. PMID:24439534

  12. Accessory drive device in engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneyuki, K.

    1987-05-05

    A device is described which drives accessories such as an alternator, a cooling water pump, an air-conditioning compressor or the like, utilizing power taken from an output shaft of an engine. The device comprises: an input shaft rotatably supported on a stationary member and receiving output from the output shaft and rotated at a rotational speed corresponding to that of the output shaft; a transmission output member rotatably supported on the input shaft for transmitting the power to the accessories; a planetary cone rotates on the input shaft in a revolution around the axial center of the input shaft and in self-rotation on an axial center inclined with respect to the axial center of the input shaft.

  13. Development of the human fetal testis.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Peter J; Fowler, Paul A

    2014-05-01

    Masculinisation and adult fertility in the male are dependent on appropriate fetal endocrine programming. There is also now increasing evidence to indicate that the same mechanisms which regulate masculinisation also affect the general wellbeing of males throughout their life and, particularly, during ageing. Testosterone, secreted by the fetal testes, is the main factor regulating these processes and an understanding of fetal testis development in the human male is essential if we are to prevent adult reproductive disorders. This review focuses on what is known about human testis development and describes the effects of maternal smoking, a surrogate of possible xenotoxicant exposure on fetal testis and fetal liver function. PMID:24746112

  14. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  15. Salivary Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes your ... antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

  16. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Quick Search Image Details Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy View/Download: Small: 720x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  17. Congenital cystic dysplasia of the rete testis.

    PubMed

    Piotto, L; LeQuesne, G W; Gent, R; Bourne, A J; Freeman, J; Ford, W D

    2001-10-01

    Cystic dysplasia of the rete testis (the network of straight seminiferous tubules within the mediastinum testis leading to the efferent ductules) is a rare congenital anomaly. There are only 15 cases reported in the literature to date and only one report of the US findings [1-5]. This report highlights the characteristic appearance of the lesion on ultrasound examination and its association with renal abnormalities in two patients. PMID:11685442

  18. Autonomic innervation of the bovine testis.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, K H; Abu-Ghali, N

    1997-01-01

    The autonomic nerve supply of the bovine testis is investigated in animals of different ages by means of immunohistochemistry. Staining with antiserum to protein gene product 9.5 gives the most complete results for the study of the general innervation pattern. Autonomic nerves reach the testis by three different routes: with the blood vessels of the spermatic cord (funicular nervous contribution), by the mesorchium (mesorchial nervous contribution) and by the ligamentous bridge between epididymal tail and testis (caudal nervous contribution). The vessels of the spermatic cord are densely innervated. The large vessels of the vascular layer within the tunica albuginea display a discontinuous innervation pattern. In the interior of the testis, the caudal half of the gonad is completely free of any innervation. Slight differences in arrangement and fiber composition of testicular nerves in calves and bulls point to a reduction of the innervation with advancing age. The vast majority of bovine testicular nerves are dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-positive postganglionic sympathetic axons with vasomotor function. There is no evidence for a cholinergic innervation of the bovine testis. About half of the bovine testicular nerves are neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive. In the adult, solitary calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive fibers are the only ones independent of blood vessels. The absence of an innervation in the caudal half of the testis underlines the importance of local factors and blood-borne substances for the regulation of intratesticular blood flow in the bovine. PMID:9643654

  19. The Accessory Genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Vanderlene L.; Ozer, Egon A.; Hauser, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains exhibit significant variability in pathogenicity and ecological flexibility. Such interstrain differences reflect the dynamic nature of the P. aeruginosa genome, which is composed of a relatively invariable core genome and a highly variable accessory genome. Here we review the major classes of genetic elements comprising the P. aeruginosa accessory genome and highlight emerging themes in the acquisition and functional importance of these elements. Although the precise phenotypes endowed by the majority of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome have yet to be determined, rapid progress is being made, and a clearer understanding of the role of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome in ecology and infection is emerging. PMID:21119020

  20. Engine starter and accessory drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Stockton, T.R.

    1986-10-07

    An engine starter and accessory drive system is described which consists of: an accessory drive means; a planetary gearset having a sun gear driveably connected to the accessory drive means, a ring gear, a carrier and planet pinions rotatably mounted on the carrier, fixed to the engine crankshaft, meshing with the sun gear and with the ring gear; means for holding the ring gear against rotation; and a starter motor and first clutch means for providing a one-way driving connection between the motor and the accessory drive means.

  1. Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.

    2010-06-15

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power. Two studies were conducted at ORNL. One was to put an additional winding in the motor slots to magnetically link with the high frequency of the controllable zero-sequence stator currents that do not produce any zero-sequence harmonic torques. The second approach was to utilize the corners of the square stator punching for the high-frequency transformers of the dc/dc inverter. Both approaches were successful. This CRADA validated the feasibility of GM’s desire to use the motor’s magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply. Three joint U.S. patents with GM were issued to ORNL and GM by the U.S. Patent Office for the research results produced by this CRADA.

  2. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Adrenal Gland Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Adrenal Gland Tumor Adrenal Gland Tumor This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Adrenal Gland Tumor. Use the menu below to choose the ... workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Adrenal Gland Tumor Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs ...

  4. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the tubes (ducts) that drain the salivary glands or the gland itself. ... The salivary glands are located around the mouth. They produce saliva, which moistens food to help with chewing and swallowing. There ...

  5. Characterization of ocular gland morphology and tear composition of pinnipeds

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Robin Kelleher; Doane, Marshall G.; Knop, Erich; Knop, Nadja; Dubielzig, Richard R.; Colitz, Carmen M. H.; Argüeso, Pablo; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The importance of tear film integrity to ocular health in terrestrial mammals is well established, however, in marine mammals, the role of the tear film in protection of the ocular surface is not known. In an effort to better understand the function of tears in maintaining health of the marine mammal eye surface, we examined ocular glands of the California sea lion, and began to characterize the biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds. Procedures Glands dissected from California sea lion eyelids and adnexa were examined for gross morphology, sectioned for microscopic analysis, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The tear film was examined using interferometry. Tears were collected from humans and pinnipeds for analysis of protein and carbohydrate content. Results The sea lion has sebaceous glands in the lid, but these glands are different in size and orientation compared to typical meibomian glands of terrestrial mammals. Two other accessory ocular glands located dorsotemporally and medially appeared to be identical in morphology, with tubulo-acinar morphology. An outer lipid layer on the ocular surface of the sea lion was not detected using interferometry, consistent with the absence of typical meibomian glands. Similar to human tears, the tears of pinnipeds contain several proteins but the ratio of carbohydrate to protein was greater than that in human tears. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the ocular gland architecture and biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds have evolved to adapt to the challenges of an aquatic environment. PMID:23067374

  6. Adenocarcinoma of the ampullary glands of the ductus deferens in a Sprague-Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Masaya; Wakui, Shin; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Ayaka; Mutou, Tomoko; Ikegami, Masahiro; Asari, Masao; Inomata, Tomo

    2015-06-01

    Spontaneously occurring proliferative lesions of the male accessory sex glands are infrequent in various strains of rats. In rodents, the ampullary glands are embedded in the prostate. Although 2 spontaneous cases of atypical hyperplastic lesions at the ampullary gland were previously described in Wistar rats, adenocarcinoma and/or adenoma in this gland have not been reported. This study describes adenocarcinomas in the bilateral ampullary glands in a 52-week-old intact male Sprague-Dawley rat housed as part of a control group in a toxicological experiment. At necropsy, the body weight (644.4 g) and the weight of the prostate with ampullary gland (2.75 g) were similar to others of the same control group, and it had a normal gross appearance. Histopathologically, both ampullary glands revealed microinvasive adenocarcinoma without vascular invasion. The morphological characteristics of the neoplasm varied in different regions of the gland. Other parts of the male accessory sex glands did not show proliferative lesions. PMID:25361752

  7. Accessory drive device in engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneyuki, K.

    1987-02-17

    A device is described for driving accessories such as an alternator, a cooling water pump, an air-conditioning compressor or the like, utilizing power taken from an output shaft of an engine, the device comprising: an input shaft pivotally supported to a stationary element and receiving output from the output shaft and rotated at the rotational speed corresponding to that of the output shaft; a transmission output member rotatably supported on the input shaft for transmitting the power to the accessory; a planetary cone which can rotate on the input shaft in the revolution around the axial center of the input shaft and in the rotation around the axial center inclined with respect to the axial center of the input shaft. The planetary cone has a first part of nearly conical shape, and a second part of nearly cylindrical shape leading to a bottom surface of the first part, and first, second and third frictional transmission surfaces being formed on the conical surface of the first part, the bottom periphery of the first part and the circumferential surface of the second part, respectively; and an input transmission member installed rotatable with the input shaft and engaged at outer periphery of frictional engagement with the second frictional transmission surface of the planetary cone.

  8. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and accessories. (a) Identification—(1) Cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories. A cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories is a device...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and accessories. (a) Identification—(1) Cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories. A cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories is a device...

  10. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  11. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  12. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  13. Three Accessories for a Rotating Platform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, James A.; Fryer, Oscar G.

    1980-01-01

    Describes three accessories developed to be used in conjunction with the rotating platform or turntable. Three demonstrations using these accessories are included. These demonstrations are: (a) conservation of angular momentum; (b) gravity-defying goblets; and (c) direct measurement of centripetal force. (HM)

  14. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special accessories. 15.27 Section 15.27 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.27 Special accessories. (a) Equipment marketed to a consumer must be capable of complying with the necessary...

  15. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special accessories. 15.27 Section 15.27 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.27 Special accessories. (a) Equipment marketed to a consumer must be capable of complying with the necessary...

  16. Characterization of a Lolium multiflorum Accessory Chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accessory chromosomes, also called B-chromosomes, have been reported in more than 1300 species of plants. Accessory chromosomes show numerical polymorphism and when present in high number, are known to negatively affect the growth and vigor of the plants, while in low numbers they may be beneficial...

  17. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  18. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  19. Accessory tragus: a dentist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Vishal; Banda, Naveen Reddy; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Banda, Vanaja Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Accessory tragus (AT) also referred as preauricular tag is a rudimentary tag of ear tissue This paper presents two specific cases: one hereditary and another sporadic case of AT. A general clinical description of AT, its associated syndromes, embryology aetiopathogenesis and management is discussed. A dentist can play an important role in spotting the AT during their head and neck examination. The presence of this defect can be correlated to other congenital defects of first branchial arch. On recognising its occurrence, the dentist can refer to a specialist for thorough investigation management. A dentist can play a vital role in encouraging and counselling the parents for the correction of such defects as it improves the aesthetics of the face. Usually, children with these defects are often targets of teasing by peers. PMID:23761605

  20. Carcinoma in accessory axillary breast.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Seema; Mishra, Shashi Prakash; Kumar, Satendra; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of carcinoma developing in an accessory breast. The patient presented with a progressive lump in her right axilla for 1 year. On examination, there was a well-developed nipple areola complex in the right axilla overlying a hard, fixed 5 × 3 cm lump. On investigation, core biopsy revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma of the breast. Mammography also revealed features of a malignant lesion with skin and muscle infiltration. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered followed by modified radical mastectomy after three cycles. Immunohistochemistry study showed positive status of oestrogen and progesterone receptors, and negative HER-2 neu. Three more cycles of chemotherapy along with 50 Gy radiotherapy were given in an adjuvant setting followed by hormone therapy. PMID:26260957

  1. Accessory drive device in engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneyuki, K.

    1987-08-11

    A device is described which drives accessories such as an alternator, a cooling water pump, an air-conditioning compressor or the like, utilizing power taken from an output shaft of an engine, the device comprising: an input shaft rotatably supported on a stationary plate and receiving output from the output shaft and rotated at a rotational speed corresponding to that of the output shaft; a transmission output member rotatably supported on the input shaft for transmitting the power to the accessories; a planetary cone which can rotate on the input shaft in revolution around the axis of the input shaft and in self-rotation about an axis inclined with respect to the axis of the input shaft; an input transmission member installed rotatable with the input shaft and engaged at its outer periphery in frictional engagement with the second frictional transmission surface of the planetary cone; a transmission ratio varying member for varying the position of the shifting ring in direction toward or away from the rotation center of the planetary cone using the rotational speed of the transmission output member as a parameter and suppressing the rise of the rotational speed of the transmission output member when the rotational speed of the transmission output member because larger than a prescribed value; the transmission output member having two end plate members positioned on both ends thereof; the end plate members together with the input shaft constituting an enclosed annular infusion chamber filled with an amount of frictional transmission oil; and a pressure adjusting device for adjusting the pressure of the frictional transmission oil in the infusion chamber.

  2. Selective constraint dominates the evolution of genes expressed in a novel reproductive gland.

    PubMed

    Finseth, Findley R; Bondra, Eliana; Harrison, Richard G

    2014-12-01

    One striking pattern in molecular evolution is that genes encoding proteins involved in reproduction tend to evolve rapidly. Seminal fluid proteins frequently exhibit this pattern and directly affect multiple reproductive processes including enhancing sperm performance and mediating postmating sexual selection. Here, we investigate molecular evolutionary patterns of genes expressed in the foam gland of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), a novel reproductive phenotype. Foam provides an interesting contrast to seminal fluid because it plays a similar functional role, yet is produced, stored, and transferred to females independent of semen. We combined RNA-Seq and comparative genomics to examine evolutionary rates of genes with enriched expression in the foam gland of Japanese quail and those that exhibit enriched expression in two other tissues (testis and liver) and with broadly expressed genes. Overall, we found pronounced heterogeneity in evolutionary rates. Foam gland genes evolved under strong evolutionary constraint, whereas testis genes evolved rapidly and sometimes adaptively. These striking differences were robust to variation in gene expression. Genes with enriched expression in the foam gland did not show major shifts in selective pressure after the quail and chicken lineages split; in contrast, testis-expressed genes experienced a burst of accelerated evolution specifically along the Coturnix lineage. Our work demonstrates that, as a class, genes expressed in the novel foam gland experience different selection regimes than genes expressed in many other tissues producing seminal fluid proteins. Our results also highlight the importance of selective constraint in shaping the evolution of male reproductive genes. PMID:25193339

  3. DNA and RNA synthesis by postpubertal undescended testis in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, M.; Nonomura, N.; Namiki, M.; Okuyama, A.; Koh, E.; Kondoh, N.; Fujioka, H.; Nishimune, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Matsuda, M.

    1989-01-01

    To study the spermatogenic potential of postpubertal undescended testis, the /sup 3/H-thymidine and /sup 14/C-uridine incorporations into normally descended and inguinal undescended testes were examined. The results suggest that DNA synthesis by the inguinal undescended testis is remarkably inhibited but, on the contrary, RNA synthesis is not. The cell-proliferative ability of postpubertal undescended testis may be impaired in spite of the retention of cell viability in the testis.

  4. Prostatic adenocarcinoma presenting with metastases to the testis and epididymis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JIN; DONG, MEI; HU, XIAOLEI; LIU, LIN; LI, SHEN; LI, CHAO; YANG, LIJUN; XIAO, YONGQIANG; PANG, SHUJIAN; WANG, CHUAN

    2016-01-01

    Few cases of testicular metastases from prostate carcinoma have been reported, and asymptomatic metastases of prostate carcinoma to both the testis and epididymis are extremely rare. The current study presents the case of a 69-year-old male with testicular and epididymal metastases from prostate carcinoma. The patient was admitted to The First Hospital of Shijiazhuang with a 2-year history of lower urinary tract symptoms. Digital rectal examination revealed an enlarged multinodular prostate, and the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was >100 ng/ml. Magnetic resonance imaging showed prostate carcinoma with seminal vesicle involvement. A prostate biopsy showed prostate gland adenocarcinoma. The Gleason score was 3+3. The immunohistochemistry results were as follows: Prostatic acid phosphatase (+++), PSA (+++), P504s (+++), p63 (?) and cytokeratin 34?E12 (?), with a Ki-67 of ~5%. The patient was treated with a bilateral orchiectomy. The testicular pathology showed that the right testis and epididymis were invaded with metastatic adenocarcinoma. The left testis and epididymis were normal. The patient was treated with conventional flutamide endocrine therapy. At present the patient remains in a stable condition after 24 months of follow-up. PMID:26870285

  5. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  6. Seminoma in the testis presenting as hemospermia.

    PubMed

    Beji, Sami; Hoejgaard, Martin; Lyngdorf, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Hemospermia is often considered idiopathic. We report a case of a patient who presented with hemospermia. Scrotal examination and ultrasonography found a testis tumor. This case underscores the importance of scrotal examination and eventually ultrasound in patients presenting with hemospermia. PMID:23197969

  7. Seminoma in the Testis Presenting as Hemospermia

    PubMed Central

    Beji, Sami; Hoejgaard, Martin; Lyngdorf, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Hemospermia is often considered idiopathic. We report a case of a patient who presented with hemospermia. Scrotal examination and ultrasonography found a testis tumor. This case underscores the importance of scrotal examination and eventually ultrasound in patients presenting with hemospermia. PMID:23197969

  8. Malignant mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis testis

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, G.; Munn, C.S.; Kiser, L.C.; Wetzner, S.M.; Tarabulcy, E. )

    1989-08-01

    Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis is rare, but sometimes curable. It is similar to malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum and of the pleura, and is likewise associated with asbestos exposure. We report a case, with correlative computed tomography, ultrasound, and gross pathology images that demonstrate tiny tumor implants studding the vaginalis testis. The literature is reviewed.

  9. Suicide in men with testis cancer.

    PubMed

    Alanee, S; Russo, P

    2012-11-01

    Depression, anxiety and aggression are documented in testis cancer patients and can result in death from suicides; however, their risk of suicide is not defined. We report suicide rates among testis cancer patients in the USA and determine factors associated with higher rates. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database maintained by the National Cancer Institute to identify patients diagnosed with testis cancer between 1995 and 2008. Multivariate analysis was used to assess factors affecting suicide rate. Among 23,381 patients followed for 126,762 person-years, suicide rate was 26.0 per 100,000 person-years, with the average corresponding rate in the US population aged 25-44 years being 21.5 per 100,000 person-years; the calculated standardised mortality ratio for death by suicide was 1.2 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-2.1]. The standardised mortality ratio for suicide was 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-2.1) in ages less than 30 years, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.3-2.4) in men of races other than White and Black. Other patient and disease characteristics were not predictive. In conclusion, patients with testis cancer have a 20% increase in the risk of suicide over that of the general population, and races other than White and Black and younger patients may commit suicide at higher rates. PMID:22624649

  10. Torsion of a Large Appendix Testis Misdiagnosed as Pyocele

    PubMed Central

    Meher, Susanta; Rath, Satyajit; Sharma, Rakesh; Sasmal, Prakash Kumar; Mishra, Tushar Subhadarshan

    2015-01-01

    Torsion of the appendix testis is not an uncommon cause of acute hemiscrotum. It is frequently misdiagnosed as acute epididymitis, orchitis, or torsion of testis. Though conservative management is the treatment of choice for this condition, prompt surgical intervention is warranted when testicular torsion is suspected. We report a case of torsion of a large appendix testis misdiagnosed as pyocele. Emergency exploration of it revealed a large appendix testis with torsion and early features of gangrene. After excision of the appendix testis, the wound was closed with an open drain. The patient had an uneventful and smooth postoperative recovery. PMID:25861514

  11. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device,...

  12. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device,...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... continued rotation of an engine-driven cabin supercharger or any remote accessory driven by the engine will be a hazard if they malfunction, there must be means to prevent their hazardous rotation...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... continued rotation of an engine-driven cabin supercharger or any remote accessory driven by the engine will be a hazard if they malfunction, there must be means to prevent their hazardous rotation...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... continued rotation of an engine-driven cabin supercharger or any remote accessory driven by the engine will be a hazard if they malfunction, there must be means to prevent their hazardous rotation...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... continued rotation of an engine-driven cabin supercharger or any remote accessory driven by the engine will be a hazard if they malfunction, there must be means to prevent their hazardous rotation...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  7. [Guanidinoacetate-N-methyltransferase: location in mammalian retina and rat Harderian gland].

    PubMed

    Mardashchev, S R

    1975-01-01

    Homogenates of retinal external segments of rat, rabbit, beef and hen and of rat Harderian gland were found to possess a considerable activity of guanidineacetate-N-methyltransferase (GAMT, E.C. 2.1.1.2), comparable with the enzyme activity in liver, pancreas and testis. Permanent UV-illumination of rats (from 1 day to 1 week) resulted in the decrease of GAMT activity in retina and especially in Harderian gland. Caffeine (10(-4) M) and papaverine (10(-7) M) activated GAMT in retina and rat Harderian gland, while cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor (0.5-2 mkg/ml), eliminated caffeine-stimulated GAMT activity. Histamine (0.3 mkg/ml) inhibited GAMT activity both in retina and Harderian gland. A decrease of GAMT activity in retina, liver and testis of rat and an increase of the enzyme activity in rat pancreas and Harderian gland were observed in the presence of Mg2+ (5 mM). Physiological importance of GAMT and creatine in mammalian retina and rat Harderian gland is discussed. PMID:1203355

  8. Secretory and basal cells of the epithelium of the tubular glands in the male Mullerian gland of the caecilian Uraeotyphlus narayani (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Matthew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2004-12-01

    Caecilians are exceptional among the vertebrates in that males retain the Mullerian duct as a functional glandular structure. The Mullerian gland on each side is formed from a large number of tubular glands connecting to a central duct, which either connects to the urogenital duct or opens directly into the cloaca. The Mullerian gland is believed to secrete a substance to be added to the sperm during ejaculation. Thus, the Mullerian gland could function as a male accessory reproductive gland. Recently, we described the male Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and histochemistry. The present TEM study reports that the secretory cells of both the tubular and basal portions of the tubular glands of the male Mullerian gland of this caecilian produce secretion granules in the same manner as do other glandular epithelial cells. The secretion granules are released in the form of structured granules into the lumen of the tubular glands, and such granules are traceable to the lumen of the central duct of the Mullerian gland. This is comparable to the situation prevailing in the epididymal epithelium of several reptiles. In the secretory cells of the basal portion of the tubular glands, mitochondria are intimately associated with fabrication of the secretion granules. The structural and functional organization of the epithelium of the basal portion of the tubular glands is complicated by the presence of basal cells. This study suggests the origin of the basal cells from peritubular tissue leukocytes. The study also indicates a role for the basal cells in acquiring secretion granules from the neighboring secretory cells and processing them into lipofuscin material in the context of regression of the Mullerian gland during the period of reproductive quiescence. In these respects the basal cells match those in the epithelial lining of the epididymis of amniotes. PMID:15487004

  9. Bilateral synchronous plasmacytoma of the testis

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rona; Soman, Lali V.

    2016-01-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is usually seen in the head and neck regions and in the upper respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. Testis is a rare site for EMP, and bilateral synchronous testicular plasmacytoma occurring as an isolated event at initial presentation has been reported only once previously. We present herein the second such report in a 70-year-old man who underwent bilateral orchidectomy. PMID:27034568

  10. Thyroid Hormone and Leptin in the Testis

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Cristiane Fonte; Zamoner, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is primarily expressed in white adipose tissue; however, it is expressed in the hypothalamus and reproductive tissues as well. Leptin acts by activating the leptin receptors (Ob-Rs). Additionally, the regulation of several neuroendocrine and reproductive functions, including the inhibition of glucocorticoids and enhancement of thyroxine and sex hormone concentrations in human beings and mice are leptin functions. It has been suggested that thyroid hormones (TH) could directly regulate leptin expression. Additionally, hypothyroidism compromises the intracellular integration of leptin signaling specifically in the arcuate nucleus. Two TH receptor isoforms are expressed in the testis, TRa and TRb, with TRa being the predominant one that is present in all stages of development. The effects of TH involve the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli and Leydig cells during development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis. In this context, TH disorders are associated with sexual dysfunction. An endocrine and/or direct paracrine effect of leptin on the gonads inhibits testosterone production in Leydig cells. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effects of both hormones in the testis during hypothyroidism. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge regarding leptin and TH in the testis. PMID:25505448

  11. Is the Testis a Chemo-Privileged Site? Is There a Blood-Testis Barrier?

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Dhiren S; Leppert, John T; Rajfer, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer, primarily seminoma, has been increasing in many countries, including the United States. The testis is often the site of residual cancer after adequate treatment with systemic chemotherapy. The blood-testis barrier is commonly cited as the explanation for residual tumor within the gonad after chemotherapy and as the indication for delayed orchiectomy. Conversely, complete eradication of viable tumor from the primary site is common and argues against the testis as a “tumor sanctuary.” Residual tumor is also demonstrated within metastatic foci, and the disparity between the histopathologic response of the primary tumor and metastatic sites may be best explained by tumor heterogeneity and multiple tumor clones. Regardless of the scientific and academic arguments, delayed radical orchiectomy remains an important part of treatment for patients undergoing primary chemotherapy. PMID:17396169

  12. [Medicines and thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Tajtáková, M

    2012-02-01

    From their primary pharmacological effect, many drugs may also affect the thyroid gland function or the results of thyroid function tests. In addition to the drugs with a known effect on thyroid gland, including thionamides, thyroid hormones, recombinant TSH, iodine, iodide, amiodarone, lithium and heparin, novel compounds, including tyrosin-kinase inhibitors, immunomodulators and cytokines also have adverse effects on the thyroid gland. Novel drugs are then associated with new types of adverse thyroid effects. PMID:22463095

  13. Accessory breast tissue mimicking pedunculated lipoma.

    PubMed

    Husain, Musharraf; Khan, Sabina; Bhat, Ashraf; Hajini, Firdoos

    2014-01-01

    Accessory breast tissue is an uncommon condition which occurs in 0.4-6% of women. It is mostly located in the axilla where it can cause diagnostic difficulty, especially if it is unilateral and large. Usually it is bilateral and presents as an asymptomatic mass during pregnancy or lactation. The diagnosis of ectopic breast tissue is important as it can undergo the same pathological changes that occur in a normal breast, such as mastitis, fibrocystic disease and carcinoma. We present a case of a large right-sided accessory breast in a 32-year-old woman that was clinically diagnosed as pedunculated lipoma. However, subsequent histopathological examination proved it to be an accessory breast tissue with lactational changes. PMID:25006058

  14. Controlled Speed Accessory Drive demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    A Controlled Speed Accessory Drive System was examined in an effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars. Concept feasibility and the performance of a typical system during actual road driving conditions were demonstrated. The CSAD system is described as a mechanical device which limits engine accessory speeds, thereby reducing parasitic horsepower losses and improving overall vehicle fuel economy. Fuel consumption data were compiled for fleets of GSA vehicles. Various motor pool locations were selected, each representing different climatic conditions. On the basis of a total accumulated fleet usage of nearly three million miles, an overall fuel economy improvement of 6 percent to 7 percent was demonstrated. Coincident chassis dynamometer tests were accomplished on selected vehicles to establish the effect of different accessory drive systems on exhaust emissions, and to evaluate the magnitude of the mileage benefits which could be derived.

  15. Fungating accessory breast carcinoma in Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Badejo, O A

    1984-03-01

    Three cases of fungating accessory breast carcinoma out of a total of 22 malignant breast formations seen and treated in Ile-Ife, Nigeria between January 1977 and November 1981 are described. The clinical presentations, features and histologic findings are presented. The methods of management and the need for close observation as well as follow up for at least two years is emphasized. A frequency of 14% as seen in this series appears so high that one cannot describe the occurrence of malignant changes in the accessory breast as rare. PMID:6328710

  16. The melanocortin receptors and their accessory proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandrappa, Shwetha; Gorrigan, Rebecca J.; Clark, Adrian J. L.; Chan, Li F.

    2013-01-01

    The five melanocortin receptors (MCRs) named MC1R–MC5R have diverse physiological roles encompassing pigmentation, steroidogenesis, energy homeostasis and feeding behavior as well as exocrine function. Since their identification almost 20 years ago much has been learnt about these receptors. As well as interacting with their endogenous ligands the melanocortin peptides, there is now a growing list of important peptides that can modulate the way these receptors signal, acting as agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists. The discovery of melanocortin 2 receptor accessory proteins as a novel accessory factor to the MCRs provides further insight into the regulation of these important G protein-coupled receptor. PMID:23404466

  17. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  18. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

  19. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  20. Mammary Glands: Developmental Changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mammary gland progresses from the accumulation of a few cells in the embryonic ectoderm to a highly arborescent tubulo-alveolar gland capable of secreting a highly nutritious product for consumption. Throughout this progression, various changes occur during each developmental stage: prenatal, pr...

  1. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  2. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  3. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  4. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  5. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  6. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  7. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental electrosurgical unit and accessories is an...

  8. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental electrosurgical unit and accessories is an...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  14. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  15. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  16. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  17. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  18. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.600 Section... tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts, or tools will be treated as originating goods if...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  2. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872.6300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is...

  3. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  4. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  5. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  6. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.H., II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets.

  7. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endoscope and accessories. 876.1500 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An endoscope and accessories is a device used to provide access,...

  8. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endoscope and accessories. 876.1500 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An endoscope and accessories is a device used to provide access,...

  9. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endoscope and accessories. 876.1500 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An endoscope and accessories is a device used to provide access,...

  10. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endoscope and accessories. 876.1500 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An endoscope and accessories is a device used to provide access,...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  15. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  16. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  18. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  20. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  1. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  2. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  3. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hemodialysis system and accessories. 876.5820... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. A hemodialysis system and accessories is a device that...

  5. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  9. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864... Microscopes and accessories. (a) Identification. Microscopes and accessories are optical instruments used to enlarge images of specimens, preparations, and cultures for medical purposes. Variations of...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  11. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864... Microscopes and accessories. (a) Identification. Microscopes and accessories are optical instruments used to enlarge images of specimens, preparations, and cultures for medical purposes. Variations of...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  13. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864... Microscopes and accessories. (a) Identification. Microscopes and accessories are optical instruments used to enlarge images of specimens, preparations, and cultures for medical purposes. Variations of...

  14. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  15. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  16. Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory

    DOEpatents

    Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

    2005-05-31

    An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

  17. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  1. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... continued operation of the engine must be provided. (e) Each accessory driven by a gearbox that is not approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the... gearbox for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the gearbox oil system and...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... continued operation of the engine must be provided. (e) Each accessory driven by a gearbox that is not approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the... gearbox for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the gearbox oil system and...

  4. Circannual Testis Changes in Seasonally Breeding Mammals.

    PubMed

    Jimnez, Rafael; Burgos, Miguel; Barrionuevo, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    In the non-equatorial zones of the Earth, species concentrate their reproductive effort in the more favorable season. A consequence of seasonal breeding is seasonal testis regression, which implies the depletion of the germinative epithelium, permeation of the blood-testis barrier, and reduced androgenic function. This process has been studied in a number of vertebrates, but the mechanisms controlling it are not yet well understood. Apoptosis was assumed for years to be an important effector of seasonal germ cell depletion in all vertebrates, including mammals, but an alternative mechanism has recently been reported in the Iberian mole as well as in the large hairy armadillo. It is based on the desquamation of meiotic and post-meiotic germ cells as a consequence of altered Sertoli-germ cell adhesion molecule expression and distribution. Desquamated cells are either discarded alive through the epididymis, as in the mole, or subsequently die by apoptosis, as in the armadillo. Also, recent findings on the reproductive cycle of the greater white-toothed shrew at the meridional limits of its distribution area have revealed that the mechanisms controlling seasonal breeding are in fact far more plastic and versatile than initially suspected. Perhaps these higher adaptive capacities place mammals in a better position to face the ongoing climate change. PMID:26375035

  5. Mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis with prominent adenomatoid features: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lian-He; Yu, Juan-Han; Xu, Hong-Tao; Lin, Xu-Yong; Liu, Yang; Miao, Yuan; Wang, Liang; Fan, Chui-Feng; Jiang, Gui-Yang; Ding, Si-Lu; Li, Guang; Wang, En-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Malignant mesotheliomas of the testis arise from the tunica vaginalis, formed from the evagination of the abdominal peritoneum into the scrotum. It is an extremely rare tumor representing 0.3% to 5% of all malignant mesotheliomas. We presented an interesting case of 68-year-old male with swelling and slightly painful in the right scrotum. Histologically, the lesion were composed of small tubular, microcystic, gland lined by flattened epithelioid cells and vague signet ring cells set in a myxofibrous stroma, which is resemblance to adenomatoid tumor. But the tumor cells showed significant atypical cytologic morphology and invaded into spermatic cord tissue, which indicated the diagnosis of malignant tumor. Immunohistochemistry study showed positive expression of CK, CK5/6, CK7, Calretinin, D2-40 and Vimentin which indicated the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. This case of mesothelioma should be classified as epithelial in type. To our knowledge, the mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis with adenomatoid tumor-like microscopic features is very rare. PMID:25400801

  6. The intertubular compartment morphometry in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) testis.

    PubMed

    Costa, D S; Paula, T A R; Matta, S L P

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the intertubule element volume density, individual and total Leydig cells volume, Leydig cell number per testis and per gram of testis, and leydigosomatic index in adult capybaras. Eight capybaras from a commercial abattoir were utilized. The intertubular compartment volume density and the Leydig cells were 45.2 and 31.13%, respectively. The individual and total Leydig cell volumes were 8.51 and 2169.41 x 10(-12) mL, respectively. The Leydig cell number per testis was 3.8 billion and the Leydig cell number per gram of testis was 126 million. The leydigosomatic index was 0.037%. In conclusion, this study shows that capybaras have one of the greatest individual and total Leydig cell volume and Leydig cell volume density, and that the Leydig cell number per gram of testis is at least double the mean for mammals previously investigated in its order. PMID:16310104

  7. Computed tomographic imaging characteristics of the normal canine lacrimal glands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The canine lacrimal gland (LG) and accessory lacrimal gland of the third eyelid (TEG) are responsible for production of the aqueous portion of the precorneal tear film. Immune-mediated, toxic, neoplastic, or infectious processes can affect the glands directly or can involve adjacent tissues, with secondary gland involvement. Disease affecting these glands can cause keratoconjunctivitis sicca, corneal ulcers, and loss of vision. Due to their location in the orbit, these small structures are difficult to evaluate and measure, making cross-sectional imaging an important diagnostic tool. The detailed cross-sectional imaging appearance of the LG and TEG in dogs using computed tomography (CT) has not been reported to date. Results Forty-two dogs were imaged, and the length, width, and height were measured and the volume calculated for the LGs & TEGs. The glands were best visualized in contrast-enhanced CT images. The mean volume of the LG was 0.14 cm3 and the TEG was 0.1 cm3. The mean height, width, and length of the LG were, 9.36 mm, 4.29 mm, and 9.35 mm, respectively; the corresponding values for the TEG was 2.02 mm, 9.34 mm, and 7.90 mm. LG and TEG volume were positively correlated with body weight (p < 0.05). Conclusions Contrast-enhanced CT is a valuable tool for noninvasive assessment of canine lacrimal glands. PMID:24886364

  8. Gland With Cantilever Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Patrick B.

    1989-01-01

    Single-piece gland forms tight seal on probe or tube containing liquid or gas at high pressure. Gland and probe align as assembled by simple torquing procedure. Disconnected easily and reused at same site. Made from any of wide variety of materials so compatible with application. Cantilever ring at top of gland bites into wall of tube or probe, sealing it. Wall of tube or probe must be thick enough to accommodate deformation without rupturing. Maximum deformation designed in coordination with seating and deformation of boss or conical seal.

  9. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  10. Salivary gland infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physiology of the salivary glands. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 83. Jackson NM, Mitchell JL, Walvekar RR. ...

  11. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery to remove part or all of your thyroid gland. This operation is called thyroidectomy . You probably ... in just a few weeks. If you had thyroid cancer, you may need to have radioactive iodine ...

  12. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlarges in size in a process called benign hypertrophy, which means that the gland got larger without ... in several of the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, or BPH. Symptoms may include a slowed or ...

  13. Pineal and Pituitary Glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anatomy Neurons & Glial Cells Brain Meninges Spinal Cord Cranial Nerves Pineal and Pituitary Glands Abstracting, Coding, & Staging Topographic ... Anatomy & Physiology module on this Web site. « Previous (Cranial Nerves) Next (Abstracting, Coding, & Staging) » Contact Us | Privacy Policy | ...

  14. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions. PMID:26614702

  15. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  16. HIV Accessory Proteins versus Host Restriction Factors

    PubMed Central

    Strebel, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Primate immunodeficiency viruses, including HIV-1, are characterized by the presence of accessory genes such as vif, vpr, vpx, vpu, and nef. Current knowledge indicates that none of the primate lentiviral accessory proteins has enzymatic activity. Instead, these proteins interact with cellular ligands to either act as adapter molecules to redirect the normal function of host factors for virus-specific purposes or to inhibit a normal host function by mediating degradation or causing intracellular mislocalization/sequestration of the factors involved. This review aims at providing an update of our current understanding of how Vif, Vpu, and Vpx control the cellular restriction factors APOBEC3G, BST-2, and SAMHD1, respectively. PMID:24246762

  17. Accessory cells for β-cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Staels, W; De Groef, S; Heremans, Y; Coppens, V; Van Gassen, N; Leuckx, G; Van de Casteele, M; Van Riet, I; Luttun, A; Heimberg, H; De Leu, N

    2016-02-01

    Despite recent advances, insulin therapy remains a treatment, not a cure, for diabetes mellitus with persistent risk of glycaemic alterations and life-threatening complications. Restoration of the endogenous β-cell mass through regeneration or transplantation offers an attractive alternative. Unfortunately, signals that drive β-cell regeneration remain enigmatic and β-cell replacement therapy still faces major hurdles that prevent its widespread application. Co-transplantation of accessory non-islet cells with islet cells has been shown to improve the outcome of experimental islet transplantation. This review will highlight current travails in β-cell therapy and focuses on the potential benefits of accessory cells for islet transplantation in diabetes. PMID:26289770

  18. Accessory mineral records of tectonic environments? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, C.; Marschall, H. R.; Enea, F.; Taylor, J.; Jennings, E. S.

    2010-12-01

    Accessory mineral research continues to gather momentum as we seek to unleash their full potential. It is now widely recognised that robust accessory minerals, such as zircon, rutile, titanite, allanite and monazite, are archives of important trace elements that can help deduce metamorphic reaction history in metapelites, metabasites and other rock types. Moreover, they are important carriers of certain trace elements and govern or influence the products of partial melting and of fluid-rock interaction (e.g. magmas and mineralisation) in settings like subduction zones and hydrothermal systems. Perhaps most importantly, they can often be dated using the U-Th-Pb system. More recently, radiogenic (Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr) and stable (O) isotope systems have been applied and have further pushed the utility of accessory mineral research. In this talk I will discuss some of these advances towards one particular aim: the use of detrital accessory minerals for fingerprinting tectonic environments. This is a particularly laudable aim in Precambrian rocks, for which the preservation potential of orogenic belts and fossil subduction zones and their diagnostic metamorphic rocks is low. The implication is that our understanding of plate tectonics, particularly in the Archaean, is biased by the preserved in-tact rock record. An analogy is that Jack Hills zircons record evidence of Earth’s crust some 400 Ma before the preserved rock record begins. I will focus on some recent advances and new data from rutile and also the mineral inclusion record within zircon, which shows great promise for petrologic interpretation.

  19. The Mammalian Blood-Testis Barrier: Its Biology and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Mruk, Dolores D; Cheng, C Yan

    2015-10-01

    Spermatogenesis is the cellular process by which spermatogonia develop into mature spermatids within seminiferous tubules, the functional unit of the mammalian testis, under the structural and nutritional support of Sertoli cells and the precise regulation of endocrine factors. As germ cells develop, they traverse the seminiferous epithelium, a process that involves restructuring of Sertoli-germ cell junctions, as well as Sertoli-Sertoli cell junctions at the blood-testis barrier. The blood-testis barrier, one of the tightest tissue barriers in the mammalian body, divides the seminiferous epithelium into 2 compartments, basal and adluminal. The blood-testis barrier is different from most other tissue barriers in that it is not only comprised of tight junctions. Instead, tight junctions coexist and cofunction with ectoplasmic specializations, desmosomes, and gap junctions to create a unique microenvironment for the completion of meiosis and the subsequent development of spermatids into spermatozoa via spermiogenesis. Studies from the past decade or so have identified the key structural, scaffolding, and signaling proteins of the blood-testis barrier. More recent studies have defined the regulatory mechanisms that underlie blood-testis barrier function. We review here the biology and regulation of the mammalian blood-testis barrier and highlight research areas that should be expanded in future studies. PMID:26357922

  20. Interfacial behaviour of bovine testis hyaluronidase

    PubMed Central

    Belem-Gonçalves, Silvia; Tsan, Pascale; Lancelin, Jean-Marc; Alves, Tito L. M.; Salim, Vera M.; Besson, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    The interfacial properties of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were investigated by demonstrating the association of hyaluronidase activity with membranes prepared from bovine testis. Protein adsorption to the air/water interface was investigated using surface pressure-area isotherms. In whichever way the interfacial films were obtained (protein injection or deposition), the hyaluronidase exhibited a significant affinity for the air/water interface. The isotherm obtained 180 min after protein injection into a pH 5.3 subphase was similar to the isotherm obtained after spreading the same amount of protein onto the same subphase, indicating that bovine testicular hyaluronidase molecules adopted a similar arrangement and/or conformation at the interface. Increasing the subphase pH from 5.3 to 8 resulted in changes of the protein isotherms. These modifications, which could correspond to the small pH-induced conformational changes observed by Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy, were discussed in relation to the pH influence on the hyaluronidase activity. Adding hyaluronic acid, the enzyme substrate, to the subphase tested the stability of the interfacial properties of hyaluronidase. The presence of hyaluronic acid in the subphase did not modify the protein adsorption and allowed substrate binding to a preformed film of hyaluronidase at pH 5.3, the optimal pH for the enzyme activity. Such effects of hyaluronic acid were not observed when the subphase was constituted of pure water, a medium where the enzyme activity was negligible. These influences of hyaluronic acid were discussed in relation to the modelled structure of bovine testis hyaluronidase where a hydrophobic region was proposed to be opposite of the catalytic site. PMID:16771711

  1. Queen Conch (Strombus gigas) Testis Regresses during the Reproductive Season at Nearshore Sites in the Florida Keys

    PubMed Central

    Spade, Daniel J.; Griffitt, Robert J.; Liu, Li; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Feswick, April; Glazer, Robert A.; Barber, David S.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Queen conch (Strombus gigas) reproduction is inhibited in nearshore areas of the Florida Keys, relative to the offshore environment where conchs reproduce successfully. Nearshore reproductive failure is possibly a result of exposure to environmental factors, including heavy metals, which are likely to accumulate close to shore. Metals such as Cu and Zn are detrimental to reproduction in many mollusks. Methodology/Principal Findings Histology shows gonadal atrophy in nearshore conchs as compared to reproductively healthy offshore conchs. In order to determine molecular mechanisms leading to tissue changes and reproductive failure, a microarray was developed. A normalized cDNA library for queen conch was constructed and sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences GS-FLX pyrosequencer, producing 27,723 assembled contigs and 7,740 annotated transcript sequences. The resulting sequences were used to design the microarray. Microarray analysis of conch testis indicated differential regulation of 255 genes (p<0.01) in nearshore conch, relative to offshore. Changes in expression for three of four transcripts of interest were confirmed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis indicated changes in biological processes: respiratory chain (GO:0015992), spermatogenesis (GO:0007283), small GTPase-mediated signal transduction (GO:0007264), and others. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that Zn and possibly Cu were elevated in some nearshore conch tissues. Conclusions/Significance Congruence between testis histology and microarray data suggests that nearshore conch testes regress during the reproductive season, while offshore conch testes develop normally. Possible mechanisms underlying the testis regression observed in queen conch in the nearshore Florida Keys include a disruption of small GTPase (Ras)-mediated signaling in testis development. Additionally, elevated tissue levels of Cu (34.77 ng/mg in testis) and Zn (831.85 ng/mg in digestive gland, 83.96 ng/mg in testis) nearshore are similar to reported levels resulting in reproductive inhibition in other gastropods, indicating that these metals possibly contribute to NS conch reproductive failure. PMID:20856805

  2. Effect of the Y chromosome on testis weight in mice

    PubMed Central

    SATOU, Kunio; SUTO, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the Y chromosome on testis weight in (B6.Cg-Ay × Y-consomic mouse strain) F1 male mice. We obtained the following results: (1) Mice with the Mus musculus domesticus-type Y chromosome had significantly heavier testis than those with the M. m. musculus-type Y chromosome. (2) Variations in Usp9y and the number of CAG repeats in Sry were significantly associated with testes weight. The Ay allele was correlated with a reduced testis weight, and the extent of this reduction was significantly associated with a CAG repeat number polymorphism in Sry. These results suggest that Y chromosome genes not only influence testis weight but also modify the effect of the Ay allele in mediating this phenomenon. PMID:25716571

  3. Adenocarcinoma of rete testis with widespread liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenyu; Sheng, Chang; Cao, Lei; Wang, Dengshan

    2013-01-01

    The rete testis consists of a series of interconnected wide channels lined with a simple cuboidal to columnar epithelium. We report such a rare tumour in a 57-year-old male with widespread metastasis. PMID:24409217

  4. Organic and inorganic transporters of the testis: A review

    PubMed Central

    Klein, David M; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2014-01-01

    Transporters have a huge impact on the toxicology and pharmacological effects of xenobiotics in addition to being implicated in several diseases. While these important proteins have been well studied in organs such as the kidney or liver, characterization of transporters in the testis is still in the early stages. Knowledge of transporter function may greatly advance the field's understanding of the physiological and toxicological processes that occur in the testis. Several foundational studies involving both organic and inorganic transporters have been critical in furthering our understanding of how the testis interacts with endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. This review provides an overview of how transporters function, their clinical significance, and highlights what is known for many of the important transporters in the testis. PMID:26413398

  5. Ameboid cells in spermatogenic cysts of caecilian testis.

    PubMed

    Smita, Mathew; Jancy, M George; Akbarsha, M A; Oommen, Oommen V

    2005-03-01

    Sertoli cells constitute a permanent feature of the testis lobules in caecilians irrespective of the functional state of the testis. The developing germ cells are intimately associated with the Sertoli cells, which are adherent to the basal lamina, until spermiation. There are irregularly shaped cells in the cores of the testis lobules that interact with germ cells at the face opposite to their attachment with Sertoli cells. These irregularly shaped (ameboid) cells first appear in the lumen of the cysts containing primary spermatocytes and are continually present until spermiation. We did not observe any cytoplasmic continuity between a Sertoli cell and an ameboid cell. Both light microscopic and TEM observations reveal a phagocytic role for the ameboid cells: they scavenge the residual bodies shed by spermatozoa. Organization of the ameboid cells is grossly different from that of the spermatogenic and Sertoli cells. They appear to develop from the epithelium at the juncture of the collecting ductule with the testis lobule. PMID:15688448

  6. Undescended testis: a study of 212 cases treated surgically.

    PubMed

    Joseph, V T; Fong, P H

    1981-10-01

    Two hundred and twelve of undescended testes were operated on in the Department of Surgery, Singapore General Hospital between the years 1974 through 1980. There was a 51.9% incidence of right undescended testis, 34.9% left undescended testis and 13.2% were bilateral. The method of treatment was surgical exploration with orchidopexy wherever technically feasible or orchidectomy if the testis was found to be severely hypoplastic. Of the total series, 42% were operated on before the age of 5 years. The oldest patient undergoing orchidopery was aged 40. Failure of orchidopexy to secure the scrotal position for the testis was noted in 14 cases. This was probably due to inadequate mobilisation at the first operation. There was no mortality and no significant morbidity following surgical treatment in this series. PMID:6124206

  7. A modified cryosection method for mouse testis tissue.

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Xu, P X

    2001-04-01

    We have previously described a modified cryosection technique that improved the quality of histological sections as well as increasing the sensitivity to detect specific mRNA expression during early insect embryogenesis. Here, we report the use of this technique to produce high-quality sections of mouse testis tissue. The possibility of applying this technique to section the loose rat testis tissue is also discussed. PMID:11392674

  8. Spermatogenesis in Ferret Testis Xenografts: A New Model

    PubMed Central

    Gourdon, Jim C; Travis, Alexander J

    2011-01-01

    Testis xenografting is both a promising tool to study spermatogenesis and a means to preserve the genetic information and reproductive potential of prepubertal male animals. The present study was conducted to evaluate this technique using testis tissue from domestic ferrets, an important biomedical model and a model for the conservation of small carnivore species. Fresh testis tissue from 8-wk-old ferrets was implanted ectopically under the skin on the backs of castrated nude mice and subsequently evaluated for testosterone production and establishment of spermatogenesis at 10, 20, 25, and 30 wk after xenografting. A total of 40% of fresh ferret xenografts were harvested. Seminal vesicles were collected from the recipient mice and weighed as an assay for bioactive testosterone. The weights of seminal vesicles from the mice showed no significant difference from those of uncastrated, control nude mice, indicating that the xenografts were producing physiologically relevant amounts of testosterone. The ferret testis xenografts produced differentiating germ cells and sperm at the same time as did testis from age-matched control ferrets. These data demonstrate the ability of Mustelidae testicular tissue to establish spermatogenesis in nude mice after testis xenografting. PMID:21535925

  9. Testis expressed 19 is a novel cancer-testis antigen expressed in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jianhua; Chen, Yan; Liao, Xinhui; Li, Jiaqiang; Wang, Han; Wu, Chenglong; Zou, Xiaowen; Yang, Gang; Shi, Jing; Luo, Liya; Liu, Litao; Deng, Jianping; Tang, Aifa

    2016-06-01

    Bladder cancer exhibits high mortality as a result of limited therapeutic options and a high recurrence rate. Accordingly, novel treatments such as immunotherapy have emerged as promising therapeutic modalities to prolong overall patient survival and effect a disease cure, which has renewed enthusiasm for the identification of tumor-specific target antigens. Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are recognized as ideal targets for immunotherapy because of their expression features and high immunogenicity profiles. Here, we investigate the expression pattern of a novel CT antigen, testis-expressed 19 (TEX19), in patients with bladder carcinoma and among multiple human tissues. Six bladder cancer cell lines (T24, UM-UC-3, J82, 5637, SW780, and RT4) were also analyzed for TEX19 expression. Our results reveal that TEX19 expression in normal tissue is restricted to human testis. In addition, TEX19 mRNA expression was detected in 60 % (24/40) bladder cancer samples, whereas 58.20 % (110/189) were positive for TEXT19 protein expression. Compared to low-grade tumors, TEX19 exhibited increased expression in high-grade tumors, from 53.69 to 77.14 %, respectively (P = 0.011). TEX19 was also expressed in all six bladder cancer cell lines. Together, our findings suggest that TEX19 represents a novel CT gene and might play a role in the progression of bladder cancer and that this gene therefore provides a potential target for immunotherapy treatment strategies against bladder cancer. PMID:26695143

  10. Accessory slips of the extensor digiti minimi.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Mao, Qing Hua

    2014-01-01

    During the educational dissection of a 69-year-old Chinese male cadaver, an extensor digiti minimi (EDM) with five slips on the right hand was discovered. Except for the two slips of the little finger, the two radial slips were inserted into the dorsal aponeurosis of the middle finger and the ring finger, respectively. The middle slip was connected to the junctura tendinum in the fourth intermetacarpal spaces. Variations in this region are of paramount importance for the reconstructive surgeons, who may utilize the accessory slips to restore functional capacity of the fingers. PMID:24970007

  11. Sources of the porcine testis innervation.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, W

    2010-12-01

    This study was carried out on three adult male pigs of the large White Polish breed weighing 110-130 kg each. The animals were anaesthetised and injected with retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB) into right testis. Three weeks later, the pigs were deeply anaesthetised and perfused transcardially with fixative (4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7.4). Collected ganglia were cut with freezing microtome into 12-μm-thick sections. The sections were examined under a fluorescent microscope (Zeiss). FB-positive neurones were found in pelvic ganglia (anterior pelvic ganglion) (15.4% of all FB(+) neurones), prevertebral ganglia (caudal mesenteric, testicular, aortico-renal and renal ganglia) (59% of all FB(+) neurones), sympathetic chain ganglia (last four lumbar and first three sacral ganglia) (18.1% of all FB(+) neurones) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) (first three lumbar and first three sacral ganglia) (7.4% of all FB(+) neurones). The majority of FB-positive nerve cell bodies were observed in ipsilateral ganglia, but they were also found in contralateral ganglia (approximately 85% and 15% respectively). Thus, FB-positive neurones were located in the left prevertebral, sympathetic chain and DRG, but surprisingly, they were absent in left anterior pelvic ganglia. PMID:21105891

  12. Cancer/testis antigens and urological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Prakash; Shiraishi, Takumi; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Kim, Robert; Mooney, Steven M.; Getzenberg, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are a group of tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) that display normal expression in the adult testis—an immune-privileged organ—but aberrant expression in several types of cancers, particularly in advanced cancers with stem cell-like characteristics. There has been an explosion in CTA-based research since CTAs were first identified in 1991 and MAGE-1 was shown to elicit an autologous cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in a patient with melanoma. The resulting data have not only highlighted a role for CTAs in tumorigenesis, but have also underscored the translational potential of these antigens for detecting and treating many types of cancers. Studies that have investigated the use of CTAs for the clinical management of urological malignancies indicate that these TAAs have potential roles as novel biomarkers, with increased specificity and sensitivity compared to those currently used in the clinic, and therapeutic targets for cancer immunotherapy. Increasing evidence supports the utilization of these promising tools for urological indications. PMID:22710665

  13. Gestational bisphenol A exposure and testis development

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Cecilia; Bondesson, Maria; Krementsov, Dimitry N; Teuscher, Cory

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all humans are exposed to bisphenol A (BPA). Since BPA can act as a ligand for estrogen receptors, potential hazardous effects of BPA should be evaluated in the context of endogenous estrogenic hormones. Because estrogen is metabolized in the placenta, developing fetuses are normally exposed to very low endogenous estrogen levels. BPA, on the other hand, passes through the placenta and might have distinct adverse consequences during the sensitive stages of fetal development. Testicular gametogenesis and steroidogenesis begin early during fetal development. These processes are sensitive to estrogens and play a role in determining the number of germ stem cells, sperm count, and male hormone levels in adulthood. Although studies have shown a correlation between BPA exposure and perturbed reproduction, a clear consensus has yet to be established as to whether current human gestational BPA exposure results in direct adverse effects on male genital development and reproduction. However, studies in animals and in vitro have provided direct evidence for the ability of BPA exposure to influence male reproductive development. This review discusses the current knowledge of potential effects of BPA exposure on male reproductive health and whether gestational exposure adversely affects testis development. PMID:26167515

  14. Intraduct papilloma of parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    King, P H; Hill, J

    1993-01-01

    Intraduct papillomas of the salivary glands are rare solitary tumours. Most of the reported cases have occurred in minor salivary glands. A case which occurred in the parotid gland is reported. Fine needle aspiration was performed on this tumour, and the cytological appearances of the aspirate were suggestive of an adenoid cystic carcinoma. This is an important potential diagnostic pitfall which should be borne in mind when interpreting aspirates from salivary gland tumours. Images PMID:8384642

  15. Accessory Cavitated Uterine Mass: A Rare Cause of Severe Dysmenorrhea in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Paul, P G; Chopade, Gaurav; Das, Tanuka; Dhivya, N; Patil, Saurabh; Thomas, Manju

    2015-01-01

    We present 3 case reports of a rare Müllerian anomaly called accessory and cavitated uterine mass (ACUM), which is found in young women >30 years of age. They presented with severe dysmenorrhea refractory to medical treatment. The patients were 17, 19, and 25 years old. The patients had the classic Müllerian anomalies. The hysteroscopic examination was normal in all 3 cases, and laparoscopic examination showed a 3- to 4-cm ill-defined mass on the right half of the uterus, without any communication to the uterine cavity. The chocolate-colored material was drained in all of the cases, during excision of the mass. The myometrial defect was sutured laparoscopically. On histological examination, the mass was found to be a cystic cavity, lined by endometrial glands and stroma, which confirmed the diagnosis of ACUM. PMID:26093186

  16. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... your screen to choose another section to continue reading this guide. ‹ Salivary Gland Cancer - Medical Illustrations up Salivary Gland Cancer - Screening › f t g e P + H Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Salivary Gland ...

  17. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children. PMID:26614703

  18. Bartholin's Gland Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    MENU ... vagina were the face of a clock, these glands would be found at about 4 and 8 o'clock. Normally they are invisible. They make a small amount of fluid that lubricates the vaginal lips. If a flap of skin grows over ...

  19. The mammalian rete testis--a morphological examination.

    PubMed

    Dym, M

    1976-12-01

    The fine structure of the rete testis was examined in several primates, domestic animals and rodents. The rete testis consists of a series of interconnected wide channels lined with a simple cuboidal to columnar epithelium, resting on a thick basal lamina. Beneath the basal lamina dense bundles of collagen fibrils and a few blood vessels, lymphatics or nerve tissue are found. The epithelial cells are characterized by large, deeply indented nuclei, spherical or short rod-shaped mitochondria, supranuclear Golgi profiles, some cisterns of rough endoplasmic reticulum, free ribosomes and numerous micropinocytotic vesicles in the ectoplasmic regions. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, secretory granules, lysosomes or other types of dense bodies are rarely seen. The apical surface of the cells bears numerous microvilli and a single very long flagellum which is presumed to be motile. Ajoining lateral cell membranes exhibit a juxtaluminal tight junction, elaborate interdigitations and desmosomes. The basal plasma membrane is highly irregular greatly increasing its surface area of contact with the underlying interstitium. The nuclei of the rete epithelial cells contain pale-staining, spherical structure, 2 mum in diameter, composed of circularly oriented fine filaments. The significance of the nuclear structures remains unknown. Thorotrast was injected into the lumen of the hamster and rat rete testis and 30 minutes later the proximal portion of the excurrent duct system of the testis was prepared for electron microscopy. Whereas the ductuli efferentes and first part of the epididymis possessed numerous apical vesicles filled with the thorotrast, this electron opaque substance was rarely found in the epithelium of the rete testis. Thus, incorporation of particulate matter into the lining cells of the rete from its lumen is apparently less active than in the epithelium of the ductuli and epididymis. Vascularly introduced intercellular tracer compounds such as lanthanum nitrate or horseradish peroxidase did not enter the lumen of the rete testis from the interstitium. The tracer molecules appeared to be blocked by the juxtaluminal tight junction separating adjacent epithelial cells. This latter observation suggests that a blood-testis barrier exists at the level of the rete testis epithelium. Although physiological studies have indicated that the composition of fluid secreted in the seminiferous epithelium is considerably modified in the rete testis, the present morphological study does not provide additional evidence to support a secretory or absorptive function for this region of the excurrent duct system of the testis. PMID:827216

  20. Heterogeneity of Ovarian Theca and Interstitial Gland Cells in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miyabayashi, Kanako; Tokunaga, Kaori; Otake, Hiroyuki; Baba, Takashi; Shima, Yuichi; Morohashi, Ken-ichirou

    2015-01-01

    It has been established that two developmentally and functionally distinct cell types emerge within the mammalian testis and adrenal gland throughout life. Fetal and adult types of steroidogenic cells (i.e., testicular Leydig cells and adrenocortical cells) develop in the prenatal and postnatal period, respectively. Although the ovary synthesizes steroids postnatally, the presence of fetal-type steroidogenic cells has not been described. We had previously established transgenic mouse lines in which fetal Leydig cells were labeled with an EGFP reporter gene by the FLE (fetal Leydig enhancer) of the Ad4BP/SF-1 (Nr5a1) gene. In the present study, we examined the reporter gene expression in females and found that the reporter gene is turned on in postnatal ovaries. A comparison of the expressions of the EGFP and marker genes revealed that EGFP is expressed in not all but rather a proportion of steroidogenic theca and in interstitial gland cells in the ovary. This finding was further supported by experiments using BAC transgenic mice in which reporter gene expression recapitulated endogenous Ad4BP/SF-1 gene expression. In conclusion, our observations from this study strongly suggest that ovarian theca and interstitial gland cells in mice consist of at least two cell types. PMID:26039146

  1. Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Patients with Male Accessory Gland Infection: Usefulness of the Ultrasound Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita A.; Vicari, Enzo; Mongioi, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the ultrasound (US) features of 20 patients with MAGI and concomitant papilloma virus (HPV) infection compared to 20 patients with microbial (presence of Chlamydia trachomatis alone) MAGI and 20 patients with amicrobial (inflammatory) MAGI. Patients with HPV infection showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher total prostate, seminal vesicles, and epididymal US signs (18.0 ± 2.0) compared to the other 2 groups (12.0 ± 4.0 versus 10.0 ± 3.0, resp.). In addition, patients with MAGI and HPV had a higher prevalence of complicated forms of MAGI [prostatovesiculitis (PV) and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (PVE)] and a higher frequency of the fibrosclerotic variant compared to the other groups (70.0 ± 10.0% versus 48.0 ± 5.0% versus 15.0 ± 10.0%). Moreover, HPV infected patients had a higher number of US criteria suggestive for MAGI in the periurethral region of the prostate compared to the other groups. In particular, the patients showed a higher ratio between periurethral and lobar US criteria distribution (5.0 versus 0.5). Finally, the seminal fluid concentration of CD45pos leukocytes (2.0 ± 0.2 versus 1.3 ± 0.3 versus 1.0 ± 0.3 mil/mL) was significantly higher and sperm progressive motility was significantly lower in these patients compared to other groups.

  2. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  3. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic fluid... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories....

  4. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic fluid... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories....

  5. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic fluid... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories....

  6. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic fluid... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories....

  7. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive...

  8. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive...

  9. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive...

  10. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive...

  11. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  13. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  14. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  17. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  18. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  19. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  20. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  2. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  3. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  5. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884.2660... Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to transmit and receive ultrasonic energy into and from the pregnant...

  6. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories... Monitoring Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to apply ultrasonic energy to, and to receive...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope and accessories. (a) Identification....

  8. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive...

  9. Simon Effect with and without Awareness of the Accessory Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treccani, Barbara; Umilta, Carlo; Tagliabue, Mariaelena

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated whether a Simon effect could be observed in an accessory-stimulus Simon task when participants were unaware of the task-irrelevant accessory cue. In Experiment 1A a central visual target was accompanied by a suprathreshold visual lateral cue. A regular Simon effect (i.e., faster cue-response corresponding reaction times…

  10. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. 884... Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic...

  11. Diethylstilbestrol affects the expression of GPER in the gubernaculum testis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Ke, Song; Chen, Kai-Hong; Li, Jian-Hong; Ma, Lian; Jiang, Xue-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggested a positive correlation between environmental estrogens (EEs) and high incidence of abnormalities in male urogenital system. EEs are known to cause the abnormalities of testes development and testicular descent. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a nonsteroidal synthetic estrogen that disrupts the morphology and proliferation of gubernacular cells, and its nongenomic effects on gubernaculum testis cells may be mediated by G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). In this study, we detected the expression of GPER in mouse gubernacular testis and investigated the effects of DES on the expression of GPER in gubernaculum testis cells. RT-PCR analysis revealed that GPER mRNA was expressed in the gubernaculum. GPER protein was detected in the parenchymal cells of the gubernaculum early in development. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GPER inhibitor G15 relieved DES-induced inhibition of GPER expression in gubernaculum testis cell, but ER inhibitor ICI 182780 had the converse effects on DES-induced inhibition of GPER expression in these cells. These data suggest that the effects of DES on mouse gubernaculum testis cells are mediated at least partially by the regulation of GPER expression. PMID:26261617

  12. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens: prime candidates for immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gjerstorff, Morten F.; Andersen, Mads H.; Ditzel, Henrik J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer/testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic functions, including support of growth, survival and metastasis. This novel insight into the function of cancer/testis antigens has the potential to deliver more effective cancer vaccines. Moreover, immune targeting of oncogenic cancer/testis antigens in combination with conventional cytotoxic therapies or novel immunotherapies such as checkpoint blockade or adoptive transfer, represents a highly synergistic approach with the potential to improve patient survival. PMID:26158218

  13. Alkaline phosphatase activity in whitefly salivary glands and saliva.

    PubMed

    Funk, C J

    2001-04-01

    Alkaline phosphatase activity was histochemically localized in adult whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci B biotype, syn. B. argentifolii) with a chromogenic substrate (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolylphosphate) and a fluorogenic substrate (ELF-97). The greatest amount of staining was in the basal regions of adult salivary glands with additional activity traced into the connecting salivary ducts. Other tissues that had alkaline phosphatase activity were the accessory salivary glands, the midgut, the portion of the ovariole surrounding the terminal oocyte, and the colleterial gland. Whitefly nymphs had activity in salivary ducts, whereas activity was not detected in two aphid species (Rhodobium porosum and Aphis gossypii). Whitefly diet (15% sucrose) was collected from whitefly feeding chambers and found to have alkaline phosphatase activity, indicating the enzyme was secreted in saliva. Further studies with salivary alkaline phosphatase collected from diet indicated that the enzyme had a pH optimum of 10.4 and was inhibited by 1 mM cysteine and to a lesser extent 1 mM histidine. Dithiothreitol, inorganic phosphate, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) also inhibited activity, whereas levamisole only partially inhibited salivary alkaline phosphatase. The enzyme was heat tolerant and retained approximately 50% activity after a 1-h treatment at 65 degrees C. The amount of alkaline phosphatase activity secreted by whiteflies increased under conditions that stimulate increased feeding. These observations indicate alkaline phosphatase may play a role during whitefly feeding. PMID:11304750

  14. Hunting for eruption ages in accessory minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    A primary goal in geochronology is to provide precise and accurate ages for tephras that serve as chronostratigraphic markers for constraining the timing and rates of volcanism, sedimentation, climate change, and catastrophic events in Earth history. Zircon remains the most versatile accessory mineral for dating silicic tephras due to its common preservation in distal pyroclastic deposits, as well as the robustness of its U-Pb and U-series systems even after host materials have been hydrothermally altered or weathered. Countless studies document that zircon may be complexly zoned in age due to inheritance, contamination, recycling of antecrysts, protracted crystallization in long-lived magma reservoirs, or any combination of these. Other accessory minerals such as allanite or chevkinite can retain similar records of protracted crystallization. If the goal is to date the durations of magmatic crystallization, differentiation, and/or magma residence, then these protracted chronologies within and between accessory minerals are a blessing. However, if the goal is to date the timing of eruption with high precision, i.e., absolute ages with millennial-scale uncertainties, then this age zoning is a curse. Observations from ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of Pleistocene zircon and allanite provide insight into the record of near-eruption crystallization in accessory minerals and serve as a guide for high-precision whole-crystal dating. Although imprecise relative to conventional techniques, ion probe analysis allows high-spatial resolution 238U-230Th dating that can document multi-millennial age distributions at the crystal scale. Analysis of unpolished rims and continuous depth profiling of zircon from small and large volume eruptions (e.g., Coso, Mono Craters, Yellowstone) reveals that the final several micrometers of crystallization often yield ages that are indistinguishable from associated eruption ages from the 40Ar/39Ar or (U-Th)/He methods. Using this approach, we have derived relatively precise (± ~ 5%, 2σ) U-Th isochron ages from the unpolished rims of pumice-derived allanite and zircon from late Pleistocene Wilson Creek Formation tephras in eastern California, whose ages are controversial and have been difficult to resolve via 40Ar/39Ar and radiocarbon dating. Allanite and zircon rims from Ashes 7-19 in the lower portion of Wilson Creek sediments yield stratigraphically consistent ages of ca. 27 ka to ca. 62 ka, with a minority of crystals identifiable as xenocrysts from early Mono Craters rhyolites. Model ages for the interiors of allanite crystals are mostly < 10 k.y. older than their rims. Tephra deposited during the geomagnetic excursion debated to be either the Mono Lake or Laschamp event yields a rim isochron age of ca. 41 ka. This age is indistinguishable from an independent age of 41 ka derived at the latter excursion's type locality in France (Singer et al., 2009) as well as from age-models for deep-sea sediments. The results are in excellent agreement with a previously determined chronology derived from magnetostratigraphy (Zimmerman et al., 2006). Refs: Singer et al., 2009, EPSL 286: 80-88; Zimmerman et al., 2006, EPSL 252: 94-106

  15. Fluid assisted installation of electrical cable accessories

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Robert W.; Silva, Frank A.

    1977-01-01

    An electrical cable accessory includes a generally tubular member of elastomeric material which is to be installed by placement over a cylindrical surface to grip the cylindrical surface, when in appropriate assembled relation therewith, with a predetermined gripping force established by dilation of the tubular member, the installation being facilitated by introducing fluid under pressure, through means provided in the tubular member, between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface, and simultaneously impeding the escape of the fluid under pressure from between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface by means adjacent one of the ends of the tubular member to cause dilation of the tubular member and establish a fluid layer between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface, thereby reducing the gripping force during installation.

  16. Morphology and Proteome Characterization of the Salivary Glands of the Western Chinch Bug (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    PubMed

    Ramm, Crystal; Wayadande, Astri; Baird, Lisa; Nandakumar, Renu; Madayiputhiya, Nandakumar; Amundsen, Keenan; Donze-Reiner, Teresa; Baxendale, Frederick; Sarath, Gautam; Heng-Moss, Tiffany

    2015-08-01

    The western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber, is a serious pest of buffalograss, Buchloe dactyloides (Nuttall) due to physical and chemical damage caused during the feeding process. Although previous work has investigated the feeding behaviors of chinch bugs in the Blissus complex, no study to date has explored salivary gland morphology and the associated salivary complex of this insect. Whole and sectioned B. occiduus salivary glands were visualized using light and scanning electron microscopy to determine overall structure and cell types of the salivary glands and their individual lobes. Microscopy revealed a pair of trilobed principal glands and a pair of tubular accessory glands of differing cellular types. To link structure with function, the salivary gland proteome was characterized using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The salivary proteome analysis resulted in B. occiduus sequences matching 228 nonhomologous protein sequences of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), with many specific to the proteins present in the salivary proteome of A. pisum. A number of sequences were assigned the molecular function of hydrolase and oxido-reductase activity, with one specific protein sequence revealing a peroxidase-like function. This is the first study to characterize the salivary proteome of B. occiduus and the first of any species in the family Blissidae. PMID:26470353

  17. Morphology of the turtle accessory optic system.

    PubMed

    Martin, John; Kogo, Naoki; Fan, Tian Xing; Ariel, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Neural signals of the moving visual world are detected by a subclass of retinal ganglion cells that project to the accessory optic system in the vertebrate brainstem. We studied the dendritic morphologies and direction tuning of these brainstem neurons in turtle (Pseudemys scripta elegans) to understand their role in visual processing. Full-field checkerboard patterns were drifted on the contralateral retina while whole-cell recordings were made in the basal optic nucleus in an intact brainstem preparation in vitro. Neurobiotin diffused into the neurons during the recording and was subsequently localized in brain sections. Neuronal morphologies were traced using appropriate computer software to analyze their position in the brainstem. Most labeled neurons were fusiform in shape and had numerous varicosities along their processes. The majority of dendritic trees spread out in a transverse plane perpendicular to the rostrocaudal axis of the nucleus. Neurons near the brainstem surface were often oriented tangential to that surface, whereas more cells at the dorsal side of the nucleus were oriented radial to the brainstem surface. Further analysis of Nissl-stained neurons revealed the largest neurons are located in the rostral and medial portions of the nucleus although neurons are most densely packed in the middle of the nucleus. The preferred directions of the visual responses of the neurons in this sample did not correlate with their morphology and position in the nucleus. Therefore, the morphology of the cells in the turtle accessory optic system appears dependent on its position within the nucleus while its visual responses may depend on the synaptic inputs that contact each cell. PMID:15088717

  18. Macrophages Contribute to the Spermatogonial Niche in the Adult Testis.

    PubMed

    DeFalco, Tony; Potter, Sarah J; Williams, Alyna V; Waller, Brittain; Kan, Matthew J; Capel, Blanche

    2015-08-18

    The testis produces sperm throughout the male reproductive lifespan by balancing self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Part of the SSC niche is thought to lie outside the seminiferous tubules of the testis; however, specific interstitial components of the niche that regulate spermatogonial divisions and differentiation remain undefined. We identified distinct populations of testicular macrophages, one of which lies on the surface of seminiferous tubules, in close apposition to areas of tubules enriched for undifferentiated spermatogonia. These macrophages express spermatogonial proliferation- and differentiation-inducing factors, such as colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) and enzymes involved in retinoic acid (RA) biosynthesis. We show that transient depletion of macrophages leads to a disruption in spermatogonial differentiation. These findings reveal an unexpected role for macrophages in the spermatogonial niche in the testis and raise the possibility that macrophages play previously unappreciated roles in stem/progenitor cell regulation in other tissues. PMID:26257171

  19. TGF-β superfamily: how does it regulate testis development.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yun-Shu; Hu, Yan-Jun; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2012-04-01

    Testis development is a highly regulated sequence of developmental process that spans from the establishment of germ cell lineage during embryonic development to the periodic wave of spermatogenesis in adulthood. The normal development of testes and the fertility of male animals require specific cell types to respond correctly at a specific time point, the process of which is precisely regulated by various factors. Several members of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily are shown to be the key mediators. They act as the extracellular ligand of signaling transduction that regulates the proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cell behaviors to help coordinate the physiology of the cells to the overall development of the testis and the organism. This paper reviews the current understanding of some of TGF-βs' major regulatory roles in the overall process of testis development, analyzes the current studies and their limitations and points out the research areas that need further investigation. PMID:21947950

  20. Expression and Localization of Lung Surfactant Proteins in Human Testis

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Walter; Matthies, Cord; Ruf, Christian; Hartmann, Arndt; Garreis, Fabian; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    Background Surfactant proteins (SPs) have been described in various tissues and fluids including tissues of the nasolacrimal apparatus, airways and digestive tract. Human testis have a glandular function as a part of the reproductive and the endocrine system, but no data are available on SPs in human testis and prostate under healthy and pathologic conditions. Objective The aim of the study was the detection and characterization of the surfactant proteins A, B, C and D (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D) in human testis. Additionally tissue samples affected by testicular cancer were investigated. Results Surfactant proteins A, B, C and D were detected using RT-PCR in healthy testis. By means of Western blot analysis, these SPs were detected at the protein level in normal testis, seminoma and seminal fluid, but not in spermatozoa. Expression of SPs was weaker in seminoma compared to normal testicular tissue. SPs were localized in combination with vimentin immunohistochemically in cells of Sertoli and Leydig. Conclusion Surfactant proteins seem to be inherent part of the human testis. By means of physicochemical properties the proteins appear to play a role during immunological and rheological process of the testicular tissue. The presence of SP-B and SP-C in cells of Sertoli correlates with their function of fluid secretion and may support transportation of spermatozoa. In seminoma the expression of all SP's was generally weaker compared to normal germ cells. This could lead to a reduction of immunomodulatory and rheology processes in the germ cell tumor. PMID:26599233

  1. Pseudoneoplastic lesions of the testis and paratesticular structures

    PubMed Central

    Mikuz, G.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Trias, I.; Arce, Y.; Montironi, R.; Egevad, L.; Scarpelli, M.; Lopez-Beltran, A.

    2007-01-01

    Pseudotumors or tumor-like proliferations (non-neoplastic masses) and benign mimickers (non-neoplastic cellular proliferations) are rare in the testis and paratesticular structures. Clinically, these lesions (cysts, ectopic tissues, and vascular, inflammatory, or hyperplastic lesions) are of great interest for the reason that, because of the topography, they may be relevant as differential diagnoses. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the pseudoneoplasic entities arising in the testis and paratesticular structures; emphasis is placed on how the practicing pathologist may distinguish benign mimickers and pseudotumors from true neoplasia. These lesions can be classified as macroscopic or microscopic mimickers of neoplasia. PMID:17805564

  2. Molecular characterization of insulin-like androgenic gland hormone-binding protein gene from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense and investigation of its transcriptional relationship with the insulin-like androgenic gland hormone gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Fajun; Bai, Hongkun; Xiong, Yiwei; Fu, Hongtuo; Jiang, Sufei; Jiang, Fengwei; Jin, Shubo; Sun, Shengming; Qiao, Hui; Zhang, Wenyi

    2015-05-15

    Insulin-like androgenic gland hormone-binding protein (IAGBP) has been investigated in crustaceans in vitro. However, the relationship between IAGBP and its putative binding protein partner insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) has not been studied at the transcriptional level in vivo. In the current study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of IAGBP from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (Mn-IAGBP) and investigated the transcriptional patterns of Mn-IAGBP and the M. nipponense IAG gene (Mn-IAG) at different developmental stages and in different tissues. Mn-IAGBP mRNA was detected in all examined tissues from adult male prawns, with the highest transcriptional levels in the testis. Mn-IAG mRNA was detected in the androgenic gland and hepatopancreas. The genomic sequences of Mn-IAGBP and Mn-IAG were isolated by genome walking and two gene copies were found in both Mn-IAGBP and Mn-IAG. The relationship between Mn-IAGBP and Mn-IAG at the transcriptional level was studied by RNA interference. Injection of Mn-IAGBP double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) significantly reduced the transcription of Mn-IAG, while injection of Mn-IAG dsRNA significantly reduced the transcription of Mn-IAGBP in testis, muscle, androgenic gland, and hepatopancreas. These results demonstrate the involvement of the IAGBP gene in IAG signaling in M. nipponense. PMID:25558010

  3. Multiple bilateral submandibular gland sialolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Sunder, V S; Chakravarthy, C; Mikkilinine, R; Mahoorkar, S

    2014-01-01

    Sialolithiasis accounts for the most common etiology of salivary gland obstruction which leads to recurrent painful swelling of the involved gland which often exacerbates while eating. Stones may be encountered in any of the salivary glands but most frequently in the submandibular gland and its duct. Simultaneous sialolithiasis in more than one salivary gland is rare, occurring in fewer than 3% of cases. Seventy to 80% of cases feature solitary stones; only about 5% of patients have three or more stones, the case report which we are presenting here had three submandibular sialoliths involving both the submandibular glands which were removed by intraoral approach and no post-operative complications were noted. PMID:24326820

  4. Accessory spleen compromising response to splenectomy for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    SciTech Connect

    Ambriz, P.; Munoz, R.; Quintanar, E.; Sigler, L.; Aviles, A.; Pizzuto, J.

    1985-06-01

    Accessory spleens were sought in 28 patients who had undergone splenectomy for chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), using a variety of techniques. Abdominal scintigraphy with autologous erythrocytes labeled with Tc-99m and opsonized with anit-D IgG (radioimmune method) proved to be most useful, clearly demonstrating one or more accessory spleens in 12 cases (43%). Computed tomography (CT) was also helpful. Four out of five patients demonstrated an increased platelet count following surgery, the effectiveness of which was illustrated by the radioimmune scan. Patients who have had splenectomy for chronic ITP should be scanned using radioimmune techniques and CT to determine whether an accessory spleen is present.

  5. Airway Gland Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Widdicombe, Jonathan H; Wine, Jeffrey J

    2015-10-01

    Submucosal glands contribute to airway surface liquid (ASL), a film that protects all airway surfaces. Glandular mucus comprises electrolytes, water, the gel-forming mucin MUC5B, and hundreds of different proteins with diverse protective functions. Gland volume per unit area of mucosal surface correlates positively with impaction rate of inhaled particles. In human main bronchi, the volume of the glands is ∼ 50 times that of surface goblet cells, but the glands diminish in size and frequency distally. ASL and its trapped particles are removed from the airways by mucociliary transport. Airway glands have a tubuloacinar structure, with a single terminal duct, a nonciliated collecting duct, then branching secretory tubules lined with mucous cells and ending in serous acini. They allow for a massive increase in numbers of mucus-producing cells without replacing surface ciliated cells. Active secretion of Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) by serous cells produces most of the fluid of gland secretions. Glands are densely innervated by tonically active, mutually excitatory airway intrinsic neurons. Most gland mucus is secreted constitutively in vivo, with large, transient increases produced by emergency reflex drive from the vagus. Elevations of [cAMP]i and [Ca(2+)]i coordinate electrolyte and macromolecular secretion and probably occur together for baseline activity in vivo, with cholinergic elevation of [Ca(2+)]i being mainly responsive for transient increases in secretion. Altered submucosal gland function contributes to the pathology of all obstructive diseases, but is an early stage of pathogenesis only in cystic fibrosis. PMID:26336032

  6. Metastases to major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Batsakis, J G; Bautina, E

    1990-06-01

    Secondary neoplastic involvement of the major salivary glands, most often the parotid, can be from regional (supraclavicular) and distant (infraclavicular) primary neoplasms. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas and melanomas are the most frequent offenders, and their numbers dominate all statistics dealing with metastases to the salivary glands and their lymph nodes. Carcinomas of the lungs, breast, and kidneys are the most frequent infraclavicular neoplasms that metastasize to the major salivary glands, and they most often manifest a hematogenous dissemination. Supraclavicular primary disease metastasizes to the salivary glands and their lymph nodes via a more diverse manner: direct extension, lymphatic spread, or, less often, blood vascular transport. PMID:2350137

  7. Main accessory sulcus of the liver.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Parenti, Anna; Macchi, Carlo; Newell, Richard; De Caro, Raffaele

    2005-01-01

    It has been proposed that the superficial part of the portal fissures weakens the surface hepatic parenchyma, allowing the development of accessory sulci caused by diaphragmatic pressure. To evaluate the relationship of the sulci in the antero-superior surface of the right liver with the right portal fissure, macroscopic post mortem examination of 85 livers was carried out and radio-opaque resins were injected into the portal and hepatic venous systems to obtain vascular casts. After formalin fixation, the 85 livers also underwent CT and MR scans and 3D image elaboration. Diaphragmatic sulci were found in 32 cases. We studied the sulci located in the right liver, i.e., those that lay to the right of the line of Cantlie. They were found in 28 instances and in 16 cases they were multiple. In the livers with a single sulcus, it extended between the anterior and right surfaces of the right liver and showed a curved course downward and forward, toward the inferior margin. In the cases with multiple sulci, one sulcus always showed a course similar to that of the single sulci. The 28 sulci, with similar position and course, showed variable characteristics (mean length=7.6 +/- 2.7 cm, mean width=0.8 +/- 0.7 cm, mean depth=1.4 +/- 0.8 cm). Both radiological images and corrosion casts showed a correspondence between these sulci and the right hepatic vein and the right portal fissure in 71% of cases. These sulci may represent the variable expression (cranial, intermediate, or caudal portions) of a potential sulcus, the main accessory sulcus (MAS), that develops along a theoretically predictable course corresponding to the superficial part of the right portal fissure. The high prevalence of location of the MAS at the level of the upper part of the right portal fissure can be ascribed to the presence at this level of the watershed between the roots of the tributaries of the hepatic veins coming from segments VIII and VII, draining respectively into the middle and right hepatic veins. Thus, the coexistence of the two portal and hepatic venous boundaries may represent a further predisposition to the effects of diaphragmatic pressure. The MAS may represent a marking for the right portal fissure, and hence a superficial reference for the deep course of the right hepatic vein. PMID:15597371

  8. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., stirrups, and belts used to support a patient in a suitable position for endoscopic procedures of the lower... § 876.9. (2) Class I for the manually powered table and accessories, and for stirrups for...

  9. Accessory proteins for heterotrimeric G-proteins in the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Park, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins play a fundamentally important role in regulating signal transduction pathways in the kidney. Accessory proteins are being identified as direct binding partners for heterotrimeric G-protein α or βγ subunits to promote more diverse mechanisms by which G-protein signaling is controlled. In some instances, accessory proteins can modulate the signaling magnitude, localization, and duration following the activation of cell membrane-associated receptors. Alternatively, accessory proteins complexed with their G-protein α or βγ subunits can promote non-canonical models of signaling activity within the cell. In this review, we will highlight the expression profile, localization and functional importance of these newly identified accessory proteins to control the function of select G-protein subunits under normal and various disease conditions observed in the kidney. PMID:26300785

  10. INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 2. SHOWING ORIGINAL TILE. CERAMIC ACCESSORIES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 2. SHOWING ORIGINAL TILE. CERAMIC ACCESSORIES, AND MARBLE THRESHOLD. VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type G, 205 Seventh Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Complete Spinal Accessory Nerve Palsy From Carrying Climbing Gear.

    PubMed

    Coulter, Jess M; Warme, Winston J

    2015-09-01

    We report an unusual case of spinal accessory nerve palsy sustained while transporting climbing gear. Spinal accessory nerve injury is commonly a result of iatrogenic surgical trauma during lymph node excision. This particular nerve is less frequently injured by blunt trauma. The case reported here results from compression of the spinal accessory nerve for a sustained period-that is, carrying a load over the shoulder using a single nylon rope for 2.5 hours. This highlights the importance of using proper load-carrying equipment to distribute weight over a greater surface area to avoid nerve compression in the posterior triangle of the neck. The signs and symptoms of spinal accessory nerve palsy and its etiology are discussed. This report is particularly relevant to individuals involved in mountaineering and rock climbing but can be extended to anyone carrying a load with a strap over one shoulder and across the body. PMID:25937552

  12. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... abutments, aid in the fabrication of dental prosthetics, and be used as an accessory with endosseous dental..., countertorque devices, placement and removal tools, laboratory pieces used for fabrication of dental...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... abutments, aid in the fabrication of dental prosthetics, and be used as an accessory with endosseous dental..., countertorque devices, placement and removal tools, laboratory pieces used for fabrication of dental...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... abutments, aid in the fabrication of dental prosthetics, and be used as an accessory with endosseous dental..., countertorque devices, placement and removal tools, laboratory pieces used for fabrication of dental...

  15. Accessory soleus muscle: a problem of awareness.

    PubMed

    Chittaranjan, B S; Babu, N V; Abraham, G

    1994-07-01

    Reports of accessory soleus muscle are rare, perhaps as a result of it often remaining unrecognized. It presents as a swelling behind the ankle and may be mistaken for a tumour or inflammatory lesion, as occurred in the first of a series of three cases. The other two were incidental findings, one in a 30 year old man with an open tibial fracture and the other in a 9 month old child with a club foot. Patients present with either pain or a diagnostic problem. When large, it may make wearing of footwear difficult. Computerized tomography with electromyography enables confirmation of the diagnosis. Pain is relieved by epimysiotomy and when encountered incidentally during surgery, incision of the epimysium is all that is needed. Excision of the muscle may be considered only if wearing of footwear is difficult. The significance of its presence in a case of club foot is unknown. Disinsertion of its insertion was all that was required to obtain surgical correction of the deformity in the present case. Awareness of the condition will prevent unnecessary surgery in asymptomatic cases. PMID:8010925

  16. PERSISTENT PUPILLARY MEMBRANE OR ACCESSORY IRIS MEMBRANE?.

    PubMed

    Gavriş, Monica; Horge, Ioan; Avram, Elena; Belicioiu, Roxana; Olteanu, Ioana Alexandra; Kedves, Hanga

    2015-01-01

    Frequently, in literature and curent practice, accessory iris membrane (AIM) and persistant pupillary membrane (PPM) are confused. Both AIM and PPM are congenital iris anomalies in which fine or thick iris strands arrise form the collarette and obscure the pupil. AIM, which is also called iris duplication, closely resembles the normal iris tissue in color and thickness and presents a virtual second pseudopupil aperture in the centre while PPM even in its extreme forms presents as a translucent or opaque membranous structure that extends across the pupil and has no pseudopupil. Mydriatiscs, laser treatment or surgery is used to clear the visual axis and optimize visual development. Surgical intervention is reserved for large, dense AIMs and PPMs. Our patient, a 29 year old male, has come with bilateral dense AIM, bilateral compound hyperopic astigmatism, BCVA OD = 0.6, BCVA OS = 0.4, IOP OU = 17 mmHg. To improve the visual acuity of the patient we decided to do a bilateral membranectomy, restoring in this way transparency of the visual axis. After surgery, the visual acuity improved to BCVA OD= 0.8, BCVA OS=0.8. PMID:26978889

  17. Accessory food factors: understanding the catalytic function.

    PubMed

    Braun, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    Despite the practical knowledge throughout the nineteenth century that citrus fruit cured scurvy, and that rickets and beriberi were diseases caused by poor diet, it was not until 1901 that animal feeding experiments led one investigator to propose the existence of 'accessory food factors,' a lack of which was determined to be the cause of some illnesses (Hopkins, 1949. In Joseph Needham and E. Baldwin (eds.), Hopkins and Biochemistry, 1861-1947: Papers Concerning Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, O.M., P.R.S., with a Selection of His Addresses and a Bibliography of His Publications. Cambridge: W. Heffer and Sons Ltd). The discovery of vitamins has long been considered as a delayed discovery. This delay has been attributed to the power of the germ theory in physiology at the time. While the germ theory and theories of auto-intoxication certainly played a role in delaying the discovery of vitamins, I argue further that it is important to consider the difference made to physiology by understanding the vitamins' catalytic function. The profound difference made to physiology by the vitamins' catalytic function suggests that a vitamin concept had previously been systematically inaccessible to researchers working within the conceptual framework of Bernardian physiology. PMID:21069437

  18. Post-hatching development of Alligator mississippiensis ovary and testis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brandon C.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Botteri, Nicole L.; Lawler, Ashley N.; Mathavan, Ketan K.; Guillette, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated ovary and testis development of Alligator mississippiensis during the first five months post-hatch. To better describe follicle assembly and seminiferous cord development, we employed histochemical techniques to detect carbohydrate-rich extracellular matrix components in one-week, one-month, three-month, and five-month-old gonads. We found profound morphological changes in both ovary and testis. During this time, oogenesis progressed up to diplotene arrest and meiotic germ cells increasingly interacted with follicular cells. Concomitant with follicles becoming invested with full complements of granulosa cells, a periodic acid Schiff’s (PAS)-positive basement membrane formed. As follicles enlarged and thecal layers were observed, basement membranes and thecal compartments gained periodic acid-methionine silver (PAMS)-reactive fibers. The ovarian medulla increased first PAS- and then PAMS-reactivity as it fragmented into wide lacunae lined with low cuboidal to squamous epithelia. During this same period, testicular germ cells found along the tubule margins were observed progressing from spermatogonia to round spermatids located within the center of tubules. Accompanying this meiotic development, interstitial Leydig cell clusters become more visible and testicular capsules thickened. During the observed testis development, the thickening tunica albuginea and widening interstitial tissues showed increasing PAS- and PAMS-reactivity. We observed putative inter-sex structures in both ovary and testis. On the coelomic aspect of testes were cell clusters with germ cell morphology and at the posterior end of ovaries, we observed “medullary rests” resembling immature testis cords. We hypothesize laboratory conditions accelerated gonad maturation due to optimum conditions, including nutrients and temperature. Laboratory alligators grew more rapidly and with increased body conditions compared to previous measured, field-caught animals. Additionally, we predict the morphological maturation observed in these gonads is concomitant with increased endocrine activities. PMID:20013789

  19. Drug transporters, the blood–testis barrier, and spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Linlin; Mruk, Dolores D; Cheng, C Yan

    2015-01-01

    The blood–testis barrier (BTB), which is created by adjacent Sertoli cells near the basement membrane, serves as a ‘gatekeeper’ to prohibit harmful substances from reaching developing germ cells, most notably postmeiotic spermatids. The BTB also divides the seminiferous epithelium into the basal and adluminal (apical) compartment so that postmeiotic spermatid development, namely spermiogenesis, can take place in a specialized microenvironment in the apical compartment behind the BTB. The BTB also contributes, at least in part, to the immune privilege status of the testis, so that anti-sperm antibodies are not developed against antigens that are expressed transiently during spermatogenesis. Recent studies have shown that numerous drug transporters are expressed by Sertoli cells. However, many of these same drug transporters are also expressed by spermatogonia, spermatocytes, round spermatids, elongating spermatids, and elongated spermatids, suggesting that the developing germ cells are also able to selectively pump drugs ‘in’ and/or ‘out’ via influx or efflux pumps. We review herein the latest developments regarding the role of drug transporters in spermatogenesis. We also propose a model utilized by the testis to protect germ cell development from ‘harmful’ environmental toxicants and xenobiotics and/or from ‘therapeutic’ substances (e.g. anticancer drugs). We also discuss how drug transporters that are supposed to protect spermatogenesis can work against the testis in some instances. For example, when drugs (e.g. male contraceptives) that can perturb germ cell adhesion and/or maturation are actively pumped out of the testis or are prevented from entering the apical compartment, such as by efflux pumps. PMID:21134990

  20. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  1. Tuberculosis of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Iserì, Mete; Aydìner, Omer; Celìk, Levent; Peker, Onder

    2005-04-01

    Tuberculosis of the parotid gland is very rare and clinically indistinguishable from a neoplasm. Thus the diagnosis of parotid gland involvement with tuberculosis has traditionally been made after surgical resection. We present a case which was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology and managed medically. PMID:15949089

  2. Derivation of sperm from xenografted testis cells and tissues of the peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    PubMed

    Campos-Junior, Paulo Henrique Almeida; Costa, Guilherme Mattos Jardim; Avelar, Gleide Fernandes; Lacerda, Samyra Maria Santos Nassif; da Costa, Nathália Nogueira; Ohashi, Otávio Mitio; Miranda, Moysés dos Santos; Barcelos, Lucíola Silva; Jorge, Erika Cristina; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; de França, Luiz Renato

    2014-03-01

    Because the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) has a peculiar Leydig cell cytoarchitecture, this species represents a unique mammalian model for investigating testis function. Taking advantage of the well-established and very useful testis xenograft technique, in the present study, testis tissue and testis cell suspensions from immature collared peccaries (n=4; 3 months old) were xenografted in SCID mice (n=48) and evaluated at 2, 4, 6, and 8 months after grafting. Complete spermatogenesis was observed at 6 and 8 months after testis tissue xenografting. However, probably due to de novo testis morphogenesis and low androgen secretion, functionally evaluated by the seminal vesicle weight, a delay in spermatogenesis progression was observed in the testis cell suspension xenografts, with the production of fertile sperm only at 8 months after grafting. Importantly, demonstrating that the peculiar testicular cytoarchitecture of the collared peccary is intrinsically programmed, the unique Leydig cell arrangement observed in this species was re-established after de novo testis morphogenesis. The sperm collected from the xenografts resulted in diploid embryos that expressed the paternally imprinted gene NNAT after ICSI. The present study is the first to demonstrate complete spermatogenesis with the production of fertile sperm from testis cell suspension xenografts in a wild mammalian species. Therefore, due to its unique testicular cytoarchitecture, xenograft techniques, particularly testis cell suspensions, may represent a new and very promising approach to evaluate testis morphogenesis and to investigate spermatogonial stem cell physiology and niche in the collared peccary. PMID:24324205

  3. Genetic dissection of testis weight in a mouse strain having an extremely large testis: major testis weight determinants are autosomal rather than Y-linked on the basis of comprehensive analyses in Y-chromosome consomic strains

    PubMed Central

    Suto, Jun-ichi

    2008-01-01

    I investigated the potential contribution of Y-linked genes by analyzing 16 Y-consomic strains that had been established on a DH-strain background. The results provided evidence that only the Y chromosome from the C3H/HeJ strain was different from most other inbred strains. The CBA strain has the lightest testis and the DDD strain has the heaviest testis among mouse strains; however, Y-consomic analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in testis weight among DH, DH-Chr YDDD, and DH-Chr YCBA strains, suggesting that YDDD and YCBA themselves do not influence testis weight. QTL analysis in DDD × DH F2 mice identified significant testis weight QTLs on chromosomes 9, 14, and 17, and the DDD allele at all these loci was associated with an increase in testis weight. Contribution of Y chromosome itself to testis weight was thus rather modest, and therefore, major testis weight determinants are autosomal. However, it was uncertain whether there would be any effects by interactions between Y chromosomal and autosomal genes. PMID:18997451

  4. Improvement of Mercuric Chloride-Induced Testis Injuries and Sperm Quality Deteriorations by Spirulina platensis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Desoky, Gaber E.; Bashandy, Samir A.; Alhazza, Ibrahim M.; Al-Othman, Zeid A.; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A. M.; Yusuf, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) on mercury (II) chloride (HgCl2)-induced oxidative damages and histopathological alterations in the testis of Wistar albino rats. The animals were divided into four equal groups, i) control, ii) HgCl2, iii) S. platensis and iv) combination of HgCl2+S. platensis. Oxidative stress, induced by a single dose of HgCl2 (5 mg/kg, bw; subcutaneously, s.c.), substantially decreased (P<0.01) the activity level of testicular key enzymatic antioxidant biomarkers (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT and glutathione peroxidase, GPx), oxidative stress makers (blood hydroperoxide; testicular reduced glutathione, GSH and malondialdehyde, MDA), and testicular mercury levels. Moreover, HgCl2 administration resulted in a significant (P<0.01) increase in the number of sperms with abnormal morphology and decrease in epididymal sperm count, motility, plasma testosterone level and testicular cholesterol. Furthermore, HgCl2 exposure induced histopathological changes to the testis including morphological alterations of the seminiferous tubules, and degeneration and dissociation of spermatogenic cells. Notably, oral pretreatment of animals with Spirulina (300 mg/kg, bw) lowered the extent of the observed HgCl2-mediated toxicity, whereby significantly reducing the resulting lipid peroxidation products, mercury accumulation in the testis, histopathological changes of the testes and spermatozoal abnormalities. In parallel, the pretreatment with Spirulina also completely reverted the observed Hg-Cl2-induced inhibition in enzymatic activities of antioxidant biomarkers (SOD, CAT and GPx) back to control levels. The pretreatment of rats with S. platensis significantly recovered the observed HgCl2-mediated decrease in the weight of accessory sex organs. Taken together, our findings clearly highlight the role of S. platensis as a protective modulator of HgCl2-induced testicular injuries and suggest some therapeutic potential in mammals. Further investigation of therapeutic strategies employing Spirulina against heavy metals toxicity in humans is therefore warranted. PMID:23555627

  5. [Revisiting meibomian gland dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Baudouin, C

    2014-12-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunctions (MGD) are frequent affections, sometimes asymptomatic, more often responsible for disabling, potentially severe, manifestations. MGD is indeed the most frequent cause of dry eye, through the induction of tear film instability. However, eyelid inflammation, microbial proliferation that modifies melting temperature of meibum, frequent association with skin diseases, as well as potentially severe corneal complications make them complex multifactorial disorders. Complementary mechanisms combine to actually result in a vicious circle, or more accurately a double vicious cycle. The first one is self-stimulated by the microbiological changes, which create their own conditions for MGD development. The second one is related to tear film instability that results from MGD and is also self-stimulated through hyperosmolarity and inflammatory phenomena, which are both consequence and cause of dry eye. We herein propose a new pathophysiological schema on MGD, in order to better identify mechanisms and more efficiently target therapeutics. PMID:25455142

  6. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  7. Intervention of D-glucose ameliorates the toxicity of streptozotocin in accessory sex organs of rat

    SciTech Connect

    Vikram, A.; Tripathi, D.N.; Ramarao, P.; Jena, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is a naturally occurring compound isolated from Streptomyces achromogens. It is used extensively for inducing diabetes in experimental animals. Diabetes mellitus is known to have proven adverse effects on male sexual organs and their reproductive functions. The atrophy of prostate gland and other organs of the genitourinary tract were observed in experimental diabetic animals. STZ exhibits a structural resemblance to D-glucose due to the presence of sugar moiety in its structure. Pancreatic {beta}-cells mainly contain GLUT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Possibly due to structural resemblance, STZ and D-glucose, share a common recognition site for entry into the {beta}-cells. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of D-glucose on STZ-induced toxicity in accessory sex organs of male rats. Animals were kept on overnight fasting. One group received vehicle and served as negative control, while all other groups were given STZ (45 mg/kg). Animals that received only STZ served as positive control. The effect of D-glucose was studied on STZ treated animals with different dosage of D-glucose (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg). Restoration of body weight, plasma glucose and plasma insulin was evident only at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of D-glucose. The protective effect of D-glucose is evident only when it is administered simultaneously with STZ. In the present investigation, we report that simultaneous administration of D-glucose along with STZ ameliorates STZ-induced toxicity. This is evident from the restoration of accessory sex organ's weight, cellular morphology as well as insulin level.

  8. Alterations in the developing testis transcriptome following embryonic vinclozolin exposure.

    PubMed

    Clement, Tracy M; Savenkova, Marina I; Settles, Matthew; Anway, Matthew D; Skinner, Michael K

    2010-11-01

    The current study investigates the direct effects of in utero vinclozolin exposure on the developing F1 generation rat testis transcriptome. Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to vinclozolin during embryonic gonadal sex determination induces epigenetic modifications of the germ line and transgenerational adult onset disease states. Microarray analyses were performed to compare control and vinclozolin treated testis transcriptomes at embryonic days 13, 14 and 16. A total of 576 differentially expressed genes were identified and the major cellular functions and pathways associated with these altered transcripts were examined. The sets of regulated genes at the different development periods were found to be transiently altered and distinct. Categorization by major known functions of altered genes was performed. Specific cellular process and pathway analyses suggest the involvement of Wnt and calcium signaling, vascular development and epigenetic mechanisms as potential mediators of the direct F1 generation actions of vinclozolin. PMID:20566332

  9. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumor of the Rete Testis

    PubMed Central

    Sajadi, Kamran P.; Dalton, Rory R.; Brown, James A.

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm. PMID:19125206

  10. Testis-sparing surgery for benign and malignant testicular tumours.

    PubMed

    Chandak, P; Shah, A; Taghizadeh, A; Tiptaft, R; Dasgupta, P

    2003-12-01

    We report the technique of testis-sparing surgery in three young men with testicular tumours, two of which were found to be benign (Leydig cell tumour and benign teratoma) and one malignant (seminoma) on frozen section and final pathological evaluation. The principles of clamping the spermatic cord with a soft bowel clamp, testicular cooling with ice slush, tumour enucleation with clear margins, meticulous haemostasis and frozen section analysis were followed. Testicular preservation was successful in the patients with benign disease. The patient with seminoma was found to have a separate nodule of invasive, poorly differentiated seminoma in the residual testis, which had not been detected on preoperative ultrasound scanning. As a result he was converted to radical orchidectomy. PMID:14712896

  11. Clinical NIR spectroscopy and optical tomography of the testis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, Uwe; Schleicher, Eckhard; Zepnick, H.; Freyer, Richard

    2001-10-01

    Optical tomography and NIR spectroscopy are potential methods to improve the diagnosis of testicular pathologies. To evaluate the methods clinically we developed a special measurement device with the capability of spatially resolved laser spectroscopy and optical tomography of the testis. Simple spectroscopy is primarily used to obtain global tissue optical properties of the testis and to find correlations of optical parameters with type and stage of certain pathologies. Optical tomography is applied to visualize spectral contrasts in limited tissue volumes, such as tumors. In the course of the study we will determine whether NIR techniques posses the required specifity and sensitivity to give additional quantitative information about tissue perfusion parameters and to serve for a tumor differentiation.

  12. Formation of the blood-testis barrier in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Sun, E L; Gondos, B

    1986-01-01

    The time of establishment of the blood-testis barrier in the rabbit was studied by electron microscopy using lanthanum nitrate. This electron-dense tracer was present in the intercellular spaces in all regions of the seminiferous cords in 7- to 9-week-old animals. In 10- and 11-week-old rabbits, the penetration of lanthanum nitrate was restricted to the basal region of the seminiferous cords. Closer examination revealed the presence of numerous tight junctions between adjacent Sertoli cells. The morphological appearance of these junctions was similar to those described previously in other mammals. Entry of the tracer substance was restricted at these junctions. Pachytene germ cells, which reside beyond the junctions, were never surrounded by the tracer. Based on our observations it was concluded that the blood-testis barrier in the rabbit is formed between the 9th and 10th postnatal week, and that it is functionally effective by the 10th week. PMID:2420463

  13. FlyTED: the Drosophila Testis Gene Expression Database

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Klyne, Graham; Benson, Elizabeth; Gudmannsdottir, Elin; White-Cooper, Helen; Shotton, David

    2010-01-01

    FlyTED, the Drosophila Testis Gene Expression Database, is a biological research database for gene expression images from the testis of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. It currently contains 2762 mRNA in situ hybridization images and ancillary metadata revealing the patterns of gene expression of 817 Drosophila genes in testes of wild type flies and of seven meiotic arrest mutant strains in which spermatogenesis is defective. This database has been built by adapting a widely used digital library repository software system, EPrints (http://eprints.org/software/), and provides both web-based search and browse interfaces, and programmatic access via an SQL dump, OAI-PMH and SPARQL. FlyTED is available at http://www.fly-ted.org/. PMID:19934263

  14. Bilateral cystic dysplasia of the rete testis with renal adysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bouron-Dal Soglio, Dorothée; Harvey, Isabelle; Jovanovic, Mubina; Oligny, Luc L; Fournet, Jean-Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Cystic dyplasia of the rete testis (CDRT) is an uncommon, generally unilateral lesion characterized by anastomosing cystic spaces lined by a flattened simple cuboidal epithelium in the rete testis. In the literature this lesion often is associated with an ipsilateral urogenital lesion such as renal agenesia or multicystic dysplasia of the kidney, in order of frequency. The pathogenesis is explained by some authors by their common embryologic origin. We are reporting the finding of bilateral CDRT associated with ultrasound-diagnosed renal adysplasia in a 20-week gestational age fetus with oligohydramnios. Although CDRT has been referred to as being associated with multicystic renal dysplasia or renal agenesis, the present case appears to be unique in combining all the malformations together. PMID:16822083

  15. Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis.

    PubMed

    Sajadi, Kamran P; Dalton, Rory R; Brown, James A

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm. PMID:19125206

  16. ALTERATIONS IN THE DEVELOPING TESTIS TRANSCRIPTOME FOLLOWING EMBRYONIC VINCLOZOLIN EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Tracy M.; Savenkova, Marina I.; Settles, Matthew; Anway, Matthew D.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigates the direct effects of in utero vinclozolin exposure on the developing F1 generation rat testis transcriptome. Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to vinclozolin during embryonic gonadal sex determination induces epigenetic modifications of the germ line and transgenerational adult onset disease states. Microarray analyses were performed to compare control and vinclozolin treated testis transcriptomes at embryonic day 13, 14 and 16. A total of 576 differentially expressed genes were identified and the major cellular functions and pathways associated with these altered transcripts were examined. The sets of regulated genes at the different development periods were found to be transiently altered and distinct. Categorization by major known functions of altered genes was performed. Specific cellular process and pathway analyses suggest the involvement of Wnt and calcium signaling, vascular development and epigenetic mechanisms as potential mediators of the direct F1 generation actions of vinclozolin. PMID:20566332

  17. Tissue-specific binding of testis nuclear proteins to a sequence element within the promoter of the testis-specific histone H1t gene.

    PubMed

    Grimes, S R; Wolfe, S A; Koppel, D A

    1992-08-01

    The rat histone H1t gene is transcribed only in testis germinal cells. This testis-specific chromosomal protein is first synthesized during spermatogenesis in pachytene spermatocytes and the entire complement of testis histones is replaced during the midspermatid stage of spermiogenesis by positively charged transition nuclear proteins TP1 and TP2. Mobility shift assays conducted using crude nuclear protein extracts from different tissues and an 18-bp DNA sequence element within the H1t promoter as a probe reveal binding only with nuclear proteins from testis. The binding is specifically competed with an excess of the same unlabeled DNA fragment but not with heterologous competitors. A larger oligonucleotide corresponding to the same sequence element plus 18 bp of the adjacent downstream H1/CCAAT element binds nuclear proteins from all tissues tested, but a unique low mobility band is formed only with testis extracts. Protein-DNA crosslinking experiments reveal that two major polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 13 and 30 kDa bind to the 18-bp H1t promoter sequence element. This strong correlation between the tissue where the H1t gene is transcribed and the presence of testis-specific nuclear proteins that bind to a sequence element within the testis histone H1t promoter supports the possibility that these DNA-binding proteins may participate in formation of an active transcription initiation complex with the testis H1t promoter. PMID:1632632

  18. The extensive set of accessory Pseudomonas aeruginosa genomic components.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Sarah; Klockgether, Jens; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Khaledi, Ariane; Schniederjans, Monika; Chouvarine, Philippe; Tmmler, Burkhard; Hussler, Susanne

    2014-07-01

    Up to 20% of the chromosomal Pseudomonas aeruginosa DNA belong to the so-called accessory genome. Its elements are specific for subgroups or even single strains and are likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Similarities of the accessory genomic elements to DNA from other bacterial species, mainly the DNA of ?- and ?-proteobacteria, indicate a role of interspecies HGT. In this study, we analysed the expression of the accessory genome in 150 clinical P.aeruginosa isolates as uncovered by transcriptome sequencing and the presence of accessory genes in eleven additional isolates. Remarkably, despite the large number of P.aeruginosa strains that have been sequenced to date, we found new strain-specific compositions of accessory genomic elements and a high portion (10-20%) of genes without P.aeruginosa homologues. Although some genes were detected to be expressed/present in several isolates, individual patterns regarding the genes, their functions and the possible origin of the DNA were widespread among the tested strains. Our results demonstrate the unaltered potential to discover new traits within the P.aeruginosa population and underline that the P.aeruginosa pangenome is likely to increase with increasing sequence information. PMID:24766399

  19. Tumors of the Testis: Morphologic Features and Molecular Alterations.

    PubMed

    Howitt, Brooke E; Berney, Daniel M

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews the most frequently encountered tumor of the testis; pure and mixed malignant testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), with emphasis on adult (postpubertal) TGCTs and their differential diagnoses. We additionally review TGCT in the postchemotherapy setting, and findings to be integrated into the surgical pathology report, including staging of testicular tumors and other problematic issues. The clinical features, gross pathologic findings, key histologic features, common differential diagnoses, the use of immunohistochemistry, and molecular alterations in TGCTs are discussed. PMID:26612222

  20. A case of submandibular gland mucocele.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Kenya; Inui, Madoka; Nakase, Minoru; Nakamura, Shinnosuke; Hiramoto, Kenichi; Tagawa, Toshiro

    2007-01-01

    Submandibular Gland Mucocele:The mucocele occuring in the submandibular region is rare, most cases originate in the sublingual gland. Here, we report a rare case of mucocele originating in the submandibular gland. In this report, we present such a case in a 7-year-old boy, who was treated by an extirpation of cyst with submandibular and sublingual gland PMID:17550049

  1. Immunotherapy in Multiple Myeloma Using Cancer-Testis Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh; Seifi-Alan, Mahnaz; Shamsi, Roshanak; Esfandiary, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Context: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell malignancy characterized by monoclonal expansion of abnormal plasma cells in the bone marrow. It accounts for 10% of hematological malignancies. Although patients respond to a wide range of anticancer modalities, relapse occurs in a significant number of the cases. Immunotherapeutic approaches have been evolved to tackle this problem. Cancer-testis antigens CTAs as a group of tumor-associated antigens are appropriate targets for cancer immunotherapy as they have restricted expression pattern in normal tissues except for testis which is an immune-privileged site. Expression of these antigens has been assessed in different malignancies including MM. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a computerized search of the MEDLINE/PubMed databases with key words: multiple myeloma, cancer-testis antigen, and cancer stem cell and immunotherapy. Results: Several CTAs including NY-ESO-1, MAGE and GAGE family have been shown to be expressed in MM patients. Cellular and humoral immune responses against these antigens have been detected in MM patients. Conclusions: The frequent and high expression level of CTAs in MM patients shows that these antigens can be applied as cancer biomarkers as well as targets for immunotherapy in these patients. PMID:26634107

  2. Id4 Marks Spermatogonial Stem Cells in the Mouse Testis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Feng; Xu, Qing; Zhao, Danfeng; Degui Chen, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis is a classic adult stems cell–dependent process, supported by the self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). However, the identification of SSCs and elucidation of their behaviors in undisturbed testis has long been a big challenge. Here, we generated a knock-in mouse model, Id4-2A-CreERT2-2A-tdTomato, which allowed us to mark Id4-expressing (Id4+) cells at different time points in situ and track their behaviors across distinct developmental stages during steady-state and regenerating spermatogenesis. We found that Id4+ cells continue to produce spermatogonia, spermatocytes and sperm in mouse testis, showing they are capable of self-renewal and have differentiation potential. Consistent with these findings, ablation of Id4+ cells in mice results in a loss of spermatogenesis. Furthermore, developmental fate mapping reveals that Id4+ SSCs originate from neonate Id4+ gonocytes. Therefore, our results indicate that Id4 marks spermatogonial stem cells in the mouse testis. PMID:26621350

  3. Cutaneous Metastases From Malignant Mesothelioma of the Tunica Vaginalis Testis.

    PubMed

    Hispán, Patricia; Pascual, José C; González, Iris; Bravo, Diego; Peiró, Gloria

    2016-03-01

    Mesotheliomas are uncommon tumors arising from mesothelial cells lining the serous membranes of the pleura, pericardium, peritoneum, and tunica vaginalis testis. Less than 100 cases arising from the tunica vaginalis testis have been published and, to our knowledge, only 5 cases of cutaneous involvement from these tumors have been reported. We report an additional case with fatal outcome. A 93-year-old man presented with multiple polypoid nodules on the left scrotum. Ulceration was also present, and a firm 5-cm palpable testicular mass was also found. The patient had been exposed to asbestos for 40 years. Histologic examination of a skin biopsy from one of the nodules showed diffuse dermal infiltration of markedly atypical cuboidal cells, with polymorphous and hyperchromatic nuclei. Mitotic figures were common. These cuboidal cells lined clefts, forming a tubular and micropapillary pattern throughout papillary and reticular dermis. Immunohistochemical study showed strong nuclear and cytoplasmic positivity for calretinin, epithelial membrane antigen (cytoplasmic), and cytokeratin-7 (cytoplasmic) and nuclear positivity for Wilms tumor-1. These findings were consistent with cutaneous infiltration from malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis. Treatment of this rare tumor remains challenging because there are currently no recommended guidelines, but radical inguinal orchiectomy is an optimal choice. PMID:26894775

  4. Calcium Signaling in Lacrimal Glands

    PubMed Central

    Putney, James W.; Bird, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    Lacrimal glands provide the important function of lubricating and protecting the ocular surface. Failure of proper lacrimal gland function results in a number of debilitating dry eye diseases. Lacrimal glands secrete lipids, mucins, proteins, salts and water and these secretions are at least partially regulated by neurotransmitter-mediated cell signaling. The predominant signaling mechanism for lacrimal secretion involves activation of phospholipase C, generation of the Ca2+-mobilizing messenger, IP3, and release of Ca2+ stored in the endoplasmic reticulum. The loss of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum then triggers a process known as store-operated Ca2+ entry, involving a Ca2+ sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum, STIM1, which activates plasma membrane store-operated channels comprised of Orai subunits. Recent studies with deletions of the channel subunit, Orai1, confirm the important role of SOCE in both fluid and protein secretion in lacrimal glands, both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:24507443

  5. Continuous Intraoperative Neuromonitoring (C-IONM) Technique with the Automatic Periodic Stimulating (APS) Accessory for Conventional and Endoscopic Thyroid Surgery.

    PubMed

    Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Hui, Sun; Wu, Chei-Wei; Xiaoli, Liu; Ferrari, Cesare Carlo; Mangano, Alberto; Lianos, Georgios D; Leotta, Andrea; Lavazza, Matteo; Frattini, Francesco; Annoni, Matteo; Rausei, Stefano; Boni, Luigi; Kim, Hoon Yub

    2015-05-01

    One of the most important trends in intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM) in thyroid surgery is currently the real-time monitoring of the vagus nerve (VN) in order to prevent recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) iatrogenic damages. Notably, continuous intraoperative neuromonitoring (C-IONM) seems to be superior to intermitted intraoperative neural monitoring (I-IONM) because it enhances standardization by permanent vagus nerve (VN) stimulation, and it provides entire and constant RLN function monitoring as the surgeon dissects and removes the thyroid gland. It also has to be highlighted that the surgical maneuvers for the automatic periodic stimulating (APS) placement must be accurate and standardized in order to avoid a potential iatrogenic morbidity on the VN function. We recommend the experienced surgeon be very careful in each step, with cautious dissection. With this review article we provide a comprehensive analyses of C-IONM technique with the APS accessory for conventional and endoscopic thyroid surgery. PMID:26054997

  6. Adrenal Gland Lymphangiomas.

    PubMed

    Michalopoulos, Nick; Laskou, Styliani; Karayannopoulou, Georgia; Pavlidis, Leonidas; Kanellos, Ioannis

    2015-12-01

    Lymphangiomas of the adrenal glands (ALs) are benign vascular lesions. Approximately, 53 cases have been reported in the literature. The current study reviews and analyzes the clinical and pathologic features of all reported ALs and additionally illustrates a typical case of adrenal lymphangioma (AL). In order to perform the review analysis, a search of the international literature for ALs in adults was conducted. Thirty-eight related articles were found. Clinical and pathological information were obtained for all the reported cases and a database was created. ALs were detected more frequently in women than men. The mean age of occurrence was 39.5 years, while their mean size was 8.86 cm. Fifty-nine percent of ALs were right-sided. Size and localization were responsible for the presenting symptoms, though 30.4 % were asymptomatic. Diagnosis was made postoperatively in all cases by histological results. ALs are rare and benign lesions. They usually present as an incidental finding after abdominal imaging. The diagnosis is made after the surgical removal by histological and immunohistochemical examinations. PMID:27011561

  7. Gene expression during testis development in Duroc boars.

    PubMed

    Lervik, S; Kristoffersen, A B; Conley, L N; Oskam, I C; Hedegaard, J; Ropstad, E; Olsaker, I

    2015-11-01

    Androstenone is a steroid pheromone occurring in the pubertal Leydig cells. Breeding against androstenone can decrease pheromone odour in swine meat but appears to cause unwanted side effects such as delayed onset of puberty. To study causality, global gene expression in developing boar testes at 12, 16, 20 and 27 weeks was investigated using a porcine cDNA microarray. The morphological status and androgenic levels of the same individuals have been described in a previous publication. In the present paper, expression of genes and pathways has been analysed with reference to these findings. Nine clusters of genes with significant differential expression over time and 49 functional charts were found in the analysed testis samples. Prominent pathways in the prepubertal testis were associated with tissue renewal, cell respiration and increased endocytocis. E-cadherines may be associated with the onset of pubertal development. With elevated steroidogenesis (weeks 16 to 27), there was an increase in the expression of genes in the MAPK pathway, STAR and its analogue STARD6. A pubertal shift in genes coding for cellular cholesterol transport was observed. Increased expression of meiotic pathways coincided with the morphological onset of puberty. Puberty-related change in Ca(2+) pathway transcripts, neurosteroids, neuronal changes and signalling in redox pathways suggested a developmental-specific period of neuromorphogenesis. Several growth factors were found to increase differentially over time as the testis matured. There may be interactions between MAPK, STAR and growth factors during specific periods. In conclusion, pathways for neurogenesis, morphological pathways and several transcripts for growth factors, which have known modulating effects on steroidogenesis and gonadotropins in humans and rodents, act at specific ages and developmental stages in the boar testis. The age dependency and complexity shown for development-specific testis transcripts must be considered when selecting phenotypic parameters for genetic selection for low androstenone. The results of selection based on measurement of phenotypic maturation and androstenone (or other steroid) levels at one specific age may differ depending on the age used. More research is necessary to find the optimal phenotype to use in order to reduce the unwanted side effects. PMID:26016904

  8. Germ Cell Transplantation and Testis Tissue Xenografting in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dobrinski, Ina

    2012-01-01

    Germ cell transplantation was developed by Dr. Ralph Brinster and colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania in 19941,2. These ground-breaking studies showed that microinjection of germ cells from fertile donor mice into the seminiferous tubules of infertile recipient mice results in donor-derived spermatogenesis and sperm production by the recipient animal2. The use of donor males carrying the bacterial β-galactosidase gene allowed identification of donor-derived spermatogenesis and transmission of the donor haplotype to the offspring by recipient animals1. Surprisingly, after transplantation into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules, transplanted germ cells were able to move from the luminal compartment to the basement membrane where spermatogonia are located3. It is generally accepted that only SSCs are able to colonize the niche and re-establish spermatogenesis in the recipient testis. Therefore, germ cell transplantation provides a functional approach to study the stem cell niche in the testis and to characterize putative spermatogonial stem cells. To date, germ cell transplantation is used to elucidate basic stem cell biology, to produce transgenic animals through genetic manipulation of germ cells prior to transplantation4,5, to study Sertoli cell-germ cell interaction6,7, SSC homing and colonization3,8, as well as SSC self-renewal and differentiation9,10. Germ cell transplantation is also feasible in large species11. In these, the main applications are preservation of fertility, dissemination of elite genetics in animal populations, and generation of transgenic animals as the study of spermatogenesis and SSC biology with this technique is logistically more difficult and expensive than in rodents. Transplantation of germ cells from large species into the seminiferous tubules of mice results in colonization of donor cells and spermatogonial expansion, but not in their full differentiation presumably due to incompatibility of the recipient somatic cell compartment with the germ cells from phylogenetically distant species12. An alternative approach is transplantation of germ cells from large species together with their surrounding somatic compartment. We first reported in 2002, that small fragments of testis tissue from immature males transplanted under the dorsal skin of immunodeficient mice are able to survive and undergo full development with the production of fertilization competent sperm13. Since then testis tissue xenografting has been shown to be successful in many species and emerged as a valuable alternative to study testis development and spermatogenesis of large animals in mice14. PMID:22330955

  9. Phosphorylated testis-specific serine/threonine kinase 4 may phosphorylate Crem at Ser-117.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guolong; Wei, Youheng; Wang, Xiaoli; Yu, Long

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the internal existence status of testis-specific serine/threonine kinase 4 (Tssk4) and the interaction of Tssk4 and Cre-responsive element modulator (Crem). The internal existence status of Tssk4 in testis of mice was detected using western blotting and dephosphorylation method. The interaction of Tssk4 and Crem was analyzed by western blotting, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, in vitro co-immunoprecipitation assays, and in vitro kinase assay. The results revealed that Tssk4 existed in testis both in phosphorylation and unphosphorylation status by a temporal manner with the development of testis. Immunofluorescence results showed that Tssk4 had identical distribution pattern with Crem in testis, which was utterly different to the localization of Cre-responsive element binding (Creb). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that phosphorylated Tssk4 might participate in testis genes expressions by phosphorylating Crem at Ser-117. PMID:26940607

  10. Effects of a simulated microgravity model on cell structure and function in rat testis and epididymis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadley, Jill A.; Hall, Joseph C.; O'Brien, Ami; Ball, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The effect of simulated microgravity on the structure and function of the testis and epididymis cells was investigated in rats subjected to 7 days of tail suspension. Results of a histological examination revealed presence of disorganized seminiferous tubules and accumulation of large multinucleated cells and spermatids in the lumen of the epididymis. In addition, decreases in the content of testis protein and in testosterone levels in the testis, the interstitial fluid, and the epididymis were observed.

  11. 77 FR 15390 - Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on... covering handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof that infringe U.S. Trademark...

  12. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  13. Accessory lobes of the liver: A report of 3 cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenglin; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Ziqin; Xie, Tingting; Ding, Heyu; Deng, Qianhua; Yuan, Zhidong

    2012-01-01

    Summary This article is about 3 cases of accessory lobes of the liver. Case One involved a pedunculated accessory lobe of the liver (ALL), Case Two involved a true ectopic liver, and Case Three involved a sessile accessory lobe of the liver. All 3 cases were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confirmed by surgical and histological examination. The pertinent literature on accessory lobes of the liver is also reviewed. PMID:25343077

  14. Antidromic Atrioventricular Reciprocating Tachycardia Using a Concealed Retrograde Conducting Left Lateral Accessory Pathway.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jaime E; Zipse, Matthew M; Nguyen, Duy T; Sauer, William H

    2016-03-01

    Atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia is a common cause of undifferentiated supraventricular tachycardia. In patients with manifest or concealed accessory pathways, it is imperative to assess for the presence of other accessory pathways. Multiple accessory pathways are present in 4% to 10% of patients and are more common in patients with structural heart disease. In rare cases, multiple accessory pathways can act as the anterograde and retrograde limbs of the tachycardia. PMID:26920167

  15. Function of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in mammary gland epithelial cells[S

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chang-Wen; Huang, Charles; Bederman, Ilya; Yang, Jianqi; Beidelschies, Michelle; Hatzoglou, Maria; Puchowicz, Michelle; Croniger, Colleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that Pck1 expression in mammary gland adipocytes and white adipose tissue maintains triglyceride stores through glyceroneogenesis, and these lipids were used for synthesis of milk triglycerides during lactation. Reduced milk triglycerides during lactation resulted in patterning of the newborn for insulin resistance. In this study, the role of Pck1 in mammary gland epithelial cells was analyzed. The developmental expression of Pck1 decreased in isolated mouse mammary gland epithelial cells through development and during lactation. Using HC11, a clonal mammary epithelial cell line, we found that both Janus kinase 2 signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 and the AKT pathways contributed to the repression of Pck1 mRNA by prolactin. These pathways necessitate three accessory factor regions of the Pck1 promoter for repression by prolactin. Using [U-13C6]glucose, [U-13C3]pyruvate, and [U-13C3]glycerol in HC11 cells, we determined that Pck1 functions in the pathway for the conversion of gluconeogenic precursors to glucose and contributes to glycerol-3-phosphate synthesis through glyceroneogenesis. Therefore, Pck1 plays an important role in both the mammary gland adipocytes and epithelial cells during lactation. PMID:21504969

  16. Occurrence of Leishmania infantum and associated histological alterations in the genital tract and mammary glands of naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Viviane Cardoso; Mendes Junior, Artur Augusto Velho; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Ferreira, Luiz Claudio; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Rodrigues, Francisco das Chagas de Carvalho; Oliveira, Valéria da Costa; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the male and female genital tract and female mammary glands of dogs and the parasite burden and to identify histological alterations associated with this protozoan. Twenty male and 20 female Leishmania-seropositive dogs with isolation of L. infantum were examined. Tissue samples of the prepuce, glans, epididymis, testes, prostate, vulva, vagina, uterus, uterine tubes, and mammary glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histopathology. For parasitological culture and in situ hybridization, samples were collected from the testis, epididymis, and uterus. Additionally, seminal fluid was aspirated from the epididymis for parasitological culture. In the genital tract, 34 (85 %) dogs, including 18 males and 16 females, were positive for Leishmania. Of these, 27 (79 %) animals were symptomatic. Leishmania was detected in the mammary glands of 13 (65 %) females. L. infantum was isolated for the first time from the seminal fluid and uterus of naturally infected dogs. The parasite burden and intensity of the inflammatory reaction were greater in the prepuce and glans of males and in the vulva and mammary glands of females. In addition to inflammation, testicular degeneration, atrophy, absence of spermatogenesis, and necrosis were observed. Detection of amastigote forms in the mammary gland lumen indicates possible elimination of this parasite in milk. The frequent parasitism observed in the genital tract of infected males and females and the viability of L. infantum in seminal fluid and uterus suggest the possibility of bidirectional venereal and vertical transmission. PMID:26979730

  17. 76 FR 585 - In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories and Packaging Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories and Packaging Thereof; Notice of... States after importation of certain handbags. luggage, accessories and packaging thereof by reason of... certain handbags, luggage, accessories and packaging thereof that infringe the `594 trademark; the...

  18. 49 CFR 178.255-7 - Protection of valves and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of valves and accessories. 178.255-7... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Portable Tanks § 178.255-7 Protection of valves and accessories. (a) All valves, fittings, accessories, safety devices, gauging devices, and the like shall be...

  19. 22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false End-items, components, accessories, attachments...-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item is...) Accessories and attachments are associated equipment for any component, end-item or system, and which are...

  20. 22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false End-items, components, accessories, attachments...-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item is...) Accessories and attachments are associated equipment for any component, end-item or system, and which are...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section 872.6010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and...

  2. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section 872.6010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and...

  3. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section 872.6010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and...

  4. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section 872.6010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and...

  5. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section 872.6010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and...

  6. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mediastinoscope and accessories. 874.4720 Section 874.4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope...

  7. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mediastinoscope and accessories. 874.4720 Section 874.4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope...

  8. [Radiofrequency ablation of accessory pathways in pre-excitation syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Tebbenjohanns, J; Jung, W; Manz, M; Lüderitz, B

    1993-04-16

    Various parameters relating to the radio-frequency ablation of accessory pathways were studied in 53 patients (27 males, 26 females: mean age 38.5 [14-64] years) with a history of paroxysmal tachycardia (over 1 month to 50 years), shown to be caused by an accessory pathway (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome). In all patients the following values were obtained: (1) number of procedures necessary to achieve permanent blockage of the accessory pathway (1-4); (2) duration of each procedure (45-420 min); (3) duration of fluoroscopy (5-102 min); (4) number of necessary radio-frequency applications (1-48); and (5) cumulative energy per procedure. To ablate left-lateral pathways (n = 10) required fewer procedures, shorter duration per procedure, shorter fluoroscopy time, fewer current applications and less total energy than coagulation of right-sided pathways (n = 10). Those various parameters were greatest for ablation of septal and para-septal pathways (n = 9). Pathways which conducted only retrogradely (n = 15) were more difficult to ablate than those with anterograde conduction (n = 38). There were two complications. In one case a tension pneumothorax occurred after faulty puncture of the subclavian vein; in the other, the left ventricle was perforated causing an acute tamponade which required pericardiocentesis with subsequent suture closure of the perforation. It is concluded that, in principle, all accessory pathways, regardless of their conduction potential and site, can be ablated by a radio-frequency current. PMID:8472633

  9. 49 CFR 192.147 - Flanges and flange accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flanges and flange accessories. 192.147 Section 192.147 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY...

  10. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories. 884.4100 Section 884.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and...

  11. 21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900 Section 884.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological...

  12. 21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900 Section 884.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4900 Obstetric table and...

  13. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. 884.2740 Section 884.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2740...

  14. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2640...

  15. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Speculum and accessories. 878.1800 Section 878.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and...

  16. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section 878.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical...

  17. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Speculum and accessories. 878.1800 Section 878.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section 878.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section 878.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical...

  20. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Speculum and accessories. 878.1800 Section 878.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cryosurgical unit and accessories. 878.4350 Section 878.4350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4350 Cryosurgical...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section 878.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical...

  3. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Speculum and accessories. 878.1800 Section 878.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and...

  4. 19 CFR 10.920 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.920 Section 10.920 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru...

  5. 49 CFR 178.255-6 - Loading and unloading accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Loading and unloading accessories. 178.255-6 Section 178.255-6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Portable Tanks...

  6. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884.2960 Section 884.2960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to apply ultrasonic energy to, and to receive...

  7. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884.2960 Section 884.2960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2960...

  8. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884.2960 Section 884.2960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to apply ultrasonic energy to, and to receive...

  9. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884.2960 Section 884.2960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to apply ultrasonic energy to, and to receive...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872.6300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... sexually transmitted diseases through oral sex; those devices are classified as condoms in § 884.5300...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872.6300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... sexually transmitted diseases through oral sex; those devices are classified as condoms in § 884.5300...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872.6300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... sexually transmitted diseases through oral sex; those devices are classified as condoms in § 884.5300...

  13. 14 CFR 121.251 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 121.251... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.251 Engine... complies with § 121.247 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate the engine power section and...

  14. 14 CFR 121.251 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 121.251... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.251 Engine... complies with § 121.247 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate the engine power section and...

  15. Clothing/Apparel and Accessories Merchandising. A Suggested Interdisciplinary Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Ralph D.; Hayden, Margaret B.

    This curriculum guide contains three sections: introduction, curriculum material, and an annotated bibliography. Introductory information provides an overview of the clothing/apparel and accessories merchandising area, aptitudes needed, and career opportunities; discusses potential career ladders, which are divided into entry level, middle…

  16. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section 890.3025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section 890.3025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  1. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section 890.3025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  2. 14 CFR 121.251 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 121.251... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.251 Engine... complies with § 121.247 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate the engine power section and...

  3. 14 CFR 121.251 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 121.251... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.251 Engine... complies with § 121.247 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate the engine power section and...

  4. 19 CFR 10.2020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.2020 Section 10.2020 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dialysate delivery system of the peritoneal dialysis system and accessories (§ 876.5630), or the controlled... to the hemodialysis system include the unpowered dialysis chair without a scale, the powered dialysis chair without a scale, the dialyzer holder set, dialysis tie gun and ties, and hemodialysis...

  6. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. 884.2740 Section 884.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2740...

  7. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. 884.2740 Section 884.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... appropriate displays of the well-being of the fetus during pregnancy, labor, and delivery. This generic...

  8. 21 CFR 884.1690 - Hysteroscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hysteroscope and accessories. 884.1690 Section 884.1690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... specialized instrument or device delivery system; do not have adapters, connectors, channels, or do not...

  9. 21 CFR 884.1600 - Transabdominal amnioscope (fetoscope) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transabdominal amnioscope (fetoscope) and accessories. 884.1600 Section 884.1600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Diagnostic Devices §...

  10. 21 CFR 884.1600 - Transabdominal amnioscope (fetoscope) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transabdominal amnioscope (fetoscope) and accessories. 884.1600 Section 884.1600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Diagnostic Devices §...

  11. 21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900 Section 884.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4900 Obstetric table and...

  12. 21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900 Section 884.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological...

  13. 21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900 Section 884.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological...

  14. Evolutionary Dynamics of the Accessory Genome of Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    den Bakker, Henk C.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Griggs, Allison D.; Peters, Joseph E.; Zeng, Qiandong; Young, Sarah K.; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Yandava, Chandri; Hepburn, Theresa A.; Haas, Brian J.; Birren, Bruce W.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85–3.14 Mb, encode 2,822–3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II. PMID:23825666

  15. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section 10.456 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile...

  16. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section 10.456 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile...

  17. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section 10.456 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile...

  18. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section 10.537 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  19. Electrophysiological action of bepridil on atrioventricular accessory pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Touboul, P; Atallah, G; Kirkorian, G; Lavaud, P; Kieny, J R; Mathieu, M P; Dellinger, A

    1987-01-01

    The electrophysiologic properties of bepridil, a calcium channel blocker with additional effects on fast response tissues, were investigated in 10 patients with atrioventricular accessory pathways. Seven patients had Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and three had concealed atrioventricular pre-excitation. A dose of 4 mg/kg was administered intravenously over five minutes. Bepridil increased the AH interval and the functional refractory period of the atrioventricular node. The effective refractory periods of the right atrium and right ventricle were also increased. Bepridil prolonged refractoriness in the accessory pathway both in the anterograde and retrograde direction. After bepridil administration it was impossible to induce reciprocating tachycardia electrically in two patients because of conduction block in the normal pathway. On the other hand, the zone of tachycardia was often increased after bepridil. Nevertheless, the heart rate during tachycardia was slowed by depression of conduction in both the normal and accessory pathways. The findings of this study provide a basis for the antiarrhythmic action of bepridil in patients with atrioventricular accessory pathways. PMID:3499924

  20. 21 CFR 884.1660 - Transcervical endoscope (amnioscope) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transcervical endoscope (amnioscope) and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1660 Transcervical endoscope (amnioscope) and accessories. (a) Identification. A transcervical endoscope is a device designed to permit direct viewing of the fetus and...

  1. 21 CFR 884.1660 - Transcervical endoscope (amnioscope) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transcervical endoscope (amnioscope) and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1660 Transcervical endoscope (amnioscope) and accessories. (a) Identification. A transcervical endoscope is a device designed to permit direct viewing of the fetus and...

  2. 21 CFR 884.1660 - Transcervical endoscope (amnioscope) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transcervical endoscope (amnioscope) and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1660 Transcervical endoscope (amnioscope) and accessories. (a) Identification. A transcervical endoscope is a device designed to permit direct viewing of the fetus and...

  3. 21 CFR 884.1660 - Transcervical endoscope (amnioscope) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transcervical endoscope (amnioscope) and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1660 Transcervical endoscope (amnioscope) and accessories. (a) Identification. A transcervical endoscope is a device designed to permit direct viewing of the fetus and...

  4. 21 CFR 884.1660 - Transcervical endoscope (amnioscope) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transcervical endoscope (amnioscope) and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1660 Transcervical endoscope (amnioscope) and accessories. (a) Identification. A transcervical endoscope is a device designed to permit direct viewing of the fetus and...

  5. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section 890.3025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  6. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section 890.3025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  7. 19 CFR 10.920 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.920 Section 10.920 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru...

  8. 19 CFR 10.920 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.920 Section 10.920 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  11. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section 10.456 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile...

  12. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section 10.456 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile...

  13. Clothing/Apparel and Accessories Merchandising. A Suggested Interdisciplinary Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Ralph D.; Hayden, Margaret B.

    This curriculum guide contains three sections: introduction, curriculum material, and an annotated bibliography. Introductory information provides an overview of the clothing/apparel and accessories merchandising area, aptitudes needed, and career opportunities; discusses potential career ladders, which are divided into entry level, middle

  14. Catheter ablation of atrioventricular accessory pathways by radiofrequency current.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Hu, D; Ding, Y

    1993-12-15

    Tachycardias mediated by atrioventricular accessory pathways, which are refractory to antiarrhythmic drug therapy have been treated both by surgery and by catheter ablation with high energy direct current shock. These procedures have variable success rates and substantial associated morbidity and mortality. Radiofrequency ablation, a newer, low-energy technique is potentially safer and more effective. Of 110 patients with 117 accessory pathways, 101 were located on the left side and 16 on the right. Accessory pathway conduction was abolished permanently in 101 (91.8%) patients. VA conduction dissociation and VA decremental conduction were found in 88 and 13 successful patients, respectively. Four (3.9%) patients with decremental VA conduction suffered arrhythmia recurrence after a mean of 8 months follow-up. Complications developed in two patients including right femoral vein thrombosis and left ventricular insufficiency. There were no deaths from the procedure. We conclude that radiofrequency current ablation is a safe and effective interventional modality for patients with symptomatic tachycardias mediated by atrioventricular accessory pathways. PMID:8112920

  15. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section 878.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical...

  16. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Speculum and accessories. 878.1800 Section 878.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cryosurgical unit and accessories. 878.4350 Section 878.4350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4350 Cryosurgical...

  18. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mediastinoscope and accessories. 874.4720 Section 874.4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope...

  19. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mediastinoscope and accessories. 874.4720 Section 874.4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope...

  20. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mediastinoscope and accessories. 874.4720 Section 874.4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope...

  1. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-02

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  2. Salivary glands - "an unisex organ'?

    PubMed

    Konttinen, Y T; Stegaev, V; Mackiewicz, Z; Porola, P; Hänninen, A; Szodoray, P

    2010-10-01

    Usually no distinction is made between female and male salivary glands although cyclic changes of and ⁄ or differences in serum and salivary sex steroid concentrations characterize women and men. Moreover, sexual dimorphism is well recognized in salivary glands of rodents.Salivary glands contain estrogen and androgen receptors and are, according to modern high throughput technologies,subjected to gender differences not explainable by gene dose effects by the X chromosome alone. Because sex steroids are lipophilic, it is often thought that approximately 10% of them passively diffuse from plasma to saliva. Indeed, saliva can find use as sample material in sports medicine, pediatrics, veterinary medicine and behavioral sciences. Last but not least, humans and other primates are unique in that they have a reticular zone in their adrenal cortex, which produces dehydroepiandrosterone and androstendione pro-hormones. These are processed in peripheral tissues, not only in female breast and uterus and male prostate, but also in salivary glands by an intracrine enzymatic machinery to active 17b-estradiol,dihydrotestosterone and others, to satisfy and buffer against a constantly changing needs caused by circadian,menstrual, pregnancy and chronobiological hormonal changes in the systemic circulation. Female dominance of Sjögren's syndrome and certain forms of salivary gland cancer probably reflect these gender-based differences. PMID:20412448

  3. The Mammary Glands of Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Cline, J. Mark; Wood, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the normal biology and physiology of the mammary gland in macaques, including the typical histologic appearance across the life span (development, reproductive maturity, lactation, and senescence). The molecular events regulating breast morphogenesis are described, as well as systemic and local hormonal regulators of mammary gland proliferation, differentiation, and function. Similarities and differences to the human breast are described. Regulatory events are illuminated by discussion of genetically modified mouse models. Tissue response markers, including immunohistochemical markers of proliferation and other hormonally induced changes and studies to date, regarding the effects of exogenous hormones, are briefly summarized. In general, estrogens stimulate progesterone receptor expression and proliferation in the mammary gland, and combinations of estrogens and progestogens cause greater proliferation than estrogens alone. Evaluation of novel chemical agents in macaques requires careful evaluation of age and hormonal context to avoid the confounding effects of mammary gland development, past reproductive history, and other influences on mammary gland morphology. The expression of proliferation markers and progesterone receptors may be used as biomarkers to measure chemically induced hormonal effects. PMID:21475638

  4. Selective Cryolysis of Sebaceous Glands.

    PubMed

    Jalian, H Ray; Tam, Joshua; Vuong, Linh N; Fisher, Jeremy; Garibyan, Lilit; Mihm, Martin C; Zurakowski, David; Evans, Conor L; Anderson, R Rox

    2015-09-01

    Acne vulgaris is a nearly universal cutaneous inflammatory disease. Excess sebum production is an integral part of disease pathogenesis. Medical therapies that reduce sebum excretion result in clinical improvement of acne. Given the preferential susceptibility of lipid-containing cells to cold, we investigated the hypothesis that controlled local skin cooling causes preferential injury to sebaceous glands, in murine and swine models using a range of temperatures as low as -10?C, and then on the backs of human subjects. In mouse ears, peak histologic damage occurred 72 hours after treatment; eosinophilic necrotic plugs formed within sebaceous glands, and the number of glands was significantly reduced up to 1 week post treatment. Cooling disrupted sebocyte cell membranes, alkaline phosphatase activity, and significantly reduced sebocyte lipid content. In human volunteers, cooling damaged sebaceous glands and reduced sebum output for 2 weeks, with minimal injury to surrounding tissues. Selective cryolysis of sebaceous glands is achievable through brief, non-invasive skin cooling, suggesting that controlled cooling could be developed as an effective treatment for acne vulgaris. PMID:25860384

  5. Steroid signaling promotes stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila testis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yijie; Ma, Qing; Cherry, Christopher M; Matunis, Erika L

    2014-10-01

    Stem cell regulation by local signals is intensely studied, but less is known about the effects of hormonal signals on stem cells. In Drosophila, the primary steroid twenty-hydroxyecdysone (20E) regulates ovarian germline stem cells (GSCs) but was considered dispensable for testis GSC maintenance. Male GSCs reside in a microenvironment (niche) generated by somatic hub cells and adjacent cyst stem cells (CySCs). Here, we show that depletion of 20E from adult males by overexpressing a dominant negative form of the Ecdysone receptor (EcR) or its heterodimeric partner ultraspiracle (usp) causes GSC and CySC loss that is rescued by 20E feeding, uncovering a requirement for 20E in stem cell maintenance. EcR and USP are expressed, activated and autonomously required in the CySC lineage to promote CySC maintenance, as are downstream genes ftz-f1 and E75. In contrast, GSCs non-autonomously require ecdysone signaling. Global inactivation of EcR increases cell death in the testis that is rescued by expression of EcR-B2 in the CySC lineage, indicating that ecdysone signaling supports stem cell viability primarily through a specific receptor isoform. Finally, EcR genetically interacts with the NURF chromatin-remodeling complex, which we previously showed maintains CySCs. Thus, although 20E levels are lower in males than females, ecdysone signaling acts through distinct cell types and effectors to ensure both ovarian and testis stem cell maintenance. PMID:25093968

  6. Controlled Speed Accessory Drive Program: Programmatic environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-14

    This document is a programmatic environmental assessment of the Department of Energy's Controlled Speed Accessory Drive (CSAD) program and alternatives. Its purpose is to evaluate CSAD alternatives to assure that environmental priorities are considered at the earliest meaningful point in the decision-making process, and to facilitate the choice of preferable options. This document accords with both the letter and the spirit of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements as interpreted and standardized by the Council on Environmental Quality. The major conclusions reached in this assessment are as follows: (1) controlled speed accessory drive bolted onto existing automobile designs may not provide adequate engine cooling when operated at high ambient temperatures or under heavy loading; (2) when the CSAD is adopted for production, the emissions effect of controlled speed accessory drive will not be a problem. Auto emissions are already controlled by existing regulations, and automobiles with a CSAD must meet the same emission standards as non-CSAD vehicles; (3) the nature of the impact is such that significant expansion of the market will not affect it. The one adverse environmental concern, the engine cooling problem, will probably be remedied by proper optimization of automobiles for controlled speed accessory drive, or, until the problem can be alleviated, it will delay commercialization of the drive. No safety hazard will be introduced to the American roadways. In addition, no adverse environmental concerns directly related to the Controlled Speed Accessory Drive demonstration program are anticipated. Therefore, it is recommended that a finding of no significant impact be prepared.

  7. Revascularization of the testis using a vascular induction technique: a potential approach for staged orchiopexy in high-undescended testis.

    PubMed

    Erçöçen, Ali Riza; Soejima, Kazutaka; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Yenidünya, Sibel; Kikuchi, Yuji; Nozaki, Motohiro

    2004-02-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether a fasciovascular flap as a vascular carrier could be used to revascularize the undescended testis for avoiding the hazardous effects of the Fowler-Stephens procedure, high division of the spermatic vessels, and for bringing high-undescended testes into the scrotum. A total of 25 Wistar rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. In each group, surgical procedures were performed bilaterally, i.e. ten testes in each group, as follows: sham-operated controls (group 1), undescended testes (group 2), high division of the spermatic vessels (group 3), vascular induction with immediate division of spermatic vessels (group 4), and with delayed division of spermatic vessels (group 5). Evaluations were done by measuring the testicular weight and volume, testicular blood flow, and testicular biopsy scores and by microangiography. A moderate to severe decrease in testicular weight and volume in all experimental groups was observed compared with the sham-operated controls (group 1), but this was significantly less in groups 2 and 5. High division of the spermatic vessels in groups 3 and 4 resulted in a significantly greater decrease in the testicular blood flow, but this did not occur in group 5. Microangiographically, an impaired vascular supply from the deferential artery in group 3 and insufficient revascularization from the fasciovascular carrier in group 4 were observed. However, efficient revascularization stemming from the superficial epigastric artery of the fasciovascular flap was found in group 5. The testicular biopsy scores of groups 2 and 5 were significantly greater than those of groups 3 and 4. The results of the present study demonstrate that the fasciovascular flap as a vascular carrier revascularizes the testis through spermatic vessels after delayed division and provides an adjuvant treatment modality or first-stage procedure in a salvage operation for high-undescended testis during staged orchiopexy. PMID:14673552

  8. Effects of hyperthermia and radiation on mouse testis stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, B.O.; Mason, K.A.; Withers, H.R.; West, J.

    1981-11-01

    The response of mouse testis stem cells to hyperthermia and combined hyperthermia-radiation treatments was assayed by spermatogenic colony regrowth, sperm head counts, testis weight loss, and fertility. With the use of spermatogenic colony assay, thermal enhancement ratios at an isosurvival level of 0.1 were 1.27 at 41 degrees, 1.80 at 42 degrees, and 3.97 at 43 degrees for testes exposed to heat for 30 min prior to irradiation. Sperm head counts were reduced by heat alone from a surviving fraction of 0.58 at 41 degrees to 0.003 at 42.5-43.5 degrees. Curves for sperm head survival measured 56 days after the testes had been heated for 30 min prior to irradiation were biphasic and showed a progressive downward displacement to lower survival with increasing temperature. The 41, 42, and 43 degrees curves were displaced downward by factors of 2, 58, and 175, respectively. The proportion of animals remaining sterile after 30 min of heat (41-43 degrees) and the median sterility period in days increased with increasing temperature. The minimum sperm count necessary to regain fertility was 13% of the normal mouse level.

  9. Cystic rete testis with testicular dysplasia in a rabbit.

    PubMed

    Chambers, James K; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Murata, Yousuke; Watanabe, Ken-ichi; Ise, Kenichiro; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-01

    An 8-year-old intact rabbit was presented to a veterinary hospital with a complaint of enlarged left scrotum. Histological examination revealed a single large cyst adjacent to an efferent ductule-like tissue. The cyst wall was composed of monolayer cuboidal cells surrounded by dysplastic testicular tissue, and the seminiferous tubules were not developed at all. The epithelial cells of the cyst possessed the same properties as the epithelial cells of the rete testis that were positive for CD 10 and cytokeratin 18, negative for p63 and lacked desmin-positive muscular layer. The dysplastic testicular tissue was composed of two types of cells: small pleomorphic cells with a condensed nucleus (sex cord-like cells) and large round cells with cytoplasmic lipid droplets (Leydig cells). Both of these cells were positive for vimentin and melan A that are consistent with the staining pattern of Sertoli cells and Leydig cells. This is the first report to demonstrate cystic rete testis with testicular dysplasia in animals. PMID:24430659

  10. Immunohistochemical demonstration of nerve growth factor receptor in bovine testis.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, K H; Bickel, D; Schimmel, M; Kujat, R

    1996-08-01

    Nerve growth factor receptor (low-affinity form) was demonstrated immunohistochemically in bovine testis by using a monoclonal mouse anti-human antibody. In the 7-month-old fetus and in the early postnatal testis, the peritubular and intertubular fibroblast-like mesenchymal cells showed a strong reaction. Following differentiation of these cells into Leydig and myoid peritubular cells, the nerve growth factor receptor was no longer expressed. However, peritubular and intertubular testicular fibroblasts/fibrocytes, which are also derived from mesenchymal precursors, remained positive. Additionally, the nerve growth factor receptor was demonstrated in postnatal prespermatogonia, A-spermatogonia, I-spermatogonia and members of the spermatogonia precursor cell line; B-spermatogonia remained negative. In A-spermatogonia and I-spermatogonia, the expression of the nerve growth factor receptor was cell-cycle-dependent and was mostly observed during G1-phase. Pre-embedding ultrahistochemistry with gold-conjugated antibody followed by silver-enhancement revealed that the nerve growth factor receptor was localized at the outer cell surface. The metal granules showed a regular distribution in positive spermatogonia. In testicular fibroblasts/fibrocytes the long narrow processes were preferentially decorated. PMID:8766155

  11. Diurnal variation of gonadotrophin receptors in the rat testis.

    PubMed

    Huhtaniemi, I; Tikkala, L; Martikainen, H

    1982-04-01

    Groups of 6 adult male rats were killed at 4-h intervals over 24 h periods. The serum samples were assayed for LH, FSH, prolactin (Prl) and testosterone (T). LH, FSH and lactogen receptors were measured in the testis homogenates. In the 2 experiments performed, statistically significant (P less than 0.01-0.05) positive correlation was observed between serum LH and T levels, as well as between serum LH and testis LH receptor concentrations. Significant (P less than 0.05) diurnal variation was seen in peripheral serum T (high levels at 08.00-12.00 h, low levels at 16.00-20.00 h) and LH (high at 24.00-08.00 h, low at 12.00-20.00 h), whereas FSH and Prl levels did not display significant variations over the period of 24 h. The testicular content of LH receptors showed significant (P less than 0.05) diurnal periodicity in the 2 experiments performed. Maximal binding measured in each experiment was between 04.00 and 08.00 h. The low binding was in one experiment between 12.00 and 20.00 h, and in the other between 20.00 and 24.00 h. No consistent variation was measured in testicular FSH or lactogen receptors. These results suggest that, in addition to differential stimulation of steroidogenesis, physiological variations in gonadotrophin levels can induce autoregulatory changes in the testicular gonadotrophin receptors. PMID:6286506

  12. Rare late metastasis of testis seminoma to the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Trko?lu, Ali R?za; Coban, Soner; Guzelsoy, Muhammet; Demirbas, Murat; Mutlu, Nazmi; Yalcin, Omer

    2015-01-01

    A 45-year-old male presented to our clinic with complaining of hematuria for a month. The investigations showed a 59 24-mm myxoid mass on the right lateral bladder wall and this was removed with transurethral resection. The histopathology evaluation result was seminoma (classic type). The medical history revealed that the patient had undergone inguinal orchiectomy for a testis tumour 10 years before and the diagnosis was classic type seminoma. He received chemotherapy following the orchiectomy, but had not gone for follow-up after the first year. There was no other metastasis and he was put on the iphosphamide, etoposide, cisplatin (IPE) protocol. The patient has been disease-free for the last 5 months and the tumour markers and cystoscopy were normal. Testis tumours can rarely cause other organ metastases in the late stage even if curative surgery and chemo-radiotherapy were initially administered. Proper follow-up is crucial. It is also necessary to query the tumour history when a tumour in any organ is considered. PMID:26600894

  13. A case of cystic dysplasia of the rete testis in a 17-months-old boy.

    PubMed

    Poupalou, Anna; Spyridis, George; Vakaki, Marina; Giamarelou, Panagiota; Petousis, George; Nikolaidis, Pantelis

    2011-01-01

    Cystic dysplasia of the testis (CDT) is a benign, congenital malformation of the testis and a rare cause of painless scrotal swelling in children, mimicking testicular cancer. It is commonly unilateral, often associated with ipsilateral wolffian duct and ureteral abnormalities. Cystic dysplasia of the rete testis (CDT) represents a diagnostic challenge made easier if age, precise localisation, typical ultrasonographic features, the presence or absence of associated genitourinary malformations, as well as tumor markers are considered. The definite treatment of such a benign lesion is testis-sparing surgery, however in most cases watch and wait strategy can be recommended. We present a case of cystic dysplasia of the testis in a 17-month-old boy with right multicystic dysplastic kidney, epididymal cyst, history of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), as well as of solitary umbilical artery. We performed epididymidal cyst enucleation and right testicular biopsy. PMID:21765843

  14. Submandibular gland mucocele: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Kayhan; Yaman, Huseyin; Arbag, Hamdi; Koroglu, Duygu; Toy, Hatice

    2005-12-01

    Submandibular gland mucocele should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of swelling at the submandibular triangle. In the cystic lesion of the submandibular area, the biochemical analysis of aspirated material for amylase should be performed. The cases with submandibular gland mucocele should be treated by removing the lesion with both the submandibular and the sublingual glands. PMID:16301155

  15. Expression of neuropeptides B and W and their receptors in endocrine glands of the rat.

    PubMed

    Hochol, Anna; Belloni, Anna S; Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Di Liddo, Rosa; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2006-12-01

    Neuropeptides B and W (NPB and NPW) have been identified as endogenous ligands of the G protein-coupled receptors (GPR) 7 and 8, which in humans are expressed in the hypothalamus and probably involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis and feeding behavior. GPR8 is absent in the rat, where the GPR8-like receptor (GPR8-LR) has been described. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction detected the expression of NPB, NPW, GPR7 and GPR8-LR mRNAs in the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, thyroid and parathyroid glands, pancreatic islets, adrenal glands, ovary and testis of the rat. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated the presence of NPB and NPW immunoreactivities in these same glands. Radioimmune assay showed that the bolus intraperitoneal injection of 2 nmol/100 g NPB or NPW raised the plasma levels of parathyroid hormone, corticosterone and testosterone. NPB also increased the blood concentration of thyroxine, and NPW that of ACTH and estradiol. Taken together, these findings allow us to suggest that NPB and NPW play a role in the autocrine-paracrine functional regulation of the endocrine system in the rat. PMID:17089014

  16. [Vascular morphology of the bovine testis. Light and scanning electron microscopic studies].

    PubMed

    Hees, H; Kohler, T; Leiser, R; Hees, I; Lips, T

    1990-01-01

    The testicular artery of the bull-testis shows a straight course from the end of the pampiniform plexus to the caudal extremity of testis. There it branches off in Rami tunicales, which lie as stratum arteriosum superficially to the albugineal veins of testis: a multi-layered stratum venosum. Arterial Rami parenchymales centripetales run directly to the mediastinum testis, form coils and then divide in approximately 10 or more thinner Rami parenchymales centrifugales, which extend from the coils into the parenchyma of the gonad. The three-dimensional microvasculature of the bull-testis is strikingly different from that of rodents: The peritubular network of capillaries in the interstitial space is positioned in a more irregular way. Only here and there is discernible a rope-ladder-like or polygonal arrangement of capillaries. A subalbugineal plexus does not exist in the bovine testis. Parenchymal veins drain in albugineal veins and these empty in the venous networks of the pampiniform plexus. Valves are a rare finding in testicular veins. Already low perfusion-pressure easily forces the corrosion-compound to leave the capillary bed and form typical extravasations as bent shovel-like plates, thus filling the clefts of peritubular spaces. Arteries and veins are directly embedded in the parenchyma of testis, surrounded only by a relatively thin margin of perivascular connective tissue. There are no septula testis and therefore a lobular organisation of bovine testis does not exist. The angioarchitecture of the testis plays an important role in thermoregulatory and androgen-transfer mechanisms as well as in the transport of rete-fluid to the epididymis. PMID:2334059

  17. Perioperative Identification of an Accessory Fissure of the Right Lung.

    PubMed

    Taverne, Yannick; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; de Rooij, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Anatomical variations of lungs are common in clinical practice; however, they are sometimes overlooked in routine imaging. Surgical anatomy of the lung is complex and many variations are known to occur. A defective pulmonary development gives rise to variations in lobes and fissures. Morphological presentation is of clinical importance and profound knowledge of the organogenesis and functional anatomy is imperative for the interpretation and evaluation of lung pathophysiology and subsequent surgical intervention. However, appreciating them on radiographs and CT scans is difficult and they are therefore often either not identified or completely misinterpreted. As presented in this case report, an accessory fissure separating the superior segment of the right lower lobe from its native lobe was seen perioperatively and could only retrospectively be defined on X-rays and CT scan. It is imperative to keep in mind that accessory fissures can be missed on imaging studies and thus can make the surgical procedure more challenging. PMID:26185701

  18. Perioperative Identification of an Accessory Fissure of the Right Lung

    PubMed Central

    Taverne, Yannick; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; de Rooij, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Anatomical variations of lungs are common in clinical practice; however, they are sometimes overlooked in routine imaging. Surgical anatomy of the lung is complex and many variations are known to occur. A defective pulmonary development gives rise to variations in lobes and fissures. Morphological presentation is of clinical importance and profound knowledge of the organogenesis and functional anatomy is imperative for the interpretation and evaluation of lung pathophysiology and subsequent surgical intervention. However, appreciating them on radiographs and CT scans is difficult and they are therefore often either not identified or completely misinterpreted. As presented in this case report, an accessory fissure separating the superior segment of the right lower lobe from its native lobe was seen perioperatively and could only retrospectively be defined on X-rays and CT scan. It is imperative to keep in mind that accessory fissures can be missed on imaging studies and thus can make the surgical procedure more challenging. PMID:26185701

  19. Imaging of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.

    PubMed

    Larson, Theodore C; Aulino, Joseph M; Laine, Fred J

    2002-06-01

    The origination and course of the glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory cranial nerves explains their function and localizes pathology. Abnormalities of these lower cranial nerves may be intrinsic or extrinsic and is due to a multiplicity of disease processes. The clinical presentation of the involved cranial nerve helps to guide imaging evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging without and with contrast is the mainstay of imaging of cranial nerves IX, X and XI pathology, but computed tomography provides substantial information as well. PMID:12168999

  20. Hypoxia exaggerates inspiratory accessory muscle deoxygenation during hyperpnoea.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Keisho; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Hoshikawa, Masako; Ohya, Toshiyuki; Oriishi, Marie; Itoh, Yuka; Ishida, Koji

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate inspiratory accessory muscle deoxygenation and myoelectric activity during isolated volitional hyperpnoea under hypoxic conditions. Subjects performed voluntary isocapnic hyperpnoea (tidal volume=30-40% of forced vital capacity, breathing frequency=60 breaths/min) in normoxia [inspired gas fraction (FIO₂)=0.21] and hypoxia (FIO₂). Muscle deoxyhemoglobin/myoglobin (Deoxy-Hb/Mb) and muscle oxygen saturation (SMO₂) using near-infrared spectroscopy and surface electromyography were measured from sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and intercostal (IC) muscles. During hyperpnoea, increases in Deoxy-Hb/Mb and reductions of SMO₂ in the SCM and IC muscles were larger (P<0.05) in hypoxia than those in normoxia. Under hypoxic conditions, the electromyogram increases from the SCM and IC muscles during hyperpnoea were greater than that under the normoxic conditions. These results suggest that inspiratory accessory muscle deoxygenation during isolated hyperpnoea is exaggerated in hypoxia compared with normoxia and that hypoxia has a significant impact on inspiratory accessory muscle activation. PMID:25747385

  1. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways in infants.

    PubMed Central

    Benito, F.; Sánchez, C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the indications, results and complications of radiofrequency catheter ablation in small infants with supraventricular tachycardia due to an accessory atrioventricular pathway. METHODS: Five infants less than 9 months old underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways. Ablation was done for medically refractory tachyarrhythmia associated with aborted sudden death in two patients, left ventricular dysfunction in one, failure of antiarrhythmic drugs in one, and planned cardiac surgery in one. All five patients underwent a single successful procedure. Three left free wall pathways were ablated by transseptal approach, a right posteroseptal pathway was ablated from the inferior vena cava, and a left posteroseptal pathway was approached from the inferior vena cava into the coronary sinus. A deflectable 5F bipolar electrode catheter with a 3 mm tip was used. RESULTS: A sudden increment in impedance indicative of coagulum formation was observed in two procedures. One patient developed a transient ischaemic complication after ablation of a left lateral accessory pathway by transseptal approach. This patient had mild pericardial effusion after the procedure. Moderate pericardial effusion was also noted in another patient. After a mean follow up of 18.4 months all patients are symptom free without treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Radiofrequency catheter ablation can be performed successfully in infants. Temperature monitoring in 5F ablation catheters would be desirable to prevent the development of coagulum. Echocardiography must be performed after the ablation procedure to investigate pericardial effusion. Images PMID:9326990

  2. Morphology and volatile compounds of metathoracic scent gland in Tessaratoma papillosa (Drury) (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, D; Gao, J; Wang, Y; Jiang, J; Li, R

    2012-08-01

    Tessaratoma papillosa (Drury) (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae) is a serious insect pest of litchi and longan in South China. When disturbed, this insect could release large quantities of disagreeable odorous volatiles from its scent gland. Knowledge on the scent gland and its secretion is crucial for developing the semiochemical methods to manage this pest. Morphology and ultrastructure of the metathoracic scent glands (MTGs) were studied under stereo and scanning electron microscopy, and the volatile compounds of MTGs from both male and female T. papillosa were analyzed with coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The MTG complex is located between the metathorax and the first abdominal segment at the ventral surface of the insect, which has a well-developed single double valve cystic-shaped orange median reservoir, paired colorless lateral glands in both sides, and a long and wavy tubular accessory gland that inlays tightly into the ventral edge around the median reservoir. The MTG opens to the body surface through paired ostioles located between the meso- and metacoxae of the evaporatorium with mushroom bodies. The GC-MS analyses showed that female and male adults have nine major volatile components in common. Tridecane is the most abundant in both females and males, reaching up to 47.1% and 51.8% of relative amount, respectively. The minor component is benzophenone with only 0.28% and 0.14%. Furthermore, undecane, tetradecane, 3-methyl-tridecane, and cyclopentadecane were found only in males. The possible function of volatile compounds of MTG contents in T. papillosa is addressed. PMID:23950062

  3. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph. PMID:24862590

  4. Anatomy, biogenesis, and regeneration of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Kyle V.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients per year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland (SMG), which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of three general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy, and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph. PMID:24862590

  5. Diazepam administration prevents testosterone decrease and lipofuscin accumulation in testis of mouse exposed to chronic noise stress.

    PubMed

    Ruffoli, R; Carpi, A; Giambelluca, M A; Grasso, L; Scavuzzo, M C; Giannessi F, F

    2006-10-01

    Lipofuscin is an autofluorescent and undegradable material, which accumulates in tissues during ageing and under different types of stress. Among these, oxidative stress represents a major trigger for lipofuscin formation. However, prolonged noise exposure is also an effective stressful stimuli. Diazepam may inhibit lipofuscinogenesis in liver and prevent the noise-induced reduction of the steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland. The aim of the study was to ascertain whether chronic noise exposure causes lipofuscin accumulation in mouse testis, and to evaluate the effects of diazepam administration. Eight-week old mice were either exposed for 6 weeks (6 h day(-1)) to white-noise (group A), or received diazepam (3 mg kg(-1), i.p.) before noise exposures (group B), while a further group was used as control (group C). Light fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy revealed lipofuscin in large amounts in the Leydig cells in mice of group A, which concomitantly had low serum testosterone levels; pre-treatment with diazepam occluded both effects. The present study indicates that: (i) chronic noise exposure causes lipofuscin accumulation at the level of the Leydig cells and a decrease in testosterone; (ii) all these effects are suppressed by pre-treatment with diazepam. As the Leydig cells represent the only cellular type of the interstitial testicular tissue having peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, these results could be explained by the capacity of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptors to prevent reactive oxygen species damage and to increase the resistance of these cells to oxidative stress. PMID:16961568

  6. Ultrastructure of spermatogenesis in the testis of Paragonimus heterotremus.

    PubMed

    Uabundit, Nongnut; Kanla, Pipatphong; Puthiwat, Phongphithak; Arunyanart, Channarong; Chaiciwamongkol, Kowit; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M; Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi

    2013-12-01

    Lung fluke, Paragonimus heterotremus, is a flatworm causing pulmonary paragonimiasis in cats, dogs, and humans in Southeast Asia. We examined the ultrastructure of the testis of adult P. heterotremus with special attention to spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The full sequence of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, from the capsular basal lamina to the luminal surface, was demonstrated. The sequence comprises spermatogonia, spermatocytes with obvious nuclear synaptonemal complexes, spermatids, and eventual spermatozoa. Moreover, full steps of spermatid differentiation were shown which consisted of 1) early stage, 2) differentiation stage representing the flagella, intercentriolar body, basal body, striated rootlets, and electron dense nucleus of thread-like lamellar configuration, and 3) growing spermatid flagella. Detailed ultrastructure of 2 different types of spermatozoa was also shown in this study. PMID:24516272

  7. Birth dates of men with cancer of the testis.

    PubMed Central

    Knox, E G; Cummins, C

    1985-01-01

    A recent rise in the incidence of cancer of the testis in affluent countries and affluent social strata suggests either an iatrogenic effect analogous with adenocarcinoma of the vagina or a prenatal infection analogous with congenital rubella syndrome. Three samples were assembled, two based on registration and one on death certification, and dates of birth were examined for the presence of steps, cycles, and irregular clusters. There was no evidence of a sudden step, and only equivocal evidence of clustering, but there was strong evidence of a temporal cycle. The cycle has a four-month period, analogous with a school-term-related cyclical component identified in other diseases. A prenatal infection is strongly suggested, but the pattern enables us to exclude many of the common childhood infectious fevers. PMID:4045366

  8. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

  9. Effects of plants and plant products on the testis

    PubMed Central

    D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia; Vaithinathan, Selvaraju; Jubendradass, Rajamanickam; Mathur, Premendu Prakash

    2010-01-01

    For centuries, plants and plant-based products have been used as a valuable and safe natural source of medicines for treating various ailments. The therapeutic potential of most of these plants could be ascribed to their anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antispasmodic, analgesic and various other pharmacological properties. However, several commonly used plants have been reported to adversely affect male reproductive functions in wildlife and humans. The effects observed with most of the plant and plant-based products have been attributed to the antispermatogenic and/or antisteroidogenic properties of one or more active ingredients. This review discusses the detrimental effects of some of the commonly used plants on various target cells in the testis. A deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of action of these natural compounds could pave the way for developing therapeutic strategies against their toxicity. PMID:20562897

  10. A Case of Adult Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Testis

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Stephen B.; Morilla, Dan B.; Schaber, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 22 Final Diagnosis: Testis granulosa cell tumor Symptoms: Pain in testicles • swelling of epididymides • tenderness of epididymiides Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Urology Objective: Rare disease Background: Adult granulosa cell tumors of the testis (AGCTT) are classified as sex cord-stromal tumors. Only 31 cases have been reported. Typical presentation includes a slowly enlarging, painless testicular mass. Associated findings are gynecomastia, decreased libido, and erectile dysfunction. Immunohistochemistry can be used to confirm the diagnosis. Case Rrport: A 22-year-old male presented with complaint of mild pain in both testicles. A testicular ultrasound revealed a 4.0×3.8×4.6 mm hypoechoic lesion within the left testicle. Serum tumor markers (STM) included lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measuring 146 IU/L (98–192), serum alpha-1-fetoprotein (AFP), 2.89 ng/mL (0–9), and plasma beta human chorionic gonadotropin (Beta HCG) measuring less than 0.50 mIU/mL (<0.50–2.67). Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis with oral and intravenous contrast was normal. A radical orchiectomy was recommended but the patient refused. He agreed to surveillance with imaging and serum tumor markers (STM). The patient’s testicular ultrasound showed the mass to be stable in size and STMs remained negative. The patient agreed to an orchiectomy 9 months after his diagnosis. This case is the first reported with c-kit-positive immunohistochemistry. His post-operative course has been unremarkable. Conclusions: AGCTT is a rare tumor and information regarding its presentation, gross and microscopic morphology, and immunohistochemical characteristics is lacking. This report provides an update of the immunohistochemical findings and adds to the available data concerning this tumor. Based on the results of this case, future reports that include c-kit immunohistochemistry would be beneficial to evaluate its utility in diagnosing AGCTT. PMID:25356877

  11. Lactogenic hormone stimulation and epigenetic control of L-amino acid oxidase expression in lactating mammary glands.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Kazuki; Zhang, Haolin; Usuda, Kento; Watanabe, Gen; Nagaoka, Kentaro

    2015-11-01

    L-amino acid oxidase (LAO), a classic flavoprotein, shows antibacterial activity by producing hydrogen peroxide. LAO exists in many tissues such as salivary gland, thymus, spleen, small intestine and testis. In particular, LAO was highly expressed in mice milk and plays an important factor in innate immunity of mammary glands. However, the mechanism which LAO expression is regulated spatially and temporally in lactating mammary glands has been unclear. In this study, we showed the contribution of lactogenic hormone and epigenetic control on LAO gene expression. In monolayer of mammary epithelial cells, treatment of lactogenic hormone mixture, dexamethasone, insulin and prolactin, did not induce LAO mRNA expression and its promoter activity, even though one of milk protein β-casein expression was stimulated. However, increase of LAO expression was observed when the cells were treated with lactogenic hormones in a 3-dimensional culture. The results of chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that histone H3K18 acetylation increased and histone H3K27 tri-methylation decreased with lactation, which is associated with a period of high LAO expression. Moreover, the treatment of histone methylation inhibitor (DZNep) as well as histone deacetylation inhibitor (Trichostatine A) induced LAO expression in monolayer of mammary cells. Taken together, this is the first demonstration showing that LAO expression is induced in cell culture, and stimulation of lactogenic hormone and change of histone modification are promising signals to show highly expression of LAO in lactating mammary glands. PMID:25820447

  12. The effect of opium dependency on testis volume: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Cyrus, Ali; Solhi, Hassan; Azizabadi Farahani, Mahdi; Khoddami Vishteh, Hamid Reza; Goudarzi, Davoud; Mosayebi, Ghasem; Mohamadian, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the paucity of data on possible testis changes in opioid dependents, we sought to compare the testis volumes between a group of opium dependents and a group of healthy controls. Objective: Comparison of testis volume between opium dependents and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: This case-control study recruited 100 men with opium dependency (cases) and 100 healthy men (controls) in Iran, in 2008. A checklist containing questions about age, height, weight, daily amount of cigarette use, and duration of cigarette use for all the participants as well as daily amount of opium use (grams) and duration of opium use (years) for the case group was completed. Additionally, the dimensions of each testis were measured by a single person using calipers, and the mean of the left and right testes volume was compared between these two groups. Results: The mean of the testis volumes in the case group was significantly lower than that of the case group (11.2±2.2 and 25.1±2.7cm³, p<0.001). The results of the ANCOVA test showed that even after the omission of the cigarette smoking effect (p=0.454), the testis volume remained lower in the opium dependents (R2=0.884, p<0.001). In the case group, there were significant reverse correlations between testis volume and age (r=-0.404, p<0.001), daily amount of opium use (r=-0/207, p=0.039) and duration of opium use (r=-0.421, p<0.001). Conclusion: We found that the testis volume in the male opium dependents was lower than that of the healthy controls. We would recommend that future studies into the impact of drugs on the testis dimensions pay heed to possible histological changes in the testes owing to opium dependency. PMID:25246920

  13. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes and Signaling Pathways between XY and YY Testis in Yellow Catfish.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junjie; Xiong, Shuting; Jing, Jing; Chen, Xin; Wang, Weimin; Gui, Jian-Fang; Mei, Jie

    2015-01-01

    YY super-males have rarely been detected in nature and only been artificially created in some fish species including tilapia and yellow catfish (Pelteobagrusfulvidraco), which provides a promising model for testis development and spermatogenesis. In our previous study, significant differences in morphology and miRNA expression were detected between XY and YY testis of yellow catfish. Here, solexa sequencing technology was further performed to compare mRNA expression between XY and YY testis. Compared with unigenes expressed in XY testis, 1146 and 1235 unigenes have significantly higher and lower expression in YY testis, respectively. 605 differentially expressed unigenes were annotated to 1604 GO terms with 319 and 286 genes having relative higher expression in XY and YY testis. KEGG analysis suggested different levels of PI3K-AKT and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways between XY and YY testis. Down-regulation of miR-141/429 in YY testis was speculated to promote testis development and maturation, and several factors in PI3K-AKT and GPCR signaling pathways were found as predicted targets of miR-141/429, several of which were confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assays. Our study provides a comparative transcriptome analysis between XY and YY testis, and reveals interactions between miRNAs and their target genes that are possibly involved in regulating testis development and spermatogenesis. PMID:26241040

  14. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes and Signaling Pathways between XY and YY Testis in Yellow Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junjie; Xiong, Shuting; Jing, Jing; Chen, Xin; Wang, Weimin; Gui, Jian-Fang; Mei, Jie

    2015-01-01

    YY super-males have rarely been detected in nature and only been artificially created in some fish species including tilapia and yellow catfish (Pelteobagrusfulvidraco), which provides a promising model for testis development and spermatogenesis. In our previous study, significant differences in morphology and miRNA expression were detected between XY and YY testis of yellow catfish. Here, solexa sequencing technology was further performed to compare mRNA expression between XY and YY testis. Compared with unigenes expressed in XY testis, 1146 and 1235 unigenes have significantly higher and lower expression in YY testis, respectively. 605 differentially expressed unigenes were annotated to 1604 GO terms with 319 and 286 genes having relative higher expression in XY and YY testis. KEGG analysis suggested different levels of PI3K-AKT and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways between XY and YY testis. Down-regulation of miR-141/429 in YY testis was speculated to promote testis development and maturation, and several factors in PI3K-AKT and GPCR signaling pathways were found as predicted targets of miR-141/429, several of which were confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assays. Our study provides a comparative transcriptome analysis between XY and YY testis, and reveals interactions between miRNAs and their target genes that are possibly involved in regulating testis development and spermatogenesis. PMID:26241040

  15. Carcinosarcoma of the Thyroid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Ekici, Mehmet Fatih; Kocak, Cengiz; Bayhan, Zlf; Zeren, Sezgin; Yaylak, Faik; Metineren, Mehmet Hseyin; Kocak, Fatma Emel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Surgeon has significant role in the management of such rare and controversial clinical entities related to thyroid gland. In this case report we have presented an elderly patient with rapid enlargement in thyroid that was related to carcinosarcoma. Case Presentation. A 60-year-old lady was presented with rapid enlargement of the thyroid gland. A fine needle aspiration of the nodule in right lobe was performed several weeks before presentation to our clinic. End diagnosis was a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with spindle cell component. Thus the nodule was recognized to be a carcinosarcoma. Conclusion. Thyroid surgery merits a multidisciplinary approach. Indeed the surgeon should make a conclusive decision in some controversial and rare clinical entities such as carcinosarcoma. PMID:25705539

  16. Sonography of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Gritzmann, N; Rettenbacher, T; Hollerweger, A; Macheiner, P; Hbner, E

    2003-05-01

    Due to their superficial position, the parotid, the submandibular, and the sublingual glands can be imaged with high-resolution transducers. In acute inflammatory diseases sonography can differentiate between obstructive or non-obstructive sialoadenitis. Abscess formations may be detected and the maturation of the colliquation may be controlled. Abscesses may be punctured under US guidance. In Sjgren's syndrome the sonographic changes correlate with the histological destruction, and in acute forms hypervascularization is found in color Doppler. In fibrotic cases the stimulation-induced hyperemia is impaired. In sialoadenosis inflammatory and tumorous lesions can be ruled out by sonography. Tumors of the salivary glands can be visualized with high sensitivity. Like other imaging methods the specificity in assessment of the histology of a tumor is low. Multilocular lesions, such as sarcoidosis, lymphoma, metastases, or cystadenolymphoma, are discussed. In deep located, malignant tumors or when the tumor cannot be delineated completely, MR or CT are obligatory to delineate the tumor. Sonography enables the diagnosis of cysts or ranulae. The accuracy of sonography in assessment of sialolithiasis is approximately 90%. Non-opaque stones can be visualized, too; however, small stones of less than 2 mm are difficult to detect since the posterior shadow may be missing. The concrements can be differentiated into intraductal or intraglandular stones. Indirect signs, such as ductal dilatations or inflammatory changes, may be found. Pseudotumorous lesions, such as hypertrophy of the masseter muscle, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, or lymphoepithelial lesions in AIDS, are discussed. In children the main differential diagnosis of salivary gland pathologies are addressed. In many diseases sonography is the first-line imaging modality in assessment of salivary glands. PMID:12695816

  17. Effect of the extract of Thespesia populnea leaves on mice testis.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, P; Vaithinathan, S

    2003-07-01

    Male swiss mice were administered with the leaf extract of Thespesia populnea at a daily dose of 400 mg/kg body weight for 15 days and the testis were subjected to structural analysis. The structure of the seminiferous tubule in the testis of treated animal was elongated. Sertoli cells were enlarged in its structure and spermatids became round and disintegrated. It is suggested that the extract of T. populnea treatment leads to pathological changes in the seminiferous tubules, Sertoli cells and spermatids of the testis. PMID:15259611

  18. A novel method for repair of testis rupture after gunshot trauma: repair with Tutoplast processed pericardium.

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Seyfettin; Ozkul, Bahattin; Ustuner, Murat; Nagihanlnan; Culha, Mustafa Melih

    2014-12-01

    Gunshot wound injury to the external genitalia is relatively uncommon. However, if a testis isaffected in such a case, early surgical exploration should be carried out. A 16-year-old boy presented with right testicular rupture. Tunica albugineal defect could not be closed primarily. We used a Tutoplast® processed bovine pericardium to repair the defect of tunica albuginea. At his 3-month follow-up visit, there was no complication. Doppler blood flow of testis was normal. In this case, preservation of testis tissue was obtained with early exploration and repair of the big tunica albugineal defect with Tutoplast® processed pericardium. PMID:25842593

  19. [Ultrasound of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Gritzmann, N

    2009-01-01

    In acute inflammatory diseases sonography can differentiate between obstructive or non-obstructive sialoadenitis. Abscess formations may be detected and the maturation of the colliquation may be controlled. Abscesses may be punctured under US guidance. In Sjgren's syndrome the sonographic changes correlate with the histological destruction, in acute forms hypervascularisation is found in color Doppler. In fibrotic cases the stimulation-induced hyperemia is impaired. In sialoadenosis inflammatory and tumorous lesions can be ruled out by sonography. Tumors of the salivary glands can be visualized with high sensitivity. Like other imaging methods the specificity in assessment of the histology of a tumor is low. Multilocular lesions as sarcoidosis, lymphoma, metastases or cystadenolymphoma are discussed. In deep located, malignant tumors or when the tumor cannot be delineated completely, MR or CT are obligatory to delineate the tumor. Sonography enables the diagnosis of cysts or ranulae. The accuracy of sonography in assessment of sialolithiasis is about 90 %. Non-opaque stones can be visualized, too. However, small stones of less than 2 mm are difficult to detect since the posterior shadow may be missing. The concrements can be differentiated into intraductal or intraglandular stones. Indirect signs like ductal dilatations or inflammatory changes may be found. Pseudotumorous lesions as hypertrophy of the masseter muscle, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or lymphoepithelial lesions in AIDS are discussed. In children the main differential diagnosis of salivary gland pathologies are addressed. In many diseases sonography is the first line imaging modality in assessment of salivary glands. PMID:19148852

  20. The Impact of Long-Term Exposure to Space Environment on Adult Mammalian Organisms: A Study on Mouse Thyroid and Testis

    PubMed Central

    Masini, Maria Angela; Albi, Elisabetta; Barmo, Cristina; Bonfiglio, Tommaso; Bruni, Lara; Canesi, Laura; Cataldi, Samuela; Curcio, Francesco; D'Amora, Marta; Ferri, Ivana; Goto, Katsumasa; Kawano, Fuminori; Lazzarini, Remo; Loreti, Elisabetta; Nakai, Naoya; Ohira, Takashi; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Palmero, Silvio; Prato, Paola; Ricci, Franco; Scarabelli, Linda; Shibaguchi, Tsubasa; Spelat, Renza; Strollo, Felice; Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco Saverio

    2012-01-01

    Hormonal changes in humans during spaceflight have been demonstrated but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. To clarify this point thyroid and testis/epididymis, both regulated by anterior pituitary gland, have been analyzed on long-term space-exposed male C57BL/10 mice, either wild type or pleiotrophin transgenic, overexpressing osteoblast stimulating factor-1. Glands were submitted to morphological and functional analysis. In thyroids, volumetric ratios between thyrocytes and colloid were measured. cAMP production in 10−7M and 10−8M thyrotropin-treated samples was studied. Thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were quantitized by immunoblotting and localized by immunofluorescence. In space-exposed animals, both basal and thyrotropin-stimulated cAMP production were always higher. Also, the structure of thyroid follicles appeared more organized, while thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were overexpressed. Unlike the control samples, in the space samples thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were both observed at the intracellular junctions, suggesting their interaction in specific cell membrane microdomains. In testes, immunofluorescent reaction for 3β- steroid dehydrogenase was performed and the relative expressions of hormone receptors and interleukin-1β were quantified by RT-PCR. Epididymal sperm number was counted. In space-exposed animals, the presence of 3β and 17β steroid dehydrogenase was reduced. Also, the expression of androgen and follicle stimulating hormone receptors increased while lutenizing hormone receptor levels were not affected. The interleukin 1 β expression was upregulated. The tubular architecture was altered and the sperm cell number was significantly reduced in spaceflight mouse epididymis (approx. −90% vs. laboratory and ground controls), indicating that the space environment may lead to degenerative changes in seminiferous tubules. Space-induced changes of structure and function of thyroid and testis/epididymis could be responsible for variations of hormone levels in human during space missions. More research, hopefully a reflight of MDS, would be needed to establish whether the space environment acts directly on the peripheral glands or induces changes in the hypotalamus-pituitary-glandular axis. PMID:22558148