These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Male accessory gland infection.  

PubMed

Male accessory gland infection (MAGI) is a consequence of canalicular spreading of agents via urethra, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, deferent duct, epididymis and testis. Haematogenous infections are rare. The main infectious agents are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, and also enterobacteriae at a lesser frequency. Characteristic symptoms of MAGI are leukocytospermia, enhanced concentration of cytokines and reactive oxygen species. As complications, obstruction of the ductus epididymidis and/or another duct section, impairment of spermatogenesis in orchitis, impairment of sperm function, and dysfunctions of the male accessory glands may occur. Reduction of male fertility is a rare consequence. The treatment has to consider specific antibiotics. PMID:18336461

Krause, W

2008-04-01

2

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Accessory Sex Gland and Testis from the Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis)  

PubMed Central

The accessory sex gland (ASG) is an important component of the male reproductive system, which functions to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa during male reproduction. Certain proteins secreted by the ASG are known to bind to the spermatozoa membrane and affect its function. The ASG gene expression profile in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been conducted on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for the ASG of E. sinensis using Illumina sequencing technology. This analysis yielded a total of 33,221,284 sequencing reads, including 2.6 Gb of total nucleotides. Reads were assembled into 85,913 contigs (average 218 bp), or 58,567 scaffold sequences (average 292 bp), that identified 37,955 unigenes (average 385 bp). We assembled all unigenes and compared them with the published testis transcriptome from E. sinensis. In order to identify which genes may be involved in ASG function, as it pertains to modification of spermatozoa, we compared the ASG and testis transcriptome of E. sinensis. Our analysis identified specific genes with both higher and lower tissue expression levels in the two tissues, and the functions of these genes were analyzed to elucidate their potential roles during maturation of spermatozoa. Availability of detailed transcriptome data from ASG and testis in E. sinensis can assist our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved with spermatozoa conservation, transport, maturation and capacitation and potentially acrosome activation. PMID:23342039

He, Lin; Jiang, Hui; Cao, Dandan; Liu, Lihua; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Qun

2013-01-01

3

A local pathway for increased testosterone supply from the testis to the epididymis, vas deferens and accessory genital glands of the rat.  

PubMed

Radiolabeled testosterone (3H-T) was infused into the testes or left and right mesofuniculus (106 dpm) or injected into a testes (2 x 10(6) dpm). The 3H-T concentration was estimated 15 or 10 min after 3H-T infusion or injection, respectively, in the tissue samples collected from the prostate, seminal vesicles, caput and cauda epididymides, vasa deferentia and the mesofuniculi. The abdominal aorta and posterior vena cava were cannulated, and the posterior part of the body perfused with blood (at blood pressure 70-140 or 260-300 mm Hg in abdominal aorta) was used to study 3H-T transfer from the testes to venous blood and other male genital organs. The concentration of 3H-T found in the accessory genital glands, epididymes and vasa deferentia was affected by blood pressure in the abdominal aorta. The reduced blood pressure and partial blocking of blood supply to the genital organs (after ligation of both testicular arteries or the terminal part of the abdominal aorta) increased the concentration of 3H-T in accessory genital glands, vasa deferentia and epididymes. The removal of the mesofuniculi and vasa deferentia with their mesoducti reduced 3H-T concentration in the prostate, seminal vesicles and cauda epididymides. Both arterial trunks, testicular arteries and common iliac arteries, were shown to be connected by anastomoses in target organs so effectively, that supplying the male genital organs with blood by only one of them assures the transfer of testosterone from the testes to the epididymes, vasa deferentia, mesofuniculi as well as prostate and seminal vesicles. It was concluded that lymphatic vessels of the mesofunicules and of the spermatic cords as well as venous and arterial vasculature of the mesofunicules create a recently unknown pathway for the increase of testosterone supply from the testes to the epididymes, vasa deferentia and accessory genital glands of rats. PMID:16180578

Krzymowski, T; Stefa?czyk-Krzymowska, S; Gilun, P; Radomski, M; Koziorowski, M

2005-01-01

4

A rare case of chronic sialadenitis of accessory parotid gland.  

PubMed

The accessory parotid gland is salivary tissue adjacent to stenson's duct that is separated from the main parotid gland and lying on masseter muscle. It has secondary duct empting into the stenson's duct. The differential diagnosis of mid-cheek masses include pathology arising from normal anatomic structures or from variations of normal accessory parotid gland tissue. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for the accessory parotid gland tumor. We report a case of accessory parotid gland with chronic sialadenitis in a 26 years old male with the diagnosis and treatment. Accessory parotid gland pathologies should be included in the differential diagnosis of a patient presently with a mid-cheek mass. PMID:24533418

Sathe, Nilam Uttam; Thakare, Samir; Wadkar, Gaurav; Gaikwad, Ninad

2014-01-01

5

New Genes for Male Accessory Gland Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accessory gland of male insects produces components of the seminal fluid that alter the behavior, physiology and life span of the mated female, and contribute to her efficient storage and utilization of sperm. As a step towards understanding how this occurs, we have isolated genes encoding 12 previously unreported accessory gland-specific mRNAs from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We

Mariana F. Wolfner; Heidi A. Harada; Michael J. Bertram; Thomas J. Stelick; Kevin W. Kraus; John M. Kalb; Y. Oliver Lung; Deborah M. Neubaum; Morgan Park; Uyen Tram

1997-01-01

6

Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products  

PubMed Central

To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner’s body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

2014-01-01

7

Regucalcin Expression in Bovine Tissues and Its Regulation by Sex Steroid Hormones in Accessory Sex Glands  

PubMed Central

Regucalcin (RGN) is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle. PMID:25415588

Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Divari, Sara; Mulasso, Chiara; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca T.

2014-01-01

8

Sorbitol in the accessory glands of the diabetic male rat.  

PubMed

Diabetes was induced in rats by i.v. injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight). Diabetes was accompanied by infertility and atrophy of the male accessory glands. Blood glucose rose above 500 mg% (post-prandial) and blood testosterone decreased to 14% of the level found in normoglycemic rats. Diabetes was followed by increased levels of sorbitol in the male accessory glands, prostate, seminal vesicle and coagulating gland, and in the eyes and sciatic nerves. Insulin treatment of the diabetic rats prevented sorbitol accumulation in the above tissues. AY-22, 284, and inhibitor of aldose reductase given in the food (1 g/kg body weight/day) for 3 weeks, did not prevent sorbitol accumulation in the organs mentioned. The changes in sorbitol metabolism in the diabetic rat and their possible involvement in male fertility are discussed. PMID:7223308

Paz, G F; Drasnin, N; Homonnai, Z T

1980-01-01

9

Gene Expression in Human Accessory Lacrimal Glands of Wolfring  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The accessory lacrimal glands are assumed to contribute to the production of tear fluid, but little is known about their function. The goal of this study was to conduct an analysis of gene expression by glands of Wolfring that would provide a more complete picture of the function of these glands. Methods. Glands of Wolfring were isolated from frozen sections of human eyelids by laser microdissection. RNA was extracted from the cells and hybridized to gene expression arrays. The expression of several of the major genes was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Of the 24 most highly expressed genes, 9 were of direct relevance to lacrimal function. These included lysozyme, lactoferrin, tear lipocalin, and lacritin. The glands of Wolfring are enriched in genes related to protein synthesis, targeting, and secretion, and a large number of genes for proteins with antimicrobial activity were detected. Ion channels and transporters, carbonic anhydrase, and aquaporins were abundantly expressed. Genes for control of lacrimal function, including cholinergic, adrenergic, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, purinergic, androgen, and prolactin receptors were also expressed in gland of Wolfring. Conclusions. The data suggest that the function of glands of Wolfring is similar to that of main lacrimal glands and are consistent with secretion electrolytes, fluid, and protein under nervous and hormonal control. Since these glands secrete directly onto the ocular surface, their location may allow rapid response to exogenous stimuli and makes them readily accessible to topical drugs. PMID:22956620

Ubels, John L.; Gipson, Ilene K.; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra J.; Tisdale, Ann S.; Van Dyken, Rachel E.; Hatton, Mark P.

2012-01-01

10

Male Accessory Gland Infection: Relevance of Serum Total Testosterone Levels  

PubMed Central

Aim of the present study was to evaluate the different ultrasound characterization of fertile symptomatic patients with MAGI (male accessory gland infection) according to different serum concentrations of total T (TT). We analyzed the ultrasound and hormonal data of 200 patients aged between 24.0 and 67.0 years. Patients were divided into six groups according to the sextile distribution of TT. Patients with serum concentrations of TT < 3.6?ng?mL?1 had a higher mean duration of symptoms compared to the other examined groups. Patients with serum concentrations of TT > 6.6?ng?mL?1 showed a frequency of ultrasound criteria suggestive for bilateral form of prostatitis and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis and significantly lower compared to the other examined groups. At multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and BMI, TT was an independent predictive factor of prostatovesiculitis (OR = 0.818 [95% CI: 0.675–0.992]; P < 0.01) and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (OR = 0.714 [95% CI: 0.578–0.880]; P < 0.01), which represent the main forms of complicated MAGI. The results of this study suggest that male hypogonadism could be associated with a different ultrasound characterization of these patients. PMID:25276133

Condorelli, R. A.; Calogero, A. E.; Vicari, E.; Favilla, V.; Cimino, S.; Russo, G. I.; Morgia, G.; La Vignera, S.

2014-01-01

11

Male Breast Cancer Originating in an Accessory Mammary Gland in the Axilla: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Carcinoma of an accessory mammary gland is an extremely rare tumor. A 61-year-old male patient presented with a hard mass measuring 85?mm × 51?mm in the left axilla. Incisional biopsy histopathologically showed an adenocarcinoma compatible with breast carcinoma originating in an accessory mammary gland. Systemic examinations revealed no evidence of malignant or occult primary lesion in the bilateral mammary glands or in other organs. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed for the locally advanced axillary tumor and reduced the tumor to 55?mm in size, and, then, he could undergo complete resection with a negative surgical margin in combination with reconstructive surgery to fill the resulting skin defect with a local flap of the latissimus dorsi muscle. The patient has presented with no metastatic lesion in four years since the operation. This unusual case shows that neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an effective and tolerated therapy for advanced accessory breast cancer in the axilla. PMID:23251170

Yamamura, Jun; Masuda, Norikazu; Kodama, Yoshinori; Yasojima, Hiroyuki; Mizutani, Makiko; Kuriyama, Keiko; Mano, Masayuki; Nakamori, Shoji; Sekimoto, Mitsugu

2012-01-01

12

Cutaneous application of an accessory-gland secretion after sperm exchange in a terrestrial slug (Mollusca: Pulmonata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition for fertilisation in hermaphroditic animals seems to have led to many odd behaviours and complex morphologies involved in the transfer of accessory-gland products to the partner. Terrestrial slugs of the genus Deroceras show remarkably elaborate and interspecifically diverse penis morphologies and mating behaviours. Most species have an appending penial gland, which in Deroceras panormitanum consists of a few long

Mandy Benke; Heike Reise; Kora Montagne-Wajer; Joris M. Koene

2010-01-01

13

Accessory Gland as a Site for Prothoracicotropic Hormone Controlled Ecdysone Synthesis in Adult Male Insects  

PubMed Central

Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E), the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot), an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH. PMID:23383307

Hentze, Julie L.; Moeller, Morten E.; J?rgensen, Anne F.; Bengtsson, Meghan S.; Bordoy, Anna M.; Warren, James T.; Gilbert, Lawrence I.; Andersen, Ole; Rewitz, Kim F.

2013-01-01

14

The relation between reactive oxygen species and cytokines in andrological patients with or without male accessory gland infection.  

PubMed

The presence of various cytokines, namely hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 RA), and interleukins (IL-1 alpha, IL-6, and IL-8), as well as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile patients in order to evaluate the possible value of measuring these substances for the diagnosis of male accessory gland infection, and to assess the possible relationship between oxidative stress and cytokines during leucocytospermia and male accessory gland infection (MAGI). Our findings indicate that all of the measured cytokines seem to be produced locally as well as by white blood cells (WBC) and that, due to the presence of higher numbers of WBC, accessory gland infection may exert a deleterious effect on sperm quality through the production of ROS and/or of particular cytokines such as IL-1 alpha, IL-1 RA, and IL-8. The most specific marker for a sensitivity of 95% in discriminating between cases with or without MAGI is the measurement of IL-6 in seminal plasma. In the absence of WBC several cytokines are constitutively produced and correlate with sperm concentration (HGF, IL-8), alpha-glucosidase (IL-6), and gamma-glutamyltransferase activity (HGF). The measurement of these cytokines in semen may provide clinically useful information for the diagnosis of male accessory gland infection, as well as in the absence of WBC where it can provide information about certain mechanisms of male reproductive function and dysfunction. PMID:9016401

Depuydt, C E; Bosmans, E; Zalata, A; Schoonjans, F; Comhaire, F H

1996-01-01

15

Draft Genome of Phaeobacter gallaeciensis ANG1, a Dominant Member of the Accessory Nidamental Gland of Euprymna scolopes?  

PubMed Central

Phaeobacter gallaeciensis strain ANG1 represents the dominant member of the bacterial consortium within the reproductive accessory nidamental gland (ANG) of the squid Euprymna scolopes. We present a 4.59-Mb assembly of its genome, which may provide clues as to how it benefits its host. PMID:21551313

Collins, Andrew J.; Nyholm, Spencer V.

2011-01-01

16

Congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region in an adult. The patient, a 25-year-old woman, complained of 3 masses in her right midcheek. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings showed an irregular-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the masseter muscle region, an ellipse-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the right buccal region, and a comma-shaped mass (no calcifications) with a well-defined margin separate from the parotid gland in the right accessory parotid gland region. These iconographic findings suggested that the masses were all hemangiomas separately originating from the parotid gland, accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle. The masses were completely removed through a standard parotid incision without postoperative facial palsy, skin deformity, and difficulty in secreting saliva. Findings from histologic examination of the tumor revealed multiple, thin-walled, and dilated blood vessels, confirming the diagnosis of cavernous hemangiomas. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings were extremely useful in diagnosing the mass/masses as hemangioma before surgery, clarifying relationships between the mass and adjacent structures, and determining the surgical approach to the mass/masses. PMID:24621721

Yang, Tao; Gu, Yongchun; Zhang, Li; Hua, Zequan

2014-03-01

17

Morphology and Ultrastructure of the Accessory Glands in the Female Genital Tract of the House Cricket, Acheta domesticus  

PubMed Central

The accessory glands in the genital tract of female Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) were investigated in detail. The glands are situated within the 7th and 8th abdominal segment and lead to the genital chamber lateral to the terminal papilla of the ductus receptaculi. The shape of the gland is characterized by a complex system of tubules, including numerous ramifications. The gland's size ranges from 2 to 4 mm. The epithelium is constructed according to a simple scheme and consists of a cuticular intima at the luminal side, one layer of gland cells, and a basallamina at the outermost side. The observed morphology of the accessory glands widely corresponds with that in other cricket species (e.g., Teleogryllus commodus). This is also true for the structure of a single gland cell, which can be subdivided into a basal part with nucleus and intracellular cisternae, as well as an apical part with all those compartments responsible for the production of the secretion. The secretion itself may be classified as lipophilic and is produced for the first time 4 to 6 days after the imaginai moult. Several endogenic functions of the secretion are discussed (lubricant for oviposition, support for introducing the tube of the spermatophore into the ductus receptaculi, etc.). PMID:23425229

Sturm, Robert

2012-01-01

18

Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.  

PubMed

Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands. PMID:25160003

Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

2014-10-01

19

Male accessory gland inflammation prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly reflecting autonomic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Male accessory gland inflammation or infection (MAGI) is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type 2 diabetes (DM2); specifically, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2 patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles (SVs) in DM2 patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2 patients (i.e. patients with and without symptoms that possibly reflect DAN) and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2 patients with a mean (± s.e.m.) age of 42.0 ± 6.0 years (range: 34–47 years) were classified according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly reflect DAN (group A: DM2 with symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 28 patients and group B: DM2 without symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 32 patients). The patients in Group A exhibited a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in group B patients (P < 0.05); moreover, the Group A patients exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis (P < 0.05). Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in group A compared with group B. PMID:24799635

Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E; La Vignera, Sandro

2014-01-01

20

Male accessory gland substances from Aedes albopictus affect the locomotor activity of Aedes aegypti females  

PubMed Central

Dengue is one of the world’s most important mosquito-borne diseases and is usually transmitted by one of two vector species: Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus . These two diurnal mosquitoes are frequently found coexisting in similar habitats, enabling interactions between adults, such as cross-mating. The objective of this study was to assess cross-mating between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males under artificial conditions and evaluate the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti virgin females injected with male accessory gland (MAG) homogenates to infer the physiological and behavioural responses to interspecific mating. After seven days of exposure, 3.3-16% of Ae. aegypti females mated with Ae. albopictus males. Virgin Ae. aegypti females injected with conspecific and heterospecific MAGs showed a general decrease in locomotor activity compared to controls and were refractory to mating with conspecific males. The reduction in diurnal locomotor activity induced by injections of conspecific or heterospecific MAGs is consistent with regulation of female reproductive activities by male substances, which are capable of sterilising female Ae. aegypti through satyrisation by Ae. albopictus . PMID:24473799

Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Codeco, Claudia Torres; Honorio, Nildimar Alves; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Lounibos, Leon Philip

2013-01-01

21

Epithelioid Myoepithelioma of the Accessory Parotid Gland: Pathological and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings  

PubMed Central

Tumors of the accessory parotid gland (APG) are rare, and pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign APG tumor subtype. Myoepithelioma of the APG is much rarer than PA, and to date, only 5 cases have been sporadically reported in the English literature. We describe the clinicopathological and MRI findings of an epithelioid myoepithelioma of the APG that was treated in our hospital. The patient's only clinical symptom was a slow-growing and painless mid-cheek mass. The tumor was suspected to be PA before surgery based on the following MRI findings: (1) a well-circumscribed and lobulated contour, (2) isointensity and hyperintensity relative to the muscle on T1- and T2-weighted images (WIs), respectively, (3) good enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-WIs, (4) peripheral hypointensity on T2-WIs, and (5) a gradual time-signal intensity curve enhancement pattern on gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI. The tumor was completely resected via a standard parotidectomy approach, and the postoperative pathological examination of the tumor, including immunohistochemistry, confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid myoepithelioma. As it is hardly possible to distinguish myoepithelioma from PA and low-grade malignant tumors preoperatively, a pathological examination using frozen sections is helpful for surgical strategy-related decisions. PMID:24932173

Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Yamada, Kei; Yamane, Hideo; Hashimoto, Shigeo

2014-01-01

22

Epithelioid myoepithelioma of the accessory parotid gland: pathological and magnetic resonance imaging findings.  

PubMed

Tumors of the accessory parotid gland (APG) are rare, and pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign APG tumor subtype. Myoepithelioma of the APG is much rarer than PA, and to date, only 5 cases have been sporadically reported in the English literature. We describe the clinicopathological and MRI findings of an epithelioid myoepithelioma of the APG that was treated in our hospital. The patient's only clinical symptom was a slow-growing and painless mid-cheek mass. The tumor was suspected to be PA before surgery based on the following MRI findings: (1) a well-circumscribed and lobulated contour, (2) isointensity and hyperintensity relative to the muscle on T1- and T2-weighted images (WIs), respectively, (3) good enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-WIs, (4) peripheral hypointensity on T2-WIs, and (5) a gradual time-signal intensity curve enhancement pattern on gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI. The tumor was completely resected via a standard parotidectomy approach, and the postoperative pathological examination of the tumor, including immunohistochemistry, confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid myoepithelioma. As it is hardly possible to distinguish myoepithelioma from PA and low-grade malignant tumors preoperatively, a pathological examination using frozen sections is helpful for surgical strategy-related decisions. PMID:24932173

Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Yamada, Kei; Yamane, Hideo; Hashimoto, Shigeo

2014-05-01

23

Male accessory gland inflammation prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly reflecting autonomic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Male accessory gland inflammation or infection (MAGI) is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type 2 diabetes (DM2); specifically, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2 patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles (SVs) in DM2 patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2 patients (i.e. patients with and without symptoms that possibly reflect DAN) and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2 patients with a mean (± s.e.m.) age of 42.0 ± 6.0 years (range: 34-47 years) were classified according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly reflect DAN (group A: DM2 with symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 28 patients and group B: DM2 without symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 32 patients). The patients in Group A exhibited a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in group B patients (P < 0.05); moreover, the Group A patients exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis (P < 0.05). Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in group A compared with group B. PMID:24799635

Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E; La Vignera, Sandro

2014-01-01

24

Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female`s reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Clark, A.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Prout, T.; Harshman, L.G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-01-01

25

Diversity and partitioning of bacterial populations within the accessory nidamental gland of the squid Euprymna scolopes.  

PubMed

Microbial consortia confer important benefits to animal and plant hosts, and model associations are necessary to examine these types of host/microbe interactions. The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) is a female reproductive organ found among cephalopod mollusks that contains a consortium of bacteria, the exact function of which is unknown. To begin to understand the role of this organ, the bacterial consortium was characterized in the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, a well-studied model organism for symbiosis research. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the ANG revealed dense bacterial assemblages of rod- and coccus-shaped cells segregated by morphology into separate, epithelium-lined tubules. The host epithelium was morphologically heterogeneous, containing ciliated and nonciliated cells with various brush border thicknesses. Hemocytes of the host's innate immune system were also found in close proximity to the bacteria within the tubules. A census of 16S rRNA genes suggested that Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia bacteria were prevalent, with members of the genus Phaeobacter dominating the consortium. Analysis of 454-shotgun sequencing data confirmed the presence of members of these taxa and revealed members of a fourth, Flavobacteria of the Bacteroidetes phylum. 16S rRNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that many ANG tubules were dominated by members of specific taxa, namely, Rhodobacterales, Verrucomicrobia, or Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes, suggesting symbiont partitioning to specific host tubules. In addition, FISH revealed that bacteria, including Phaeobacter species from the ANG, are likely deposited into the jelly coat of freshly laid eggs. This report establishes the ANG of the invertebrate E. scolopes as a model to examine interactions between a bacterial consortium and its host. PMID:22504817

Collins, Andrew J; LaBarre, Brenna A; Won, Brian S Wong; Shah, Monica V; Heng, Steven; Choudhury, Momena H; Haydar, Shahela A; Santiago, Jose; Nyholm, Spencer V

2012-06-01

26

Diversity and Partitioning of Bacterial Populations within the Accessory Nidamental Gland of the Squid Euprymna scolopes  

PubMed Central

Microbial consortia confer important benefits to animal and plant hosts, and model associations are necessary to examine these types of host/microbe interactions. The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) is a female reproductive organ found among cephalopod mollusks that contains a consortium of bacteria, the exact function of which is unknown. To begin to understand the role of this organ, the bacterial consortium was characterized in the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, a well-studied model organism for symbiosis research. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the ANG revealed dense bacterial assemblages of rod- and coccus-shaped cells segregated by morphology into separate, epithelium-lined tubules. The host epithelium was morphologically heterogeneous, containing ciliated and nonciliated cells with various brush border thicknesses. Hemocytes of the host's innate immune system were also found in close proximity to the bacteria within the tubules. A census of 16S rRNA genes suggested that Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia bacteria were prevalent, with members of the genus Phaeobacter dominating the consortium. Analysis of 454-shotgun sequencing data confirmed the presence of members of these taxa and revealed members of a fourth, Flavobacteria of the Bacteroidetes phylum. 16S rRNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that many ANG tubules were dominated by members of specific taxa, namely, Rhodobacterales, Verrucomicrobia, or Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes, suggesting symbiont partitioning to specific host tubules. In addition, FISH revealed that bacteria, including Phaeobacter species from the ANG, are likely deposited into the jelly coat of freshly laid eggs. This report establishes the ANG of the invertebrate E. scolopes as a model to examine interactions between a bacterial consortium and its host. PMID:22504817

Collins, Andrew J.; LaBarre, Brenna A.; Wong Won, Brian S.; Shah, Monica V.; Heng, Steven; Choudhury, Momena H.; Haydar, Shahela A.; Santiago, Jose

2012-01-01

27

Cutaneous application of an accessory-gland secretion after sperm exchange in a terrestrial slug (Mollusca: Pulmonata).  

PubMed

Competition for fertilisation in hermaphroditic animals seems to have led to many odd behaviours and complex morphologies involved in the transfer of accessory-gland products to the partner. Terrestrial slugs of the genus Deroceras show remarkably elaborate and interspecifically diverse penis morphologies and mating behaviours. Most species have an appending penial gland, which in Deroceras panormitanum consists of a few long fingers that are everted after sperm exchange and laid onto the partner's back. To investigate whether this gland transfers a secretion onto the partner's skin, we killed slugs at different mating stages and studied their penial glands and skin histologically. Two types of secretion granules appeared at a very early stage of courtship, and the penial gland was already filled 15min into the courtship. At copulation, the gland everted this secretion onto the partner's body, where it remained for at least 50min. No lysis of skin tissue or other effects on the skin were observed. The slugs tried to lick the received secretion off their own body, and some droplets were observed to be shed with the body mucus. Our results indicate the external application of a glandular substance that could function as either a pheromone or allohormone. The behaviours of the recipients suggest sexual conflict, although mutual interest cannot be ruled out. PMID:20202803

Benke, Mandy; Reise, Heike; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Koene, Joris M

2010-03-01

28

Transcriptional Profiles of Mating-Responsive Genes from Testes and Male Accessory Glands of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata  

PubMed Central

Background Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. Methodology/Principal Findings We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. Conclusions/Significance We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male recovery dynamics in terms of accessory gland gene expression profiles and correlated remating inhibition mechanisms may permit the improvement of pest management approaches. PMID:23071645

Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Siciliano, Paolo; Meraldi, Alice; Falchetto, Marco; Bonomi, Angelica; Manni, Mosè; Gabrieli, Paolo; Malovini, Alberto; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Aksoy, Serap; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

2012-01-01

29

Suppression subtractive hybridization analysis reveals expression of conserved and novel genes in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri  

PubMed Central

Background During mating, insect males eject accessory gland proteins (Acps) into the female genital tract. These substances are known to affect female post-mating behavior and physiology. In addition, they may harm the female, e.g., in reducing its lifespan. This is interpreted as a consequence of sexual antagonistic co-evolution. Whereas sexual conflict abounds in non-social species, the peculiar life history of social insects (ants, bees, wasps) with lifelong pair-bonding and no re-mating aligns the reproductive interests of the sexes. Harming the female during mating would negatively affect male fitness and sexual antagonism is therefore not expected. Indeed, mating appears to increase female longevity in at least one ant species. Acps are presumed to play a role in this phenomenon, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we investigated genes, which are preferentially expressed in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri, to determine which proteins might be transferred in the seminal fluid. Results By a suppression subtractive hybridization protocol we obtained 20 unique sequences (USs). Twelve had mutual best matches with genes predicted for Apis mellifera and Nasonia vitripennis. Functional information (Gene Ontology) was available only for seven of these, including intracellular signaling, energy-dependent transport and metabolic enzyme activities. The remaining eight USs did not match sequences from other species. Six genes were further analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR in three life cycle stages of male ants. A gene with carboxy-lyase activity and one of unpredicted function were significantly overexpressed in accessory glands of sexually mature males. Conclusions Our study is the first one to investigate differential gene expression in ants in a context related to mating. Our findings indicate that male accessory glands of L. gredleri express a series of genes that are unique to this species, possibly representing novel genes, in addition to conserved ones for which functions can be predicted. Identifying differentially expressed genes might help to better understand molecular mechanisms involved in reproductive processes in eusocial Hymenoptera. While the novel genes could account for rapidly evolving ones driven by intra-sexual conflict between males, conserved genes imply that rather beneficial traits might get fixed by a process described as inter-sexual cooperation between males and females. PMID:20825642

2010-01-01

30

Variation in Sperm Displacement and Its Association with Accessory Gland Protein Loci in Drosophila Melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophilia melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female's reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes, Glucose dehydrogenase (Gld), and Esterase-6 (Est-6). Acp genes encode proteins that are in some cases known to be transmitted to the female in the seminal fluid and are likely candidates for genes that might mediate the phenomenon of sperm displacement. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. PMID:7705622

Clark, A. G.; Aguade, M.; Prout, T.; Harshman, L. G.; Langley, C. H.

1995-01-01

31

A syringe-like love dart injects male accessory gland products in a tropical hermaphrodite.  

PubMed

Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner's hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner's hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals. PMID:23894565

Koene, Joris M; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

2013-01-01

32

A Syringe-Like Love Dart Injects Male Accessory Gland Products in a Tropical Hermaphrodite  

PubMed Central

Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner’s hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner’s hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals. PMID:23894565

Koene, Joris M.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

2013-01-01

33

The "Vampirome": Transcriptome and proteome analysis of the principal and accessory submaxillary glands of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, a vector of human rabies  

PubMed Central

Vampire bats are notorious for being the sole mammals that strictly feed on fresh blood for their survival. While their saliva has been historically associated with anticoagulants, only one antihemostatic (plasminogen activator) has been molecularly and functionally characterized. Here, RNAs from both principal submandibular and accessory glands of Desmodus rotundus were extracted, and ~ 200 million reads were sequenced by Illumina. The principal gland was enriched with plasminogen activators with fibrinolytic properties, members of lipocalin and secretoglobin families, which bind prohemostatic prostaglandins, and endonucleases, which cleave neutrophil-derived procoagulant NETs. Anticoagulant (tissue factor pathway inhibitor, TFPI), vasodilators (PACAP and C-natriuretic peptide), and metalloproteases (ADAMTS-1) were also abundantly expressed. Members of the TSG-6 (anti-inflammatory), antigen 5/CRISP, and CCL28-like (antimicrobial) protein families were also sequenced. Apyrases (which remove platelet agonist ADP), phosphatases (which degrade procoagulant polyphosphates), and sphingomyelinase were found at lower transcriptional levels. Accessory glands were enriched with antimicrobials (lysozyme, defensin, lactotransferrin) and protease inhibitors (TIL-domain, cystatin, Kazal). Mucins, heme-oxygenase, and IgG chains were present in both glands. Proteome analysis by nano LC-MS/MS confirmed that several transcripts are expressed in the glands. The database presented herein is accessible online at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/D_rotundus/Supplemental-web.xlsx. These results reveal that bat saliva emerges as a novel source of modulators of vascular biology. PMID:23411029

Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Assumpcao, Teresa C. F.; Ma, Dongying; Li, Yuan; Vicente, Eliane C.; Uieda, Wilson; Ribeiro, Jose M.C.

2013-01-01

34

Trehalase in the spermatophore from the bean-shaped accessory gland of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor : purification, kinetic properties and localization of the enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trehalase from the bean-shaped accessory glands of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, was purified by acid treatment, with subsequent chromatography on columns of DEAE-cellulofine and Sephacryl S-300. The molecular masses of the native and the denatured forms were estimated to be 43 and 62 kDa by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE, respectively, an indication that the trehalase may be composed

T. Yaginuma; T. Mizuno; C. Mizuno; M. Ikeda; T. Wada; K. Hattori; O. Yamashita; G. M. Happ

1996-01-01

35

Male accessory gland protein reduces egg laying in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.  

PubMed

Seminal fluid is an important part of the ejaculate of internally fertilizing animals. This fluid contains substances that nourish and activate sperm for successful fertilization. Additionally, it contains components that influence female physiology to further enhance fertilization success of the sperm donor, possibly beyond the recipient's optimum. Although evidence for such substances abounds, few studies have unraveled their identities, and focus has been exclusively on separate-sex species. We present the first detailed study into the seminal fluid composition of a hermaphrodite (Lymnaea stagnalis). Eight novel peptides and proteins were identified from the seminal-fluid-producing prostate gland and tested for effects on oviposition, hatching and consumption. The gene for the protein found to suppress egg mass production, Ovipostatin, was sequenced, thereby providing the first fully-characterized seminal fluid substance in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Thus, seminal fluid peptides and proteins have evolved and can play a crucial role in sexual selection even when the sexes are combined. PMID:20404934

Koene, Joris M; Sloot, Wiebe; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Cummins, Scott F; Degnan, Bernard M; Smith, John S; Nagle, Gregg T; ter Maat, Andries

2010-01-01

36

Effect of male accessory gland products on egg laying in gastropod molluscs.  

PubMed

In internally fertilizing animals, seminal fluid is usually added to the spermatozoa, together forming the semen or ejaculate. Besides nourishing and activating sperm, the components in the seminal fluid can also influence female physiology to augment fertilization success of the sperm donor. While many studies have reported such effects in species with separate sexes, few studies have addressed this in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals. This video protocol presents a method to study effects of seminal fluid in gastropods, using a simultaneously hermaphroditic freshwater snail, the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, as model organism. While the procedure is shown using complete prostate gland extracts, individual components (i.e., proteins, peptides, and other compounds) of the seminal fluid can be tested in the same way. Effects of the receipt of ejaculate components on egg laying can be quantified in terms of frequency of egg laying and more subtle estimates of female reproductive performance such as egg numbers within each egg masses. Results show that seminal fluid proteins affect female reproductive output in this simultaneous hermaphrodite, highlighting their importance for sexual selection. PMID:24998794

van Iersel, Sander; Swart, Elferra M; Nakadera, Yumi; van Straalen, Nico M; Koene, Joris M

2014-01-01

37

Effect of Male Accessory Gland Products on Egg Laying in Gastropod Molluscs  

PubMed Central

In internally fertilizing animals, seminal fluid is usually added to the spermatozoa, together forming the semen or ejaculate. Besides nourishing and activating sperm, the components in the seminal fluid can also influence female physiology to augment fertilization success of the sperm donor. While many studies have reported such effects in species with separate sexes, few studies have addressed this in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals. This video protocol presents a method to study effects of seminal fluid in gastropods, using a simultaneously hermaphroditic freshwater snail, the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, as model organism. While the procedure is shown using complete prostate gland extracts, individual components (i.e., proteins, peptides, and other compounds) of the seminal fluid can be tested in the same way. Effects of the receipt of ejaculate components on egg laying can be quantified in terms of frequency of egg laying and more subtle estimates of female reproductive performance such as egg numbers within each egg masses. Results show that seminal fluid proteins affect female reproductive output in this simultaneous hermaphrodite, highlighting their importance for sexual selection. PMID:24998794

van Iersel, Sander; Swart, Elferra M.; Nakadera, Yumi; van Straalen, Nico M.; Koene, Joris M.

2014-01-01

38

A Novel Function for the Hox Gene Abd-B in the Male Accessory Gland Regulates the Long-Term Female Post-Mating Response in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

In insects, products of the male reproductive tract are essential for initiating and maintaining the female post-mating response (PMR). The PMR includes changes in egg laying, receptivity to courting males, and sperm storage. In Drosophila, previous studies have determined that the main cells of the male accessory gland produce some of the products required for these processes. However, nothing was known about the contribution of the gland's other secretory cell type, the secondary cells. In the course of investigating the late functions of the homeotic gene, Abdominal-B (Abd-B), we discovered that Abd-B is specifically expressed in the secondary cells of the Drosophila male accessory gland. Using an Abd-B BAC reporter coupled with a collection of genetic deletions, we discovered an enhancer from the iab-6 regulatory domain that is responsible for Abd-B expression in these cells and that apparently works independently from the segmentally regulated chromatin domains of the bithorax complex. Removal of this enhancer results in visible morphological defects in the secondary cells. We determined that mates of iab-6 mutant males show defects in long-term egg laying and suppression of receptivity, and that products of the secondary cells are influential during sperm competition. Many of these phenotypes seem to be caused by a defect in the storage and gradual release of sex peptide in female mates of iab-6 mutant males. We also found that Abd-B expression in the secondary cells contributes to glycosylation of at least three accessory gland proteins: ovulin (Acp26Aa), CG1656, and CG1652. Our results demonstrate that long-term post-mating changes observed in mated females are not solely induced by main cell secretions, as previously believed, but that secondary cells also play an important role in male fertility by extending the female PMR. Overall, these discoveries provide new insights into how these two cell types cooperate to produce and maintain a robust female PMR. PMID:23555301

Maeda, Robert K.; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Karch, Francois

2013-01-01

39

Patterns of transcriptome divergence in the male accessory gland of two closely related species of field crickets.  

PubMed

One of the central questions in evolutionary genetics is how much of the genome is involved in the early stages of divergence between populations, causing them to be reproductively isolated. In this article, we investigate genomic differentiation in a pair of closely related field crickets (Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus). These two species are the result of allopatric divergence and now interact along an extensive hybrid zone in eastern North America. Genes encoding seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) are often divergent between species, and it has been hypothesized that these proteins may play a key role in the origin and maintenance of reproductive isolation between diverging lineages. Hence, we chose to scan the accessory gland transcriptome to enable direct comparisons of differentiation for genes known to encode SFPs with differentiation in a much larger set of genes expressed in the same tissue. We have characterized differences in allele frequency between two populations for >6000 SNPs and >26,000 contigs. About 10% of all SNPs showed nearly fixed differences between the two species. Genes encoding SFPs did not have significantly elevated numbers of fixed SNPs per contig, nor did they seem to show larger differences than expected in their average allele frequencies. The distribution of allele frequency differences across the transcriptome is distinctly bimodal, but the relatively high proportion of fixed SNPs does not necessarily imply "ancient" divergence between these two lineages. Further studies of linkage disequilibrium and introgression across the hybrid zone are needed to direct our attention to those genome regions that are important for reproductive isolation. PMID:23172857

Andrés, Jose A; Larson, Erica L; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Harrison, Richard G

2013-02-01

40

Patterns of Transcriptome Divergence in the Male Accessory Gland of Two Closely Related Species of Field Crickets  

PubMed Central

One of the central questions in evolutionary genetics is how much of the genome is involved in the early stages of divergence between populations, causing them to be reproductively isolated. In this article, we investigate genomic differentiation in a pair of closely related field crickets (Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus). These two species are the result of allopatric divergence and now interact along an extensive hybrid zone in eastern North America. Genes encoding seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) are often divergent between species, and it has been hypothesized that these proteins may play a key role in the origin and maintenance of reproductive isolation between diverging lineages. Hence, we chose to scan the accessory gland transcriptome to enable direct comparisons of differentiation for genes known to encode SFPs with differentiation in a much larger set of genes expressed in the same tissue. We have characterized differences in allele frequency between two populations for >6000 SNPs and >26,000 contigs. About 10% of all SNPs showed nearly fixed differences between the two species. Genes encoding SFPs did not have significantly elevated numbers of fixed SNPs per contig, nor did they seem to show larger differences than expected in their average allele frequencies. The distribution of allele frequency differences across the transcriptome is distinctly bimodal, but the relatively high proportion of fixed SNPs does not necessarily imply “ancient” divergence between these two lineages. Further studies of linkage disequilibrium and introgression across the hybrid zone are needed to direct our attention to those genome regions that are important for reproductive isolation. PMID:23172857

Andres, Jose A.; Larson, Erica L.; Bogdanowicz, Steven M.; Harrison, Richard G.

2013-01-01

41

Structure, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the male reproductive accessory glands in the neotropical flat-faced fruit-eating bat Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).  

PubMed

Chiroptera, the second largest mammalian order, presents different reproductive strategies and unique reproductive features. However, there are few reports regarding male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) in Chiroptera. Thus, the aim of the present study was to characterise the RAGs of the exclusively neotropical bat Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) macroscopically, microscopically and ultrastructurally. The RAGs were composed of a prostatic complex with two regions (ventral and dorsal) and paraurethral and bulbourethral glands, but no seminal vesicles. The ventral region had an undefined epithelium, with secretory and basal cells, and its secretions were periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive. The dorsal region received both deferens ducts, had a columnar pseudostratified epithelium with secretory and basal cells. There were two types of secretions from the dorsal region: one that was basophilic and another that was mixed PAS positive and PAS negative. The paraurethral glands were dispersed in the connective tissue of the urethra, whereas the bulbourethral glands were located in the penile root. Histological and ultrastructural data confirmed the prostatic nature of the ventral and dorsal regions and the holocrine nature of the ventral region, with the latter finding never having been described previously for the prostate gland. Our findings demonstrate the wide discrepancy of RAGs between A. planirostris and other mammals in terms of their composition, structure and morphology. PMID:22985988

Puga, Cíntia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Negrin, Ana C; Christante, Caroline M; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

2013-01-01

42

Offsetting effects of Wolbachia infection and heat shock on sperm production in Drosophila simulans: analyses of fecundity, fertility and accessory gland proteins.  

PubMed Central

Infection in Drosophila simulans with the endocellular symbiont Wolbachia pipientis results in egg lethality caused by failure to properly initiate diploid development (cytoplasmic incompatibility, CI). The relationship between Wolbachia infection and reproductive factors influencing male fitness has not been well examined. Here we compare infected and uninfected strains of D. simulans for (1) sperm production, (2) male fertility, and (3) the transfer and processing of two accessory gland proteins, Acp26Aa or Acp36De. Infected males produced significantly fewer sperm cysts than uninfected males over the first 10 days of adult life, and infected males, under varied mating conditions, had lower fertility compared to uninfected males. This fertility effect was due to neither differences between infected and uninfected males in the transfer and subsequent processing of accessory gland proteins by females nor to the presence of Wolbachia in mature sperm. We found that heat shock, which is known to decrease CI expression, increases sperm production to a greater extent in infected compared to uninfected males, suggesting a possible link between sperm production and heat shock. Given these results, the roles Wolbachia and heat shock play in mediating male gamete production may be important parameters for understanding the dynamics of infection in natural populations. PMID:10790392

Snook, R R; Cleland, S Y; Wolfner, M F; Karr, T L

2000-01-01

43

Hormonal Regulation of MicroRNA Expression in Steroid Producing Cells of the Ovary, Testis and Adrenal Gland  

PubMed Central

Background Given the emerging roles of miRNAs as potential posttranscriptional/posttranslational regulators of the steroidogenic process in adrenocortical and gonadal cells, we sought to determine miRNA profiles in rat adrenals from animals treated with vehicle, ACTH, 17?-E2 or dexamethasone. Key observations were also confirmed using hormone (Bt2cAMP)-treated mouse Leydig tumor cells, MLTC-1, and primary rat ovarian granulosa cells. Methodology RNA was extracted from rat adrenal glands and miRNA profiles were established using microarray and confirmed with qRT-PCR. The expression of some of the hormone-sensitive miRNAs was quantified in MLTC-1 and granulosa cells after stimulation with Bt2cAMP. Targets of hormonally altered miRNAs were explored by qRT-PCR and Western blotting in adrenals and granulosa cells. Results Adrenals from ACTH, 17?-E2 and dexamethasone treated rats exhibited miRNA profiles distinct from control animals. ACTH up-regulated the expression of miRNA-212, miRNA-182, miRNA-183, miRNA-132, and miRNA-96 and down-regulated the levels of miRNA-466b, miRNA-214, miRNA-503, and miRNA-27a. The levels of miR-212, miRNA-183, miRNA-182, miRNA-132, miRNA-370, miRNA-377, and miRNA-96 were up-regulated, whereas miR-125b, miRNA-200b, miR-122, miRNA-466b, miR-138, miRNA-214, miRNA-503 and miRNA27a were down-regulated in response to 17?-E2 treatment. Dexamethasone treatment decreased miRNA-200b, miR-122, miR-19a, miRNA-466b and miRNA27a levels, but increased miRNA-183 levels. Several adrenal miRNAs are subject to regulation by more than one hormone. Significant cAMP-induced changes in certain miRNAs were also noted in MLTC-1 and granulosa cells. Some of the hormone-induced miRNAs in steroidogenic cells were predicted to target proteins involved in lipid metabolism/steroidogenesis. We also obtained evidence that miR-132 and miRNA-214 inhibit the expression of SREBP-1c and LDLR, respectively. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that expression of a number of miRNAs in steroidogenic cells of the testis, ovary and adrenal glands is subject to hormonal regulation and that miRNAs and their regulation by specific hormones are likely to play a key role in posttranscriptional/posttranslational regulation of steroidogenesis. PMID:24205079

Hu, Zhigang; Shen, Wen-Jun; Cortez, Yuan; Tang, Xudong; Liu, Li-Fen; Kraemer, Fredric B.; Azhar, Salman

2013-01-01

44

In vivo evidence for the crucial role of SF1 in steroid-producing cells of the testis, ovary and adrenal gland  

PubMed Central

Adrenal and gonadal steroids are essential for life and reproduction. The orphan nuclear receptor SF1 (NR5A1) has been shown to regulate the expression of enzymes involved in steroid production in vitro. However, the in vivo role of this transcription factor in steroidogenesis has not been elucidated. In this study, we have generated steroidogenic-specific Cre-expressing mice to lineage mark and delete Sf1 in differentiated steroid-producing cells of the testis, the ovary and the adrenal gland. Our data show that SF1 is a regulator of the expression of steroidogenic genes in all three organs. In addition, Sf1 deletion leads to a radical change in cell morphology and loss of identity. Surprisingly, sexual development and reproduction in mutant animals were not compromised owing, in part, to the presence of a small proportion of SF1-positive cells. In contrast to the testis and ovary, the mutant adult adrenal gland showed a lack of Sf1-deleted cells and our studies suggest that steroidogenic adrenal cells during foetal stages require Sf1 to give rise to the adult adrenal population. This study is the first to show the in vivo requirements of SF1 in steroidogenesis and provides novel data on the cellular consequences of the loss of this protein specifically within steroid-producing cells. PMID:23136395

Buaas, F. William; Gardiner, Jennifer R.; Clayton, Sally; Val, Pierre; Swain, Amanda

2012-01-01

45

Variation and Genomic Localization of Genes Encoding DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER Male Accessory Gland Proteins Separated by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

Accessory gland proteins from Drosophila melanogaster males have been separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into nine major bands. When individual males from 175 strains were examined, considerable polymorphism for nearly one-half of the major protein bands was seen, including null alleles for three bands. Variation was observed not only among long-established laboratory strains but also among stocks recently derived from natural populations. There was little difference in the amount of variation between P and M strains, indicating that P element mutagenesis is not a factor producing the variation. Codominant expression of variants for each of five bands was found in heterozygotes, suggesting structural gene variation and not posttranslational modification variation. Stocks carrying electrophoretic variants of four of the major proteins were used to map the presumed structural genes for these proteins; the loci were found to be dispersed on the second chromosome. Since males homozygous for variant proteins were fertile, the polymorphism seems to have little immediate effect on successful sperm transfer. We propose that a high degree of polymorphism can be tolerated because these proteins play a nutritive rather than enzymatic role in Drosophila reproduction. PMID:3095182

Whalen, Michael; Wilson, Thomas G.

1986-01-01

46

Steroid hormone production in testis, ovary, and adrenal gland of immature rats irradiated in utero with /sup 60/Co  

SciTech Connect

Pregnant rats received whole-body irradiation at 20 days of gestation with 2.6 Gy lambda rays from a 60Co source. Endocrinological effects before maturation were studied using testes and adrenal glands obtained from male offspring and ovaries from female offspring irradiated in utero. Seminiferous tubules of the irradiated male offspring were remarkably atrophied with free germinal epithelium and containing only Sertoli cells. Female offspring also had atrophied ovaries. Testicular tissue obtained from intact and 60Co-irradiated rats was incubated with 14C-labeled pregnenolone, progesterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione as a substrate. Intermediates for androgen production and catabolic metabolites were isolated after the incubation. The amounts of these metabolites produced by the irradiated testes were low in comparison with the control. The activities of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase, C17,20-lyase, and delta 4-5 alpha-reductase in the irradiated testes were 30-40% of those in nonirradiated testes. Also, the activities of 17 beta- and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were 72 and 52% of the control, respectively. In adrenal glands, the 21-hydroxylase activity of the irradiated animals was 38% of the control, but the delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity was comparable to that of the control. On the other hand, the activity of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of the irradiated ovary was only 19% of the control. These results suggest that 60Co irradiation of the fetus in utero markedly affects the production of steroid hormones in testes, ovaries, and adrenal glands after birth.

Inano, H.; Suzuki, K.; Ishii-Ohba, H.; Imada, Y.; Kumagai, R.; Kurihara, S.; Sato, A.

1989-02-01

47

The influence of progestin and androgen on the fine structure of the male reproductive tract of the rat. II. Epididymis and sex accessory glands.  

PubMed

Young adult male rats were administered medroxyprogesterone (Provera, Upjohn) alone and in combination with testosterone,as has been done to inhibit male fertility. The histology and the fine structure of several segments of the epididymis, the ventral prostate, and the seminal vesicle were studied at intervals after treatment for up to 16 weeks. The epididymides of treated animals weighed less than those of control rats. Microscopic alterations in the epididymis were similar in rats treated with Provera alone and in those animals that received Provera and testosterone, but the changes varied with the segment of the epididymis. In the middle segment in the caput epididymidis, the normally abundant luminal sperm were absent but the epithelium retained its normal ultrastructural features. In the terminal segment in the cauda epididymidis, different changes were observed in the proximal and distal portions. In the proximal cauda epididymidis, the lumen was small, irregular in outline, and virtually devoid of sperm. The light cells of the epididymal epithelium in the proximal cauda contained extremely large numbers of dense bodies resembling lysosomes, which occupied most of the supranuclear and basal cytoplasm. In contrast, in the distal part of the cauda epididymidis, the epithelium had a normal appearance but the lumen was filled with debris, sperm, and spherical masses of cytoplasm that were apparently derived from germ cells. It is suggested that the clearing of the lumen of the proximal cauda epididymidis may reflect the greater activity of light cells of the epididymal epithelium in that region. Although alterations in spermatogenesis may be most important in the antifertility effect of progestin and androgen, these alterations in epididymal sperm and epithelium may also play a role. The weights of the prostate and seminal vesicles of rats treated with Provera (1 mg/100 g/day) were greatly reduced compared to those of control rats. Although there was considerable variation, in many specimens treated with Provera alone the epithelium of the prostate showed a change from a columnar to a cuboidal or squamous shape, and there was a reduction in the size and abundance of organelles involved in the formation of secretions. The microscopic structure of the seminal vesicle of rats treated with Provera was less severely affected than the prostate. Although the seminal vesicle epithelium of Provera-treated rats was generally not as tall as in control animals, the cells possessed parallel cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum, secretory vacuoles, and an active-appearing Golgi apparatus, suggesting that they continued to be able to form secretions in the presence of Provera. The weights of the sex accessory glands were maintained at control levels by the administration of testosterone, 100 mug/100 g/day, along with the Provera. A normal fine structure was present in the epithelium of both the prostate and seminal vesicle of rats administered this amount of testosterone in addition to Provera... PMID:848779

Flickinger, C J

1977-04-01

48

Testis cancer  

PubMed Central

Testis cancer is an increasing problem, especially in northern European male populations. However, survival has improved dramatically over one generation. Environmental factors may have a role in the aetiology with high oestrogen concentrations implicated. Testis cancer is subdivided between seminoma and non?seminoma. At presentation, a testicular lump is the most common finding and radical inguinal orchidectomy is recommended for most. Further multidisciplinary management is determined by histological subtype and stage and involves chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, with many patients only undergoing surveillance. There is increasing emphasis on reducing toxicity of treatments in long term survivors. Treatment refractory testis cancer remains a significant challenge. PMID:17916870

Khan, Omar; Protheroe, Andrew

2007-01-01

49

Matching Accessories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heterodimerization enhances the complexity of ligand recognition and diversity of signaling responses of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Many accessory proteins (for ion channels or GPCRs) appear to associate with their partners relatively early in the process whereby proteins are transported to the cell surface; their roles in modulating function may have evolved out of simple proximity to a protein that once upon a time they either facilitated or accompanied through the maturation process. The receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are a family of single-transmembrane accessory proteins that heterodimerize with GPCRs and, thereby, allow individual GPCRs to recognize multiple ligands and to activate various signaling pathways in response to ligand binding. The M10 family of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1b proteins has recently been shown to associate with murine vomeronasal V2R receptors, as well as to escort them to the cell surface. The exact role of M10 in modulating V2R function (or vice versa) remains to be determined.

Steven M. Foord (Stevenage;Target Bioinformatics, GlaxoSmithKline Medicine Research Centre REV)

2003-07-08

50

The Laser Accessory Market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wandering through the exhibit hall yesterday, I noticed that if you look at the laser companies and if you look at the accessory companies, there are pretty much the same number of accessory booths as well as the laser companies. There was one difference. Laser company booths are all sexy looking, very flashy, big booths. Whereas if you look at the accessories booths, they were small, not so prominent.

Desai, Ashvin

1988-09-01

51

The comparative morphology of epidermal glands in Pentatomoidea (Heteroptera).  

PubMed

The Heteroptera show a diversity of glands associated with the epidermis. They have multiple roles including the production of noxious scents. Here, we examine the cellular arrangement and cytoskeletal components of the scent glands of pentatomoid Heteroptera in three families, Pentatomidae (stink bugs), Tessaratomidae, and Scutelleridae (shield-backed bugs or jewel bugs). The glands are; (1) the dorsal abdominal glands, (2) the tubular glands of the composite metathoracic gland, and (3) the accessory gland component of the composite metathoracic gland. The dorsal abdominal glands are at their largest in nymphs and decrease in size in adults. The metathoracic gland is an adult-specific gland unit with a reservoir and multiple types of gland cells. The accessory gland is composed of many unicellular glands concentrated in a sinuous line across the reservoir wall. The lateral tubular gland is composed of two-cell units. The dorsal abdominal glands of nymphs are composed of three-cell units with a prominent cuticular component derived from the saccule cell sitting between the duct and receiving canal. The cuticular components that channel secretion from the microvilli of the secretory cell to the exterior differ in the three gland types. The significance of the numbers of cells comprising gland units is related to the role of cells in regenerating the cuticular components of the glands at moulting in nymphs. PMID:24747726

Kheyri, Homayoun; Cribb, Bronwen W; Merritt, David J

2014-05-01

52

Androlog Summary Copious Pre-Ejaculation: Small Glands—Major Headaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Note: Postings to Androlog have been lightly edited before publication. Pre-ejaculate is a clear mucoid fluid produced by accessory sex glands and expressed on sexual stimula- tion into the urethra. The organs that produce this fluid are Cowper glands, the glands of Littre, and possibly the glands of Morgagni. Pre-ejaculate volume may range in normal men from a few drops

ALEKSANDER CHUDNOVSKY; CRAIG S. NIEDERBERGER

53

Testis tumor associated to microlithiasis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the relationship between testicular microlithiasis and testis tumors in children and to consider the chances of testis preserving surgery in specific cases. CASE DESCRIPTION: Pre-adolescent presenting testicular microlithiasis and a larger left testis, corresponding to a cystic testicular tumor. The tumor was excised, with ipsilateral testis preservation. Histology diagnosed a testis dermoid tumor. COMMENTS: The relationship between testis tumors and testicular microlithiasis is ill defined in children. Pediatric urologists need to develop specific follow-up protocols for pre-pubertal children. PMID:24473964

de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Maciel, Felipe; Monnerat, Andrea Lima C.; Fernandes, Marcia Antunes; Dekermache, Samuel

2013-01-01

54

Axillary accessory breast associated with galactorrhea in an adolescent girl  

PubMed Central

We present herein a case of right axillary accessory breast associated with galactorrhea in an adolescent girl. A 14-year-old Japanese girl presented with an 11-month history of a tender, subcutaneous lesion in the right axillary fossa. Seven months later, she experienced menarche. Subsequently, the patient noticed pressure-induced galactorrhea from both nipples. Physical examination revealed an elastic, firm and well-demarcated subcutaneous tumor 3 × 2 cm in size. A biopsy specimen showed proliferation of mammary gland tissue in the stroma located below the subcutaneous fat tissue. On the basis of these findings the patient was diagnosed with an accessory breast. Interestingly, the galactorrhea ceased after surgical removal of the accessory breast. PMID:21547148

Kyo, Akemi; Sasaki, Yoshihito; Fukunaga, Atsushi; Nagano, Tohru; Funasaka, Yoko; Nishigori, Chikako

2010-01-01

55

Testis Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Testi s C620–C629 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 12 Local tumor destruction, NOS No specimen sent to pathology from surgical

56

ORCHIOPEXY FOR IMPALPABLE TESTIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThis review was performed to assess the effect of protecting the collateral circulation between spermatic and vasal vessels by leaving a strip of peritoneum attached to the lower spermatic cord in patients in whom the spermatic vessels needed to be divided to bring the testis into good scrotal position.

LOWELL R. KING

1998-01-01

57

Accessories Around the Clock.  

E-print Network

Accessories Around the Clock RHEBA MERLE BOYLES GRAHAM HARD NENA ROBERSON FANNIE BROWN EATON Extension Clothing Specialists k. The Texas A. a M. College System 2? well-dressed woman of today believes a wardrobe of fewer q, well chosen... for a short time and are adapfed- by only a few. Some fads can be practical but often they grade you down on appearance. Good taste is realizing the importance of wearing the right clothes for the occasion and the individual. Acc on l m o HINTS...

Boyles, Rheba Merle; Hard, Graham; Roberson, Nena; Eaton, Fannie Brown

1958-01-01

58

Gross morphology and ultrastructure of salivary glands of the mute cicada Karenia caelatata Distant (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea).  

PubMed

Salivary glands of the cicada Karenia caelatata Distant were investigated using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The salivary glands are paired structures and consist of principal glands and accessory glands. The principal gland is subdivided into anterior lobe and posterior lobe; the former contains about 34-39 long digitate lobules, while the latter contains approximately 30-33 long digitate lobules and 13-22 short digitate lobules. These short digitate lobules, about one fifth or sixth as long as the long digitate lobules, locate at the base of the long digitate lobules of posterior lobe. All of these digitate lobules vary in size, disposition, length and shape. The anterior lobe and the posterior lobe are connected by an anterior-posterior duct. Two efferent salivary ducts, which connect with the posterior lobe, fuse to form a common duct. The accessory gland is composed of three parts: a greatly tortuous and folded accessory salivary tube, a circlet of gular gland constituting of several acini of the same size, and a non-collapsible accessory salivary duct. The digitate lobules and gular glands possess secretory cells containing abundant secretory granules vary in size, shape, and electron density, as might indicate different materials are synthesized in different secretory regions. The anterior-posterior duct lines with a player of cuticular lining, and cells beneath the cuticular lining lack of basal infoldings, as suggests the duct serves just to transport secretions. The accessory salivary duct is lined with cuticular lining; cells of the duct have well developed basal infoldings associated with abundant mitochondria, as probably suggests the duct is a reabsorptive region of ions. The cells of the accessory salivary tube possess deep basal infoldings and well developed apical dense microvilli, indicating the cells of the tube are secretory in function. Concentric lamellar structures and a peculiar structure with abundant membrane-bound vesicles and secretory granules are observed for the first time, but their derivation and function remain unclear. The morphology and ultrastructure differences observed in the principal glands and accessory gland of the salivary glands of K. caelatata indicate that the sheath saliva was secreted by the principal glands, and the watery saliva was secreted by the accessory salivary glands. Rod-shaped microorganisms are found in the salivary glands (i.e., accessory salivary duct, gular gland, and long digitate lobule of salivary glands) for the first time, and their identity, function, and relationship to microorganisms residing in the salivary glands and/or other parts of alimentary canal of other cicadas need to be investigated further. PMID:23245811

Zhong, Hai-ying; Wei, Cong; Zhang, Ya-lin

2013-02-01

59

Accessory scrotum in the perineum  

PubMed Central

A case of accessory scrotum in a 2-day-old male infant is reported because of its rarity. An overview of sequences during the normal development of male external genitalia has been provided and the deranged mechanism resulting in this anomaly has been reviewed with hypotheses regarding etiology of accessory scrotum. PMID:22121322

Kumar, Pananghat A.; Arunachalam, Pavai; Kumar, Prasanna N.

2011-01-01

60

news update Fashion Accessory Design  

E-print Network

. Her work was inspired by the patterns of floor tiles, and she incorporated domestic knittingnews update let's talk Fashion Accessory Design Fashion Design Fashion Knitwear Design and Knitted-year Fashion Knitwear Design and Knitted Textiles student Thea Sanders won the top knitwear prize at the event

Evans, Paul

61

Natural variation of the Y chromosome suppresses sex ratio distortion and modulates testis-specific gene expression in Drosophila simulans  

PubMed Central

X-linked sex-ratio distorters that disrupt spermatogenesis can cause a deficiency in functional Y-bearing sperm and a female-biased sex ratio. Y-linked modifiers that restore a normal sex ratio might be abundant and favored when a X-linked distorter is present. Here we investigated natural variation of Y-linked suppressors of sex-ratio in the Winters systems and the ability of these chromosomes to modulate gene expression in Drosophila simulans. Seventy-eight Y chromosomes of worldwide origin were assayed for their resistance to the X-linked sex-ratio distorter gene Dox. Y chromosome diversity caused males to sire ?63% to ?98% female progeny. Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed hundreds of genes differentially expressed between isogenic males with sensitive (high sex ratio) and resistant (low sex ratio) Y chromosomes from the same population. Although the expression of about 75% of all testis-specific genes remained unchanged across Y chromosomes, a subset of post-meiotic genes was upregulated by resistant Y chromosomes. Conversely, a set of accessory gland-specific genes and mitochondrial genes were downregulated in males with resistant Y chromosomes. The D. simulans Y chromosome also modulated gene expression in XXY females in which the Y-linked protein-coding genes are not transcribed. The data suggest that the Y chromosome might exert its regulatory functions through epigenetic mechanisms that do not require the expression of protein-coding genes. The gene network that modulates sex ratio distortion by the Y chromosome is poorly understood, other than that it might include interactions with mitochondria and enriched for genes expressed in post-meiotic stages of spermatogenesis. PMID:23591516

Branco, A T; Tao, Y; Hartl, D L; Lemos, B

2013-01-01

62

Long-Term Outcomes of Retractile Testis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Retractile testis is considered to be a variant of normal testis in prepubertal boys. There is no agreed-upon management of retractile testis. The aim of this study was to provide data on the long-term outcomes of patients with retractile testis. Materials and Methods This study retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 43 boys who were referred for suspected undescended or retractile testis and were finally diagnosed with retractile testis between January 2001 and December 2008. All boys were biannually examined by a pediatric urologist to evaluate the presence of retractile, descended, or undescended testis and testicular volume. Results Of 43 boys, there were 22 boys with unilateral retractile testis (51.1%) and 21 boys with bilateral retractile testis (48.9%). Their mean age was 3.0±2.7 years and the follow-up duration was 4.4±1.7 years. Of 64 retractile testes, 29 (45.3%) succeeded in descending, 26 (40.6%) remained retractile, and 9 (14.1%) became undescended testis or of a decreased size requiring orchiopexy. The mean initial diagnostic age of the patients who underwent orchiopexy was 1.3±0.9 years; meanwhile, the mean initial diagnostic age of those who went on to have normal testis was 4.3±3.3 years (p=0.009). The mean follow-up duration was 3.6±1.5 years in the orchiopexy group, 4.0±1.4 years in the descended testis group, and 5.1±1.8 years in group with remaining retractile testis. Conclusions Retractile testis has a risk of requiring orchiopexy. The risk is higher in the population diagnosed at a younger age. Boys with retractile testis should be observed periodically until the testis is descended in the normal position. PMID:23061004

Bae, Jae Jun; Kim, Bum Soo

2012-01-01

63

Recent insights into HIV accessory proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV produces structural, regulatory, and accessory proteins during viral replication in host cells. The accessory proteins\\u000a include Nef, viral infectivity factor (Vif), viral protein R, and viral protein U or viral protein X. Although these accessory\\u000a proteins are generally dispensable for viral replication in vitro, they are essential for viral pathogenesis in vivo. Consequently,\\u000a there has been much interest in

Jenny L. Anderson; Thomas J. Hope

2003-01-01

64

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

65

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

66

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

67

Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies  

SciTech Connect

This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power. Two studies were conducted at ORNL. One was to put an additional winding in the motor slots to magnetically link with the high frequency of the controllable zero-sequence stator currents that do not produce any zero-sequence harmonic torques. The second approach was to utilize the corners of the square stator punching for the high-frequency transformers of the dc/dc inverter. Both approaches were successful. This CRADA validated the feasibility of GM’s desire to use the motor’s magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply. Three joint U.S. patents with GM were issued to ORNL and GM by the U.S. Patent Office for the research results produced by this CRADA.

Marlino, L.D.

2010-06-15

68

49 CFR 393.3 - Additional equipment and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Additional equipment and accessories. 393.3 Section 393.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION General § 393.3 Additional equipment and accessories....

2010-10-01

69

21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device...

2010-04-01

70

An accessory limb with an imperforate anus  

PubMed Central

Congenital accessory limbs are very rare anomalies with many causative factors. We describe the case of a 1-day-old female neonate-born to a healthy, 27-year-old mother-who presented with an accessory limb (foot) attached to the buttock and an imperforate anus. We also provide a review of the relevant literature. PMID:25317418

Park, Kun-Bo; Kim, Yeon-Mee; Park, Ji-Yong; Chung, Mi-Lim; Jung, Yu-Jin

2014-01-01

71

The accessory fallopian tube: A rare anomaly.  

PubMed

This paper presents a rare anatomical variation in the form of accessory fallopian tube on right side. The duplication of fallopian tube was observed in a 34-year-old female during routine undergraduate dissection in our department. Fallopian tube is the part of uterus that carries the ovum from the ovary to the uterus. Accessory fallopian tube is the congenital anomaly attached to the ampullary part of main tube. This accessory tube is common site of pyosalpinx, hydrosalpinx, cystic swelling and torsion. The ovum released by the ovary may also be captured by the blind accessory tube leading to infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Hence, all patients of infertility or pelvic inflammatory disease should be screened to rule out the presence of accessory fallopian tube and if encountered should be removed. PMID:23532389

Gandhi, Kusum R; Siddiqui, Abu U; Wabale, Rajendra N; Daimi, Syed R

2012-09-01

72

Expression Cloning of a Human alpha 1,4-N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase That Forms GlcNAcalpha 1--> 4Galbeta --> R, a Glycan Specifically Expressed in the Gastric Gland Mucous Cell-Type Mucin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among mucus-secreting cells, the gastric gland mucous cells, Brunner's glands, accessory glands of pancreaticobiliary tract, and pancreatic ducts exhibiting gastric metaplasia are unique in that they express class III mucin identified by paradoxical Con A staining composed of periodate oxidation, sodium borohydride reduction, Con A, and horseradish peroxidase reaction. Recently it was shown that these mucous cells secrete glycoproteins having

Jun Nakayama; Jiunn-Chern Yeh; Anup K. Misra; Susumu Ito; Tsutomu Katsuyama; Minoru Fukuda

1999-01-01

73

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

74

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

75

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

76

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

77

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

78

Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones  

MedlinePLUS

... Modules Resources Archived Modules Updates Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones The endocrine system is made up of the endocrine glands that secrete hormones. Although there are eight major endocrine glands scattered ...

79

Lacrimal Gland Tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... Gland Tumor Lacrimal Gland Tumor This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Lacrimal Gland Tumor. Use the menu ... guide is reviewed by experts on the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , which is composed of medical, surgical, ...

80

Epifascial accessory palmaris longus muscle.  

PubMed

In hand reconstructive surgery the palmaris longus muscle is one of the most utilized donor site for tendon reconstruction procedures. However, its anatomic position is variable and anatomic variations may be responsible for median nerve compression. We report the case of a 40-year-old, right-handed woman, who presented with numbness and paresthesias in the palm and in the flexor aspect of the first, second, and third fingers of her right hand for the preceding 5 months, coinciding with increase of office work (typing). The clinical examination and radiological investigations (ultrasound and magnetic resonance) revealed a subcutaneous mass (15 mm x 2.3 mm x 6 cm), with a lenticular shape and definite edges at the level of the volar aspect of the distal third of the forearm. The fine-needle aspiration biopsy revealed the presence of striated muscle fibers. During surgery, a muscle belly was found in the epifascial plane. This muscle originated from subcutaneous septa in the middle forearm and inserted on to the superficial palmar aponeurosis with fine short tendon fibers. Exposure of the antebrachial fascia did not reveal any area of weakness or muscle herniation. The palmaris longus tendon, flexor digitorum superficialis tendons, and flexor carpi radialis tendon showed usual topography under the antebrachial fascia. The accessory muscle was excised and histology revealed unremarkable striated muscle fibers, limited by a thin connective sheath. The presence of an accessory palmaris longus (APL) located in the epifascial plane could be ascribed to an unusual migration of myoblasts during the morphogenesis. Although extremely rare, APL is worth bearing in mind as a possible cause of median nerve compression and etiology of a volar mass in the distal forearm. PMID:16917822

Tiengo, Cesare; Macchi, Veronica; Stecco, Carla; Bassetto, Franco; De Caro, Raffaele

2006-09-01

81

HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE TESTIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This book, the first to describe how the testis is evaluated in research and toxicology testing settings, is a resource for individuals who wish to perform a systematic evaluation of the testis. he book contains 728 illustrations and drawings. The book begins with a description o...

82

Primary cilia in the developing pig testis.  

PubMed

In vertebrates, a variety of cell types generate a primary cilium. Cilia are implicated in determination and differentiation of a wide variety of organs and during embryonic development. However, there is little information on the presence or function of primary cilia in the mammalian testis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize expression of primary cilia in the developing pig testis. Testicular tissue from pigs at 2-10 weeks of age was analyzed for primary cilia by immunocytochemistry. Expression of primary cilia was also analyzed in testicular tissue formed de novo from a single cell suspension ectopically grafted into a mouse host. Functionality of primary cilia was monitored based on cilia elongation after exposure to lithium. Analysis showed that the primary cilium is present in testis cords as well as in the interstitium of the developing pig testis. Germ cells did not express primary cilia. However, we identified Sertoli cells as one of the somatic cell types that produce a primary cilium within the developing testis. Primary cilium expression was reduced from the second to the third week of pig testis development in situ and during de novo morphogenesis of testis tissue from a single cell suspension after xenotransplantation. In vitro, primary cilia were elongated in response to lithium treatment. These results indicate that primary cilia on Sertoli cells may function during testicular development. De novo morphogenesis of testis tissue from single cell suspensions may provide an accessible platform to study and manipulate expression and function of primary cilia. PMID:25107611

Ou, Young; Dores, Camila; Rodriguez-Sosa, Jose-Rafael; van der Hoorn, Frans A; Dobrinski, Ina

2014-11-01

83

Results of orchiopexy for the undescended testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The undescended testis is one of the most common congenital abnormalities of the genitourinary system. Outcomes of orchiopexy include (1) having a viable, palpable testis in the scrotum, (2) fertility, as measured by paternity rates or semen analysis in adulthood and (3) risk of testicular cancer. Multiple operative techniques have been described and are associated with various success rates. In

Irina Taran; Jack S. Elder

2006-01-01

84

Surgical approach to the palpable undescended testis.  

PubMed

An undescended testis may be associated with abnormal testicular development and function. A number of testes that are undescended at birth have been observed to descend spontaneously. The goal of orchidopexy remains to place those testes in the scrotum that would not have descended spontaneously. How long should the surgeon wait for spontaneous descent? By what age should the testis be positioned in the scrotum to avert further damage? Does earlier intervention result in a better functioning testis? Do different surgical techniques differ in their success in retaining the testis in the scrotum when dealing with the palpable undescended testis? This article reviews the current information on the timing and types of surgical intervention of the palpable undescended testes and their outcomes. PMID:24871526

Thomas, Reju J; Holland, Andrew J A

2014-07-01

85

Adaptable infrared surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy accessory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A second generation prototype enabling surface plasmon resonance spectroscopic measurements in the infrared (IR) range is described. The new design (v2) uses the optical train (optics and detector) within conventional FT-IR spectrometers by confining dimensions of the accessory to space available within the sample compartment of the spectrometer. The v2 accessory builds upon knowledge gained from a previous version that was based on a modified commercial variable angle spectroscopic accessory and addresses observed limitations of the original design—improved temporal stability and measurement acquisition speed, crucial to biomolecular binding studies, as well as optical flexibility, a requirement for investigations of novel plasmon-supporting materials. Different aspects of the accessory, including temporal stability, mechanical resilience, and sensitivity to changes in refractive index of a sample were evaluated and presented in this contribution.

Menegazzo, Nicola; Kegel, Laurel L.; Kim, Yoon-Chang; Allen, Derrick L.; Booksh, Karl S.

2012-09-01

86

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory...powered traction equipment to aid in exerting therapeutic pulling forces on the patient's...

2013-04-01

87

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory...powered traction equipment to aid in exerting therapeutic pulling forces on the patient's...

2014-04-01

88

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory...powered traction equipment to aid in exerting therapeutic pulling forces on the patient's...

2012-04-01

89

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory...powered traction equipment to aid in exerting therapeutic pulling forces on the patient's...

2011-04-01

90

Immunohistochemical characterization of epithelial cells in human lacrimal glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression patterns of cytokeratins (CKs), actin, lactoferrin (Lf), lysozyme (Ly), vimentin, and S-100 protein were immunohistochemically\\u000a examined in paraffin sections from eight normal major and accessory lacrimal glands (LGs). Luminal duct cells and a number\\u000a of secretory cells stained with the antibodies (ABs) KL1 and Pkk1 (CK 7, 8, 17, 18), while basal duct and myoepithelial cells\\u000a reacted with the

Nadarajah Vigneswaran; Carl Michael Wilk; Angelika Heese; Otto Paul Hornstein; Gottfried O. H. Naumann

1990-01-01

91

Vanishing Testis Syndrome: Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Vanishing testis syndrome or Testicular regression syndrome (TRS) is defined as the absence or an incomplete development of the testis of varying degrees in 46XY patients with normal external genitalia.TRS or vanishing testis syndrome may be seen in less than 5% of all patients of cryptorchidism. We report two cases of TRS who underwent surgical exploration with an initial diagnosis of cryptorchidism with impalpable testis. Grossly testicular tissue was not identified and the vas deferens was ending into a nubbin in both the cases. The presumed testicular remnants were sent for histological examination. The histological sections in both the cases showed vascularised fibrous nodule, structure of the spermatic cord and calcification, supporting the diagnosis of TRS. PMID:25302234

Dhandore, Priya; Hombalkar, Narendra Narayan; Gurav, Prakash Dattatray

2014-01-01

92

Scrotal incision orchiopexy for undescended testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo evaluate prospectively the success of scrotal incision orchiopexy (Bianchi technique) with or without inguinal hernia in patients with an undescended testis within the inguinal canal or beyond the external inguinal ring.

Murat Dayanç; Yusuf Kibar; Lütfü Tahmaz; Ibrahim Yildirim; A. Fuat Peker

2004-01-01

93

Computed tomographic imaging characteristics of the normal canine lacrimal glands  

PubMed Central

Background The canine lacrimal gland (LG) and accessory lacrimal gland of the third eyelid (TEG) are responsible for production of the aqueous portion of the precorneal tear film. Immune-mediated, toxic, neoplastic, or infectious processes can affect the glands directly or can involve adjacent tissues, with secondary gland involvement. Disease affecting these glands can cause keratoconjunctivitis sicca, corneal ulcers, and loss of vision. Due to their location in the orbit, these small structures are difficult to evaluate and measure, making cross-sectional imaging an important diagnostic tool. The detailed cross-sectional imaging appearance of the LG and TEG in dogs using computed tomography (CT) has not been reported to date. Results Forty-two dogs were imaged, and the length, width, and height were measured and the volume calculated for the LGs & TEGs. The glands were best visualized in contrast-enhanced CT images. The mean volume of the LG was 0.14 cm3 and the TEG was 0.1 cm3. The mean height, width, and length of the LG were, 9.36 mm, 4.29 mm, and 9.35 mm, respectively; the corresponding values for the TEG was 2.02 mm, 9.34 mm, and 7.90 mm. LG and TEG volume were positively correlated with body weight (p?glands. PMID:24886364

2014-01-01

94

New tumor markers of testis cancer.  

PubMed

Potential tumor markers for testis cancer have become numerous with the new molecular techniques available. New protein markers have been evaluated, and histologic factors have shown correlations with stage of disease. Cytogenetic analysis studies have also shown associations with stage progression. Chromosomal markers, oncogenes, and tumor suppressor genes are possible candidates for tumor markers. These new potential tumor markers may become as commonplace as the established markers and may enhance diagnosis, staging, and treatment of testis cancer. PMID:9728207

Dean, R C; Moul, J W

1998-08-01

95

Adrenal Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

96

Accessory breast tissue mimicking pedunculated lipoma.  

PubMed

Accessory breast tissue is an uncommon condition which occurs in 0.4-6% of women. It is mostly located in the axilla where it can cause diagnostic difficulty, especially if it is unilateral and large. Usually it is bilateral and presents as an asymptomatic mass during pregnancy or lactation. The diagnosis of ectopic breast tissue is important as it can undergo the same pathological changes that occur in a normal breast, such as mastitis, fibrocystic disease and carcinoma. We present a case of a large right-sided accessory breast in a 32-year-old woman that was clinically diagnosed as pedunculated lipoma. However, subsequent histopathological examination proved it to be an accessory breast tissue with lactational changes. PMID:25006058

Husain, Musharraf; Khan, Sabina; Bhat, Ashraf; Hajini, Firdoos

2014-01-01

97

Controlled Speed Accessory Drive demonstration program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Controlled Speed Accessory Drive System was examined in an effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars. Concept feasibility and the performance of a typical system during actual road driving conditions were demonstrated. The CSAD system is described as a mechanical device which limits engine accessory speeds, thereby reducing parasitic horsepower losses and improving overall vehicle fuel economy. Fuel consumption data were compiled for fleets of GSA vehicles. Various motor pool locations were selected, each representing different climatic conditions. On the basis of a total accumulated fleet usage of nearly three million miles, an overall fuel economy improvement of 6 percent to 7 percent was demonstrated. Coincident chassis dynamometer tests were accomplished on selected vehicles to establish the effect of different accessory drive systems on exhaust emissions, and to evaluate the magnitude of the mileage benefits which could be derived.

Hoehn, F. W.

1981-01-01

98

Accessory Mental Nerve: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

The presence of an Accessory Mental Nerve (AMN) is rare. The mental foramen is an important landmark in the mandible for administration of local anaesthesia and mental nerve identification and its preservation is of paramount importance in various surgical procedures. This article presents a case of an incidental finding of accessory mental nerves during open reduction and fixation of a compound fracture of left body of mandible. Knowledge on anatomic variations is helpful in diagnosis, treatment planning and management during surgical procedures. PMID:24179949

N.S., Mamatha; N.S., Kedarnath; Singh, Madhumathi; Patel, Gourav

2013-01-01

99

Rectal Glands in Woodlice  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE structure and function of the rectal glands of insects have been investigated by several workers1. Later, Wigglesworth2 studied these glands more thoroughly in a number of species. No report, however, has yet appeared in the literature regarding the presence of rectal glands in woodlice (Crustacea : Isopoda), although Edney3 stated : ``the fæcal pellets are moist, and there appears

Minati Gupta

1961-01-01

100

Complementary roles of the main and accessory olfactory systems in mammalian mate recognition.  

PubMed

We review studies conducted in mouse and ferret that have specified roles of both the main and the accessory olfactory nervous systems in the detection and processing of body odorants (e.g., urinary pheromones, extraorbital lacrimal gland secretions, major histocompatibility complex peptide ligands, and anal scent gland secretions) that play an essential role in sex discrimination and attraction between males and females leading to mate choice and successful reproduction. We also review literature that compares the forebrain processing of inputs from the two olfactory systems in the two sexes that underlies heterosexual partner preferences. Finally, we review experiments that raise the possibility that body odorants detected by the main olfactory system contribute to mate recognition in humans. PMID:18817511

Baum, Michael J; Kelliher, Kevin R

2009-01-01

101

Multiple epidermoid cysts arising in a cryptorchid testis following ochiopexy.  

PubMed

Epidermoid cysts of the testis are rare benign intratesticular lesions, representing about 1-2% of all intratesticular tumors. In the English literature, the total reported number of patients with an epidermoid cyst is approximately 300. Almost all of the previous reports were of a single lesion in a testis and the occurrence of epidermoid cysts in cryptorchid testis was extremely rare. Herein, we report on a patient with multiple epidermoid cysts in a cryptorchid testis following orchiopexy. Because the cysts arose in a cryptorchid testis and occupied most of the space of the testis, orchiectomy was performed. PMID:12051456

Wu, Yih-Shyan; Ou, Yen-Chuan; Ton, Yu-Ping; Hu, Ching; Ton, Yu-Lin

2002-03-01

102

14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.  

... false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23.1437 Section 23.1437 ...UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes,...

2014-01-01

103

14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23.1437 Section 23.1437 ...UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes,...

2012-01-01

104

14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23.1437 Section 23.1437 ...UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes,...

2010-01-01

105

14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23.1437 Section 23.1437 ...UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes,...

2011-01-01

106

14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23.1437 Section 23.1437 ...UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes,...

2013-01-01

107

26 CFR 48.4161(a)-3 - Parts and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Parts and accessories. 48.4161(a)-3 Section 48.4161(a)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-3 Parts and accessories. (a) In...

2013-04-01

108

26 CFR 48.4161(a)-3 - Parts and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Parts and accessories. 48.4161(a)-3 Section 48.4161(a)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-3 Parts and accessories. (a) In...

2011-04-01

109

26 CFR 48.4161(a)-3 - Parts and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Parts and accessories. 48.4161(a)-3 Section 48.4161(a)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-3 Parts and accessories. (a) In...

2012-04-01

110

Removal of Accessory Breasts: A Novel Tumescent Liposuction Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Accessory breasts, usually with a protuberant appearance, are composed of both the central accessory breast tissue and adjacent\\u000a fat tissue. They are a palpable convexity and cosmetically unsightly. Consequently, patients often desire cosmetic improvement.\\u000a The traditional general surgical treatment for accessory breasts is removal of the accessory breast tissue, fat tissue, and\\u000a covering skin as a whole unit. A rather

Jufeng Fan

2009-01-01

111

Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory  

DOEpatents

An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

2005-05-31

112

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and...

2014-04-01

113

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair...

2012-04-01

114

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair...

2014-04-01

115

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and...

2013-04-01

116

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair...

2013-04-01

117

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and...

2011-04-01

118

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair...

2011-04-01

119

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and...

2012-04-01

120

A 'giant' paraganglioma in the testis  

PubMed Central

Summary Until now, less than ten cases of extra-adrenal chromaffin cell tumors have been reported to be localized to the spermatic cord area. All published studies report benign tumors with a diameter <2–3?cm and no invasion of the testis. In this article, we present one case of a giant malignant paraganglioma in the testis of a patient who had initially been operated for a giant mass in the scrotum. The mass developed in approximately 4 months. This is the first study reporting the following findings: i) paraganglioma was found exclusively in the testis, invading the testicle and not the spermatic cord, ii) it was malignant with lung metastasis, and iii) its size was 17.5?cm×10?cm×9.5?cm. We present the first – giant – malignant paraganglioma. Moreover, it is the first case report of a paraganglioma in the testis. Learning points This is the first study reporting the following findings:Paraganglioma found exclusively in the testis, invading the testicle and not the spermatic cord.It is malignant with lung metastasis.It is of the size 17.5?cm×10?cm×9.5?cm. PMID:25392737

Koumarelas, Konstantinos C; Mitrousias, Apostolos S; Psathas, Giannos G; Mantzioros, Athanasios; Sakellariou, Stratigoula P; Ntailiani, Panagiota; Yettimis, Evripides

2014-01-01

121

Preservation and transplantation of porcine testis tissue  

PubMed Central

Grafting of immature mammalian testis tissue to mouse hosts can preserve the male germline. To make this approach applicable to a clinical or field situation, it is imperative that the testis tissue and/or spermatozoa harvested from grafted tissue are preserved successfully. The aim of the present study was to evaluate protocols for the preservation of testis tissue in a porcine model. Testis tissue was stored at 4°C for short-term preservation or cryopreserved by slow-freezing, automated slow-freezing or vitrification for long-term storage. Preserved tissue was transplanted ectopically to mouse hosts and recovered xenografts were analysed histologically. In addition, spermatozoa were harvested from xenografts and cryopreserved. Total cell viability and germ cell viability remained high after tissue preservation. Complete spermatogenesis occurred in xenografts preserved by cooling up to 48 h, whereas spermatogenesis progressed to round spermatids in the xenografts that were frozen–thawed before grafting. Approximately 50% of spermatozoa harvested from xenografts remained viable after freezing and thawing. The in vivo developmental potential of cryopreserved tissue was reduced despite high post-thaw viability. Therefore, it is important to evaluate germ cell differentiation in vivo in addition to cell viability in vitro when optimising freezing protocols for testis tissue. PMID:19261226

Zeng, W.; Snedaker, A. K.; Megee, S.; Rathi, R.; Chen, F.; Honaramooz, A.; Dobrinski, I.

2009-01-01

122

The lymph drainage pattern of the mammary glands in the cat: a lymphographic and computerized tomography lymphographic study.  

PubMed

Seventy-three clinically normal, lactating cats were used to investigate the lymph drainage of 73 mammary glands. In 50 cats of the first group, the number of lymphatic vessels emerging from the examined mammary gland, their course and the lymph nodes into which they are drained were studied by indirect lymphography (IL) after intramammary injection of an oily contrast medium. In 23 cats of the second group, the lymph drainage of the mammary glands was studied by computerized tomography indirect lymphography (CT-IL) after intramammary injection of a water soluble contrast medium. The following day, the lymph drainage of the mammary gland examined by CT-IL was studied by IL, as it was described in the first group, for comparison purposes. The main conclusions drawn after this study were as follows: lymph drains from the first and second mammary glands with one or rarely two or three lymphatic vessels to the accessory axillary lymph nodes. Lymph drains from the third mammary gland with one or two and rarely three lymphatic vessels usually to the accessory inguinal lymph nodes or to the accessory axillary lymph nodes. In some cases, it drains to both lymph nodes simultaneously or it may rarely drain only to the medial iliac lymph nodes. The fourth mammary gland with one or two and rarely three lymphatic vessels usually drains to the accessory inguinal lymph nodes. It may rarely drain only to the medial iliac lymph nodes. Mammary lymphatic vessels that cross the midline and lymphatic connection between the mammary glands were not demonstrated. No differences in the mammary lymph drainage pattern between IL and CT-IL were found. PMID:19614630

Papadopoulou, P L; Patsikas, M N; Charitanti, A; Kazakos, G M; Papazoglou, L G; Karayannopoulou, M; Chrisogonidis, I; Tziris, N; Dimitriadis, A

2009-08-01

123

Decreased Incidence of Appendix Testis in Cryptorchidism with Intraoperative Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Several authors have investigated the background of the process of testicular descent, but the role of the appendix testis has not been studied. The human appendix testis was found to express both estrogen and androgen receptors. We determined and compared the occurrence of testicular appendices intraoperatively in descended and undescended testes. Methods: The number of appendix testis was evaluated

Tamás Józsa; István Csízy; Balázs Kutasy; Tamás Cserni; Tibor Flaskó

2008-01-01

124

Testis size increases with colony size in cliff swallows  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using a sample of over 800 male cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) that died during a rare climatic event in our Nebraska study area in 1996, we investigated how testis size was related to body size, age, parasite load, a bird's past colony-size history, and spleen size. Testis volume increased with body size. After correcting for body size, testis volume

Charles R. Brown; Mary Bomberger Brown

2003-01-01

125

HIV accessory proteins versus host restriction factors.  

PubMed

Primate immunodeficiency viruses, including HIV-1, are characterized by the presence of accessory genes such as vif, vpr, vpx, vpu, and nef. Current knowledge indicates that none of the primate lentiviral accessory proteins has enzymatic activity. Instead, these proteins interact with cellular ligands to either act as adapter molecules to redirect the normal function of host factors for virus-specific purposes or to inhibit a normal host function by mediating degradation or causing intracellular mislocalization/sequestration of the factors involved. This review aims at providing an update of our current understanding of how Vif, Vpu, and Vpx control the cellular restriction factors APOBEC3G, BST-2, and SAMHD1, respectively. PMID:24246762

Strebel, Klaus

2013-12-01

126

Seminoma in the testis presenting as hemospermia.  

PubMed

Hemospermia is often considered idiopathic. We report a case of a patient who presented with hemospermia. Scrotal examination and ultrasonography found a testis tumor. This case underscores the importance of scrotal examination and eventually ultrasound in patients presenting with hemospermia. PMID:23197969

Beji, Sami; Hoejgaard, Martin; Lyngdorf, Peter

2012-07-01

127

Seminoma in the Testis Presenting as Hemospermia  

PubMed Central

Hemospermia is often considered idiopathic. We report a case of a patient who presented with hemospermia. Scrotal examination and ultrasonography found a testis tumor. This case underscores the importance of scrotal examination and eventually ultrasound in patients presenting with hemospermia. PMID:23197969

Beji, Sami; Hoejgaard, Martin; Lyngdorf, Peter

2012-01-01

128

ESTERASES OF TESTIS AND OTHER TISSUES  

PubMed Central

The tissues most effective in the enzymatic hydrolysis of acyl esters of p-nitrophenol by tissue extracts of the rat and dog were the liver, lung, pancreas, renal cortex, and testis; in the dog tracheal and vesical mucosae were also esterase-rich and the lens had appreciable activity. Esterase was at low concentration in the tissues of the rat for 4 and 5 days after birth, but an increase to adult levels soon took place except in the testis where the rise was delayed until puberty. The esterase values of the blood of newborn children were also low. Two patterns of activity in tissues against these esters were found. A pattern in which propionate esters were hydrolyzed most rapidly was displayed regularly by liver, lung, renal cortex, and testis of the rat and also by dog, rabbit and human serum. A second pattern with progressive effectiveness in hydrolyzing fatty acid esters of 2-carbon to 5-carbon chain length was exhibited by the pancreas of the rat, rabbit, and dog and also by rat serum. Esterase of the testis of the rat is located in the interstitial cells and its concentration seems to be directly related to androgenic hormone production. The increase of testicular esterase during puberty paralleled the increase of prostatic weight. Hypophysectomy caused a profound decrease of testicular esterase which was restored in part by gonadoptrophin. Artificial cryptorchism in the rat, causing elimination of germinal epithelium, resulted in an increase of esterase concentration although the total content of the testis slowly decreased. PMID:18873866

Huggins, Charles; Moulton, Stanley H.

1948-01-01

129

Salivary Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

130

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

131

21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2014-04-01

132

21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

133

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

134

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

135

21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

136

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

137

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

138

21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

139

21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

140

21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

141

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

142

21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

143

21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

144

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

145

21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

146

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

147

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

148

21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

149

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

150

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

151

21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2010-04-01

152

21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

153

21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

154

21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

155

21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

156

21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2011-04-01

157

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

158

21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2013-04-01

159

21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2012-04-01

160

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

161

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

162

21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

163

21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

164

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

165

Thyroid Hormone Function in the Rat Testis  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hormones are emerging regulators of testicular function since Sertoli, germ, and Leydig cells are found to express thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). These testicular cells also express deiodinases, which are capable of converting the pro-hormone T4 to the active thyroid hormone T3, or inactivating T3 or T4 to a non-biologically active form. Furthermore, thyroid hormone transporters are also found in the testis. Thus, the testis is equipped with the transporters and the enzymes necessary to maintain the optimal level of thyroid hormone in the seminiferous epithelium, as well as the specific TRs to execute thyroid hormone action in response to different stages of the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. Studies using genetic models and/or goitrogens (e.g., propylthiouracil) have illustrated a tight physiological relationship between thyroid hormone and testicular function, in particular, Sertoli cell differentiation status, mitotic activity, gap junction function, and blood–testis barrier assembly. These findings are briefly summarized and discussed herein.

Gao, Ying; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

2014-01-01

166

The undescended testis. Hormonal and surgical management.  

PubMed

Cryptorchidism is the most common disorder of sexual differentiation in males, with an incidence of 3.4 per cent in the term newborn, decreasing to 0.8 per cent at 1 year of age. The mechanisms of normal testicular descent are multifactorial and include an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, as well as a normal gubernaculum and epididymis. In boys with cryptorchidism, the testes demonstrate degenerative changes histologically as early as 1 to 2 years of age. Both testes may be affected, even with a unilateral undescended testis. The most important long-term complications of cryptorchidism include infertility and testicular cancer. The risk of malignancy is 10 to 40 times higher in men with cryptorchidism than in normal men and is highest in men who have had an intra-abdominal testis and in certain intersex conditions. Orchiopexy does not appear to lessen this risk. In clinical trials in the United States, hormonal therapy with hCG or GnRH has not been effective in causing testicular descent; therefore, orchiopexy remains standard treatment. However, hCG is recommended if the clinician suspects that a testis is retractile. Orchiopexy should be performed between 12 and 18 months of age to prevent the degenerative changes that are demonstrable by 2 years. PMID:2902694

Elder, J S

1988-10-01

167

Acquired undescended (ascended) testis: effects of human chorionic gonadotropin.  

PubMed

A total of 7 boys 4 to 10 years old was evaluated for undescended testes. All patients had been seen previously by a pediatric urologist and diagnosed as having a retractile testis. In fact 4 boys had undergone surgical correction of a contralateral undescended testis at an earlier date at which time the testis in question could be manipulated into the scrotum. Another boy was examined under anesthesia and the operation was canceled because the testis could be brought into the scrotum. Subsequently, on followup evaluation 2 to 8 years later the ipsilateral testis could not be manipulated into the scrotum. Of the boys 6 then were treated with a short course of human chorionic gonadotropin. Four patients had a positive response but in 3 the testis was undescended again at examination 6 months later. Of the boys 6 ultimately underwent orchiopexy. Boys with highly retractile testes require periodic examination until puberty to ensure that those testes do not ascend secondarily. PMID:2903257

Belman, A B

1988-11-01

168

Tumors of Parathyroid Gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The most common parathyroid gland pathology in primary hyperparathyroidism is parathyroid adenoma, followed by hyperplasia\\u000a and carcinoma. Adenoma, hyperplasia, and carcinoma have distinct molecular genetic profiles, however, their pathologic features\\u000a are often overlapping leading to significant diagnostic dilemma, even on permanent sections. Final diagnosis must be arrived\\u000a at after taking into consideration the abnormal gland, the status of the remaining

Manju L. Prasad; Ashraf Khan

169

Salivary gland neoplasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Treatment and cure of salivary gland neoplasms requires surgical intervention in most cases. For parotid neoplasms, the most\\u000a common surgical procedure performed is the superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation. Postoperative radiation\\u000a therapy is indicated in high-grade salivary gland malignancies and malignancies with increased risk of locoregional recurrence.\\u000a Primary radiation, including neutron beam techniques, may play a role in

Terry A. Day; John Deveikis; M. Boyd Gillespie; John K. Joe; Besim Ogretmen; J. David Osguthorpe; Susan G. Reed; Mary S. Richardson; Michael Rossi; Ranjiv Saini; Anand K. Sharma; Robert K. Stuart

2004-01-01

170

Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

SciTech Connect

Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

Mishkin, F.S.

1981-10-01

171

Morphological characteristics of the cranial root of the accessory nerve.  

PubMed

There has been the controversy surrounding the cranial root (CR) of the accessory nerve. This study was performed to clarify the morphological characteristics of the CR in the cranial cavity. Fifty sides of 25 adult cadaver heads were used. The accessory nerve was easily distinguished from the vagus nerve by the dura mater in the jugular foramen in 80% of 50 specimens. The trunk of the accessory nerve from the spinal cord penetrated the dura mater at various distances before entering the jugular foramen. In 20% of the specimens there was no dural boundary. In these cases, the uppermost cranial rootlet of the accessory nerve could be identified by removing the dura mater around the jugular foramen where it joined to the trunk of the accessory nerve at the superior vagal ganglion. The cranial rootlet was formed by union of two to four short filaments emerging from the medulla oblongata (66%) and emerged single, without filament (34%), and usually joined the trunk of the accessory nerve directly before the jugular foramen. The mean number of rootlets of the CR was 4.9 (range 2-9) above the cervicomedullary junction. The CR of the accessory nerve was composed of two to nine rootlets, which were formed by the union of two to four short filaments and joined the spinal root of the accessory nerve. The CR is morphologically distinct from the vagus nerve, confirming its existence. Clin. Anat. 27:1167-1173, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25131313

Liu, Hong-Fu; Won, Hyung-Sun; Chung, In-Hyuk; Kim, In-Beom; Han, Seung-Ho

2014-11-01

172

Hunting for eruption ages in accessory minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal in geochronology is to provide precise and accurate ages for tephras that serve as chronostratigraphic markers for constraining the timing and rates of volcanism, sedimentation, climate change, and catastrophic events in Earth history. Zircon remains the most versatile accessory mineral for dating silicic tephras due to its common preservation in distal pyroclastic deposits, as well as the robustness of its U-Pb and U-series systems even after host materials have been hydrothermally altered or weathered. Countless studies document that zircon may be complexly zoned in age due to inheritance, contamination, recycling of antecrysts, protracted crystallization in long-lived magma reservoirs, or any combination of these. Other accessory minerals such as allanite or chevkinite can retain similar records of protracted crystallization. If the goal is to date the durations of magmatic crystallization, differentiation, and/or magma residence, then these protracted chronologies within and between accessory minerals are a blessing. However, if the goal is to date the timing of eruption with high precision, i.e., absolute ages with millennial-scale uncertainties, then this age zoning is a curse. Observations from ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of Pleistocene zircon and allanite provide insight into the record of near-eruption crystallization in accessory minerals and serve as a guide for high-precision whole-crystal dating. Although imprecise relative to conventional techniques, ion probe analysis allows high-spatial resolution 238U-230Th dating that can document multi-millennial age distributions at the crystal scale. Analysis of unpolished rims and continuous depth profiling of zircon from small and large volume eruptions (e.g., Coso, Mono Craters, Yellowstone) reveals that the final several micrometers of crystallization often yield ages that are indistinguishable from associated eruption ages from the 40Ar/39Ar or (U-Th)/He methods. Using this approach, we have derived relatively precise (± ~ 5%, 2?) U-Th isochron ages from the unpolished rims of pumice-derived allanite and zircon from late Pleistocene Wilson Creek Formation tephras in eastern California, whose ages are controversial and have been difficult to resolve via 40Ar/39Ar and radiocarbon dating. Allanite and zircon rims from Ashes 7-19 in the lower portion of Wilson Creek sediments yield stratigraphically consistent ages of ca. 27 ka to ca. 62 ka, with a minority of crystals identifiable as xenocrysts from early Mono Craters rhyolites. Model ages for the interiors of allanite crystals are mostly < 10 k.y. older than their rims. Tephra deposited during the geomagnetic excursion debated to be either the Mono Lake or Laschamp event yields a rim isochron age of ca. 41 ka. This age is indistinguishable from an independent age of 41 ka derived at the latter excursion's type locality in France (Singer et al., 2009) as well as from age-models for deep-sea sediments. The results are in excellent agreement with a previously determined chronology derived from magnetostratigraphy (Zimmerman et al., 2006). Refs: Singer et al., 2009, EPSL 286: 80-88; Zimmerman et al., 2006, EPSL 252: 94-106

Vazquez, J. A.

2012-12-01

173

Accessory gene regulator locus of Staphylococcus intermedius.  

PubMed

The accessory gene regulator (agr) locus, a candidate system for the regulation of the production of virulence factors in Staphylococcus intermedius, has been characterized. Using PCR-based genome walking, we have obtained the first complete sequence (3,436 bp) of the accessory gene regulator (agr) gene in this organism. Sequence analysis of the agr gene has identified five open reading frames (ORFs), agrB, agrD, agrC, agrA, and hld. The translated ORF contained amino acid motifs characteristic of the response regulator and histidine protein kinase signal transducer of the classic two-component regulatory system. Sequencing of the agrD PCR products amplified from DNA from 20 different isolates has facilitated detection of genetic variation in the putative autoinducing peptide (AIP) within the agr gene of S. intermedius, revealing the presence of at least three agr specificity groups within this species. Classification of the agr gene from S. intermedius was supported by phylogenetic analysis. Real-time PCR also revealed that the effector molecule of the agr system, RNAIII, was regulated in an autocrine manner in S. intermedius and demonstrated positive correlation with the temporal gene expression patterns of luk and entC. Transcription of RNAIII was also dependent on self secreted cues. Cyclic self and nonself peptides were synthesized on the basis of the novel AIPs produced by S. intermedius, which lack the cysteine necessary to form the thiolactone ring in analogous peptides from Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Experiments with these synthetic cyclic peptides indicated that self peptides led to up-regulation of RNAIII--findings in support of the assumption that activation of the agr gene is initiated by growth- and species-specific factors generated during bacterial growth. PMID:16622233

Sung, Julia M L; Chantler, Peter D; Lloyd, David H

2006-05-01

174

Effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba in mature rat testis function.  

PubMed

Mature male albino Wistar rats (180-220 g) were given by gastric intubation Hibiscus macranthus Hochst A ex Rich (Malvaceae) and Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) aqueous extract from both fresh and dry leaves, at a dose equivalent to 0.720 or 0.108 g of plant, respectively per kg body weight. This was to evaluate their effects on male reproductive function. Control groups were treated equally, but given water instead of the extract. After the treatment periods, animals were killed, their blood collected, the testes and some annex glands removed for histological and biochemical analysis. Results showed that the extract from fresh leaves significantly increased the body weight of rats by 17% from day 7 as compared to controls, whereas the increase was less pronounced (4%) when the rats were given dry leaf extract. The weight of seminal vesicles of rats given the extracts also increased after 15 days. The histological analysis of testis showed abundant spermatozoa in the lumen of the seminiferous tubulus from day 7 in rats fed with the extract when compared to the controls. The serum level of testosterone was significantly increased on the 15th day by 80% in rats given both types of extracts compared to the controls. Testis of treated rats showed high testosterone production in vitro (136 and 62%, respectively for treated and control after 15 days, compared to those of 3 days). Activity of prostatic acid phosphatase was high in prostate, testis and serum of treated rats in all experimental period. From these findings and observation, it was concluded that the aqueous extract of H. macranthus and B. alba had anabolizing and virilizing effects. PMID:10465653

Moundipa, F P; Kamtchouing, P; Koueta, N; Tantchou, J; Foyang, N P; Mbiapo, F T

1999-05-01

175

The mediastinum of the bovine testis.  

PubMed

The bovine testis has a central mediastinum consisting of longitudinally oriented rete channels and spacious lymph vessels, embedded in the mediastinal stroma. The latter represents a contractile-elastic unit and is composed of myofibroblasts, collagen bundles and accumulations of elastin, connecting the myofibroblasts. The dimension of the mediastinum varies in cross sections at different levels between 3.5 and 31.8 mm2. In one cross section approximately 30 rete channels and approximately 30 openings of straight testicular tubules are encountered. Nearly 25% of the area is occupied by thin-walled, valveless lymph vessels. Arterial convolutes, interpolated between straight centripetal and straight centrifugal branches of the testicular artery flank the rete on all sides. It is concluded that the pulsation within these convolutes together with the contractile-elastic stroma promotes lymph and rete content in a caudo-cranial direction. Chordae retis as described by Roosen-Runge and Holstein (1978) for the human testis are a common feature in the bovine mediastinum testis. The rete channels are lined by a simple cuboidal or columnar epithelium. Short intraepithelial crypts are present and function as epithelial reserve for dilatation and expansion of the rate. The inventory of organelles is rather inconspicuous in the rete epithelium. The apical border bears short microvilli and gives a strong reaction for alkaline phosphatase. The basal cytoplasm contains many small to medium-sized electron-dense bodies and is site of a strong acid phosphatase reaction. The rete epithelium as a whole reacts strongly with leucine aminopeptidase, the marker enzyme of the testicular excurrent duct system. Many free mononuclear cells, mostly macrophages, are observed in the basal half of the rete epithelium. PMID:2736607

Hees, H; Wrobel, K H; Kohler, T; Abou Elmagd, A; Hees, I

1989-01-01

176

Primary Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Testis  

PubMed Central

Ovarian-type surface epithelial neoplasms of the testis and paratestis are uncommon, and the mucinous subtype is particularly rare. These tumors represent a counterpart to ovarian cancer. Malignant tumors have the potential for metastatic spread and are often fatal. The case of a 59-year-old man with testicular mucinous adenocarcinoma is presented. Computed tomography indicated involvement of the paraaortic and pelvic lymph nodes, so chemotherapy was initiated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second paper regarding responsiveness to chemotherapies used in ovarian cancer. PMID:22550498

Azuma, Takeshi; Matayoshi, Yukihide; Nagase, Yasushi

2012-01-01

177

Mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis with prominent adenomatoid features: a case report  

PubMed Central

Malignant mesotheliomas of the testis arise from the tunica vaginalis, formed from the evagination of the abdominal peritoneum into the scrotum. It is an extremely rare tumor representing 0.3% to 5% of all malignant mesotheliomas. We presented an interesting case of 68-year-old male with swelling and slightly painful in the right scrotum. Histologically, the lesion were composed of small tubular, microcystic, gland lined by flattened epithelioid cells and vague signet ring cells set in a myxofibrous stroma, which is resemblance to adenomatoid tumor. But the tumor cells showed significant atypical cytologic morphology and invaded into spermatic cord tissue, which indicated the diagnosis of malignant tumor. Immunohistochemistry study showed positive expression of CK, CK5/6, CK7, Calretinin, D2-40 and Vimentin which indicated the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. This case of mesothelioma should be classified as epithelial in type. To our knowledge, the mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis with adenomatoid tumor-like microscopic features is very rare. PMID:25400801

Yang, Lian-He; Yu, Juan-Han; Xu, Hong-Tao; Lin, Xu-Yong; Liu, Yang; Miao, Yuan; Wang, Liang; Fan, Chui-Feng; Jiang, Gui-Yang; Ding, Si-Lu; Li, Guang; Wang, En-Hua

2014-01-01

178

Alterations in the developing testis transcriptome following embryonic vinclozolin exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigates the direct effects of in utero vinclozolin exposure on the developing F1 generation rat testis transcriptome. Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to vinclozolin during embryonic gonadal sex determination induces epigenetic modifications of the germ line and transgenerational adult onset disease states. Microarray analyses were performed to compare control and vinclozolin treated testis transcriptomes at embryonic

Tracy M. Clement; Marina I. Savenkova; Matthew Settles; Matthew D. Anway; Michael K. Skinner

2010-01-01

179

LAPAROSCOPIC FOWLER-STEPHENS ORCHIOPEXY FOR THE HIGH ABDOMINAL TESTIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeLaparoscopic orchiopexy is extremely effective for treating patients with nonpalpable testis. However, despite the high dissection and wide mobilization it allows in some cases, vessel length prevents the testis from reaching the scrotum. There have been only incidental cases reported in which laparoscopy has been used for vessel transection and testicular mobilization orchiopexy. We reviewed our cases treated with the

BRUCE W. LINDGREN; ISRAEL FRANCO; SHAWN BLICK; SELWYN B. LEVITT; WILLIAM A. BROCK; STEVEN C. FRIEDMAN; EDWARD F. REDA

1999-01-01

180

LAPAROSCOPIC FOWLER-STEPHENS ORCHIOPEXY FOR THE HIGH ABDOMINAL TESTIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Laparoscopic orchiopexy is extremely effective for treating patients with nonpalpable testis. However, despite the high dissection and wide mobilization it allows in some cases, vessel length prevents the testis from reaching the scrotum. There have been only incidental cases reported in which laparoscopy has been used for vessel transection and testicular mobilization orchiopexy. We reviewed our cases treated with

BRUCE W. LINDGREN; ISRAEL FRANCO; SHAWN BLICK; SELWYN B. LEVITT; WILLIAM A. BROCK; STEVEN C. FRIEDMAN; EDWARD F. REDA

1999-01-01

181

LAPAROSCOPIC ORCHIOPEXY: PROCEDURE OF CHOICE FOR THE NONPALPABLE TESTIS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeMultiple approaches exist for the management of the nonpalpable testis. With the use of diagnostic laparoscopy widely accepted in the setting of the nonpalpable testis we have found laparoscopic orchiopexy to be an efficient and logical extension. To evaluate its use we report our experience with laparoscopic orchiopexy to treat 44 nonpalpable testes in 36 patients.

BRUCE W. LINDGREN; ERIC C. DARBY; LOUIS FAIELLA; WILLIAM A. BROCK; EDWARD F. REDA; SELWYN B. LEVITT; ISRAEL FRANCO

1998-01-01

182

Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging.  

PubMed

Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

2012-10-01

183

Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging  

PubMed Central

Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

2012-01-01

184

Accessory spleens: Clinical significance with particular reference to the recurrence of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the important stages during splenectomy is the search for accessory spleens. The average frequency of accessory spleens is an estimated 11%. In our own material in 611 patients who had splenectomy in hematological disorders, accessory spleens were found in 110 patients (18%). The surgical anatomy, embryology, and clinical significance of the accessory spleens, with particular reference to the

Witold J. Rudowski

1985-01-01

185

Adenosine and Its Derivatives Control Human Monocyte Differentiation Into Highly Accessory Cells Versus Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human peripheral blood monocytes have been found to undergo a transitory state of high accessory activity before they fully become macrophages. Time kinetics were done to follow this accessory potential. Studying the regulation of accessory activity, we have found that monocyte-derived accessory cells (m-AC) pass through two phases of devel- opment, which both are adversely controlled by cyclic nucleotides. Phase

Hossain Motieian Najar; Stephan Ruhi; Anne Christine Bru-Capdeville; Johann Hinrich Peters

186

21 CFR 884.1640 - Culdoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...portals for electrosurgical, laser, or other power sources. Such culdoscope accessory instruments include: lens cleaning brush, biopsy brush, clip applier (without clips), applicator, cannula (without trocar or valves), ligature carrier/needle...

2010-04-01

187

21 CFR 884.1720 - Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...electrosurgical, lasers, or other power sources. Such gynecologic laparosope accessory instruments include: the lens cleaning brush, biopsy brush, clip applier (without clips), applicator, cannula (without trocar or valves), ligature carrier/needle...

2010-04-01

188

46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...copper, copper alloys and aluminum alloys, shall not be used in the construction of valves, fittings or accessory equipment. Brazed joints are prohibited. (b) Each tank shall be provided with the necessary fill and discharge liquid and vapor...

2010-10-01

189

21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

2011-04-01

190

21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

191

21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

192

21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

193

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

194

21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

195

21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

196

21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

197

21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

198

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2013-04-01

199

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2012-04-01

200

21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

201

21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

202

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2011-04-01

203

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2014-04-01

204

21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

205

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

206

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2010-04-01

207

21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

208

21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

209

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

210

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

211

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

212

21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

213

21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

214

21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

215

Hormones, Sex Accessory Structures, and Secondary Sexual Characteristics  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 Hormones, Sex Accessory Structures, and Secondary Sexual Characteristics in Amphibians University, Spokane, WA, USA SUMMARY Gonadal steroid hormones, particularly testosterone (T) and related hormones, such as prolactin, have been found to be necessary in conjunction with gonadal steroids

Sever, David M.

216

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

217

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

218

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

219

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

220

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

221

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

222

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

223

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

224

Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Accessory Pathways  

MedlinePLUS

Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Accessory Pathways James Kulig , PA-C ; Bruce A. Koplan , MD, MPH From the Cardiovascular ... rate, which can be dangerous. What is Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome? Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is ...

225

What next for accessory dwellings? : getting from bylaws to buildings  

E-print Network

Accessory dwellings-secondary, self-contained housing units on the same property as a primary residence, either attached to or detached from the main dwelling, and subordinate in size, location and appearance-are recognized ...

Stege, Elinor Hope

2009-01-01

226

Reducing Exposure: Hands-free Kits and Other Accessories  

MedlinePLUS

... Phones Current Research Results Radiofrequency Background Reducing Exposure: Hands-free Kits and Other Accessories Steps to reduce ... distance between your head and the cell phone. Hands-free kits Hand-free kits may include audio ...

227

Bone marrow accessory cells regulate human bone precursor cell development  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveMuch remains to be learned about the intimate relationship between bone marrow and its surrounding tissue: the bone. We hypothesized that bone marrow accessory cell populations might regulate the development of human bone precursor cells.

Peter G Eipers; Sujata Kale; Russell S Taichman; George G Pipia; Nancy A Swords; Kenneth G Mann; Michael W Long

2000-01-01

228

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

...surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to be used to reconstruct maxillofacial deficiencies. The kit contains surgical instruments and materials used to make maxillofacial impressions before molding an external prosthesis. (b)...

2014-04-01

229

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to be used to reconstruct maxillofacial deficiencies. The kit contains surgical instruments and materials used to make maxillofacial impressions before molding an external prosthesis. (b)...

2010-04-01

230

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to be used to reconstruct maxillofacial deficiencies. The kit contains surgical instruments and materials used to make maxillofacial impressions before molding an external prosthesis. (b)...

2013-04-01

231

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to be used to reconstruct maxillofacial deficiencies. The kit contains surgical instruments and materials used to make maxillofacial impressions before molding an external prosthesis. (b)...

2012-04-01

232

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to be used to reconstruct maxillofacial deficiencies. The kit contains surgical instruments and materials used to make maxillofacial impressions before molding an external prosthesis. (b)...

2011-04-01

233

21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

2010-04-01

234

Structure and ultrastructure of the silk glands and spinneret of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  

PubMed

This study provides comprehensive documentation of silk production in the pest moth Helicoverpa armigera from gland secretion to extrusion of silk thread. The structure of the silk glands, accessory structures and extrusion apparatus are reported. The general schema of the paired silk glands follows that found for Lepidoptera. Morphology of the duct, silk press, muscle attachments and spigot are presented as a three-dimensional reconstruction and the cuticular crescent-shaped profile of the silk press is demonstrated in both open and closed forms with attendant muscle blocks, allowing advances in our knowledge of how the silk press functions to regulate the extrusion of silk. Growth of the spigot across instars is documented showing a distinctive developmental pattern for this extrusion device. Its shape and structure are related to use and load-bearing activity. PMID:18089054

Sorensen, Gregory S; Cribb, Bronwen W; Merritt, David; Johnson, Marie-Louise; Zalucki, Myron P

2006-03-01

235

Cancer testis antigen expression in testicular germ cell tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

Cancer testis antigens are encoded by germ line-associated genes that are present in normal germ cells of testis and ovary but not in differentiated tissues. Their expression in various human cancer types has been interpreted as 're-expression' or as intratumoral progenitor cell signature. Cancer testis antigen expression patterns have not yet been studied in germ cell tumorigenesis with specific emphasis on intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified as a precursor lesion for testicular germ cell tumors. Immunohistochemistry was used to study MAGEA3, MAGEA4, MAGEC1, GAGE1 and CTAG1B expression in 325 primary testicular germ cell tumors, including 94 mixed germ cell tumors. Seminomatous and non-seminomatous components were separately arranged and evaluated on tissue microarrays. Spermatogonia in the normal testis were positive, whereas intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified was negative for all five CT antigens. Cancer testis antigen expression was only found in 3% (CTAG1B), 10% (GAGE1, MAGEA4), 33% (MAGEA3) and 40% (MAGEC1) of classic seminoma but not in non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumors. In contrast, all spermatocytic seminomas were positive for cancer testis antigens. These data are consistent with a different cell origin in spermatocytic seminoma compared with classic seminoma and support a progression model with loss of cancer testis antigens in early tumorigenesis of testicular germ cell tumors and later re-expression in a subset of seminomas. PMID:24232866

Bode, Peter K; Thielken, Andrea; Brandt, Simone; Barghorn, André; Lohe, Bernd; Knuth, Alexander; Moch, Holger

2014-06-01

236

Morphological and Surgical Overview of Adolescent Testis Affected by Varicocele  

PubMed Central

Varicocele is a common pathology of the testis frequently associated with infertility. For its management, a fine morphological study of the testis, both macroscopically and microscopically, and an accurate choice of surgical procedure are mandatory. The present review focuses its attention on the anatomic substrates of adolescent varicocele and its pathophysiologic modifications. The comprehensive assessment of all the reported alterations should be considered by the clinician before deciding the type of treatment and the timing. PMID:24348160

Santoro, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

237

Immunohistochemical demonstration of nerve growth factor receptor in bovine testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nerve growth factor receptor (low-affinity form) was demonstrated immunohistochemically in bovine testis by using a monoclonal mouse anti-human antibody. In the 7-month-old fetus and in the early postnatal testis, the peritubular and intertubular fibroblast-like mesenchymal cells showed a strong reaction. Following differentiation of these cells into Leydig and myoid peritubular cells, the nerve growth factor receptor was no longer expressed.

Karl-Heinz Wrobel; Daniela Bickel; Margit Schimmel; Richard Kujat

1996-01-01

238

Transgenerational epigenetic programming of the embryonic testis transcriptome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic exposure to the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin during gonadal sex determination appears to promote an epigenetic reprogramming of the male germ line that is associated with transgenerational adult-onset disease states. Transgenerational effects on the embryonic day 16 (E16) testis demonstrated reproducible changes in the testis transcriptome for multiple generations (F1–F3). The expression of 196 genes was found to be influenced,

Matthew D. Anway; Stephen S. Rekow; Michael K. Skinner

2008-01-01

239

Molecular Evolution of the Testis TAFs of Drosophila  

PubMed Central

The basal transcription machinery is responsible for initiating transcription at core promoters. During metazoan evolution, its components have expanded in number and diversified to increase the complexity of transcriptional regulation in tissues and developmental stages. To explore the evolutionary events and forces underlying this diversification, we analyzed the evolution of the Drosophila testis TAFs (TBP-associated factors), paralogs of TAFs from the basal transcription factor TFIID that are essential for normal transcription during spermatogenesis of a large set of specific genes involved in terminal differentiation of male gametes. There are five testis-specific TAFs in Drosophila, each expressed only in primary spermatocytes and each a paralog of a different generally expressed TFIID subunit. An examination of the presence of paralogs across taxa as well as molecular clock dating indicates that all five testis TAFs likely arose within a span of ?38 My 63–250 Ma by independent duplication events from their generally expressed paralogs. Furthermore, the evolution of the testis TAFs has been rapid, with apparent further accelerations in multiple Drosophila lineages. Analysis of between-species divergence and intraspecies polymorphism indicates that the major forces of evolution on these genes have been reduced purifying selection, pervasive positive selection, and coevolution. Other genes that exhibit similar patterns of evolution in the Drosophila lineages are also characterized by enriched expression in the testis, suggesting that the pervasive positive selection acting on the tTAFs is likely to be related to their expression in the testis. PMID:19244474

Davis, Jerel C.; Lenkov, Kapa; Bolival, Benjamin; Fuller, Margaret T.; Petrov, Dmitri A.

2009-01-01

240

Testis development in the opossum Monodelphis domestica.  

PubMed Central

Testis development in the grey short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica, was investigated by light and electron microscopy in 180 animals. On the day of birth, half the karyotyped males were found to have histologically differentiated testes. By day (d) 1 testicular cords were clearly distinguished in all XY gonads and the tunica albuginea was fully developed. At this stage the large and pale primordial germ cells could be differentiated from dark pre-Sertoli cells. From d 3 the testis became progressively rounded and testicular cords were surrounded by peritubular cells. Leydig cells were then distinguishable by the expected ultrastructural features of steroidogenically active cells, showing abundant vesicles of SER, extensive mitochondria with tubular cristae and numerous lipid inclusions. Subsequently these cells formed clusters and were surrounded by envelope cells until wk 12. Testes were located in the abdomen, attached to the large mesonephroi, until d 24 after birth when they began their descent to the scrotal sac. From 7 wk the interstitial tissue became less cellular. At the prepubertal stage (12 wk), the seminiferous tubules lacked lumina. Leydig cell cytoplasm was electron-dense with increased amounts of SER forming parallel profiles. By 4 mo (pubertal stage), seminiferous tubules were patent and various spermatogenic stages, including spermatozoa, were seen for the first time. Leydig cells then greatly outnumbered other interstitial tissue cells and were closely-packed around blood vessels but no longer clustered by envelope cells; their SER was very highly organised into masses of parallel arrays and lipid inclusions were reduced. In the adult (1 y) Leydig cells reached their greatest size; their morphological features resembled those seen at 4 mo except that lipid inclusions were sparse. In ageing Leydig cells (2-3 y), large amounts of SER were present but disorganised. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 PMID:8886961

Xie, Q; Mackay, S; Ullmann, S L; Gilmore, D P; Payne, A P

1996-01-01

241

Taxonomy of Salivary Gland Neoplasm  

PubMed Central

Classification of neoplasms of any organ should be predicted on the patterns of differentiation that reflect the organization and cell types of the parental tissue. The ability to classify a neoplasm instills confidence in its predicted biologic behavior and the selection of treatment. There has not been a single universally used classification system for salivary gland tumor. Histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts and the developing information on various molecular parameters will have significant influence on the classification of salivary glands tumors. In this article we would highlight the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts in salivary gland neoplasms and elaborate on the taxonomic system of classification of salivary gland neoplasms. PMID:24783163

Sreeja, C.; Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Satish, Muthu Kumar

2014-01-01

242

Accessory tragus: a possible sign of Goldenhar syndrome.  

PubMed

The accessory tragus is a relatively common benign congenital anomaly. The tragus is a cartilaginous projection that normally occurs anterior to the external auditory meatus. Although aberrancy of the tragus may occur in isolation and is exclusively derived from the first branchial arch, it may occasionally signal a defect in the first or second branchial arches. Thus it may be a sign of other syndromes, such as oculoauricularvertebral dysplasia (Goldenhar syndrome). In fact, accessory tragus is a constant feature of this syndrome and may be associated with other syndromes. Accessory tragi are polypoid and should be distinguished from acrochordon (skin tags), as the shave excision commonly employed for skin tags may expose cartilage and cause slow healing or chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis. PMID:21916271

Rankin, James S; Schwartz, Robert A

2011-08-01

243

Reinnervation of avulsed brachial plexus using the spinal accessory nerve.  

PubMed

The use of the accessory nerve as a donor is one of the possibilities for the reinnervation of the brachial plexus in cases of paralysis due to root avulsion. In this paper, an analysis of the reinnervation of the musculocutaneous or axillary nerve using the spinal accessory nerve is made on 13 cases, 8 of total and 5 of upper partial avulsion. In all cases, Allieu's technique was used, but in seven cases reinnervation was supplemented by upper intercostal nerves when there was total avulsion and/or by the medial pectoral nerve when there was partial avulsion. The methods are discussed and compared with the intercostobrachial anastomosis. PMID:2154041

Samardzic, M; Grujicic, D; Antunovic, V; Joksimovic, M

1990-01-01

244

Giant salivary calculi of the submandibular gland  

PubMed Central

Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. A case of an unusually large sialolith arising in the submandibular gland is presented, along with a review of the management of giant salivary gland calculi. PMID:24960792

Fowell, C; MacBean, A

2012-01-01

245

Actinomycosis of the parotid gland.  

PubMed

- Actinomycosis is a slowly progressive infection caused by anaerobic bacteria with relatively decreasing incidence now-a-days. The Parotid gland is a quite rere site to be involved in cervico-facial actinomycosis as compared to the other sites in the face & neck region. We report a successfully managed case of Actinomycosis involving the parotid gland. PMID:23120106

Dubey, Abhilash; Murthy, J G; Banerjee, P K

2004-10-01

246

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

2011-04-01

247

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

2012-04-01

248

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

2013-04-01

249

29 CFR 1919.27 - Unit proof tests-winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Unit proof tests-winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto...Persons § 1919.27 Unit proof tests—winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto. (a) Winches, with the whole of the gear...

2010-07-01

250

77 FR 15390 - Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request...luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof that infringe U...accessed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at http...viewed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at...

2012-03-15

251

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

... 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. 884.6190 Section... Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

252

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. 884.6190 Section... Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

253

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. 884.6190 Section... Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

254

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. 884.6190 Section... Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

255

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. 884.6190 Section... Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

256

Management of bile duct injuries combined with accessory hepatic duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

PubMed Central

Bile duct injuries (BDIs) are difficult to avoid absolutely when the biliary tract has a malformation, such as accessory hepatic duct. Here, we investigated the management strategies for BDI combined with accessory hepatic duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:25232275

Ren, Pei-Tu; Lu, Bao-Chun; Yu, Jian-Hua; Zhu, Xin

2014-01-01

257

21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.  

... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and...

2014-04-01

258

21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and...

2013-04-01

259

21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and...

2011-04-01

260

21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and...

2012-04-01

261

Diesel exhaust particles disturb gene expression in mouse testis.  

PubMed

Inhalation of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been found to reduce sperm production. There is a possibility that DEP exposure elicits changes in gene expression in testis. To identify the alteration of gene expression resulting from DEP exposure, we constructed subtracted cDNA libraries from mouse testis using the suppression subtractive hybridization method. We isolated 16 candidate clones whose expression levels changed after exposure. Some of these candidates were highly similar to known testis-specific genes. Some of the clones also seemed to correlate with spermatogenesis. Northern blot analysis revealed that DEP exposure changed the expression levels of several clones in a dose-dependent manner. For example, the expression of clone R8, which was very similar to human XRRA1, increased by 2.3-fold in testis after DEP exposure. On the other hand, the expressions of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 6 (Acsl6) and serine/threonine kinase 35 reduced by 0.3-fold. These results indicated that some constituents of DEP alter gene expression in the testis. PMID:17295261

Mori, Tetsuya; Watanuki, Taro; Kashiwagura, Tadashi

2007-02-01

262

Accessory lobes of the liver: A report of 3 cases and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Summary This article is about 3 cases of accessory lobes of the liver. Case One involved a pedunculated accessory lobe of the liver (ALL), Case Two involved a true ectopic liver, and Case Three involved a sessile accessory lobe of the liver. All 3 cases were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confirmed by surgical and histological examination. The pertinent literature on accessory lobes of the liver is also reviewed.

Wang, Chenglin; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Ziqin; Xie, Tingting; Ding, Heyu; Deng, Qianhua; Yuan, Zhidong

2012-01-01

263

A rare accessory coracobrachialis muscle: a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

During previous dissections to investigate the incidence of the third head of the biceps brachii in neonate cadavers an accessory coracobrachialis muscle was unilaterally found in a neonate male cadaver. This muscle originated from the coracoid process and the capsule of the shoulder joint. It was inserted into the antebrachial fascia and the medial epicondyle of the humerus. The coracobrachialis

C. Kopuz; N. ?çten; M. Yildirim

2002-01-01

264

Reliability of accessory motion testing at the carpal joints.  

PubMed

The testing of accessory motion has become a very important part of manual therapy practice. Its value is in assessing whether joint mobility is ideal or impaired. Despite its use, there is little evidence in the literature to support the reliability of such testing. Most of the research carried out on accessory motion testing has focused on the spine. In view of this we decided to evaluate the intra- and interrater reliability of accessory motion testing of carpal joints. Two skilled therapists tested the available motion and the end-feel response of carpal joints in 30 students and 15 patients on two separate occasions. Pain scores were also obtained. In students a moderate to good percentage of agreement [67-97%] was obtained for motion testing. In patients the percentage of agreement ranged from 60% to 100% and weighted kappa values were between 0.33 and 1.0. Intrarater reliability was better than interrater reliability in both groups. Intra- and interrater agreement on end-feel was very good. Overall, the reliability of accessory motion testing of carpal joints was acceptable. The results suggest that this form of testing can be valuable in the training of manual therapists and in clinical practice. PMID:18555731

Staes, Filip Ferdinand; Banks, Kevin James; De Smet, Luc; Daniels, Kim Josefine; Carels, Pieter

2009-06-01

265

Clothing/Apparel and Accessories Merchandising. A Suggested Interdisciplinary Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide contains three sections: introduction, curriculum material, and an annotated bibliography. Introductory information provides an overview of the clothing/apparel and accessories merchandising area, aptitudes needed, and career opportunities; discusses potential career ladders, which are divided into entry level, middle…

Wray, Ralph D.; Hayden, Margaret B.

266

Evolutionary dynamics of the accessory genome of Listeria monocytogenes.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85-3.14 Mb, encode 2,822-3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II. PMID:23825666

den Bakker, Henk C; Desjardins, Christopher A; Griggs, Allison D; Peters, Joseph E; Zeng, Qiandong; Young, Sarah K; Kodira, Chinnappa D; Yandava, Chandri; Hepburn, Theresa A; Haas, Brian J; Birren, Bruce W; Wiedmann, Martin

2013-01-01

267

Evolutionary Dynamics of the Accessory Genome of Listeria monocytogenes  

PubMed Central

Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85–3.14 Mb, encode 2,822–3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II. PMID:23825666

den Bakker, Henk C.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Griggs, Allison D.; Peters, Joseph E.; Zeng, Qiandong; Young, Sarah K.; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Yandava, Chandri; Hepburn, Theresa A.; Haas, Brian J.; Birren, Bruce W.; Wiedmann, Martin

2013-01-01

268

The inheritance of accessory buds in Rubus idaeus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the red raspberry cultivar Lloyd George, accessory (secondary) bud formation is controlled by two complementary genesBd\\u000a 1 andBd\\u000a 2, whose expression is markedly influenced by homozygosity, minor genes, and environment.

Elizabeth Keep

1968-01-01

269

49 CFR 192.147 - Flanges and flange accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...flange or flange accessory (other than cast iron) must meet the minimum requirements...c) Each flange on a flanged joint in cast iron pipe must conform in dimensions...gasket design to ASME/ANSI B16.1 and be cast integrally with the pipe, valve, or...

2011-10-01

270

Results of simple excision technique in the surgical treatment of symptomatic accessory navicular bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionAccessory navicular bones might cause not only cosmetic problems but also be a reason of discomfort and pain. In case of inefficient conservative treatment symptomatic accessory naviculars are treated surgically.Aim of paper: Presentation of results of simple excision of symptomatic accessory navicular.

Barbara Jasiewicz; Tomasz Potaczek; Wojciech K?cki; Maciej T?siorowski; Ewa Lipik

2008-01-01

271

WagTag: A Dog Collar Accessory for Monitoring Canine Activity Levels  

E-print Network

accessories with such apps are now emerging for the pet market. In this paper we describe WagTag, an accessory corporations are now actively working to bring new accessories to market, or to refine the ones already on the market. The corporations involved include computing giants such as Apple and Google, startups

Weiss, Gary

272

An accessory belly of the abductor digiti minimi muscle: a case report and embryologic aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accessory fasciculi of the hypothenar muscles have been involved in vascular and nerve compressions. During a routine dissection an accessory belly of the abductor digiti minimi muscle arising from the tendon of the palmaris longus muscle was found in the lower third of the forearm. The accessory fasciculus ran through Guyon’s canal enclosing the ulnar nerve and vessels. It was

F. Soldado-Carrera; N. Vilar-Coromina; A. Rodríguez-Baeza

2000-01-01

273

A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Consumers’ Conspicuous Consumption of Branded Fashion Accessories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study attempts to (1) demonstrate whether the purchase of branded fashion accessories is motivated by consumers’ desire to reflect their social status, convey their self-image, and boost their self-esteem; (2) find whether the purchase of luxury fashion accessories may fall under the umbrella of conspicuous consumption; and (3) examine whether conspicuous consumption of branded fashion accessories varies across cultures.

Nizar Souiden; Bouthaina M’Saad; Frank Pons

2011-01-01

274

A research on the market of Chinese brands of sportswear accessories and their designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In sportswear accessories market in China, the competition is in keen environment. The famous brands having stationed in foreign countries, occupy a large market share, and are in domination, although some Chinese sportswear accessories brands promote faster and have made significant improvement in this business conditions. But on the whole, China sportswear accessories enterprises are still vulnerable. This article, basis

Lizhen Yang

2010-01-01

275

A rare neoplasm of the testis: capillary hemangioma.  

PubMed

Intratesticular vascular neoplasms are extremely rare tumors and mostly seen in children or young adults. We reported a case of capillary hemangioma of the testis to attract attention to testicular hemangioma and also to prevent invasive surgery of the testis. The patient was an 18-year-old boy with a testicular mass. Scrotal sonography revealed a varicocele in the left testis and a simple cyst in the left epididymis. There was a solid hypoechoic neoplastic area 75 mm in diameter in the right testis. The laboratory findings including tumor markers and serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin were normal. The patient underwent right orchiectomy and the pathology diagnosis was capillary hemangioma. Testicular neoplasms derived from connective tissue, blood vessels and musculature are uncommon and intratesticular tumors of vascular origin are extremely rare. There are only 21 cases reported in the literature. The pathologists and the surgeon have to be aware of this entity as the prognosis of the neoplasm determines the method of surgery. Capillary hemangioma of the testis can be similar to malignant testicular tumors on clinical presentation, as well as on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Although it is impossible to differentiate a hemangioma from a seminoma before the operation, intraoperative frozen study may be helpful in the differential diagnosis. Frozen section must be performed if the neoplasm has significant vascular proliferation identified by Doppler sonography. Because of the benign nature of this lesion, conservative surgical treatment by means of tumor enucleation with preservation of the testis is possible if intraoperative frozen section examination can be performed. PMID:21469432

Mungan, Sevdegül; Turgutalp, Havvanur; Ersöz, Safak; Keskin, Ferda; Kutlu, Omer

2011-01-01

276

Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the retractile testis.  

PubMed

A 51-year-old man with a palpable mass in his right inguinal region had fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) in our cancer screening program. FDG accumulated in the mass, suggesting a metabolically active lesion that was likely malignant. A pelvic MRI and a urologist's palpation revealed that his inguinal mass was a retractile testis. Because a retractile testis is a benign process with no need for interventional therapy, it would be considered a false-positive finding on the cancer screening program using F-18 FDG PET. PMID:10232469

Fujii, H; Yasuda, S; Ide, M; Takahashi, W; Shohtsu, A; Kubo, A

1999-05-01

277

Testosterone regulates FGF-2 expression during testis maturation by an IRES-dependent translational mechanism.  

E-print Network

1 Testosterone regulates FGF-2 expression during testis maturation by an IRES- dependent, France Key words: / FGF-2 / testis maturation/ IRES / translation control/ testosterone/ transgenic mouse Running Title : FGF-2 IRES is regulated by testosterone during testis maturation. § These authors equally

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

278

Effect of hydrocele on appendix testis in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an elevated hydrostatic pressure of hydrocele on the structural integrity and steroid receptor expression pattern of the appendix testis in children. Twenty-six testicular appendages were obtained from boys (aged between 13 and 79 months, mean 40 months) who underwent surgical exploration because of hydrocele or congenital inguinal hernia. The

Tamás Józsa; Andrea Telek; Balázs Kutasy; Mátyás Benyó; Gábor Csanádi; Ilona Kovács; György Balla; Tibor Flaskó; László Csernoch; Csongor Kiss

2009-01-01

279

Oxytocin gene expression and action in goat testis.  

PubMed

Gene expression, immunohistochemical localization, binding and effects of oxytocin (OT) on androgen production in the testis of adult goats were studied. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis we were able to detect OT gene transcripts in the goat testis. Immunohistochemistry revealed that both OT and neurophysin epitopes were expressed together in the intratubular regions, especially in the Sertoli cells, suggesting the production of OT in these cells. However, enzyme immunoassay found no difference in OT concentration between testicular arterial and venous plasma. Saturable, specific [3H]-OT binding sites were present in membrane fractions of the goat testis. Scatchard analysis indicated an apparent affinity of 42 +/- 7 L/nmol and binding capacity of 24 +/- 4 fmol OT bound/mg DNA. In vitro treatment of goat testes for 6 h with 100 nM OT led to a 3.5-fold increase (P < 0.001) in 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) production in spite of the induced decrease in testosterone, suggesting that OT not only affects testosterone production but also modulates its conversion to DHT. These results indicate that the goat testis produces OT, which may be involved in the local control of androgen biosynthesis. PMID:10734377

Inaba, T; Nakayama, Y; Tani, H; Tamada, H; Kawate, N; Sawada, T

1999-08-01

280

Condition dependence of testis size in small mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm competition is a common phenomenon across the animal kingdom and is recognized as a major factor in the sexual selection of males. Intraspecific variation in testis size (ejaculate investment) has been implicated as an important factor in male reproductive success because larger testes produce higher quality ejaculates. Sexual selection theory predicts that traits associated with male-male competition or female

Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde; John S. Millar; Graham J. Hickling

2005-01-01

281

Testicular fixation in adult retractile testis: technical notes.  

PubMed

A variety of techniques for scrotal orchiopexy have been described in the literature, including those without suture fixation, such as the scrotal pouch. We perform a simple modified technique for bilateral testicular fixation in patients with bilateral and/or unilateral adult retractile testis and with symptoms characterised by chronic orchialgia due to testicular hypermobility or repeated funicular subtorsion. PMID:12633055

Forte, Flavio; Bitelli, Marco; Sorrenti, Salvatore; Spinelli, Giovanni Luigi; Foti, Nicola; Ciotola, Oscar; Pietrantuono, Francesco; Catania, Antonio; Micali, Francesco

2003-01-01

282

Testis-sparing surgery in testicular mass: Testicular epidermoid cysts  

PubMed Central

We present 3 patients with testicular epidermoid cysts who experienced testis-sparing surgery. These patients had a palpable painless testicular mass and underwent inguinal testicular exploration. Intraoperative frozen section revealed no evidence of malignancy and therefore enucleation of the tumour was performed. We demonstrate that careful intraoperative frozen-section examination helps to avoid unnecessary orchidectomy in testicular epidermoid cysts. PMID:24554971

Mahdavi-Zafarghandi, Reza; Shakiba, Behnam; Ameli, Mojtaba

2014-01-01

283

Increase in average testis size of Canadian beef bulls  

PubMed Central

Selection for adequate testis size in beef bulls is an important part of bull breeding soundness evaluation. Scrotal circumference (SC) is highly correlated with paired testis weight and is a practical method for estimating testis weight in the live animal. Most bulls presented for sale in Canada have SC included in the presale information. Scrotal circumference varies by age and breed, and may change over time due to selection for larger testis size. Therefore, it is important to periodically review the mean SC of various cattle breeds to provide valid bull selection criteria. Scrotal circumference data were obtained from bulls sold in western Canada from 2008 to 2011 and in Quebec from 2006 to 2010. Average scrotal circumferences for the most common beef breeds in Canada have increased significantly in the last 25 years. Differences between breeds have remained unchanged and Simmental bulls still have the largest SC at 1 year of age. Data provided here could aid in the establishment of new suggested minimum SC measurements for beef bulls. PMID:24155433

Guerra, Álvaro García; Hendrick, Steve; Barth, Albert D.

2013-01-01

284

Increase in average testis size of Canadian beef bulls.  

PubMed

Selection for adequate testis size in beef bulls is an important part of bull breeding soundness evaluation. Scrotal circumference (SC) is highly correlated with paired testis weight and is a practical method for estimating testis weight in the live animal. Most bulls presented for sale in Canada have SC included in the presale information. Scrotal circumference varies by age and breed, and may change over time due to selection for larger testis size. Therefore, it is important to periodically review the mean SC of various cattle breeds to provide valid bull selection criteria. Scrotal circumference data were obtained from bulls sold in western Canada from 2008 to 2011 and in Quebec from 2006 to 2010. Average scrotal circumferences for the most common beef breeds in Canada have increased significantly in the last 25 years. Differences between breeds have remained unchanged and Simmental bulls still have the largest SC at 1 year of age. Data provided here could aid in the establishment of new suggested minimum SC measurements for beef bulls. PMID:24155433

García Guerra, Alvaro; Hendrick, Steve; Barth, Albert D

2013-05-01

285

Characterization of a Gene Abundantly Expressed in Stallion Testis  

E-print Network

of NMES1 mRNA we conducted qRT-PCR assays on a panel of stallion testis samples from horses with normal and abnormal fertility. We found that expression was variable among both groups, with significantly less expression in some individuals. We also...

Shields, Jordan Elizabeth

2012-02-14

286

Laparoscopic Orchiopexy for the Intra-Abdominal Testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laparoscopic orchiopexy was performed in 3 patients with an intra-abdominal testis. The laparoscopic approach provides better exposure of the spermatic vessels and vas deferens, and is less traumatic compared to the open procedure. In 2 patients the spermatic vessels were dissected after incising the posterior peritoneum but in 1 a strip of peritoneum overlying the vessels was left to avoid

D. D. Gaur; D. K. Agarwal; K. C. Purohit; A. S. Darshane

1995-01-01

287

Accessory molecule regulation of naive CD4 T cell activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naive CD4 T cell activation is a complex process involving many steps. T cell receptor (TCR) signals, provided by interaction\\u000a with peptide\\/MHC on antigen-presenting cells (APC), control many events associated with activation. The extent of TCR signaling\\u000a and the magnitude of the T cell response is in turn controlled by accessory molecules on APC, which stabilize T-APC interactions.\\u000a Full T

Caroline Dubey; Michael Croft

1996-01-01

288

Detailed anatomy of a left accessory aberrant colic artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an aged human female cadaver a left accessory aberrant colic artery (LAACA) was observed and studied. It originated from\\u000a the superior mesenteric artery at 3 cm proximal to the middle colic artery, at the inferior border of pancreas, passing over\\u000a Treitz’s muscle and continued covered by the superior duodenal fold where it crossed the inferior mesenteric vein. Further,\\u000a it continued

M. C. Rusu; M. Vlad; L. M. Voinea; G. C. Curc?; A. M. ?i?u

2008-01-01

289

A blood-testis barrier restricting passage from blood into rete testis fluid but not into lymph.  

PubMed

1. A permeability barrier in or around the seminiferous tubules of rams has been demonstrated by studying the rate of passage of a variety of substances from blood plasma into fluid collected from the rete testis and into testicular lymph.2. All substances studied passed readily into testicular lymph.3. Tritiated water, urea, ethanol and bicarbonate in rete testis fluid equilibrated with blood plasma within 3 hr; Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), Cl(-), I(-), CNS(-), creatinine and galactose entered slowly and p-aminohippurate (PAH), glutamate, iodinated albumin, inulin and [(51)Cr]EDTA did not appear in rete testis fluid at all.4. Rubidium was excluded relative to iodoantipyrine from the testes of control and hypophysectomized rats and from rat testes heated to 37, 40, 43 and 45 degrees C; no such exclusion was seen in testes of rats which had been given cadmium chloride 5 months earlier so as to destroy the seminiferous tubules.5. It is suggested that this permeability barrier will regulate the access to the seminiferous epithelium of some constituents of blood plasma, isolate the germinal cells immunologically and help to maintain the concentration differences between rete testis fluid and lymph or blood plasma. PMID:4973530

Setchell, B P; Voglmayr, J K; Waites, G M

1969-01-01

290

Streaming submandibular gland  

SciTech Connect

Twenty female young adult rats were injected with tritiated thymidine (/sup 3/HTdR). The animals were then killed in groups of five, at the following times: 1 hour, and 4, 16, and 23 days. Autoradiograms of sections through the submandibular gland were prepared, and the location of labelled cells in relationship to tubuli and acini was recorded. The different tubular and acinar cross sections could be distinguished by their cell number. Narrow tubuli had fewer nuclei than the wider ones. The nuclear number of a cross section was defined as its class and the location of a labelled epithelial cell was expressed in relationship to the class where it was found. The location of a labelled stromal cell was determined by the class of its neighboring tubular or acinar cross sections. The mean cell numbers of intercalated, granular, and striated duct cross sections were, respectively, 4.7, 10.5, and 10.2, while the average cell content of acini was 4.7 cells. One hour after labelling most labelled tubular epithelial and stromal cells were found in tubular cross sections (or low tubular classes), while in the acini, labelled epithelial and stromal cells were found mainly in wider cross sections (or higher acinar classes). Within the next 23 days labelled tubular cells and stroma proceeded into higher classes, while labelled acinar epithelium and stroma cells were displaced into narrower cross sections (or lower classes). The displaced tubular epithelium and stroma covered daily 0.26 classes. At this velocity the cell will reach the highest tubular class in 62 days and the estimated maximal tubular cell life span is 62 days.

Zajicek, G.; Yagil, C.; Michaeli, Y.

1985-10-01

291

Salivary Gland Cancer Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence suggests the existence of a tumorigenic population of cancer cells that demonstrate stem cell-like properties such as self-renewal and multipotency. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC), are able to both initiate and maintain tumor formation and progression. Studies have shown that CSC are resistant to traditional chemotherapy treatments preventing complete eradication of the tumor cell population. Following treatment, CSC are able to re-initiate tumor growth leading to patient relapse. Salivary gland cancers are relatively rare but constitute a highly significant public health issue due to the lack of effective treatments. In particular, patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma, the two most common salivary malignancies, have low long-term survival rates due to the lack of response to current therapies. Considering the role of CSC in resistance to therapy in other tumor types, it is possible that this unique sub-population of cells is involved in resistance of salivary gland tumors to treatment. Characterization of CSC can lead to better understanding of the pathobiology of salivary gland malignancies as well as to the development of more effective therapies. Here, we make a brief overview of the state-of-the-science in salivary gland cancer, and discuss possible implications of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the treatment of salivary gland malignancies. PMID:23810400

Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Nor, Jacques E.

2013-01-01

292

The Mammary Glands of Macaques  

PubMed Central

This review describes the normal biology and physiology of the mammary gland in macaques, including the typical histologic appearance across the life span (development, reproductive maturity, lactation, and senescence). The molecular events regulating breast morphogenesis are described, as well as systemic and local hormonal regulators of mammary gland proliferation, differentiation, and function. Similarities and differences to the human breast are described. Regulatory events are illuminated by discussion of genetically modified mouse models. Tissue response markers, including immunohistochemical markers of proliferation and other hormonally induced changes and studies to date, regarding the effects of exogenous hormones, are briefly summarized. In general, estrogens stimulate progesterone receptor expression and proliferation in the mammary gland, and combinations of estrogens and progestogens cause greater proliferation than estrogens alone. Evaluation of novel chemical agents in macaques requires careful evaluation of age and hormonal context to avoid the confounding effects of mammary gland development, past reproductive history, and other influences on mammary gland morphology. The expression of proliferation markers and progesterone receptors may be used as biomarkers to measure chemically induced hormonal effects. PMID:21475638

Cline, J. Mark; Wood, Charles E.

2009-01-01

293

FlyTED: the Drosophila Testis Gene Expression Database.  

PubMed

FlyTED, the Drosophila Testis Gene Expression Database, is a biological research database for gene expression images from the testis of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. It currently contains 2762 mRNA in situ hybridization images and ancillary metadata revealing the patterns of gene expression of 817 Drosophila genes in testes of wild type flies and of seven meiotic arrest mutant strains in which spermatogenesis is defective. This database has been built by adapting a widely used digital library repository software system, EPrints (http://eprints.org/software/), and provides both web-based search and browse interfaces, and programmatic access via an SQL dump, OAI-PMH and SPARQL. FlyTED is available at http://www.fly-ted.org/. PMID:19934263

Zhao, Jun; Klyne, Graham; Benson, Elizabeth; Gudmannsdottir, Elin; White-Cooper, Helen; Shotton, David

2010-01-01

294

Bilateral cystic dysplasia of the rete testis with renal adysplasia.  

PubMed

Cystic dyplasia of the rete testis (CDRT) is an uncommon, generally unilateral lesion characterized by anastomosing cystic spaces lined by a flattened simple cuboidal epithelium in the rete testis. In the literature this lesion often is associated with an ipsilateral urogenital lesion such as renal agenesia or multicystic dysplasia of the kidney, in order of frequency. The pathogenesis is explained by some authors by their common embryologic origin. We are reporting the finding of bilateral CDRT associated with ultrasound-diagnosed renal adysplasia in a 20-week gestational age fetus with oligohydramnios. Although CDRT has been referred to as being associated with multicystic renal dysplasia or renal agenesis, the present case appears to be unique in combining all the malformations together. PMID:16822083

Bouron-Dal Soglio, Dorothée; Harvey, Isabelle; Jovanovic, Mubina; Oligny, Luc L; Fournet, Jean-Christophe

2006-01-01

295

Fibrolipoma of a cryptorchid testis in a young bull.  

PubMed

A six-month-old Japanese Black bull was found to have no left testis in the scrotum. A fist-sized mass was palpated per rectum. Two months later, hCG was injected and blood samples were collected before and after injection. No testosterone response to hCG was observed. On the cut surface of the excised mass, most of the mass was composed of homogeneous adipose-like tissue. The rest of the surface was composed of a well-circumscribed testicular parenchyma-like tissue (18 × 16 × 15 mm). Histology revealed diffusely distributed mature adipocytes and septa of fibrous connective tissue. Neither germ cells nor spermatozoa were observed in the seminiferous tubules. A diagnosis was made of fibrolipoma and aspermatogenesis of the left cryptorchid testis. PMID:21617332

Osawa, Takeshi; Miura, Moe; Yamagishi, Norio; Kim, Danil; Fukuda, Naruhiko; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Jun; Goryo, Masanobu

2011-09-01

296

Alterations in the developing testis transcriptome following embryonic vinclozolin exposure.  

PubMed

The current study investigates the direct effects of in utero vinclozolin exposure on the developing F1 generation rat testis transcriptome. Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to vinclozolin during embryonic gonadal sex determination induces epigenetic modifications of the germ line and transgenerational adult onset disease states. Microarray analyses were performed to compare control and vinclozolin treated testis transcriptomes at embryonic days 13, 14 and 16. A total of 576 differentially expressed genes were identified and the major cellular functions and pathways associated with these altered transcripts were examined. The sets of regulated genes at the different development periods were found to be transiently altered and distinct. Categorization by major known functions of altered genes was performed. Specific cellular process and pathway analyses suggest the involvement of Wnt and calcium signaling, vascular development and epigenetic mechanisms as potential mediators of the direct F1 generation actions of vinclozolin. PMID:20566332

Clement, Tracy M; Savenkova, Marina I; Settles, Matthew; Anway, Matthew D; Skinner, Michael K

2010-11-01

297

Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis.  

PubMed

A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm. PMID:19125206

Sajadi, Kamran P; Dalton, Rory R; Brown, James A

2009-01-01

298

Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumor of the Rete Testis  

PubMed Central

A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm. PMID:19125206

Sajadi, Kamran P.; Dalton, Rory R.; Brown, James A.

2009-01-01

299

ALTERATIONS IN THE DEVELOPING TESTIS TRANSCRIPTOME FOLLOWING EMBRYONIC VINCLOZOLIN EXPOSURE  

PubMed Central

The current study investigates the direct effects of in utero vinclozolin exposure on the developing F1 generation rat testis transcriptome. Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to vinclozolin during embryonic gonadal sex determination induces epigenetic modifications of the germ line and transgenerational adult onset disease states. Microarray analyses were performed to compare control and vinclozolin treated testis transcriptomes at embryonic day 13, 14 and 16. A total of 576 differentially expressed genes were identified and the major cellular functions and pathways associated with these altered transcripts were examined. The sets of regulated genes at the different development periods were found to be transiently altered and distinct. Categorization by major known functions of altered genes was performed. Specific cellular process and pathway analyses suggest the involvement of Wnt and calcium signaling, vascular development and epigenetic mechanisms as potential mediators of the direct F1 generation actions of vinclozolin. PMID:20566332

Clement, Tracy M.; Savenkova, Marina I.; Settles, Matthew; Anway, Matthew D.; Skinner, Michael K.

2010-01-01

300

Extraperitoneal Pelvic laparoscopic disconnection of accessory urethra from normal urethra in a case of urethral duplication.  

PubMed

We report an extraperitoneal pelvic laparoscopic approach to disconnect accessory urethra from normal urethra in complete urethral duplication. First stage consisted of chordee correction, partial excision of the accessory urethra and glansplasty. In the second stage the remaining accessory urethra was disconnected from the normal urethra through a pre-peritoneal minimal access approach to the retropubic space. The remaining distal mucosa was ablated using monopolar cautery. PMID:24741219

Pant, Nitin; Aggarwal, Satish Kumar

2014-04-01

301

Penetration of ampicillin and sulbactam into human epididymis and testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Urologic refertilization microsurgery such as vaso-vasostomy or vaso-epididy-mostomy benefits from perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis. The ability of ampicillin and sulbactam to penetrate sufficiently into mixed epididymis or testis tissue was investigated in nine patients (bodyweights ranged from 58 kg to 92 kg, mean 77.3 kg) undergoing orchiectomy for testicular cancer or advanced prostatic cancer. Each patient received a single infusion

T. Klotz; M. Braun; U. Engelmann; A. Wildfeuer

1996-01-01

302

Oncocytic sialolipoma of the submandibular gland.  

PubMed

Sialolipoma, a rare tumor of the salivary gland, is a recently described variant of salivary gland lipoma. Oncocytic sialolipoma was first described by Pusiol et al. in 2009. We report the case of an oncocytic sialolipoma of the submandibular gland in a 43-year-old female. Excision of the tumor was performed with preservation of the submandibular gland. The tumor had a thin, fibrous capsule and consisted of abundant adipose tissue, an oncocytic nodule, and scattered normal glandular structures surrounded by adipose tissue. Four cases of sialolipoma of the submandibular gland, including the present case, were reviewed. All 4 tumors were developed on the right submandibular glands, with a composition of adipose tissue as high as that of sialolipoma of the parotid gland; in contrast to previous reports, three cases were in females. As newly described tumor type, care should be taken to distinguish oncocytic sialolipoma from other salivary gland neoplasms such as simple lipoma, pleomorphic adenoma, or oncocytoma. PMID:24917915

Ahn, Dongbin; Park, Tae In; Park, Junesik; Heo, Sung Jae

2014-06-01

303

Polarity Proteins and Cell-Cell Interactions in the Testis  

PubMed Central

In mammalian testes, extensive junction restructuring takes place in the seminiferous epithelium at the Sertoli–Sertoli and Sertoli–germ cell interface to facilitate the different cellular events of spermatogenesis, such as mitosis, meiosis, spermiogenesis, and spermiation. Recent studies in the field have shown that Rho GTPases and polarity proteins play significant roles in the events of cell–cell interactions. Furthermore, Rho GTPases, such as Cdc42, are working in concert with polarity proteins in regulating cell polarization and cell adhesion at both the blood–testis barrier (BTB) and apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES) in the testis of adult rats. In this chapter, we briefly summarize recent findings on the latest status of research and development regarding Cdc42 and polarity proteins and how they affect cell–cell interactions in the testis and other epithelia. More importantly, we provide a new model in which how Cdc42 and components of the polarity protein complexes work in concert with laminin fragments, cytokines, and testosterone to regulate the events of cell–cell interactions in the seminiferous epithelium via a local autocrine-based regulatory loop known as the apical ES—BTB—basement membrane axis. This new functional axis coordinates various cellular events during different stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle of spermatogenesis. PMID:19815182

Wong, Elissa W.P.; Cheng, C. Yan

2009-01-01

304

21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and...

2012-04-01

305

21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and...

2011-04-01

306

21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and...

2010-04-01

307

21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.  

... false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and...

2014-04-01

308

21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and...

2013-04-01

309

An investigation of accessory chromosomes in Panicum Coloratum L  

E-print Network

Collection Self Rrrtilitp of the Cloccl Picots Somctic Accessory Chromosome Hamber Eelaticnthij -between Phenotyg4c Cbsracrerietice end Accesccry Cbromocome Numbere. Rybridimation Techahpaas I . 36 3. . Cha'omcsams ~ of cj, onsX plsnCs og P eoiemcum... sslmhaa6 Sxv. ~ 2 Aeccscozy chromosome ~ax' M P ~ca ~rs puamca and Chs&m 8 g pi ogtglg 3. ms'-forciUcp of P. ceio~va gender giaM~XCions, %953 &~o COZUQlktniUQU Qf C4S mcsplB4OQROQX Chc?&CCSRLQCCCB QQd Qeees serg ehvamssccm nnchac of open po11ins...

Burson, Byron Lynn

2012-06-07

310

Thermomechanical milling of accessory lithics in volcanic conduits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accessory lithic clasts recovered from pyroclastic deposits commonly result from the failure of conduit wall rocks, and represent an underutilized resource for constraining conduit processes during explosive volcanic eruptions. The morphological features of lithic clasts provide distinctive 'textural fingerprints' of processes that have reshaped them during transport in the conduit. Here, we present the first study focused on accessory lithic clast morphology and show how the shapes and surfaces of these accessory pyroclasts can inform on conduit processes. We use two main types of accessory lithic clasts from pyroclastic fallout deposits of the 2360 B.P. subplinian eruption of Mount Meager, British Columbia, as a case study: (i) rough and subangular dacite clasts, and (ii) variably rounded and smoothed monzogranite clasts. The quantitative morphological data collected on these lithics include: mass, volume, density, 2-D image analysis of convexity (C), and 3-D laser scans for sphericity (?) and smoothness (S). Shaping and comminution (i.e. milling) of clasts within the conduit are ascribed to three processes: (1) disruptive fragmentation due to high-energy impacts between clasts or between clasts and conduit walls, (2) ash-blasting of clasts suspended within the volcanic flux, and (3) thermal effects. We use a simplified conduit eruption model to predict ash-blasting velocities and lithic residence times as a function of clast size and source depth, thereby constraining the lithic milling processes. The extent of shape and surface modification (i.e. rounding and honing) is directly proportional to clast residence times within the conduit prior to evacuation. We postulate that the shallow-seated dacite clasts remain subangular and rough due to short (<2 min) residence times, whereas monzogranite clasts are much more rounded and smoothed due to deeper source depths and consequently longer residence times (up to ˜1 h). Larger monzogranite clasts are smoother than smaller clasts due to longer residence times and to greater differential velocities within the ash-laden jet. Lastly, our model residence times and mass loss estimates for rounded clasts are used to estimate minimum attrition rates due to volcanic ash-blasting within the conduit (e.g., 12 cm3?s-1 for 25 cm clasts, sourced at 2500 m depth).

Campbell, Michelle E.; Russell, James K.; Porritt, Lucy A.

2013-09-01

311

Patterns of transcriptome divergence in the male accessory gland of two closely related species of field crickets,  

E-print Network

hairpin RNAs. Evolutionary rate covariation in meiotic proteins results from fluctuating evolutionary pressure in yeasts and mammals, pp. 529­538 Nathan L. Clark, Eric Alani, and Charles F. Aquadro Genes leave vio- lated by many species, including humans. Evans and Charlesworth show that nonindependent mate

Rosenberg, Noah

312

Role of photoperiod and the pineal gland in T cell-dependent humoral immune reactivity in the Siberian hamster.  

PubMed

The present study tested the hypothesis that antibody production in response to xenoantigen is modulated by daylength and dependent upon the pineal gland. Alter injection of sheep erythrocytes (SRBC), serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations were 5-fold lower in hamsters in short versus long days. Pinealectomy (Pinx) abolished the nocturnal melatonin rhythm, blocked short-day-mediated testis regression, and eliminated the short-day reduction in Ig production after SRBC treatment. Antibody titers in response to SRBC were equivalently augmented in short-day Pinx and long-day sham hamsters. The results indicate that photoperiodic effects on T cell-dependent humoral immunity are dependent upon the pineal gland. These findings raise the possibility that day length-associated changes in some immune system functions are mediated by the pineal melatonin rhythm. PMID:10551773

Yellon, S M; Teasley, L A; Fagoaga, O R; Nguyen, H C; Truong, H N; Nehlsen-Cannarella, L

1999-11-01

313

Intraspecific variation in testis asymmetry in birds: evidence for naturally occurring compensation  

PubMed Central

In many taxa, the left and right testes often differ in size. The compensation hypothesis states that one testis of the pair serves as a ‘back-up’ for any reduced function in the other and provides a mechanism to explain intraspecific variation in degree and direction of gonad asymmetry. Although testis asymmetry is common in birds, evidence for natural testis compensation is unknown. Using a novel quantitative approach that can be applied to any bilateral organ or structure, we show that testis compensation occurs naturally in birds and can be complete when one testis fails to develop. Owing to a recurrent risk of testis impairment and an evolutionary trade-off between natural and sexual selections acting on the arrangement of internal organs in species with abdominal and/or seasonal testes, compensation adds an important, but neglected, dimension to measures of male reproductive investment. PMID:19324740

Calhim, Sara; Birkhead, Tim R.

2009-01-01

314

[Brunners gland hiperplasia. Report of two cases].  

PubMed

Brunner's gland hyperplasia is an infrequent benign injury located on the first or second portion of the duodenum. The disease spectrum includes diffuse nodular hyperplasia, circumscribed nodular hyperplasia, and Brunner's gland adenoma. We report two cases, one with an adenoma of Brunner's glands as a duodenal polyp and the other as a diffuse nodular hyperplasia of the duodenal bulb. PMID:25028905

Padilla Ruiz, Maykel

2014-04-01

315

[Aging of the pineal gland].  

PubMed

The age-related changes in the pineal gland are functional rather than organic, which makes their correction or prevention more tenable. The amelioration or inhibition of some age-related impairments of the pineal gland were observed with dietary restriction and the use of S-adenosylmethionine or MAO-A inhibitors. A threefold increase in nocturnal melatonin peaks occurs in old rhesus monkeys treated with a synthetic peptide Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly (Epithalon) designed basing on the amino acid content of a pineal peptide extract Epithalamin. Other effects of Epithalon markedly overlap with melatonin effects. Besides life extension in mice and fruit flies, Epithalon effects include the postponing vision loss in Campbell rats with hereditary pigmental dystrophy. A uniting aspect of such a range of activities might be the participation of transcription factors, since they are often highly conservative in evolution and, on the other hand, may be strictly tissue-specific. The targets of Epithalon may include transfactors that in mammals are specific for the pineal gland and retina and exhibit impaired functions in the aged pineal gland. PMID:12096440

Khavinson, V Kh; Golubev, A G

2002-01-01

316

Lacrimal glands in cystic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Cystic fibrosis is a systemic disease involving defective mucus secretion in different parts of the body resulting in a wide range of systemic complications. We are presenting the histology of the lacrimal gland from a 25 year old male with cystic fibrosis using light microscopy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report. PMID:24227971

Alghadyan, Abdulrahman; Aljindan, Mohana; Alhumeidan, Adra; Kazi, Gholam; Mcmhon, Robert

2013-01-01

317

Germ Cell Transplantation and Testis Tissue Xenografting in Mice  

PubMed Central

Germ cell transplantation was developed by Dr. Ralph Brinster and colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania in 19941,2. These ground-breaking studies showed that microinjection of germ cells from fertile donor mice into the seminiferous tubules of infertile recipient mice results in donor-derived spermatogenesis and sperm production by the recipient animal2. The use of donor males carrying the bacterial ?-galactosidase gene allowed identification of donor-derived spermatogenesis and transmission of the donor haplotype to the offspring by recipient animals1. Surprisingly, after transplantation into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules, transplanted germ cells were able to move from the luminal compartment to the basement membrane where spermatogonia are located3. It is generally accepted that only SSCs are able to colonize the niche and re-establish spermatogenesis in the recipient testis. Therefore, germ cell transplantation provides a functional approach to study the stem cell niche in the testis and to characterize putative spermatogonial stem cells. To date, germ cell transplantation is used to elucidate basic stem cell biology, to produce transgenic animals through genetic manipulation of germ cells prior to transplantation4,5, to study Sertoli cell-germ cell interaction6,7, SSC homing and colonization3,8, as well as SSC self-renewal and differentiation9,10. Germ cell transplantation is also feasible in large species11. In these, the main applications are preservation of fertility, dissemination of elite genetics in animal populations, and generation of transgenic animals as the study of spermatogenesis and SSC biology with this technique is logistically more difficult and expensive than in rodents. Transplantation of germ cells from large species into the seminiferous tubules of mice results in colonization of donor cells and spermatogonial expansion, but not in their full differentiation presumably due to incompatibility of the recipient somatic cell compartment with the germ cells from phylogenetically distant species12. An alternative approach is transplantation of germ cells from large species together with their surrounding somatic compartment. We first reported in 2002, that small fragments of testis tissue from immature males transplanted under the dorsal skin of immunodeficient mice are able to survive and undergo full development with the production of fertilization competent sperm13. Since then testis tissue xenografting has been shown to be successful in many species and emerged as a valuable alternative to study testis development and spermatogenesis of large animals in mice14. PMID:22330955

Dobrinski, Ina

2012-01-01

318

Acetylation-Dependent Chromatin Reorganization by BRDT, a Testis-Specific Bromodomain-Containing Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between histone acetylation and replacement observed during spermatogenesis prompted us to consider the testis as a source for potential factors capable of remodelling acetylated chromatin. A system- atic search of data banks for open reading frames encoding testis-specific bromodomain-containing proteins focused our attention on BRDT, a testis-specific protein of unknown function containing two bromodomains. BRDT specifically binds hyperacetylated

Christophe Pivot-Pajot; Cecile Caron; Jerome Govin; Alexandre Vion; Sophie Rousseaux; Saadi Khochbin

2003-01-01

319

Filamin A Is a Regulator of Blood-Testis Barrier Assembly during Postnatal Development in the Rat Testis  

PubMed Central

The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis. A delay in its assembly during postnatal development leads to meiotic arrest. Also, a disruption of the BTB by toxicants in adult rats leads to a failure in spermatogonial differentiation. However, the regulation of BTB assembly remains unknown. Herein, filamin A, an actin filament cross-linker that is known to maintain and regulate cytoskeleton structure and function in other epithelia, was shown to be highly expressed during the assembly of Sertoli cell BTB in vitro and postnatal development of BTB in vivo, perhaps being used to maintain the actin filament network at the BTB. A knockdown of filamin A by RNA interference was found to partially perturb the Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ) permeability barrier both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, this down-regulating effect on the TJ barrier function after the knockdown of filamin A was associated with a mis-localization of both TJ and basal ectoplasmic specialization proteins. Filamin A knockdown also induced a disorganization of the actin filament network in Sertoli cells in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these findings illustrate that filamin A regulates BTB assembly by recruiting these proteins to the microenvironment in the seminiferous epithelium to serve as the building blocks. In short, filamin A participates in BTB assembly by regulating protein recruitment during postnatal development in the rat testis. PMID:22872576

Su, Wenhui; Mruk, Dolores D.; Lie, Pearl P. Y.; Lui, Wing-yee

2012-01-01

320

Decontamination of minimally invasive surgical endoscopes and accessories.  

PubMed

(1) Infections following invasive endoscopy are rare and are usually of endogenous origin. Nevertheless, infections do occur due to inadequate cleaning and disinfection and the use of contaminated rinse water and processing equipment. (2) Rigid and flexible operative endoscopes and accessories should be thoroughly cleaned and preferably sterilized using properly validated processes. (3) Heat tolerant operative endoscopes and accessories should be sterilized using a vacuum assisted steam sterilizer. Use autoclavable instrument trays or containers to protect equipment during transit and processing. Small bench top sterilizers without vacuum assisted air removal are unsuitable for packaged and lumened devices. (4) Heat sensitive rigid and flexible endoscopes and accessories should preferably be sterilized using ethylene oxide, low temperature steam and formaldehyde (rigid only) or gas plasma (if appropriate). (5) If there are insufficient instruments or time to sterilize invasive endoscopes, or if no suitable method is available locally, they may be disinfected by immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde or a suitable alternative. An immersion time of at least 10 min should be adopted for glutaraldehyde. This is sufficient to inactivate most vegetative bacteria and viruses including HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Longer contact times of 20 min or more may be necessary if a mycobacterial infection is known or suspected. At least 3 h immersion in glutaraldehyde is required to kill spores. (6) Glutaraldehyde is irritant and sensitizing to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Measures must be taken to ensure glutaraldehyde is used in a safe manner, i.e., total containment and/or extraction of harmful vapour and the provision of suitable personal protective equipment, i.e., gloves, apron and eye protection if splashing could occur. Health surveillance of staff is recommended and should include a pre-employment enquiry regarding asthma, skin and mucosal sensitivity problems and lung function testing by spirometry. (7) Possible alternative disinfectants to glutaraldehyde include peracetic acid (0.2-0.35%), chlorine dioxide (700-1100 ppm) and superoxidized water. These are very effective, killing vegetative bacteria, including mycobacteria, and viruses in 5 min and bacterial spores in 10 min. An endorsement of compatibility with endoscopes, accessories and processing equipment is required from both the solution/device manufacturer and the endoscope manufacturer. Other important considerations are stability, cost and safety from the user and environmental standpoints. (8) Cleaning and disinfection or sterilization should be undertaken by trained staff in a dedicated area, e.g., SSD or TSSU. A suitable training programme is described. (9) If endoscopes are processed by immersion in disinfectants, harmful residues must be removed by thorough rinsing. Sterile or bacteria free water is essential for rinsing all invasive endoscopes and accessories to prevent recontamination. (10) If an automated washer disinfector is used it must be effective, non-damaging, reliable, easy to use and its performance regularly monitored. (11) If used, washer disinfectors and other processing equipment should be disinfected on a regular basis, i.e., between patients or at the start of each session. This will prevent biofilm formation and recontamination of instruments during rinsing. Disinfection should include the water treatment system, if present. (12) To comply with the Medical Devices Directive, manufacturers are obliged to provide full details on how to decontaminate the reusable devices they supply. This should include details of compatibility with heat, pressure, moisture, processing chemicals and ultrasonics. (13) The Infection Control Team should always be involved in the formulation and implementation of decontamination policies. Wherever possible, the national good practice guidelines produced by the Medical Devices Agency and/or professional societies shoul PMID:10973743

Ayliffe, G

2000-08-01

321

Streptozotocin diabetes and insulin resistance impairment of spermatogenesis in adult rat testis: central vs. local mechanism.  

PubMed

Mammalian reproduction is dynamically regulated by the pituitary gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). These hormones are synthesized in the pituitary gland following stimulation by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and act by stimulating steroid production and gametogenesis in both males and females. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats (120 - 140 g) were randomly divided into 7 groups. Group 1 > Control group; fed on normal rat pellets. Group 2 > Streptozotocin group; received a single dose IP injection of streptozotocin 45 mg/kg BW in Na+ citrate buffer pH 4.5. Group 3 > Streptozotocin-insulin treated group; received a single dose IP injection of streptozotocin as in group 2 above and treated with insulin sub-cutaneously. Group 4 > Streptozotocin-ginger treated group; received a single dose IP injection of streptozotocin as in group 2 above and treated with 500 mg/Kg Ginger extract orally. Group 5 > Insulin resistant group; fed ad libitum on a special diet containing 25% fructose mixed with 75% normal rat chow (w/w). Group 6 > Insulin resistant-pioglitazone treated group; fed ad libitum on a special diet as in group 5 above and treated with Pioglitazone 15 mg/kg orally. Group 7 > Insulin resistant-ginger treated group; fed ad libitum on a special diet as in group 4 above, and also treated with 500 mg/Kg Ginger extract orally. Hormonal and tissue biochemistry analyses revealed that both central and local mechanisms are implicated in the impairment of spermatogenesis by diabetes but the hypothalamo-pituitary testicular axis alteration might not likely have a major impact as the local defect on steroidogenesis in the testis. This local defect could also predispose to male hypogonadism, i.e. failure of gonadal function. PMID:23652232

Arikawe, A P; Oyerinde, A; Olatunji-Bello, I I; Obika, L F O

2012-01-01

322

Crystallization of accessory phases in magmas by local saturation adjacent to phenocrysts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accessory minerals commonly occur attached to or included in the major crystalline phases of felsic and some intermediate igneous rocks. Apatite is particularly common as inclusions, but Fe-Ti oxides, pyrrhotite, zircon, monazite, chevkinite and xenotime are also known from silicic rocks. Accessories may nucleate near the host crystal/ liquid interface as a result of local saturation owing to formation of a differentiated chemical boundary layer in which accessory mineral solubility would be lower than in the surrounding liquid. Differentiation of this boundary layer would be greatest adjacent to ferromagnesian phenocrysts, especially Fe-Ti oxides; it is with oxides that accessories are most commonly associated in rocks. A boundary layer may develop if the crystal grows more rapidly than diffusion can transport incorporated and rejected elements to and from the phenocryst. Diffusion must dominate over convection as a mode of mass transfer near the advancing crystal/liquid interface in order for a boundary layer to exist. Accumulation of essential structural constituent elements of accessory minerals owing to their slow diffusion in evolved silicate melt also may force local saturation, but this is not a process that applies to all cases. Local saturation is an attractive mechanism for enhancing fractionation during crystallization differentiation. If accessory minerals attached to or included in phenocrysts formed because of local saturation, their host phenocrysts must have grown rapidly when accessories nucleated in comparison to lifetimes of magma reservoirs. Some inconsistencies remain in a local saturation origin for accessory phases that cannot be evaluated without additional information. ?? 1989.

Bacon, C.R.

1989-01-01

323

Efferents and Centrifugal Afferents of the Main and Accessory Olfactory Bulbs in the Snake Thamnophis sirtalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reinvestigates the efferent projections of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs and describes for the first time the centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs in the snake Thamnophis sirtalis, using the intraaxonal transport of the anterograde and retrograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine and the retrograde tracer horseradish peroxidase. The olfactory projection consists of three tracts:

Enrique Lanuza; Mimi Halpern

1998-01-01

324

29 CFR 1919.28 - Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto. 1919...Persons § 1919.28 Unit proof tests—cranes and gear accessory thereto. (a...noted in paragraph (e) of this section, cranes and other hoisting machines,...

2010-07-01

325

29 CFR 1919.28 - Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto. 1919...Persons § 1919.28 Unit proof tests—cranes and gear accessory thereto. (a...noted in paragraph (e) of this section, cranes and other hoisting machines,...

2013-07-01

326

29 CFR 1919.28 - Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto. 1919...Persons § 1919.28 Unit proof tests—cranes and gear accessory thereto. (a...noted in paragraph (e) of this section, cranes and other hoisting machines,...

2012-07-01

327

29 CFR 1919.28 - Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto. 1919...Persons § 1919.28 Unit proof tests—cranes and gear accessory thereto. (a...noted in paragraph (e) of this section, cranes and other hoisting machines,...

2011-07-01

328

Effect of accessory in notch in bow on ship resistance performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the effect of the accessory in notch in bow on ship resistance performance is studied based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation in respect to a self-propelled cutter suction dredger. This research finds the ship resistance performance of the ship with notch in bow changes a lot because of the accessory in notch in bow. And there

Shi Xun; Chen Xin-quan; Tan Jia-hua

2011-01-01

329

Effects of two gonadotropic hormones on polysaccharide synthesis in the albumen gland of Lymnaea stagnalis, studied with the organ culture technique.  

PubMed

A medium for culturing organs of the basommatophoran freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis is described. One of the accessory sex glands, the albumen gland, which produces proteins and galactogen as nutritive substances for the embryos, was cultured along with parts of the central nervous system (CNS), including the female gonadotropic hormone-producing dorsal bodies (DB). Culture time was 4 days. The cerebral ganglia and the DB appeared to have a strong stimulating influence on polysaccharide synthesis in the albumen gland. The remaining part of the CNS has a weak stimulating effect. The use of extracts (culture time 6-26 hr) of parts of the cerebral ganglia and of the DB showed that not only the dorsal body hormone (DBH), but also the ovulation hormone (CDCH)--a neurohormone produced by the caudodorsal cells located in the cerebral ganglia--stimulates the synthetic activity of the albumen gland. The action of these hormones is direct; i.e., it is not exerted via the gonad. Dose- and time-response relations for the DBH and the CDCH are very similar. No additional rise in stimulation occurred when the two hormones were administered together. Experiments with albumen glands of adult snails demonstrated that the presence of large quantities of secretory material in the gland inhibits the response to DBH and CDCH. PMID:6618157

Wijdenes, J; van Elk, R; Joosse, J

1983-08-01

330

Health warning labelling practices on narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories  

PubMed Central

Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing around the globe despite current evidence that smoke emissions are toxic and contain carcinogenic compounds. Objective To evaluate current health warning labelling practices on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories. Methods All waterpipe tobacco products, as well as waterpipe accessories, were purchased from Lebanon and a convenience sample was obtained from Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Palestine, Syria, Jordan, Bahrain, Canada, Germany and South Africa. Findings Of the total number of waterpipe tobacco products collected from Lebanon, the majority had textual health warning labels covering on average only 3.5% of total surface area of the package. Misleading descriptors were commonplace on waterpipe tobacco packages and related accessories. Conclusions There are no WHO FCTC compliant waterpipe-specific health warning labels on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories. Introducing health warnings on waterpipe tobacco products and accessories will probably have worldwide public health benefits. PMID:20501497

Khalil, Joanna

2010-01-01

331

Problems concerning assessment of anatomical site of accessory pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Twp patients with type B WPW syndrome and reciprocal tachycardias have been studied using intracardiac electrograms and programmed electrical stimulation of the heart. One patient, who had a right-sided accessory pathway giving the surface electrocardiographic appearances of type B WPW syndrome, was shown to have an additional left-sided accessory pathway as occurs in type A WPW syndrome. This concealed left-sided atrioventricular connexion formed the retrograde pathway during reciprocal tachycardia. In the second patient the appearances of type B WPW syndrome were shown to be caused by an accessory pathway between the atrial septum and the right side of the interventricular septum rather than an accessory pathway in the right atrioventricular groove. The significance of these findings when considering surgical interruption of an accessory atrioventricular conduction pathway is discussed. PMID:1122270

Spurrell, R A; Krikler, D M; Sowton, E

1975-01-01

332

Sonography of the salivary glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Due to their superficial position, the parotid, the submandibular, and the sublingual glands can be imaged with high-resolution\\u000a transducers. In acute inflammatory diseases sonography can differentiate between obstructive or non-obstructive sialoadenitis.\\u000a Abscess formations may be detected and the maturation of the colliquation may be controlled. Abscesses may be punctured under\\u000a US guidance. In Sjögren's syndrome the sonographic changes correlate

N. Gritzmann; T. Rettenbacher; A. Hollerweger; P. Macheiner; E. Hübner

2003-01-01

333

Steroid signaling promotes stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila testis.  

PubMed

Stem cell regulation by local signals is intensely studied, but less is known about the effects of hormonal signals on stem cells. In Drosophila, the primary steroid twenty-hydroxyecdysone (20E) regulates ovarian germline stem cells (GSCs) but was considered dispensable for testis GSC maintenance. Male GSCs reside in a microenvironment (niche) generated by somatic hub cells and adjacent cyst stem cells (CySCs). Here, we show that depletion of 20E from adult males by overexpressing a dominant negative form of the Ecdysone receptor (EcR) or its heterodimeric partner ultraspiracle (usp) causes GSC and CySC loss that is rescued by 20E feeding, uncovering a requirement for 20E in stem cell maintenance. EcR and USP are expressed, activated and autonomously required in the CySC lineage to promote CySC maintenance, as are downstream genes ftz-f1 and E75. In contrast, GSCs non-autonomously require ecdysone signaling. Global inactivation of EcR increases cell death in the testis that is rescued by expression of EcR-B2 in the CySC lineage, indicating that ecdysone signaling supports stem cell viability primarily through a specific receptor isoform. Finally, EcR genetically interacts with the NURF chromatin-remodeling complex, which we previously showed maintains CySCs. Thus, although 20E levels are lower in males than females, ecdysone signaling acts through distinct cell types and effectors to ensure both ovarian and testis stem cell maintenance. PMID:25093968

Li, Yijie; Ma, Qing; Cherry, Christopher M; Matunis, Erika L

2014-10-01

334

[Ultrasound-guided biopsy of the testis: indications and results].  

PubMed

Ultrasound examination of the testis is the imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of intratesticular focal lesions. In spite of its high sensibility, eco-Doppler-elastography is lacking of specificity in discrimination between benign and malign lesions, not always allowing us to make a definitive diagnosis of malignancy. When a diagnostic doubt persists, for such lesions that are indeterminate at clinical and radiological evaluation, it is possible to recur to ultrasound-guided testicular needle biopsy. This paper describes the main application scenarios of testicular fine-needle aspiration under ultrasound guidance and the experience in our institute. PMID:24042419

Genovese, Eugenio Annibale; Capasso, Raffaella; Izzo, Andrea; Cesarano, Elviro; La Porta, Michele; Amato, Mario; D'Andrea, Alfredo; Coppolino, Francesco; Fonio, Paolo

2013-01-01

335

Testis Scintigraphy in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a pediatric malignancy associated with remissions and relapses. Common relapsing sitesare meninges, testis and ovary. Testicular scintigraphy is a highly specific modality used mainly in the differential diagnosis of testicular torsion and epidydimitis/epidydimo-orchitis. There is only one interesting image on leukemic infiltration with scrotal scintigraphy in the literature. The aim of this case presentation is to report that although the scintigraphic appearance of testicular torsion was observed in a patient with the diagnosis of ALL, testicular ALL infiltration was revealed in pathologic examination. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24653935

Sencan Eren, Mine; Koc, Murat; Oren, Hale; Ozkal, Sermin; Durak, Hatice

2014-01-01

336

[An epidermoid cyst derived from an intrapancreatic accessory spleen].  

PubMed

A 43-year-old female patient had high levels of CA19-9 marker; an abdominal ultrasound revealed a cyst. Further investigations with computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and endoscopic ultrasound CT identified a multilocular cystic lesion on the pancreatic tail. An abnormal wall was noted, and different signal strengths were measured in each cyst. Thus, a mucinous cystic tumor was diagnosed, and distal pancreatectomy combined with splenectomy was performed. During the surgery, we identified a multilocular pancreatic cyst with internal bleeding at its distal end. The lesion was ultimately diagnosed as an epidermoid cyst of an intrapancreatic accessory spleen. This diagnosis was based on the histological observation that the vascular construction of the cystic wall was equivalent to that of the spleen, and that its internal tissue was covered by squamous epithelium. PMID:24598102

Shinohara, Fumi; Furukawa, Yoshinari; Itsuki, Hiroshi; Sakano, Ayaka; Hananoki, Mutsumi; Kurushima, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Nori; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Fujihara, Megumu

2014-03-01

337

Simultaneous Accessory Pathway and AV Node Mechanical Block  

PubMed Central

We report a clinical case of a 22-year-old female referred to our institution due to palpitations and preexcitation. Her ECG suggested a right superior paraseptal accessory pathway (AP), which was localised during the electrophysiological study at the superior paraseptal region in close proximity to the His recordings. Reproducible orthodromic reciprocating tachycardia was induced by atrial pacing with extrastimuli. Cryo-mapping performed in the area of earliest atrial activation was not able to terminate the tachycardia. A second attempt, slightly more posterior, caused mechanical block of the AP, which rendered the tachycardia non-inducible. More pressure with the ablation catheter determined a Wenckebach type supra-hisian AV block, which was transient but reproducible. Given this finding no ablation was done. Simultaneous block to the AP and the atrioventricular node has rarely been reported using radiofrequency energy. However, to our knowledge this phenomenon has not been previously reported in large series using cryo-thermal energy. PMID:24130429

Garofalo, Daniel; Gallanti, Alfonso Gomez; Rama, David Filgueiras; Peinado, Rafael Peinado

2013-01-01

338

Simultaneous Accessory Pathway and AV Node Mechanical Block.  

PubMed

We report a clinical case of a 22-year-old female referred to our institution due to palpitations and preexcitation. Her ECG suggested a right superior paraseptal accessory pathway (AP), which was localised during the electrophysiological study at the superior paraseptal region in close proximity to the His recordings. Reproducible orthodromic reciprocating tachycardia was induced by atrial pacing with extrastimuli. Cryo-mapping performed in the area of earliest atrial activation was not able to terminate the tachycardia. A second attempt, slightly more posterior, caused mechanical block of the AP, which rendered the tachycardia non-inducible. More pressure with the ablation catheter determined a Wenckebach type supra-hisian AV block, which was transient but reproducible. Given this finding no ablation was done. Simultaneous block to the AP and the atrioventricular node has rarely been reported using radiofrequency energy. However, to our knowledge this phenomenon has not been previously reported in large series using cryo-thermal energy. PMID:24130429

Garofalo, Daniel; Gallanti, Alfonso Gomez; Rama, David Filgueiras; Peinado, Rafael Peinado

2013-01-01

339

Development of Heat-resistant XLPE Cable and Accessories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed heat-resistant XLPE cable and accessories that can be operated at 105°C as the maximum permissible conductor temperature in normal operation. Through this cable system, greater transmission capacity can be achieved using existing cable ducts and without increasing the conductor size of the cable. We have developed heat-resistant XLPE insulation material which has a higher melting point than that of conventional XLPE. The breakdown strength of heat-resistant XLPE cable at 105°C is almost the same as that of conventional XLPE cable at 90°C. The heat deformation of the new cable at 105°C is almost the same as that of conventional XLPE cable at 90°C. Conventional self-pressurized rubber joints can be applied to heat-resistant cable lines with the new waterproof joint compound with low heat resistivity.

Yamada, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Murata, Yoshinao; Kishi, Kouji; Katakai, Shoshi

340

Evolution of the continental crust as recorded in accessory minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in precise in situ isotopic analysis by LA-ICPMS and SIMS allow correlating multiple isotopic systems within single grains of accessory minerals such as zircon and monazite. The combined isotope systematics have provided valuable insights into the evolution of the continental crust. Zircon, a common accessory phase in granitoids, can be precisely dated by the U-Pb system. Zircon Lu-Hf isotopic composition is a function of crustal residence time of the magmatic protolith, whereas the O isotopic composition is a sensitive record of reworking of mature sediments such as pelite. An integration of U-Pb, Lu-Hf and O isotopic data for detrital zircons from modern large rivers indicates that: (1) the preserved continental crust dominantly formed between 3.6 and 1.0 Ga, (2) the major mode of crustal development would change during the supercontinent cycle, i.e., the generation of juvenile crust during supercontinent fragmentation versus the stabilization of the generated crust via crustal remelting during supercontinent fragmentation, and (3) reworking of mature sediments increased abruptly at ca. 2.1 Ga. No granitoids are known to have survived since 4.03 Ga. Yet evidence of an even older evolved crust is provided by detrital zircons with ages up to 4.4 Ga from Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks in the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Recently, such Hadean zircons have been found from outside the Yilgarn Craton, indicating that the young Earth had widespread granitoid crust. In addition, another accessory phase, monazite, in the Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks offers an unique opportunity to advance our knowledge of early crustal evolution. Monazite, a light rare earth element phosphate mineral, occurs as an igneous accessory phase particularly in low-Ca granitoids, in contrast to the occurrence of igneous zircon in a wide range of granitoids. U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope systematic of monazite are analogous to U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope systematics of zircon in that they define the timing of the crystallization and magmatic protolith formation (model age), respectively. The lack of monazites having >3.6 Ga crystallization ages as well as >4.0 Ga Nd model ages in the Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks suggests that the source rocks of the Hadean detrital zircons are not low-Ca granitoids and therefore contained few monazites. Given that low-Ca granitoid magmas generated mainly by melting of pre-existing mid-lower crust, this finding may indicate minor intra-crustal melting and, by extension, crustal stabilization until ca. 3.6 Ga. This is consistent with the picture portrayed by the detrital zircons from modern rivers. Presumably, the hotter and rheologically weaker lithospheric mantle fostered many small plates and island arcs early in Earth's history, and the young arc crust was efficiently returned to the mantle via subduction. Accordingly, net growth of continental crust was essentially minor in early Earth's history despite high rates of crust generation.

Iizuka, Tsuyoshi

2013-04-01

341

Dermoscopy of accessory nipples in authors’ own study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The accessory nipple (AN) is characterised by its network-like structures, which may suggest the diagnosis of a melanocytic lesion. The knowledge about additional dermoscopic features of AN may greatly minimise the risk of unnecessary surgical excisions. Aim To analyse and present different clinical and dermoscopic forms, in which the AN may appear. Material and methods Ninety AN with dermoscopic features were evaluated in the study, detected in 14 patients between the years 2008 and 2014. Results The most common dermoscopic features of the AN were central, scar-like areas (15/19) and peripheral network-like structures (12/19). A number of cleft-like appearances (8/19) and central network-like structures (7/19) had also been observed. Moreover, among the dermoscopic features, white cobblestone-like structures (7/19), a central round dimpling with a plug (6/19) and fisheye-like structures resembling comedo-like openings (9/19) have all also been noted. There is a statistical significance in the occurrence of white cobblestone-like structures with central network-like structures (Fisher's exact test p = 0.0449). The presence of peripheral network-like structures with the occurrence of central scar-like areas was statistically highly significant (p = 0.0091). The central round dimpling was never observed alongside any central network-like structures in any of the lesions (p = 0.0436). Conclusions Accessory nipples are most commonly characterised by the occurrence of a peripheral network-like structure accompanied by the presence of a scar-like area. PMID:25097482

Szymszal, Jan; Silny, Wojciech

2014-01-01

342

Intraspecific variation in testis size of small mammals: implications for muscle mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraspecific variation in testis size is usually interpreted in the context of sperm competition, yet an uncon - sidered consequence of increased testis size may be an increase in the production of testosterone, which can affect the growth of muscle mass. After muscle mass is corrected for body size, male small mammals have more muscle mass than females, which suggests

Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde; John S. Millar; Graham J. Hickling

2003-01-01

343

Isolation of enriched carp spermatogonial stem cells from Labeo rohita testis for in vitro propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro culture system for spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is a powerful tool for exploring molecular mechanisms of male gametogenesis and gene manipulation. Very little information is available for fish SSC biology. Our aim was to isolate highly pure SSCs from the testis of commercially important farmed carp, Labeo rohita. The minced testis of L. rohita was dissociated with

R. P. Panda; H. K. Barman; C. Mohapatra

2011-01-01

344

Testicular Somatic Cells, not Gonocytes, Are the Major Source of Functional Activin A during Testis Morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Proper development of the seminiferous tubules (or testis cords in embryos) is critical for male fertility. Sertoli cells, somatic components of the seminiferous tubules, serve as nurse cells to the male germline, and thus their numbers decide the quantity of sperm output in adulthood. We previously identified activin A, the protein product of the activin ?A (Inhba) gene, as a key regulator of murine Sertoli cell proliferation and testis cord expansion during embryogenesis. Although our genetic studies implicated fetal Leydig cells as the primary producers of testicular activin A, gonocytes are another potential source. To investigate the relative contribution of gonocyte-derived activin A to testis morphogenesis, we compared testis development in the Inhba global knockout mouse, which lacks activin A production in all cells (including the gonocytes), and a steroidogenic factor 1 (Sf1)-specific conditional knockout model in which activin A expression in testicular somatic cells is disrupted but gonocyte expression of activin A remains intact. Surprisingly, testis development was comparable in these two models of activin A insufficiency, with similar reductions in Sertoli cell proliferation and minor differences in testis histology. Thus, our findings suggest activin A from male gonocytes is insufficient to promote Sertoli cell proliferation and testis cord expansion in the absence of somatic cell-derived activin A. Evaluation of adult male mice with fetal disruption of activin A revealed reduced testis size, lowered sperm production, altered testicular histology, and elevated plasma FSH levels, defects reminiscent of human cases of androgen-sufficient idiopathic oligozoospermia. PMID:21952240

Archambeault, Denise R.; Tomaszewski, Jessica; Childs, Andrew J.; Anderson, Richard A.

2011-01-01

345

Latitudinal variation in testis size in six species of North American songbirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six songbird species were studied to determine how testis size varies in relation to latitude, using data from breeding areas at latitudes 7?N to 69?N. Three of the species (Carpodacus mexicanus, Vireo olivaceus, Geothylpis trichas) exhibited a significant positive relationship, one (Passerculus sandwichensis) a significant negative relationship, and two (Agelaius phoeniceus, Spizella passerina) no significant association between relative testis mass

Trevor E. Pitcher; Bridget J. M. Stutchbury

1998-01-01

346

A rare testicular solid mass in children: juvenile granulosa cell tumour of testis  

PubMed Central

Juvenile granulosa cell tumour (JGCT) of the testis is a benign neoplasm rarely seen in children. It usually presents as a unilateral scrotal mass and can be associated with genital ambiguity and chromosomal anomalies. Radical orchiectomy is the treatment of choice. We present an infant with a JGCT of the testis and we review the typical findings of the disease. PMID:22511424

Couture, Julie; Bolduc, Stephane

2012-01-01

347

Structure of the testis and genital duct of freshwater stingray, Himantura signifer (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light microscopic structure of the testis and genital duct system of the freshwater stingray Himantura signifer was observed. The testis is composed of lobes having numerous spermatocysts in a dorsoventral zonated arrangement. The germinal papilla at the middorsal surface of the testicular lobe is the origin site of spermatocyst development, where mesenchymal-like cells are predominantly found. The association of

Kannika Chatchavalvanich; Amara Thongpan; Masaaki Nakai

2005-01-01

348

Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study  

E-print Network

. Peroxidase, monoamine oxidase (MAO) and cytochrome oxidase (CCO) have been histochemically localized of monoamine oxidase (MAO) has been reported in the rat testis (Bhagvat et al., 1939 ; Zeller and Joel, 1941Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study G. S

Boyer, Edmond

349

Gonadosomatic Index and Testis Morphology of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Rivers Contaminated with Estrogenic Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the effect of estrogenic chemicals on fish, the gonadosomatic index (GSI = (testis weight\\/body weight) × 100) and testis histology of mature common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from 2 contaminated sites (Ishizu and Wada rivers, Osaka) and a control site were examined between June 1998 and March 2001. The concentration of nonylphenol, bisphenol A and 17?-estradiol in the Ishizu

Amin HASSANIN; Sachi KUWAHARA; Yasuhiro TSUKAMOTO; Kazushige OGAWA; Kazuya HIRAMATSU; Fumihiko SASAKI

2002-01-01

350

Geomorphic mapping of floodplain accessory channels with implications for floodplain morphodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floodplain morphology plays a key role in routing of floodwaters, sediment transport during floods, and the mechanics of the main channel. High-resolution topographic data (e.g., LiDAR) reveal a wealth of previously unappreciated geomorphic floodplain features. Using 1.5-m LiDAR data from Indiana, we found that the floodplains of Indiana rivers often contain a large number of secondary accessory channels. Accessory channels are subordinate to the main channel and are only active during flood stage, which is confirmed by Landsat images of inundated floodplains. Individual accessory channels are linear to sinuous, having widths ranging from 15 to 35% of the main channel, and lengths ranging from 500 to 3500 meters. On the White River, for example, the accessory channels account for ~25% of the floodplain area and these accessory channels are numerous and wide enough that during a ~10-year flood they conveyed all the flood discharge, leaving the inter-channel areas dry. To assess the pervasiveness of floodplain accessory channels, we inventoried all the floodplains of Indiana rivers having channel widths greater than 20 m. We constrained the mapping to the modern floodplains of each river, avoiding terraced floodplains related to the last glacial maximum. In total, we mapped 1100 km2 of floodplain; 55% of that area showed evidence for floodplain accessory channels. Moreover, there is a high concentration of floodplains exhibiting floodplain accessory channels in south-central Indiana occurring along the transition from glacial till into bedrock. Our preliminary hypothesis for the formation of floodplain accessory channels is that the channels form by connecting preexisting topographic lows, such as abandoned meander loops. Geomorphic mapping of a 7-km stretch of the floodplain along the White River reveals that the concave portions of accessory channels are associated with scroll-bar topography and abandoned meander loops from the main channel. In fact, 73% of the accessory channels annexed abandoned meander loops. Based on this, we conclude that accessory channels are associated with meandering rivers because frequent meander-loop cutoffs of the main channel create preexisting conduits that are then linked together during floods. These long coherent down-valley accessory channels have important implications for the morphodynamics of floodplains and flood-wave propagation.

David, S. R.; Edmonds, D. A.; Letsinger, S. L.; Hajek, E. A.

2013-12-01

351

Structural, cellular and molecular aspects of immune privilege in the testis  

PubMed Central

The testis presents a special immunological environment, considering its property of immune privilege that tolerates allo- and auto-antigens. Testicular immune privilege was once believed to be mainly based on the sequestration of antigens from the immune system by the blood–testis barrier in the seminiferous epithelium. Substantial evidence supports the view that the combination of physical structure, testicular cells, and cytokines controls immune responses in the testis to preserve the structural and functional integrity of testicular immune privilege. Both systemic immune tolerance and local immunosuppression help maintain the immune privilege status. Constitutive expression of anti-inflammatory factors in testicular cells is critical for local immunosuppression. However, the testis locally generates an efficient innate immune system against pathogens. Disruption of these mechanisms may lead to orchitis and impair fertility. This review article highlights the current understanding of structural, cellular, and molecular mechanisms underlying the unique immune environment of the testis, particularly its immune privilege status. PMID:22701457

Li, Nan; Wang, Tao; Han, Daishu

2012-01-01

352

Growth hormone (GH) and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH): Co-localization and action in the chicken testis.  

PubMed

Growth hormone (GH) gene expression is not confined to the pituitary gland and occurs in many extrapituitary tissues, including the chicken testis. The regulation and function of GH in extrapituitary tissues is, however, largely unknown. The possibility that chicken testicular GH might be regulated by GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), as in the avian pituitary gland, was investigated in the present study. GHRH co-localized with GH in the germinal epithelium and in interstitial zones within the chicken testes, particularly in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes. In testicular cell cultures, exogenous human GHRH1-44 induced (at 1, 10 and 100nM) a dose-related increase in GH release. Western blot analysis showed a heterogeneous pattern in the GH moieties released during GHRH stimulation. 26kDa monomer GH was the most abundant moiety under basal conditions, but 15 and 17kDa isoforms were more abundant after GHRH stimulation. GHRH treatment also increased the abundance of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) immunoreactivity in the testes. This may have been GH-mediated, since exogenous GH similarly increased the incorporation of ((3)H)-thymidine into cultured testicular cells and increased their metabolic activity, as determined by increased MTT reduction. Furthermore, GH and GHRH immunoneutralization blocked GHRH-stimulated proliferative activity. In summary, these results indicate that GHRH stimulates testicular GH secretion in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Data also demonstrate proliferative actions of GHRH on testicular cell number and suggest that this action is mediated by local GH production. PMID:24508498

Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; López-Marín, Luz M; Carranza, Martha; Giterman, Daniel; Harvey, Steve; Arámburo, Carlos; Luna, Maricela

2014-04-01

353

Cystic Rete Testis with Testicular Dysplasia in a Rabbit  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT An 8-year-old intact rabbit was presented to a veterinary hospital with a complaint of enlarged left scrotum. Histological examination revealed a single large cyst adjacent to an efferent ductule-like tissue. The cyst wall was composed of monolayer cuboidal cells surrounded by dysplastic testicular tissue, and the seminiferous tubules were not developed at all. The epithelial cells of the cyst possessed the same properties as the epithelial cells of the rete testis that were positive for CD 10 and cytokeratin 18, negative for p63 and lacked desmin-positive muscular layer. The dysplastic testicular tissue was composed of two types of cells: small pleomorphic cells with a condensed nucleus (sex cord-like cells) and large round cells with cytoplasmic lipid droplets (Leydig cells). Both of these cells were positive for vimentin and melan A that are consistent with the staining pattern of Sertoli cells and Leydig cells. This is the first report to demonstrate cystic rete testis with testicular dysplasia in animals. PMID:24430659

CHAMBERS, James K.; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; MURATA, Yousuke; WATANABE, Ken-ichi; ISE, Kenichiro; MIWA, Yasutsugu; NAKAYAMA, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

354

CONTRIBUTION OF THYROID GLAND ULTRASOUND FOR SCREENING OF PATIENTS WITH SUSPECTED SUBCLINICAL THYROID GLAND DISORDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tajtakova M, Langer P, Semanova Z, Tomkova Z: Contribution of Thyroid Gland Ultrasound for Screening of Patients with Suspected Subclinical Thyroid Gland Disorders Bratisl Lek Listy 1999; 100 (4): 196ñ199 Thyroid gland ultrasonography is recommended in patients with nonspecific clinical symptoms such as fatigue, weightgain, dry skin, amnesic symptoms, depression, bradycardia, abnor- mal myocardial contractility, increased diastolic pressure, hy- percholesterolemia,

TAJTAKOVA M; LANGER P; SEMANOVA Z; TOMKOVA Z

1999-01-01

355

Yolk-sac-derived macrophages regulate fetal testis vascularization and morphogenesis.  

PubMed

Organogenesis of the testis is initiated when expression of Sry in pre-Sertoli cells directs the gonad toward a male-specific fate. The cells in the early bipotential gonad undergo de novo organization to form testis cords that enclose germ cells inside tubules lined by epithelial Sertoli cells. Although Sertoli cells are a driving force in the de novo formation of testis cords, recent studies in mouse showed that reorganization of the vasculature and of interstitial cells also play critical roles in testis cord morphogenesis. However, the mechanism driving reorganization of the vasculature during fetal organogenesis remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that fetal macrophages are associated with nascent gonadal and mesonephric vasculature during the initial phases of testis morphogenesis. Macrophages mediate vascular reorganization and prune errant germ cells and somatic cells after testis architecture is established. We show that gonadal macrophages are derived from primitive yolk-sac hematopoietic progenitors and exhibit hallmarks of M2 activation status, suggestive of angiogenic and tissue remodeling functions. Depletion of macrophages resulted in impaired vascular reorganization and abnormal cord formation. These findings reveal a previously unappreciated role for macrophages in testis morphogenesis and suggest that macrophages are an intermediary between neovascularization and organ architecture during fetal organogenesis. PMID:24912173

DeFalco, Tony; Bhattacharya, Indrashis; Williams, Alyna V; Sams, Dustin M; Capel, Blanche

2014-06-10

356

[The undescended testis: arguments in favour of early treatment, provided retractile testis and acquired non-scrotal testis have been excluded].  

PubMed

--Guidelines for the treatment ofundescended testis (UDT) are sparse. Often an operation in the second year of life is advised. --Recent data indicate that the normal maturation process, which will ultimately lead to a normal quantity and quality of germ cells, is impaired as early as in the first half year of a newborn's life. None of the guidelines take this into account. Spontaneous descent after the fourth month following birth, of testes that have previously not descended, hardly ever occurs. --No differences have been shown in complication numbers between surgery before and after the first birthday. Orchidopexy prior to the 13th birthday reduces the risk of testicular cancer. --Therefore, based on these data, it is advised to perform orchidopexy in the second half of the first year of a newborn's life. In older boys a UDT must be treated before the 13th birthday. --In the Netherlands a lot more orchidopexies are done despite what may be expected based on prevalence numbers of UDT: testes retaining a normal volume that would most probably have descended spontaneously come puberty. --It remains important to carry out a careful physical examination and document the position of the testes soon after birth, and later on if UDT is suspected, to avoid unnecessary operations on retractile testes and acquired UDT. PMID:18333539

van der Horst, H J R; de Gier, R P E; de Jong, T P V M; van den Hoek, J; Callewaert, P R H; Feitz, W F J

2008-02-01

357

Identification of testis 14-3-3 binding proteins by tandem affinity purification  

PubMed Central

The 14-3-3 family of proteins interacts with various cellular phosphoproteins and regulates multiple cell signaling cascades. Identification of 14-3-3 interactors is important to define 14-3-3 functions in various biological pathways. The binding partners of protein 14-3-3 in testis are not known. The main goal of this study was to identify the 14-3-3 interactome in testis to determine the 14-3-3 regulated cellular processes in testis. We used transgenic mice expressing tandem affinity tagged 14-3-3? (TAP-14-3-3?) driven by the ubiquitin promoter to isolate 14-3-3 binding proteins. The 14-3-3 complexes in testis were isolated using a two-step tandem affinity purification (TAP) followed by identification with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 135 proteins were found to be associated with 14-3-3 in vivo in testis. Comparison of the testis 14-3-3 proteome with known 14-3-3 binding proteins showed that 71 of the proteins identified in this study are novel 14-3-3 interactors. Eight of these novel 14-3-3 interacting proteins are predominantly expressed in testis. The 14-3-3 interactors predominant in testis are: protein phosphatase1?2 (PP1?2), spermatogenesis associated 18 (SPATA18), phosphoglycerate kinase-2 (PGK2), testis specific gene A-2 (TSGA-2), dead box polypeptide 4 (DDX4), piwi homolog 1, protein kinase NYD-SP25 and EAN57. The fact that some of these proteins are indispensable for spermatogenesis suggests that their binding to 14-3-3 may be important for their function in germ cell division and maturation. These findings are discussed in context of the putative functions of 14-3-3 in spermatogenesis. PMID:22332119

Puri, Pawan; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Stahler, Ryan; Chen, Yijing; Kline, Douglas

2011-01-01

358

Androgen Influence on the Meibomian Gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. The hypothesis in the study was that androgens control meibomian gland function, regulate the quality and\\/or quantity of lipids produced by this tissue, and promote the formation of the tear film's lipid layer. To test this hypothesis, a study was conducted to determine whether androgen receptor protein exists in the epithelial cell nuclei of rat meibomian glands and, in

David A. Sullivan; Benjamin D. Sullivan; M. David Ullman; Eduardo M. Rocha; Kathleen L. Krenzer; Jennifer M. Cermak; Ikuko Toda; Marshall G. Doane; James E. Evans; L. Alexandra Wickham

2000-01-01

359

Reflex secretion of the human parotid gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the conditions which influence the secretion of the parotid gland directly or indirectly. A series of experiments were conducted, in which the secretion was recorded by counting the drops as they fell from the drainage tube. Eight Ss between 8 to 38 yrs of age were involved. Concludes that direct reflexes of the parotid gland were excited by the

K. S. Lashley

1916-01-01

360

`Weber's Glands' and Respiration in Woodlice  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE view has long been held that certain tegumental glands in woodlice, known as `Weber's glands', play an important part in respiration, and have been evolved in adaptation to terrestrial life. This conception appears to be wholly mistaken. It seems to have originated in a misreading of the literature, and although widely accepted there is little evidence of any real

H. Gorvett

1950-01-01

361

26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. Spark plugs, storage batteries, leaf springs, coils, timers, and tire chains, which are suitable for use on or in connection with, or as...

2010-04-01

362

26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. Spark plugs, storage batteries, leaf springs, coils, timers, and tire chains, which are suitable for use on or in connection with, or as...

2012-04-01

363

26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. Spark plugs, storage batteries, leaf springs, coils, timers, and tire chains, which are suitable for use on or in connection with, or as...

2011-04-01

364

Successful radiofrequency ablation of a true paraHissian accessory pathway.  

PubMed

Radiofrequency catheter ablation seems to become a first-line therapy for patients with paroxysmal tachycardias using an accessory pathway. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman who suffered from drug-resistant recurrent reciprocating tachycardia, using an uncommon accessory pathway. The 12-lead electrocardiogram in sinus rhythm showed the following characteristics: a positive delta waves in leads I, II, aVL, aVF, QRS axis = 0 degrees, R/S in lead V1 < 1, and a special QRS pattern in the precordial leads (QS or Qr in V1-V3 and QRS transition > V3). A deep septal parahissian accessory pathway has been localized using classic endocardial mapping procedures and has been confirmed during successful radiofrequency catheter ablation. Normal auriculo-ventricular conduction has been totally preserved. No complications or recurrence were observed during the follow-up. We have reviewed the electrophysiologic criteria to confirm this rare accessory pathway location. PMID:8540273

de Meester, A; de Jonghe, D; de Roy, L

1995-01-01

365

21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

366

21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

367

21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

368

21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

369

21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

370

21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories....

2013-04-01

371

21 CFR 878.4200 - Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4200 Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

372

21 CFR 878.4200 - Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4200 Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

373

21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories....

2014-04-01

374

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4820 Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments. (a)...

2013-04-01

375

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4820 Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments. (a)...

2012-04-01

376

21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories....

2011-04-01

377

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4820 Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments. (a)...

2011-04-01

378

21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories....

2012-04-01

379

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4820 Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments. (a)...

2014-04-01

380

21 CFR 878.4200 - Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4200 Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

381

21 CFR 878.4200 - Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4200 Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

382

One nose, one brain: contribution of the main and accessory olfactory system to chemosensation  

PubMed Central

The accessory olfactory system is present in most tetrapods. It is involved in the perception of chemical stimuli, being implicated also in the detection of pheromones. However, it is sensitive also to some common odorant molecules, which have no clear implication in intraspecific chemical communication. The accessory olfactory system may complement the main olfactory system and may contribute different perceptual features to the construction of a unitary representation, which merges the different chemosensory qualities. Crosstalk between the main and accessory olfactory systems occurs at different levels of central processing, in brain areas where the inputs from the two systems converge. Interestingly, centrifugal projections from more caudal brain areas are deeply involved in modulating both main and accessory sensory processing. A high degree of interaction between the two systems may be conceived and partial overlapping appears to occur in many functions. Therefore, the central chemosensory projections merge inputs from different organs to obtain a complex chemosensory picture. PMID:23162438

Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Redaelli, Marco; Caretta, Antonio

2012-01-01

383

The right sided syndrome, congenital absence of kidney and testis.  

PubMed

Unilateral renal agenesis (URA) is a developmental defect associated with ano-malies of the genitourinary system. The associations vary from absence of testis alone to high anorectal anomalies in other patients. We present two interesting patients with URA, encountered recently. Our first case was diagnosed with URA at the age of 11 years, which was detected on sonography, when he presented with pain abdomen. The presence of an epididymal cyst masked the absence of ipsilateral testes leading to delay in the diagnosis. Our second case was diagnosed with URA during the neonatal period when he presented with anorectal agenesis. He underwent abdomino-anal pull-through operation and later clinical course was complicated by recurrent cystitis, secondary vesicoureteral reflux and hydroureteronephrosis of solitary kidney, progressing to chronic kidney disease. PMID:21422633

Kumar, K V S Hari; Rao, B Srinivas; Shiradhonkar, Shekhar; Jha, Ratan; Narayan, Girish; Modi, K D

2011-03-01

384

Testosterone immunoreactivity in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) testis.  

PubMed

Testosterone antiserum raised in rabbits according to conventional techniques was used to localize immunoreactive material in fixed, paraffin-embedded rainbow trout testis. Spermatogonia showed a nuclear label throughout the reproductive cycle; their nucleoli were not stained or stained less intensely. Spermatocytes displayed a staining of large cellular areas, showed an irregularly delineated intracellular label, or remained unstained; similarly stained spermatocytes were arranged in groups. Spermatids remained unstained. Spermatozoa were not labeled or were weakly labeled, which varied from male to male and also between different areas of a section. Sertoli cells showed a label confined to the nucleus. During active spermatogenesis they also carried a cytoplasmic stain. Interstitial cells with a cytoplasmic stain were found only rarely. The spermatocyte I/II transition is associated with the most considerable changes in the intracellular staining pattern. PMID:3181741

Schulz, R; Blüm, V

1988-10-01

385

Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination  

SciTech Connect

The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

1984-08-01

386

Morphological study on pigmented cells in the horse testis.  

PubMed

One of the most attractive characteristics of a horse testis is the change of the weight during development. As the testicular weight changes and the number of Leydig cells decreases, pigments appear in interstitial tissues. In the present study, the characteristics of the pigments found in the interstitial tissues were examined histochemically and ultrastructurally. Specific stainings indicated that the pigmented granules showed almost all of the histological and histochemical characteristics of ceroid or ceroid-like pigment. The cells showed positive reaction for acid phosphatase while the pigmented cells contained a lot of lysosomes ultrastructurally. These results suggest that macrophages might phagocytize Leydig cells, and store their digested materials as ceroid-like pigment. PMID:10563302

Murabayashi, H; Hondo, E; Kitamura, N; Furuoka, H; Taguchi, K; Nambo, Y; Yamada, J

1999-10-01

387

Effects of plants and plant products on the testis  

PubMed Central

For centuries, plants and plant-based products have been used as a valuable and safe natural source of medicines for treating various ailments. The therapeutic potential of most of these plants could be ascribed to their anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antispasmodic, analgesic and various other pharmacological properties. However, several commonly used plants have been reported to adversely affect male reproductive functions in wildlife and humans. The effects observed with most of the plant and plant-based products have been attributed to the antispermatogenic and/or antisteroidogenic properties of one or more active ingredients. This review discusses the detrimental effects of some of the commonly used plants on various target cells in the testis. A deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of action of these natural compounds could pave the way for developing therapeutic strategies against their toxicity. PMID:20562897

D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia; Vaithinathan, Selvaraju; Jubendradass, Rajamanickam; Mathur, Premendu Prakash

2010-01-01

388

Extraretinal modulation of accessory optic units in the pigeon.  

PubMed

1. Electrophysiological methods were used to investigate the pretectal and telencephalic control of units within the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) of the accessory optic system of pigeons. 2. Electrical stimulation of the pretectal lentiform nucleus mainly produced excitatory effects on nBOR units with temporal-to-nasal directional preference (among 109 cells, 51% were excited, 23% were inhibited and 23% were not affected) and inhibitory effects on units with nasal-to-temporal preferences (among 88 cells, 43% were inhibited, 38% were not affected, and 19% were excited). 3. Electrical stimulation of the visual Wulst (considered to be the equivalent of the visual cortex) produced mainly inhibitory effects on units with downward preferences (among 123 units, 47% were inhibited, 24% were excited and 29% were not affected), and mixed effects on units with upward preferences (among 70 cells, 30% were excited, 36% were inhibited and 34% were not affected). 4. Excitatory effects of LM stimulation had first-spike latencies ranging from 2-20 ms (mean +/- SEM, 5.5 +/- 0.7 ms), whereas latencies of W stimulation ranged from 6 to 30 ms (13.0 +/- 0.9 ms). 5. These results provide additional information about the neural substrates of the optokinetic nystagmus. PMID:1823282

Nogueira, M I; Britto, L R

1991-01-01

389

Comparative morphology of the accessory olfactory bulb in bats.  

PubMed Central

Bouin-perfused brains of 148 bats (76 species, 48 genera, 8 families) were examined in serial sections for the presence of an accessory olfactory bulb. A moderate to well developed AOB was identified in 26 species. However, absence of an AOB in a particular species does not preclude its presence in some other species of that genus. Descriptions and measurements of the AOBs of each species are reported. The unmyelinated vomeronasal nerve enters the bulb medially and posteriorly. The glomeruli, variable in diameter, appear better circumscribed than previously described. Mitral cells often form thick layers, up to five cells deep, which sometimes reach the dorsolateral surface of the bulb formation. Both external and internal plexiform layers are thin. The latter, however is seen only in a few species. The internal granular layer, reaching the ventricular ependyma in some species, is a prominent component of the bulb. The pars dorsalis of the lateral olfactory tract usually courses between the mitral and internal granular layers. The chiropteran AOB does not differ in significant detail from that of insectivores, primates and other mammals. The occurrence of a functional vomeronasal system in the frugivorous, nectarivorous, and sanguivorous Phyllosotomatidae points to a primary functional role of this system in feeding strategy, at least in bats. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7400042

Frahm, H D; Bhatnagar, K P

1980-01-01

390

Macaque accessory optic system: II. Connections with the pretectum.  

PubMed

Connections of the accessory optic system (AOS) with the pretectum are described in the macaque monkey. Injections of tritiated amino acids in the pretectum demonstrate a major contralateral projection to the dorsal (DTN), lateral (LTN), and medial (MTN) terminal nuclei of the AOS and a sparser projection to the ipsilateral LTN. Injections of retrograde tracers, Fast Blue (FB), or wheat germ agglutinin horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) plus nonconjugated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the LTN show that the pretectal-LTN projection originates from two nuclei. The main source of pretectal efferents to the LTN is from the pretectal olivary nucleus (OPN) and is entirely contralateral. This projection, which appears unique to primates, originates from the large multipolar cells of the OPN. In addition to this projection, the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) projects to the ipsilateral LTN, as in nonprimates. Injection of WGA-HRP in the pretectum shows a reciprocal predominantely ipsilateral projection from the LTN to the pretectum. Retinas were observed after injection of FB in the LTN. The retinal ganglion cells projecting to the AOS are mainly distributed near the fovea and in the nasal region of the contralateral eye, suggesting a nasotemporal pattern of decussation. The demonstration of a direct connection between LTN and OPN forces to a reconsideration of the functional role of the AOS. Previous descriptions of luminance responsive cells in the LTN support a possible participation of this nucleus in the control of the pupillary light reflex. PMID:1705270

Baleydier, C; Magnin, M; Cooper, H M

1990-12-01

391

Accessory nipple reconstruction following a central quadrantectomy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction nipple dichotomy (or intra-areolar polythelia) is a rare congenital malformation in which one or more supernumerary nipples are located within the same areola. A case of a woman undergoing a central quadrantectomy with a contralateral supernumerary nipple used for reconstruction is reported. No other report in the Literature, according to our search, has focused on reconstructive use of an accessory nipple after breast conserving surgery. Case presentation the patient is a 73 year-old Caucasian woman, who two years earlier underwent a lower-outer left Quadrantectomy plus axillary sampling and radiation therapy for a 2,2 cm lobular carcinoma with no lymph node involvement. A routine follow-up assessment showed an important fibrotic change on the operated breast, just across the infra-mammary fold; at a breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging, a 1,5 cm area in retroareolar position, suspicious for local recurrence, was evident. An open biopsy was therefore performed, under local anaesthesia, including the nipple-areolar complex to realize a central Quadrantectomy with a Grisotti procedure; a congenital dichotomic nipple in the contralateral breast was then used to repair the defect through a "nipple-sharing" technique. The final histological examination reported a fibrotic mastopathy without atypias. Conclusion in this case, the "nipple-sharing" technique has allowed in the same time the correction of a rare congenital defect and provided the surgeon with a supernumerary nipple to be used in the immediate reconstruction after breast conserving surgery. PMID:19133154

2009-01-01

392

Inducible male infertility by targeted cell ablation in zebrafish testis.  

PubMed

To generate a zebrafish model of inducible male sterility, we expressed an Escherichia coli nitroreductase (Ntr) gene in the male germ line of zebrafish. The Ntr gene encodes an enzyme that can convert prodrugs such as metronidazole (Met) to cytotoxins. A fusion protein eGFP:Ntr (fusing Ntr to eGFP) under control of approximately 2 kb putative promoters of the zebrafish testis-specific genes, A-kinase anchoring protein-associated protein (Asp), outer dense fibers (Odf), and sperm acrosomal membrane-associated protein (Sam) was expressed in the male germ line. Three independent and four compound transgenic zebrafish lines expressing eGFP:Ntr were established. Female carriers were fertile, while males exhibited different levels of sterility and appeared normal, otherwise. Developmental analysis shows that germ cells survived and testes were normal before Met treatment, but that the testes of all male transgenic zebrafish exhibited variously depleted prospermatogonia after Met treatment. Particularly in a triple-transgenic line, Tg(AOS-eGFP:Ntr)[Tg(Asp-eGFP:Ntr; Odf-eGFP:Ntr; Sam-eGFP:Ntr)], the transgenic males had very small testes that were virtually devoid of germ cells, and the residual germ cells had almost completely disappeared after 2 weeks of Met treatment. These zebrafish transgenic lines show the complete testis specificity of inducible male sterility after Met treatment and reveal a period of the Ntr/Met ablation activity just prior to formation of the definitive adult spermatogonial cell population. This study demonstrates that combined genetic and pharmacological methods for developing an "infertile breeding technology" have practical application in controlling genetically modified (GM) fish breeding and meet the standards of biological and environment safety for other GM species. PMID:19936986

Hsu, Chia-Chun; Hou, Min-Fon; Hong, Jiann-Ruey; Wu, Jen-Leih; Her, Guor Mour

2010-08-01

393

A Case of Adult Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Testis  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 22 Final Diagnosis: Testis granulosa cell tumor Symptoms: Pain in testicles • swelling of epididymides • tenderness of epididymiides Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Urology Objective: Rare disease Background: Adult granulosa cell tumors of the testis (AGCTT) are classified as sex cord-stromal tumors. Only 31 cases have been reported. Typical presentation includes a slowly enlarging, painless testicular mass. Associated findings are gynecomastia, decreased libido, and erectile dysfunction. Immunohistochemistry can be used to confirm the diagnosis. Case Rrport: A 22-year-old male presented with complaint of mild pain in both testicles. A testicular ultrasound revealed a 4.0×3.8×4.6 mm hypoechoic lesion within the left testicle. Serum tumor markers (STM) included lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measuring 146 IU/L (98–192), serum alpha-1-fetoprotein (AFP), 2.89 ng/mL (0–9), and plasma beta human chorionic gonadotropin (Beta HCG) measuring less than 0.50 mIU/mL (<0.50–2.67). Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis with oral and intravenous contrast was normal. A radical orchiectomy was recommended but the patient refused. He agreed to surveillance with imaging and serum tumor markers (STM). The patient’s testicular ultrasound showed the mass to be stable in size and STMs remained negative. The patient agreed to an orchiectomy 9 months after his diagnosis. This case is the first reported with c-kit-positive immunohistochemistry. His post-operative course has been unremarkable. Conclusions: AGCTT is a rare tumor and information regarding its presentation, gross and microscopic morphology, and immunohistochemical characteristics is lacking. This report provides an update of the immunohistochemical findings and adds to the available data concerning this tumor. Based on the results of this case, future reports that include c-kit immunohistochemistry would be beneficial to evaluate its utility in diagnosing AGCTT. PMID:25356877

Tanner, Stephen B.; Morilla, Dan B.; Schaber, John D.

2014-01-01

394

Primary adenocarcinoma of the rete testis: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Primary adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is an extremely rare extratesticular neoplasm. Due to its low occurrence and the scarcity of data, sonographic characteristics of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis are still poorly defined. A 46-year-old male complained of swelling and pain in the right side of the scrotum. No associated symptoms were observed. Anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy yielded no response. Postoperative pathology revealed a diagnosis of poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the rete testis. Using the ultrasonography features observed, combined with a review of current literature, the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this neoplasm are presented. PMID:24396468

TIAN, YE; YAO, WENQING; YANG, LULU; WANG, JIANZHONG; WAZIR, ROMEL; WANG, KUNJIE

2014-01-01

395

Accessory Atrioventricular Myocardial Connections in the Developing Human Heart Relevance for Perinatal Supraventricular Tachycardias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Fetal and neonatal atrioventricular (AV) reentrant tachycardias can be life-threatening but resolve in most cases during the first year of life. The transient presence of accessory AV myocardial connections during annulus fibrosus development may explain this phenomenon. Methods and Results—A total of 45 human embryonic, fetal, and neonatal sectioned hearts (4 to 36 weeks of development) were studied immunohistochemically. Accessory

Nathan D. Hahurij; Adriana C. Gittenberger-De Groot; Denise P. Kolditz; Regina Bökenkamp; Martin J. Schalij; Robert E. Poelmann; Nico A. Blom

396

The Impact of Long-Term Exposure to Space Environment on Adult Mammalian Organisms: A Study on Mouse Thyroid and Testis  

PubMed Central

Hormonal changes in humans during spaceflight have been demonstrated but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. To clarify this point thyroid and testis/epididymis, both regulated by anterior pituitary gland, have been analyzed on long-term space-exposed male C57BL/10 mice, either wild type or pleiotrophin transgenic, overexpressing osteoblast stimulating factor-1. Glands were submitted to morphological and functional analysis. In thyroids, volumetric ratios between thyrocytes and colloid were measured. cAMP production in 10?7M and 10?8M thyrotropin-treated samples was studied. Thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were quantitized by immunoblotting and localized by immunofluorescence. In space-exposed animals, both basal and thyrotropin-stimulated cAMP production were always higher. Also, the structure of thyroid follicles appeared more organized, while thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were overexpressed. Unlike the control samples, in the space samples thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were both observed at the intracellular junctions, suggesting their interaction in specific cell membrane microdomains. In testes, immunofluorescent reaction for 3?- steroid dehydrogenase was performed and the relative expressions of hormone receptors and interleukin-1? were quantified by RT-PCR. Epididymal sperm number was counted. In space-exposed animals, the presence of 3? and 17? steroid dehydrogenase was reduced. Also, the expression of androgen and follicle stimulating hormone receptors increased while lutenizing hormone receptor levels were not affected. The interleukin 1 ? expression was upregulated. The tubular architecture was altered and the sperm cell number was significantly reduced in spaceflight mouse epididymis (approx. ?90% vs. laboratory and ground controls), indicating that the space environment may lead to degenerative changes in seminiferous tubules. Space-induced changes of structure and function of thyroid and testis/epididymis could be responsible for variations of hormone levels in human during space missions. More research, hopefully a reflight of MDS, would be needed to establish whether the space environment acts directly on the peripheral glands or induces changes in the hypotalamus-pituitary-glandular axis. PMID:22558148

Masini, Maria Angela; Albi, Elisabetta; Barmo, Cristina; Bonfiglio, Tommaso; Bruni, Lara; Canesi, Laura; Cataldi, Samuela; Curcio, Francesco; D'Amora, Marta; Ferri, Ivana; Goto, Katsumasa; Kawano, Fuminori; Lazzarini, Remo; Loreti, Elisabetta; Nakai, Naoya; Ohira, Takashi; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Palmero, Silvio; Prato, Paola; Ricci, Franco; Scarabelli, Linda; Shibaguchi, Tsubasa; Spelat, Renza; Strollo, Felice; Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco Saverio

2012-01-01

397

Expression and localization of five members of the testis-specific serine kinase (Tssk) family in mouse and human sperm and testis  

PubMed Central

Members of the testis-specific serine/threonine kinases (Tssk) family may have a role in sperm differentiation in the testis and/or fertilization. To gain insight into the functional relevance of these kinases, their expression was examined both at the mRNA and protein levels. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that all five Tssk mRNAs are almost exclusively expressed postmeiotically in the testis. Recombinant mouse and human Tssks were cloned and used for validation of an array of commercial and custom-made antibodies against Tssks. Immunolocalization in mouse testis, and in mouse and human sperm, showed that Tssk1, Tssk2, Tssk4 and Tssk6, but not Tssk3, were present in mouse sperm and in germ cells from mouse testis. TSSK1, TSSK2 and TSSK6 were also detected in human sperm, while TSSK3 was absent. In both mouse and human sperm, Tssk1 was partially soluble, while Tssk2, Tssk4 and Tssk6 were insoluble in non-ionic detergents. In vitro recombinant TSSK2 activity assays showed maximum enzymatic activity at 5 mM Mg2+ and a Km for ATP of ?10 µM. These, observations together with findings that the Tssk1/Tssk2 double knock-out as well as the Tssk6 null mice are sterile without presenting other detectable defects, suggest that these kinases could be used as targets for male contraception. PMID:20729278

Li, Yahui; Sosnik, Julian; Brassard, Laura; Reese, Michael; Spiridonov, Nikolay A.; Bates, Tonya C.; Johnson, Gibbes R.; Anguita, Juan; Visconti, Pablo E.; Salicioni, Ana M.

2011-01-01

398

[Meibomian glands. Part I: anatomy, embryology and histology of the Meibomian glands].  

PubMed

The Meibomian glands are large sebaceous glands that are located as separate gland strands in parallel arrangement within the tarsal plates of the eyelids. Their oily product (meibum) is secreted by a holocrine mechanism during which the secretory cells (meibocytes) are completely transformed into the meibum after synthesis and accumulation of lipids. After production in the gland acini, meibum is transported through the ductal system via the connecting duct (ductule) and the central duct towards the orifice at the free lid margin close to the inner lid border. The embryological development of the Meibomian glands takes place during the differentiation of the eyelids in the sealing phase of the eyelids. They are not directly associated with hair follicles but share important similarities in embryology, structure and keratinization potency with the cilia. Similar to the sebaceous glands Meibomian glands are regulated via sex hormones and androgens have a supporting function whereas estrogens act antagonistically. However, in contrast to other sebaceous glands they also have a distinct innervation, apart from sympathetic and sensory primarily by parasympathetic fibers that share the innervation pattern of the lacrimal glands. The anatomy, embryology and histology of the Meibomian glands are explained here, mainly with respect to humans, in an extensive review. PMID:19856010

Knop, N; Knop, E

2009-10-01

399

Palindromes on the human X chromosome : testis-biased transcription, gene conversion and evolution  

E-print Network

Recent genomic studies of the Y chromosome revealed massive, testis-specific palindromes that span 30% of the chromosome and are subject to gene conversion. We conducted studies to determine whether similar palindromes ...

Saionz, Jennifer R., 1976-

2005-01-01

400

Adrenal Cortex Heterotopia in an Undescended Testis–A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Heterotopic adrenal cortex is usually found in the kidney, retroperitoneum and spermatic cord. It is common among pediatric age group and rarely encountered in adults. Our case presented with swelling in the right inguinal region with on and off dragging pain. On clinical examination testis was absent in the right scotal sac which was confirmed with ultrasonogram. The clinical diagnosis was right side undescended testis. Orchidectomy was performed and on microscopic examination we incidentally found out an ectopic adrenal cortical rest in the rete testis with atropic changes in the testis. Though the ectopic adrenal tissue was indolent in our case, literature suggests that it can undergo transformations like hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma, leading to undesirable complications. We present this case for the rarity at this age and site, and for the awareness that it may cause complications if left untreated. PMID:25386447

Sree R, Revathi; G, Hemanathan; Savitri, Nerune M.; S, Anuradha

2014-01-01

401

Cavernous haemangioma of the testis mimicking testicular malignancy in an adolescent.  

PubMed

Haemangioma of the testis is a rare condition. This benign vascular neoplasm may arise either within the testicular parenchyma (intratesticular) as in this case or from adnexal structures of the testis (extratesticular). Intratesticular haemangioma is rarer than extratesticular form. Intratesticular vascular neoplasms are extremely rare tumours and mostly seen in children or young adults. There are 21 reported testicular haemangioma cases in the literature as indexed in PubMed. Since 2007, only 19 cases of cavernous haemangioma have been reported in the literature in PubMed and other indexed sites. We report a case of cavernous haemangioma of the testis to attract attention to testicular haemangioma and also to prevent invasive surgery of the testis. PMID:24215057

Naveed, S; Quari, H; Sharma, H

2013-11-01

402

Prescrotal Orchiopexy: An Alternative Surgical Approach for the Palpable Undescended Testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeInguinal exploration has been a standard approach for the management of palpable undescended testis. We performed prescrotal orchiopexy in patients with palpable undescended testes at our institution and we report our results.

PAUL J. RUSSINKO; FARJAAD M. SIDDIQ; LESLIE D. TACKETT; ANTHONY A. CALDAMONE

2003-01-01

403

Stimulation of androgen-dependent gene expression by the adrenal precursors dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione in the rat ventral prostate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Androgens play a major role in the development, growth, and function of accessory sexual organs, especially the prostate. However, the testis is not the sole source of circulating androgens in man, since the adrenal gland secretes dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate, and androstenedione (delta 4-dione) in large quantities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of plasma

C. Labrie; J. Simard; H. F. Zhao; A. Belanger; G. Pelletier; F. Labrie

1989-01-01

404

Biological Roles of Uterine Glands in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, uterine receptivity, and stromal cell decidualization in humans and animal models. The infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss observed in the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model unequivocally supports a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid in survival and development of the conceptus. Further, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation as well as stromal cell decidualization. Similarly in humans, uterine glands and their secretory products are likely critical regulators of blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus growth and development during the first trimester. Circumstantial evidence suggests that deficient glandular activity may be a causative factor in pregnancy failure and complications in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility and pregnancy problems in mammals. PMID:24959816

Spencer, Thomas E.

2014-01-01

405

On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells, but is also caused by damage to the extracellular environment, preventing proper cell functioning.

Konings, Antonius W.T. [Department of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P. [Department of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Vissink, Arjan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)

2005-07-15

406

d Aspartic acid induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in testis of prepubertal rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously we demonstrated the potential of d-aspartic acid (d-Asp), an acidic amino acid to induce oxidative response in prepubertal rat testis in vitro. In the present study, we determined\\u000a the extent of oxidative stress in the testis of prepubertal rats that were administered d-Asp (100 and 500 mg\\/kg bw\\/d, i.p. 7 days). d-Asp treatment significantly elevated the levels of reactive oxygen species,

K. N. Chandrashekar; Æ Muralidhara

2010-01-01

407

[Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a novel human testis-specific gene].  

PubMed

Digital Differential Display (DDD) of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is a quantitative method that enables the user to determine the fold differences between the libraries being compaired, using a statistical method to quantitate the transcript levels. In this study, DDD program was performed between nine testis libraries ('tester') and seventy-six libraries derived from other tissues ('driver'). We identified a new contig of expression sequence tags (ESTs) HS. 129794 which were from testis libraries. To validate the use of bioinformatics approaches in gene discovery, the ESTs HS. 129794, which was predicted to be testis -specific, was chosen for further study. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of mRNA from different normal tissues indicated that HS. 129794 was specifically expressed in human testis. By querying EST and Unigene datagases, a full-length cDNA sequence of novel gene in human were identified, it was 2 430 bp in length, located in chromosome 3p21.1. The sequence of the open reading frame was 676 approximately 1 248 bp, as was confirmed by RT-PCR and sequencing in human testis. The cDNA encodes a novel protein of 190 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight of 20 417.8 and isoelectric point of 5.23. The sequence shares no significant homology with any known protein in databases. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of multiple tissues further showed that the novel gene is expressed significantly in different stage of human testis and sperm. We hypothensize that its functions as a testis-specific and spermatogenesis related gene that plays some roles in spermatogenesis, and named it SRG5 (Testis Spermatogenesis Related Gene 5, SRG5) (GeneBank accession number: AY221117). Identification of SRG5 using DDD approaches validates gene discovery using computational approaches. PMID:15490870

Li, Dan; Lu, Guang-Xiu; Fu, Jun-Jiang; Mo, Ya-Qing; Xing, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Gang

2004-06-01

408

Anesthetic Considerations on Adrenal Gland Surgery  

PubMed Central

Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anesthetic management during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694

Domi, Rudin; Sula, Hektor; Kaci, Myzafer; Paparisto, Sokol; Bodeci, Artan; Xhemali, Astrit

2015-01-01

409

Anesthetic considerations on adrenal gland surgery.  

PubMed

Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anesthetic management during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694

Domi, Rudin; Sula, Hektor; Kaci, Myzafer; Paparisto, Sokol; Bodeci, Artan; Xhemali, Astrit

2015-01-01

410

The Roles of Testicular C-kit Positive Cells in De novo Morphogenesis of Testis  

PubMed Central

C-kit positive (c-kit+) cells are usual tissue-specific stem cells. However, in postnatal testis, undifferentiated spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are c-kit negative (c-kit?) and activation of c-kit represents the start of SSC differentiation, leaving an intriguing question whether other c-kit+ cells exist and participate in the postnatal development of testis. To this end, a feasible system for testicular reconstitution, in which a specific type of cells can be manipulated, is needed. Here, we first establish de novo morphogenesis of testis by subcutaneous injection of testicular cells from neonatal testes into the backs of nude mice. We observe testicular tissue formation and spermatogenesis from all injected sites. Importantly, functional spermatids can be isolated from these testicular tissues. Using this system, we systemically analyze the roles of c-kit+ cells in testicular reconstitution and identify a small population of cells (c-kit+:CD140a+:F4/80+), which express typical markers of macrophages, are critical for de novo morphogenesis of testis. Interestingly, we demonstrate that these cells are gradually replaced by peripheral blood cells of recipient mice during the morphogenesis of testis. Thus, we develop a system, which may mimic the complete developmental process of postnatal testis, for investigating the testicular development and spermatogenesis. PMID:25088917

Zhang, Man; Zhou, Hai; Zheng, Chunxing; Xiao, Jun; Zuo, Erwei; Liu, Wujuan; Xie, Da; Shi, Yufang; Wu, Chunlian; Wang, Hongyan; Li, Dangsheng; Li, Jinsong

2014-01-01

411

Morphology and connections of the abdominal accessory neurons of the crayfish Cherax destructor.  

PubMed

Associated with the abdominal muscle receptor organs of crayfish are accessory neurons that inhibit the activity of the stretch receptors. Cobalt infusion into their cut axons reveals four accessory somata associated with each hemiganglion in the abdomen of the crayfish Cherax destructor. These conform to the pattern described previously for these neurons: The cell bodies are in the ganglion posterior to the one from which they exit. We recorded intracellularly from the largest accessory neurons, Acc-1 and Acc-2, and stained them with intracellular dye to establish unambiguously the characteristics defining their identity and structure. We describe their branching patterns in the ganglion of origin and the ganglion of exit. This morphological information permitted us to distinguish all four accessory neurons in preparations with dye infused through their cut axons, and we propose a revised, unambiguous nomenclature for the two smaller ones. Our intracelluar recordings allowed us to reexamine the physiological relationships of Acc-1 and Acc-2, the only accessory neurons for which there are data in the literature. In general, the connections and inputs described in previous studies were substantiated, although there has clearly been confusion between the two, and they differ in a number of significant ways. We found that they are seldom active together, have different firing patterns, and may operate with different clusters of extensor and flexor motorneurons. The results illustrate the level at which the accessory neurons operate within the abdominal control system but do not distinguish between competing hypotheses concerning their role in behavior. The data are consistent with the view that accessory neurons assist in timing between adjacent segments. PMID:14755535

Drummond, Joanne M; Macmillan, David L

2004-02-16

412

Efferents and centrifugal afferents of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs in the snake Thamnophis sirtalis.  

PubMed

This study reinvestigates the efferent projections of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs and describes for the first time the centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs in the snake Thamnophis sirtalis, using the intraaxonal transport of the anterograde and retrograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine and the retrograde tracer horseradish peroxidase. The olfactory projection consists of three tracts: the lateral olfactory tract, which projects bilaterally to the lateral cortex and the rostral amygdala, crossing the midline through the stria medullaris-habenular commissure system; the intermediate olfactory tract, which projects ipsilaterally to the olfactory tubercle and contributes to the contralateral projection; and the medial olfactory tract, which projects ipsilaterally to the dorsomedial retrobulbar formation. The vomeronasal projection is formed by a single tract, the accessory olfactory tract, that projects ipsilaterally to the nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract, the medial amygdala and the nucleus sphericus. The centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulb are composed of two components: one that arises in areas that receive the olfactory or vomeronasal input (neurons in the olfactory tubercle, retrobulbar formation and lateral cortex project to the main olfactory bulb; and neurons in the nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract, the medial amygdala and the nucleus sphericus project to the accessory olfactory bulb), and another that arises in areas not directly implicated in processing the chemosensory information (the nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca and the dorsal cortex). These data allow the recognition of the general pattern of organization of the reptilian olfactory and vomeronasal systems. PMID:9435967

Lanuza, E; Halpern, M

1998-01-01

413

New exocrine glands in ants: the hypostomal gland and basitarsal gland in the genus Melissotarsus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fisher and Robertson (Insect Soc 46: 78-83, 1999) discovered the production of silk-like secretions emerging from slit-shaped openings along the anterior margin of the ventral hypostoma of Melissotarsus ant workers. The current histological study describes a hitherto unknown hypostomal gland from which this silk-like substance originates. In addition, this study describes a new basitarsal gland in the three pairs of legs of Melissotarsus workers.

Hölldobler, Bert; Obermayer, Malu; Plowes, Nicola J. R.; Fisher, Brian L.

2014-07-01

414

Accessory cell function in the Con A response: role of Ia-positive and Ia-negative accessory cells.  

PubMed

We have examined the role of Ia-positive and Ia-negative accessory cells (AC) and soluble factors in Con A-stimulated murine T cell activation. Supernatant fluids containing interleukin 1 (IL 1) derived from the P388D1 macrophage cell line and from a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage hybridoma provided only partial reconstitution of the response of purified T cells (18 to 27%). The complete reconstitution obtained with gamma-irradiated spleen cells or LPS-activated B cells was inhibited by approximately 60 to 77% when anti-Ia antibody was included in the culture. Despite this apparent involvement of Ia+ spleen AC, Ia-negative L cell AC could also reconstitute the response of both Class I-restricted Lyt-2+ T cells and Class II-restricted L3T4+ T cells. When the Ia-negative AC were employed, the L3T4 antigen on L3T4+ T cells played a critical role because addition of anti-L3T4 antibody to the culture inhibited the response by 85 to 90%. In contrast, anti-L3T4 did not inhibit the response in the presence of spleen AC. These results suggest that the molecules involved in T cell-AC interactions may vary depending on the AC source. Moreover, at least one of the putative target ligands for L3T4 presumably is not Ia, because anti-L3T4 inhibited T cell stimulation when Ia-negative AC were used. PMID:3881521

Bekoff, M; Kakiuchi, T; Grey, H M

1985-03-01

415

Evolution of the mammary gland from the innate immune system?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The mammary gland is a skin gland unique to the class Mammalia. Despite a growing molecular and histological understanding of the development and physiology of the mammarygland,itsfunctionalandmorphologicalorigins have remained speculative. Numerous theories on the origin of the mammary gland and lactation exist. The purpose of the mammary gland is to provide the newborn with copious amounts of milk, a

Claudia Vorbach; Mario R. Capecchi; Josef M. Penninger

2006-01-01

416

Concealed left superior accessory pathway. Distinctive features of retrograde atrial activation and successful ablation using transseptal approach.  

PubMed

Concealed left superior accessory pathways are very infrequent and can be difficult to diagnose and ablate. We describe here the case of a patient presenting with reciprocating tachycardia involving superior and inferior left accessory pathways. Left superior accessory pathway was suspected because of the simultaneous retrograde atrial activation at the distal coronary sinus (CS) and His bundle lead and could be successfully ablated using transseptal catheterization. PMID:19966325

Maury, Philippe; Duparc, Alexandre; Graffeille, Alain; Hebrard, Aurelien; Mondoly, Pierre; Rollin, Anne; Delay, Marc

2010-04-01

417

Assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands  

PubMed Central

Salivary glands are usually irradiated during radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, which can lead to radiation-induced damage. Radiation-induced xerostomia (oral dryness) is the most common post-radiotherapy complication for head and neck cancer patients and can reduce the patient’s quality of life. Accurate and efficient salivary gland assessment methods provide a better understanding of the cause and degree of xerostomia, and may help in patient management. At present, there are different methods for the assessment of salivary gland hypofunction; however, none of them are considered to be standard procedure. This article reviews the value of common methods in the assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands. PMID:21511748

Cheng, S C H; Wu, V W C; Kwong, D L W; Ying, M T C

2011-01-01

418

The harderian gland: a tercentennial review.  

PubMed Central

The harderian gland was first described in 1694 by Johann Jacob Harder (1656-1711). It occurs in most terrestrial vertebrates and is located within the orbit where, in some species, it is the largest structure. It may be compound tubular or compound tubuloalveolar, and its secretory duct is usually morphologically distinct only after leaving the substance of the gland to open on the surface of the nictitating membrane. The tubules of the gland are formed of a single layer of columnar epithelial cells surrounded by myoepithelial cells. The chief product(s) of the gland varies between different groups of vertebrates, and epithelial cells possess granules or vacuoles whose contents may be mucous, serous or lipid. In rodents, the gland synthesises lipids, porphyrins and indoles. In the case of lipid vacuoles, the gland is unusual in releasing these by an exocytotic mechanism. It is unclear whether the gland can act both as an exocrine and endocrine organ. There is control of gland structure and synthesis through a variety of humoral agents, including gonadal, thyroid and pituitary hormones; in addition there is a rich autonomic innervation and many neuropeptides have been identified. The proposed functions of the gland are remarkably diverse and include the gland being (1) a source of 'saliva', (2) a site of immune response, (3) a photoprotective organ, (4) part of a retinal-pineal axis, (5) a source of pheromones, (6) a source of thermoregulatory lipids, (7) a site of osmoregulation, and (8) a source of growth factors. The gland is discussed in terms of its embryology and phylogeny, and in relation to ecological variables. Several goals of future research are identified. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 40 PMID:7559104

Payne, A P

1994-01-01

419

Management of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.  

PubMed

Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are conditions that have been associated with increased prevalence of caries, periodontitis, and candidiasis. Oral health care providers must be aware of the etiologies and clinical manifestations of salivary gland hypofunction in order to identify patients with this condition and to prevent its potential complications. The various modalities available to manage this condition range from frequent sips of water to the intake of systemic medications like pilocarpine or cevimeline. PMID:22034800

Ram, Saravanan; Kumar, Satish; Navazesh, Mahvash

2011-09-01

420

Histological and histochemical studies on the albumen gland and capsular gland of Thais bufo (Lamarck) (Mollusca: Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histology and histochemistry of the albumen and capsular glands are described. Histochemical tests revealed the high proteinaceous\\u000a nature of these glands. The secretion of the albumen gland is rich in carbohydrates besides protein whereas that of the capsular\\u000a gland is a mucoprotein.

R C Rajalakshmi Bhanu; K Shyamasundari; K Hanumantha Rao

1982-01-01

421

Studies on the accessory requirement for T lymphocyte activation by concanavalin A.  

PubMed Central

In this study we have examined the interactions between accessory cells (AC) and T cells in response to Con A. Highly purified peripheral blood T cells and AC exposed to a variety of treatments were used. We found that untreated AC provided optimal help for T cell proliferation and this was not mediated by soluble factors since whole cells could not be replaced with supernatants from activated AC. Furthermore, cycloheximide-treated AC were able to supply the accessory signal although unable to elaborate soluble activation factors. To find out more about the accessory signal, we examined the ability of monocytes mildly fixed with glutaraldehyde to supply help. These cells were completely unable to perform as AC, although they were viable and had unaltered surface antigen expression. They could not secrete activation factors, but this alone could not explain their inability to supply help because this function was not restored with the addition of soluble activation factors. This indicated that AC-T cell contact was of prime importance to accessory function. To investigate the possibility that AC work by cross-linking structures on the lymphocyte surface, we attempted to substitute for the soluble Con A plus AC with Con A bound to the surface of erythrocytes. Comparable stimulation was observed, suggesting that the cross-linking of Con A-bound structures on the lymphocyte surface generates the accessory signal. PMID:3100115

Gallagher, R B; Whelan, A; Feighery, C

1986-01-01

422

Intracisternal Cranial Root Accessory Nerve Schwannoma Associated with Recurrent Laryngeal Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Intracisternal accessory nerve schwannomas are very rare; only 18 cases have been reported in the literature. In the majority of cases, the tumor origin was the spinal root of the accessory nerve and the tumors usually presented with symptoms and signs of intracranial hypertension, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy. Here, we report a unique case of an intracisternal schwannoma arising from the cranial root of the accessory nerve in a 58-year-old woman. The patient presented with the atypical symptom of hoarseness associated with recurrent laryngeal neuropathy which is noted by needle electromyography, and mild hypesthesia on the left side of her body. The tumor was completely removed with sacrifice of the originating nerve rootlet, but no additional neurological deficits. In this report, we describe the anatomical basis for the patient's unusual clinical symptoms and discuss the feasibility and safety of sacrificing the cranial rootlet of the accessory nerve in an effort to achieve total tumor resection. To our knowledge, this is the first case of schwannoma originating from the cranial root of the accessory nerve that has been associated with the symptoms of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy. PMID:25328655

Jin, Sung-Won; Park, Dong-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Hyuk

2014-01-01

423

Characterization of Ewing sarcoma associated cancer/testis antigens  

PubMed Central

The prognosis of patients suffering from tumors of the Ewing family (EFT) is still poor. Immunotherapy strategies are pursued and EFT-specific antigens have to be identified as targets for cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). Due to the lack of expression of cancer/testis antigens (CTA) in normal tissues, these antigens are partially able to induce immune responses in cancer patients. Therefore, they are promising targets for immunotherapy. EFT are characterized by chromosomal rearrangements involving members of the TET (translocated in liposarcoma, Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1, TATA box binding protein-associated factor 15) family of RNA binding proteins and members of the E-26 (ETS) family of transcription factors. The resulting onco-fusion proteins are highly specific for EFT and downstream targets of TET-ETS represent candidate tumor specific antigens. In order to identify new EFT-associated CTA, we analyzed microarray-data sets from EFT and normal tissues from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The impact of TET-ETS on expression of CTA was analyzed using GEO data sets from transgenic mesenchymal stem cells. One CTA with high specificity for EFT is lipase I (LIPI, membrane-associated phospholipase A1-?). CTL specific for LIPI-derived peptides LDYTDAKFV and NLLKHGASL were able to lyse HLA-A2 positive EFT cells in vitro which confirms the possible role of LIPI and other CTA for EFT-immunotherapy. PMID:23291981

Mahlendorf, Dorothea E.; Staege, Martin Sebastian

2013-01-01

424

Characterization of Ewing sarcoma associated cancer/testis antigens.  

PubMed

The prognosis of patients suffering from tumors of the Ewing family (EFT) is still poor. Immunotherapy strategies are pursued and EFT-specific antigens have to be identified as targets for cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). Due to the lack of expression of cancer/testis antigens (CTA) in normal tissues, these antigens are partially able to induce immune responses in cancer patients. Therefore, they are promising targets for immunotherapy. EFT are characterized by chromosomal rearrangements involving members of the TET (translocated in liposarcoma, Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1, TATA box binding protein-associated factor 15) family of RNA binding proteins and members of the E-26 (ETS) family of transcription factors. The resulting onco-fusion proteins are highly specific for EFT and downstream targets of TET-ETS represent candidate tumor specific antigens. In order to identify new EFT-associated CTA, we analyzed microarray-data sets from EFT and normal tissues from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The impact of TET-ETS on expression of CTA was analyzed using GEO data sets from transgenic mesenchymal stem cells. One CTA with high specificity for EFT is lipase I (LIPI, membrane-associated phospholipase A1-?). CTL specific for LIPI-derived peptides LDYTDAKFV and NLLKHGASL were able to lyse HLA-A2 positive EFT cells in vitro which confirms the possible role of LIPI and other CTA for EFT-immunotherapy. PMID:23291981

Mahlendorf, Dorothea E; Staege, Martin Sebastian

2013-03-01

425

Mesothelioma of the testis and nephrotic syndrome: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Paraneoplastic glomerulopathies are rare manifestations of neoplastic disease to be distinguished from iatrogenic renal damage. Solid tumors are preferentially associated with membranous nephropathy, whereas Hodgkin's lymphomas are associated with minimal change disease. Case presentation We report a 63-year-old Caucasian male diagnosed with a mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis who, secondary to this, also presented with a nephrotic syndrome due to minimal change disease. In the present case, the paraneoplastic etiology of the nephrotic syndrome can be discussed on four unusual elements: minimal change lesions were found; the glomerulopathy was very sensitive to corticosteroids; the nephrotic syndrome occurred 11 months after the diagnosis of the primary malignancy, but concomitantly with the recurrence; and the nephrotic syndrome did not decrease with tumor control and did not recur when the mesothelioma escaped treatment. No other etiologies could nevertheless explain this phenomenon. Conclusion Paraneoplastic nephrotic syndrome is often associated with membranous nephropathy in patients with solid tumors, especially in patients with lung and gastrointestinal tract neoplasia. The management of these patients is associated with a symptomatic treatment such as sodium and water restriction, diuretics and ACE inhibitors and a prophylaxis of specific complications of nephrotic syndrome including thromboembolism, infections and lipid abnormalities. Treatment of neoplasia must be undertaken rapidly, treatments must be regularly analyzed and drugs binding to albumin may be used with precaution. PMID:19830148

2009-01-01

426

Integrative Discovery of Epigenetically Derepressed Cancer Testis Antigens in NSCLC  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) were first discovered as immunogenic targets normally expressed in germline cells, but differentially expressed in a variety of human cancers. In this study, we used an integrative epigenetic screening approach to identify coordinately expressed genes in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose transcription is driven by promoter demethylation. Methodology/Principal Findings Our screening approach found 290 significant genes from the over 47,000 transcripts incorporated in the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 expression array. Of the top 55 candidates, 10 showed both differential overexpression and promoter region hypomethylation in NSCLC. Surprisingly, 6 of the 10 genes discovered by this approach were CTAs. Using a separate cohort of primary tumor and normal tissue, we validated NSCLC promoter hypomethylation and increased expression by quantitative RT-PCR for all 10 genes. We noted significant, coordinated coexpression of multiple target genes, as well as coordinated promoter demethylation, in a large set of individual tumors that was associated with the SCC subtype of NSCLC. In addition, we identified 2 novel target genes that exhibited growth-promoting effects in multiple cell lines. Conclusions/Significance Coordinated promoter demethylation in NSCLC is associated with aberrant expression of CTAs and potential, novel candidate protooncogenes that can be identified using integrative discovery techniques. These findings have significant implications for discovery of novel CTAs and CT antigen directed immunotherapy. PMID:19997593

Glazer, Chad A.; Smith, Ian M.; Ochs, Michael F.; Begum, Shahnaz; Westra, William; Chang, Steven S.; Sun, Wenyue; Bhan, Sheetal; Khan, Zubair; Ahrendt, Steven; Califano, Joseph A.

2009-01-01

427

Identification and In Vitro Derivation of Spermatogonia in Beagle Testis  

PubMed Central

Background In vitro culture of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is important for exploration of SSCs self-renewal, differentiation, and manipulation. There are several reports on rodent SSC cultures; however, data on SSC cultures in domestic animals are limited. To provide basic scientific information on canine SSC cultures, we report canine testes development, and the development of spermatogonia-derived colonies (SDCs) for in vitro cultures. Methodology/Principal Findings Testes from 2-, 3-, and 12-month-old beagles were used for histology, immunohistochemistry, in vitro culture, immunocytochemistry, and PCR. Protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5)-positive spermatogonia, both single and paired, were found to be abundant in the testes of 2-month-old beagles. stempro-34 and Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium with 5% fetal bovine serum provided as useful substrates for culture of SDCs, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) played a key role in colony formation. Colonies were positive for alkaline phosphatase and anti-PGP9.5 staining. The early spermatogonia and stem cell markers such as octamer binding protein 4 (Oct4), Nanog homeobox (Nanog), promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF), PGP9.5, and GDNF family receptor alpha-1 (GFR?-1) were expressed in the colonies at higher levels than in the testis tissue. Conclusions Testes of the 2-month-old beagles had abundant single and paired spermatogonia, which can be used for derivation of SDCs, and FGF was important for colony formation. PMID:25333749

Lee, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Ran; Lee, Won Young; Kim, Dong Hoon; Chung, Hak Jae; Kim, Jin Hoi; Kim, Nam Hyung; Choi, Suk Hwa; Kim, Jae Hwan; Song, Hyuk

2014-01-01

428

Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction  

SciTech Connect

Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts).

Schubert, M.M.; Izutsu, K.T.

1987-02-01

429

Heterogeneity of high-mobility-group protein 2. Enrichment of a rapidly migrating form in testis.  

PubMed Central

A determination of the absolute amounts of high-mobility-group proteins 1 and 2 (HMG1 and HMG2) in rat tissues demonstrated that amounts of HMG2 were low in non-proliferating tissues, somewhat higher in proliferating and lymphoid tissues, but were extremely elevated in the testis. This increase was due to a germ-cell-specific form of HMG2 with increased mobility relative to somatic HMG2 on acid/urea/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. To determine if the findings in the rat were a general feature of spermatogenesis, testis (germinal), spleen (lymphoid), and liver (non-proliferating) tissues from various vertebrate species were examined for their relative amounts of HMG1 and HMG2, and for HMG2 heterogeneity. Bull, chimpanzee, cynomologus monkey, dog, gopher, guinea pig, hamster, mouse, opossum, rabbit, rat, rhesus monkey, squirrel and toad (Xenopus) tissues were analysed. Nearly all species showed relatively high contents of HMG2 in testis tissue, whereas HMG1 contents were similar in all species and tissues. Ten of thirteen species showed a rapidly migrating HMG2 subtype in testis tissue, separable by acid/urea/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Xenopus, which lacks HMG2 in somatic tissues, showed an HMG2-like protein in testis tissue. Although the rapidly migrating HMG2 subtype in species other than rat was not testis-specific, it was always enriched in the testis. This study indicates that increased amounts of HMG2 and the enrichment of a rapidly migrating HMG2 subtype are general features of spermatogenic cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:4038257

Bucci, L R; Brock, W A; Meistrich, M L

1985-01-01

430

Left-sided cryptorchidism in mice with Wilms' tumour 1 gene deletion in gubernaculum testis.  

PubMed

A significant number of patients with germline mutations in the Wilms' tumour 1 (WT1) gene, a transcriptional factor essential for early renal and gonadal development, display cryptorchidism or non-scrotal testis position. We show here that WT1 is expressed during development in the mouse gubernacular ligament connecting the testis to the abdominal wall. Conditional inactivation of Wt1 in the gubernaculum (GU-WT1KO animals) resulted in abnormal differentiation of the gubernacula during development and, in about 40% of adult males, unilateral, always left-sided, cryptorchidism. At birth the right testis was positioned above the processus vaginalis and eventually moved into the developing scrotal pouch. In affected mutants the left testis was displaced from the normal position and the left processus vaginalis failed to form. The analysis of testicular descent at different stages of postnatal development suggests that unilateral cryptorchidism might be caused by asymmetry in the positions of the abdominal organs providing a higher degree of mobility for the left testis. Spermatogenesis in GU-WT1KO animals was blocked in cryptorchid testes located in a high pararenal position, but was maintained in testes located in a low abdominal position. Conditional inactivation of both Wt1 and androgen receptor (Ar) genes in the gubernaculum led to a bilateral asymmetrical cryptorchidism in all mutant males, with the left testis again located higher than the right one. The malformations induced by WT1 and AR deficiency in the gubernaculum and processus vaginalis, in combination with mechanical constraints on testis descent, determine the final position of the testes. In summary, our data indicate that WT1 is directly involved in gubernaculum differentiation. Taken together, the results of the study underline the complex nature of testicular descent, with an involvement in this process of several genetic factors and developmental events. PMID:23288785

Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Neukirchner, Giselle; Huff, Vicki; Agoulnik, Alexander I

2013-05-01

431

Left-sided cryptorchidism in mice with Wilms Tumour 1 gene deletion in gubernaculum testis  

PubMed Central

A significant number of patients with germline mutations in the Wilms tumour 1 (WT1) gene, a transcriptional factor essential for early renal and gonadal development, displays cryptorchidism or non-scrotal testis position. We show here that WT1 is expressed during development in the mouse gubernacular ligament connecting the testis to the abdominal wall. Conditional inactivation of Wt1 in the gubernaculum (GU-WT1KO animals) resulted in abnormal differentiation of the gubernacula during development and in about 40 % adult males, unilateral, always left-sided, cryptorchidism. At birth the right testis was positioned above the processus vaginalis and eventually moved into the developing scrotal pouch. In affected mutants the left testis was displaced from the normal position and the left processus vaginalis failed to form. The analysis of testicular descent at different stages of postnatal development suggests that the unilateral cryptorchidism might be caused by the asymmetry in the position of abdominal organs providing a higher degree of mobility for the left testis. Spermatogenesis in GU-WT1KO animals was blocked in cryptorchid testes located in a high pararenal position but was maintained in testes located in a low abdominal position. Conditional inactivation of both Wt1 and androgen receptor (Ar) genes in gubernaculum led to a bilateral asymmetrical cryptorchidism in all mutant males with the left testis again located higher than the right one. The malformations induced by WT1 and AR deficiency in gubernaculum and processus vaginalis, in combination with mechanical constraints on testis descent, determine the final position of the testes. In summary, our data indicate that WT1 is directly involved in gubernaculum differentiation. Taken together the results of the study underline the complex nature of testicular descent with an involvement in this process of several genetic factors and developmental events. PMID:23288785

Kaftanovskaya, Elena M.; Neukirchner, Giselle; Huff, Vicki; Agoulnik, Alexander I.

2013-01-01

432

Protective effects of L-carnitine and homogenized testis tissue on the testis and sperm parameters of busulfan-induced infertile male rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Busulfan(Bus) is a chemotherapy drug that is widely used for cancer treatment. However, administration of busulfan may cause temporary or permanent sterility in male patients. Therefore, reduction of this side is necessary. Objective: evaluation of the protective effects of L-carnitine and testis homogenized tissue(THT) on sperm parameters and the testis structure after busulfan treatment. Materials and Methods: Twenty rats were divided four groups. Group I (Control) received a single dose of DMSO and 1mL of distilled water (I.P.). Group II (Bus) received a single of busulfan (10 mg/kg) plus 1 ml of the distilled water(I.P.). Group III (Bus+THT) received busulfan plus 1mL of THT daily by oral gavages. Group IV (Bus+L-car) received a single dose of busulfan plus 100 mg/kg/day L-carnitine(I.P.). after 48 dayst, the Stereological technique was used for the estimating volume and diameter of testis, seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissue, flagella length, germinal epithelium height and spermatoginic cell number. Semen analysis was used for the assessment of sperm parameters. Results: THT increased volume of testis (6.5%), seminiferous tubule and interstitial tissue volume (6.5%), 6.9% and 11.7% respectively), germinal epithelium height (13%), sperm count (7.5%), and decreased sperm with abnormal morphology (1%) in comparison with the L-carnitine in busulfan treated group. Conclusion: It seems the use of L-carnitine and THT decreases side effects of busulfan on the male reproductive system. However, in our study, THT is more effective than L-carnitine and leads to the recovery testis structure and sperm parameters after treatment with busulfan. This article extracted from M.Sc. thesis. (Ashraf Hassanpour) PMID:24639808

Dehghani, Farzaneh; Hassanpour, Ashraf; Poost-pasand, Aghdas; Noorafshan, Ali; Karbalay-Doust, Saeid

2013-01-01

433

Rescue of Salivary Gland Function after Stem Cell Transplantation in Irradiated Glands  

PubMed Central

Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Despite relatively high survival rates, the quality of life of these patients is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequential xerostomia (dry mouth syndrome). In this study, a clinically applicable method for the restoration of radiation-impaired salivary gland function using salivary gland stem cell transplantation was developed. Salivary gland cells were isolated from murine submandibular glands and cultured in vitro as salispheres, which contained cells expressing the stem cell markers Sca-1, c-Kit and Musashi-1. In vitro, the cells differentiated into salivary gland duct cells and mucin and amylase producing acinar cells. Stem cell enrichment was performed by flow cytrometric selection using c-Kit as a marker. In vitro, the cells differentiated into amylase producing acinar cells. In vivo, intra-glandular transplantation of a small number of c-Kit+ cells resulted in long-term restoration of salivary gland morphology and function. Moreover, donor-derived stem cells could be isolated from primary recipients, cultured as secondary spheres and after re-transplantation ameliorate radiation damage. Our approach is the first proof for the potential use of stem cell transplantation to functionally rescue salivary gland deficiency. PMID:18446241

Lombaert, Isabelle M. A.; Brunsting, Jeanette F.; Wierenga, Pieter K.; Faber, Hette; Stokman, Monique A.; Kok, Tineke; Visser, Willy H.; Kampinga, Harm H.; de Haan, Gerald; Coppes, Robert P.

2008-01-01

434

Rescue of salivary gland function after stem cell transplantation in irradiated glands.  

PubMed

Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Despite relatively high survival rates, the quality of life of these patients is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequential xerostomia (dry mouth syndrome). In this study, a clinically applicable method for the restoration of radiation-impaired salivary gland function using salivary gland stem cell transplantation was developed. Salivary gland cells were isolated from murine submandibular glands and cultured in vitro as salispheres, which contained cells expressing the stem cell markers Sca-1, c-Kit and Musashi-1. In vitro, the cells differentiated into salivary gland duct cells and mucin and amylase producing acinar cells. Stem cell enrichment was performed by flow cytrometric selection using c-Kit as a marker. In vitro, the cells differentiated into amylase producing acinar cells. In vivo, intra-glandular transplantation of a small number of c-Kit(+) cells resulted in long-term restoration of salivary gland morphology and function. Moreover, donor-derived stem cells could be isolated from primary recipients, cultured as secondary spheres and after re-transplantation ameliorate radiation damage. Our approach is the first proof for the potential use of stem cell transplantation to functionally rescue salivary gland deficiency. PMID:18446241

Lombaert, Isabelle M A; Brunsting, Jeanette F; Wierenga, Pieter K; Faber, Hette; Stokman, Monique A; Kok, Tineke; Visser, Willy H; Kampinga, Harm H; de Haan, Gerald; Coppes, Robert P

2008-01-01

435

The interaction of the thyroid gland, pineal gland and immune system in chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The interaction of immunological system, thyroid and pineal gland was studied in 5-week old males of Gallus domesticus. Several morphometri- cal parameters in pineal and thyroid glands were measured after bird im- munization with human red blood cells and\\/or treatment with melatonin or seduxen, a melatonin receptor blocker. The peak of the thyroid activity was found on Day 7

Mykola E. Dzerzhynsky; Olga I. Gorelikova; Andriy S. Pustovalov

436

Parotid gland tumors in a Korean population.  

PubMed

Salivary gland tumors occur in about 3% of the head and neck tumors, and among the salivary gland tumors, parotid gland tumor occurs in about 80%. Because of its low frequency and small cases, it is hard to establish the epidemiologic characteristics of the tumors. This study was performed retrospectively from February 1987 to August 2010. There were 95 male, and 76 female patients. Most of the patients complained of the painless and progressively enlarged mass in the preauricular area. Peak incidence of benign parotid gland tumor was at the fifth decade of life. In the malignant tumors, peak age in males was the eighth decade, and peak age in females was from the third to the fifth decade of life, which was relatively younger and has a broad range of spectrum. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor of the 93 cases (61.6%) followed by Warthin tumor, occurring in 20 cases (13.2%). Squamous cell carcinoma, reported in 6 cases (30%), is the most frequent. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the second leading tumor. In conclusion, parotid gland tumor incidence was found to be higher in males. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most commonly encountered type of parotid gland neoplasms, which is in agreement with findings from all of the published literature from all over world. In contrast to most of the previous studies, squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequent malignant tumor found. Based on the data in this study, it has significant clinical respect and is helpful in the management of parotid gland tumors in Orientals. PMID:22627434

Lee, Young Man; Choi, Hwan Jun; Kim, Joo Won; Kim, Jun Hyuk

2012-05-01

437

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Accessory Protein 4a Is a Type I Interferon Antagonist  

PubMed Central

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe acute respiratory infection with as yet unclear epidemiology. We previously showed that MERS-CoV counteracts parts of the innate immune response in human bronchiolar cells. Here we analyzed accessory proteins 3, 4a, 4b, and 5 for their abilities to inhibit the type I interferon response. Accessory protein 4a was found to block interferon induction at the level of melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) activation presumably by direct interaction with double-stranded RNA. PMID:24027320

Niemeyer, Daniela; Zillinger, Thomas; Muth, Doreen; Zielecki, Florian; Horvath, Gabor; Suliman, Tasnim; Barchet, Winfried; Weber, Friedemann

2013-01-01

438

Peroneus quartus, an accessory muscle in human: case report and its clinical importance.  

PubMed

The peroneus quartus is an accessory peroneal muscle seen in man. The term 'peroneus quartus' is often used to refer one or several of the accessory peroneal muscles. In this case, we report an unusual type of peroneus quartus which was originating from the muscular portion of the peroneus brevis and inserting onto the peroneus longus tendon. The clinical implications are emphasized with the morphological significance and literature review. The orthopedic surgeons and radiologists should be aware of the possible presence of this muscle not only because of its associated pathology, but also for its potential use in plastic surgeries. PMID:23007814

Murlimanju, B V; D'Souza, P S; Prabhu, L V; Saralaya, V V; David, S J

2012-07-01

439

ESF GROUND SUPPORT - MATERIAL DEDICATION ANALYSIS FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL AND ACCESSORIES FROM A COMMERCIAL GRADE SOURCE  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to select the critical characteristics to be verified for steel sets and accessories and the verification methods to be implemented through a material dedication process for the procurement and use of commercial grade structural steel sets and accessories (which have a nuclear safety function) to be used in ground support (with the exception of alcove ground support and alcove opening framing, which are not addressed in this analysis) for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Topopah Spring (TS) Loop. The ESF TS Loop includes the North Ramp, Main Drift, and South Ramp underground openings.

M.D. Stine

1996-01-23

440

Considerations for successful cosmogenic 3He dating in accessory phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been working to develop cosmogenic 3He dating of phases other than the commonly dated olivine and pyroxene, especially apatite and zircon. Recent work by Dunai et al. underscores that cosmogenic 3He dating is complicated by 3He production via 6Li(n,?) 3H --> 3He. The reacting thermal neutrons can be produced from three distinct sources; nucleogenic processes (3Henuc), muon interactions (3Hemu), and by high-energy "cosmogenic" neutrons (3Hecn). Accurate cosmogenic 3He dating requires determination of the relative fractions of Li-derived and spallation derived 3He. An important complication for the fine-grained phases we are investigating is that both spallation and the 6Li reaction eject high energy particles, with consequences for redistribution of 3He among phases in a rock. Although shielded samples can be used to estimate 3Henuc, they do not conatin the 3Hecn component produced in the near surface. To calculate this component, we propose a procedure in which the bulk rock chemistry, helium closure age, 3He concentration, grain size and Li content of the target mineral are measured in a shielded sample. The average Li content of the adjacent minerals can then be calculated, which in turn allows calculation of the 3Hecn component in surface exposed samples of the same lithology. If identical grain sizes are used in the shielded and surface exposed samples, then "effective" Li can be calculated directly from the shielded sample, and it may not be necessary to measure Li at all. To help validate our theoretical understanding of Li-3He production, and to constrain the geologic contexts in which cosmogenic 3He dating with zircon and apatite is likely to be successful, results are presented from four different field locations. For example, results from ~18 Ky old moraines in the Sierra Nevada show that the combination of low Li contents and high closure ages (>50 My) creates a small 3Hecn component (2%) but a large 3Henuc component (40-70%) for zircon and apatite. In contrast the combination of high Li contents and a young closure age (0.6 My) in rhyolite from the Coso volcanic field leads to a large 3Hecn component (30%) and small 3Henuc component (5%) in zircon. Analysis of samples from a variety of lithologies shows that zircon and apatite tend to be low in Li (1-10 ppm), but are vulnerable to implantation of 3He from adjacent minerals due to their small grain size, especially from minerals like biotite and hornblende. This point is well illustrated by data from both the Sierra Nevada and Coso examples, in which there is a strong correlation between grain size and 3He concentration for zircons due to implantation. In contrast, very large zircons (150>125 um width) obtained from shielded samples of the Shoshone Falls rhyolite (SW Idaho) do not contain a significant implanted component. Thus, successful 3He dating of accessory phases requires low Li content (<10 ppm) in the target mineral and either 1) low Li in adjacent minerals, or 2) the use of large grain sizes (>100 um). In high-Li cases, the fraction of 3Henuc is minimized in samples with young helium closure ages or longer duration of exposure. However because the 3Hecn/3Hespall ratio is fixed for a given Li content, longer exposure will not reduce the fraction of 3Hecn.

Amidon, W. H.; Farley, K. A.; Rood, D. H.

2008-12-01

441

A case of adult granulosa cell tumor of the testis.  

PubMed

Background Adult granulosa cell tumors of the testis (AGCTT) are classified as sex cord-stromal tumors. Only 31 cases have been reported. Typical presentation includes a slowly enlarging, painless testicular mass. Associated findings are gynecomastia, decreased libido, and erectile dysfunction. Immunohistochemistry can be used to confirm the diagnosis. Case Report A 22-year-old male presented with complaint of mild pain in both testicles. A testicular ultrasound revealed a 4.0×3.8×4.6 mm hypoechoic lesion within the left testicle. Serum tumor markers (STM) included lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measuring 146 IU/L (98-192), serum alpha-1-fetoprotein (AFP), 2.89 ng/mL (0-9), and plasma beta human chorionic gonadotropin (Beta HCG) measuring less than 0.50 mIU/mL (<0.50-2.67). Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis with oral and intravenous contrast was normal. A radical orchiectomy was recommended but the patient refused. He agreed to surveillance with imaging and serum tumor markers (STM). The patient's testicular ultrasound showed the mass to be stable in size and STMs remained negative. The patient agreed to an orchiectomy 9 months after his diagnosis. This case is the first reported with c-kit-positive immunohistochemistry. His post-operative course has been unremarkable. Conclusions AGCTT is a rare tumor and information regarding its presentation, gross and microscopic morphology, and immunohistochemical characteristics is lacking. This report provides an update of the immunohistochemical findings and adds to the available data concerning this tumor. Based on the results of this case, future reports that include c-kit immunohistochemistry would be beneficial to evaluate its utility in diagnosing AGCTT. PMID:25356877

Tanner, Stephen B; Morilla, Dan B; Schaber, John D

2014-01-01

442

Histochemical identification of sialylated glycans in Xenopus laevis testis  

PubMed Central

Carbohydrate chains of glycoprotein and glycosphingolipids are highly diverse molecules involved in many cell functions, including cell recognition, adhesion and signalling. Sialylated glycans are of special interest because the terminal position of sialic acid (NeuAc) in glycans linked by different ways to subterminal monosaccharides has been shown to be involved in several biological processes, as occurs with gangliosides, which have been reported as being essential in spermatogenesis in mammals. Some glycan-binding proteins, the lectins, which specifically recognize glycan sequences, have been extensively used to characterize tissue and cell carbohydrates by means of cytochemical techniques. The aim of the present work was to determine the presence of NeuAc by means of histochemical techniques in the testis of Xenopus laevis, an animal model widely used in cell and molecular biology research. However, considering that some NeuAc-binding lectins are capable of binding to N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), other GlcNAc-binding lectins were also assayed. The results showed that NeuAc is mainly expressed in the interstitium, and only a weak labelling in the male germ cells was observed. Most NeuAc was located in O-linked oligosaccharides, but some masked NeuAc in N-glycans were identified in primary and secondary spermatogonia and spermatocytes. By contrast, GlcNAc was widely expressed in all germ cell types. Deglycosylative pre-treatments suggest that both N- and O-glycans and/or glycolipids could be responsible for this labelling. In addition, GlcNAc in O-linked oligosaccharides has been identified in spermatogonial cells. The acrosome of spermatids was always negative. Variations of glycan expression have been found in different cell types, suggesting that glycosylation is modified during spermatogenetic development. PMID:22881213

Valbuena, Galder; Alonso, Edurne; Ubago, Maria Martinez; Madrid, Juan Francisco; Diaz-Flores, Lucio; Saez, Francisco Jose

2012-01-01

443

Transcriptome Profiling of Testis during Sexual Maturation Stages in Eriocheir sinensis Using Illumina Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The testis is a highly specialized tissue that plays dual roles in ensuring fertility by producing spermatozoa and hormones. Spermatogenesis is a complex process, resulting in the production of mature sperm from primordial germ cells. Significant structural and biochemical changes take place in the seminiferous epithelium of the adult testis during spermatogenesis. The gene expression pattern of testis in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been performed on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for testis of E. sinensis. In two runs, we produced 25,698,778 sequencing reads corresponding with 2.31 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 342,753 contigs or 141,861 scaffold sequences, which identified 96,311 unigenes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 39,995 unigenes were annotated based on having a Blast hit in the non-redundant database or ESTscan results with a cut-off E-value above 10?5. This is the first report of a mitten crab transcriptome using high-throughput sequencing technology, and all these testes transcripts can help us understand the molecular mechanisms involved in spermatogenesis and testis maturation. PMID:22442720

Jin, Xinkun; Wang, Ying; Chen, Lili; Liu, Lihua; Wang, Yang

2012-01-01

444

Identification of conservative microRNAs in Saanen dairy goat testis through deep sequencing.  

PubMed

MicroRNA (miRNA) is a kind of small non-coding RNA molecules that function as important gene expression regulators by targeting messenger RNAs for post-transcriptional endonucleolytic cleavage or translational inhibition. In this study, small RNA libraries were constructed based on adult dairy goat testicular tissues and sequenced using the Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. Blasted to miRNAs of cow and sheep in miRBase 19.0, 373 conserved miRNAs were identified in dairy goat testis and 91 novel paired-miRNAs were found. Expression of miRNAs in the dairy goat testis (miR-10b, miR-126-3p, miR-126-5p, miR-34c, miR-449b and miR-1468) was confirmed by qRT-PCR. In addition, the 128 conserved miRNAs were found by comparing the miRNA expression profiles in dairy goat testis with those in cow and mouse, which all might be involved in dairy goat testis development and meiosis. This study reveals the first miRNA profile related to the biology of testis in the dairy goat. The characterization of these miRNAs could contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of reproductive physiology and development in the dairy goat. PMID:23981187

Wu, J; Zhu, H; Song, W; Li, M; Liu, C; Li, N; Tang, F; Mu, H; Liao, M; Li, X; Guan, W; Li, X; Hua, J

2014-02-01

445

Translational Activation of Developmental Messenger RNAs During Neonatal Mouse Testis Development1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The basic tenets of germ cell development are conserved among metazoans. Following lineage commitment in the embryo, germ cells proliferate, transition into meiosis, and then differentiate into gametes capable of fertilization. In lower organisms such as Drosophila and C. elegans, germline stem cells make the decision to proliferate or enter meiosis based in large part on the regulated expression of genes by translational control. This study undertakes a direct characterization of mRNAs that experience translational control and their involvement in similar decisions in the mammalian testis. We previously showed that translation of mRNA encoding the germ cell-specific gene Rhox13 was suppressed in the fetal and neonatal testis. By investigating changes in message utilization during neonatal testis development, we found that a large number of mRNAs encoding both housekeeping and germ cell-specific proteins experience enhanced translational efficiency, rather than increase in abundance, in the testis as quiescent gonocytes transition to mitotic spermatogonia. Our results indicate that translational control is a significant regulator of the germ cell proteome during neonatal testis development. PMID:23926285

Chappell, Vesna A.; Busada, Jonathan T.; Keiper, Brett D.; Geyer, Christopher B.

2013-01-01

446

Desmotomy for treatment of chronic desmitis of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon in a horse.  

PubMed Central

Chronic lameness was determined to be caused by desmitis of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon and adhesions associated with these 2 structures. Desmotomy of the accessory ligament, resection of adhesions, and controlled exercise during convalescence resulted in return to normal use without apparent lameness. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9332748

Todhunter, P G; Schumacher, J; Finn-Bodner, S T

1997-01-01

447

Occurrence of antennal glands in ants.  

PubMed

A previous report of the discovery of exocrine glands in the antennal club of queens and workers of Solenopsis invicta Buren, 1972 left open the question of the extent to which similar glands occur in the Formicidae family. We wanted to know if these antennal glands are unique to Solenopsis, or they are found in a wider taxonomic group. Using scanning electron microscopy, we examined the antennae of 41 ant species. Presence of the antennal glands was indicated by a characteristic circumferential ring of pores in a distal antennal segment of workers. Pores were found in the 9th antennal segment of all 26 species of Solenopsis examined. Pores were absent in the following: Monomorium minimum, M. pharaonis, Pheidole sp., Crematogaster sp., Linepithema humile, Forelius sp., Dorymyrmex sp., Paratrechina sp., Oecophylla smaragdina, Campanotus sp., Ectatomma ruidum, E. tuberlatum, and Pseudomyrmex ferruginea. However, pores were found in the antennal club of Tetramorium bicarinatum workers and queens. After KOH digestion of T. bicarinatum antennae, internal canals were observed in both workers and queens, and the canals are connected to spherical reservoirs in queens. T. bicarinatum was the only non-Solenopsis species examined, which showed evidence for antennal glands in the distal funiculus. PMID:18655135

Renthal, Robert; Velasquez, Daniel; Olmos, David; Vinson, S Bradleigh

2008-11-01

448

Salivary gland calculi - contemporary methods of imaging  

PubMed Central

Summary Sialolithiasis is the most common disorder of major salivary glands. The main site of salivary stones’ formation is submandibular gland, followed by parotid and sublingual gland. The aim of this article was to present current diagnostic imaging modalities carried out in patients suspected with salivary stones on the basis of own material and review of literature. Current diagnostic imaging tools used in the imaging of salivary stones were described and illustrated in this paper. These are: conventional radiography, sialography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance sialography and sialoendoscopy. Digital subtraction sialography and ultrasonography are the methods of choice in the imaging of salivary gland calculi. Although sialography is a very old diagnostic method, still it is the best diagnostic tool in the imaging of subtle anatomy of salivary gland duct system. Digital subtraction sialography can show the exact location of salivary stone and enables imaging of salivary ducts’ pathology (e.g. stenoses), which is especially important when sialoendoscopy is planned. Sialography is also used as the treatment method, i.e. interventional sialography. Nonenhanced computed tomography is recommended when multiple and tiny salivary stones are suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is the evolving alternative diagnostic method. In this diagnostic modality there is no need for salivary ducts’ cannulation and administration of contrast material. Thus magnetic resonance sialography can also be carried out in the acute sialoadenitis. In the future, sialoendoscopy may become one of the main diagnostic and treatment procedures for salivary duct disorders, especially in salivary stone cases. PMID:22802788

Rzymska-Grala, Iwona; Stopa, Zygmunt; Grala, Bartlomiej; Golebiowski, Marek; Wanyura, Hubert; Zuchowska, Anna; Sawicka, Monika; Zmorzynski, Michal

2010-01-01

449

[Morphofunctional and molecular bases of pineal gland aging].  

PubMed

The review analyzed morphology, molecular and functional aspects of pineal gland aging and methods of it correction. The pineal gland is central organ, which regulates activity of neuroimmunoendocrine, antioxidant and other organisms systems. Functional activity of pineal gland is discreased at aging, which is the reason of melatonin level changing. The molecular and morphology research demonstrated, that pineal gland hadn't strongly pronounced atrophy at aging. Long-term experience showed, that peptides extract of pineal gland epithalamin and synthetic tetrapeptide on it base epithalon restored melatonin secretion in pineal gland and had strong regulatory activity at neuroimmunoendocrine and antioxidant organism systems. PMID:22567846

Khavinson, V Kh; Lin'kova, N S

2012-01-01

450

Ectopic lacrimal gland tissue of the orbit and sclerosing dacryoadenitis.  

PubMed

A 28-year-old man with unilateral proptosis was found to have sclerosing dacryoadenitis and ectopic lacrimal gland tissue of the orbit. The unusual combination simulated invasive adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal gland both clinically and histopathologically. Based on clinical and experimental observations, we propose that the acinar gland atrophy and fibrous replacement of the lacrimal gland and of the heterotopic tissue was the result of a primary developmental abnormality associated with obstruction to normal gland outflow. Physician awareness that ectopic lacrimal gland tissue in the orbit can be affected by sclerosing dacryoadenitis is probably the most critical factor in establishing the correct diagnosis. PMID:3991115

Margo, C E; Naugle, T C; Karcioglu, Z A

1985-03-01

451

Progress in the clinical imaging research of bone diseases on ankle and foot sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles  

PubMed Central

Summary Sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles are research focuses of foot and ankle surgery. Pains of the foot and ankle are related to sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles. The specific anatomical and functional relationship of sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles can cause such bone diseases as the dislocation of sesamoid bones and accessory bones, infection, inflammation and necrosis of sesamoid bones, cartilage softening, tenosynovitis of sesamoid bones and the sesamoid bone syndrome. However, these bone diseases are often misdiagnosed or mistreated. In patients with trauma history, relevant diseases of sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles as above mentioned are highly probable to be misdiagnosed as avulsion fractures. In such cases, radiographic findings may provide a basis for clinical diagnosis.

Li, Xiaozhong; Shi, Lenian; Liu, Taiyun; Wang, Lin

2012-01-01

452

Blueberry extracts protect testis from hypobaric hypoxia induced oxidative stress in rats.  

PubMed

Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia causes oxidative damage to male rat reproductive function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of a blueberry extract (BB-4) in testis of rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Morphometric analysis, cellular DNA fragmentation, glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were evaluated. Our results showed that supplementation of BB-4 reduced lipid peroxidation, decreased apoptosis, and increased GR and SOD activities in rat testis under hypobaric hypoxia conditions (P < 0.05). Therefore, this study demonstrates that blueberry extract significantly reduced the harmful effects of oxidative stress caused by hypobaric hypoxia in rat testis by affecting glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities. PMID:23213351

Zepeda, Andrea; Aguayo, Luis G; Fuentealba, Jorge; Figueroa, Carolina; Acevedo, Alejandro; Salgado, Perla; Calaf, Gloria M; Farías, Jorge

2012-01-01

453

Blueberry Extracts Protect Testis from Hypobaric Hypoxia Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats  

PubMed Central

Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia causes oxidative damage to male rat reproductive function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of a blueberry extract (BB-4) in testis of rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Morphometric analysis, cellular DNA fragmentation, glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were evaluated. Our results showed that supplementation of BB-4 reduced lipid peroxidation, decreased apoptosis, and increased GR and SOD activities in rat testis under hypobaric hypoxia conditions (P < 0.05). Therefore, this study demonstrates that blueberry extract significantly reduced the harmful effects of oxidative stress caused by hypobaric hypoxia in rat testis by affecting glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities. PMID:23213351

Zepeda, Andrea; Aguayo, Luis G.; Fuentealba, Jorge; Figueroa, Carolina; Acevedo, Alejandro; Salgado, Perla; Calaf, Gloria M.; Farías, Jorge

2012-01-01

454

Giant seminoma in an undescended testis presenting as an abdominal wall mass  

PubMed Central

Seminomas in undescended testes may present as abdominal wall tumours. A unilateral testis tumour in a 29 year old man with ipsilateral undescended testis is presented and relevant literature is reviewed. A 29 year old man presenting with a tender left lower abdominal mass was admitted to our clinic and initial diagnostic tests followed by abdominal computerized tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) were performed. Abdominal CT clearly demonstrated the tumour location between the lower left abdominal subcutaneous layer and the external oblique fascia. He underwent surgery and the tumour was resected via en-bloc excision. Pathological diagnosis of the resected specimen was consistent with classical seminoma and no distant metastasis was detected with PET/CT. He was referred to oncology clinic after discharge. Tumours of undescended testis can present as an abdominal wall mass and clinicians must be aware of their existence. PMID:24971840

Y?lmaz, A; Bayraktar, B; Sagiroglu, J; Gucluer, B

2011-01-01

455

Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasms  

SciTech Connect

Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. The clinical signs are usually the result of an overproduction of hormones that are normally biosynthesized by the neoplastic endocrine gland (orthoendocrine syndromes), as opposed to those that are the result of hormones that are not normally biosynthesized and secreted by those cells that have undergone neoplastic transformation (paraendocrine syndromes, also known as endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic hormone syndromes). The biological effects produced by a neoplasm may be out of proportion to the actual size of the tumor. This report focuses on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. Discussion will focus on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis. 2 tabs.

Weller, R.E.

1989-05-01

456

Phthalates Impair Germ Cell Number in the Mouse Fetal Testis by an Androgen and Estrogen-Independent Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from experiments conducted almost exclusively in the rat have established that some phthalates have deleterious effects on the fetal testis probably due to their antiandrogenic and\\/or estrogenic effects, but their mechanisms of action remain unknown. A recent study reported that phthalates also have deleterious effects on human fetal testis with germ cell number, but not steroidogenesis altered. Therefore, we

Abdelali Lehraiki; Chrystele Racine; Andree Krust; R. Habert; C. Levacher

2009-01-01

457

Menaquinone-4 enhances testosterone production in rats and testis-derived tumor cells  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin K is essential for the posttranslational modification of various Gla proteins. Although it is widespread in several organs, including the testis, the function of vitamin K in these organs is not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the function of vitamin K in the testis and analyzed its role in steroidogenesis. Methods Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were fed a diet supplemented with menaquinone-4 (MK-4, 75 mg/kg diet), one of the predominant K2 vitamins present in the testis, for 5 weeks. In vivo testosterone levels of the rats' plasma and testes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and in vitro testosterone levels of testis-derived tumor cells (I-10 cells) maintained in Ham's F-10 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum were measured following treatment with MK-4 (0 to 100 ?M) at several time points. Testosterone and cellular protein levels were analyzed with respect to their effects on steroidogenesis. Results Testosterone levels in the plasma and testes of MK-4-fed rats were significantly increased compared to those of control rats, with no obvious differences in plasma luteinizing hormone levels. Secreted testosterone levels from I-10 cells were elevated by MK-4, but not by vitamin K1, in a dose-dependent manner independent of cAMP treatment. Western blot analysis revealed that expression of CYP11A, the rate-limiting enzyme in steroidogenesis, and phosphorylation levels of protein kinase A (PKA) and the cAMP response element-binding protein were all stimulated by the presence of MK-4. Enhancement of testosterone production was inhibited by H89, a specific inhibitor of PKA, but not by warfarin, an inhibitor of ?-glutamylcarboxylation. Conclusions MK-4 stimulates testosterone production in rats and testis-derived tumor cells via activation of PKA. MK-4 may be involved in steroidogenesis in the testis, and its supplementation could reverse the downregulation of testosterone production in elders. PMID:21914161

2011-01-01

458

A rare case of hemangiomatosis of the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen.  

PubMed

We presented a very rare case of hemangiomatosis of the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen in the tail of the pancreas. A previously healthy 45-year-old woman felt left back pain and received CT scan. Multiple splenic masses and a pancreatic mass in the tail were detected. Both the lesions presented gradual and weak enhancement and pooling of the contrast medium until very late phase on dynamic MRI. Since the lesions in the spleen and the pancreas presented the same characteristics on dynamic CT/MRI, ultrasonography, and positron emission tomography using fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose, we suspected these lesions as hemangiomatosis of the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen. We performed distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy, and pathological diagnosis was hemangiomatosis of the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen. We should consider the possibility of splenic tumors arising from the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen when we find similar lesions in the spleen and the tail of the pancreas. Gradual and weak enhancement and pooling of the contrast medium until very late phase may be important findings for diagnosing splenic hemangiomatosis. PMID:24811762

Makino, Isamu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Ohta, Tetsuo

2014-12-01

459

Complementary use of computerized tomography and technetium scanning in the diagnosis of accessory spleen  

SciTech Connect

A patient with a previous splenectomy presented with acute gastrointestinal bleeding. He was found to have a benign gastric ulcer, esophagogastric varices, and a mass indenting the gastric fundus. Abdominal computerized tomography and technetium liver-spleen scanning established the diagnosis of an accessory spleen as cause for the mass effect. This diagnostic approach obviated the need for arteriography and exploratory laparotomy.

Joshi, S.N.; Wolverson, M.K.; Cusworth, R.B.; Nair, S.G.; Perrillo, R.P.

1980-11-01

460

Dermal fibroblasts contribute to multiple tissues in the accessory limb model.  

PubMed

The accessory limb model has become an alternative model for performing investigations of limb regeneration in an amputated limb. In the accessory limb model, a complete patterned limb can be induced as a result of an interaction between the wound epithelium, a nerve and dermal fibroblasts in the skin. Studies should therefore focus on examining these tissues. To date, however, a study of cellular contributions in the accessory limb model has not been reported. By using green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic axolotl tissues, we can trace cell fate at the tissue level. Therefore, in the present study, we transgrafted GFP skin onto the limb of a non-GFP host and induced an accessory limb to investigate cellular contributions. Previous studies of cell contribution to amputation-induced blastemas have demonstrated that dermal cells are the progenitors of many of the early blastema cells, and that these cells contribute to regeneration of the connective tissues, including cartilage. In the present study, we have determined that this same population of progenitor cells responds to signaling from the nerve and wound epithelium in the absence of limb amputation to form an ectopic blastema and regenerate the connective tissues of an ectopic limb. Blastema cells from dermal fibroblasts, however, did not differentiate into either muscle or neural cells, and we conclude that dermal fibroblasts are dedifferentiated along its developmental lineage. PMID:20148925

Hirata, Ayako; Gardiner, David M; Satoh, Akira

2010-05-01

461

[Migration of eight harmful elements from metal accessories that infants may swallow by mistake].  

PubMed

The International Standard ISO 8124-3:2010 "Safety of toys--Part 3: Migration of certain elements" controls the levels of migrated eight harmful elements (antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury and selenium) from infants toys. Moreover, the Japanese Food Sanitation Law controls the levels of migrated lead from metal accessory toys. However, the levels of migrated harmful elements from metal accessories that are not infants toys are not controlled, since they are not covered by the ISO Standard or the Food Sanitation Law. Therefore, we investigated the level of eight harmful elements migrated from metal accessories that infants may swallow by mistake. The extraction test of ISO 8124-3:2010 was executed in 117 products (total 184 specimens), and the concentration of these eight elements was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). As a result, 28 and one products released lead and cadmium beyond the maximum acceptable levels of the ISO standard, respectively. Metal accessories that infants may swallow by mistake should ideally not release harmful elements such as lead and cadmium. PMID:22864356

Isama, Kazuo; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

2012-01-01

462

DETERMINING SEX IN POSTHATCHLING LOGGERHEAD SEA TURTLES USING MULTIPLE GONADAL AND ACCESSORY  

E-print Network

DETERMINING SEX IN POSTHATCHLING LOGGERHEAD SEA TURTLES USING MULTIPLE GONADAL AND ACCESSORY DUCT of the Environment and Earth Sciences, 135 Duke Marine Lab Road, Beaufort, NC 28516, USA ABSTRACT: The sex of young and heteromorphic sex chromosomes, yet internal dimorphic morphology is defined at hatching. We tested

Wyneken, Wyneken Jeanette

463

Cite this: Lab Chip, 2013, 13, 3232 Smartphone based health accessory for colorimetric  

E-print Network

.rsc.org/loc Vlad Oncescu,{a Dakota O'Dell{b and David Erickson*a The mobile health market is rapidly expanding of consumer mobile health accessories that integrate with smartphones such as Nike FuelBand, Fitbit One in mobile health technologies, however, the vast majority of devices on the market focus exclusively

Erickson, David

464

41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...consideration. Accessory equipment or other after-market items which project an inappropriate appearance, such as radar detectors, will not be used on GSA IFMS vehicles. Decorative items (i.e., bumper stickers and decals) will not be used on IFMS vehicles...

2013-07-01

465

41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...consideration. Accessory equipment or other after-market items which project an inappropriate appearance, such as radar detectors, will not be used on GSA IFMS vehicles. Decorative items (i.e., bumper stickers and decals) will not be used on IFMS vehicles...

2012-07-01

466

41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.  

...consideration. Accessory equipment or other after-market items which project an inappropriate appearance, such as radar detectors, will not be used on GSA IFMS vehicles. Decorative items (i.e., bumper stickers and decals) will not be used on IFMS vehicles...

2014-07-01

467

41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...consideration. Accessory equipment or other after-market items which project an inappropriate appearance, such as radar detectors, will not be used on GSA IFMS vehicles. Decorative items (i.e., bumper stickers and decals) will not be used on IFMS vehicles...

2010-07-01

468

41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...consideration. Accessory equipment or other after-market items which project an inappropriate appearance, such as radar detectors, will not be used on GSA IFMS vehicles. Decorative items (i.e., bumper stickers and decals) will not be used on IFMS vehicles...

2011-07-01

469

Assessment of exposure to manganese in welding operations during the assembly of heavy excavation machinery accessories.  

PubMed

Welder exposure to metals in various industrial sectors is poorly characterized. We had the opportunity to carry out an exploratory study to characterize manganese exposure in welding operations in a recently established Quebec factory that assembled accessories for heavy excavation machinery. Ten workers were sampled for total manganese for at least two consecutive days out of three followed by two consecutive days for respirable manganese (with a size selective sampler with a median cut-off of 4 microns), during a typical week in the summer of 1998. Parts being welded were characterized as large or small. Small parts were those being welded on tables during subassembly. Workers were divided into two groups according to the parts they were welding. Seventy-eight percent of the total manganese exposure levels of welding operations during the assembly of large accessories of heavy excavation machinery exceeded the manganese American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.20 mg/m3 (GM 0.24 mg/m3, n = 14) while none exceeded the TLV during the assembly of small pieces (GM 0.06 mg/m3, n = 8). Welding operations during the assembly of large heavy excavation machinery accessories may pose a significant health hazard. Considering the importance of task-related variables affecting exposure among workers, further studies are needed to better characterize exposure determinants of welding operations during the assembly of heavy excavation machinery accessories. PMID:11036725

Smargiassi, A; Baldwin, M; Savard, S; Kennedy, G; Mergler, D; Zayed, J

2000-10-01

470

Type II Endoleaks Involving an Accessory Renal Artery and the Inferior Mesenteric Artery  

SciTech Connect

Two patients are described with type II endoleaks involving an accessory renal artery and the inferior mesenteric artery. One patient was successfully embolized via the translumbar route. The other continues to be observed; the endoleak is expected to close spontaneously because both the inflow and outflow are significantly compromised.

Martin, E. C., E-mail: emartin@chpnet.org [St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Todd, George J. [St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, Department of Surgery (United States)

2011-02-15

471

One-Stop Outpatient Management of Accessory Auricle in Children with Titanium Clip  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Literature on ideal management of accessory auricles is limited. Traditionally, accessory auricles are managed by paediatricians with suture ligation at the base of the accessory auricle to induce ischaemic necrosis (Mehmi et al, 2007). This method can be associated with complications and poor cosmesis thus leading to the vogue of surgical excision ( Frieden et al, 1995; Sebben, 1989). We present our experience in managing these lesions in children with the application of a titanium clip in a one-stop outpatient setting. Me