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Sample records for testis accessory gland

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Accessory Sex Gland and Testis from the Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    He, Lin; Jiang, Hui; Cao, Dandan; Liu, Lihua; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Qun

    2013-01-01

    The accessory sex gland (ASG) is an important component of the male reproductive system, which functions to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa during male reproduction. Certain proteins secreted by the ASG are known to bind to the spermatozoa membrane and affect its function. The ASG gene expression profile in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been conducted on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for the ASG of E. sinensis using Illumina sequencing technology. This analysis yielded a total of 33,221,284 sequencing reads, including 2.6 Gb of total nucleotides. Reads were assembled into 85,913 contigs (average 218 bp), or 58,567 scaffold sequences (average 292 bp), that identified 37,955 unigenes (average 385 bp). We assembled all unigenes and compared them with the published testis transcriptome from E. sinensis. In order to identify which genes may be involved in ASG function, as it pertains to modification of spermatozoa, we compared the ASG and testis transcriptome of E. sinensis. Our analysis identified specific genes with both higher and lower tissue expression levels in the two tissues, and the functions of these genes were analyzed to elucidate their potential roles during maturation of spermatozoa. Availability of detailed transcriptome data from ASG and testis in E. sinensis can assist our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved with spermatozoa conservation, transport, maturation and capacitation and potentially acrosome activation. PMID:23342039

  2. Cyst of accessory lacrimal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Durán, J. A.; Cuevas, J.

    1983-01-01

    We present a case of an epithelial cyst of the conjunctiva caused by the dilatation of an accessory lacrimal gland. The case is peculiar in regard to the size of the cyst and the absence of traumatic or inflammatory factors to explain the retention of fluid. Images PMID:6860616

  3. First Transcriptome of the Testis-Vas Deferens-Male Accessory Gland and Proteome of the Spermatophore from Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Bissinger, Brooke W.; Egekwu, Noble; Donohue, Kevin V.; Khalil, Sayed M.; Roe, R. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Ticks are important vectors of numerous human diseases and animal diseases. Feeding stimulates spermatogenesis, mating and insemination of male factors that trigger female reproduction. The physiology of male reproduction and its regulation of female development are essentially a black box. Several transcriptomes have catalogued expression of tick genes in the salivary glands, synganglion and midgut but no comprehensive investigation has addressed male reproduction and mating. Consequently, a new global approach using transcriptomics, proteomics, and quantitative gene expression is needed to understand male reproduction and stimulation of female reproduction. This first transcriptome to the reproductive biology of fed male ticks, Dermacentor variabilis, was obtained by 454 pyrosequencing (563,093 reads, 12,804 contigs). Gene Ontology (Biological Processes level III) recognized 3,866 transcripts in 73 different categories; spermiogenesis; spermatogenesis; peptidases, lipases and hydrolases; oxidative and environmental stress; immune defense; and protein binding. Reproduction-associated genes included serine/threonine kinase, metalloendoproteinases, ferritins, serine proteases, trypsin, cysteine proteases, serpins, a cystatin, GPCR and others. qRT-PCR showed significant upregulation from unfed versus fed adult male reproductive organs of zinc metalloprotease, astacin metalloprotease and serine protease, enzymes important in spermiogenesis and mating activity in insects, as well as a GPCR with the greatest similarity to a SIFamide receptor known to be important in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila. Proteomics on these organs and the spermatophore by tryptic digestion/Liquid chromatography/Mass spectrometry/Mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) demonstrated expression of many of the same messages found by 454 sequencing, supporting their identification, and revealed differences in protein distribution in the reproductive system versus the spermatophore. We found Ef? but no EF ? in the transcriptome and neither of these proteins in the spermatophore. Thus, the previously described model for male regulation of female reproduction may not apply to other ticks. A new paradigm is needed to explain male stimulation of female tick reproduction. PMID:21949745

  4. Regucalcin Expression in Bovine Tissues and Its Regulation by Sex Steroid Hormones in Accessory Sex Glands

    PubMed Central

    Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Divari, Sara; Mulasso, Chiara; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca T.

    2014-01-01

    Regucalcin (RGN) is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle. PMID:25415588

  5. Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner’s body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

  6. EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems

    E-print Network

    Walters, James R.; Harrison, Richard G.

    2008-12-08

    between sexual selection and the evolution of reproductive proteins. As a first step in pursuing this research, we report the generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the male accessory gland of H. erato and H. melpomene, species...

  7. Isolation of serotonin from the accessory salivary glands of the marine snail Nucella lapillus.

    PubMed

    West, D J; Andrews, E B; McVean, A R; Osborne, D J; Thorndyke, M C

    1994-10-01

    We report here the presence of a bioactive compound in the secretion of the accessory salivary glands (ASGs) of Nucella lapillus. We have purified the compound using HPLC and identified it as serotonin by mass spectrometry, UV spectroscopy, HPLC and capillary electrophoresis. Serotonin was not found in the secretions of the acinous salivary glands or the hypobranchial gland. The amount of serotonin in the secretion of the ASGs does not show seasonal or regional variation. PMID:7846696

  8. Transrectal ultrasonographic characterization of the accessory sex glands, pelvic urethra, and ureters in normal geldings.

    PubMed

    Schnobrich, Maria Raymond; Turner, Regina Orstaglio; Belcher, Carolyn Niles; Slack, JoAnn

    2016-01-15

    Transrectal ultrasound of the internal urogenital tract may be used to aid in the diagnosis of reproductive tract and urinary tract pathology in both stallions and geldings. Abnormalities of the accessory sex glands of geldings are uncommon, although prostatic masses have recently been described in adult geldings presenting with dysuria, stranguria, and/or hematuria. The purpose of this study was to describe the normal ultrasonographic features and sizes of the accessory sex glands, caudal ureters, and pelvic urethra in clinically normal geldings. Eleven healthy geldings with no history of urogenital tract pathology were evaluated by a single observer experienced in ultrasound of the stallion accessory sex glands. The ultrasonographic appearance, relative anatomic relationships and sizes of the accessory sex glands, caudal ureters, and pelvic urethra were investigated using both rectal linear array and microconvex array transducers. Summary statistics including mean, standard error, confidence intervals, and range were calculated for each structure. There were no statistically significant differences in measurements between the left and right sides of paired structures or between measurements obtained with different transducers. Fluid was present in the seminal vesicles of 7 of 9 subjects. Midline cysts of the urethra as well as bulbourethral gland and prostatic cysts were identified. The normal reference ranges defined in this study will be useful in the clinical evaluation of geldings with suspected internal urogenital tract pathology. PMID:26483314

  9. Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Marchini, Daniela; Taylor, Phillip W

    2009-05-01

    Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly (Q-fly), Bactrocera tryoni, were investigated and compared with those of other tephritid flies. Male accessory glands were found to comprise one pair of mesodermic glands and three pairs of ectodermic glands. The mesodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined, binucleate epithelial cells, which are highly microvillated and extrude electron-dense secretions by means of macroapocrine transport into a central lumen. The ectodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined epithelial cells which have wide subcuticular cavities, lined with microvilli. The electron-transparent secretions from these glands are first extruded into the cavities and then forced out through small pores of the cuticle into the gland lumen. Secretions from the two types of accessory glands then flow into the ejaculatory duct, which is highly muscular, with epithelial cells rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum and lined with a thick, deeply invaginated cuticle. While there are some notable differences, reproductive accessory glands of male Q-flies generally resemble those of the olive fruitfly, Bactrocera oleae, and to a lesser extent the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. PMID:19026762

  10. Angiotensin converting enzyme in the brain, testis, epididymis, pituitary gland and adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Strittmatter, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)Captopril binds to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in rat tissue homogenates. The pharmacology, regional distribution and copurification of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding with enzymatic activity demonstrate the selectivity of (/sup 3/H)captopril labeling of ACE. (/sup 3/H)Captopril binding to purified ACE reveals differences in cationic dependence and anionic regulation between substrate catalysis and inhibitor recognition. (/sup 3/H)Captopril association with ACE is entropically driven. The selectivity of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding permits autoradiographic localization of the ACE in the brain, male reproductive system, pituitary gland and adrenal gland. In the brain, ACE is visualized in a striatonigral neuronal pathway which develops between 1 and 7 d after birth. In the male reproductive system, (/sup 3/H)captopril associated silver grains are found over spermatid heads and in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in stages I-VIII and XII-XIV. In the pituitary gland, ACE is localized to the posterior lobe and patches of the anterior lobe. The adrenal medulla contains moderate ACE levels while low levels are found in the adrenal cortex. Adrenal medullary ACE is increased after hypophysectomy and after reserpine treatment. The general of ligand binding techniques for the study of enzymes is demonstrated by the specific labeling of another enzyme, enkephaline convertase, in crude tissue homogenates by the inhibitor (/sup 3/H)GEMSA.

  11. The Toll/NF-?B pathway in cuttlefish symbiotic accessory nidamental gland.

    PubMed

    Cornet, Valérie; Henry, Joël; Corre, Erwan; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

    2015-11-01

    The female genital apparatus of decapod cephalopods contains a symbiotic accessory nidamental gland (ANG) that harbors bacterial symbionts. Although the ANG bacterial consortium is now well described, the impact of symbiosis on Sepia officinalis innate immunity pathways remains unknown. In silico analysis of the de novo transcriptome of ANG highlighted for the first time the existence of the NF-?B pathway in S. officinalis. Several signaling components were identified, i.e. five Toll-like receptors, eight signaling cascade features, and the immune response target gene iNOS, previously described as being involved in the initiation of bacterial symbiosis in a cephalopod gland. This work provides a first key for studying bacterial symbiosis and its impact on innate immunity in S. officinalis ANG. PMID:26143243

  12. Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.

    PubMed

    Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2014-10-01

    Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands. PMID:25160003

  13. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males. PMID:25660692

  14. Male accessory gland inflammation prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly reflecting autonomic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E; La Vignera, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Male accessory gland inflammation or infection (MAGI) is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type 2 diabetes (DM2); specifically, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2 patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles (SVs) in DM2 patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2 patients (i.e. patients with and without symptoms that possibly reflect DAN) and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2 patients with a mean (± s.e.m.) age of 42.0 ± 6.0 years (range: 34–47 years) were classified according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly reflect DAN (group A: DM2 with symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 28 patients and group B: DM2 without symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 32 patients). The patients in Group A exhibited a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in group B patients (P < 0.05); moreover, the Group A patients exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis (P < 0.05). Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in group A compared with group B. PMID:24799635

  15. Nutrition regulation of male accessory gland growth and maturation in Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    xu, Jingjing; Anciro, Ashlee L; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway is known to control growth, development and reproduction. Insulin-like peptide mediated body size plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster has been reported. Here, our studies showed that IIS pathway and nutrition regulate growth and maturation of the male accessory gland (MAG) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The size of MAG increased from day 1 to day 5 post-adult emergence (PAE). This increase in the size of MAG is contributed by an increase in cell size, but not cell number. The growth of MAG was impaired after double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated knockdown in the expression of genes coding for ILP3, InR, Chico, PI3k, AKT, and GATA1 involved in IIS pathway. Interestingly, starvation showed similar effects on the growth and maturation of MAG. The phenotypes observed in animals where IIS signaling pathway genes were knocked down are similar to the phenotypes observed after starving beetles for 5 days PAE. These data suggest that nutrition signals working through IIS pathway regulate maturation of MAG by promoting the growth of MAG cells. PMID:26035685

  16. Nutrition regulation of male accessory gland growth and maturation in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingjing; Anciro, Ashlee L; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway is known to control growth, development and reproduction. Insulin-like peptide mediated body size plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster has been reported. Here, our studies showed that IIS pathway and nutrition regulate growth and maturation of the male accessory gland (MAG) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The size of MAG increased from day 1 to day 5 post-adult emergence (PAE). This increase in the size of MAG is contributed by an increase in cell size, but not cell number. The growth of MAG was impaired after double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated knockdown in the expression of genes coding for ILP3, InR, Chico, PI3k, AKT, and GATA1 involved in IIS pathway. Interestingly, starvation showed similar effects on the growth and maturation of MAG. The phenotypes observed in animals where IIS signaling pathway genes were knocked down are similar to the phenotypes observed after starving beetles for 5 days PAE. These data suggest that nutrition signals working through IIS pathway regulate maturation of MAG by promoting the growth of MAG cells. PMID:26035685

  17. Comparative genomics of Roseobacter clade bacteria isolated from the accessory nidamental gland of Euprymna scolopes.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrew J; Fullmer, Matthew S; Gogarten, Johann P; Nyholm, Spencer V

    2015-01-01

    The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) of the female Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, houses a consortium of bacteria including members of the Flavobacteriales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia but is dominated by members of the Roseobacter clade (Rhodobacterales) within the Alphaproteobacteria. These bacteria are deposited into the jelly coat of the squid's eggs, however, the function of the ANG and its bacterial symbionts has yet to be elucidated. In order to gain insight into this consortium and its potential role in host reproduction, we cultured 12 Rhodobacterales isolates from ANGs of sexually mature female squid and sequenced their genomes with Illumina sequencing technology. For taxonomic analyses, the ribosomal proteins of 79 genomes representing both roseobacters and non-roseobacters along with a separate MLSA analysis of 33 housekeeping genes from Roseobacter organisms placed all 12 isolates from the ANG within two groups of a single Roseobacter clade. Average nucelotide identity analysis suggests the ANG isolates represent three genera (Leisingera, Ruegeria, and Tateyamaria) comprised of seven putative species groups. All but one of the isolates contains a predicted Type VI secretion system, which has been shown to be important in secreting signaling and/or effector molecules in host-microbe associations and in bacteria-bacteria interactions. All sequenced genomes also show potential for secondary metabolite production, and are predicted to be involved with the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and/or siderophores. An AHL bioassay confirmed AHL production in three tested isolates and from whole ANG homogenates. The dominant symbiont, Leisingera sp. ANG1, showed greater viability in iron-limiting conditions compared to other roseobacters, possibly due to higher levels of siderophore production. Future comparisons will try to elucidate novel metabolic pathways of the ANG symbionts to understand their putative role in host development. PMID:25755651

  18. Induction of excessive endoplasmic reticulum stress in the Drosophila male accessory gland results in infertility.

    PubMed

    Chow, Clement Y; Avila, Frank W; Clark, Andrew G; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when misfolded proteins accumulate in the lumen of the ER. A cell responds to ER stress with the unfolded protein response (UPR), a complex program of transcriptional and translational changes aimed at clearing misfolded proteins. Secretory tissues and cells are particularly well adapted to respond to ER stress because their function requires high protein production and secretory load. The insect male accessory gland (AG) is a secretory tissue involved in male fertility. The AG secretes many seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) essential for male reproduction. Among adult Drosophila tissues, we find that genes upregulated by ER stress are most highly expressed in the AG, suggesting that the AG is already undergoing high levels of ER stress due to its normal secretory functions. We hypothesized that induction of excessive ER stress in the AG above basal levels, would perturb normal function and provide a genetic tool for studying AG and SFP biology. To test this, we genetically induced excessive ER stress in the AG by conditional 1) expression of a misfolded protein or 2) knockdown of the UPR regulatory protein, BiP. Both genetic manipulations induced excessive ER stress in the AG, as indicated by the increase in Xbp1 splicing, a marker of ER stress. Both models resulted in a large decrease in or loss of SFP production and male infertility. Sperm production, motility, and transfer appeared unaffected. The induction of strong ER stress in the insect male AG may provide a simple way for studying or manipulating male fertility, as it eliminates AG function while preserving sperm production. PMID:25742606

  19. Induction of Excessive Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Drosophila Male Accessory Gland Results in Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Clement Y.; Avila, Frank W.; Clark, Andrew G.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when misfolded proteins accumulate in the lumen of the ER. A cell responds to ER stress with the unfolded protein response (UPR), a complex program of transcriptional and translational changes aimed at clearing misfolded proteins. Secretory tissues and cells are particularly well adapted to respond to ER stress because their function requires high protein production and secretory load. The insect male accessory gland (AG) is a secretory tissue involved in male fertility. The AG secretes many seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) essential for male reproduction. Among adult Drosophila tissues, we find that genes upregulated by ER stress are most highly expressed in the AG, suggesting that the AG is already undergoing high levels of ER stress due to its normal secretory functions. We hypothesized that induction of excessive ER stress in the AG above basal levels, would perturb normal function and provide a genetic tool for studying AG and SFP biology. To test this, we genetically induced excessive ER stress in the AG by conditional 1) expression of a misfolded protein or 2) knockdown of the UPR regulatory protein, BiP. Both genetic manipulations induced excessive ER stress in the AG, as indicated by the increase in Xbp1 splicing, a marker of ER stress. Both models resulted in a large decrease in or loss of SFP production and male infertility. Sperm production, motility, and transfer appeared unaffected. The induction of strong ER stress in the insect male AG may provide a simple way for studying or manipulating male fertility, as it eliminates AG function while preserving sperm production. PMID:25742606

  20. Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.G.; Prout, T.; Harshman, L.G.

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female`s reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Diversity and Partitioning of Bacterial Populations within the Accessory Nidamental Gland of the Squid Euprymna scolopes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andrew J.; LaBarre, Brenna A.; Wong Won, Brian S.; Shah, Monica V.; Heng, Steven; Choudhury, Momena H.; Haydar, Shahela A.; Santiago, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Microbial consortia confer important benefits to animal and plant hosts, and model associations are necessary to examine these types of host/microbe interactions. The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) is a female reproductive organ found among cephalopod mollusks that contains a consortium of bacteria, the exact function of which is unknown. To begin to understand the role of this organ, the bacterial consortium was characterized in the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, a well-studied model organism for symbiosis research. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the ANG revealed dense bacterial assemblages of rod- and coccus-shaped cells segregated by morphology into separate, epithelium-lined tubules. The host epithelium was morphologically heterogeneous, containing ciliated and nonciliated cells with various brush border thicknesses. Hemocytes of the host's innate immune system were also found in close proximity to the bacteria within the tubules. A census of 16S rRNA genes suggested that Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia bacteria were prevalent, with members of the genus Phaeobacter dominating the consortium. Analysis of 454-shotgun sequencing data confirmed the presence of members of these taxa and revealed members of a fourth, Flavobacteria of the Bacteroidetes phylum. 16S rRNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that many ANG tubules were dominated by members of specific taxa, namely, Rhodobacterales, Verrucomicrobia, or Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes, suggesting symbiont partitioning to specific host tubules. In addition, FISH revealed that bacteria, including Phaeobacter species from the ANG, are likely deposited into the jelly coat of freshly laid eggs. This report establishes the ANG of the invertebrate E. scolopes as a model to examine interactions between a bacterial consortium and its host. PMID:22504817

  2. Comparative genomics of Roseobacter clade bacteria isolated from the accessory nidamental gland of Euprymna scolopes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andrew J.; Fullmer, Matthew S.; Gogarten, Johann P.; Nyholm, Spencer V.

    2015-01-01

    The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) of the female Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, houses a consortium of bacteria including members of the Flavobacteriales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia but is dominated by members of the Roseobacter clade (Rhodobacterales) within the Alphaproteobacteria. These bacteria are deposited into the jelly coat of the squid’s eggs, however, the function of the ANG and its bacterial symbionts has yet to be elucidated. In order to gain insight into this consortium and its potential role in host reproduction, we cultured 12 Rhodobacterales isolates from ANGs of sexually mature female squid and sequenced their genomes with Illumina sequencing technology. For taxonomic analyses, the ribosomal proteins of 79 genomes representing both roseobacters and non-roseobacters along with a separate MLSA analysis of 33 housekeeping genes from Roseobacter organisms placed all 12 isolates from the ANG within two groups of a single Roseobacter clade. Average nucelotide identity analysis suggests the ANG isolates represent three genera (Leisingera, Ruegeria, and Tateyamaria) comprised of seven putative species groups. All but one of the isolates contains a predicted Type VI secretion system, which has been shown to be important in secreting signaling and/or effector molecules in host–microbe associations and in bacteria–bacteria interactions. All sequenced genomes also show potential for secondary metabolite production, and are predicted to be involved with the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and/or siderophores. An AHL bioassay confirmed AHL production in three tested isolates and from whole ANG homogenates. The dominant symbiont, Leisingera sp. ANG1, showed greater viability in iron-limiting conditions compared to other roseobacters, possibly due to higher levels of siderophore production. Future comparisons will try to elucidate novel metabolic pathways of the ANG symbionts to understand their putative role in host development. PMID:25755651

  3. Transcriptional Profiles of Mating-Responsive Genes from Testes and Male Accessory Glands of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Siciliano, Paolo; Meraldi, Alice; Falchetto, Marco; Bonomi, Angelica; Manni, Mosè; Gabrieli, Paolo; Malovini, Alberto; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Aksoy, Serap; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. Methodology/Principal Findings We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. Conclusions/Significance We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male recovery dynamics in terms of accessory gland gene expression profiles and correlated remating inhibition mechanisms may permit the improvement of pest management approaches. PMID:23071645

  4. Protein and Peptide Composition of Male Accessory Glands of Apis mellifera Drones Investigated by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Blenau, Wolfgang; Koeniger, Gudrun; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, reproductive females usually mate early in their life with more than 10 males in free flight, often within 10 minutes, and then store male gametes for up to five years. Because of the extreme polyandry and mating in free flight special adaptations in males are most likely. We present here the results of an investigation of the protein content of four types of male reproductive glands from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone, namely seminal vesicles (secretion in ejaculate), as well as bulbus, cornua and mucus glands (secretions for the mating plug). Using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry and a combination of database searching and de novo sequencing techniques it was possible to identify 50 different proteins in total, inside all mentioned glands, except in the mucus gland. Most of the proteins are unique for a specific gland type, only one of them (H9KEY1/ATP synthase subunit O) was found in three glands, and 7 proteins were found in two types of glands. The identified proteins represent a wide variety of biological functions and can be assigned to several physiological classes, such as protection, energy generation, maintaining optimal conditions, associated mainly with vesicula seminalis; signaling, cuticle proteins, icarpin and apolipoproteins located mainly in the bulbus and cornua glands; and some other classes. Most of the discovered proteins were not found earlier during investigation of semen, seminal fluid and tissue of reproductive glands of the bee drone. Moreover, we provide here the origin of each protein. Thus, the presented data might shed light on the role of each reproductive gland. PMID:25955586

  5. Protein and Peptide Composition of Male Accessory Glands of Apis mellifera Drones Investigated by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Blenau, Wolfgang; Koeniger, Gudrun; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, reproductive females usually mate early in their life with more than 10 males in free flight, often within 10 minutes, and then store male gametes for up to five years. Because of the extreme polyandry and mating in free flight special adaptations in males are most likely. We present here the results of an investigation of the protein content of four types of male reproductive glands from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone, namely seminal vesicles (secretion in ejaculate), as well as bulbus, cornua and mucus glands (secretions for the mating plug). Using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry and a combination of database searching and de novo sequencing techniques it was possible to identify 50 different proteins in total, inside all mentioned glands, except in the mucus gland. Most of the proteins are unique for a specific gland type, only one of them (H9KEY1/ATP synthase subunit O) was found in three glands, and 7 proteins were found in two types of glands. The identified proteins represent a wide variety of biological functions and can be assigned to several physiological classes, such as protection, energy generation, maintaining optimal conditions, associated mainly with vesicula seminalis; signaling, cuticle proteins, icarpin and apolipoproteins located mainly in the bulbus and cornua glands; and some other classes. Most of the discovered proteins were not found earlier during investigation of semen, seminal fluid and tissue of reproductive glands of the bee drone. Moreover, we provide here the origin of each protein. Thus, the presented data might shed light on the role of each reproductive gland. PMID:25955586

  6. The “Vampirome”: Transcriptome and proteome analysis of the principal and accessory submaxillary glands of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, a vector of human rabies

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Assumpção, Teresa C. F.; Ma, Dongying; Li, Yuan; Vicente, Eliane C.; Uieda, Wilson; Ribeiro, José M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Vampire bats are notorious for being the sole mammals that strictly feed on fresh blood for their survival. While their saliva has been historically associated with anticoagulants, only one antihemostatic (plasminogen activator) has been molecularly and functionally characterized. Here, RNAs from both principal submandibular and accessory glands of Desmodus rotundus were extracted, and ~ 200 million reads were sequenced by Illumina. The principal gland was enriched with plasminogen activators with fibrinolytic properties, members of lipocalin and secretoglobin families, which bind prohemostatic prostaglandins, and endonucleases, which cleave neutrophil-derived procoagulant NETs. Anticoagulant (tissue factor pathway inhibitor, TFPI), vasodilators (PACAP and C-natriuretic peptide), and metalloproteases (ADAMTS-1) were also abundantly expressed. Members of the TSG-6 (anti-inflammatory), antigen 5/CRISP, and CCL28-like (antimicrobial) protein families were also sequenced. Apyrases (which remove platelet agonist ADP), phosphatases (which degrade procoagulant polyphosphates), and sphingomyelinase were found at lower transcriptional levels. Accessory glands were enriched with antimicrobials (lysozyme, defensin, lactotransferrin) and protease inhibitors (TIL-domain, cystatin, Kazal). Mucins, heme-oxygenase, and IgG chains were present in both glands. Proteome analysis by nano LC-MS/MS confirmed that several transcripts are expressed in the glands. The database presented herein is accessible online at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/D_rotundus/Supplemental-web.xlsx. These results reveal that bat saliva emerges as a novel source of modulators of vascular biology. PMID:23411029

  7. A Syringe-Like Love Dart Injects Male Accessory Gland Products in a Tropical Hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Joris M.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner’s hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner’s hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals. PMID:23894565

  8. Male accessory gland protein reduces egg laying in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.

    PubMed

    Koene, Joris M; Sloot, Wiebe; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Cummins, Scott F; Degnan, Bernard M; Smith, John S; Nagle, Gregg T; ter Maat, Andries

    2010-01-01

    Seminal fluid is an important part of the ejaculate of internally fertilizing animals. This fluid contains substances that nourish and activate sperm for successful fertilization. Additionally, it contains components that influence female physiology to further enhance fertilization success of the sperm donor, possibly beyond the recipient's optimum. Although evidence for such substances abounds, few studies have unraveled their identities, and focus has been exclusively on separate-sex species. We present the first detailed study into the seminal fluid composition of a hermaphrodite (Lymnaea stagnalis). Eight novel peptides and proteins were identified from the seminal-fluid-producing prostate gland and tested for effects on oviposition, hatching and consumption. The gene for the protein found to suppress egg mass production, Ovipostatin, was sequenced, thereby providing the first fully-characterized seminal fluid substance in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Thus, seminal fluid peptides and proteins have evolved and can play a crucial role in sexual selection even when the sexes are combined. PMID:20404934

  9. Proteome analysis of male accessory gland secretions in oriental fruit flies reveals juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting impact on female reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Dong; Li, Hui-Min; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the accessory gland proteins (Acps) secreted by male accessory glands (MAGs) account for the majority of seminal fluids proteins. Mixed with sperm, they are transferred to the female at mating and so impact reproduction. In this project, we identified 2,927 proteins in the MAG secretions of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, an important agricultural pest worldwide, using LC-MS analysis, and all sequences containing open reading frames were analyzed using signalP. In total, 90?Acps were identified. About one third (26) of these 90 Acps had a specific functional description, while the other two thirds (64) had no functional description including dozens of new classes of proteins. Hence, several of these novel Acps were abundant in the MAG secretions, and we confirmed their MAG-specific expression by qPCR. Finally and interestingly, one of these novel proteins was functionally predicted as juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting the impact of Acps with reproductive events in the female. Our results will aid in the development of an experimental method to identify Acps in insects, and in turn this information with new Acps in B. dorsalis will pave the way of further exploration their function in reproduction and potential development as new insecticide targets. PMID:26582577

  10. Proteome analysis of male accessory gland secretions in oriental fruit flies reveals juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting impact on female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Li, Hui-Min; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the accessory gland proteins (Acps) secreted by male accessory glands (MAGs) account for the majority of seminal fluids proteins. Mixed with sperm, they are transferred to the female at mating and so impact reproduction. In this project, we identified 2,927 proteins in the MAG secretions of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, an important agricultural pest worldwide, using LC-MS analysis, and all sequences containing open reading frames were analyzed using signalP. In total, 90?Acps were identified. About one third (26) of these 90 Acps had a specific functional description, while the other two thirds (64) had no functional description including dozens of new classes of proteins. Hence, several of these novel Acps were abundant in the MAG secretions, and we confirmed their MAG-specific expression by qPCR. Finally and interestingly, one of these novel proteins was functionally predicted as juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting the impact of Acps with reproductive events in the female. Our results will aid in the development of an experimental method to identify Acps in insects, and in turn this information with new Acps in B. dorsalis will pave the way of further exploration their function in reproduction and potential development as new insecticide targets. PMID:26582577

  11. Localization and characterization of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in boar accessory sex glands, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa and activity of GPx in boar semen.

    PubMed

    Jelezarsky, L; Vaisberg, Ch; Chaushev, T; Sapundjiev, E

    2008-01-15

    Boar ejaculate owes its characteristic large volume mainly to accessory sex gland (ASG) secretions. These are main contributors to the protective functions of seminal plasma, especially against oxidative damage. Numerous antioxidants have been detected in ASG secretions, and, respectively, in seminal plasma. However, as regards one key antioxidant protector -- the Se-dependent enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) -- there is no agreement yet among researchers as to its presence in boar seminal plasma. Nevertheless, the beneficial effect of dietary Se supplementation on male fertility has been widely recognized. The aim of the present study was to investigate the localization and characterization of GPx in boar ASGs, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa, as well as to evaluate GPx activity in boar semen. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated GPx presence in the epithelial cells, vacuole membranes, and vascular endothelium of boar seminal vesicle, prostate and bulbourethral glands. Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of a monomer form of GPx with MW 20 kDa in lysates from seminal vesicle, prostate, bulbourethral glands, and spermatozoa, but not in seminal plasma. Surprisingly, peroxidase activity detected in seminal plasma from normal ejaculates was nearly three times as high as in spermatozoa. Our findings confirmed the presence of immunoreactive GPx in the boar reproductive tract, while further investigation is still warranted to uncover the exact protein forms involved and their function. PMID:17964641

  12. Steroid hormone production in testis, ovary, and adrenal gland of immature rats irradiated in utero with /sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Inano, H.; Suzuki, K.; Ishii-Ohba, H.; Imada, Y.; Kumagai, R.; Kurihara, S.; Sato, A.

    1989-02-01

    Pregnant rats received whole-body irradiation at 20 days of gestation with 2.6 Gy lambda rays from a 60Co source. Endocrinological effects before maturation were studied using testes and adrenal glands obtained from male offspring and ovaries from female offspring irradiated in utero. Seminiferous tubules of the irradiated male offspring were remarkably atrophied with free germinal epithelium and containing only Sertoli cells. Female offspring also had atrophied ovaries. Testicular tissue obtained from intact and 60Co-irradiated rats was incubated with 14C-labeled pregnenolone, progesterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione as a substrate. Intermediates for androgen production and catabolic metabolites were isolated after the incubation. The amounts of these metabolites produced by the irradiated testes were low in comparison with the control. The activities of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase, C17,20-lyase, and delta 4-5 alpha-reductase in the irradiated testes were 30-40% of those in nonirradiated testes. Also, the activities of 17 beta- and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were 72 and 52% of the control, respectively. In adrenal glands, the 21-hydroxylase activity of the irradiated animals was 38% of the control, but the delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity was comparable to that of the control. On the other hand, the activity of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of the irradiated ovary was only 19% of the control. These results suggest that 60Co irradiation of the fetus in utero markedly affects the production of steroid hormones in testes, ovaries, and adrenal glands after birth.

  13. Pleomorphic adenoma of the accessory parotid gland: case report and reappraisal of intraoral extracapsular dissection for management.

    PubMed

    Tsegga, Tibebu M; Britt, Jennifer D; Ellwanger, Aragon R

    2015-03-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common tumor of the major and minor salivary glands. Rarely is it found evolving from an ectopic location of major salivary glandular tissue in the mid cheek. A healthy 56-year-old woman presented to our institution with a 20-year duration of a slowly growing right cheek soft tissue mass that was causing facial asymmetry. No significant functional or neurosensory dysfunction was appreciated. Radiologic examination showed a heterogeneous, hyperintense, well-delineated mass within the region of the right buccal fat pad. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy showed benign salivary gland elements consistent with pleomorphic adenoma. The decision was made to perform intraoral extracapsular dissection for removal. Discussion of the clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation with an emphasis on intraoral extracapsular dissection for definitive surgical therapy of longstanding benign salivary gland tumors is emphasized. PMID:25530278

  14. Effect of semen collection by transrectal massage of accessory sexual glands or artificial vagina on the outcome of breeding soundness examinations of Italian yearling beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Sylla, Lakamy; Palombi, Claudio; Stradaioli, Giuseppe; Vagniluca, Antonio; Monaci, Maurizio

    2015-03-15

    Although semen quality is one of the major traits that influence breeding soundness examination outcomes in bulls, field conditions occasionally do not allow for the collection of semen samples by means of an artificial vagina. The aims of the present study were to report the results of a large number of semen collections that were performed via the transrectal massage (TRM) of the accessory sexual glands of Italian yearling beef bulls and compare this semen collection method to the artificial vagina (AV) method in term of breeding soundness examination outcomes; furthermore, we determined whether the breed affected the semen characteristics. In the TRM group (n = 475), the semen samples were collected via TRM of the accessory sexual glands, and in the AV group (n = 502), the AV method was used. In the TRM group, semen samples were obtained from 81.3% of the bulls and penile protrusion was observed in 87.6% of the animals during semen collection. The sperm concentrations (920.5 ± 439.0 vs. 281.0 ± 259.8 × 10(6)/mL) and the percentages of total abnormal spermatozoa (22.8 ± 15.0 vs. 18.8 ± 12.9) were significantly higher in the AV group than those in the TRM group. The percentage of bulls that did not meet the minimum requirement for normal cells (?70%) was 6.2% higher in the AV group than that in the TRM group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the samples collected from Chianina bulls by TRM exhibited a lower percentage of motile sperm and a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa when compared with the other two breeds. The major drawbacks of the TRM technique were the inability to conduct complete evaluation of the libido and mating ability of the yearling bulls, a significant reduction of the number of spermatozoa collected, and an increase in the variability of the semen characteristics due to breed. In conclusion, despite the drawbacks, TRM guarantees that semen evaluation can be conducted in cases in which the semen samples cannot be collected with the AV method. PMID:25488791

  15. Wing morph-related differences in developmental pattern of accessory gland proteins in adult males of Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.) and their endocrine control.

    PubMed

    Socha, Radomír; Sula, Jan; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2004-10-01

    The study showed that the amounts of the total proteins and 53 kDa protein in male accessory glands (AGs) of the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.) increased with age of the adult life. The 53 kDa protein, the most abundant polypeptide detected in the secretion of the AGs, and some other smaller peptides were identified as glycoproteins. Changes in the amounts of the total proteins and 53 kDa protein in AGs were found to be wing morph-dependent and their levels were significantly higher in 1-10 days old brachypterous males than in macropterous males of the same age. Macropterous males were characterized by delayed growth of the AGs. Treatment of adult macropterous males with methoprene significantly increased the amounts of total proteins and 53 kDa protein in their AGs when compared to acetone-treated macropterous controls of the same age. Allatectomy of brachypterous males decreased the levels of the total proteins and 53 kDa protein in their AGs, while application of methoprene enhanced the quantity of allatectomy-suppressed proteins in these tissues. This is the first report of juvenile hormone-dependent wing morph-related differences in the synthesis of AG proteins and their endocrine control in wing-polymorphic insects. PMID:15518657

  16. Contribution of the secretory material of caecilian (amphibia: Gymnophiona) male Mullerian gland to motility of sperm: a study in Uraeotyphlus narayani.

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Mathew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2005-02-01

    Caecilians are a unique group of limbless burrowing amphibians with discontinuous distribution. Several caecilian species are viviparous, and all practice internal fertilization. In amniotic vertebrates the sperm undergo post-testicular physiological maturation when they are initiated into motility under the influence of an epididymal secretion. Further, during ejaculation mammalian sperm are suspended in a fluid secreted by the male accessory sex glands, viz., prostate gland and seminal vesicles. Caecilians lack comparable glands, but still practice internal fertilization. Uniquely, male caecilians retain the Mullerian ducts in the adults as a pair of functional glands. It has long been hypothesized, based on indirect evidence, that the Mullerian gland would be a male accessory sex gland, secreting a fluid in which sperm are suspended during ejaculation and which would also provide nutritional support to the ejaculated sperm. In the present study, the secretory material of the Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani was mixed with sperm obtained from the testis, and the changes in motility were recorded. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm possess a perforatorium of the acrosome proceeding deep into the endonuclear canal of the nucleus. The midpiece is characterized by closely applied centrioles, the anterior ends of the axoneme and axial fiber, and a mitochondrial sheath. The long tail has an undulating membrane on one side, supported by the axoneme and an axial fiber. The live sperm possess a mitochondrial vesicle, also known as the cytoplasmic droplet, anywhere along the head and the midpiece, as in anuran sperm, which is shed from sperm that have ceased motility. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm are motile the moment they are released directly from the testis, indicating that the sperm do not require post-testicular physiological maturation. On being mixed with the secretory material of the Mullerian gland, the spermatozoa are enhanced in speed as well as duration of motility. Therefore, the caecilian male Mullerian gland is considered to be the male accessory sex gland. PMID:15605393

  17. Evaluation of atorvastatin efficacy and toxicity on spermatozoa, accessory glands and gonadal hormones of healthy men: a pilot prospective clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention advocate lowering both cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol systemic levels, notably by statin intake. However, statins are the subject of questions concerning their impact on male fertility. This study aimed to evaluate, by a prospective pilot assay, the efficacy and the toxicity of a decrease of cholesterol blood levels, induced by atorvastatin on semen quality and sexual hormone levels of healthy, normocholesterolaemic and normozoospermic men. Methods Atorvastatin (10 mg daily) was administrated orally during 5 months to 17 men with normal plasma lipid and standard semen parameters. Spermatozoa parameters, accessory gland markers, semen lipid levels and blood levels of gonadal hormones were assayed before statin intake, during the treatment, and 3 months after its withdrawal. Results Atorvastatin treatment significantly decreased circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol concentrations by 42% and 24% (p?

  18. Dissection and weighing of accessory sex glands after formalin fixation, and a 5-day assay using young mature rats are reliable and feasible in the Hershberger assay.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Sunami, O; Kunimatsu, T; Kamita, Y; Okuno, Y; Seki, T; Nakatsuka, I; Matsuo, M

    2001-05-11

    The rodent Hershberger assay has been used predominantly by the pharmaceutical industry to evaluate androgenic and antiandrogenic chemicals for potential therapeutic use. However, this assay has not yet been formally validated and standardized for use in toxicology testing. There are many variations in the protocol used for this assay. The weight of androgen-dependent tissues is a definitive endpoint in the Hershberger assay. To find out the reliable assay protocol with feasibility, although many possible factors may affect assay reliability, the present study consist of a series of three separate experiments focused on method of dissection and weighing of accessory sex glands (ASGs: ventral and dorso-lateral prostate, seminal vesicles together with coagulating glands, and Cowper's glands), animal age and number of doses. Furthermore, male pubertal assay, an alternative to the Hershberger assay, was also examined its reliability. Experiment 1 explored whether reliably accurate ASG weights can be obtained after formalin fixation. The ASGs were collected from castrated male rats (11 weeks of age) treated daily with corn oil, or testosterone propionate (TP, 0.25 mg/kg/day, s.c.) and p,p'-DDE (0 or 100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 5 days. One day after the final treatment, the ASGs were removed carefully and weighed separately, and then fixed overnight in a 10% neutral-buffered formalin and weighed again. After that, the tissues were dried overnight in an oven and weighed again. A high correlation between fresh and fixed tissue weights, and a high correlation between fixed and dried tissue weights were noted. The changes in the tissue weight due to fixation were marginal and were proportional to the fresh weights of the individual tissue. Standard deviation of the fixed tissue weight in each group and the magnitude of responses to TP or p,p'-DDE in fixed tissues were equivalent to those in fresh or dried tissues. These findings indicate that formalin fixation does not interfere with interpretation of assay results, and this procedure was used in the subsequent experiments. Experiments 2 and 3 explored whether animal age or treatment duration altered assay sensitivity. In Experiment 2, antiandrogenic effect of p,p'-DDE (100 mg/kg/day) was detected after 5-and 10-day treatment irrespective of animal age (7 vs 11 weeks). In Experiment 3, antiandrogenic effects of flutamide (1 and 10 mg/kg/day) and p,p'-DDE (10 and 100 mg/kg/day) were compared between two different protocols, the 10-day assay using peripubertal rats and the 5-day assay using young mature rats. Results demonstrated that both protocols could significantly detect antiandrogenic effects of flutamide and p,p'-DDE. These findings demonstrate that (1) dissection and weighing of ASGs after formalin fixation is reliable in the Hershberger assay, (2) when this procedure is used, the 5-day Hershberger assay using young mature rats, expected to be more feasible assay than the 10-day assay using peripubertal rats, is also reliable as well as the 10-day assay using peripubertal rats. Furthermore, we confirmed that male pubertal assay with use of dissection and weighing of fixed tissues also reliable. PMID:11337110

  19. Physiological responses and characteristics of sperm collected after electroejaculation or transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands in anesthetized mouflons (Ovis musimon) and Iberian ibexes (Capra pyrenaica).

    PubMed

    Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; López-Sebastián, Antonio; Esteso, Milagros; Pradiee, Jorgea; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Castaño, Cristina; Labrador, Beatriz; Santiago-Moreno, Julián

    2015-10-15

    The objective was to characterize the stress response and the seminal parameters obtained with electroejaculation (EE) or transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands (TUMASG) in two captive but nondomestic ruminants, the mouflons and the Iberian ibex under general anesthesia. In mouflons, the physiological responses (heart and respiratory rate, rectal temperature, cortisol, creatine kinase, potassium and glucose concentrations) changed similarly with both procedures. The TUMASG procedure was faster than EE in mouflons (21.7 ± 1.4 vs. 12.4 ± 1.2 minutes, P < 0.01). In ibexes, respiratory rate, cortisol and creatine kinase concentration changes were greater with EE than with TUMASG (final respiratory rate: 62.7 ± 5.5 vs. 38.1 ± 5.6 breaths/min [P < 0.05]; final cortisol: 51.4 ± 5.1 vs. 25.3 ± 5.6 ng/mL [P < 0.001]; and final creatine kinase: 300.9 ± 99.9 vs. 87.1 ± 16.9 U/L [P < 0.001]). Electroejaculation provided better results in some sperm parameters (mouflons: sperm score: 3.4 ± 0.3 vs. 2.6 ± 0.2 [P < 0.01]; total number of sperm ejaculated: 982.4 ± 299 vs. 710.0 ± 542.2 [P < 0.05]; ibexes: sperm with progressive motility: 47.7 ± 6.2 vs. 20.5 ± 8.3 [P < 0.05]). The transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands appears to be an alternative technique to collect sperm from wild ruminants, reducing the need for electrical stimuli and thus decreasing the undesired responses of EE in the more sensitive species. On the other hand, better fresh sperm may be collected with EE. However, TUMASG provides practical advantages in animal welfare, firstly in these wild species more sensible to stress management and capture myopathy. PMID:26174035

  20. Photoperiod and melatonin treatments for controlling sperm parameters, testicular and accessory sex glands size in male Iberian ibex: A model for captive mountain ruminants.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Moreno, J; Toledano-Díaz, A; Castaño, C; Coloma, M A; Esteso, M C; Prieto, M T; Delgadillo, J A; López-Sebastián, A

    2013-06-01

    This study examines whether photoperiod and/or melatonin treatments can improve sperm variables outside the breeding season in the Iberian ibex-a model species for wild mountain ruminants-thus helping in the collection of high quality sperm beyond the normal breeding season for depositing in genetic resource banks. Adult Iberian ibex males (n=17) were divided into four treatment groups: (1) controls under the natural photoperiod (control group; n=4), (2) treatment with melatonin implants on December 22nd, February 22nd and April 22nd (group WS-M; n=5), (3) treatment with short photoperiod cycles, i.e., 2 months of long days followed by melatonin implants (to emulate 2 months of short days) throughout the year (group PHPld+M; n=4), and (4) treatment with melatonin implants on June 22nd and August 22nd (group SS-M; n=4). The interaction treatment x season had a strong influence on testis size (P<0.05), the size of the seminal vesicles (P<0.001), the percentage of abnormal sperms (P<0.05), and percentage non-progressive (P<0.05) and progressive (P<0.001) sperm motility. In groups WS-M and PHPld+M, the normal springtime physiological reductions in testis size, non-progressive sperm motility and acrosome integrity were prevented. The values for the studied sperm variables were, however, reduced in the natural breeding season at the end of the experimental period in group PHPld+M, although not in group WS-M. The pattern of melatonin administration in group SS-M conferred no advantages on reproductive functionality. These results suggest that lengthening the short day period after the winter solstice (the WS-M treatment) extends reproductive activity in this species, allowing good quality sperm to be recovered for conservation purposes during the non-breeding season. PMID:23664101

  1. Sexual behavior attenuates the effects of chronic stress in body weight, testes, sexual accessory glands, and plasma testosterone in male rats.

    PubMed

    Retana-Márquez, S; Vigueras-Villaseñor, R M; Juárez-Rojas, L; Aragón-Martínez, A; Torres, G Reyes

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether continuous sexual behavior could attenuate the effects of chronic stress on spermatogenesis, sexual glands, plasma testosterone and corticosterone in sexually experienced male rats. Rats were exposed to stress by immersion in cold water (ICW) daily for 20 or 50 consecutive days. Plasma testosterone and corticosterone, masculine sexual behavior, as well as the number of offspring, the epithelial area of seminiferous, prostatic and seminal glands were assessed. In stressed males, body and testicular weights decreased, male sexual behavior was disrupted, and adrenal weights increased. In males stressed for 50 days, prostate and seminal glands had lower weights compared with controls. Prostate and seminal epithelial areas also decreased in these males. Seminiferous tubules in testes from rats stressed for 20 or 50 days showed several degenerative signs, such as vacuoles in the basal epithelium, with picnotic indicia; moderate to severe exfoliation of degenerative germinal cells in the tubule lumen was also observed. In males stressed for 50 days a significant decrease in seminiferous epithelial area was observed from stages I-VIII, regardless of copulation. The litters from females that copulated with males stressed for 50 days decreased significantly. Chronic stress caused increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, which were higher in males stressed for 20 days than in males stressed for 50 days. Testosterone decreased in stressed males and it was lower in males stressed for 50 days. In stressed males allowed to copulate, body and testicular weights were similar to controls. Adrenal, seminal glands, and prostate weights, as well as epithelial areas of males stressed for 50 days allowed to copulate were also similar to controls. Corticosterone was lower than in males stressed for 50 days, but still higher than in controls. Testosterone in males stressed for 50 days and allowed to copulate was higher than in stressed males not allowed to copulate and control males without copulation, but still lower than in control copulating males. These results show that chronic stress causes germ cell loss in testes and a decrease in prostate and seminal epithelium, possibly as a result of testosterone decrease, affecting fertility. Continuous copulation can attenuate the effects of stress on testosterone levels and on the epithelial area in male sexual glands, but not on the seminiferous epithelium after 50 days of stress. PMID:25236886

  2. Effects of sperm DNA damage on the levels of RAD51 and p53 proteins in zygotes and 2-cell embryos sired by golden hamsters without the major accessory sex glands.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Liao, Su-Bin; Cheung, May P L; Chow, Pak Ham; Cheung, Annie L M; O, Wai Sum

    2012-08-15

    We previously reported that the male accessory sex gland (ASG) secretion is the main source of antioxidants to safeguard sperm genomic integrity and functional competence. Removal of all ASGs in the golden hamster can reduce male fertility by increasing embryo wastage. This study aims to investigate whether the oxidative DNA-damaged sperm from hamsters without all ASGs (TX) could successfully fertilize oocytes and to qualify the status of DNA repair by the expression of RAD51 and p53 proteins. Here we demonstrated a significantly higher DNA-base adduct formation (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine) in sperm from TX males than those from sham-operated males. Comet assays demonstrated that all female pronuclei in both zygotes were intact, but single- and double-strand DNA damage was found in decondensed sperm in TX males only. DNA damage could also be detected in both nuclei of the TX 2-cell embryos. RAD51, a DNA repair enzyme, was found to be evenly distributed in the cytoplasm and nuclei in oocytes/zygotes, while at the 2-cell stage, a strong expression of p53 protein and a larger clear perinuclear area without RAD51 expression were found in TX embryos. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time DNA damage in decondensed sperm of zygotes and blastomeres of 2-cell stage embryos sired by TX males, resulting in the activation of DNA repair. Sperm DNA damage could induce the increase in p53 expression and the reduction of RAD51 expression in the TX 2-cell stage embryos. PMID:22705368

  3. Matching accessories.

    PubMed

    Foord, Steven M

    2003-07-01

    Heterodimerization enhances the complexity of ligand recognition and diversity of signaling responses of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Many accessory proteins (for ion channels or GPCRs) appear to associate with their partners relatively early in the process whereby proteins are transported to the cell surface; their roles in modulating function may have evolved out of simple proximity to a protein that once upon a time they either facilitated or accompanied through the maturation process. The receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are a family of single-transmembrane accessory proteins that heterodimerize with GPCRs and, thereby, allow individual GPCRs to recognize multiple ligands and to activate various signaling pathways in response to ligand binding. The M10 family of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1b proteins has recently been shown to associate with murine vomeronasal V2R receptors, as well as to escort them to the cell surface. The exact role of M10 in modulating V2R function (or vice versa) remains to be determined. PMID:12855771

  4. Experimental Evidence That Ovary and Oviducal Gland Extracts Influence Male Agonistic Behavior

    E-print Network

    Boal, Jean

    Experimental Evidence That Ovary and Oviducal Gland Extracts Influence Male Agonistic Behavior factor originates in the ovary and perhaps the oviducal gland of the female reproductive tract of four female reproductive organs or glands: ovary, oviducal gland, nidamental gland, or accessory nida

  5. The comparative morphology of epidermal glands in Pentatomoidea (Heteroptera).

    PubMed

    Kheyri, Homayoun; Cribb, Bronwen W; Merritt, David J

    2014-05-01

    The Heteroptera show a diversity of glands associated with the epidermis. They have multiple roles including the production of noxious scents. Here, we examine the cellular arrangement and cytoskeletal components of the scent glands of pentatomoid Heteroptera in three families, Pentatomidae (stink bugs), Tessaratomidae, and Scutelleridae (shield-backed bugs or jewel bugs). The glands are; (1) the dorsal abdominal glands, (2) the tubular glands of the composite metathoracic gland, and (3) the accessory gland component of the composite metathoracic gland. The dorsal abdominal glands are at their largest in nymphs and decrease in size in adults. The metathoracic gland is an adult-specific gland unit with a reservoir and multiple types of gland cells. The accessory gland is composed of many unicellular glands concentrated in a sinuous line across the reservoir wall. The lateral tubular gland is composed of two-cell units. The dorsal abdominal glands of nymphs are composed of three-cell units with a prominent cuticular component derived from the saccule cell sitting between the duct and receiving canal. The cuticular components that channel secretion from the microvilli of the secretory cell to the exterior differ in the three gland types. The significance of the numbers of cells comprising gland units is related to the role of cells in regenerating the cuticular components of the glands at moulting in nymphs. PMID:24747726

  6. Mesodermal adenosarcoma of the testis.

    PubMed

    Fleshman, Ranleigh L; Wasman, Jay K; Bodner, Donald G; Young, Robert H; MacLennan, Gregory T

    2005-03-01

    Biphasic neoplasms with a benign to atypical epithelial component and a usually low-grade malignant stromal component have been reported in various sites, probably being best known for their occurrence in the uterine corpus (mullerian adenosarcoma). We report a tumor of this type that occurred in the testis of a 76-year-old man and, to our knowledge, is the first mesodermal adenosarcoma reported at this site. The patient had scrotal swelling for many years with a pronounced increase in the swelling over the past 2 years. A large complex solid-cystic testicular tumor was evident on ultrasound, and examination of a radical orchiectomy specimen showed a 6.5-cm mass. On microscopic examination, the neoplasm had a phyllodes-like appearance with bland cuboidal to flattened epithelium covering polypoid fronds, and lining glands and cysts. The stroma varied from cellular, particularly where it condensed around the glands and cysts, to hypocellular and hyalinized. It was immunoreactive for muscle specific actin, CD10, and to a lesser degree, desmin. This case expands the known sites where mesodermal adenosarcoma may occur. The histogenesis is speculative, but possible options are discussed. PMID:15725814

  7. Cancer of the Testis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2015 8,430 % of All New Cancer Cases 0.5% Estimated Deaths in 2015 380 % of All Cancer Deaths ... of This Cancer : In 2012, there were an estimated 233,602 men living with testis cancer in ...

  8. The Laser Accessory Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Ashvin

    1988-09-01

    Wandering through the exhibit hall yesterday, I noticed that if you look at the laser companies and if you look at the accessory companies, there are pretty much the same number of accessory booths as well as the laser companies. There was one difference. Laser company booths are all sexy looking, very flashy, big booths. Whereas if you look at the accessories booths, they were small, not so prominent.

  9. Electroporation of the Testis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yomogida, Kentaro

    The mature mammalian testis is a marvelous organ that produces numerous sperm cells during its reproductive phase. This biologically significant process consists of three steps: stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, meiosis and genetic recombination, and haploid cell morphogenesis into sperm (Russell et al., 1990). The first step provides a good model for investigating the molecular mechanism of stem cell regulation. Currently, the mechanism underlying sperm cell production is a very exciting topic in regenerative medicine (Lensch et al. 2007; Okita et al., 2007). The spermatogonial stem cell system has several advantages, including the easy histological identification of stem cells (Russell et al., 1990), a clear relationship between stem cells and the supporting Sertoli cells, which provide a stem cell niche (Tadokoro et al., 2002; Yomogida et al., 2003), and a transplantation assay for stem cell activity (Oatley & Brinster, 2006). Although germline stem (GS) cells derived from the gonocytes in newborn testis constitute a suitable in vitro system for investigating the properties of spermatogonial stem cells (Kanatsu-Shinohara et al., 2003, 2004), studies using living mammalian testes continue to provide information regarding the roles of the stem cell niche. In vivo electroporation of the supporting cells in the testis will expand our ability to study it.

  10. List of Publications Leonardo Testi

    E-print Network

    Testi, Leonardo

    ., Felli M., Gilmore G., Guglielmo F., Habing H., Price S., Robin A., de Batz B., Cesarsky C., Elbaz D [A15] Marconi A., Testi L., Natta A., Walmsley C.M., 1998, ``Near infrared spectra of the Orion Bar&A, 342, 515 [A24] Vicini B., Natta A., Marconi A., Testi L., Hollenbach D., Draine B.T., 1999, ``A Near

  11. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... gland is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus decides which hormones the pituitary should release by sending it either ... the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland releases the following hormones: GH (growth hormone) – increases size of muscle and ...

  12. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... composed of glands that produce chemical messengers called hormones. Glands of the endocrine system include the pituitary ... system since they contain endocrine tissue that secretes hormones. These include the pancreas, ovaries and testes. The ...

  13. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  14. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  15. Variability of venous anatomy of rat testis: application to experimental testicular surgery.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J A; Lemmi, C; Rajfer, J

    1992-01-01

    The venous drainage of the testis of the laboratory rat was observed in 31 animals. The right testicular (internal spermatic) vein drained directly into the right common iliac vein in 77.4%, and into the inferior vena cava in 22.6% of the animals. The left testicular vein drained into the left common iliac vein in all animals, but in 90.3% there was also an accessory branch of the testicular vein draining into the left renal vein. These observations suggest that in the rat the exact anatomy of the venous drainage of each testis should be identified prior to undertaking any surgical procedure on the testis where the venous vasculature plays a major role such as testicular transplantation or the creation of an experimental varicocele. PMID:1453936

  16. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePLUS

    ... parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. They all secrete saliva into your mouth, the parotid through tubes that drain saliva, called salivary ducts, near your upper teeth, submandibular ...

  17. Adrenal glands

    MedlinePLUS

    ... produces epinephrine and norepinephrine, which are also called adrenaline and noradrenaline. When the glands produce more or less hormones than your body needs, you can become sick. Sometimes this happens ...

  18. 14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.25 Accessory attachments. The engine must operate properly with the accessory...

  19. 14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.25 Accessory attachments. The engine must operate properly with the accessory...

  20. Accessory Pancreatic Duct Patterns and Their Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Prasanna, Lokadolalu Chandracharya; Rajagopal, KV; Thomas, Huban R

    2015-01-01

    Context and Objective: Accessory pancreatic duct (APD) designed to reduce the pressure of major pancreatic duct by forming a secondary drainage channel. Few studies have mentioned the variant types of accessory ducts and their mode of formation, some of these have a clear clinical significance. Present study is aimed to evaluate the possible variations in the APD and its terminations. Materials and Methods: Forty formalin fixed adult human pancreas with duodenum in situ specimens were studied by injecting 1% aqueous eosin, followed by piece meal dissection of the head of the pancreas from posterior surface. Formation, tributaries, relations, and the termination of the accessory pancreatic duct were noted and photographed. Results: Accessory ducts revealed 50% belonged to long type, 22.5% were of short and ansa pancreatica type each, and embryonic type of duct pattern was seen in 5% specimens. 75% of long type ducts showed positive patency with eosin dye, followed by ansa type (44.4%), and least patency was found in short type (22.2%). With regard to the patency of the accessory pancreatic ducts towards their termination, we found 52.5% of the accessory ducts and 5% of the embryonic type pancreatic ducts were patent and in 42.5% of the specimen the ducts were obliterated. In 85% of specimens the minor duodenal papillae was anterosuperior to the major papilla and superior to the major papillae in 10% of the cases, and in 5% minor papillae was absent. The average distance between the two papillae was 2.35 cm. Conclusion: The knowledge of the complex anatomical relations of the gland with its duct, duodenum and bile ducts are essential for the surgeons and sinologists to plan and perform both the diagnostic as well as therapeutic procedures effectively. PMID:25954609

  1. Accessory drive for a turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Brogdon, J.W.; Allen, K.D.; Barton, J.S.; Hicks, R.J.

    1987-02-03

    This patent describes, in combination: a radial flow turbine engine having a main shaft and a casing with air inlets open radially at one end, and an accessory drive comprising: an accessory housing positioned axially adjacent the one end of the turbine engine casing, a gear ring rotatably mounted within the accessory housing, means for mechanically drivingly connecting the gear ring to the turbine main shaft, the connecting means comprising a planetary gear arrangement contained in the accessory housing, the accessory housing having apertures open to the gear ring and circumferentially spaced from each other, at least one accessory having a driven gear, and means for mounting the at least one accessory to the accessory housing so that the accessory registers with one of the plurality of apertures and so that the gear ring meshes with the driven gear, wherein each aperture is adapted for connection with a separate accessory.

  2. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980...DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980...DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are...

  4. HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE TESTIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book, the first to describe how the testis is evaluated in research and toxicology testing settings, is a resource for individuals who wish to perform a systematic evaluation of the testis. he book contains 728 illustrations and drawings. The book begins with a description o...

  5. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Modules Resources Archived Modules Updates Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones The endocrine system is made up of the endocrine glands that secrete hormones. Although there are eight major endocrine glands scattered ...

  6. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Thymus Gland Anatomy Adult View/Download: Small: 720x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Thymus Gland Anatomy Adult Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; illustration ...

  7. Salivary gland infections

    MedlinePLUS

    Salivary gland infections affect the glands that produce saliva (spit). The infection may be due to bacteria ... the mouth. All of the salivary glands empty saliva into the mouth. The saliva enters the mouth ...

  8. Salivary Gland Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes your ... antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

  9. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  10. Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins in adrenal disease and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, David S.; Ramachandrappa, Shwetha; Clark, Adrian J.; Chan, Li F.

    2015-01-01

    Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs) are regulators of the melanocortin receptor family. MRAP is an essential accessory factor for the functional expression of the MC2R/ACTH receptor. The importance of MRAP in adrenal gland physiology is demonstrated by the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 2. The role of its paralog melanocortin-2-receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2), which is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus including the paraventricular nucleus, has recently been linked to mammalian obesity. Whole body deletion and targeted brain specific deletion of the Mrap2 gene result in severe obesity in mice. Interestingly, Mrap2 complete knockout (KO) mice have increased body weight without detectable changes to food intake or energy expenditure. Rare heterozygous variants of MRAP2 have been found in humans with severe, early-onset obesity. In vitro data have shown that Mrap2 interaction with the melanocortin-4-receptor (Mc4r) affects receptor signaling. However, the mechanism by which Mrap2 regulates body weight in vivo is not fully understood and differences between the phenotypes of Mrap2 and Mc4r KO mice may point toward Mc4r independent mechanisms. PMID:26113808

  11. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A wheelchair accessory is a device...

  12. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A wheelchair accessory is a device...

  13. Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Testis Cancer.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Scott M; Lowrance, William T

    2015-08-01

    Testis cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in young men. Most cases represent sporadic occurrences. Most commonly it presents at an early stage (clinical stage I) and is highly curable with radical orchiectomy. Even more advanced stages of testicular cancer are curable with a multimodality treatment approach. There are no widely accepted screening strategies for germ cell tumors. This article discusses the known risk factors and epidemiology of testis cancer, the presentation, and work up for new patients, and the prognosis and cure rates based on the staging and current treatment modalities for testis cancer patients. PMID:26216814

  14. 14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Powerplant accessories. 25.1163 Section 25.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1163 Powerplant accessories. (a) Each...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Powerplant accessories. 29.1163 Section 29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 29.1163 Powerplant accessories. (a) Each...

  16. Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

  17. Vanishing Testis Syndrome: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Dhandore, Priya; Hombalkar, Narendra Narayan; Gurav, Prakash Dattatray

    2014-01-01

    Vanishing testis syndrome or Testicular regression syndrome (TRS) is defined as the absence or an incomplete development of the testis of varying degrees in 46XY patients with normal external genitalia.TRS or vanishing testis syndrome may be seen in less than 5% of all patients of cryptorchidism. We report two cases of TRS who underwent surgical exploration with an initial diagnosis of cryptorchidism with impalpable testis. Grossly testicular tissue was not identified and the vas deferens was ending into a nubbin in both the cases. The presumed testicular remnants were sent for histological examination. The histological sections in both the cases showed vascularised fibrous nodule, structure of the spermatic cord and calcification, supporting the diagnosis of TRS. PMID:25302234

  18. Selective constraint dominates the evolution of genes expressed in a novel reproductive gland.

    PubMed

    Finseth, Findley R; Bondra, Eliana; Harrison, Richard G

    2014-12-01

    One striking pattern in molecular evolution is that genes encoding proteins involved in reproduction tend to evolve rapidly. Seminal fluid proteins frequently exhibit this pattern and directly affect multiple reproductive processes including enhancing sperm performance and mediating postmating sexual selection. Here, we investigate molecular evolutionary patterns of genes expressed in the foam gland of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), a novel reproductive phenotype. Foam provides an interesting contrast to seminal fluid because it plays a similar functional role, yet is produced, stored, and transferred to females independent of semen. We combined RNA-Seq and comparative genomics to examine evolutionary rates of genes with enriched expression in the foam gland of Japanese quail and those that exhibit enriched expression in two other tissues (testis and liver) and with broadly expressed genes. Overall, we found pronounced heterogeneity in evolutionary rates. Foam gland genes evolved under strong evolutionary constraint, whereas testis genes evolved rapidly and sometimes adaptively. These striking differences were robust to variation in gene expression. Genes with enriched expression in the foam gland did not show major shifts in selective pressure after the quail and chicken lineages split; in contrast, testis-expressed genes experienced a burst of accelerated evolution specifically along the Coturnix lineage. Our work demonstrates that, as a class, genes expressed in the novel foam gland experience different selection regimes than genes expressed in many other tissues producing seminal fluid proteins. Our results also highlight the importance of selective constraint in shaping the evolution of male reproductive genes. PMID:25193339

  19. First evidence of a cDNA encoding for a melatonin receptor (mel 1b) in brain, retina, and testis of Pelophylax esculentus.

    PubMed

    Serino, Ismene; Izzo, Gaia; Ferrara, Diana; Minucci, Sergio; D'Istria, Michela

    2011-11-01

    Melatonin, nocturnally secreted by the pineal gland, regulates a variety of physiological functions, including reproduction. Here, we investigated the evidence of melatonin binding sites in frog tissue (brain, retina, and testis) through saturation and competition binding experiments. In the frog, Pelophylax esculentus, our results confirm the presence of a single class of melatonin-specific binding sites in the brain and retina, but not in the testis. Further experiments have been done using biomolecular approaches (PCR analysis). Here, we report the isolation of a cDNA encoding for a melatonin receptor type (mel 1b) from brain, retina, and testis of the P. esculentus. PCR analysis revealed that melatonin expression is higher in the brain and retina, whereas it is lower in the testis. The presence of a melatonin receptor transcript in the frog testis corroborates our previous results obtained in in vitro experiments that suggest that melatonin might act directly in male vertebrate gonads, and indicates that the frog testis may be a suitable model to verify the role of indolamine in testicular activity. PMID:21898847

  20. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePLUS

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones ...

  1. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not enough ... syndrome, there's too much cortisol, while with Addison's disease, there is too little. Some people are born ...

  2. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  3. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... glands are located around the mouth. They produce saliva, which moistens food to help with chewing and ... the rest of the mouth. Salivary glands empty saliva into the mouth through ducts that open at ...

  4. Engine starter and accessory drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Stockton, T.R.

    1986-10-07

    An engine starter and accessory drive system is described which consists of: an accessory drive means; a planetary gearset having a sun gear driveably connected to the accessory drive means, a ring gear, a carrier and planet pinions rotatably mounted on the carrier, fixed to the engine crankshaft, meshing with the sun gear and with the ring gear; means for holding the ring gear against rotation; and a starter motor and first clutch means for providing a one-way driving connection between the motor and the accessory drive means.

  5. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  6. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  9. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  10. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  11. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  12. DNA and RNA synthesis by postpubertal undescended testis in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, M.; Nonomura, N.; Namiki, M.; Okuyama, A.; Koh, E.; Kondoh, N.; Fujioka, H.; Nishimune, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Matsuda, M.

    1989-01-01

    To study the spermatogenic potential of postpubertal undescended testis, the /sup 3/H-thymidine and /sup 14/C-uridine incorporations into normally descended and inguinal undescended testes were examined. The results suggest that DNA synthesis by the inguinal undescended testis is remarkably inhibited but, on the contrary, RNA synthesis is not. The cell-proliferative ability of postpubertal undescended testis may be impaired in spite of the retention of cell viability in the testis.

  13. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section...Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

  15. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980 Section 872...Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered...

  17. Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.

    2010-06-15

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power. Two studies were conducted at ORNL. One was to put an additional winding in the motor slots to magnetically link with the high frequency of the controllable zero-sequence stator currents that do not produce any zero-sequence harmonic torques. The second approach was to utilize the corners of the square stator punching for the high-frequency transformers of the dc/dc inverter. Both approaches were successful. This CRADA validated the feasibility of GM’s desire to use the motor’s magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply. Three joint U.S. patents with GM were issued to ORNL and GM by the U.S. Patent Office for the research results produced by this CRADA.

  18. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Seminoma in the testis presenting as hemospermia.

    PubMed

    Beji, Sami; Hoejgaard, Martin; Lyngdorf, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Hemospermia is often considered idiopathic. We report a case of a patient who presented with hemospermia. Scrotal examination and ultrasonography found a testis tumor. This case underscores the importance of scrotal examination and eventually ultrasound in patients presenting with hemospermia. PMID:23197969

  20. Free Radicals in Adolescent Varicocele Testis

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Carmelo; Santoro, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relationship between the structure and function of the testis and the oxidative and nitrosative stress, determined by an excessive production of free radicals and/or decreased availability of antioxidant defenses, which occur in the testis of adolescents affected by varicocele. Moreover, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidative stress were provided. We conducted a PubMed and Medline search between 1980 and 2014 using “adolescent,” “varicocele,” “free radicals,” “oxidative and nitrosative stress,” “testis,” and “seminiferous tubules” as keywords. Cross-references were checked in each of the studies, and relevant articles were retrieved. We conclude that increased concentration of free radicals, generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in adolescent affected by varicocele, can harm germ cells directly or indirectly by influencing nonspermatogenic cells and basal lamina. With regard to few available data in current literature, further clinical trials on the pre- and postoperative ROS and RNS levels together with morphological studies of the cellular component of the testis are fundamental for complete comprehension of the role played by free radicals in the pathogenesis of adolescent varicocele and could justify its pharmacological treatment with antioxidants. PMID:25580183

  1. Characterization of a Lolium multiflorum Accessory Chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accessory chromosomes, also called B-chromosomes, have been reported in more than 1300 species of plants. Accessory chromosomes show numerical polymorphism and when present in high number, are known to negatively affect the growth and vigor of the plants, while in low numbers they may be beneficial...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powerplant accessories. 29.1163 Section 29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories §...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powerplant accessories. 25.1163 Section 25.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories §...

  4. Three Accessories for a Rotating Platform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, James A.; Fryer, Oscar G.

    1980-01-01

    Describes three accessories developed to be used in conjunction with the rotating platform or turntable. Three demonstrations using these accessories are included. These demonstrations are: (a) conservation of angular momentum; (b) gravity-defying goblets; and (c) direct measurement of centripetal force. (HM)

  5. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  6. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  7. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  8. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  9. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  10. Wnt signaling in testis development: Unnecessary or essential?

    PubMed

    Dong, Wei-Lai; Tan, Fu-Qing; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2015-07-10

    Testis development is a fundamental process in sexual development and reproduction. It is under the regulation of multiple factors. Wnt signaling pathway is a classical pathway, which plays an essential role during early development. From a traditional view, Wnt signaling serves as a key regulator of female reproductive system. However, its role in testis development is relatively controversial. This paper reviews Wnt signaling's part in the major events during testis development, including primordial germ cell specification, proliferation and migration, testis determination, spermatogenesis and somatic cell regulation, and summarizes Wnt signaling's impact on testis-related disorders. We evaluate the outcomes of current studies in the field and suggest future research directions. PMID:25921962

  11. Secretory and basal cells of the epithelium of the tubular glands in the male Mullerian gland of the caecilian Uraeotyphlus narayani (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Matthew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2004-12-01

    Caecilians are exceptional among the vertebrates in that males retain the Mullerian duct as a functional glandular structure. The Mullerian gland on each side is formed from a large number of tubular glands connecting to a central duct, which either connects to the urogenital duct or opens directly into the cloaca. The Mullerian gland is believed to secrete a substance to be added to the sperm during ejaculation. Thus, the Mullerian gland could function as a male accessory reproductive gland. Recently, we described the male Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and histochemistry. The present TEM study reports that the secretory cells of both the tubular and basal portions of the tubular glands of the male Mullerian gland of this caecilian produce secretion granules in the same manner as do other glandular epithelial cells. The secretion granules are released in the form of structured granules into the lumen of the tubular glands, and such granules are traceable to the lumen of the central duct of the Mullerian gland. This is comparable to the situation prevailing in the epididymal epithelium of several reptiles. In the secretory cells of the basal portion of the tubular glands, mitochondria are intimately associated with fabrication of the secretion granules. The structural and functional organization of the epithelium of the basal portion of the tubular glands is complicated by the presence of basal cells. This study suggests the origin of the basal cells from peritubular tissue leukocytes. The study also indicates a role for the basal cells in acquiring secretion granules from the neighboring secretory cells and processing them into lipofuscin material in the context of regression of the Mullerian gland during the period of reproductive quiescence. In these respects the basal cells match those in the epithelial lining of the epididymis of amniotes. PMID:15487004

  12. Carcinoma in accessory axillary breast.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Seema; Mishra, Shashi Prakash; Kumar, Satendra; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of carcinoma developing in an accessory breast. The patient presented with a progressive lump in her right axilla for 1 year. On examination, there was a well-developed nipple areola complex in the right axilla overlying a hard, fixed 5 × 3 cm lump. On investigation, core biopsy revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma of the breast. Mammography also revealed features of a malignant lesion with skin and muscle infiltration. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered followed by modified radical mastectomy after three cycles. Immunohistochemistry study showed positive status of oestrogen and progesterone receptors, and negative HER-2 neu. Three more cycles of chemotherapy along with 50 Gy radiotherapy were given in an adjuvant setting followed by hormone therapy. PMID:26260957

  13. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section... Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts or tools and are delivered with...

  14. An update of the macaque testis proteome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Guo, Yueshuai; Zhou, Zuomin; Guo, Xuejiang; Sha, Jiahao

    2015-12-01

    The genome sequence of rhesus macaque is a draft version with many errors and is lack of Y chromosome annotation. In the present dataset, we reanalyzed the previously published macaque testis proteome. We searched for refined protein sequences, potential Y chromosome proteins and transcripts predicted proteins in addition to the latest Ensembl protein sequences of macaque. A total of 74,433 peptides corresponding to 9247 protein groups were identified, and the data are supplied in this paper. The updated version of macaque testis proteome provided evidences for predicted genes or transcripts at the peptide level. It can be used for further in-depth proteogenomic annotation of macaque genome and is useful for studying the mechanisms of macaque spermatogenesis. PMID:26484360

  15. Accessory liver lobes: anatomical description and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Glenisson, M; Salloum, C; Lim, C; Lacaze, L; Malek, A; Enriquez, A; Compagnon, P; Laurent, A; Azoulay, D

    2014-12-01

    Accessory liver lobes are a rare condition and appear to be due to excessive development of the liver. The presence of an accessory hepatic lobe is often diagnosed incidentally and sometimes revealed if it develops torsion, especially in pedunculated forms. In most cases, the accessory lobe is located below the liver, i.e., infrahepatic. Riedel's lobe is the best-known example of an accessory lobe, corresponding to hypertrophy of segments V and VI. While accessories lobes can simulate tumors, there have also been reports of hepatocellular tumor(s) that developed in these accessory lobes. Based on a review of the literature, this update focuses on accessory hepatic lobes. PMID:25448768

  16. Thyroid Hormone and Leptin in the Testis

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Cristiane Fonte; Zamoner, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is primarily expressed in white adipose tissue; however, it is expressed in the hypothalamus and reproductive tissues as well. Leptin acts by activating the leptin receptors (Ob-Rs). Additionally, the regulation of several neuroendocrine and reproductive functions, including the inhibition of glucocorticoids and enhancement of thyroxine and sex hormone concentrations in human beings and mice are leptin functions. It has been suggested that thyroid hormones (TH) could directly regulate leptin expression. Additionally, hypothyroidism compromises the intracellular integration of leptin signaling specifically in the arcuate nucleus. Two TH receptor isoforms are expressed in the testis, TRa and TRb, with TRa being the predominant one that is present in all stages of development. The effects of TH involve the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli and Leydig cells during development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis. In this context, TH disorders are associated with sexual dysfunction. An endocrine and/or direct paracrine effect of leptin on the gonads inhibits testosterone production in Leydig cells. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effects of both hormones in the testis during hypothyroidism. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge regarding leptin and TH in the testis. PMID:25505448

  17. The Treatment of the Incompletely Descended Testis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D. S. Poole

    1939-01-01

    (1) Under three years of age the diagnosis of the incompletely descended testis is uncertain. (2) The policy of awaiting spontaneous descent may be pursued until 10 years of age but, unless the testis lies in the superior scrotal position, this policy should not be persisted in thereafter. (3) Hormonal therapy may be employed before operative treatment as a means of determining testes which will descend spontaneously. It should only be used in the prepuberty period. (4) Operative treatment may be safely carried out at any age after 3 years and should be completed before puberty. The optimum period is between 8 and 11 years. The Bevan operation may be successful when the testis is very mobile but the most consistent results are obtained by the septal transposition or Keetley-Torek operations. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22 PMID:19991991

  18. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device,...

  19. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device,...

  20. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device,...

  1. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device,...

  2. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device,...

  3. Adaptable infrared surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy accessory.

    PubMed

    Menegazzo, Nicola; Kegel, Laurel L; Kim, Yoon-Chang; Allen, Derrick L; Booksh, Karl S

    2012-09-01

    A second generation prototype enabling surface plasmon resonance spectroscopic measurements in the infrared (IR) range is described. The new design (v2) uses the optical train (optics and detector) within conventional FT-IR spectrometers by confining dimensions of the accessory to space available within the sample compartment of the spectrometer. The v2 accessory builds upon knowledge gained from a previous version that was based on a modified commercial variable angle spectroscopic accessory and addresses observed limitations of the original design-improved temporal stability and measurement acquisition speed, crucial to biomolecular binding studies, as well as optical flexibility, a requirement for investigations of novel plasmon-supporting materials. Different aspects of the accessory, including temporal stability, mechanical resilience, and sensitivity to changes in refractive index of a sample were evaluated and presented in this contribution. PMID:23020425

  4. Adaptable infrared surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy accessory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegazzo, Nicola; Kegel, Laurel L.; Kim, Yoon-Chang; Allen, Derrick L.; Booksh, Karl S.

    2012-09-01

    A second generation prototype enabling surface plasmon resonance spectroscopic measurements in the infrared (IR) range is described. The new design (v2) uses the optical train (optics and detector) within conventional FT-IR spectrometers by confining dimensions of the accessory to space available within the sample compartment of the spectrometer. The v2 accessory builds upon knowledge gained from a previous version that was based on a modified commercial variable angle spectroscopic accessory and addresses observed limitations of the original design—improved temporal stability and measurement acquisition speed, crucial to biomolecular binding studies, as well as optical flexibility, a requirement for investigations of novel plasmon-supporting materials. Different aspects of the accessory, including temporal stability, mechanical resilience, and sensitivity to changes in refractive index of a sample were evaluated and presented in this contribution.

  5. Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen Mimicking Neuroendocrine Tumor on 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Bhure, Ujwal; Metzger, Jürg; Keller, Franziska Aebersold; Zander, Andrea; Lago, Marisol Pérez; Herring, Kerstin; Strobel, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    Besides well-known physiologic uptake of Ga-DOTATATE in spleen, pituitary gland, pancreatic head, adrenals, kidney, and urinary bladder, sometimes unusual areas of uptake are found. We report a case of a 53-year-old woman who had vague pain in abdomen for which abdominal CT was done showing a contrast-enhancing lesion in the pancreatic tail. It was suspected to be of neuroendocrine origin and Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT showed a corresponding focal uptake. Spleen-preserving pancreatic tail resection was performed. Pathology revealed the diagnosis of an accessory intrapancreatic spleen (AIPS). PMID:26053721

  6. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  7. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

  8. Lacrimal gland (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The lacrimal gland lies within the orbit on the outer portion of the upper eye. The gland continually secretes tears which moisten, lubricate, and protect the surface of the eye. Excess tears drain into small ducts which empty into the nasal cavity.

  9. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  10. Mammary Glands: Developmental Changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mammary gland progresses from the accumulation of a few cells in the embryonic ectoderm to a highly arborescent tubulo-alveolar gland capable of secreting a highly nutritious product for consumption. Throughout this progression, various changes occur during each developmental stage: prenatal, pr...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  14. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  15. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  16. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  1. Gland With Cantilever Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Patrick B.

    1989-01-01

    Single-piece gland forms tight seal on probe or tube containing liquid or gas at high pressure. Gland and probe align as assembled by simple torquing procedure. Disconnected easily and reused at same site. Made from any of wide variety of materials so compatible with application. Cantilever ring at top of gland bites into wall of tube or probe, sealing it. Wall of tube or probe must be thick enough to accommodate deformation without rupturing. Maximum deformation designed in coordination with seating and deformation of boss or conical seal.

  2. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... surgery to remove part or all of your thyroid gland. This operation is called thyroidectomy . You probably ... in just a few weeks. If you had thyroid cancer, you may need to have radioactive iodine ...

  3. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is encased within the prostate gland. As a man ages, the prostate typically enlarges in size in ... urinate, and incontinence. Less than half of all men with BPH have symptoms of the disease, or ...

  4. Adrenal Gland Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer.Net Editorial Board , which is composed of medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Adrenal Gland ...

  5. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer.Net Editorial Board , which is composed of medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Salivary Gland ...

  6. Pineal and Pituitary Glands

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CNS Tumors » Anatomy » Pineal and Pituitary Glands Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Site-specific Modules Brain & Other Nervous ... malignant Brain Tumors History of CNS Tumor Surveillance & Registration BTWG Recommendations Public Law 107-260 Reportable Cases ...

  7. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal (Adrenalectomy) Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Version Find a SAGES Surgeon What ... 2015 CME Credits Healthy Sooner: Patient Information Contact SAGES Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons 11300 ...

  8. Adrenal glands (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.

  9. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions. PMID:26614702

  10. Circannual Testis Changes in Seasonally Breeding Mammals.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Rafael; Burgos, Miguel; Barrionuevo, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    In the non-equatorial zones of the Earth, species concentrate their reproductive effort in the more favorable season. A consequence of seasonal breeding is seasonal testis regression, which implies the depletion of the germinative epithelium, permeation of the blood-testis barrier, and reduced androgenic function. This process has been studied in a number of vertebrates, but the mechanisms controlling it are not yet well understood. Apoptosis was assumed for years to be an important effector of seasonal germ cell depletion in all vertebrates, including mammals, but an alternative mechanism has recently been reported in the Iberian mole as well as in the large hairy armadillo. It is based on the desquamation of meiotic and post-meiotic germ cells as a consequence of altered Sertoli-germ cell adhesion molecule expression and distribution. Desquamated cells are either discarded alive through the epididymis, as in the mole, or subsequently die by apoptosis, as in the armadillo. Also, recent findings on the reproductive cycle of the greater white-toothed shrew at the meridional limits of its distribution area have revealed that the mechanisms controlling seasonal breeding are in fact far more plastic and versatile than initially suspected. Perhaps these higher adaptive capacities place mammals in a better position to face the ongoing climate change. PMID:26375035

  11. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  12. Controlled Speed Accessory Drive demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    A Controlled Speed Accessory Drive System was examined in an effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars. Concept feasibility and the performance of a typical system during actual road driving conditions were demonstrated. The CSAD system is described as a mechanical device which limits engine accessory speeds, thereby reducing parasitic horsepower losses and improving overall vehicle fuel economy. Fuel consumption data were compiled for fleets of GSA vehicles. Various motor pool locations were selected, each representing different climatic conditions. On the basis of a total accumulated fleet usage of nearly three million miles, an overall fuel economy improvement of 6 percent to 7 percent was demonstrated. Coincident chassis dynamometer tests were accomplished on selected vehicles to establish the effect of different accessory drive systems on exhaust emissions, and to evaluate the magnitude of the mileage benefits which could be derived.

  13. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section...PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives, such as diamond chips, that are glued to shellac-based paper. The device is intended to remove excessive restorative materials,...

  15. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884...Monitoring Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to...

  16. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884...Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to...

  17. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884...Monitoring Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to...

  18. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884...Monitoring Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to...

  19. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884...Monitoring Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to...

  20. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884...Monitoring Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to...

  1. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884...Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to...

  2. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives, such as diamond chips, that are glued to shellac-based paper. The device is intended to remove excessive restorative materials,...

  3. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives, such as diamond chips, that are glued to shellac-based paper. The device is intended to remove excessive restorative materials,...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. ...suprapubic urological catheter and accessories is...abdominal wall into the urinary bladder with the aid...fluids to and from the urinary tract. This generic...includes the suprapubic catheter and tube, Malecot...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. ...suprapubic urological catheter and accessories is...abdominal wall into the urinary bladder with the aid...fluids to and from the urinary tract. This generic...includes the suprapubic catheter and tube, Malecot...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. ...suprapubic urological catheter and accessories is...abdominal wall into the urinary bladder with the aid...fluids to and from the urinary tract. This generic...includes the suprapubic catheter and tube, Malecot...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. ...suprapubic urological catheter and accessories is...abdominal wall into the urinary bladder with the aid...fluids to and from the urinary tract. This generic...includes the suprapubic catheter and tube, Malecot...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. ...suprapubic urological catheter and accessories is...abdominal wall into the urinary bladder with the aid...fluids to and from the urinary tract. This generic...includes the suprapubic catheter and tube, Malecot...

  9. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories....

  10. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories....

  11. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories....

  12. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories....

  13. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories....

  14. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  15. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  16. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  18. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  3. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  4. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  5. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  6. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  7. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  8. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  13. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  14. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  15. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.600 Section... tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts, or tools will be treated as originating goods if...

  16. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's standard...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urological catheter and accessories. 876.5130... catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A urological catheter and accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the urethra and used to pass fluids to or from the urinary tract....

  20. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories... Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A suprapubic urological catheter and accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the abdominal wall into the urinary...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories... Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A suprapubic urological catheter and accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the abdominal wall into the urinary...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urological catheter and accessories. 876.5130... catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A urological catheter and accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the urethra and used to pass fluids to or from the urinary tract....

  3. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories... Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A suprapubic urological catheter and accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the abdominal wall into the urinary...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urological catheter and accessories. 876.5130... catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A urological catheter and accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the urethra and used to pass fluids to or from the urinary tract....

  5. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories... Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A suprapubic urological catheter and accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the abdominal wall into the urinary...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urological catheter and accessories. 876.5130... catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A urological catheter and accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the urethra and used to pass fluids to or from the urinary tract....

  7. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories... Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A suprapubic urological catheter and accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the abdominal wall into the urinary...

  8. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  12. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial... accessory compartment by a diaphragm that meets the firewall requirements of § 23.1191....

  14. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  15. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  16. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010...

  18. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010...

  19. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a device intended for use...

  20. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a device intended for use...

  1. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a device intended for use...

  2. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a device intended for use...

  3. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a device intended for use...

  4. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  5. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  7. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  8. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  9. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  10. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  11. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  12. The evolution of sweat glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folk, G. Edgar; Semken, A.

    1991-09-01

    Mammals have two kinds of sweat glands, apocrine and eccrine, which provide for thermal cooling. In this paper we describe the distribution and characteristics of these glands in selected mammals, especially primates, and reject the suggested development of the eccrine gland from the apocrine gland during the Tertiary geological period. The evidence strongly suggests that the two glands, depending on the presence or absence of fur, have equal and similar functions among mammals; apocrine glands are not primitive. However, there is a unique and remarkable thermal eccrine system in humans; we suggest that this system evolved in concert with bipedalism and a smooth hairless skin.

  13. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  14. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  15. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  16. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  18. Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory

    DOEpatents

    Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

    2005-05-31

    An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

  19. Unilateral Congenital Lacrimal Gland Agenesis With Contralateral Lacrimal Gland Hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Talsania, Sonali D; Robson, Caroline D; Mantagos, Iason S

    2015-01-01

    Congenital alacrima is a form of primary lacrimal deficiency characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the lacrimal gland. The puncta and salivary glands may also be aplastic. The case of a 5-year-old girl with congenital alacrima secondary to lacrimal gland agenesis and hypoplasia without punctal or salivary gland involvement and without other systemic comorbidities is reported. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2015;52:e52-e54.]. PMID:26473584

  20. Atrioventricular accessory pathway with anterograde decremental conduction property

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Satoshi; Fujii, Eitaro; Sugiura, Shinya; Ito, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of atrioventricular (AV) accessory pathway with anterograde decremental conduction property. The ? wave polarity suggested the presence of a right posteroseptal accessory AV pathway. During atrial pacing, Wenckebach-type AV block over the accessory pathway was observed with prolongation of the local AV conduction time without the change in QRS morphology. No retrograde ventriculoatrial conduction was observed. During mapping of the right midseptal area, mechanical conduction block at the level of the proximal input to the accessory pathway was induced repeatedly by catheter manipulation. Radiofrequency energy delivery eliminated the accessory pathway. In this case only the bump phenomenon was the best marker of successful ablation. PMID:23780770

  1. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Treatment (Posterior Blepharitis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Treatment What are Meibomian (Oil) Glands? Meibomian glands are glands that are arranged ... lashes. The force of an eyelid blink causes oil to be excreted onto the posterior lid margin. ...

  2. What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on lymphomas, see our document Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma . Sarcomas: The salivary glands contain blood vessels, muscle cells, ... start in these types of cells are called sarcomas . These rarely occur in the salivary gland. For ...

  3. Ameboid cells in spermatogenic cysts of caecilian testis.

    PubMed

    Smita, Mathew; Jancy, M George; Akbarsha, M A; Oommen, Oommen V

    2005-03-01

    Sertoli cells constitute a permanent feature of the testis lobules in caecilians irrespective of the functional state of the testis. The developing germ cells are intimately associated with the Sertoli cells, which are adherent to the basal lamina, until spermiation. There are irregularly shaped cells in the cores of the testis lobules that interact with germ cells at the face opposite to their attachment with Sertoli cells. These irregularly shaped (ameboid) cells first appear in the lumen of the cysts containing primary spermatocytes and are continually present until spermiation. We did not observe any cytoplasmic continuity between a Sertoli cell and an ameboid cell. Both light microscopic and TEM observations reveal a phagocytic role for the ameboid cells: they scavenge the residual bodies shed by spermatozoa. Organization of the ameboid cells is grossly different from that of the spermatogenic and Sertoli cells. They appear to develop from the epithelium at the juncture of the collecting ductule with the testis lobule. PMID:15688448

  4. The pattern of lymphatic drainage of the rat testis.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Clavier, R; Harrison, R G

    1978-01-01

    The basic pattern of the lymphatic drainage of the testis is described in the mature albino rat following studies in vivo and the examination of dissected specimens in vitro. Microlymphography was undertaken using various contrast media. Three groups of lymphatics leave the surface of the testis--superior, medial and inferior, from the upper pole, from the mediastinum and from the lower pole respectively. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Figs. 5 and 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:701199

  5. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children. PMID:26614703

  6. Bartholin's Gland Cyst

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU ... vagina were the face of a clock, these glands would be found at about 4 and 8 o'clock. Normally they are invisible. They make a small amount of fluid that lubricates the vaginal lips. If a flap of skin grows over ...

  7. Spermatogenesis in Ferret Testis Xenografts: A New Model

    PubMed Central

    Gourdon, Jim C; Travis, Alexander J

    2011-01-01

    Testis xenografting is both a promising tool to study spermatogenesis and a means to preserve the genetic information and reproductive potential of prepubertal male animals. The present study was conducted to evaluate this technique using testis tissue from domestic ferrets, an important biomedical model and a model for the conservation of small carnivore species. Fresh testis tissue from 8-wk-old ferrets was implanted ectopically under the skin on the backs of castrated nude mice and subsequently evaluated for testosterone production and establishment of spermatogenesis at 10, 20, 25, and 30 wk after xenografting. A total of 40% of fresh ferret xenografts were harvested. Seminal vesicles were collected from the recipient mice and weighed as an assay for bioactive testosterone. The weights of seminal vesicles from the mice showed no significant difference from those of uncastrated, control nude mice, indicating that the xenografts were producing physiologically relevant amounts of testosterone. The ferret testis xenografts produced differentiating germ cells and sperm at the same time as did testis from age-matched control ferrets. These data demonstrate the ability of Mustelidae testicular tissue to establish spermatogenesis in nude mice after testis xenografting. PMID:21535925

  8. Radioisotope study of salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    De Rossi, G.

    1987-01-01

    The book discusses the use of radioisotope methods in the diagnosis of salivary gland diseases. Anatomical and physiological features of the salivary gland are summarized and radiotracer deposition processes are described. Clinical applications of scintigraphy are detailed. The degree of functional impairment due to various inflammatory diseases is contrasted by means of semiquantitative computerized methods with follow-up therapeutic results. Post-irradiatory involvement and possible functional recovery of salivary glands are also considered. The contents discussed are: Salivary Gland Physiology and Radioisotope Uptake. Radioisotope Study of Salivary Glands. Radioisotope Studies Under Normal Conditions. Survey of Radiographic Methods. Dosimetric Assessment. Conclusions and Index.

  9. Gestational bisphenol A exposure and testis development

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Cecilia; Bondesson, Maria; Krementsov, Dimitry N; Teuscher, Cory

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all humans are exposed to bisphenol A (BPA). Since BPA can act as a ligand for estrogen receptors, potential hazardous effects of BPA should be evaluated in the context of endogenous estrogenic hormones. Because estrogen is metabolized in the placenta, developing fetuses are normally exposed to very low endogenous estrogen levels. BPA, on the other hand, passes through the placenta and might have distinct adverse consequences during the sensitive stages of fetal development. Testicular gametogenesis and steroidogenesis begin early during fetal development. These processes are sensitive to estrogens and play a role in determining the number of germ stem cells, sperm count, and male hormone levels in adulthood. Although studies have shown a correlation between BPA exposure and perturbed reproduction, a clear consensus has yet to be established as to whether current human gestational BPA exposure results in direct adverse effects on male genital development and reproduction. However, studies in animals and in vitro have provided direct evidence for the ability of BPA exposure to influence male reproductive development. This review discusses the current knowledge of potential effects of BPA exposure on male reproductive health and whether gestational exposure adversely affects testis development. PMID:26167515

  10. Morphology and Proteome Characterization of the Salivary Glands of the Western Chinch Bug (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    PubMed

    Ramm, Crystal; Wayadande, Astri; Baird, Lisa; Nandakumar, Renu; Madayiputhiya, Nandakumar; Amundsen, Keenan; Donze-Reiner, Teresa; Baxendale, Frederick; Sarath, Gautam; Heng-Moss, Tiffany

    2015-08-01

    The western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber, is a serious pest of buffalograss, Buchloe dactyloides (Nuttall) due to physical and chemical damage caused during the feeding process. Although previous work has investigated the feeding behaviors of chinch bugs in the Blissus complex, no study to date has explored salivary gland morphology and the associated salivary complex of this insect. Whole and sectioned B. occiduus salivary glands were visualized using light and scanning electron microscopy to determine overall structure and cell types of the salivary glands and their individual lobes. Microscopy revealed a pair of trilobed principal glands and a pair of tubular accessory glands of differing cellular types. To link structure with function, the salivary gland proteome was characterized using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The salivary proteome analysis resulted in B. occiduus sequences matching 228 nonhomologous protein sequences of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), with many specific to the proteins present in the salivary proteome of A. pisum. A number of sequences were assigned the molecular function of hydrolase and oxido-reductase activity, with one specific protein sequence revealing a peroxidase-like function. This is the first study to characterize the salivary proteome of B. occiduus and the first of any species in the family Blissidae. PMID:26470353

  11. Accessories to the Crime: Recent Advances in HIV Accessory Protein Biology

    PubMed Central

    Gramberg, Thomas; Sunseri, Nicole; Landau, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding the roles of the lentiviral accessory proteins have provided fascinating insight into the molecular biology of the virus and uncovered previously unappreciated innate immune mechanisms by which the host defends itself. HIV-1 and other lentiviruses have developed accessory proteins that counterattack the antiviral defenses in a sort of evolutionary battle. The virus is remarkably adept at co-opting cellular degradative pathways to destroy the protective proteins. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding three of the accessory proteins—virion infectivity factor (Vif), viral protein R (Vpr), and viral protein U (Vpu)—that target different restriction factors to ensure virus replication. These proteins may provide promising targets for the development of novel classes of antiretroviral drugs. PMID:19149995

  12. Accessory Cavitated Uterine Mass: A Rare Cause of Severe Dysmenorrhea in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Paul, P G; Chopade, Gaurav; Das, Tanuka; Dhivya, N; Patil, Saurabh; Thomas, Manju

    2015-01-01

    We present 3 case reports of a rare Müllerian anomaly called accessory and cavitated uterine mass (ACUM), which is found in young women >30 years of age. They presented with severe dysmenorrhea refractory to medical treatment. The patients were 17, 19, and 25 years old. The patients had the classic Müllerian anomalies. The hysteroscopic examination was normal in all 3 cases, and laparoscopic examination showed a 3- to 4-cm ill-defined mass on the right half of the uterus, without any communication to the uterine cavity. The chocolate-colored material was drained in all of the cases, during excision of the mass. The myometrial defect was sutured laparoscopically. On histological examination, the mass was found to be a cystic cavity, lined by endometrial glands and stroma, which confirmed the diagnosis of ACUM. PMID:26093186

  13. Circadian clock and output genes are rhythmically expressed in extratesticular ducts and accessory organs of mice

    PubMed Central

    Bebas, Piotr; Goodall, Cheri P.; Majewska, Magda; Neumann, Adam; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M.; Chappell, Patrick E.

    2009-01-01

    Circadian clocks regulate multiple rhythms in mammalian tissues. In most organs core clock gene expression is oscillatory, with negative components Per and Cry peaking in antiphase to Bmal1. A notable exception is the testis, where clock genes seem nonrhythmic. Earlier mammalian studies, however, did not examine clock expression patterns in accessory ductal tissue required for sperm maturation and transport. Previous studies in insects demonstrated control of sperm maturation in vas deferens by a local circadian system. Sperm ducts express clock genes and display circadian pH changes controlled by vacuolar-type H+-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA-II). It is unknown whether sperm-processing rhythms are conserved beyond insects. To address this question in mice housed in a light-dark environment, we examined temporal patterns of mPer1 and Bmal1 gene expression and protein abundance in epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and prostate. Results demonstrate variable tissue-specific patterns of expression of the two genes, with variations in levels of clock proteins and their nucleo-cytoplasmic cycling observed among examined tissues. Strikingly, mPer1 and Bmal1 mRNA and proteins oscillate in antiphase in the prostate, with similar peak-trough patterns as observed in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, the brain’s central clock. Genes encoding CA and a V-ATPase subunit, which are rhythmically expressed in sperm ducts of moths, are also rhythmic in some segments of murine sperm ducts. Our data suggest that some sperm duct segments may contain peripheral circadian systems whereas others may express clock genes in a pleiotropic manner.—Bebas, P., Goodall, C. P., Majewska, M., Neumann, A., Giebultowicz, J. M., Chappell, P. E. Circadian clock and output genes are rhythmically expressed in extratesticular ducts and accessory organs of mice. PMID:18945877

  14. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...accessories for endoscopes, nonpowered anoscopes...attachments for endoscopes, pocket battery boxes, flexible or rigid choledochoscopes...esophagogastroduodenoscopes, rigid esophagoscopes...illuminators for endoscopes,...

  18. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...accessories for endoscopes, nonpowered anoscopes...attachments for endoscopes, pocket battery boxes, flexible or rigid choledochoscopes...esophagogastroduodenoscopes, rigid esophagoscopes...illuminators for endoscopes,...

  19. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...accessories for endoscopes, nonpowered anoscopes...attachments for endoscopes, pocket battery boxes, flexible or rigid choledochoscopes...esophagogastroduodenoscopes, rigid esophagoscopes...illuminators for endoscopes,...

  20. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...accessories for endoscopes, nonpowered anoscopes...attachments for endoscopes, pocket battery boxes, flexible or rigid choledochoscopes...esophagogastroduodenoscopes, rigid esophagoscopes...illuminators for endoscopes,...

  1. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...accessories for endoscopes, nonpowered anoscopes...attachments for endoscopes, pocket battery boxes, flexible or rigid choledochoscopes...esophagogastroduodenoscopes, rigid esophagoscopes...illuminators for endoscopes,...

  2. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens: prime candidates for immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gjerstorff, Morten F.; Andersen, Mads H.; Ditzel, Henrik J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer/testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic functions, including support of growth, survival and metastasis. This novel insight into the function of cancer/testis antigens has the potential to deliver more effective cancer vaccines. Moreover, immune targeting of oncogenic cancer/testis antigens in combination with conventional cytotoxic therapies or novel immunotherapies such as checkpoint blockade or adoptive transfer, represents a highly synergistic approach with the potential to improve patient survival. PMID:26158218

  3. Proteomic analysis of Drosophila mojavensis male accessory glands suggests novel classes of seminal fluid proteins

    E-print Network

    Markow, Therese

    variation in fertilization traits such as copulatory plug formation, sperm storage organ use, and nutritional ejaculatory donation. Despite extensive research on the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster fertilizing organisms, sexual reproduction is mediated by a complex series of biochemical interactions between

  4. Photoacoustic imaging of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Rich, Laurie J; Seshadri, Mukund

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we utilized photoacoustic imaging (PAI) with co-registered ultrasound (US) to non-invasively assess salivary gland function in vivo. A significant increase in salivary gland oxygen saturation was observed on PAI within minutes after gustatory stimulation of healthy mice reflective of the hyperemic response associated with secretion of saliva. Good correlation was seen between PAI and Doppler sonography. Salivary adenoid cystic carcinomas showed higher oxygen saturation compared to surrounding salivary gland tissue. Our results demonstrate the potential clinical utility of PAI for visualization of salivary gland physiology and pathology. PMID:26417488

  5. Photoacoustic imaging of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Laurie J.; Seshadri, Mukund

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we utilized photoacoustic imaging (PAI) with co-registered ultrasound (US) to non-invasively assess salivary gland function in vivo. A significant increase in salivary gland oxygen saturation was observed on PAI within minutes after gustatory stimulation of healthy mice reflective of the hyperemic response associated with secretion of saliva. Good correlation was seen between PAI and Doppler sonography. Salivary adenoid cystic carcinomas showed higher oxygen saturation compared to surrounding salivary gland tissue. Our results demonstrate the potential clinical utility of PAI for visualization of salivary gland physiology and pathology. PMID:26417488

  6. Initial development of an electronic testis rigidity tester.

    PubMed

    Mirilas, Petros; Tsakiridis, Odysseus

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to develop our previously presented mechanical device, the Testis Rigidity Tester (TRT), into an electronic system (Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester, ETRT) by applying tactile imaging, which has been used successfully with other solid organs. A measuring device, located at the front end of the ETRT incorporates a tactile sensor comprising an array of microsensors. By application of a predetermined deformation of 2 mm, increased pressure alters linearly the resistance of each microsensor, producing changes of voltage. These signals were amplified, filtered, and digitized, and then processed by an electronic collector system, which presented them as a color-filled contour plot of the area of the testis coming into contact with the sensor. Testis models of different rigidity served for initial evaluation of ETRT; their evacuated central spaces contained different, increasing glue masses. An independent method of rigidity measurement, using an electric weight scale and a micrometer, showed that the more the glue injected, the greater the force needed for a 2-mm deformation. In a preliminary test, a single sensor connected to a multimeter showed similar force measurement for the same deformation in these phantoms. For each of the testis models compressed in the same manner, the ETRT system offered a map of pressures, represented by a color scale within the contour plot of the contact area with the sensor. ETRT found certain differences in rigidity between models that had escaped detection by a blind observer. ETRT is easy to use and provides a color-coded "insight" of the testis internal structure. After experimental testing, it could be valuable in intraoperative evaluation of testes, so that the surgeon can decide about orchectomy or orcheopexy. PMID:21442145

  7. Expression and Localization of Lung Surfactant Proteins in Human Testis

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Walter; Matthies, Cord; Ruf, Christian; Hartmann, Arndt; Garreis, Fabian; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    Background Surfactant proteins (SPs) have been described in various tissues and fluids including tissues of the nasolacrimal apparatus, airways and digestive tract. Human testis have a glandular function as a part of the reproductive and the endocrine system, but no data are available on SPs in human testis and prostate under healthy and pathologic conditions. Objective The aim of the study was the detection and characterization of the surfactant proteins A, B, C and D (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D) in human testis. Additionally tissue samples affected by testicular cancer were investigated. Results Surfactant proteins A, B, C and D were detected using RT-PCR in healthy testis. By means of Western blot analysis, these SPs were detected at the protein level in normal testis, seminoma and seminal fluid, but not in spermatozoa. Expression of SPs was weaker in seminoma compared to normal testicular tissue. SPs were localized in combination with vimentin immunohistochemically in cells of Sertoli and Leydig. Conclusion Surfactant proteins seem to be inherent part of the human testis. By means of physicochemical properties the proteins appear to play a role during immunological and rheological process of the testicular tissue. The presence of SP-B and SP-C in cells of Sertoli correlates with their function of fluid secretion and may support transportation of spermatozoa. In seminoma the expression of all SP's was generally weaker compared to normal germ cells. This could lead to a reduction of immunomodulatory and rheology processes in the germ cell tumor. PMID:26599233

  8. Pseudoneoplastic lesions of the testis and paratesticular structures

    PubMed Central

    Mikuz, G.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Trias, I.; Arce, Y.; Montironi, R.; Egevad, L.; Scarpelli, M.; Lopez-Beltran, A.

    2007-01-01

    Pseudotumors or tumor-like proliferations (non-neoplastic masses) and benign mimickers (non-neoplastic cellular proliferations) are rare in the testis and paratesticular structures. Clinically, these lesions (cysts, ectopic tissues, and vascular, inflammatory, or hyperplastic lesions) are of great interest for the reason that, because of the topography, they may be relevant as differential diagnoses. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the pseudoneoplasic entities arising in the testis and paratesticular structures; emphasis is placed on how the practicing pathologist may distinguish benign mimickers and pseudotumors from true neoplasia. These lesions can be classified as macroscopic or microscopic mimickers of neoplasia. PMID:17805564

  9. Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Cristina P; Parvathaneni, Upendra; Méndez, Eduardo; Martins, Renato G

    2015-12-01

    Salivary gland malignant tumors represent a diverse group of neoplasms. Their low incidence makes research studies challenging, with most therapeutic recommendations based on case reviews, single-arm trials, or small randomized trials. The standard of care for localized disease is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is the preferred local therapy when surgery is not possible or if there is significant morbidity. When symptomatic metastatic disease develops, systemic therapy is considered. Recent trial accrual success with a cooperative group, treatments based on defined molecular targets, and the development of immunotherapies all hold promise in improving the care of patients with these tumors. PMID:26568553

  10. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Airworthiness Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by...

  11. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  12. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  13. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (1) The extracorporeal blood system and accessories consists of tubing, pumps, pressure monitors, air... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood...

  15. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (1) The extracorporeal blood system and accessories consists of tubing, pumps, pressure monitors, air... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (1) The extracorporeal blood system and accessories consists of tubing, pumps, pressure monitors, air... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (1) The extracorporeal blood system and accessories consists of tubing, pumps, pressure monitors, air... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (1) The extracorporeal blood system and accessories consists of tubing, pumps, pressure monitors, air... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood...

  19. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  20. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  6. Unusual drainage of the main kidney on accessory kidney

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Gülnur; U?ra?, Murat; Demiröz, Sevgi

    2014-01-01

    Patients with an accessory kidney are characterized by an excessive number of kidneys. The ureter of the accessory kidney either drains separately into the bladder or merges with the ureter of the main kidney. In our case, interestingly, the ureter of the left main kidney drained directly into the accessory kidney and the ureter of the latter was the common drainage route for both. The drainage of a normal kidney via the ureter of an accessory kidney has not been reported in the literature, so far. The aim of this report is to present the case with radiological findings and to emphasize the effects of this situation on planned surgical procedures. A 62-year-old female patient had an interesting abnormality on the left collecting system, which was revealed on excretory urography (EU), retrograde urography (RU) and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). A kinky left ureter, which formed a U shape, was revealed on EU. On MDCT, an accessory kidney was revealed at the anterior aspect of the middle zone of left main kidney. The ureter of the main left kidney drained directly into the accessory kidney. The course of this drainage was confirmed by retrograde urography. An accessory kidney is a rare entity associated with horseshoe kidney, ectopic ureter draining into the vagina, bifid collecting system and coarctation of the aorta. In our case, an unusual association between the ureters of the main and accessory kidneys was revealed, which may have an impact on planned surgery in the groin and retroperitoneal areas. PMID:26328163

  7. Simon Effect with and without Awareness of the Accessory Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treccani, Barbara; Umilta, Carlo; Tagliabue, Mariaelena

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated whether a Simon effect could be observed in an accessory-stimulus Simon task when participants were unaware of the task-irrelevant accessory cue. In Experiment 1A a central visual target was accompanied by a suprathreshold visual lateral cue. A regular Simon effect (i.e., faster cue-response corresponding reaction times…

  8. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive...

  9. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  10. 14 CFR 121.251 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 121.251 Section 121.251 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm...

  11. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. 884... Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section 872.6010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device...

  13. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120 Section 872.4120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone...

  14. 49 CFR 393.3 - Additional equipment and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional equipment and accessories. 393.3 Section 393.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE...

  15. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  16. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  17. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  18. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  19. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  20. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  1. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  2. Characterization of a Gene Abundantly Expressed in Stallion Testis 

    E-print Network

    Shields, Jordan Elizabeth

    2012-02-14

    of NMES1 mRNA we conducted qRT-PCR assays on a panel of stallion testis samples from horses with normal and abnormal fertility. We found that expression was variable among both groups, with significantly less expression in some individuals. We also...

  3. [Revisiting meibomian gland dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Baudouin, C

    2014-12-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunctions (MGD) are frequent affections, sometimes asymptomatic, more often responsible for disabling, potentially severe, manifestations. MGD is indeed the most frequent cause of dry eye, through the induction of tear film instability. However, eyelid inflammation, microbial proliferation that modifies melting temperature of meibum, frequent association with skin diseases, as well as potentially severe corneal complications make them complex multifactorial disorders. Complementary mechanisms combine to actually result in a vicious circle, or more accurately a double vicious cycle. The first one is self-stimulated by the microbiological changes, which create their own conditions for MGD development. The second one is related to tear film instability that results from MGD and is also self-stimulated through hyperosmolarity and inflammatory phenomena, which are both consequence and cause of dry eye. We herein propose a new pathophysiological schema on MGD, in order to better identify mechanisms and more efficiently target therapeutics. PMID:25455142

  4. A blood-testis barrier restricting passage from blood into rete testis fluid but not into lymph

    PubMed Central

    Setchell, B. P.; Voglmayr, J. K.; Waites, G. M. H.

    1969-01-01

    1. A permeability barrier in or around the seminiferous tubules of rams has been demonstrated by studying the rate of passage of a variety of substances from blood plasma into fluid collected from the rete testis and into testicular lymph. 2. All substances studied passed readily into testicular lymph. 3. Tritiated water, urea, ethanol and bicarbonate in rete testis fluid equilibrated with blood plasma within 3 hr; Na+, K+, Rb+, Cl-, I-, CNS-, creatinine and galactose entered slowly and p-aminohippurate (PAH), glutamate, iodinated albumin, inulin and [51Cr]EDTA did not appear in rete testis fluid at all. 4. Rubidium was excluded relative to iodoantipyrine from the testes of control and hypophysectomized rats and from rat testes heated to 37, 40, 43 and 45° C; no such exclusion was seen in testes of rats which had been given cadmium chloride 5 months earlier so as to destroy the seminiferous tubules. 5. It is suggested that this permeability barrier will regulate the access to the seminiferous epithelium of some constituents of blood plasma, isolate the germinal cells immunologically and help to maintain the concentration differences between rete testis fluid and lymph or blood plasma. PMID:4973530

  5. Hunting for eruption ages in accessory minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    A primary goal in geochronology is to provide precise and accurate ages for tephras that serve as chronostratigraphic markers for constraining the timing and rates of volcanism, sedimentation, climate change, and catastrophic events in Earth history. Zircon remains the most versatile accessory mineral for dating silicic tephras due to its common preservation in distal pyroclastic deposits, as well as the robustness of its U-Pb and U-series systems even after host materials have been hydrothermally altered or weathered. Countless studies document that zircon may be complexly zoned in age due to inheritance, contamination, recycling of antecrysts, protracted crystallization in long-lived magma reservoirs, or any combination of these. Other accessory minerals such as allanite or chevkinite can retain similar records of protracted crystallization. If the goal is to date the durations of magmatic crystallization, differentiation, and/or magma residence, then these protracted chronologies within and between accessory minerals are a blessing. However, if the goal is to date the timing of eruption with high precision, i.e., absolute ages with millennial-scale uncertainties, then this age zoning is a curse. Observations from ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of Pleistocene zircon and allanite provide insight into the record of near-eruption crystallization in accessory minerals and serve as a guide for high-precision whole-crystal dating. Although imprecise relative to conventional techniques, ion probe analysis allows high-spatial resolution 238U-230Th dating that can document multi-millennial age distributions at the crystal scale. Analysis of unpolished rims and continuous depth profiling of zircon from small and large volume eruptions (e.g., Coso, Mono Craters, Yellowstone) reveals that the final several micrometers of crystallization often yield ages that are indistinguishable from associated eruption ages from the 40Ar/39Ar or (U-Th)/He methods. Using this approach, we have derived relatively precise (± ~ 5%, 2?) U-Th isochron ages from the unpolished rims of pumice-derived allanite and zircon from late Pleistocene Wilson Creek Formation tephras in eastern California, whose ages are controversial and have been difficult to resolve via 40Ar/39Ar and radiocarbon dating. Allanite and zircon rims from Ashes 7-19 in the lower portion of Wilson Creek sediments yield stratigraphically consistent ages of ca. 27 ka to ca. 62 ka, with a minority of crystals identifiable as xenocrysts from early Mono Craters rhyolites. Model ages for the interiors of allanite crystals are mostly < 10 k.y. older than their rims. Tephra deposited during the geomagnetic excursion debated to be either the Mono Lake or Laschamp event yields a rim isochron age of ca. 41 ka. This age is indistinguishable from an independent age of 41 ka derived at the latter excursion's type locality in France (Singer et al., 2009) as well as from age-models for deep-sea sediments. The results are in excellent agreement with a previously determined chronology derived from magnetostratigraphy (Zimmerman et al., 2006). Refs: Singer et al., 2009, EPSL 286: 80-88; Zimmerman et al., 2006, EPSL 252: 94-106

  6. Improvement of Mercuric Chloride-Induced Testis Injuries and Sperm Quality Deteriorations by Spirulina platensis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Desoky, Gaber E.; Bashandy, Samir A.; Alhazza, Ibrahim M.; Al-Othman, Zeid A.; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A. M.; Yusuf, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) on mercury (II) chloride (HgCl2)-induced oxidative damages and histopathological alterations in the testis of Wistar albino rats. The animals were divided into four equal groups, i) control, ii) HgCl2, iii) S. platensis and iv) combination of HgCl2+S. platensis. Oxidative stress, induced by a single dose of HgCl2 (5 mg/kg, bw; subcutaneously, s.c.), substantially decreased (P<0.01) the activity level of testicular key enzymatic antioxidant biomarkers (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT and glutathione peroxidase, GPx), oxidative stress makers (blood hydroperoxide; testicular reduced glutathione, GSH and malondialdehyde, MDA), and testicular mercury levels. Moreover, HgCl2 administration resulted in a significant (P<0.01) increase in the number of sperms with abnormal morphology and decrease in epididymal sperm count, motility, plasma testosterone level and testicular cholesterol. Furthermore, HgCl2 exposure induced histopathological changes to the testis including morphological alterations of the seminiferous tubules, and degeneration and dissociation of spermatogenic cells. Notably, oral pretreatment of animals with Spirulina (300 mg/kg, bw) lowered the extent of the observed HgCl2-mediated toxicity, whereby significantly reducing the resulting lipid peroxidation products, mercury accumulation in the testis, histopathological changes of the testes and spermatozoal abnormalities. In parallel, the pretreatment with Spirulina also completely reverted the observed Hg-Cl2-induced inhibition in enzymatic activities of antioxidant biomarkers (SOD, CAT and GPx) back to control levels. The pretreatment of rats with S. platensis significantly recovered the observed HgCl2-mediated decrease in the weight of accessory sex organs. Taken together, our findings clearly highlight the role of S. platensis as a protective modulator of HgCl2-induced testicular injuries and suggest some therapeutic potential in mammals. Further investigation of therapeutic strategies employing Spirulina against heavy metals toxicity in humans is therefore warranted. PMID:23555627

  7. Improvement of mercuric chloride-induced testis injuries and sperm quality deteriorations by Spirulina platensis in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Desoky, Gaber E; Bashandy, Samir A; Alhazza, Ibrahim M; Al-Othman, Zeid A; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A M; Yusuf, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) on mercury (II) chloride (HgCl(2))-induced oxidative damages and histopathological alterations in the testis of Wistar albino rats. The animals were divided into four equal groups, i) control, ii) HgCl(2), iii) S. platensis and iv) combination of HgCl(2)+S. platensis. Oxidative stress, induced by a single dose of HgCl(2) (5 mg/kg, bw; subcutaneously, s.c.), substantially decreased (P<0.01) the activity level of testicular key enzymatic antioxidant biomarkers (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT and glutathione peroxidase, GPx), oxidative stress makers (blood hydroperoxide; testicular reduced glutathione, GSH and malondialdehyde, MDA), and testicular mercury levels. Moreover, HgCl(2) administration resulted in a significant (P<0.01) increase in the number of sperms with abnormal morphology and decrease in epididymal sperm count, motility, plasma testosterone level and testicular cholesterol. Furthermore, HgCl(2) exposure induced histopathological changes to the testis including morphological alterations of the seminiferous tubules, and degeneration and dissociation of spermatogenic cells. Notably, oral pretreatment of animals with Spirulina (300 mg/kg, bw) lowered the extent of the observed HgCl(2)-mediated toxicity, whereby significantly reducing the resulting lipid peroxidation products, mercury accumulation in the testis, histopathological changes of the testes and spermatozoal abnormalities. In parallel, the pretreatment with Spirulina also completely reverted the observed Hg-Cl(2)-induced inhibition in enzymatic activities of antioxidant biomarkers (SOD, CAT and GPx) back to control levels. The pretreatment of rats with S. platensis significantly recovered the observed HgCl(2)-mediated decrease in the weight of accessory sex organs. Taken together, our findings clearly highlight the role of S. platensis as a protective modulator of HgCl(2)-induced testicular injuries and suggest some therapeutic potential in mammals. Further investigation of therapeutic strategies employing Spirulina against heavy metals toxicity in humans is therefore warranted. PMID:23555627

  8. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... menu on the side of your screen. A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of ...

  9. Adrenal Gland Disorders: Condition Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of salt and water Controlling the "fight or flight" response to stress Maintaining pregnancy Initiating and controlling ... overview of the adrenal glands: Beyond fight or flight . Retrieved June 29, 2012 from http://www.endocrineweb. ...

  10. Adrenal gland hormone secretion (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine. When the glands produce more or less hormones than required by the body, disease conditions may occur.

  11. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...for hemodialysis. The device includes implanted blood access devices, nonimplanted...devices, and accessories for both the implanted and nonimplanted blood access devices. (1) The implanted blood access device consists of...

  12. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...accessories (through a change in the light source) used for medical purposes...altering the phase relationship of light that passes around the object and...fluorochromes that fluoresce under ultraviolet light. (3) Inverted stage...

  13. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...accessories (through a change in the light source) used for medical purposes...altering the phase relationship of light that passes around the object and...fluorochromes that fluoresce under ultraviolet light. (3) Inverted stage...

  14. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...accessories (through a change in the light source) used for medical purposes...altering the phase relationship of light that passes around the object and...fluorochromes that fluoresce under ultraviolet light. (3) Inverted stage...

  15. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...accessories (through a change in the light source) used for medical purposes...altering the phase relationship of light that passes around the object and...fluorochromes that fluoresce under ultraviolet light. (3) Inverted stage...

  16. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...accessories (through a change in the light source) used for medical purposes...altering the phase relationship of light that passes around the object and...fluorochromes that fluoresce under ultraviolet light. (3) Inverted stage...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...than 30 days. This generic type of device includes fistula needles, the single needle dialysis set (coaxial flow needle), and the single needle dialysis set (alternating flow needle). (3) Accessories common to either type include...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...dialysate delivery system of the peritoneal dialysis system and accessories (§ 876.5630...hemodialysis system include the unpowered dialysis chair without a scale, the powered dialysis chair without a scale, the dialyzer...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...dialysate delivery system of the peritoneal dialysis system and accessories (§ 876.5630...hemodialysis system include the unpowered dialysis chair without a scale, the powered dialysis chair without a scale, the dialyzer...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...dialysate delivery system of the peritoneal dialysis system and accessories (§ 876.5630...hemodialysis system include the unpowered dialysis chair without a scale, the powered dialysis chair without a scale, the dialyzer...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...than 30 days. This generic type of device includes fistula needles, the single needle dialysis set (coaxial flow needle), and the single needle dialysis set (alternating flow needle). (3) Accessories common to either type include...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...than 30 days. This generic type of device includes fistula needles, the single needle dialysis set (coaxial flow needle), and the single needle dialysis set (alternating flow needle). (3) Accessories common to either type include...

  3. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...an ultrasonic generator. This generic type of device may include the following accessories: coupling gel, preamplifiers, amplifiers, signal conditioners with their power supply, connecting cables, and component parts. This generic type of device...

  4. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...an ultrasonic generator. This generic type of device may include the following accessories: coupling gel, preamplifiers, amplifiers, signal conditioners with their power supply, connecting cables, and component parts. This generic type of device...

  5. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...an ultrasonic generator. This generic type of device may include the following accessories: coupling gel, preamplifiers, amplifiers, signal conditioners with their power supply, connecting cables, and component parts. This generic type of device...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

  11. Complete Spinal Accessory Nerve Palsy From Carrying Climbing Gear.

    PubMed

    Coulter, Jess M; Warme, Winston J

    2015-09-01

    We report an unusual case of spinal accessory nerve palsy sustained while transporting climbing gear. Spinal accessory nerve injury is commonly a result of iatrogenic surgical trauma during lymph node excision. This particular nerve is less frequently injured by blunt trauma. The case reported here results from compression of the spinal accessory nerve for a sustained period-that is, carrying a load over the shoulder using a single nylon rope for 2.5 hours. This highlights the importance of using proper load-carrying equipment to distribute weight over a greater surface area to avoid nerve compression in the posterior triangle of the neck. The signs and symptoms of spinal accessory nerve palsy and its etiology are discussed. This report is particularly relevant to individuals involved in mountaineering and rock climbing but can be extended to anyone carrying a load with a strap over one shoulder and across the body. PMID:25937552

  12. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...gastro-urological irrigation tray (for gastrological use). (b) Classification. (1) Class II (special controls). The barium enema retention catheter and tip with or without a bag that is a gastrointestinal tube and accessory is exempt from the...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...hemodialysis system and accessories is a device that is used as an artificial kidney system for the treatment of patients with renal failure or toxemic conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...hemodialysis system and accessories is a device that is used as an artificial kidney system for the treatment of patients with renal failure or toxemic conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a...

  15. 21 CFR 884.1690 - Hysteroscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...instrument or device delivery system; do not have adapters, connectors, channels, or do not have portals for electrosurgical, laser, or other power sources. Such hysteroscope accessory instruments include: lens cleaning brush, cannula (without...

  16. 21 CFR 884.1720 - Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...instrument or device delivery system, do not have adapters, connector channels, or do not have portals for electrosurgical, lasers, or other power sources. Such gynecologic laparosope accessory instruments include: the lens cleaning brush,...

  17. 21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

  18. 21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

  20. 21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

  1. 21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

  2. Accessory proteins for heterotrimeric G-proteins in the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Park, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins play a fundamentally important role in regulating signal transduction pathways in the kidney. Accessory proteins are being identified as direct binding partners for heterotrimeric G-protein ? or ?? subunits to promote more diverse mechanisms by which G-protein signaling is controlled. In some instances, accessory proteins can modulate the signaling magnitude, localization, and duration following the activation of cell membrane-associated receptors. Alternatively, accessory proteins complexed with their G-protein ? or ?? subunits can promote non-canonical models of signaling activity within the cell. In this review, we will highlight the expression profile, localization and functional importance of these newly identified accessory proteins to control the function of select G-protein subunits under normal and various disease conditions observed in the kidney. PMID:26300785

  3. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and accessories. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and accessories. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and accessories. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and accessories. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and accessories. (a)...

  8. Clinical NIR spectroscopy and optical tomography of the testis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, Uwe; Schleicher, Eckhard; Zepnick, H.; Freyer, Richard

    2001-10-01

    Optical tomography and NIR spectroscopy are potential methods to improve the diagnosis of testicular pathologies. To evaluate the methods clinically we developed a special measurement device with the capability of spatially resolved laser spectroscopy and optical tomography of the testis. Simple spectroscopy is primarily used to obtain global tissue optical properties of the testis and to find correlations of optical parameters with type and stage of certain pathologies. Optical tomography is applied to visualize spectral contrasts in limited tissue volumes, such as tumors. In the course of the study we will determine whether NIR techniques posses the required specifity and sensitivity to give additional quantitative information about tissue perfusion parameters and to serve for a tumor differentiation.

  9. Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis.

    PubMed

    Sajadi, Kamran P; Dalton, Rory R; Brown, James A

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm. PMID:19125206

  10. Tumors of the Testis: Morphologic Features and Molecular Alterations.

    PubMed

    Howitt, Brooke E; Berney, Daniel M

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews the most frequently encountered tumor of the testis; pure and mixed malignant testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), with emphasis on adult (postpubertal) TGCTs and their differential diagnoses. We additionally review TGCT in the postchemotherapy setting, and findings to be integrated into the surgical pathology report, including staging of testicular tumors and other problematic issues. The clinical features, gross pathologic findings, key histologic features, common differential diagnoses, the use of immunohistochemistry, and molecular alterations in TGCTs are discussed. PMID:26612222

  11. Developmental biology of uterine glands.

    PubMed

    Gray, C A; Bartol, F F; Tarleton, B J; Wiley, A A; Johnson, G A; Bazer, F W; Spencer, T E

    2001-11-01

    All mammalian uteri contain endometrial glands that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). In rodents, uterine secretory products of the endometrial glands are unequivocally required for establishment of uterine receptivity and conceptus implantation. Analyses of the ovine uterine gland knockout model support a primary role for endometrial glands and, by default, their secretions in peri-implantation conceptus survival and development. Uterine adenogenesis is the process whereby endometrial glands develop. In humans, this process begins in the fetus, continues postnatally, and is completed during puberty. In contrast, endometrial adenogenesis is primarily a postnatal event in sheep, pigs, and rodents. Typically, endometrial adenogenesis involves differentiation and budding of glandular epithelium from luminal epithelium, followed by invagination and extensive tubular coiling and branching morphogenesis throughout the uterine stroma to the myometrium. This process requires site-specific alterations in cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling as well as paracrine cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions that support the actions of specific hormones and growth factors. Studies of uterine development in neonatal ungulates implicate prolactin, estradiol-17 beta, and their receptors in mechanisms regulating endometrial adenogenesis. These same hormones appear to regulate endometrial gland morphogenesis in menstruating primates and humans during reconstruction of the functionalis from the basalis endometrium after menses. In sheep and pigs, extensive endometrial gland hyperplasia and hypertrophy occur during gestation, presumably to provide increasing histotrophic support for conceptus growth and development. In the rabbit, sheep, and pig, a servomechanism is proposed to regulate endometrial gland development and differentiated function during pregnancy that involves sequential actions of ovarian steroid hormones, pregnancy recognition signals, and lactogenic hormones from the pituitary or placenta. That disruption of uterine development during critical organizational periods can alter the functional capacity and embryotrophic potential of the adult uterus reinforces the importance of understanding the developmental biology of uterine glands. Unexplained high rates of peri-implantation embryonic loss in humans and livestock may reflect defects in endometrial gland morphogenesis due to genetic errors, epigenetic influences of endocrine disruptors, and pathological lesions. PMID:11673245

  12. Id4 Marks Spermatogonial Stem Cells in the Mouse Testis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Feng; Xu, Qing; Zhao, Danfeng; Degui Chen, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis is a classic adult stems cell–dependent process, supported by the self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). However, the identification of SSCs and elucidation of their behaviors in undisturbed testis has long been a big challenge. Here, we generated a knock-in mouse model, Id4-2A-CreERT2-2A-tdTomato, which allowed us to mark Id4-expressing (Id4+) cells at different time points in situ and track their behaviors across distinct developmental stages during steady-state and regenerating spermatogenesis. We found that Id4+ cells continue to produce spermatogonia, spermatocytes and sperm in mouse testis, showing they are capable of self-renewal and have differentiation potential. Consistent with these findings, ablation of Id4+ cells in mice results in a loss of spermatogenesis. Furthermore, developmental fate mapping reveals that Id4+ SSCs originate from neonate Id4+ gonocytes. Therefore, our results indicate that Id4 marks spermatogonial stem cells in the mouse testis. PMID:26621350

  13. Id4 Marks Spermatogonial Stem Cells in the Mouse Testis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feng; Xu, Qing; Zhao, Danfeng; Degui Chen, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis is a classic adult stems cell-dependent process, supported by the self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). However, the identification of SSCs and elucidation of their behaviors in undisturbed testis has long been a big challenge. Here, we generated a knock-in mouse model, Id4-2A-CreERT2-2A-tdTomato, which allowed us to mark Id4-expressing (Id4(+)) cells at different time points in situ and track their behaviors across distinct developmental stages during steady-state and regenerating spermatogenesis. We found that Id4(+) cells continue to produce spermatogonia, spermatocytes and sperm in mouse testis, showing they are capable of self-renewal and have differentiation potential. Consistent with these findings, ablation of Id4(+) cells in mice results in a loss of spermatogenesis. Furthermore, developmental fate mapping reveals that Id4(+) SSCs originate from neonate Id4(+) gonocytes. Therefore, our results indicate that Id4 marks spermatogonial stem cells in the mouse testis. PMID:26621350

  14. Immunotherapy in Multiple Myeloma Using Cancer-Testis Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh; Seifi-Alan, Mahnaz; Shamsi, Roshanak; Esfandiary, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Context: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell malignancy characterized by monoclonal expansion of abnormal plasma cells in the bone marrow. It accounts for 10% of hematological malignancies. Although patients respond to a wide range of anticancer modalities, relapse occurs in a significant number of the cases. Immunotherapeutic approaches have been evolved to tackle this problem. Cancer-testis antigens CTAs as a group of tumor-associated antigens are appropriate targets for cancer immunotherapy as they have restricted expression pattern in normal tissues except for testis which is an immune-privileged site. Expression of these antigens has been assessed in different malignancies including MM. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a computerized search of the MEDLINE/PubMed databases with key words: multiple myeloma, cancer-testis antigen, and cancer stem cell and immunotherapy. Results: Several CTAs including NY-ESO-1, MAGE and GAGE family have been shown to be expressed in MM patients. Cellular and humoral immune responses against these antigens have been detected in MM patients. Conclusions: The frequent and high expression level of CTAs in MM patients shows that these antigens can be applied as cancer biomarkers as well as targets for immunotherapy in these patients. PMID:26634107

  15. Testis-specific expression of the human MYCL2 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, N G; Pomponio, R J; Mutter, G L; Morton, C C

    1991-01-01

    We have characterized the expression of MYCL2, an intronless X-linked gene related to MYCL1. RNase protection analysis of a panel of human normal and tumor tissues has revealed that MYCL2 is expressed almost exclusively in human adult normal testis; much lower levels of transcript were detected in one human lung adenocarcinoma. No MYCL2 transcript was found in human testis RNA obtained from second trimester fetuses. This observation suggests a germ cell rather than somatic cell origin of the transcript and possible developmental regulation of MYCL2. Northern blot analysis of poly(A)+ RNA from adult human normal testis with an antisense riboprobe revealed a transcript of approximately 4.8-kb, which is in agreement with the size predicted from the MYCL2 nucleotide sequence. Antisense transcripts were found spanning regions of MYCL2 corresponding to all three exons of MYCL1. No sizable open reading frame was seen for the MYCL2 antisense transcripts suggesting that they may represent either regulatory sequences or an intron of a gene encoded by the complementary strand. RNase protection assays and the 5' RACE protocol (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends) were used to address the localization of the transcription start site of the MYCL2 sense transcript and different putative promoters and transcription regulatory elements have been identified. Images PMID:1711681

  16. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-02

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  17. Intervention of D-glucose ameliorates the toxicity of streptozotocin in accessory sex organs of rat

    SciTech Connect

    Vikram, A.; Tripathi, D.N.; Ramarao, P.; Jena, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is a naturally occurring compound isolated from Streptomyces achromogens. It is used extensively for inducing diabetes in experimental animals. Diabetes mellitus is known to have proven adverse effects on male sexual organs and their reproductive functions. The atrophy of prostate gland and other organs of the genitourinary tract were observed in experimental diabetic animals. STZ exhibits a structural resemblance to D-glucose due to the presence of sugar moiety in its structure. Pancreatic {beta}-cells mainly contain GLUT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Possibly due to structural resemblance, STZ and D-glucose, share a common recognition site for entry into the {beta}-cells. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of D-glucose on STZ-induced toxicity in accessory sex organs of male rats. Animals were kept on overnight fasting. One group received vehicle and served as negative control, while all other groups were given STZ (45 mg/kg). Animals that received only STZ served as positive control. The effect of D-glucose was studied on STZ treated animals with different dosage of D-glucose (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg). Restoration of body weight, plasma glucose and plasma insulin was evident only at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of D-glucose. The protective effect of D-glucose is evident only when it is administered simultaneously with STZ. In the present investigation, we report that simultaneous administration of D-glucose along with STZ ameliorates STZ-induced toxicity. This is evident from the restoration of accessory sex organ's weight, cellular morphology as well as insulin level.

  18. NY-BR-1 is a differentiation antigen of the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Dirk; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan; Frosina, Denise; Eastlake-Wade, Susannah; Castelli, Sandra; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Moch, Holger; Chen, Yao-Tseng; Busam, Klaus J; Seil, Inka; Old, Lloyd J; Nissan, Aviram; Frei, Claudia; Gure, Ali O; Knuth, Alexander; Jungbluth, Achim A

    2007-03-01

    NY-BR-1 was recently identified by autologous serological typing of the recombinant expression library in a breast cancer patient. Extensive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the presence of NY-BR-1 in normal breast tissue and tumors derived thereof. Except normal testis, no other normal tissue or tumors showed NY-BR-1 expression. However, nothing is known about the expression of its actual antigen. In the present study, we describe the generation of 2 new monoclonal antibodies, NY-BR-1#2 and NY-BR-1#3, to NY-BR-1 for the analysis of its expression on a protein level employing recombinant NY-BR-1 protein for the immunization of BALB/c mice. In normal tissues, immunohistochemical testing demonstrates NY-BR-1 in a mostly focal fashion in the epithelia of ducts and acini of the mammary gland. No other tissue was immunopositive including testis. In tumors, homogenous staining can be seen in almost all ductal carcinomas in situ and/or the intraductal component of invasive carcinomas. Invasive carcinomas show a lower number of NY-BR-1-positive tumors. Initial higher numbers of NY-BR-1 mRNA-positive invasive carcinomas are most likely based on sample error owing to the contamination of tumor tissue with remnants of normal breast epithelium. Sweat gland carcinomas, which are related to breast cancer, are also positive in about one-third of the cases. These data indicate that NY-BR-1 is a differentiation antigen of the mammary gland that could be useful for diagnosis and/or immunotherapy of breast carcinomas. PMID:17536312

  19. Intraspecific variation in testis asymmetry in birds: evidence for naturally occurring compensation

    PubMed Central

    Calhim, Sara; Birkhead, Tim R.

    2009-01-01

    In many taxa, the left and right testes often differ in size. The compensation hypothesis states that one testis of the pair serves as a ‘back-up’ for any reduced function in the other and provides a mechanism to explain intraspecific variation in degree and direction of gonad asymmetry. Although testis asymmetry is common in birds, evidence for natural testis compensation is unknown. Using a novel quantitative approach that can be applied to any bilateral organ or structure, we show that testis compensation occurs naturally in birds and can be complete when one testis fails to develop. Owing to a recurrent risk of testis impairment and an evolutionary trade-off between natural and sexual selections acting on the arrangement of internal organs in species with abdominal and/or seasonal testes, compensation adds an important, but neglected, dimension to measures of male reproductive investment. PMID:19324740

  20. Gene expression during testis development in Duroc boars.

    PubMed

    Lervik, S; Kristoffersen, A B; Conley, L N; Oskam, I C; Hedegaard, J; Ropstad, E; Olsaker, I

    2015-11-01

    Androstenone is a steroid pheromone occurring in the pubertal Leydig cells. Breeding against androstenone can decrease pheromone odour in swine meat but appears to cause unwanted side effects such as delayed onset of puberty. To study causality, global gene expression in developing boar testes at 12, 16, 20 and 27 weeks was investigated using a porcine cDNA microarray. The morphological status and androgenic levels of the same individuals have been described in a previous publication. In the present paper, expression of genes and pathways has been analysed with reference to these findings. Nine clusters of genes with significant differential expression over time and 49 functional charts were found in the analysed testis samples. Prominent pathways in the prepubertal testis were associated with tissue renewal, cell respiration and increased endocytocis. E-cadherines may be associated with the onset of pubertal development. With elevated steroidogenesis (weeks 16 to 27), there was an increase in the expression of genes in the MAPK pathway, STAR and its analogue STARD6. A pubertal shift in genes coding for cellular cholesterol transport was observed. Increased expression of meiotic pathways coincided with the morphological onset of puberty. Puberty-related change in Ca(2+) pathway transcripts, neurosteroids, neuronal changes and signalling in redox pathways suggested a developmental-specific period of neuromorphogenesis. Several growth factors were found to increase differentially over time as the testis matured. There may be interactions between MAPK, STAR and growth factors during specific periods. In conclusion, pathways for neurogenesis, morphological pathways and several transcripts for growth factors, which have known modulating effects on steroidogenesis and gonadotropins in humans and rodents, act at specific ages and developmental stages in the boar testis. The age dependency and complexity shown for development-specific testis transcripts must be considered when selecting phenotypic parameters for genetic selection for low androstenone. The results of selection based on measurement of phenotypic maturation and androstenone (or other steroid) levels at one specific age may differ depending on the age used. More research is necessary to find the optimal phenotype to use in order to reduce the unwanted side effects. PMID:26016904

  1. Germ Cell Transplantation and Testis Tissue Xenografting in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dobrinski, Ina

    2012-01-01

    Germ cell transplantation was developed by Dr. Ralph Brinster and colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania in 19941,2. These ground-breaking studies showed that microinjection of germ cells from fertile donor mice into the seminiferous tubules of infertile recipient mice results in donor-derived spermatogenesis and sperm production by the recipient animal2. The use of donor males carrying the bacterial ?-galactosidase gene allowed identification of donor-derived spermatogenesis and transmission of the donor haplotype to the offspring by recipient animals1. Surprisingly, after transplantation into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules, transplanted germ cells were able to move from the luminal compartment to the basement membrane where spermatogonia are located3. It is generally accepted that only SSCs are able to colonize the niche and re-establish spermatogenesis in the recipient testis. Therefore, germ cell transplantation provides a functional approach to study the stem cell niche in the testis and to characterize putative spermatogonial stem cells. To date, germ cell transplantation is used to elucidate basic stem cell biology, to produce transgenic animals through genetic manipulation of germ cells prior to transplantation4,5, to study Sertoli cell-germ cell interaction6,7, SSC homing and colonization3,8, as well as SSC self-renewal and differentiation9,10. Germ cell transplantation is also feasible in large species11. In these, the main applications are preservation of fertility, dissemination of elite genetics in animal populations, and generation of transgenic animals as the study of spermatogenesis and SSC biology with this technique is logistically more difficult and expensive than in rodents. Transplantation of germ cells from large species into the seminiferous tubules of mice results in colonization of donor cells and spermatogonial expansion, but not in their full differentiation presumably due to incompatibility of the recipient somatic cell compartment with the germ cells from phylogenetically distant species12. An alternative approach is transplantation of germ cells from large species together with their surrounding somatic compartment. We first reported in 2002, that small fragments of testis tissue from immature males transplanted under the dorsal skin of immunodeficient mice are able to survive and undergo full development with the production of fertilization competent sperm13. Since then testis tissue xenografting has been shown to be successful in many species and emerged as a valuable alternative to study testis development and spermatogenesis of large animals in mice14. PMID:22330955

  2. Effects of a simulated microgravity model on cell structure and function in rat testis and epididymis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadley, Jill A.; Hall, Joseph C.; O'Brien, Ami; Ball, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The effect of simulated microgravity on the structure and function of the testis and epididymis cells was investigated in rats subjected to 7 days of tail suspension. Results of a histological examination revealed presence of disorganized seminiferous tubules and accumulation of large multinucleated cells and spermatids in the lumen of the epididymis. In addition, decreases in the content of testis protein and in testosterone levels in the testis, the interstitial fluid, and the epididymis were observed.

  3. Novel, Testis-Specific mRNA Transcripts Encoding N-Terminally Truncated Choline Acetyltransferase

    E-print Network

    Ibáñez, Carlos

    of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA and protein in the mammalian testis. We have now found that none of the ChAT mRNAs produced in the testis is capable of encoding a full-length ChAT protein. Two ChAT cDNAs were isolated from an adult rat testis cDNA library encoding N-terminally truncated ChAT proteins

  4. Neural control of shark rectal gland.

    PubMed

    Stoff, J S; Silva, P; Lechan, R; Solomon, R; Epstein, F H

    1988-08-01

    Veratrum alkaloids stimulated salt secretion by the isolated perfused rectal gland of Squalus acanthias. Stimulation by veratrine was prevented by the nerve channel blockers tetrodotoxin and procaine and was not evident in a preparation of dispersed rectal gland cells. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-like immunoreactivity was detected by histological techniques in neuronal tissue within the rectal gland. Veratrine stimulation caused the release of immunoreactive VIP into the venous effluent of perfused glands. The stimulatory action of veratrine was inhibited by somatostatin, another neuropeptide known to be present in nerves of Squalus rectal gland. These findings suggest the likelihood of neural modulation of rectal gland function. PMID:2900607

  5. Selective Cryolysis of Sebaceous Glands.

    PubMed

    Jalian, H Ray; Tam, Joshua; Vuong, Linh N; Fisher, Jeremy; Garibyan, Lilit; Mihm, Martin C; Zurakowski, David; Evans, Conor L; Anderson, R Rox

    2015-09-01

    Acne vulgaris is a nearly universal cutaneous inflammatory disease. Excess sebum production is an integral part of disease pathogenesis. Medical therapies that reduce sebum excretion result in clinical improvement of acne. Given the preferential susceptibility of lipid-containing cells to cold, we investigated the hypothesis that controlled local skin cooling causes preferential injury to sebaceous glands, in murine and swine models using a range of temperatures as low as -10?°C, and then on the backs of human subjects. In mouse ears, peak histologic damage occurred 72 hours after treatment; eosinophilic necrotic plugs formed within sebaceous glands, and the number of glands was significantly reduced up to 1 week post treatment. Cooling disrupted sebocyte cell membranes, alkaline phosphatase activity, and significantly reduced sebocyte lipid content. In human volunteers, cooling damaged sebaceous glands and reduced sebum output for 2 weeks, with minimal injury to surrounding tissues. Selective cryolysis of sebaceous glands is achievable through brief, non-invasive skin cooling, suggesting that controlled cooling could be developed as an effective treatment for acne vulgaris. PMID:25860384

  6. Oncocytic adenocarcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Goode, R K; Corio, R L

    1988-01-01

    Oncocytic adenocarcinoma of salivary gland origin is an extremely rare neoplasm. The diagnosis is established on the basis of oncocytic cellular features in conjunction with dysplastic change. These dysplastic changes may occur in benign oncocytomas or arise de novo. The tumor occurs most commonly in the parotid glands of persons over 60 years of age. Tumors that measure less than 2 cm at the initial surgical procedure appear to have a better prognosis than larger tumors. Aggressive surgical intervention at the initial presentation of the neoplasm, compared to simple enucleation, seems to offer a more favorable prognosis. Recurrence is an ominous feature. Metastasis, when it occurs, is widespread. PMID:3422397

  7. 75 FR 41523 - Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithville...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ...TA-W-71,106; TA-W-71,106A] Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site...Job Connections, New Smithville, PA; Paris Accessories, Inc., Allentown, PA...Reconsideration applicable to workers of Paris Accessories, Inc., including...

  8. 75 FR 34180 - Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithsville...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ...Training Administration [TA-W-71,106] Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site...reconsideration, I determine that workers of Paris Accessories, Inc., New Smithsville...following certification: All workers of Paris Accessories, Inc., New...

  9. [Regular thermal waves in female mammary glands].

    PubMed

    Kliukin, L M; Namiot, V A

    2015-01-01

    During experimental studies of thermal regime of female mammary glands tissues the existence of periodic thermal waves was discovered. At the same time, the space-amplitude relief of such waves can mask the space-amplitude relief of the thermal profile, projected to the skin surface of mammary glands by tumor, hidden in the thickness of the gland. The phenomenon observed would be taken into account upon diagnosing pathological states of mammary glands. PMID:25868357

  10. Steroid Signaling Promotes Stem Cell Maintenance in the Drosophila Testis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yijie; Ma, Qing; Cherry, Christopher M.; Matunis, Erika L.

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell regulation by local signals is intensely studied, but less is known about the effects of hormonal signals on stem cells. In Drosophila, the primary steroid twenty-hydroxyecdysone (20E) regulates ovarian germline stem cells (GSCs) but was considered dispensable for testis GSC maintenance. Male GSCs reside in a microenvironment (niche) generated by somatic hub cells and adjacent cyst stem cells (CySCs). Here, we show that depletion of 20E from adult males by overexpressing a dominant negative form of the Ecdysone receptor (EcR) or its heterodimeric partner ultraspiracle (usp) causes GSC and CySC loss that is rescued by 20E feeding, uncovering a requirement for 20E in stem cell maintenance. EcR and USP are expressed, activated and autonomously required in the CySC lineage to promote CySC maintenance, as are downstream genes ftz-f1 and E75. In contrast, GSCs non-autonomously require ecdysone signaling. Global inactivation of EcR increases cell death in the testis that is rescued by expression of EcR-B2 in the CySC lineage, indicating that ecdysone signaling supports stem cell viability primarily through a specific receptor isoform. Finally, EcR genetically interacts with the NURF chromatin-remodeling complex, which we previously showed maintains CySCs. Thus, although 20E levels are lower in males than females, ecdysone signaling acts through distinct cell types and effectors to ensure both ovarian and testis stem cell maintenance. PMID:25093968

  11. Cyclosporine inhibits testosterone biosynthesis in the rat testis.

    PubMed

    Rajfer, J; Sikka, S C; Lemmi, C; Koyle, M A

    1987-08-01

    To determine whether the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine (CsA) has an effect on testicular androgen function in the male rat, four groups of adult animals were treated daily for 28 days with either orange juice or three doses of CsA (7.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg X day). Twenty-four hours after the last dose of CsA, the animals were killed and the following parameters were measured: testis, seminal vesicle, and ventral prostate weights; serum levels of CsA, creatinine, testosterone (T), and LH; and intratesticular levels of pregnenolone, progesterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, and T. There were no differences between the control (orange juice) and the three CsA-treated groups with respect to serum creatinines and testis, seminal vesicle, and ventral prostate weights. Serum T decreased significantly in the 15 and 30 mg/kg CsA-treated groups. The intratesticular T level decreased significantly only in the 15 and 30 mg/kg CsA-treated groups. In the 15 and 30 mg/kg CsA-treated groups, the intratesticular pregnenolone, progesterone, and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone levels all showed a significant decline compared to controls. There was no significant change in the androstenedione levels in any of the CsA-treated groups. To determine whether the decrease in T production by the testis exposed to CsA is via inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, serum LH was measured in all four groups. Serum LH decreased significantly only in the 15 and 30 mg/kg CsA-treated groups. These data suggest that oral CsA administration in doses greater than 15 mg/kg X day results in diminished intratesticular T production that appears to be mediated via inhibition of pituitary LH function. PMID:3595532

  12. Rapid evolution of primate ESX1, an X-linked placenta-and testis-expressed homeobox gene

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jianzhi

    Rapid evolution of primate ESX1, an X-linked placenta- and testis-expressed homeobox gene Xiaoxia in the placenta and testis, with physiological functions in placenta/fetus development and spermatogenesis. ESX1

  13. Lacrimal glands in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Alghadyan, Abdulrahman; Aljindan, Mohana; Alhumeidan, Adra; Kazi, Gholam; Mcmhon, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a systemic disease involving defective mucus secretion in different parts of the body resulting in a wide range of systemic complications. We are presenting the histology of the lacrimal gland from a 25 year old male with cystic fibrosis using light microscopy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report. PMID:24227971

  14. Stereological characteristics of the equine accessory nerve.

    PubMed

    Matiasek, K; Gais, P; Rodenacker, K; Jütting, U; Tanck, J J; Schmahl, W

    2008-06-01

    Stereological techniques have been increasingly employed for assessment and characterization of neuromuscular diseases in humans and animals. As an adjunct to histopathology, morphometrical algorithms provide quantitative evidence of the peripheral nerve composition, thereby shedding light on its fibre characteristics and basic electrophysiological properties. In the horse, stereological investigations already have focussed on the recurrent laryngeal, deep peroneal and lateral palmar nerves (LPN). Of these, only the latter is suitable for taking biopsies in clinical settings, however, it does not contain any motor fibres and Ia-afferents. On account of its virtually mixed fibre qualities, most researchers today recommend the cervical branch of the equine accessory nerve (AN) for harvesting diagnostic samples. Thus, the present study was carried out to gain morphometrical proof of the AN composition and to obtain stereological base values in healthy individuals using state-of-the-art technology. All parameters were compared to the common peroneal nerve (CPN), known to harbour all myelinated fibre classes. As this second biopsy site is located farther distally to the neuro-axis, attention was paid to possible length-dependent features. Taken together, digital image analysis could be accurately applied on all AN samples. Stereology supported the histological and clinical evidence that the AN contains all myelinated fibre types. The huge range and scatter of fibre counts and density (3351-17,812/mm(2)) per fascicle were comparable to that measured in the equine common peroneal, deep peroneal, lateral palmar and recurrent laryngeal nerves. Similar to those, fibre diameter distribution was bimodal with slow Abeta- and Agamma-mechanoceptor afferents outnumbering large myelinated Aalpha-fibres by a factor of about 1.5. With a g-ratio at 0.55 +/- 0.001, the overall degree of myelination in the AN is highly consistent and insignificantly ranges between that of the equine common peroneal and LPNs. Apart from this subtle deviation, a statistically relevant difference between the more proximal AN and the distal CPN could not be documented. By obtaining morphometrical standard parameters and even more sophisticated distribution indices, stereology is a valuable tool for detection of subtle changes that are likely to escape from the investigators' eyes. The AN serves as a reliable source for advanced peripheral nerve research and should be accompanied by farther distal nerve probes for assessment of neuropathies that present with a proximodistal gradient. PMID:18336628

  15. Characterization of the accessory Sec system of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Siboo, Ian R; Chaffin, Donald O; Rubens, Craig E; Sullam, Paul M

    2008-09-01

    The SraP adhesin of Staphylococcus aureus is a member of a highly conserved family of serine-rich surface glycoproteins of gram-positive bacteria. For streptococci, export of the SraP homologs requires a specialized transport pathway (the accessory Sec system). Compared to streptococci, however, SraP is predicted to differ in its signal peptide and glycosylation, which may affect its dependence on a specialized system for transport. In addition, two genes (asp4 and asp5) essential for export in Streptococcus gordonii are missing in S. aureus. Thus, the selectivity of the accessory Sec system in S. aureus may also differ compared to streptococci. To address these issues, the five genes encoding the putative accessory Sec system (secY2, secA2, and asp1-3) were disrupted individually in S. aureus ISP479C, and the resultant mutants were examined for SraP export. Disruption of secA2 resulted in the near complete loss of SraP surface expression. Similar results were seen with disruption of secY2 and asp1, asp2, or asp3. To assess whether the accessory Sec system transported other substrates, we compared secreted proteomes of ISP479C and a secA2 isogenic mutant, by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. Although two consistent differences in proteome content were noted between the strains, neither protein appeared to be a likely substrate for accessory Sec export. Thus, the accessory Sec system of S. aureus is required for the export of SraP, and it appears to be dedicated to the transport of this substrate exclusively. PMID:18621893

  16. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of gametes or embryos. Variations of microscopes and accessories used for these purposes would include phase contrast microscopes, dissecting...

  17. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of gametes or embryos. Variations of microscopes and accessories used for these purposes would include phase contrast microscopes, dissecting...

  18. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of gametes or embryos. Variations of microscopes and accessories used for these purposes would include phase contrast microscopes, dissecting...

  19. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  20. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  1. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  2. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  3. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  4. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and...

  5. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and...

  6. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and...

  7. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and...

  8. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and...

  9. Primary adenocarcinoma of rete testis with distinct biphasic pattern: An extremely rare entity and diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prithwijit; Saha, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinoma of rete testis is one of the rarest intrascrotal tumors. Very few cases have been reported in the literature. In addition, presence of biphasic component creates difficulty in the diagnosis. We present here a unique third case of rete testis adenocarcinoma having distinct cytologically malignant spindle cell component in a young male who presented with recurrent hydrocele. PMID:25810664

  10. Dominance, plasma testosterone levels, and testis size in house mice artificially selected for high activity levels

    E-print Network

    Saltzman, Wendy

    Dominance, plasma testosterone levels, and testis size in house mice artificially selected for high-bred control lines with respect to dominance, testis size, and plasma testosterone level. Behavior was measured tube test; plasma testosterone was measured by enzyme immunoassay with chromatography. As compared

  11. Human testis-specific genes are under relaxed negative selection.

    PubMed

    Pierron, Denis; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Rocher, Christophe; Letellier, Thierry; Grossman, Lawrence I

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested that selective forces and constraints acting on genes varied during human evolution depending on the organ in which they are expressed. To gain insight into the evolution of organ determined negative selection forces, we compared the non-synonymous SNP diversity of genes expressed in different organs. Based on a HAPMAP dataset, we determined for each SNP its frequency in 11 human populations and, in each case, predicted whether or not the change it produces is deleterious. We have shown that, for all organs under study, SNPs predicted to be deleterious are present at a significantly lower frequency than SNPs predicted to be tolerated. However, testis-specific genes contain a higher proportion of deleterious SNPs than other organs. This study shows that negative selection is acting on the whole human genome, but that the action of negative selection is relaxed on testis-specific genes. This result adds to and expands the hypothesis of a recent evolutionary change in the human male reproductive system and its behavior. PMID:24202551

  12. Rare late metastasis of testis seminoma to the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Türko?lu, Ali R?za; Coban, Soner; Guzelsoy, Muhammet; Demirbas, Murat; Mutlu, Nazmi; Yalcin, Omer

    2015-01-01

    A 45-year-old male presented to our clinic with complaining of hematuria for a month. The investigations showed a 59 × 24-mm myxoid mass on the right lateral bladder wall and this was removed with transurethral resection. The histopathology evaluation result was seminoma (classic type). The medical history revealed that the patient had undergone inguinal orchiectomy for a testis tumour 10 years before and the diagnosis was classic type seminoma. He received chemotherapy following the orchiectomy, but had not gone for follow-up after the first year. There was no other metastasis and he was put on the iphosphamide, etoposide, cisplatin (IPE) protocol. The patient has been disease-free for the last 5 months and the tumour markers and cystoscopy were normal. Testis tumours can rarely cause other organ metastases in the late stage even if curative surgery and chemo-radiotherapy were initially administered. Proper follow-up is crucial. It is also necessary to query the tumour history when a tumour in any organ is considered. PMID:26600894

  13. Lactogenic hormone stimulation and epigenetic control of L-amino acid oxidase expression in lactating mammary glands.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Kazuki; Zhang, Haolin; Usuda, Kento; Watanabe, Gen; Nagaoka, Kentaro

    2015-11-01

    L-amino acid oxidase (LAO), a classic flavoprotein, shows antibacterial activity by producing hydrogen peroxide. LAO exists in many tissues such as salivary gland, thymus, spleen, small intestine and testis. In particular, LAO was highly expressed in mice milk and plays an important factor in innate immunity of mammary glands. However, the mechanism which LAO expression is regulated spatially and temporally in lactating mammary glands has been unclear. In this study, we showed the contribution of lactogenic hormone and epigenetic control on LAO gene expression. In monolayer of mammary epithelial cells, treatment of lactogenic hormone mixture, dexamethasone, insulin and prolactin, did not induce LAO mRNA expression and its promoter activity, even though one of milk protein ?-casein expression was stimulated. However, increase of LAO expression was observed when the cells were treated with lactogenic hormones in a 3-dimensional culture. The results of chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that histone H3K18 acetylation increased and histone H3K27 tri-methylation decreased with lactation, which is associated with a period of high LAO expression. Moreover, the treatment of histone methylation inhibitor (DZNep) as well as histone deacetylation inhibitor (Trichostatine A) induced LAO expression in monolayer of mammary cells. Taken together, this is the first demonstration showing that LAO expression is induced in cell culture, and stimulation of lactogenic hormone and change of histone modification are promising signals to show highly expression of LAO in lactating mammary glands. PMID:25820447

  14. Ovarian-type epithelial tumours of the testis: immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of two serous borderline tumours of the testis.

    PubMed

    Bürger, Tobias; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Inniger, Reinhard; Hansen, Joachim; Mayer, Peter; Schweyer, Stefan; Radzun, Heinz Joachim; Ströbel, Philipp; Bremmer, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Tumours of ovarian-epithelial type of the testis, including serous borderline tumours, represent very rare entities. They are identical to the surface epithelial tumours of the ovary and have been reported in patients from 14 to 68 years of age. We describe two cases of a 46- and a 39-year old man with incidental findings of intratesticular masses of the left respectively right testis. Under the assumption of a malignant testicular tumour the patients were subjected to inguinal orchiectomy. Histologically, the tumours were identical to their ovarian counterparts: They showed a cystic configuration with a fibrous wall and irregular papillary structures lined by partially multistratified columnar cells and areas of hobnail cells. Furthermore, there was mild cytological atypia with a proliferative activity of below 5% as proved by Ki67 staining; mitoses could not be detected. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells displayed expression of pan-cytokeratin AE3, progesterone receptor, Wilms' tumour protein (WT1), and PAX8 (Paired box gene 8). Estrogen receptor was expressed in one case. Octamer-binding transcription factor-4 (OCT4), calretinin, thrombomodulin, and D2-40 were not expressed. Mutation testing of BRAF revealed a BRAF V600E mutation in one case, while testing for KRAS mutations proved to be negative in both. The BRAF mutated tumour showed strong cytosolic and membranous positivity for B-Raf also on immunohistochemical analysis. Comparative genomic hybridization of one case could not reveal any chromosomal aberrations. PMID:26197800

  15. De novo morphogenesis of testis tissue: an improved bioassay to investigate the role of VEGF-165 during testis formation

    PubMed Central

    Dores, Camila; Dobrinski, Ina

    2014-01-01

    De novo formation of testis tissue from single cell suspensions allows manipulation of different testicular compartments before grafting to study testicular development and the spermatogonial stem cell niche. However, the low percentages of newly formed seminiferous tubules supporting complete spermatogenesis and lack of a defined protocol have limited use of this bioassay. Low spermatogenic efficiency in de novo formed tissue could result from the scarcity of germ cells in the donor cell suspension, cell damage caused by handling or from hypoxia during tissue formation in the host environment. Here, we compared different proportions of spermatogonia in the donor cell suspension and the use of Matrigel as scaffold to support de novo tissue formation and spermatogenesis. Then, we utilized the system to investigate the role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-165 during testicular morphogenesis on blood vessel and seminiferous tubule formation, and on presence of germ cells in the de novo developed tubules. Our results show that donor cell pellets with 10×106 porcine neonatal testicular cells in Matrigel efficiently formed testis tissue de novo. Contrary to what was expected, the enrichment of the cell suspension with germ cells did not result in higher numbers of tubules supporting spermatogenesis. The addition of VEGF-165 did not improve blood vessel or tubule formation but it enhanced the number of tubules containing spermatogonia. These results indicate that spermatogenic efficiency was improved by the addition of Matrigel, and that VEGF-165 may have a protective role supporting germ cell establishment in their niche. PMID:24803491

  16. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Speculum and accessories. 878.1800 Section 878.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and...

  17. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2640...

  18. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2640...

  19. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Speculum and accessories. 878.1800 Section 878.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgical drape and drape accessories. 878.4370 Section 878.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cryosurgical unit and accessories. 878.4350 Section 878.4350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4350 Cryosurgical...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgical drape and drape accessories. 878.4370 Section 878.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section 878.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section 878.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cryosurgical unit and accessories. 878.4350 Section 878.4350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4350 Cryosurgical...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cryosurgical unit and accessories. 878.4350 Section 878.4350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4350 Cryosurgical...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgical drape and drape accessories. 878.4370 Section 878.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical...

  8. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section 878.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical...

  9. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Speculum and accessories. 878.1800 Section 878.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and...

  10. 21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900 Section 884.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological...

  11. 21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900 Section 884.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4900 Obstetric table and...

  12. 21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900 Section 884.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological...

  13. 21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900 Section 884.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological...

  14. 21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900 Section 884.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological...

  15. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...coagulate fallopian tube tissue with a probe heated by low-voltage energy. This generic type of device may include the following accessories...and (D) For devices with ammeters: continue electrode activation for 5 seconds after the visual endpoint (tissue...

  16. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...coagulate fallopian tube tissue with a probe heated by low-voltage energy. This generic type of device may include the following accessories...and (D) For devices with ammeters: continue electrode activation for 5 seconds after the visual endpoint (tissue...

  17. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...coagulate fallopian tube tissue with a probe heated by low-voltage energy. This generic type of device may include the following accessories...and (D) For devices with ammeters: continue electrode activation for 5 seconds after the visual endpoint (tissue...

  18. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...coagulate fallopian tube tissue with a probe heated by low-voltage energy. This generic type of device may include the following accessories...and (D) For devices with ammeters: continue electrode activation for 5 seconds after the visual endpoint (tissue...

  19. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...coagulate fallopian tube tissue with a probe heated by low-voltage energy. This generic type of device may include the following accessories...and (D) For devices with ammeters: continue electrode activation for 5 seconds after the visual endpoint (tissue...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  3. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  5. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. 884.2700 Section 884.2700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2700...

  6. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. 884.2740 Section 884.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2740...

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of accessory breast cancer in 11 patients

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, SHUO; YU, YONG-HUA; QU, WEI; ZHANG, YONG; LI, JIA

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of accessory breast cancer, and contribute valuable information regarding this rare tumour to the current literature, ultimately facilitating the development of improved treatment strategies. The present study reported the cases of 11 patients with accessory breast cancer. The patients with accessory breast cancer were admitted between January 2002 and June 2014, and the patient records were retrospectively analysed. All patients presented with a tumour that was localised in the axilla. Out of these patients, there were 8 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma and 3 patients with invasive lobular carcinoma. The follow-up periods for patients ranged between 4 and 54 months. Out of the 5 patients that experienced neoplasm metastases, 4 patients succumbed to the disease. In total, 6 patients remain alive with no evidence of disease. Accessory breast cancer is a progressive tumour, and long-term follow-up is required. A comprehensive treatment strategy may be an effective treatment option for patients; however, the optimal time at which to commence chemotherapy and the role of combined radiotherapy and endocrine therapy require additional investigation.

  8. Badvertisements: Stealthy Click-Fraud with Unwitting Accessories

    E-print Network

    Badvertisements: Stealthy Click-Fraud with Unwitting Accessories Mona Gandhi Markus Jakobsson Jacob infrastructure, in the shape of a highly efficient but very well camouflaged click-fraud attack, click-fraud, dual-personality page, JavaScript, phishing, spidering, stealth. 1 Introduction

  9. DFA concepts applied in development of accessories for calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. P.; Suterio, R.

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify design requirements of a device to be used as an accessory in calibration. In this case study, a simple device to sample atmosphere from humidity generators used to calibrate air humidity meters is developed and it is proposed a model applying Design for Assembly concepts.

  10. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mediastinoscope and accessories. 874.4720 Section 874.4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope...

  11. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mediastinoscope and accessories. 874.4720 Section 874.4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope...

  12. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mediastinoscope and accessories. 874.4720 Section 874.4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope...

  13. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mediastinoscope and accessories. 874.4720 Section 874.4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope...

  14. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mediastinoscope and accessories. 874.4720 Section 874.4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope...

  15. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section 890.3025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  16. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section 890.3025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section 890.3025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section 890.3025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section 890.3025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  20. 49 CFR 390.17 - Additional equipment and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional equipment and accessories. 390.17 Section 390.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS;...

  1. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2640...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section 878.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical...

  3. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Speculum and accessories. 878.1800 Section 878.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cryosurgical unit and accessories. 878.4350 Section 878.4350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4350 Cryosurgical...

  5. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument...accessories is a metal device intended for use in reconstructive oral surgery to drill or cut into the upper or lower jaw and may...

  6. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. 884.2740 Section 884.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... heart rate by means of combining and coordinating uterine contraction and fetal heart monitors...

  7. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... phonocardiographic monitor is a device designed to detect, measure, and record fetal heart sounds electronically,...

  8. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. 884.2740 Section 884.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... heart rate by means of combining and coordinating uterine contraction and fetal heart monitors...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section 878.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical...

  10. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Speculum and accessories. 878.1800 Section 878.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cryosurgical unit and accessories. 878.4350 Section 878.4350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4350 Cryosurgical...

  12. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section 10.456 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile...

  13. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section 10.456 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile...

  14. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section 10.456 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile...

  15. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section 10.456 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile...

  16. Testis-specific transcription initiation sites of rat farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Teruya, J H; Kutsunai, S Y; Spear, D H; Edwards, P A; Clarke, C F

    1990-01-01

    A variety of rat tissues were screened at low stringency with a rat farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) synthetase cDNA. In testis, an FPP synthetase-related RNA was detected that was larger than the liver FPP synthetase mRNA and was present at very high levels comparable with liver FPP synthetase RNA levels obtained from rats fed diets supplemented with cholestyramine and mevinolin. Sequence analysis of testis cDNA clones, together with primer extension and S1 nuclease experiments, indicated that testis FPP synthetase transcripts contain an extended 5' untranslated region. The 5' extension contained one or two out-of-frame upstream ATGs, depending on the site of transcription initiation. Protein in vitro translation studies indicated that the extended 5' untranslated region may play a role in regulating the translation of the FPP synthetase polypeptide in rat testis. Southern blot analysis with a probe containing both testis and liver 5' untranslated sequences provided evidence that both liver and testis transcripts derive from the same gene. The data suggest that an upstream testis-specific promoter results in the abundant production of FPP synthetase transcripts that are translated at low efficiency; another promoter functions in liver and other somatic tissues and directs the regulated synthesis of shorter discrete transcripts. Images PMID:2325654

  17. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes and Signaling Pathways between XY and YY Testis in Yellow Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junjie; Xiong, Shuting; Jing, Jing; Chen, Xin; Wang, Weimin; Gui, Jian-Fang; Mei, Jie

    2015-01-01

    YY super-males have rarely been detected in nature and only been artificially created in some fish species including tilapia and yellow catfish (Pelteobagrusfulvidraco), which provides a promising model for testis development and spermatogenesis. In our previous study, significant differences in morphology and miRNA expression were detected between XY and YY testis of yellow catfish. Here, solexa sequencing technology was further performed to compare mRNA expression between XY and YY testis. Compared with unigenes expressed in XY testis, 1146 and 1235 unigenes have significantly higher and lower expression in YY testis, respectively. 605 differentially expressed unigenes were annotated to 1604 GO terms with 319 and 286 genes having relative higher expression in XY and YY testis. KEGG analysis suggested different levels of PI3K-AKT and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways between XY and YY testis. Down-regulation of miR-141/429 in YY testis was speculated to promote testis development and maturation, and several factors in PI3K-AKT and GPCR signaling pathways were found as predicted targets of miR-141/429, several of which were confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assays. Our study provides a comparative transcriptome analysis between XY and YY testis, and reveals interactions between miRNAs and their target genes that are possibly involved in regulating testis development and spermatogenesis. PMID:26241040

  18. The pineal gland, but not melatonin, is associated with the termination of seasonal testicular activity in an annual reproductive cycle in roseringed parakeet Psittacula krameri.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Anamika; Kumar Maitra, Saumen

    2006-01-01

    The role of the pineal gland and its hormone melatonin in the regulation of annual testicular events was investigated for the first time in a psittacine bird, the roseringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Accordingly, the testicular responsiveness of the birds was evaluated following surgical pinealectomy with or without the exogenous administration of melatonin and the experimental manipulations of the endogenous levels of melatonin through exposing the birds to continuous illumination. An identical schedule was followed during the four reproductive phases, each characterizing a distinct testicular status in the annual cycle, namely, the phases of gametogenic quiescence (preparatory phase), seasonal recovery of gametogenesis (progressive phase), seasonal initiation of sperm formation (pre-breeding phase), and peak gametogenic activity (breeding phase). In each reproductive phase, the birds were subjected to various experimental conditions, and the effects were studied comparing the testicular conditions in the respective control birds. The study included germ cell profiles of the seminiferous tubules, the activities of steroidogenic enzymes 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD), and Delta(5)3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Delta(5)3beta- HSD) in the testis, and the serum levels of testosterone and melatonin. An analysis of the data reveals that the pineal gland and its hormone melatonin may play an inhibitory role in the development of the testis until the attainment of the seasonal peak in the annual reproductive cycle. However, in all probability, the termination of the seasonal activity of the testis or the initiation of testicular regression in the annual reproductive cycle appears to be the function of the pineal gland, but not of melatonin. PMID:17050209

  19. The effect of opium dependency on testis volume: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Cyrus, Ali; Solhi, Hassan; Azizabadi Farahani, Mahdi; Khoddami Vishteh, Hamid Reza; Goudarzi, Davoud; Mosayebi, Ghasem; Mohamadian, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the paucity of data on possible testis changes in opioid dependents, we sought to compare the testis volumes between a group of opium dependents and a group of healthy controls. Objective: Comparison of testis volume between opium dependents and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: This case-control study recruited 100 men with opium dependency (cases) and 100 healthy men (controls) in Iran, in 2008. A checklist containing questions about age, height, weight, daily amount of cigarette use, and duration of cigarette use for all the participants as well as daily amount of opium use (grams) and duration of opium use (years) for the case group was completed. Additionally, the dimensions of each testis were measured by a single person using calipers, and the mean of the left and right testes volume was compared between these two groups. Results: The mean of the testis volumes in the case group was significantly lower than that of the case group (11.2±2.2 and 25.1±2.7cm³, p<0.001). The results of the ANCOVA test showed that even after the omission of the cigarette smoking effect (p=0.454), the testis volume remained lower in the opium dependents (R2=0.884, p<0.001). In the case group, there were significant reverse correlations between testis volume and age (r=-0.404, p<0.001), daily amount of opium use (r=-0/207, p=0.039) and duration of opium use (r=-0.421, p<0.001). Conclusion: We found that the testis volume in the male opium dependents was lower than that of the healthy controls. We would recommend that future studies into the impact of drugs on the testis dimensions pay heed to possible histological changes in the testes owing to opium dependency. PMID:25246920

  20. Connexin 43 expression in the testis of the frog Rana esculenta.

    PubMed

    Izzo, G; d'Istria, M; Ferrara, D; Serino, I; Aniello, F; Minucci, S

    2006-11-01

    Testicular cell-to-cell interactions play a key role in the regulation of spermatogenesis. In the testis, cell contacts are mediated through several mechanisms, including paracrine and direct contacts depending on gap junctional pathways. Gap junctions require connexin (Cx) channels and connexin-43 (Cx43) represent the most abundant Cx found in mammalian testis. Little is known about Cx expression in non-mammalian testis. Here we report the partial cloning of a Cx43 transcript of 381 bp from Rana esculenta testis. We also demonstrate that, in the frog testis, Cx43 transcript and protein show a parallel temporal and spatial pattern of expression throughout the reproductive annual cycle, with higher levels from September to January (when spermatogenesis is at a maximum level). In situ hybridization, carried out on testis collected in October, indicated that Leydig cells (LC) and Sertoli cells express Cx43 transcript, while the hybridization signal was less intense in germ cells. To obtain more information on Cx43 expression in the frog testis, we have used ethane-dimethane sulphonate (EDS), a toxin that specifically destroys LC. RT-PCR analysis shows a progressive decrease in Cx43 expression in EDS-treated testis from day 1 to day 4 after the injection, associated with LC destruction. Moreover, Cx43 expression returns to normal on day 28, when a new population of LC reappear in the interstitium, indicating that Cx43 is mainly expressed by LC. Taken together our data provide evidence that Cx43 is present in the frog testis with an important role in spermatogenesis. PMID:17266793

  1. Effects of plants and plant products on the testis

    PubMed Central

    D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia; Vaithinathan, Selvaraju; Jubendradass, Rajamanickam; Mathur, Premendu Prakash

    2010-01-01

    For centuries, plants and plant-based products have been used as a valuable and safe natural source of medicines for treating various ailments. The therapeutic potential of most of these plants could be ascribed to their anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antispasmodic, analgesic and various other pharmacological properties. However, several commonly used plants have been reported to adversely affect male reproductive functions in wildlife and humans. The effects observed with most of the plant and plant-based products have been attributed to the antispermatogenic and/or antisteroidogenic properties of one or more active ingredients. This review discusses the detrimental effects of some of the commonly used plants on various target cells in the testis. A deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of action of these natural compounds could pave the way for developing therapeutic strategies against their toxicity. PMID:20562897

  2. Studies on gonadotropin receptor of rat ovary and testis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.

    1989-01-01

    The subunit structure of the testicular LH/hCG receptor was studied by a chemical cross-linking technique. Leydig cells isolated from rat testis were incubated with {sup 125}I-hCG, following which the bound {sup 125}I-hCG was covalently cross-linked to the receptor on the cell surface with a cleavable or a non-cleavable cross-linking reagent. The hormone-receptor complex was extracted and then either subjected to gel permeation chromatography under nondenaturing conditions, or resolved by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by autoradiographic analysis. The ovarian LH/hCG receptor was studied with luteal cells from pseudopregnant rats. Purification of the receptor was achieved by ligand affinity chromatography following detergent solubilization of the plasma membrane. The purified hCG receptor displayed properties identical to the membrane bound receptor with regard to binding specificity and affinity, and exhibited a molecular weight of approximately 130,000 dalton.

  3. Ultrastructure of Spermatogenesis in the Testis of Paragonimus heterotremus

    PubMed Central

    Uabundit, Nongnut; Kanla, Pipatphong; Puthiwat, Phongphithak; Arunyanart, Channarong; Chaiciwamongkol, Kowit; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Iamsaard, Sitthichai

    2013-01-01

    Lung fluke, Paragonimus heterotremus, is a flatworm causing pulmonary paragonimiasis in cats, dogs, and humans in Southeast Asia. We examined the ultrastructure of the testis of adult P. heterotremus with special attention to spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The full sequence of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, from the capsular basal lamina to the luminal surface, was demonstrated. The sequence comprises spermatogonia, spermatocytes with obvious nuclear synaptonemal complexes, spermatids, and eventual spermatozoa. Moreover, full steps of spermatid differentiation were shown which consisted of 1) early stage, 2) differentiation stage representing the flagella, intercentriolar body, basal body, striated rootlets, and electron dense nucleus of thread-like lamellar configuration, and 3) growing spermatid flagella. Detailed ultrastructure of 2 different types of spermatozoa was also shown in this study. PMID:24516272

  4. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

  5. Birth dates of men with cancer of the testis.

    PubMed Central

    Knox, E G; Cummins, C

    1985-01-01

    A recent rise in the incidence of cancer of the testis in affluent countries and affluent social strata suggests either an iatrogenic effect analogous with adenocarcinoma of the vagina or a prenatal infection analogous with congenital rubella syndrome. Three samples were assembled, two based on registration and one on death certification, and dates of birth were examined for the presence of steps, cycles, and irregular clusters. There was no evidence of a sudden step, and only equivocal evidence of clustering, but there was strong evidence of a temporal cycle. The cycle has a four-month period, analogous with a school-term-related cyclical component identified in other diseases. A prenatal infection is strongly suggested, but the pattern enables us to exclude many of the common childhood infectious fevers. PMID:4045366

  6. Carcinoma in a mediastinal fifth parathyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Kastan, D.J.; Kottamasu, S.R.; Frame, B.; Greenwald, K.A.

    1987-03-06

    Commonly four parathyroid glands are located in the neck. The incidence of a fifth supernumery parathyroid gland has been reported to be between 2% and 6%. Most reports of a hyperfunctioning supernumery parathyroid gland have been adenomas. There have been only a few reports of parathyroid gland carcinoma occurring outside of the cervical region, none of which were in a supernumery parathyroid gland. The authors believe this is the first report of a carcinoma occurring in a supernumery parathyroid gland. Following surgery, four views of the chest during a barium swallow examination showed an anterior mediastinal mass. Computed tomographic (CT) scans of the mediastinum confirmed a contrast-enhancing soft-tissue mass anterior to and separate from the aorta.

  7. The Impact of Long-Term Exposure to Space Environment on Adult Mammalian Organisms: A Study on Mouse Thyroid and Testis

    PubMed Central

    Masini, Maria Angela; Albi, Elisabetta; Barmo, Cristina; Bonfiglio, Tommaso; Bruni, Lara; Canesi, Laura; Cataldi, Samuela; Curcio, Francesco; D'Amora, Marta; Ferri, Ivana; Goto, Katsumasa; Kawano, Fuminori; Lazzarini, Remo; Loreti, Elisabetta; Nakai, Naoya; Ohira, Takashi; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Palmero, Silvio; Prato, Paola; Ricci, Franco; Scarabelli, Linda; Shibaguchi, Tsubasa; Spelat, Renza; Strollo, Felice; Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco Saverio

    2012-01-01

    Hormonal changes in humans during spaceflight have been demonstrated but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. To clarify this point thyroid and testis/epididymis, both regulated by anterior pituitary gland, have been analyzed on long-term space-exposed male C57BL/10 mice, either wild type or pleiotrophin transgenic, overexpressing osteoblast stimulating factor-1. Glands were submitted to morphological and functional analysis. In thyroids, volumetric ratios between thyrocytes and colloid were measured. cAMP production in 10?7M and 10?8M thyrotropin-treated samples was studied. Thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were quantitized by immunoblotting and localized by immunofluorescence. In space-exposed animals, both basal and thyrotropin-stimulated cAMP production were always higher. Also, the structure of thyroid follicles appeared more organized, while thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were overexpressed. Unlike the control samples, in the space samples thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were both observed at the intracellular junctions, suggesting their interaction in specific cell membrane microdomains. In testes, immunofluorescent reaction for 3?- steroid dehydrogenase was performed and the relative expressions of hormone receptors and interleukin-1? were quantified by RT-PCR. Epididymal sperm number was counted. In space-exposed animals, the presence of 3? and 17? steroid dehydrogenase was reduced. Also, the expression of androgen and follicle stimulating hormone receptors increased while lutenizing hormone receptor levels were not affected. The interleukin 1 ? expression was upregulated. The tubular architecture was altered and the sperm cell number was significantly reduced in spaceflight mouse epididymis (approx. ?90% vs. laboratory and ground controls), indicating that the space environment may lead to degenerative changes in seminiferous tubules. Space-induced changes of structure and function of thyroid and testis/epididymis could be responsible for variations of hormone levels in human during space missions. More research, hopefully a reflight of MDS, would be needed to establish whether the space environment acts directly on the peripheral glands or induces changes in the hypotalamus-pituitary-glandular axis. PMID:22558148

  8. Salivary Gland Development: A Template for Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vaishali N.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian salivary gland develops as a highly branched structure designed to produce and secrete saliva. This review will focus on research on mouse submandibular gland development and the translation of this basic research towards therapy for patients suffering from salivary hypofunction. Here we review the most recent literature that has enabled a better understanding of the mechanisms of salivary gland development. Additionally, we discuss approaches proposed to restore salivary function using gene and cell-based therapy. Increasing our understanding of the developmental mechanisms involved during development is critical to design effective therapies for regeneration and repair of damaged glands. PMID:24333774

  9. MOST BIRDS HAVE a uropygial gland, also known as a preen gland, on their rump. The nipple-like

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Dale H.

    MOST BIRDS HAVE a uropygial gland, also known as a preen gland, on their rump. The nipple-like protuberance of the gland exudes oil, which is spread throughout the plumage when a bird preens. Preen oil deprived of ABSTRACT.--Most species of birds have a uropygial gland, also known as a preen gland, which

  10. Palindromes on the human X chromosome : testis-biased transcription, gene conversion and evolution

    E-print Network

    Saionz, Jennifer R., 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Recent genomic studies of the Y chromosome revealed massive, testis-specific palindromes that span 30% of the chromosome and are subject to gene conversion. We conducted studies to determine whether similar palindromes ...

  11. Inbreeding in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.): effects on testis and sperm traits

    E-print Network

    Inbreeding in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.): effects on testis and sperm are contradictory and particularly scarce in fishes. Three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) show

  12. An Accessory Agonist Binding Site Promotes Activation of ?4?2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Sriram, Aarati; Jin, Zhuang; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Kenny, Paul J; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-05-29

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing ?4, ?2, and sometimes other subunits (?4?2* nAChRs) regulate addictive and other behavioral effects of nicotine. These nAChRs exist in several stoichiometries, typically with two high affinity acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at the interface of ?4 and ?2 subunits and a fifth accessory subunit. A third low affinity ACh binding site is formed when this accessory subunit is ?4 but not if it is ?2. Agonists selective for the accessory ACh site, such as 3-[3-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS9283), cannot alone activate a nAChR but can facilitate more efficient activation in combination with agonists at the canonical ?4?2 sites. We therefore suggest categorizing agonists according to their site selectivity. NS9283 binds to the accessory ACh binding site; thus it is termed an accessory site-selective agonist. We expressed (?4?2)2 concatamers in Xenopus oocytes with free accessory subunits to obtain defined nAChR stoichiometries and ?4/accessory subunit interfaces. We show that ?2, ?3, ?4, and ?6 accessory subunits can form binding sites for ACh and NS9283 at interfaces with ?4 subunits, but ?2 and ?4 accessory subunits cannot. To permit selective blockage of the accessory site, ?4 threonine 126 located on the minus side of ?4 that contributes to the accessory site, but not the ?4?2 sites, was mutated to cysteine. Alkylation of this cysteine with a thioreactive reagent blocked activity of ACh and NS9283 at the accessory site. Accessory agonist binding sites are promising drug targets. PMID:25869137

  13. Changes in protein expression in maturing equine testis: a quantitative DIGE analysis 

    E-print Network

    Roper-Foo, Pilar

    2011-01-11

    -Foo_Final_Thesis_withappendix-FINAL-VERSION.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 CHANGES IN PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN MATURING EQUINE TESTIS: A QUANTITATIVE DIGE ANALYSIS Major: Genetics April 2009 Submitted to the Office of Undergraduate Research Texas A...&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the designation as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR A Senior Scholars Thesis by PILAR ROPER-FOO CHANGES IN PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN MATURING EQUINE TESTIS: A QUANTITATIVE DIGE ANALYSIS...

  14. Case of combined paratracheal air cyst and accessory cardiac bronchus.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Tamaki; Ono, Shun; Mori, Naoko; Sekiguchi, Tatsuya; Koizumi, Jun; Imai, Yutaka

    2014-07-01

    Paratracheal air cyst (PTAC) is rather frequently detected on thoracic multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in daily practice. Accessory cardiac bronchus (ACB) is a rare anomaly; however, the incidence rate is increasing with the use of recent high quality MDCT scanners. We report a case of combined PTAC and ACB that was incidentally detected by MDCT. Three dimensional CT images revealed anatomical details. PMID:25027253

  15. Tissue-Based Proteogenomics Reveals that Human Testis Endows Plentiful Missing Proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Li, Qidan; Wu, Feilin; Zhou, Ruo; Qi, Yingzi; Su, Na; Chen, Lingsheng; Xu, Shaohang; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Chengpu; Cheng, Gang; Chen, Xinguo; Kong, Degang; Wang, Yujia; Zhang, Tao; Zi, Jin; Wei, Wei; Gao, Yuan; Zhen, Bei; Xiong, Zhi; Wu, Songfeng; Yang, Pengyuan; Wang, Quanhui; Wen, Bo; He, Fuchu; Xu, Ping; Liu, Siqi

    2015-09-01

    Investigations of missing proteins (MPs) are being endorsed by many bioanalytical strategies. We proposed that proteogenomics of testis tissue was a feasible approach to identify more MPs because testis tissues have higher gene expression levels. Here we combined proteomics and transcriptomics to survey gene expression in human testis tissues from three post-mortem individuals. Proteins were extracted and separated with glycine- and tricine-SDS-PAGE. A total of 9597 protein groups were identified; of these, 166 protein groups were listed as MPs, including 138 groups (83.1%) with transcriptional evidence. A total of 2948 proteins are designated as MPs, and 5.6% of these were identified in this study. The high incidence of MPs in testis tissue indicates that this is a rich resource for MPs. Functional category analysis revealed that the biological processes that testis MPs are mainly involved in are sexual reproduction and spermatogenesis. Some of the MPs are potentially involved in tumorgenesis in other tissues. Therefore, this proteogenomics analysis of individual testis tissues provides convincing evidence of the discovery of MPs. All mass spectrometry data from this study have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange (data set identifier PXD002179). PMID:26282447

  16. Patterns of transcriptome divergence in the male accessory gland of two closely related species of field crickets,

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    for targeted manipulation of the genome that promises to render all Drosophila genes amenable to systematic evolution of "speciation genes"? Answers to these fundamental questions may be found by examin- ing patterns field crickets to identify candidate gene regions that contribute to repro- ductive isolation

  17. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland: Case report with literature review comparing major and minor salivary gland sialolipomas.

    PubMed

    Qayyum, Sohail; Meacham, Ryan; Sebelik, Merry; Zafar, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    Sialolipoma is a rare tumor found within both major and minor salivary glands. Here we discuss sialolipoma of the parotid gland and briefly review the English literature. Including our case, a total of 35 sialolipomas have been reported, 18 within major salivary glands and 17 within minor salivary glands. Major gland sialolipomas most often are presented in the parotid gland (77%) and those from minor glands were most often seen in the palate (41%). All lesions were well circumscribed and contained mature adipose tissue intimately admixed with benign salivary gland components. Ductal dilatation was found in 100% of minor salivary gland sialolipomas but in only 28% of major salivary gland tumors. Nerve entrapment has also rarely been noted in major salivary glands (14%) whereas myxoid degeneration has been identified in rare minor salivary glands tumors (13%). Treatment is surgical excision and is curative with no reports of recurrence. PMID:23798838

  18. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland: Case report with literature review comparing major and minor salivary gland sialolipomas

    PubMed Central

    Qayyum, Sohail; Meacham, Ryan; Sebelik, Merry; Zafar, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    Sialolipoma is a rare tumor found within both major and minor salivary glands. Here we discuss sialolipoma of the parotid gland and briefly review the English literature. Including our case, a total of 35 sialolipomas have been reported, 18 within major salivary glands and 17 within minor salivary glands. Major gland sialolipomas most often are presented in the parotid gland (77%) and those from minor glands were most often seen in the palate (41%). All lesions were well circumscribed and contained mature adipose tissue intimately admixed with benign salivary gland components. Ductal dilatation was found in 100% of minor salivary gland sialolipomas but in only 28% of major salivary gland tumors. Nerve entrapment has also rarely been noted in major salivary glands (14%) whereas myxoid degeneration has been identified in rare minor salivary glands tumors (13%). Treatment is surgical excision and is curative with no reports of recurrence. PMID:23798838

  19. Mantle irradiation of the major salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, P.

    1985-11-01

    Radiation given to the mantle field for treatment of Hodgkin's disease impinges on the submandibular and parotid glands at levels that have been both measured and calculated to be the complete tumor dose. This dosage is above the level of irradiation that has been shown to cause partial or complete loss of salivary gland function.

  20. Pleomorphic lipoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Graham, C T; Roberts, A H; Padel, A F

    1998-02-01

    Lipomata are rare tumours of the parotid gland. The pleomorphic lipoma represents an unusual histological variant of the benign lipoma. We report a case of a pleomorphic lipoma arising in the parotid gland. Only one case of a similar nature has previously been recorded. This tumour is benign, was fully excised and recurrence is not expected. PMID:9578889

  1. Orbital Lymphoma Mimicking Lacrimal Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Strianese, Diego; Elefante, Andrea; Matarazzo, Francesco; Panico, Angela; Ferrara, Mariantonia; Tranfa, Fausto

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To describe the case of a patient affected by orbital lymphoma mimicking pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. Methods This was a retrospective case report. Results We present the case of a patient with 15-year history of slowly progressive left proptosis and inferomedial bulbar dislocation who had the presumptive diagnosis of lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma based on clinical and radiological features. The patient underwent lateral orbitotomy and lacrimal gland excision. Postoperative histological features were consistent with low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Conclusion The accepted clinico-radiological criteria used for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland fossa lesions might have a certain false-positive rate, even in recent years. The initial surgical approach with the appropriate choice between fine-needle aspiration biopsies, intraoperative biopsies and lacrimal gland excisions might be a challenge. PMID:24163677

  2. Gordon Research Conference on Mammary Gland Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 conference was the tenth in the series of biennial Gordon Research Conferences on Mammary Gland Biology. Traditionally this conference brings together scientists from diverse backgrounds and experience but with a common interest in the biology of the mammary gland. Investigators from agricultural and medical schools, biochemists, cell and molecular biologists, endocrinologists, immunologists, and representatives from the emerging biotechnology industries met to discuss current concepts and results on the function and regulation of the normal and neoplastic mammary gland in a variety of species. Of the participants, approximately three-fourths were engaged in studying the normal mammary gland function, whereas the other quarter were engaged in studying the neoplastic gland. The interactions between scientists, clinicians, veterinarians examining both normal and neoplastic cell function serves to foster the multi-disciplinary goals of the conference and has stimulated many cooperative projects among participants in previous years.

  3. Microscopy of the echidna sublingual glands.

    PubMed

    Krause, William J

    2011-10-01

    The secretory units and duct system of the echidna sublingual glands exhibit subtle architectural modifications to accommodate the viscous secretion produced by these glands. The glands are compound tubular glands, the secretory units of which are elongate with open lumina and consist only of mucous cells. Closely packed spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells invest the secretory units, but are absent around the ducts. The branched secretory tubules open into an abbreviated duct system characterized by wide lumina. Striated ducts normally associated with the second portion of the intralobular duct system are absent. The duct system shows the most obvious modification of general salivary gland architecture presumably to accommodate the viscous secretion propelled from the secretory units by surrounding myoepithelial cells. PMID:21671992

  4. Characteristics of spermatogonial stem cells derived from neonatal porcine testis.

    PubMed

    Shi, R; Bai, Y; Li, S; Wei, H; Zhang, X; Li, L; Tian, X C; Jiang, Q; Wang, C; Qin, L; Cai, J; Zhang, S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and characterise porcine spermatogonial stem cells (PSSCs). The putative porcine germline stem cells from testis were isolated successfully by an improving way of enrichment with lymphocyte separation medium (LSM). Results from RT-PCR analyses showed that PSSCs were positive for OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, PGP9.5, c-MYC, KEL4 and PRDM-14 which are multipotent stem cell markers. At the protein level, the results of immunofluorescence analyses showed that PSSCs were positive for OCT4, PGP9.5, SOX2 and CD29. We successfully differentiated these PSSCs into adipocytes and muscle cells and then defined their characteristics, including morphology, surface stem cell markers, and mechanical properties. But the experiment of teratoma formation was negative. The results indicated the PSSCs could be multipotent. Atomic force microscopy was used to characterise the morphological and mechanical properties of undifferentiated PSSCs, as well as the differentiated adipocytes and muscle cells, which could be potentially useful for distinguishing PSSCs from differentiated cells. PMID:25251288

  5. Integrative Discovery of Epigenetically Derepressed Cancer Testis Antigens in NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Chad A.; Smith, Ian M.; Ochs, Michael F.; Begum, Shahnaz; Westra, William; Chang, Steven S.; Sun, Wenyue; Bhan, Sheetal; Khan, Zubair; Ahrendt, Steven; Califano, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) were first discovered as immunogenic targets normally expressed in germline cells, but differentially expressed in a variety of human cancers. In this study, we used an integrative epigenetic screening approach to identify coordinately expressed genes in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose transcription is driven by promoter demethylation. Methodology/Principal Findings Our screening approach found 290 significant genes from the over 47,000 transcripts incorporated in the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 expression array. Of the top 55 candidates, 10 showed both differential overexpression and promoter region hypomethylation in NSCLC. Surprisingly, 6 of the 10 genes discovered by this approach were CTAs. Using a separate cohort of primary tumor and normal tissue, we validated NSCLC promoter hypomethylation and increased expression by quantitative RT-PCR for all 10 genes. We noted significant, coordinated coexpression of multiple target genes, as well as coordinated promoter demethylation, in a large set of individual tumors that was associated with the SCC subtype of NSCLC. In addition, we identified 2 novel target genes that exhibited growth-promoting effects in multiple cell lines. Conclusions/Significance Coordinated promoter demethylation in NSCLC is associated with aberrant expression of CTAs and potential, novel candidate protooncogenes that can be identified using integrative discovery techniques. These findings have significant implications for discovery of novel CTAs and CT antigen directed immunotherapy. PMID:19997593

  6. Sertoliform cystadenoma: a rare benign tumour of the rete testis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Sertoliform cystadenoma of the rete testis represents an uncommon benign tumour. They appear in patients from 26 to 62 years of age. We describe a case of a 66-year-old man with a tumour in the area of the epididymal head. The tumour markers were not increased. Under the assumption of a malignant testicular tumour an inguinal orchiectomy was performed. The cut surface of this tumour was of grey/white color and showed small cysts. The tumour consisted of two compartments. The epithelial like tumour cells showed a sertoliform growth pattern and cystic dilatations. In between the tumour cells repeatedly actin expressing sclerotic areas could be recognized as the second tumour component. Proliferative activity was not increased. Immunohistochemically the tumour cells were positiv for inhibin, S-100, and CD 99. Alpha feto protein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG) and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) as well as synaptophysin, epithelial membrane antigene (EMA), and BCL-2 were not expressed. As far as we know this is the sixth reported case of this tumour. Because of the benign nature of this tumour the correct diagnosis is important for the intra- and postoperative management. Here we present a case of this rare tumour and discuss potential differential diagnosis. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1956026143857335 PMID:23406299

  7. B-mode and contrast-enhanced sonographic assessment of accessory spleen in the dog.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Federica; Rabba, Silvia; Vignoli, Massimo; Haers, Hendrik; Terragni, Rossella; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2010-01-01

    Four dogs with an accessory spleen are described. The accessory spleens appeared as a round-to-triangular structure located in the perisplenic area. They were homogeneous and isoechoic with the adjacent spleen. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was performed using a second generation microbubble contrast medium (sulfur hexafluoride). The type and timing of enhancement of the accessory spleen was similar to that of the parent spleen. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a noninvasive modality useful in distinguishing an accessory spleen from a mass of another origin. PMID:20402406

  8. 21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bone and soft tissue. Accessories or attachments may include a bur, chisel (osteotome), dermabrasion brush, dermatome, drill bit, hammerhead, pin driver, and saw blade. (b) Classification. Class I...

  9. Bioengineered Lacrimal Gland Organ Regeneration in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Tsubota, Kazuo; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The lacrimal gland plays an important role in maintaining a homeostatic environment for healthy ocular surfaces via tear secretion. Dry eye disease, which is caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction, is one of the most prevalent eye disorders and causes ocular discomfort, significant visual disturbances, and a reduced quality of life. Current therapies for dry eye disease, including artificial tear eye drops, are transient and palliative. The lacrimal gland, which consists of acini, ducts, and myoepithelial cells, develops from its organ germ via reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during embryogenesis. Lacrimal tissue stem cells have been identified for use in regenerative therapeutic approaches aimed at restoring lacrimal gland functions. Fully functional organ replacement, such as for tooth and hair follicles, has also been developed via a novel three-dimensional stem cell manipulation, designated the Organ Germ Method, as a next-generation regenerative medicine. Recently, we successfully developed fully functional bioengineered lacrimal gland replacements after transplanting a bioengineered organ germ using this method. This study represented a significant advance in potential lacrimal gland organ replacement as a novel regenerative therapy for dry eye disease. In this review, we will summarize recent progress in lacrimal regeneration research and the development of bioengineered lacrimal gland organ replacement therapy. PMID:26264034

  10. Historical vignettes of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Lydiatt, Daniel D; Bucher, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    Although "glands" in the neck corresponding to the thyroid were known for thousands of years, they were mainly considered pathological when encountered. Recognition of the thyroid gland as an anatomical and physiological entity required human dissection, which began in earnest in the 16th century. Leonardo Da Vinci is generally credited as the first to draw the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ. The drawings were subsequently "lost" to medicine for nearly 260 years. The drawings were probably of a nonhuman specimen. Da Vinci vowed to produce an anatomical atlas, but it was never completed. Michelangelo Buonarroti promised to complete drawings for the anatomical work of Realdus Columbus, De Re Anatomica, but these were also never completed. Andreas Vesalius established the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ with his description and drawings in the Fabrica. The thyroid was still depicted in a nonhuman form during this time. The copper etchings of Bartholomew Eustachius made in the 1560s were obviously of humans, but were not actually published until 1714 with a description by Johannes Maria Lancisius. These etchings also depicted some interesting anatomy, which we describe. The Adenographia by Thomas Wharton in 1656 named the thyroid gland for the first time and more fully described it. The book also attempted to assign a function to the gland. The thyroid gland's interesting history thus touches a number of famous men from diverse backgrounds. PMID:21120907

  11. Biological Roles of Uterine Glands in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, uterine receptivity, and stromal cell decidualization in humans and animal models. The infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss observed in the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model unequivocally supports a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid in survival and development of the conceptus. Further, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation as well as stromal cell decidualization. Similarly in humans, uterine glands and their secretory products are likely critical regulators of blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus growth and development during the first trimester. Circumstantial evidence suggests that deficient glandular activity may be a causative factor in pregnancy failure and complications in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility and pregnancy problems in mammals. PMID:24959816

  12. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P.; Vissink, Arjan

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells, but is also caused by damage to the extracellular environment, preventing proper cell functioning.

  13. Salivary glands and human selection: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Shields, E D; Mann, R W

    1996-01-01

    Stafne static bone defect (SSBD) of the mandible is the only described destructive bone lesion that is highly localized, nonprogressive, but nonhealing. This common defect in male is found in the region of the major salivary glands that produce a cornucopia of biologically active factors. We describe rare phenocopies caused by mandibular immobility that hold the gland in a constant position thus implicating a localized chronic "leak" of an osteoclast induction factor from the major salivary glands as the pathologic agent. This finding suggests that increased salivary gland size could simulate immobility by apposing the gland to bone, thus allowing the "leaked" factor's gradient to have an effect. In one step, the putative genetic enlargement of a critical gland that produces many factors important for survival, a broad biological vista would be available to the massive potential for both positive and negative selection. Positive selection was identified by observing a correlation between the prevalence of enhanced androgen-induced enlarge salivary glands (SSBD) as a marker, with a great preponderance of males) and the conjectured resulting increased production of immunoreactive factors, with pole-to-equator isotherm and broad ranged infection clines. Negative selection was observed among the slave ancestors of African Americans for a potential embryonic homeotic mutation causing larger salivary glands in both sexes (decreased prevalence of SSBD, with an equal sex ratio). The decreased production of saliva and electrolytes diminished the salt and water depletive effects of severe diarrhea and vomiting induced by enteric diseases, which killed many slaves. Data presented suggests that SSBD is a polymorphism and a marker of selection processes that cause variation in size, or structure, of the major salivary glands. PMID:8773904

  14. Uncovering head gland diversity in neotropical Polistinae wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae): Comparative analysis and description of new glands.

    PubMed

    Penagos-Arévalo, Andrea C; Billen, Johan; Sarmiento, Carlos E

    2015-09-01

    Exocrine glands are involved in several wasp colony activities; however, the number of known glands in the Vespidae is rather low when compared to other social insect groups. The aim of this study is to survey the head of Neotropical social wasps and to provide a detailed comparative study of the glands found in the Polistinae. A total of 33 species distributed over 13 genera were studied with serial histological sections of the head, excluding the labiomaxillary complex. Additionally, the exoskeleton was explored using scanning electron microscopy looking for associated modifications. A total of eleven exocrine glands were observed, five are structures recorded for the first time for the Hymenoptera, three are new records for the Polistinae and three are previously known organs. The glands studied are: ocellar gland I, ocellar gland II, periocular gland, subantennal gland, hypopharyngeal gland, clypeal gland, posterobasal genal gland, ectal mandibular gland, mesal mandibular gland, intramandibular gland I, and intramandibular gland II. The widespread distribution of most of these glands suggests an origin prior to the evolution of the Polistinae. Our results highlight the importance of detailed morphological studies to unveil the significance of chemical communication in one of the most characteristic groups of social animals. PMID:26113431

  15. BMP-regulated exosomes from Drosophila male reproductive glands reprogram female behavior

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Laura; Redhai, Siamak; Leiblich, Aaron; Fan, Shih-Jung; Perera, Sumeth M.W.; Patel, Rachel; Gandy, Carina; Wainwright, S. Mark; Morris, John F.; Hamdy, Freddie; Goberdhan, Deborah C.I.

    2014-01-01

    Male reproductive glands secrete signals into seminal fluid to facilitate reproductive success. In Drosophila melanogaster, these signals are generated by a variety of seminal peptides, many produced by the accessory glands (AGs). One epithelial cell type in the adult male AGs, the secondary cell (SC), grows selectively in response to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. This signaling is involved in blocking the rapid remating of mated females, which contributes to the reproductive advantage of the first male to mate. In this paper, we show that SCs secrete exosomes, membrane-bound vesicles generated inside late endosomal multivesicular bodies (MVBs). After mating, exosomes fuse with sperm (as also seen in vitro for human prostate-derived exosomes and sperm) and interact with female reproductive tract epithelia. Exosome release was required to inhibit female remating behavior, suggesting that exosomes are downstream effectors of BMP signaling. Indeed, when BMP signaling was reduced in SCs, vesicles were still formed in MVBs but not secreted as exosomes. These results demonstrate a new function for the MVB–exosome pathway in the reproductive tract that appears to be conserved across evolution. PMID:25154396

  16. Histological, histochemical and fine structure studies of the lacrimal gland and superficial gland of the third eyelid and their significance on the proper function of the eyeball in alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Kle?kowska-Nawrot, J; Nowaczyk, R; Go?dziewska-Har?ajczuk, K; Krasucki, K; Janeczek, M

    2015-01-01

    The lacrimal gland (LG) and superficial gland of the third eyelid (SGTE) belong to accessory organs of the eye. The aim of the present studies was to evaluate the histological, histochemical and fine structure of the LG and SGTE obtained from 3 adult females and 2 adult males of alpaca (Vicugna pacos). The LG was situated in the dorsolateral angle of the orbit between the dorsal rectus and the lateral rectus muscles. The SGTE was located between the medial rectus muscle, the ventral rectus muscle and was partially covered by the ventral oblique muscle of the eyeball. There were no effect of gender on the morphometry of examined LG and SGTE. The third eyelid resembles an anchor in shape. During histological and ultrastructural analyses using light and transmission electron microscopy, it was established that the LG and SGTE are tubulo-acinar glands with mucoserous characters. The LG contains either lymphocytes or plasma cells, while SGTE had rare plasma cells and numerous lymphocytes in connective tissue. The cartilage of the third eyelid was composed of hyaline tissue. Numerous aggregations of lymphocytes as lymph nodules in bulbar surface of the third eyelid were observed. The LG and SGTE secretory cells exhibited a similar ultrastructure appearance in electron microscopic examination, with secretory cells tightly filled with intracytoplasmatic secretory granules and numerous clusters of mucus of different sizes which were observed in the peripheral cells compartment. PMID:26050807

  17. Sarcoidosis with salivary gland involvement: biochemical studies on parotid saliva.

    PubMed

    Beeley, J A; Chisholm, D M

    1976-08-01

    Parotid saliva from a patient suffering from sarcoidosis with salivary gland involvement has been shown to have a decreased level of alpha-amylase but increased levels of albumin and lysozyme. These observations suggest that in addition to impaired gland function, gland damage as a result of inflammation had occurred which permitted increased passage of constituents from serum into the gland secretion. PMID:956685

  18. INTRODUCTION Mammary gland development (Fig. 1), like that of many

    E-print Network

    Scott, Matthew

    INTRODUCTION Mammary gland development (Fig. 1), like that of many organs, requires interactions control growth, govern overall patterning of the ductal tree, and influence the function of the gland interactions critical to mammary gland development and those in other organs make the mammary gland

  19. 9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection of mammary glands. 310.17... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.17 Inspection of mammary glands. (a) Lactating mammary glands and diseased mammary glands of cattle, sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed...

  20. REGULAR ARTICLE Calcitonin is expressed in the chicken pituitary gland

    E-print Network

    Ramachandran, Ramesh

    REGULAR ARTICLE Calcitonin is expressed in the chicken pituitary gland: influence of gonadal in mammals or by the ultimobranchial gland in chickens. CT is also expressed by the pituitary gland in rats) secretion. Gonadal steroids influence CT expression in the rat pituitary gland. However, the expression