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Behavioral effects of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene in mice.  


This study was performed to clarify the toxicological profiles of trichloroethylene (TRCE) and tetrachloroethylene (TECE) when they are administered intraperitoneally in mice. The ED50 for loss of righting reflex were 2596 mg/kg in TRCE and 4209 mg/kg in TECE. TRCE and TECE impaired bridge test performance at 500 and 2000 mg/kg, respectively. An operant behavior performance was also inhibited by TRCE at 1000 mg/kg and by TECE at 2000 mg/kg. Both TRCE and TECE exhibited anticonflict effects in a Vogel-type task at 500 mg/kg. This effect was confirmed by the finding that TRCE exhibited anticonflict action in a Geller-type paradigm at 250 mg/kg and more, as did TRCE did at 1000 mg/kg. These results show that TRCE and TECE affect various behaviors in mice and suggest that conflict behaviors are one of the most sensitive behavioral indicators of the effects of these substances. The toxicological profiles of TRCE and TECE with respect to behavioral effects were very similar, and they can be classified in a single category. PMID:9329056

Umezu, T; Yonemoto, J; Soma, Y; Miura, T




EPA Science Inventory

o-Cresol and 3-methylcatechol were identified as successive transitory intermediates of toluene catabolism by the trichloroethylene-degrading bacterium G4. he absence of a toluene dihydrodiol intermediate or toluene dioxygenase and toluene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase activities sug...


Use of Mini-Sprinklers to Strip Trichloroethylene and Tetrachloroethylene from Contaminated Ground Water.  

SciTech Connect

Berisford, Y.C., P.B. Bush, J.I. Blake, and C.L. Bayer. 2003. Use of mini-sprinklers to strip trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene from contaminated ground water. J. Env. Qual. 32:801-815. Three low-volume mini-sprinklers were tested for their efficacy to strip trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) from water. Deionized water spiked with TCE and PCE was pumped through a mini-sprinkler supported on top of a 1.8-m-tall. Water was collected in collection vessels at 0.61 and 1.22 m above the ground on support columns that were spaced at 0.61-m intervals from the riser base, and samples were composited per height and distance from the riser. Overall, air-stripping reduced dissolved concentrations of TCE and PCE by 99.1 to 100 and 96.9 to 100%, respectively. Mini-sprinklers offer the advantages of (i) easy setup in series that can be used on practically any terrain; (ii) operation over a long period of time that does not threaten aquifer depletion; (iii) use in small or confined aquifers in which the capacity is too low to support large irrigation or pumping systems; and (iv) use in forests in which the small, low-impact droplets of the mini-sprinklers do not damage bark and in which trees can help manage (via evapotransporation) excess waste water.

Brerisford, Yvette, C.; Bush, Parshall, B.; Blake, John, I.; Bayer, Cassandra L.



Semicontinuous microcosm study of aerobic cometabolism of trichloroethylene using toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semicontinuous slurry-microcosm method was applied to mimic trichloroethylene (TCE) cometabolic biodegradation field results at the Que–Jen in-situ pilot study. The microcosm study confirmed the process of aerobic cometabolism of TCE using toluene as the primary substrate. Based on the nucleotide sequence of 16S rRNA genes, the toluene-oxidizing bacteria in microcosms were identified, i.e. Ralstonia sp. P-10 and Pseudomonasputida. The

Y. L. Han; M. C. Tom Kuo; I. C. Tseng; C. J. Lu



Biotransformation of tetrachloroethylene to trichloroethylene, dichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and carbon dioxide under methanogenic conditions.  

PubMed Central

Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), common industrial solvents, are among the most frequent contaminants found in groundwater supplies. Due to the potential toxicity and carcinogenicity of chlorinated ethylenes, knowledge about their transformation potential is important in evaluating their environmental fate. The results of this study confirm that PCE can be transformed by reductive dehalogenation to TCE, dichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride (VC) under anaerobic conditions. In addition, [14C]PCE was at least partially mineralized to CO2. Mineralization of 24% of the PCE occurred in a continuous-flow fixed-film methanogenic column with a liquid detention time of 4 days. TCE was the major intermediate formed, but traces of dichloroethylene isomers and VC were also found. In other column studies under a different set of methanogenic conditions, nearly quantitative conversion of PCE to VC was found. These studies clearly demonstrate that TCE and VC are major intermediates in PCE biotransformation under anaerobic conditions and suggest that potential exists for the complete mineralization of PCE to CO2 in soil and aquifer systems and in biological treatment processes. PMID:3923927

Vogel, T M; McCarty, P L



Novel Pathway of Toluene Catabolism in the Trichloroethylene-Degrading Bacterium G4  

PubMed Central

o-Cresol and 3-methylcatechol were identified as successive transitory intermediates of toluene catabolism by the trichloroethylene-degrading bacterium G4. The absence of a toluene dihydrodiol intermediate or toluene dioxygenase and toluene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase activities suggested that G4 catabolizes toluene by a unique pathway. Formation of a hybrid species of 18O- and 16O-labeled 3-methylcatechol from toluene in an atmosphere of 18O2 and 16O2 established that G4 catabolizes toluene by successive monooxygenations at the ortho and meta positions. Detection of trace amounts of 4-methylcatechol from toluene catabolism suggested that the initial hydroxylation of toluene was not exclusively at the ortho position. Further catabolism of 3-methylcatechol was found to proceed via catechol-2,3-dioxygenase and hydroxymuconic semialdehyde hydrolase activities. PMID:16347956

Shields, Malcolm S.; Montgomery, Stacy O.; Chapman, Peter J.; Cuskey, Stephen M.; Pritchard, P. H.



Spectroscopic signatures of VOC physisorption on microporous solids. Application for trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene adsorption on MFI zeolites.  


This paper presents an experimental infrared spectroscopic study of the physisorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on a self-supported high silica ZSM5 zeolite. The evolution of the shape, area, and location of vibration bands of both the adsorbent and the adsorbate is analyzed with respect to the number of sorbed molecules. The state of the adsorbed phase is characterized upon adsorption by comparing the location of the investigated vibration bands with the location of the corresponding vibration bands of the chloroalkenes in gaseous, liquid, and solid phases. The singular behavior of PCE with respect to TCE is seen from the modification of vibration bands of both the adsorbed phase and the adsorbent upon loading. The adsorption process proceeds by stages for PCE, whereas it appears continuous for TCE. Particular micropore loadings are evidenced at 4 and 6.5 molec.uc(-1) for PCE and at 6 molec.uc(-1) for TCE, in agreement with previous macroscopic and microscopic data. In addition, the presence of admolecules induces at least one emerging vibration band located at around 1715 cm(-1), mainly due to a contribution of the microporous surface of the adsorbent. PMID:16852661

Bertrand, O; Weber, G; Maure, S; Bernardet, V; Bellat, J P; Paulin, C



Reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene catalyzed by vitamin B{sub 12} in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems  

SciTech Connect

The reduction of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) catalyzed by vitamin B{sub 12} was examined in homogeneous and heterogeneous (B{sub 12} bound to agarose) batch systems using titanium(III) citrate as the bulk reductant. The solution and surface-mediated reaction rates at similar B{sub 12} loadings were comparable, indicating that binding vitamin B{sub 12} to a surface did not lower catalytic activity. No loss in PCE reducing activity was observed with repeated usage of surface-bound vitamin B{sub 12}. Carbon mass recoveries were 81-84% for PCE reduction and 89% for TCE reduction, relative to controls. In addition to sequential hydrogenolysis, a second competing reaction mechanism for the reduction of PCE and TCE by B{sub 12}, reductive {beta}-elimination, is proposed to account for the observation of acetylene as a significant reaction intermediate. Reductive {beta}-elimination should be considered as a potential pathway in other reactive systems involving the reduction of vicinal polyhaloethenes. Surface-bound catalysts such as vitamin B{sub 12} may have utility in the engineered degradation of aqueous phase chlorinated ethenes. 19 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Burris, D.R.; Smith, M.H. [Armstrong Lab., Tyndall Air Force Base, FL (United States)] [Armstrong Lab., Tyndall Air Force Base, FL (United States); Delcomyn, C.A. [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Tyndall Air Force Base, FL (United States)] [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Tyndall Air Force Base, FL (United States); Roberts, A.L. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)] [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)



Aerobic degradation of tetrachloroethylene by toluene-o-xylene monooxygenase of Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is thought to have no natural source, so it is one of the most difficult contaminants to degrade biologically. This common groundwater pollutant was thought completely nonbiodegradable in the presence of oxygen. Here we report that the wastewater bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1 degrades aerobically 0.56 ?mol of 2.0 ?mol PCE in 21 h (Vmax ? 2.5 nmol min?1

Doohyun Ryoo; Hojae Shim; Paola Barbieri; Thomas K. Wood



Toluene-Degrading Bacteria Are Chemotactic towards the Environmental Pollutants Benzene, Toluene, and Trichloroethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioremediation of polluted groundwater and toxic waste sites requires that bacteria come into close physical contact with pollutants. This can be accomplished by chemotaxis. Five motile strains of bacteria that use five different pathways to degrade toluene were tested for their ability to detect and swim towards this pollutant. Three of the five strains (Pseudomonas putida F1, Ralstonia pickettii




Real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis of trichloroethylene-regulated toluene dioxygenase expression in Pseudomonas putida F1.  


Toluene dioxygenase (tod) is a multicomponent enzyme system in Pseudomonas putida F1. Tod can mediate the degradation of Trichloroethylene (TCE), a widespread pollutant. In this study, we try to explore the TCE-regulated tod expression by using real-time qRT-PCR. The minimal culture media were supplemented with glucose, toluene, or a mixture of glucose/toluene respectively as carbon and energy sources. The TCE was injected into each medium after a 12-hour incubation period. The TCE injection severely affected bacterial growth when cultured with toluene or toluene/glucose mixtures. The cell density dropped 61 % for bacteria growing in toluene and 36 % for bacteria in the glucose/toluene mixture after TCE injection, but the TCE treatment had little effect on bacteria supplied with glucose alone. The decrease in cell number was caused by the cytotoxicity of the TCE metabolized by tod. The results from the real-time qRT-PCR revealed that TCE was capable of inducing tod expression in a toluene-dependent manner and that the tod expression level increased 50 times in toluene and 3 times in the toluene/glucose mixture after 6 hours of TCE treatment. Furthermore, validation of the rpoD gene as a reference gene for P. putida F1 was performed in this study, providing a valuable foundation for future studies to use real-time qRT-PCR in the analysis of the P. putida F1 strain. PMID:21500075

Liu, Jian B; Amemiya, Takashi; Chang, Qing; Xu, Xiaoj; Itoh, Kiminori



Oxidation of trichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and chloroform by toluene\\/o-xylene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toluene\\/o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1, which oxidizes toluene and o-xylene, was examined for its ability to degrade the environmental pollutants trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), cis-1,2-DCE, trans-1,2-DCE, chloroform, dichloromethane, phenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol, and 2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorophenol. Escherichia coli JM109 that expressed ToMO from genes on plasmid pBZ1260 under control of the lac promoter degraded TCE, 1,1-DCE, and chloroform at

SADHANA CHAUHAN; T. K. Wood; P. Barbieri



Oxidation of trichloroethylene, toluene, and ethanol vapors by a partially saturated permeable reactive barrier.  


The mitigation of volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors in the unsaturated zone largely relies on the active removal of vapor by ventilation. In this study we considered an alternative method involving the use of solid potassium permanganate to create a horizontal permeable reactive barrier for oxidizing VOC vapors. Column experiments were carried out to investigate the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE), toluene, and ethanol vapors using a partially saturated mixture of potassium permanganate and sand grains. Results showed a significant removal of VOC vapors due to the oxidation. We found that water saturation has a major effect on the removal capacity of the permeable reactive layer. We observed a high removal efficiency and reactivity of potassium permanganate for all target compounds at the highest water saturation (Sw=0.6). A change in pH within the reactive layer reduced oxidation rate of VOCs. The use of carbonate minerals increased the reactivity of potassium permanganate during the oxidation of TCE vapor by buffering the pH. Reactive transport of VOC vapors diffusing through the permeable reactive layer was modeled, including the pH effect on the oxidation rates. The model accurately described the observed breakthrough curve of TCE and toluene vapors in the headspace of the column. However, miscibility of ethanol in water in combination with produced water during oxidation made the modeling results less accurate for ethanol. A linear relationship was found between total oxidized mass of VOC vapors per unit volume of permeable reactive layer and initial water saturation. This behavior indicates that pH changes control the overall reactivity and longevity of the permeable reactive layer during oxidation of VOCs. The results suggest that field application of a horizontal permeable reactive barrier can be a viable technology against upward migration of VOC vapors through the unsaturated zone. PMID:24992709

Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba G; Hassanizadeh, S Majid; Hartog, Niels; Raoof, Amir



Oxidation of trichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and chloroform by toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1  

SciTech Connect

Toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1, which oxidizes toluene and o-xylene, was examined for its ability to degrade the environmental pollutants trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), cis-1,2-DCE, trans-1,2-DCE, chloroform, dichloromethane, phenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol, and 2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorophenol. Escherichia coli JM109 that expressed ToMO from genes on plasmid pBZ1260 under control of the lac promoter degraded TCE, 1,1-DCE, and chloroform at initial rates of 3.1, 3.6, and 1.6 nmol, respectively. Stoichiometric amounts of chloride release were seen, indicating mineralization. Thus, the substrate range of ToMO is extended to include aliphatic chlorinated compounds.

Chauhan, S.; Wood, T.K. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering; Barbieri, P. [Univ. degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy). Dept. di Genetica e di Biologia dei Microrganismi



Activity-Dependent Enzymatic Assay for the Detection of Toluene-Oxidizing Bacteria Capable of Trichloroethylene Degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toluene-oxidizing bacteria produce enzymes that cometabolically degrade trichloroethylene (TCE). These inducible enzymes are produced only in the presence of certain aromatic substrates such as toluene or phenol. Recent laboratory studies have utilized analog chemical substrates to identify production of bacterial enzymes capable of degrading trichloroethylene. These analog substrates produce chromogenic and/or fluorescent products when biotransformed by the enzymes of interest. In this study, 3-hydroxyphenylacetylene (3-HPA) was identified as an activity-dependent enzymatic probe for the detection of three of the four known toluene oxygenase enzymes capable of TCE degradation. Laboratory studies were conducted using pure cultures of Burkholderia cepacia G4, Burkholderia pickettii PKO1, and Pseudomonas putida F1. Cell cultures grown on lactate (non-enzyme inducing) or lactate and toluene (inducing) were trapped trapped on black polycarbonate filters, exposed to 3-HPA, and examined for fluorescence using an epifluorescent microscope. Additionally, B. cepacia G4 cells were grown under the same conditions, but in the presence of mineral and basalt specimens to allow for bacterial attachment. The specimens were then exposed to 3-HPA and examined under an epifluorescent microscope. Our results demonstrate that cells induced for the production of oxygenase enzymes, both unattached and attached, are able to transform 3-HPA to a fluorescent product, although cells attached to geologic materials, such as basalt, take substantially longer to transform the probe. Cells grown under non-inducing conditions do not transform the probe, regardless of their attachment status. Additionally, well water samples taken from a TCE-contaminated aquifer were successfully assayed using the 3-HPA enzymatic probe. The development of this enzyme activity-dependent enzymatic assay provides a fast and reliable method to assess the potential for TCE and aromatic contaminant bioremediation.

Kauffman, M. E.; Kauffman, M. E.; Keener, W. K.; Watwood, M. E.; Lehman, R. M.



Reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene in anoxic aquifer material from Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey. Water Resources Investigation  

SciTech Connect

Ground water at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, has been contaminated with chlorinated solvents released from the waste water-treatment system of a metal-plating shop and from overflow from a degreasing vat. Trichloroethylene is the major contaminant, but 1,1,1-trichloroethane and tetrachloroethylene are also present. Cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and vinyl chloride were not original contaminants, but their accumulation in the ground water indicates reductive dechlorination of the trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene released to the aquifer. Laboratory microcosms were used to estimate the kinetics of reductive dechlorination at field scale. The microcosms were constructed with aquifer material collected from locations along the longitudinal extent of the plume and from outside the area of contamination. To determine whether supplementary electron donors would enhance reductive dechlorination, three suites of electron donors were added to aquifer material: (1) butyrate, propionate, toluene, and p-cresol; (2) butyrate, propionate, formate, methanol, toluene, and p-cresol; or (3) formate and methanol.

Wilson, B.H.; Ehlke, T.A.; Imbrigiotta, T.E.; Wilson, J.T.



Cometabolic degradation of trichloroethylene by Pseudomonas cepacia G4 in a chemostat with toluene as the primary substrate.  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas cepacia G4 is capable of cometabolic degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) if the organism is grown on certain aromatic compounds. To obtain more insight into the kinetics of TCE degradation and the effect of TCE transformation products, we have investigated the simultaneous conversion of toluene and TCE in steady-state continuous culture. The organism was grown in a chemostat with toluene as the carbon and energy source at a range of volumetric TCE loading rates, up to 330 mumol/liter/h. The specific TCE degradation activity of the cells and the volumetric activity increased, but the efficiency of TCE conversion dropped when the TCE loading was elevated from 7 to 330 mumol/liter/h. At TCE loading rates of up to 145 mumol/liter/h, the specific toluene conversion rate and the molar growth yield of the cells were not affected by the presence of TCE. The response of the system to varying TCE loading rates was accurately described by a mathematical model based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics and competitive inhibition. A high load of 3,400 mumol of TCE per liter per h for 12 h caused inhibition of toluene and TCE conversion, but reduction of the TCE load to the original nontoxic level resulted in complete recovery of the system within 2 days. These results show that P. cepacia can stably and continuously degrade toluene and TCE simultaneously in a single-reactor system without biomass retention and that the organism is more resistant to high concentrations and shock loadings of TCE than Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. PMID:7524444

Landa, A S; Sipkema, E M; Weijma, J; Beenackers, A A; Dolfing, J; Janssen, D B




EPA Science Inventory

The organic contaminants that are most commonly detected in groundwater are low-molecular-weight, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform. The authors exposed unsatu...


Bio-removal of mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes/total petroleum hydrocarbons/trichloroethylene from contaminated water.  


Four pure cultures were isolated from soil samples potentially contaminated with gasoline compounds either at a construction site near a gas station in Fai Chi Kei, Macau SAR or in the northern parts of China (Beijing, and Hebei and Shandong). The effects of different concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and three isomers (ortho-, meta-, and para-) of xylene (BTEX), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and trichloroethylene (TCE), when they were present in mixtures, on the bio-removal efficiencies of microbial isolates were investigated, together with their interactions during the bio-removal process. When the isolates were tested for the BTEX (50-350 mg/L)/TPH (2000 mg/L) mixture, BTEoX in BTEoX/TPH mixture was shown with higher bio-removal efficiencies, while BTEmX in BTEmX/TPH mixture was shown with the lowest, regardless of isolates. The TPH in BTEmX/TPH mixture, on the other hand, were generally shown with higher bio-removal efficiencies compared to when TPH mixed with BTEoX and BTEpX. When these BTEX mixtures (at 350 mg/L) were present with TCE (5-50 mg/L), the stimulatory effect of TCE toward BTEoX bio-removal was observed for BTEoX/TCE mixture, while the inhibitory effect of TCE toward BTEmX for BTEmX/TCE mixture. The bio-removal efficiency for TPH was shown lower in TPH (2000 mg/L)/TCE (5-50 mg/L) mixtures compared to TPH present alone, implying the inhibitory effect of TCE toward TPH bio-removal. For the mixture of BTEX (417 mg/L), TPH (2000 mg/L) along with TCE (5-50 mg/L), TCE was shown co-metabolically removed more efficiently at 15 mg/L, probably utilizing BTEX and/or TPH as primary substrates. PMID:19803079

Shim, Hojae; Ma, Wei; Lin, Aijun; Chan, Kaicho




EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) was metabolized by the natural microflora of three different environmental water samples when stimulated by the addition of either toluene or phenol. Two different strains of Pseudomonas putida that degrade toluene by a pathway containing a toluene dioxyge...



EPA Science Inventory

Pseudomonas cepacia strain G4 possesses a novel pathway of toluene catabolism that is shown to be responsible for the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE). his pathway involves conversion of toluene via o-cresol to 3-methylcatechol. o determine the enzyme f toluene degradation ...


Enhancement of cometabolic biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) gas in biofiltration.  


A biofilter column inoculated with Pseudomonas putida F1 was operated to study cometabolic biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) gas using toluene as a primary substrate. Variations in the efficiency and capacity of TCE elimination with different inlet concentrations of toluene and TCE were investigated in order to understand the competitive inhibition between toluene and TCE. Two toluene feeding methods, stage feeding along the column and cyclic feeding, were examined as strategies to enhance TCE cometabolic biodegradation by avoiding the toluene inhibition of TCE biodegradation and the toxic effect of TCE on cells and toluene dioxygenase enzymes. It was concluded that both methods are promising and that the determination of a suitable feeding frequency, recovery period, and inlet toluene concentration was required to optimize cyclic feeding in the cometabolic biodegradation of TCE. PMID:16473776

Jung, In-Gyung; Park, Ok-Hyun




EPA Science Inventory

Pseudomonas cepacia G4 expresses a unique toluene ortho-monooxygenase (Tom) that enables it to degrade toluene and trichloroethylene (TCE). ransposon mutants of G4 have been isolated that constitutively express Tom. wo fixed-film bioreactor designs were investigated for the explo...


Induction of rat liver drug-metabolizing enzymes by tetrachloroethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of tetrachloroethylene on Phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver was examined. Rats were treated orally with tetrachloroethylene daily for five days, at doses of 125, 250, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg\\/kg. The higher doses (>500 mg\\/kg) of tetrachloroethylene induced the hepatic microsomal 7-pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase and 7-benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylase activities associated with the CYP2B subfamily. 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase

N. Hanioka; H. Jinno; T. Toyo'oka; T. Nishimura; M. Ando



40 CFR 721.3560 - Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. ...Chemical Substances § 721.3560 Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. ...paragraph (a)(2) of this section: Derivative of tetrachloroethylene,...



40 CFR 721.3560 - Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. ...Chemical Substances § 721.3560 Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. ...paragraph (a)(2) of this section: Derivative of tetrachloroethylene,...




EPA Science Inventory

These issue papers are a part of EPA's effort to develop a trichloroethylene (TCE) human health risk assessment. These issue papers were developed by EPA to provide scientific and technical information to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) for use in developing their advice ...



EPA Science Inventory

The transformation of nine halogenated aliphatic compounds by 10 g/L (0.5 m2/L) FeS at pH 8.3 was studied in batch experiments. These compounds were as follows: pentachloroethane (PCA), 1,1,2,2- and 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethanes (1122-TeCA and 1112-TeCA), 1,1,...



EPA Science Inventory

Tn5 insertion mutants of pseudomonas cepacia G4 were produced and were unable to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), toluene, or phenol or to transform m-trifluoromethyl phenol (TEMP) to 7,7,7-trifluoro2-hydroxy-6-oxo-2,4-heptadienoic acid (TFHA). pontaneous reversion to growth on p...


Kinetics of tetrachloroethylene-reductive dechlorination catalyzed by vitamin B{sub 12}  

SciTech Connect

Reductive dechlorination kinetics of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) to ethylene catalyzed by vitamin B{sub 12} using Ti[III] citrate as the bulk reductant was examined in a vapor-water batch system. A kinetic model incorporating substrate-B{sub 12} electron-transfer complex formation and subsequent product release was developed. The model also accounted for the primary reductive dechlorination pathways (hydrogenolysis and reductive {beta} elimination) and vapor/water-phase partitioning. Reaction rate constants were sequentially determined by fitting the model to experimental kinetic data while moving upward through consecutive reaction pathways. The release of product from the complex was found to be second order with respect to substrate concentration for both PCE and acetylene; all other substrates appeared to release by first order. Reductive {beta} elimination was found to be a significant reaction pathway for trichloroethylene (TCE), and chloroacetylene was observed as a reactive intermediate. Acetylene production appears to be primarily due to the reduction of chloroacetylene derived from TCE. The reduction of cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), the primary DCE isomer formed, was extremely slow, leading to a significant buildup of cis-DCE. The kinetics of acetylene and vinyl chloride reduction appeared to be limited by the formation of relatively stable substrate-B{sub 12} complexes. The relatively simple model examined appears to adequately represent the main features of the experimental data.

Burris, D.R. [AFRL/MLQR, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Delcomyn, C.A. [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Deng, B. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Mineral and Environmental Engineering; Buck, L.E. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Hatfield, K. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering



Biodegradation of Trichloroethylene by an Endophyte of Hybrid Poplar  

PubMed Central

We isolated and characterized a novel endophyte from hybrid poplar. This unique endophyte, identified as Enterobacter sp. strain PDN3, showed high tolerance to trichloroethylene (TCE). Without the addition of inducers, such as toluene or phenol, PDN3 rapidly reduced TCE levels in medium from 72.4 ?M to 30.1 ?M in 24 h with a concurrent release of 127 ?M chloride ion, and nearly 80% of TCE (55.3 ?M) was dechlorinated by PDN3 in 5 days with 166 ?M chloride ion production, suggesting TCE degradation. PMID:22367087

Kang, Jun Won; Khan, Zareen




EPA Science Inventory

Understanding the pharmacokinetics of a chemical¯its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans and laboratory animals ¯ is critical to the assessment of its human health risks. For trichloroethylene (TCE), numerous physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK)...


Transformation capacities of chlorinated organics by mixed cultures enriched on methane, propane, toluene, or phenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE), chloroform (CF), and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) by four aerobic mixed cultures (methane, propane, toluene, and phenol oxidizers) growth under similar chemostat conditions was measured. Methane and propane oxidizers were capable of degrading both saturated and unsaturated chlorinated organics (TCE, CF, and 1,2-DCA). Toluene and phenol oxidizers degraded TCE but were not able to degrade CF, 1,2-DCA,

Hsiao-Lung Chang; Lisa Alvarez-Cohen



Rhizosphere Competitiveness of Trichloroethylene-Degrading, Poplar-Colonizing Recombinant Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous bacteria from poplar tree (Populus canadensis var. eugenei 'Imperial Carolina') and southern California shrub rhizospheres, as well as two tree-colonizing Rhizobium strains (ATCC 10320 and ATCC 35645), were engineered to express constitutively and stably toluene o-monooxygenase (TOM) from Burkhold- eria cepacia G4 by integrating the tom locus into the chromosome. The poplar and Rhizobium recombinant bacteria degraded trichloroethylene at




Lactate Injection by Electric Currents for Bioremediation of Tetrachloroethylene in Clay  

PubMed Central

Biological transformation of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in silty clay samples by ionic injection of lactate under electric fields is evaluated. To prepare contaminated samples, a silty clay slurry was mixed with PCE, inoculated with KB-1® dechlorinators and was consolidated in a 40 cm long cell. A current density between 5.3 and 13.3 A m?2 was applied across treated soil samples while circulating electrolytes containing 10 mg L?1 lactate concentration between the anode and cathode compartments to maintain neutral pH and chemically reducing boundary conditions. The total adsorbed and aqueous PCE was degraded in the soil to trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene in 120 d, which is about double the time expected for transformation. Lactate was delivered into the soil by a reactive transport rate of 3.7 cm2 d?1 V?1. PCE degradation in the clay samples followed zero order transformation rates ranging from 1.5 to 5 mg L?1 d?1 without any significant formation of TCE. cis-DCE transformation followed first order transformation rates of 0.06 to 0.10 per day. A control experiment conducted with KB-1 and lactate, but without electricity did not show any significant lactate buildup or cis-DCE transformation because the soil was practically impermeable (hydraulic conductivity of 2×10?7 cm s?1). It is concluded that ionic migration will deliver organic additives and induce biological activity and complete PCE transformation in clay, even though the transformation occurs under slower rates compared to ideal conditions. PMID:23264697

Wu, Xingzhi; Gent, David B.; Davis, Jeffrey L.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.



Surfactant enhanced remediation of soil columns contaminated by residual tetrachloroethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of aqueous surfactant solutions to recover tetrachloroethylene (PCE) entrapped in Ottawa sand was evaluated in four column experiments. Residual PCE was emplaced by injecting (14)C-labeled PCE into water-saturated soil columns and displacing the free product with water. Miscible displacement experiments were conducted before and after PCE entrapment to determine the influence or residual PCE on column dispersivities. The

K. D. Pennell; M. Jin; L. M. Abriola; G. A. Pope



Mutants of Pseudomonas cepacia G4 defective in catabolism of aromatic compounds and trichloroethylene  

SciTech Connect

Pseudomonas cepacia G4 possesses a novel pathway of toluene catabolism that is shown to be responsible for the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE). This pathway involves conversion of toluene via o-cresol to 3-methylcatechol. In order to determine the enzyme of toluene degradation that is responsible for TCE degradation, chemically induced mutants, blocked in the toluene ortho-monooxygenase (TOM) pathway of G4, were examined. Mutants of the phenotypic class designated TOM A{sup {minus}} were all defective in their ability to oxidize toluene, o-cresol, m-cresol, and phenol, suggesting that a single enzyme is responsible for conversion of these compounds to their hydroxylated products (3-methylcatechol from toluene, o-cresol, and m-cresol and catechol from phenol) in the wild type. Mutants of this class did not degrade TCE. Two other mutant classes which lacked 2-hydroxy-6-oxoheptadienoic acid hydrolase activity, were fully capable of TCE degradation. Therefore, TCE degradation is directly associated with the monooxygenation capability responsible for toluene, cresol, and phenol hydroxylation.

Sheilds, M.S.; Montgomery, S.O. (Technical Resources Inc., Gulf Breeze, FL (USA)); Cuskey, S.M.; Chapman, P.J.; Pritchard, P.H. (Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (USA))



TCE degradation by toluene/benzene monooxygenase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa JI104 and Escherichia coli recombinant  

SciTech Connect

Pseudomonas aeruginosa JI104 incorporates more than three degradation pathways for aromatic compounds such as benzene, toluene, and xylene. A dioxygenase and two monooxygenases were cloned in Escherichia coli XL1-Blue. The dioxygenase yielding cis-toluene dihydrodiol and one of the monooxygenases producing o-cresol from toluene did not exhibit conspicuous activity in trichloroethylene (TCE) oxygenation, although DNA sequencing proved that the former enzyme was an isozyme of toluene dioxygenase of the known TCE decomposer P.putida F1. The other toluene/benzene monooxygenase that could generate o-, m-, and p-cresol simultaneously from toluene showed TCE oxygenation activity resulting in TCE decomposition in E. coli. The activity was inhibited competitively by toluene, ethylbenzene, and o- and m-xylene: their inhibition constants were greater than those of propylbenzene and p-xylene. When the E. coli recombinant harboring the monooxygenase was induced by isopropyl {beta}-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and incubated in the absence of toluene, TCE degradation activity decreased during incubation, compared to that with toluene. Toluene probably controlled the lifetime of the enzyme.

Koizumi, Junichi [National Univ. of Yokohama (Japan). Div. of Bioengineering; Kitayama, Atsushi [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biotechnology



Human Health Effects of Tetrachloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues  

PubMed Central

Background: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) in February 2012 in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Objectives: We reviewed key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of PCE described in the U.S. EPA’s Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene). Methods: The updated assessment of PCE synthesized and characterized a substantial database of epidemiological, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies. Key scientific issues were addressed through modeling of PCE toxicokinetics, synthesis of evidence from neurological studies, and analyses of toxicokinetic, mechanistic, and other factors (tumor latency, severity, and background rate) in interpreting experimental animal cancer findings. Considerations in evaluating epidemiological studies included the quality (e.g., specificity) of the exposure assessment methods and other essential design features, and the potential for alternative explanations for observed associations (e.g., bias or confounding). Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites that contribute to PCE toxicity. The exposure assessment approach—a key evaluation factor for epidemiological studies of bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma—provided suggestive evidence of carcinogenicity. Bioassay data provided conclusive evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Neurotoxicity was identified as a sensitive noncancer health effect, occurring at low exposures: a conclusion supported by multiple studies. Evidence was integrated from human, experimental animal, and mechanistic data sets in assessing adverse health effects of PCE. Conclusions: PCE is likely to be carcinogenic to humans. Neurotoxicity is a sensitive adverse health effect of PCE. Citation: Guyton KZ, Hogan KA, Scott CS, Cooper GS, Bale AS, Kopylev L, Barone S Jr, Makris SL, Glenn B, Subramaniam RP, Gwinn MR, Dzubow RC, Chiu WA. 2014. Human health effects of tetrachloroethylene: key findings and scientific issues. Environ Health Perspect 122:325–334;? PMID:24531164

Hogan, Karen A.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Cooper, Glinda S.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Kopylev, Leonid; Barone, Stanley; Makris, Susan L.; Glenn, Barbara; Subramaniam, Ravi P.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.



Enhancing trichloroethylene degradation using non-aromatic compounds as growth substrates.  


The effect of non-aromatic compounds on the trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation of toluene-oxidizing bacteria were evaluated using Burkholderia cepacia G4 that expresses toluene 2-monooxygenase and Pseudomonas putida that expresses toluene dioxygenase. TCE degradation rates for B. cepacia G4 and P. putida with toluene alone as growth substrate were 0.144 and 0.123 ?g-TCE/mg-protein h, respectively. When glucose, acetate and ethanol were fed as additional growth substrates, those values increased up to 0.196, 0.418 and 0.530 ?g-TCE/mg-protein h, respectively for B. cepacia G4 and 0.319, 0.219 and 0.373 ?g-TCE/mg-protein h, respectively for P. putida. In particular, the addition of ethanol resulted in a high TCE degradation rate regardless of the initial concentration. The use of a non-aromatic compound as an additional substrate probably enhanced the TCE degradation because of the additional supply of NADH that is consumed in co-metabolic degradation of TCE. Also, it is expected that the addition of a non-aromatic substrate can reduce the necessary dose of toluene and, subsequently, minimize the potential competitive inhibition upon TCE co-metabolism by toluene. PMID:24857894

Kim, Seungjin; Hwang, Jeongmin; Chung, Jinwook; Bae, Wookeun



Surfactant enhanced remediation of soil columns contaminated by residual tetrachloroethylene  

SciTech Connect

The ability of aqueous surfactant solutions to recover tetrachloroethylene (PCE) entrapped in Ottawa sand was evaluated in four column experiments. Residual PCE was emplaced by injecting (14)C-labeled PCE into water-saturated soil columns and displacing the free product with water. Miscible displacement experiments were conducted before and after PCE entrapment to determine the influence or residual PCE on column dispersivities. The first two column studies involved the injection of a 4% solution of polyoxyethylene (POE) (20) sorbitan monooleate, resulting in the removal of 90% and 97% of the residual PCE from 20-30- and 40-120-mesh Ottawa sand, respectively. Although micellar solubilization of PCE was the primary mode of recovery in these experiments, this process was shown to be rate-limited.

Pennell, K.D.; Jin, M.; Abriola, L.M.; Pope, G.A.




EPA Science Inventory

The scientific debate over the potential carcinogenicity of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, perc, PCE) spans several years. his document reviews the issues considered by the EPA's Science Advisory Board (SAB) during its review of the Draft Addendum to the Health Assessmen...


Biodegradation analyses of trichloroethylene (TCE) by bacteria and its use for biosensing of TCE.  


Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a toxic, recalcitrant groundwater pollutant. TCE-degrading microorganisms were isolated from various environments. The aerobic bacteria isolated from toluene- and tryptophan-containing media were Pseudomonas sp. strain ASA86 and Burkholderia sp. strain TAM17, respectively; these are necessary for inducing TCE biodegradation in a selective medium. The half-degradation time of TCE to a concentration of 1mg/L was 18 h for strain ASA86 and 7 days for strain TAM17. While identifying toluene/TCE degradation genes, we found that in strain ASA86, the gene was the same as the todC1 gene product encoding toluene dioxygenase identified in Pseudomonas putida F1, and that in strain TAM17, the gene was similar to the tecA1 gene product encoding chlorobenzene dioxygenase identified in Burkholderia sp. PS12. A novel TCE biosensor was developed using strain ASA86 as the inducer of toluene under aerobic conditions. The TCE biosensor exhibited a linear relationship below 3 ppm TCE. Detection limit of the biosensor was 0.05 ppm TCE. The response time of the biosensor was less than 10 min. The biosensor response displayed a constant level during a 2 day period. The TCE biosensor displayed sufficient sensitivity for monitoring TCE in environmental systems. PMID:21872018

Chee, Gab-Joo



Surfactant enhanced remediation of soil columns contaminated by residual tetrachloroethylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of aqueous surfactant solutions to recover tetrachloroethylene (PCE) entrapped in Ottawa sand was evaluated in four column experiments. Residual PCE was emplaced by injecting 14C-labeled PCE into water-saturated soil columns and displacing the free product with water. Miscible displacement experiments were conducted before and after PCE entrapment to determine the influence of residual PCE on column dispersivities. The first two column studies involved the injection of a 4% solution of polyoxyethylene (POE) ( 20) sorbitan monooleate, resulting in the removal of 90% and 97% of the residual PCE from 20-30- and 40-120-mesh Ottawa sand, respectively. Although micellar solubilization of PCE was the primary mode of recovery in these experiments, this process was shown to be rate-limited based on: (a) the disparity between initial steady-state concentrations of PCE in the column effluent and equilibrium values measured in batch experiments; and (b) the increase in effluent concentrations of PCE following periods of flow interruption. In the latter two experiments, surfactant solutions containing mixtures of sodium sulfosuccinates removed >99% of the residual PCE from soil columns packed with 40-270-mesh Ottawa sand. Approximately 80% of the PCE was mobilized as a separate organic liquid after lushing with < 100 mL of these surfactant solutions. This study demonstrates the capacity of surfactant flushing to enhance the recovery of residual PCE from Ottawa sand and indicates that ultra-low interfacial tensins (<0.001 dyn cm -1) are not required to achieve significant PCE mobilization when buoyancy forces are important. The potential for displacement of dense nonaqueousphase liquids as a separate organic phase should, therefore, be evaluated during the selection of surfactant formulations for aquifer remediation.

Pennell, Kurt D.; Jin, Minquan; Abriola, Linda M.; Pope, Gary A.



Saturation Mutagenesis of Toluene ortho-Monooxygenase of Burkholderia cepacia G4 for Enhanced 1Naphthol Synthesis and Chloroform Degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Directed evolution of toluene ortho-monooxygenase (TOM) of Burkholderia cepacia G4 previously created the hydroxylase -subunit (TomA3) V106A variant (TOM-Green) with increased activity for both trichloroethylene degradation (twofold enhancement) and naphthalene oxidation (six-times-higher activity). In the present study, saturation mutagenesis was performed at position A106 with Escherichia coli TG1\\/pBS(Kan)TOMV106A to improve TOM activity for both chloroform degradation and naphthalene oxidation. Whole

Lingyun Rui; Young Man Kwon; Ayelet Fishman; Kenneth F. Reardon; Thomas K. Wood



Prenatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene-Contaminated Drinking Water and the Risk of Adverse Birth Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Prior studies of prenatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) have shown mixed results regarding its effect on birth weight and gestational age. Objectives: In this retrospective cohort study we examined whether PCE contamination of public drinking-water supplies in Massachusetts influenced the birth weight and gestational duration of children whose mothers were exposed before the child's delivery. Methods: The study included

Ann Aschengrau; Janice Weinberg; Sarah Rogers; Lisa Gallagher; Michael Winter; Veronica Vieira; Thomas Webster; David Ozonoff



Spontaneous abortions and congenital malformations among women exposed to tetrachloroethylene in dry cleaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether exposure to tetrachloroethylene during the first trimester of pregnancy has harmful effects on pregnancy outcome. DESIGN: The study used record linkage identification of cases and case-control comparison. SETTING: The study involved dry cleaner and laundry workers throughout Finland who had become pregnant during the study period. Controls were age

P. Kyyroenen; H. Taskinen; M. L. Lindbohm; K Hemminki; O P Heinonen



Toluene biofiltration enhanced by ryegrass.  


Toluene biofiltration by microorganisms (an unplanted treatment) and by the combination of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and microorganisms (a planted treatment) was investigated in this study. The results showed that toluene was completely removed by the unplanted and the planted biofilters in less than 0.2 g m?³ inlet toluene concentration. Toluene removal capacity for the planted biofilter was significantly higher than that for the unplanted biofilter in the range of 0.2-0.5 g m?³ inlet toluene concentration. This study revealed a significant (p < 0.01) increase in the microbial activity in the planted biofilter in comparison with the unplanted biofilter, indicating that ryegrass growing in a biofilter would significantly (p < 0.05) enhance toluene biodegradation. PMID:23455043

Xu, Zhongjun; Wu, Meng; He, Yanyun



Abatement of trichloroethylene using DBD plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric barrier discharge plasma was used to oxidize trichloroethylene (TCE) in 21% of O2 in carriers of N2 and He. The degradation products of TCE were analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. TCE was decomposed completely at optimum energy density of 260 and 300 J/l for He and N2, respectively and its conversion followed zero order reaction. The TCE removal efficiency is decreased in humid air due to interception of reactive intermediates by OH radicals.

Vesali-Naseh, M.; Xu, S.; Xu, L.; Khodadadi, A.; Mortazavi, Y.; Ostrikov, K.



Pulmonary reactions caused by welding-induced decomposed trichloroethylene  

SciTech Connect

This is the report of a welder who performed argon-shielded electric arc welding in an atmosphere containing trichloroethylene. He developed immediate respiratory symptoms, pulmonary edema 12 hours after exposure, and recurring dyspnea ten days after exposure. These pulmonary reactions might be explained by inhalation of decomposition products of trichloroethylene such as dichloroacetyl chloride and phosgene.

Sjoegren, B.P.; Plato, N.; Alexandersson, R.; Eklund, A.; Falkenberg, C. (Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden))



Subchronic toxicity of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene) administered in the drinking water of rats  

SciTech Connect

This study provides data on the effects of tetrachloroethylene in drinking solutions. The acute oral LD50 in male and female Charles River rats was found to be 3835 mg/kg for males and 3005 mg/kg for females. Male and female rats received theoretical daily doses of 14,400, and 1400 mg tetrachloroethylene/kg body wt/day for 90 consecutive days. There were no compound-related deaths. Body weights were significantly lower in male and female rats at the higher doses. There were no consistent dose-related effects on any of the hematological, clinical chemistry, or urinalysis parameters. 5'-Nucleotidase activity was increased in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting possible hepatotoxicity; however, other serum indicators of hepatic function were unaffected by the treatment. There were no gross pathological effects observed. Liver and kidney body weight ratios, but not brain weight ratios, were elevated at the higher doses. There was no other evidence of compound-related toxicity. These data suggest that exposure of humans to reported levels of tetrachloroethylene in drinking water (approximately 1 microgram/liter) does not constitute a serious health hazard.

Hayes, J.R.; Condie, L.W. Jr.; Borzelleca, J.F.



Enzymatic degradation of trichloroethylene using enzyme extracts isolated from a bacterial consortium.  


Degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) using crude enzyme extracts from a bacterial consortium was examined for wastewater treatment. The effects of pH, chemical induction, and cofactor were investigated. Enzyme extracts showed an optimal activity (3.03 +/- 0.03 mg of TCE/[mg of protein x d]) at neutral pH (6.5-7.5). In an attempt to increase the production of effective enzymes for TCE degradation, chemical induction using both toluene and TCE in the growth of the bacterium consortium was conducted. Although the induction increased the overall production of protein by about fourfold, the activity of the extracts was only slightly improved (up to 3.40 mg of TCE/[mg of protein x d]), indicating that the induction did not specifically enhance the production of TCE-degrading enzymes. Interestingly, the addition of a cofactor (up to 0.02 mg/mL), NADH, led to an initial reaction rate of 5.30 +/- 0.05 mg of TCE/(mg of protein x d). This observation demonstrated that the availability of the cofactor played an important role in determining the overall degradation reaction rates. The observations with NADH were in agreement with the assumption that toluene monooxygenases (which are NADH dependent) are the key enzymes for the degradation reactions. PMID:15304768

El-Zahab, Bilal; Meza, Liliana; Cutright, Teresa; Wang, Ping



Use of specific gene analysis to assess the effectiveness of surfactant-enhanced trichloroethylene cometabolism.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of in situ bioremediation of trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater using specific gene analyses under the following conditions: (1) pretreatment with biodegradable surfactants [Simple Green™ (SG) and soya lecithin (SL)] to enhance TCE desorption and dissolution, and (2) supplementation with SG, SL, and cane molasses as primary substrates to enhance the aerobic cometabolism of TCE. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and nucleotide sequence analysis were applied to monitor the variations in specific activity-dependent enzymes and dominant microorganisms. Results show that TCE-degrading enzymes, including toluene monooxygenase, toluene dioxygenase, and phenol monooxygenase, were identified from sediment samples collected from a TCE-spill site. Results from the microcosm study show that addition of SG, SL, or cane molasses can enhance the aerobic cometabolism of TCE. The TCE degradation rates were highest in microcosms with added SL, the second highest in microcosms containing SG, and lowest in microcosms containing cane molasses. This indicates that SG and SL can serve as TCE dissolution agents and act as primary substrates for indigenous microorganisms. Four dominant microorganisms (Rhodobacter sp., Methyloversatilis sp., Beta proteobacterium sp., and Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava) observed in microcosms might be able to produce TCE-degrading enzymes for TCE cometabolic processes. PMID:22071259

Liang, S H; Liu, J K; Lee, K H; Kuo, Y C; Kao, C M



Mineralization of Trichloroethylene by Heterotrophic Enrichment Cultures  

PubMed Central

Microbial consortia capable of aerobically degrading more than 99% of exogenous trichloroethylene (TCE) (50 mg/liter) were collected from TCE-contaminated subsurface sediments and grown in enrichment cultures. TCE at concentrations greater than 300 mg/liter was not degraded, nor was TCE used by the consortia as a sole energy source. Energy sources which permitted growth included tryptone-yeast extract, methanol, methane, and propane. The optimum temperature range for growth and subsequent TCE consumption was 22 to 37°C, and the pH optimum was 7.0 to 8.1. Utilization of TCE occurred only after apparent microbial growth had ceased. The major end products recovered were hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide. Minor products included dichloroethylene, vinylidine chloride, and, possibly, chloroform. PMID:16347682

Fliermans, C. B.; Phelps, T. J.; Ringelberg, D.; Mikell, A. T.; White, D. C.



Evaluation of toxicity of trichloroethylene for plants  

SciTech Connect

Trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure of several species of plants was studied. Although earlier studies indicated that the root systems of plants could tolerate an aqueous phase concentration of 1 mM for a day, toxicity to whole plants was observed at somewhat lower levels in the gas phase in this study. The tested species included pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), sweet potato (Dioscoria batata), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), soybean (Glycine max L. Merr), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Damage was observable as wilting or failure of the gravitropic response of shoots at levels above about 0.2 mM in the gas phase, which corresponds to 0.5 mM in the aqueous phase. Plants were usually killed quickly at gas phase concentrations above 0.4 mM.

Ryu, S.B.; Davis, L.C.; Dana, J.; Selk, K.; Erickson, L.E. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)



Reduction of trichloroethylene in a model aquifer with methanotrophic bacteria  

E-print Network

REDUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN A MODEL AQUIFER WITH METHANOTROPHIC BACTERIA A Thesis by Duane Dee Hicks Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fullfillment of the requirements for thc degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Civil Engineering REDUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN A MODEL AQUIFER WITH METHANOTROPHIC BACTEPslA A Thesis by Duane Dec Hicks Approved as to style and content by Bill Batchclor (Chair of Committee...

Hicks, Duane Dee




EPA Science Inventory

Abstract A matrix of batch, column and two-dimensional (2-D) box experiments was conducted to investigate the coupled effects of rate-limited solubilization and layering on the entrapment and subsequent recovery of a representative dense NAPL, tetrachloroethylene (PCE)...


Current trends in trichloroethylene biodegradation: a review.  


Over the past few years biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) using different microorganisms has been investigated by several researchers. In this review article, an attempt has been made to present a critical summary of the recent results related to two major processes--reductive dechlorination and aerobic co-metabolism used for TCE biodegradation. It has been shown that mainly Clostridium sp. DC-1, KYT-1, Dehalobacter, Dehalococcoides, Desulfuromonas, Desulfitobacterium, Propionibacterium sp. HK-1, and Sulfurospirillum bacterial communities are responsible for the reductive dechlorination of TCE. Efficacy of bacterial communities like Nitrosomonas, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Xanthobacter sp. etc. for TCE biodegradation under aerobic conditions has also been examined. Mixed cultures of diazotrophs and methanotrophs have been used for TCE degradation in batch and continuous cultures (biofilter) under aerobic conditions. In addition, some fungi (Trametes versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME-446) and Actinomycetes have also been used for aerobic biodegradation of TCE. The available information on kinetics of biofiltration of TCE and its degradation end-products such as CO2 are discussed along with the available results on the diversity of bacterial community obtained using molecular biological approaches. It has emerged that there is a need to use metabolic engineering and molecular biological tools more intensively to improve the robustness of TCE degrading microbial species and assess their diversity. PMID:23057686

Shukla, Awadhesh Kumar; Upadhyay, Siddh Nath; Dubey, Suresh Kumar



Functional analyses of Bph-Tod hybrid dioxygenase, which exhibits high degradation activity toward trichloroethylene.  


Biphenyl dioxygenase (BphDox) in Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 is a multicomponent enzyme consisting of an iron-sulfur protein (ISP) that is composed of alpha (BphA1) and beta (BphA2) subunits, a ferredoxin (FD(BphA3)), and a ferredoxin reductase (FDR(BphA4)). A recombinant Escherichia coli strain expressing hybrid Dox that had replaced BphA1 with TodC1 (alpha subunit of toluene dioxygenase (TolDox) of Pseudomonas putida) exhibited high activity toward trichloroethylene (TCE) (Furukawa, K., Hirose, J., Hayashida, S., and Nakamura, K. (1994) J. Bacteriol. 176, 2121-2123). In this study, ISP, FD, and FDR were purified and characterized. Reconstitution of the dioxygenase components consisting of purified ISP(TodC1BphA2), FD(BphA3), and FDR(BphA4) exhibited oxygenation activities toward biphenyl, toluene, and TCE. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by the Ferguson plot analyses demonstrated that ISP(TodC1BphA2) and ISP(BphA1A2) were present as heterohexamers, whereas ISP(TodC1C2) was present as a heterotetramer. The molecular activity (k(0)) of the hybrid Dox for TCE was 4.1 min(-1), which is comparable to that of TolDox. The K(m) value of the hybrid Dox for TCE was 130 microm, which was lower than 250 microm for TolDox. These results suggest that the alpha subunit of ISP is crucial for the determination of substrate specificity and that the change in the alpha subunit conformation of ISP from alpha(2)beta(2) to alpha(3)beta(3) results in the acquisition of higher affinity to TCE, which may lead to high TCE degradation activity. PMID:11390387

Maeda, T; Takahashi, Y; Suenaga, H; Suyama, A; Goto, M; Furukawa, K



Toluene stability Space Station Rankine power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dynamic test loop is designed to evaluate the thermal stability of an organic Rankine cycle working fluid, toluene, for potential application to the Space Station power conversion unit. Samples of the noncondensible gases and the liquid toluene were taken periodically during the 3410 hour test at 750 F peak temperature. The results obtained from the toluene stability loop verify that toluene degradation will not lead to a loss of performance over the 30-year Space Station mission life requirement. The identity of the degradation products and the low rates of formation were as expected from toluene capsule test data.

Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Sibert, L.; Miller, D.



Reductive degradation of tetrachloroethylene by biogenic and chemogenic carbonate green rust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degradation of contaminants with microorganisms and natural soil minerals has been extensively studied for understanding of complex interaction mechanism in bio-geochemical reactions. In this study, we conducted a batch experiment to demonstrate the different degradation mechanism of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in biogenic and chemogenic carbonate green rust suspensions. Both green rusts were characterized by measurement of Fe(II) content, BET, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron spectroscopy before and after the reaction. The effects of mineral loading, initial concentration of PCE, and solution pH on the degradation kinetic of PCE were investigated. The concentration profiles of transformation products were also monitored to investigate the different degradation mechanism of PCE by biogenic and chemogenic green rust.

Lee, N.; Bae, S.; Lee, W.



Electrochemical fluorination of trichloroethylene and N, N-dimethyltrifluoroacetamide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents the results of experiments concerning the fluorination of trichloroethylene and N, N-dimethyltrifluoroacetamide carried out on a laboratory scale in an advanced 'Simons' type electrochemical apparatus which could be operated automatically from ambient to 50 psi pressure. It is shown that a variety of fluorine-substituted products are formed, depending upon electrolysis conditions and concentrations of reactant relative to the NaF, KF, HF electrolyte. A new reaction mechanism of electrochemical fluorination of trichloroethylene is proposed. Finally, the solvency-to-fluorine content relationship of fluorinated N, N-dimethyltrifluoroacetamide is described.

Hsu, L.-C.



Reaction mechanisms for toluene pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

The rich chemistry occurring during the pyrolysis of toluene has been investigated by studying its decomposition in a single-pulse shock tube coupled with detailed chemical kinetic modeling to describe product formation. This work provides information on the initial decomposition steps of toluene and its primary radical benzyl as well as the detailed steps leading to the formation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Temperatures ranged from approximately 1,200 to 1,850 K for 1% toluene in argon, total pressures of approximately 10 atm, and residence times near 600 {micro}s. Pyrolysis products were collected and analyzed using gas chromatography. Profiles of hydrogen and hydrocarbons ranging from methane to pyrene were obtained. These semiquantitative data have been interpreted to help resolve many of the existing uncertainties involving the pyrolytic process. In particular, this work supports arguments for a low activation energy process for benzyl radical decomposition as evidenced by the low-temperature formation of cyclopentadiene and the radical recombination product, benzyl-cyclopentadienyl (b-cpd). Also, the data support suggestions for an important role of the methylphenyl radical, specifically in the formation of isomers of dimethyldiphenyl and as a key intermediate in the production of anthracene. Minimal evidence for rapid toluene decomposition to phenyl and methyl was found. Importantly, the data support general mechanisms proposed for ring growth sequences, although an additional important step involving ring closure and direct H{sub 2} elimination is suggested by the data. In addition, the data indicate rapid anthracene/phenanthrene isomerization above 1,600 K.

Colket, M.B.; Seery, D.J. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)



Dioxinlike properties of a trichloroethylene combustion-generated aerosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional chemical analyses of incineration by-products identify compounds of known toxicity but often fail to indicate the presence of other chemicals that may pose health risks. In a previous report, extracts from soot aerosols formed during incomplete combustion of trichloroethylene (TCE) and pyrolysis of plastics exhibited a dioxinlike response when subjected to a keratinocyte assay. To verify this dioxinlike effect,

S. A. Villalobos; M. J. Anderson; D. E. Hinton




EPA Science Inventory

Several chromium exchanged ZSM-5 zeolites of varying SiO2/Al2O3 ratio were prepared and investigated for ambient (23 ?C) adsorption and subsequent oxidative destruction (250-400 ?C) of gaseous trichloroethylene (TCE, Cl2C=CHCl) in a humid air stream. With an increase in the SiO2...


Mathematical modeling of bioremediation of trichloroethylene in aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a very common contaminant of groundwater. It is used as an industrial solvent and is frequently poured into the soil. There exist bacteria that can degrade TCE. In contrast with most cases of bioremediation, the bacteria that degrade TCE do not use it as a carbon source. Instead the bacteria produce an enzyme to metabolize methane. This

Benito M. Chen-Charpentier; Hristo V. Kojouharov



Chronic dysphagia and trigeminal anesthesia after trichloroethylene exposure  

SciTech Connect

A patient is described who inhaled trichloroethylene fumes while working in a closed underground pit. At the time of exposure he developed dysphagia, dysarthria and dyspnea. Assessment of his condition 11 years after the incident indicated major damage of cranial nerves, particularly the trigeminal, chronic involvement of the bulbar cranial nerves, and resultant esophageal and pharnygeal motility impairment. (JMT)

Lawrence, W.H.; Partyka, E.K.



IRIS Toxicological Review of Trichloroethylene (TCE) (External Review Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Trichloroethylene (TCE) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Please refer to ...



EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent which is widely used as an industrial degreasing agent. Workers exposed to TCE often exhibit symptoms similar to those symptoms produced by narcotics. The present studies evaluated the effects of TCE exposure on measure...



EPA Science Inventory

Biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) by the bacterial isolate strain G4 resulted in complete dechlorination of the compound as indicated by the production of inorganic chloride. A component of the water from which strain G4 was isolated that was required for TCE degradation ...


Evoked trigeminal nerve potential in chronic trichloroethylene intoxication  

SciTech Connect

Results of a study of trigeminal nerve impairment resulting from trichloroethylene intoxication by the somatosensory-evoked potential method reveal three kinds of abnormalities: increased stimulation voltage, excessive latency delay with morphological abnormalities, and excessive graph amplitude. These abnormalities confirm clinical disturbance (hypesthesia of the trigeminal nerve area) and open debate about the real mechanism of trichloroethylene neurotoxicity. Industrial intoxication by solvents, particularly trichloroethylene, is common. We have conducted a study of 188 workers chronically exposed to trichloroethylene and have confirmed the selective neurological disturbances of this intoxication in the trigeminal nerve (20%) (3, 10). We utilized a new experimental method, developed for studies of chronic intoxications effecting the median nerve (5, 8), of recording the somatosensory evoked potential following stimulation of the trigeminal nerve (4, 6, 7). The workers in this study were selected following clinical evaluation of their facial sensitivity and trigeminal nerve reflexes. In this paper we present our preliminary results on 11 workers, 9 suffering effects of intoxication and 2 controls.

Barret, L.; Arsac, P.; Vincent, M.; Faure, J.; Garrel, S.; Reymond, F.




EPA Science Inventory

A series of experiments was completed to investigate abiotic degradation and reaction product formation of trichloroethylene (TCE) when heated. A quartz-tube apparatus was used to study short residence time and high temperature conditions that are thought to occur during thermal ...


Toluene increases acute thermonociception in mice.  


Toluene is an abused solvent widely used in several commercial products. Recent evidence indicates that this solvent is a non-competitive inhibitor of NMDA receptors. Since NMDA receptors have been implicated in pain, this paper describes studies of the effects of increasing concentrations of inhaled toluene on nociception. Swiss Webster mice were exposed to toluene (500-8000 ppm) in static exposure chambers for 30 min. After completing the exposure period, animals were tested for nociception using the hot plate test. Toluene dose-dependently increased nociception as reflected by shorter latencies for the reflex, paw-lick and escape responses in toluene-treated mice with respect to their controls (animals exposed to air). In order to determine the possible role of opioids in this response, morphine (1-10 mg/kg) was injected before toluene inhalation. Toluene was not able to block morphine-induced antinocieption, however, it produced a shift of the morphine dose-response curve to lower effects, suggesting a physiological antagonism. No potentiation was seen when toluene was administered in combination with naloxone. Present results suggest that toluene increases nociception via neurotransmitter systems others than the glutamatergic. PMID:11182169

Cruz, S L; Páez-Martínez, N; Pellicer, F; Salazar, L A; López-Rubalcava, C



Tetrachloroethylene in Drinking Water and Birth Outcomes at the US Marine Corps Base at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of mean birth weight, small-for-gestational-age infants, and preterm birth was conducted at the US Marine Corps Base at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, where drinking water was contaminated with volatile organic compounds. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was the predominant contaminant. The authors used multiple linear and logistic regression to analyze 1968-1985 data from 11,798 birth certificates. Overall, at most weak associations

N. Sonnenfeld; I. Hertz-Picciotto; W. E. Kaye



Acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge degrading benzene derivatives and co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene by benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge.  


The acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge for degradation of benzene derivatives was investigated in batch experiments. Phenol, benzoic acid, toluene, aniline and chlorobenzene were concurrently added to five different bioreactors which contained the aerobic-activated sludge. After the acclimation process ended, the acclimated phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic-activated sludge were used to explore the co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene (TCE). Monod equation was employed to simulate the kinetics of co-metabolic degradation of TCE by benzene derivative-grown sludge. At the end of experiments, the mixed microbial communities grown under different conditions were identified. The results showed that the acclimation periods of microorganisms for different benzene derivatives varied. The maximum degradation rates of TCE for phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic sludge were 0.020, 0.017, 0.016, 0.0089 and 0.0047 mg g SS(-1) h(-1), respectively. The kinetic of TCE degradation in the absence of benzene derivative followed Monod equation well. Also, eight phyla were observed in the acclimated benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge. Each of benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge had different microbial community composition. This study can hopefully add new knowledge to the area of TCE co-metabolic by mixed microbial communities, and further the understanding on the function and applicability of aerobic-activated sludge. PMID:25409590

Wang, Shizong; Yang, Qi; Bai, Zhiyong; Wang, Shidong; Wang, Yeyao; Nowak, Karolina M



Neurobehavioral performance in workers exposed to toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toluene is widely used in adhesive, printing, painting and petroleum industries in many countries. This study was conducted to examine the effect of chronic exposure to toluene below 100ppm on neurobehavioral performance using a computerized neurobehavioral test battery that emphasizes simple instructions and practice prior to testing. The Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) with Korean language instructions was administered

Seong-Kyu Kang; Diane S. Rohlman; Mi-Young Lee; Hye-Sil Lee; Soo-Young Chung; W. Kent Anger



Integrating Address Geocoding, Land Use Regression, and Spatiotemporal Geostatistical Estimation for Groundwater Tetrachloroethylene  

PubMed Central

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based techniques are cost-effective and efficient methods used by state agencies and epidemiology researchers for estimating concentration and exposure. However, budget limitations have made statewide assessments of contamination difficult, especially in groundwater media. Many studies have implemented address geocoding, land use regression, and geostatistics independently, but this is the first to examine the benefits of integrating these GIS techniques to address the need of statewide exposure assessments. A novel framework for concentration exposure is introduced that integrates address geocoding, land use regression (LUR), below detect data modeling, and Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME). A LUR model was developed for Tetrachloroethylene that accounts for point sources and flow direction. We then integrate the LUR model into the BME method as a mean trend while also modeling below detects data as a truncated Gaussian probability distribution function. We increase available PCE data 4.7 times from previously available databases through multistage geocoding. The LUR model shows significant influence of dry cleaners at short ranges. The integration of the LUR model as mean trend in BME results in a 7.5% decrease in cross validation mean square error compared to BME with a constant mean trend. PMID:22264162

Messier, Kyle P.; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L.



Identification of active agents for tetrachloroethylene degradation in Portland cement slurry containing ferrous iron.  


Experimental studies were designed to identify the active agents in Fe(II)-based degradative solidification/stabilization (Fe(II)-DS/S) that are responsible for the degradation of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) as well as the conditions that enhance the formation of these active agents. First, the conditions that lead to maximizing production of the active agents were identified by measuring the ability of various chemical mixtures to degrade PCE. Results showed that Fe(II), Fe(III), and Cl were the elements most closely associated with high degradation rates. In addition to elemental composition, unknown factors associated with the formation of solid phases could also be important in determining the extent of formation of active reducing agents. Second, instrumental analysis techniques (XRD, SEM, SEM-EDS) were used to identify compounds in chemical mixtures that were observed to have high activities for PCE degradation. SEM-EDS analysis indicated that Fe was associated with hexagonal particles, which is the typical shape of several AFm phases in hydrated Portland cement that are composed of calcium, aluminum/iron, hydroxide, and possibly other anions. No Fe-containing solid phases could be identified. Therefore, it appears that AFm phases are the most likely active agents for PCE degradation in mixtures containing Portland cement or its acid extract. Mixtures without cement did not form the same solid phases but were observed to form ferrous hydroxide as a major solid phase. PMID:17874793

Ko, Saebom; Batchelor, Bill



Adult Neuropsychological Performance Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

This population-based retrospective cohort study examined adult performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results of crude and multivariate analyses among 35 exposed and 28 unexposed subjects showed no association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure and decrements on tests that assess abilities in the domains of omnibus intelligence, academic achievement or language. The results were suggestive of an association between prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure and diminished performance on tests that assessed abilities in the domains of visuospatial functioning, learning and memory, motor, attention and mood. Because the sample size was small, most findings were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to further define the neuropsychological consequences of early developmental PCE exposure. PMID:22522125

Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Vieira, Veronica; Aschengrau, Ann



Integrating address geocoding, land use regression, and spatiotemporal geostatistical estimation for groundwater tetrachloroethylene.  


Geographic information systems (GIS) based techniques are cost-effective and efficient methods used by state agencies and epidemiology researchers for estimating concentration and exposure. However, budget limitations have made statewide assessments of contamination difficult, especially in groundwater media. Many studies have implemented address geocoding, land use regression, and geostatistics independently, but this is the first to examine the benefits of integrating these GIS techniques to address the need of statewide exposure assessments. A novel framework for concentration exposure is introduced that integrates address geocoding, land use regression (LUR), below detect data modeling, and Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME). A LUR model was developed for tetrachloroethylene that accounts for point sources and flow direction. We then integrate the LUR model into the BME method as a mean trend while also modeling below detects data as a truncated Gaussian probability distribution function. We increase available PCE data 4.7 times from previously available databases through multistage geocoding. The LUR model shows significant influence of dry cleaners at short ranges. The integration of the LUR model as mean trend in BME results in a 7.5% decrease in cross validation mean square error compared to BME with a constant mean trend. PMID:22264162

Messier, Kyle P; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L



Determination of bioconcentration potential of tetrachloroethylene in marine algae by 13C.  


The use of stable isotope of organic-carbon, organic-13C, as a tracer for the determination of the concentration of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), CA, in Heterosigma akashiwo and Skeletonema costatum was examined. CA determined by the 13C and GC methods showed good agreement with each other. This suggests that it is reasonable and reliable to determine the bioconcentration potential of PCE in marine algae. Fitting values of bioconcentration potential parameters, including uptake rate constant k1, elimination rate constant k2 and bioconcentration factor on the basis of dry weight BCFD, were done not only to the time course for PCE uptake by the algae with the bioconcentration model, but also to experimental data for "percent inhibition(%) approximately exposure concentration of PCE approximately time" with the combined bioconcentration and probability model. The values obtained from the bioconcentration model were consistent with those from the combined bioconcentration and probability model. With the parameters (such as k1, k2, growth rate constant kG, critical concentration of HOCs in the organism resulting in growth inhibition CA* and spread factor S) the variability in toxicity (such as EC10, EC50, EC70) can be estimated from the combined bioconcentration and probability model, which fits well with the experimental observations. PMID:8759313

Wang, X; Harada, S; Watanabe, M; Koshikawa, H; Sato, K; Kimura, T



A risk-based cleanup criterion for PCE in soil. [Tetrachloroethylene  

SciTech Connect

The most important attribute of a chemical contaminant at a hazardous-wastes site for decision makers to consider with regard to its cleanup is the potential risk associated with human exposure. For this reason we have developed a strategy for establishing a risk-based cleanup criterion for chemicals in soil. We describe this strategy by presenting a cleanup criterion for tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in soil associated with a representative California landscape. We being by discussing the environmental fate and transport model, developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), that we used to predict the equilibrium concentration of PCE in five environmental media from a steady-state source in soil. Next, we explain the concept and application of pathway-exposure factors (PEFs), the hazard index, and cancer-potency factors (CPFs) for translating the predicted concentrations of PCE into estimated potential hazard or risk for hypothetically exposed individuals. Finally, the relationship between concentration and an allowable level of risk is defined and the societal and financial implications are discussed. 22 refs., 6 tabs.

Daniels, J.I.; McKone, T.E.; Hall, L.C.



Subsurface microbial communities and degradative capacities during trichloroethylene bioremediation  

SciTech Connect

Subsurface amendments of air, methane, and nutrients were investigated for the in situ stimulation of trichloroethylene- degrading microorganisms at the US DOE Savannah River Integrated Demonstration. Amendments were injected into a lower horizontal well coupled with vacuum extraction from the vadose zone horizontal well. The amendments were sequenced to give increasingly more aggressive treatments. Microbial populations and degradative capacities were monitored in groundwaters samples bimonthly.

Pfiffner, S.M.; Ringelberg, D.B.; Hedrick, D.B.; Phelps, T.J.; Palumbo, A.V.



Monitoring trichloroethylene mineralization by Pseudomonas cepacia G4 PR1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyze the extent of mineralization of trichloroethylene (TCE) without disturbing an actively growing biofilm, a minimal growth medium was formulated that reduces the concentration of chloride ions to the extent that the chloride ions generated from TCE mineralization may be detected with a chloride-ion-specific electrode. By substituting chloride salts with phosphates and nitrates, a chloride-free minimal medium was produced

P. P. Luu; C. W. Yung; A. K. Sun; T. K. Wood



Composition of Toluene-Degrading Microbial Communities from Soil at Different Concentrations of Toluene  

PubMed Central

Toluene-degrading bacteria were isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil by incubating liquid enrichment cultures and agar plate cultures in desiccators in which the vapor pressure of toluene was controlled by dilution with vacuum pump oil. Incubation in desiccators equilibrated with either 100, 10, or 1% (wt/wt) toluene in vacuum pump oil and testing for genomic cross-hybridization resulted in four genomically distinct strains (standards) capable of growth on toluene (strains Cstd1, Cstd2, Cstd5, and Cstd7). The optimal toluene concentrations for growth of these standards on plating media differed considerably. Cstd1 grew best in an atmosphere equilibrated with 0.1% (wt/wt) toluene, but Cstd5 failed to grow in this atmosphere. Conversely, Cstd5 grew well in the presence of 10% (wt/wt) toluene, which inhibited growth of Cstd1. 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing and cross-hybridization analysis indicated that both Cstd1 and Cstd5 are members of the genus Pseudomonas. An analysis of the microbial communities in soil samples that were incubated with 10% (wt/wt) toluene with reverse sample genome probing indicated that Pseudomonas strain Cstd5 was the dominant community member. However, incubation of soil samples with 0.1% (wt/wt) toluene resulted in a community that was dominated by Pseudomonas strain Q7, a toluene degrader that has been described previously (Y. Shen, L. G. Stehmeier, and G. Voordouw, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:637–645, 1998). Q7 was not able to grow by itself in an atmosphere equilibrated with 0.1% (wt/wt) toluene but grew efficiently in coculture with Cstd1, suggesting that toluene or metabolic derivatives of toluene were transferred from Cstd1 to Q7. PMID:10388704

Hubert, Casey; Shen, Yin; Voordouw, Gerrit



Anticonvulsant and antipunishment effects of toluene  

SciTech Connect

Toluene can have striking acute behavioral effects and is subject to abuse by inhalation. To determine if its actions resemble those of drugs used in the treatment of anxiety (anxiolytics), two sets of experiments were undertaken. Inasmuch as prevention of pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions is an identifying property of this class of agents, the authors first demonstrated that pretreatment of mice with injections of toluene delayed the onset of convulsive signs and prevented the tonic extension phase of the convulsant activity in a dose-related manner. Injections of another alkyl benzene, m-xylene, were of comparable potency to toluene. Inhalation of toluene delayed the time of death after pentylenetetrazol injection in a manner related to the duration and concentration of exposure; at lower convulsant doses, inhalation of moderate concentrations (EC/sub 58/, 1300 ppm) prevented death. Treatment with a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist (Ro 15-1788) failed to reduce the anticonvulsant activity of inhaled toluene. Anxiolytics also attenuate the reduction in response rate produced by punishment with electric shock. Toluene increased rates of responding suppressed by punishment when responding was maintained under a multiple fixed-interval fixed-interval punishment schedule of reinforcement. Distinct antipunishment effects were observed in rats after 2 hr of exposure to 1780 and 3000 ppm of toluene; the rate-increasing effects of toluene were related to concentration and to time after the termination of exposure. Thus, toluene and m-xylene resemble in several respects clinically useful drugs such as the benzodiazepines. 51 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

Wood, R.W.; Coleman, J.B.; Schuler, R.; Cox, C.




EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Trichloroethylene (1,1,2-trichloroethene) is a major environmental contaminant. There is increasing evidence relating exposure to trichloroethylene with autoimmunity. To investigate potential mechanisms, we treated the autoimmune-prone MRL+/+ mice with trichlo...


The pyrolysis of toluene and ethyl benzene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The pyrolysis of toluene at 850 to 950 C gave mainly H2, CH4, and benzene; PhEt at 650 to 750 C gave mainly H2, CH4, styrene, benzene, and toluene. The rate constants for PhEt pyrolysis were 1000 times higher than those for toluene pyrolysis; the chain initiation rate constants differed by the same factor. The activation energy differences were 46 kJ/mole for the total reaction and 54 kJ/mole for chain initiation. The chain length was evaluated for the PhEt case (10 + or - 2).

Sokolovskaya, V. G.; Samgin, V. F.; Kalinenko, R. A.; Nametkin, N. S.



Modeling of TCE and Toluene Toxicity to Pseudomonas putida F1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prediction of viable bacterial distribution with respect to contaminants is important for efficient bioremediation of contaminated ground-water aquifers, particularly those contaminated with residual NAPLs. While bacterial motility and chemotaxis may help situate bacteria close to high concentrations of contaminant thereby enhancing bioremediation, prolonged exposure to high concentrations of contaminates is toxic to contaminant-degrading bacteria. The purpose of this work is to model the toxicity of trichloroethylene and toluene to Pseudomonas putida F1. The Live/Dead® bacterial viability assay was used to determine the toxic effect of chemical contaminants on the viability of P. putida F1 in a sealed zero head-space experimental environment. Samples of bacterial suspensions were exposed to common ground-water pollutants, TCE and toluene, for different durations. Changes in live and dead cell populations were monitored over the course of experiments using fluorescence microscopy. Data obtained from these toxicity experiments were fit to simple linear and exponential bacterial decay models using non-linear regression to describe loss of bacterial viability. TCE toxicity to P. putida F1 was best described with an exponential decay model (Figure 1a), with a decay constant kTCE = 0.025 h-4.95 (r2 = 0.956). Toluene toxicity showed a marginally better fit to the linear decay model (Figure 1b) (r2 = 0.971), with a decay constant ktoluene = 0.204 h-1. Best-fit model parameters obtained for both TCE and toluene were used to predict bacterial viability in toxicity experiments with higher contaminant concentrations and matched well with experimental data. Results from this study can be used to predict bacterial accumulation and viability near NAPL sources, and thus may be helpful in improving bioremediation performance assessment of contaminated sites. Figure 1: Survival ratios (S = N/No) of P. putida F1 in TCE- (a) and toluene- (b) stressed samples (observed (‘x’), linear model (‘—’) and exponential model (‘---’)) and non-TCE stressed samples (‘o’) at different time intervals throughout toxicity experiments. Error bars represent standard errors for five replicate experiments.

Singh, R.; Olson, M. S.



Atmospheric oxidation mechanism of toluene.  


The atmospheric oxidation mechanism of toluene initiated by OH radical addition is investigated by quantum chemistry calculations at M06-2X, G3MP2-RAD, and ROCBS-QB3 levels and by kinetics calculation by using transition state theory and unimolecular reaction theory coupled with master equation (RRKM-ME). The predicted branching ratios are 0.15, 0.59, 0.05, and 0.14 for OH additions to ipso, ortho, meta, and para positions (forming R1-R4 adducts), respectively. The fate of R2, R4, and R1 is investigated in detail. In the atmosphere, R2 reacts with O2 either by irreversible H-abstraction to form o-cresol (36%), or by reversible recombination to R2-1OO-syn and R2-3OO-syn, which subsequently cyclize to bicyclic radical R2-13OO-syn (64%). Similarly, R4 reacts with O2 with branching ratios of 61% for p-cresol and 39% for R4-35OO-syn, while reaction of R1 and O2 leads to R1-26OO-syn. RRKM-ME calculations show that the reactions of R2/R4 with O2 have reached their high-pressure limits at 760 Torr and the formation of R2-16O-3O-s is only important at low pressure, i.e., 5.4% at 100 Torr. The bicyclic radicals (R2-13OO-syn, R4-35OO-syn, and R1-26OO-syn) will recombine with O2 to produce bicyclic alkoxy radicals after reacting with NO. The bicyclic alkoxy radicals would break the ring to form products methylglyoxal/glyoxal (MGLY/GLY) and their corresponding coproducts butenedial/methyl-substituted butenedial as proposed in earlier studies. However, a new reaction pathway is found for the bicyclic alkoxy radicals, leading to products MGLY/GLY and 2,3-epoxybutandial/2-methyl-2,3-epoxybutandial. A new mechanism is proposed for the atmospheric oxidation mechanism of toluene based on current theoretical and previous theoretical and experimental results. The new mechanism predicts much lower yield of GLY and much higher yield of butenedial than other atmospheric models and recent experimental measurements. The new mechanism calls for detection of proposed products 2,3-epoxybutandial and 2-methyl-2,3-epoxybutandial. PMID:24901213

Wu, Runrun; Pan, Shanshan; Li, Yun; Wang, Liming



Composition of toluene-degrading microbial communities from soil at different concentrations of toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toluene-degrading bacteria were isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil by incubating liquid enrichment cultures and agar plate cultures in desiccators in which the vapor pressure of toluene was controlled by dilution with vacuum pump oil. Incubation in desiccators equilibrated with either 100, 10, or 1% (wt\\/wt) toluene in vacuum pump oil and testing for genomic cross-hybridization resulted in four genomically distinct strains




Oxidation mechanisms of toluene and benzene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expanded and improved version of a previously published benzene oxidation mechanism is presented and shown to model published experimental data fairly successfully. This benzene submodel is coupled to a modified version of a toluene oxidation submodel from the recent literature. This complete mechanism is shown to successfully model published experimental toluene oxidation data for a highly mixed flow reactor and for higher temperature ignition delay times in a shock tube. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis showing the most important reactions is presented for both the benzene and toluene reacting systems. The NASA Lewis toluene mechanism's modeling capability is found to be equivalent to that of the previously published mechanism which contains a somewhat different benzene submodel.

Bittker, David A.



Oxidation Mechanisms of Toluene and Benzene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expanded and improved version of a previously published benzene oxidation mechanism is presented and shown to model published experimental data fairly successfully. This benzene submodel is coupled to a modified version of a toluene oxidation submodel from the recent literature. This complete mechanism is shown to successfully model published experimental toluene oxidation data for a highly mixed flow reactor and for higher temperature ignition delay times in a shock tube. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis showing the most important reactions is presented for both the benzene and toluene reacting systems. The NASA Lewis toluene mechanism's modeling capability is found to be equivalent to that of the previously published mechanism which contains a somewhat different benzene submodel.

Bittker, David A.



Detection of Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl Benzene, and Xylenes (BTEX) Using Toluene Dioxygenase-Peroxidase Coupling Reactions  

E-print Network

) and similar compounds. A genetically engineered E. coli strain expressing toluene dioxygenase (TDO). Subsequent addition of hydrogen peroxide and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enables the transformation

Chen, Wilfred


Carbon doping of MgB 2 by toluene and malic-acid-in-toluene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decomposition of malic acid (C 4H 6O 5) in the presence of Mg and B was studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) which revealed that malic acid reacted with Mg but not B. Also, the addition of toluene (C 7H 8) to dissolve malic acid followed by subsequent drying resulted in no reaction with Mg, indicating that the malic acid had decomposed during the dissolution/drying stage. The total carbon contributed by toluene versus a toluene/5 wt.% malic acid mixture was measured using a LECO CS600 carbon analyzer. The toluene sample contained ?0.4 wt.% C while the toluene/malic acid mixture had ?1.5 wt.% C, demonstrating that the toluene contributed a significant amount of carbon to the final product. Resistivity measurements on powder-in-tube MgB 2 monofilamentary wires established that the toluene/malic acid doped sample had the highest B c2. However, the toluene-only sample had the highest transport J c over most of the magnetic field range (0-9 T), equaled only by that of toluene/malic-acid sample in fields above 9 T.

Bohnenstiehl, S. D.; Susner, M. A.; Yang, Y.; Collings, E. W.; Sumption, M. D.; Rindfleisch, M. A.; Boone, R.



Urinary a 1 -microglobulin excretion as biomarker of renal toxicity in trichloroethylene-exposed persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesConcern on human renal toxicity and carcinogenicity of trichloroethylene is based on findings of increased incidences of renal cell cancers in persons with long-lasting and high occupational exposures to this solvent. The full tumour development is likely to require promotional stimuli, by repetitive episodes of high peak exposures to trichloroethylene, leading to nephrotoxicity. This process is visualised by the excretion

Hermann M. Bolt; Magda Lammert; Silvia Selinski; Thomas Brüning



Improving the extraction of tetrachloroethylene from soil columns using surfactant gradient systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we extend the recently developed gradient approach for surfactant-enhanced remediation of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL)-impacted sites. The goal of the gradient approach is to maximize the DNAPL solubilization capacity in swollen micelles (Type I aqueous microemulsions) while at the same time minimizing the potential for DNAPL mobilization. In this work, we introduce a modified version of the capillary/trapping curve that we refer to as the gradient curve to help interpret and/or design the gradient approach. The gradient curve presents the residual DNAPL saturation as a function of interfacial tension and microemulsion viscosity. This approach demonstrates that keeping a low viscosity of the microemulsion phase is not only important for keeping a low head loss during surfactant flooding but also to prevent oil mobilization. Eight microemulsion systems were evaluated in this research; these systems were evaluated based on their tetrachloroethylene (PCE) solubilization capacity, interfacial tension (IFT), viscosity, density, and coalescence kinetics. Two of these systems were chosen for evaluation in site-specific column tests using an increasing electrolyte gradient to produce a decreasing IFT/increasing solubilization gradient system. The column studies were conducted with media from Dover Air Force Base in Dover, DE. Both solubilized and mobilized DNAPL were quantified. During the column studies, we observed that substantial PCE was mobilized when the residual level of PCE in the column was significantly higher than the steady-state residual saturation level being approach (as predicted from the gradient curve). Four column studies were performed, three of which were used to asses the validity of the gradient curve in predicting the residual saturation after each gradient step. From these tests we observed that starting IFTs of less than 1 mN/m all produced the same mobilization potential. In the last column, we used an additional gradient step with an initial IFT above 1 mN/m to dramatically reduce the amount of PCE mobilize. Based on the good agreement between column results and projections based on the gradient curve, we propose this as a preferred method for designing gradient surfactant flushing systems.

Childs, Jeffrey D.; Acosta, Edgar; Knox, Robert; Harwell, Jeffrey H.; Sabatini, David A.



Process waste assessment: Area 143C trichloroethylene vapor degreaser  

SciTech Connect

A process waste assessment (PWA) is a systematic, planned procedure with the overall objective of identifying opportunities and methods to reduce and eliminate waste. This specific PWA examines waste minimization and emission information for the trichloroethylene vapor degreaser in area 143, Chem Clean. Area 143 Chem Clean is involved in the solvent cleaning and acid cleaning (etching) of various metal and ceramic parts in preparation for further processing (e.g., electroplating, brazing, final assembly). A standard set of worksheets for a level three PWA is included.

Not Available




EPA Science Inventory

A model of toluene level in blood following subcutaneous injection of toluene mixed with polyoxyethylated vegetable oil vehicle was developed. The purpose was to provide a means of predicting dose received, for subsequent toxicologic studies for any time and dose comuination. The...


Toluene abuse embryopathy: Longitudinal neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal exposure to toluene in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the longitudinal effects of prenatal exposure to toluene in rats, dams received daily gavage doses of toluene diluted in corn oil on Days 6 through 19 of gestation, whereas control dams received corn oil. Litters were evaluated either on Gestational Day 19, Postnatal Day 10, or Postnatal Day 21; morphometric analysis of brain and measurements of brain DNA,

Sidney M. Gospe; Shan Shan Zhou




EPA Science Inventory

A field study was performed to evaluate indoor air concentrations and vapor intrusion (VI) of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and other chlorinated solvents at a commercial retail site in Dallas, TX. The building is approximately 40 years old and once housed a dry cleaning operation. R...


Interfacial Properties of a Hydrophobic Dye in the Tetrachloroethylene-Water-Glass Systems  

SciTech Connect

Interfacial effects play an important role in governing multiphase fluid behavior in porous media. Strongly hydrophobic organic dyes, used in many experimental studies to facilitate visual observation of the phase distributions, have generally been implicitly assumed to have no influence on the interfacial properties of the various phases in porous media. Sudan IV is the most commonly used dye for non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in laboratory experiments. It has also been used in at least one field experiment. The effects of this dye on the tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-water-glass system were investigated to test the assumption that the dye does not effect the interfacial properties and therefore PCE mobility. The results indicate that the dye does indeed change the interfacial relationships.The effect of the dye on the interfacial relationships is a complex function of the dye concentration, the solid phase composition, and the dynamic rate of new interface formation. The dye caused a slight (<10 percent) increase in interfacial tension at low concentrations (<0.1 g/L) and high rates of new interface formation. The dye reduced interfacial tension between PCE and water at low rates of new interface formation for all dye concentrations tested (0.00508 to 5.08 g/L). At the highest dye concentration, the PCE-water interfacial tension was significantly reduced regardless of the rate of new interface formation. The apparent interfacial tension increase at low dye concentrations is suspected to be an artifact of a low measured IFT value for the undyed PCE caused by leaching of rubber o-rings by the PCE prior to testing in the final drop-volume configuration.In addition to reducing interfacial tension, the dye was found to significantly alter the wetting relationship between PCE and water on a glass surface at and above the range of reported dye concentrations cited in the literature (1.1 to 1.7 g/L). The wetting relationship was rendered neutral from a water-wet initial condition at the highest dye concentration. The contact angle, measured through the aqueous phase, changed from 58 degrees for undyed PCE to 93 degrees at a dye concentration of 5.08 g/L. Complete reversal of the wettability is likely given the short equilibration time used in this study (approximately five minutes) together with literature indications that hundreds to thousands of hours may be required to reach equilibrium during contact angle measurements. Observations suggesting changing wetting relationships were also noted between PCE, water, and the platinum-iridium surface used in the standard du No/374y ring method for measuring interfacial tension.Observations of the dyed-PCE-water interface behavior during du No/374y ring interfacial tension measurements were similar to observations noted previously during measurements of the interfacial tension between the Savannah River Site (SRS) M-Area Settling Basin DNAPL (M-Area DNAPL) and water. This observation suggests that the M-Area DNAPL may contain surface active components. If this proves to be the case, it would have significant implications for how the M-Area DNAPL is distributed and moves in the SRS subsurface.

Tuck, D.M.



Apartment residents' and day care workers' exposures to tetrachloroethylene and deficits in visual contrast sensitivity.  


Tetrachloroethylene (also called perchloroethylene, or perc), a volatile organic compound, has been the predominant solvent used by the dry-cleaning industry for many years. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified perc as a hazardous air pollutant because of its potential adverse impact on human health. Several occupational studies have indicated that chronic, airborne perc exposure adversely affects neurobehavioral functions in workers, particularly visual color discrimination and tasks dependent on rapid visual-information processing. A 1995 study by Altmann and colleagues extended these findings, indicating that environmental perc exposure at a mean level of 4,980 microg/m(3) (median=1,360 microg/m(3)) alters neurobehavioral functions in residents living near dry-cleaning facilities. Although the U.S. EPA has not yet set a reference concentration guideline level for environmental exposure to airborne perc, the New York State Department of Health set an air quality guideline of 100 microg/m(3). In the current residential study, we investigated the potential for perc exposure and neurologic effects, using a battery of visual-system function tests, among healthy members of six families living in two apartment buildings in New York City that contained dry-cleaning facilities on the ground floors. In addition, a day care investigation assessed the potential for perc exposure and effects among workers at a day care center located in the same one-story building as a dry-cleaning facility. Results from the residential study showed a mean exposure level of 778 microg/m(3) perc in indoor air for a mean of 5.8 years, and that perc levels in breath, blood, and urine were 1-2 orders of magnitude in excess of background values. Group-mean visual contrast sensitivity (VCS), a measure of the ability to detect visual patterns, was significantly reduced in the 17 exposed study participants relative to unexposed matched-control participants. The groups did not differ in visual acuity, suggesting that the VCS deficit was of neurologic origin. Healthy workers in the day care investigation were chronically exposed to airborne perc at a mean of 2,150 microg/m(3) for a mean of 4.0 years. Again, group-mean VCS, measured 6 weeks after exposure cessation, was significantly reduced in the nine exposed workers relative to matched controls, and the groups did not differ significantly in visual acuity. These results suggested that chronic, environmental exposure to airborne perc adversely affects neurobehavioral function in healthy individuals. Further research is needed to assess the susceptibility of the young and elderly to perc-induced effects, to determine whether persistent solvent-induced VCS deficits are a risk factor for the development of neurologic disease, and to identify the no observable adverse effect level for chronic, environmental, perc exposure in humans. PMID:12117642

Schreiber, Judith S; Hudnell, H Kenneth; Geller, Andrew M; House, Dennis E; Aldous, Kenneth M; Force, Michael S; Langguth, Karyn; Prohonic, Elizabeth J; Parker, Jean C



Comparison of Oral and Inhalation Exposures to Toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male Fisher-344 rats were exposed to [14C]toluene by either liquid gavage or vapor inhalation and blood toluene levels were measured by radiospectroscopy. Oral doses of 110, 336, 741, and 911 mg toluene/kg body weight were administered to 82 rats by gavage and blood toluene levels were followed for 6 h. For the inhalation group (120 rats), 3-h exposures to 99,

Sidney M. Gospe; Mohammed A. S. Al-Bayati




EPA Science Inventory

The health effect of primary concern with regard to exposures of humans to toluene is dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS). Occupational exposures in the range of 200 to 1,500 ppm have elicited dose-related CNS alterations. Although myelotoxicity was previously attribu...


Fractal structure of asphaltenes in toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to study the fractal structure of Ratawi petroleum asphaltenes in toluene. For analysis of the SANS data, the asphaltene aggregates are modelled as polydisperse fractal objects containing monodisperse asphaltene micelles as unit particles. This model is applicable to asphaltene concentrations of 10–80 wt%. The results show that the asphaltenes are well dispersed with a

Y. C. Liu; Eric Y. Sheu; S. H. Chen; D. A. Storm



Toluene Monooxygenase-Catalyzed Epoxidation of Alkenes  

PubMed Central

Several toluene monooxygenase-producing organisms were tested for their ability to oxidize linear alkenes and chloroalkenes three to eight carbons long. Each of the wild-type organisms degraded all of the alkenes that were tested. Epoxides were produced during the oxidation of butene, butadiene, and pentene but not hexene or octadiene. A strain of Escherichia coli expressing the cloned toluene-4-monooxygenase (T4MO) of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 was able to oxidize butene, butadiene, pentene, and hexene but not octadiene, producing epoxides from all of the substrates that were oxidized. A T4MO-deficient variant of P. mendocina KR1 oxidized alkenes that were five to eight carbons long, but no epoxides were detected, suggesting the presence of multiple alkene-degrading enzymes in this organism. The alkene oxidation rates varied widely (ranging from 0.01 to 0.33 ?mol of substrate/min/mg of cell protein) and were specific for each organism-substrate pair. The enantiomeric purity of the epoxide products also varied widely, ranging from 54 to >90% of a single epoxide enantiomer. In the absence of more preferred substrates, such as toluene or alkenes, the epoxides underwent further toluene monooxygenase-catalyzed transformations, forming products that were not identified. PMID:10788354

McClay, Kevin; Fox, Brian G.; Steffan, Robert J.



Solvent abuse, toluene acidosis and diabetic ketoacidosis.  


Solvent abuse in adolescents and young adults has been reported to cause a metabolic acidosis with a normal or increased anion gap (Streicher et al., 1981; Voights & Kaufman, 1983, Anonymous, 1988). We report a particularly severe clinical problem produced by the combination of toluene intoxication and diabetic ketoacidosis. PMID:1906715

Brown, J H; Hadden, D R; Hadden, D S




EPA Science Inventory

Electrochemical degradation (ECD) utilizes high redox potential at the anode and low redox potential at the cathode to oxidize and/or reduce organic and inorganic contaminants. ECD of Trichloroethylene (TCE), although theoretically possible, has not been experimentally proven. Th...


Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models for the Transport of Trichloroethylene in Adipose Tissue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we present three physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for the systemic transport of trichloroethylene (TCE), with a focus on the adipose, or fat tissue. TCE is a widespread environmental contaminant, and has been shown to prod...

R. A. Albanese, H. T. Banks, M. V. Evans, L. K. Potter




EPA Science Inventory

Isothermal desorption rates were measured at 15, 30, and 60 C for trichloroethylene (TCE) on a silica gel, an aquifer sediment, a soil, a sand fraction, and a clay and silt fraction, all at 100% relative humidity. Temperature-st...



EPA Science Inventory

Chlorinated ethylenes such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) are common contaminants (Plumb 1991; Westrick et al., 1984). They opccur in the subsurface as zones of residual saturation or occasionally as free products. Because of their inherently low solubil...



EPA Science Inventory

This assessment presents EPA's most current evaluation of the potential health risks from exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE). TCE exposure is associated with several adverse health effects, including neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, developmental toxicity, liver toxicity, kidney t...



EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a contaminant commonly found in the subsurface at industrial and military installations in the United States. Oxidation of TCE (C2HCl3) to carbon dioxide (CO2) and chloride ions (Cl-) has been reported to occu...



EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a contaminant commonly found in the subsurface at industrial and military installations in the United States. Oxidation of TCE (C2HCl3) to carbon dioxide (CO2) and chloride ions (Cl-) has been reported to occu...



EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) and chloroform (CHCl3) are two of the most common environmental contaminants found in water. PBPK models have been increasingly used to predict target dose in internal tissues from available environmental exposure concentrations. A closed inhalation (or g...



EPA Science Inventory

Intact cells of pseudomonas cepacia strain G4 completely degraded trichloroethylene (TCE) following growth with phenol. egradation kinetics were determined for both phenol, used to induce requisite enzymes, and TCE, the target substrate. pparent Ks and Vmax values for degradation...



EPA Science Inventory

Aqueous phase isotherms were calculated from vapor phase desorption isotherms measured at 15, 30, and 60 C for trichloroethylene on a silica gel, an aquifer sediment, a soil, a sand fraction, and a clay and silt fraction, all at...



EPA Science Inventory

The environmental contaminant and occupational solvent trichloroethylene is metabolized to a reactive intermediate that covalently binds to specific hepatic proteins in exposed mice and rats. In order to compare covalent binding between humans and rodents, primary hepatocyte c...



EPA Science Inventory

Toluene is used as an additive to gasoline mixtures (BTEX) to increase octane ratings, in benzene production, and as a solvent in paints, coatings, inks, adhesives, and cleaners. Additionally, toluene is used in the production of nylon, plastics, and polyurethanes. Toluene was o...


Dioxinlike properties of a trichloroethylene combustion-generated aerosol  

SciTech Connect

Conventional chemical analyses of incineration by-products identify compounds of known toxicity but often fail to indicate the presence of other chemicals that may pose health risks. In a previous report, extracts from soot aerosols formed during incomplete combustion of trichloroethylene (TCE) and pyrolysis of plastics exhibited a dioxinlike response when subjected to a keratinocyte assay. To verify this dioxinlike effect, the complete extract, its polar and nonpolar fractions, some containing primarily halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, were evaluated for toxicity using an embryo assay, for antiestrogenicity using primary liver cell cultures, and for the ability to transform the aryl hydrocarbon receptor into its DNA binding form using liver cytosol in a gel retardation assay. Each of these assays detect dioxinlike effects. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos and primary liver cell cultures of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to concentrations of extract ranging from 0.05 to 45 {mu}g/l. 67 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Villalobos, S.A.; Anderson, M.J.; Hinton, D.E. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [and others



Air trichloroethylene oxidation in a corona plasma-catalytic reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxidative decomposition of trichloroethylene (TCE; 300 ppm) by non-thermal corona plasma was investigated in dry air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, both in the absence and presence of catalysts including MnOx, CoOx. The catalysts were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The morphology and structure of the catalysts were characterized by BET surface area measurement and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) methods. Decomposition of TCE and distribution of products were evaluated by a gas chromatograph (GC) and an FTIR. In the absence of the catalyst, TCE removal is increased with increases in the applied voltage and current intensity. Higher TCE removal and CO2 selectivity is observed in presence of the corona and catalysts, as compared to those with the plasma alone. The results show that MnOx and CoOx catalysts can dissociate the in-plasma produced ozone to oxygen radicals, which enhances the TCE decomposition.

Masoomi-Godarzi, S.; Ranji-Burachaloo, H.; Khodadadi, A. A.; Vesali-Naseh, M.; Mortazavi, Y.



Effect of methane pulsation on methanotropic biodegradation of trichloroethylene in an in-situ model aquifer  

E-print Network


Natarajan, Ranjan



Effects of Air-Fuel Ratio on Composition of Hydrocarbon Exhaust from Toluene, Toluene-n Heptane Mixture and Isooctane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the variations in the chemical composition of the exhaust at various air-fuel ratios when toluene, toluene-n-heptane mixture, and isooctane are used as fuels in a Labeco single cylinder engine. The exhaust products from toluene are divided into three groups: those which decrease as the equivalence ratio is increased: toluene, benzene, methane, and dimethylacetylene; those which increase with

J. S. Ninomiya; A. Golovoy



Behavior of toluene added to sludge-amended soils  

SciTech Connect

Toluene is a priority pollutant that can be introduced to soils in a variety of wastes, including some municipal sludges. Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the behavior of toluene in two soils in the presence and absence of municipal sludge. Sludge additions increased toluene adsorption in two soils because of increased organic C content. The source of organic C (soil or sludge) and soil clay content also influenced toluene adsorption. Toluene adsorption-desorption was reversible in one soil, but slightly hysteretic in the other soil. An air-flow incubation system was used to evaluate toluene volatilization and degradation. The primary fate of surface-applied toluene in both soils was volatilization. Toluene volatilization rates were independent of sludge treatments. Toluene degradation was negligible in all treatments because of rapid volatilization losses. Despite increased toluene adsorption in the presence of sludge and reduced volatilization in saturated soils, gaseous transfer dominated all soils and treatments so that no toluene remained after 10 d.

Jin, Y.; O'Connor, G.A.



Effects of dynamic redox zonation on the potential for natural attenuation of trichloroethylene at a fire-training-impacted aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrogeochemical and microbiological methods were used to characterize temporal changes along a transect of an aquifer contaminated by mixed hydrocarbon and solvent wastes from fire training activities at Wurtsmith Air Force Base (Oscoda, MI). Predominant terminal electron accepting processes (TEAPs) as measured by dissolved hydrogen indicated reoxygenation along the transect between October 1995 and October 1996, possibly because of recharge, fluctuations in water table elevation, or microbial activity. Microbiological analyses using universal and archaeal probes revealed a relationship between groundwater hydrogen concentration, TEAP, and predominant bacterial phylogeny. Specifically, a raised water table level and evidence of methanogenesis corresponded to an order of magnitude increase in archaeal 16S rRNA relative to when this zone was unsaturated. Spatial microbial and geochemical dynamics did not result in measurable differences in trichloroethylene (TCE) mineralization potential in vadose, capillary fringe, and saturated zone soils during a 500-day microcosm experiment using unprocessed contaminated soil and groundwater. Aerobic systems indicated that methane, but not toluene, may serve as cosubstrate for TCE cometabolism. Anaerobic microcosms demonstrated evidence for methanogenesis, CO2 production and hydrogen consumption, yet dechlorination activity was only observed in a microcosm with sulfate-reduction as the dominant TEAP. Mass balance calculations indicated less than 5% mineralization, regardless of redox zone or degree of saturation, at maximum rates of 0.01-0.03 ??mol/g soil??d. The general lack of dechlorination activity under laboratory conditions corroborates the limited evidence for natural dechlorination at this site, despite abundant electron donor material and accumulated organic acids from microbial degradation of alkylbenzenes. Thus, the short-term temporal dynamics in redox conditions is unlikely to have measurable effects on the long-term natural remediation potential of the aquifer.

Skubal, K. L.; Haack, S. K.; Forney, L. J.; Adriaens, P.



Impact of tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water on the risk of breast cancer: Using a dose model to assess exposure in a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A population-based case-control study was undertaken in 1997 to investigate the association between tetrachloroethylene (PCE) exposure from public drinking water and breast cancer among permanent residents of the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts. PCE, a volatile organic chemical, leached from the vinyl lining of certain water distribution pipes into drinking water from the late 1960s through the early 1980s.

Verónica Vieira; Ann Aschengrau; David Ozonoff



A Case of Occupational Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Associated with Trichloroethylene  

PubMed Central

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a toxic chemical commonly used as a degreasing agent, and it is usually found in a colorless or blue liquid form. TCE has a sweet, chloroform-like odor, and this volatile chlorinated organic chemical can cause toxic hepatitis, neurophysiological disorders, skin disorders, and hypersensitivity syndromes. However, the hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) attributed to TCE has rarely been reported. We hereby describe a case of HP associated with TCE in a 29-year-old man who was employed as a lead welder at a computer repair center. He was installing the capacitors on computer chip boards and had been wiped down with TCE. He was admitted to our hospital with complaints of dry coughs, night sweats, and weight losses for the past two months. HP due to TCE exposure was being suspected due to his occupational history, and the results of a video-associated thoracoscopic biopsy confirmed the suspicions. Symptoms have resolved after the steroid pulse therapy and his occupational change. TCE should be taken into consideration as a potential trigger of HP. Early recognition and avoidance of the TCE exposure in the future is important for the treatment of TCE induced HP. PMID:24624216

Kim, Young Jae; Hwang, Eu Dong; Leem, Ah Young; Kang, Beo Deul; Chang, Soo Yun; Kim, Ho Keun; Park, In Kyu; Kim, Song Yee; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon



Phytoremediation of Trichloroethylene and Perchloroethylene at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation of chlorinated solvents, both natural and accelerated, is exemplified by phytoremediation and biodegradation by rhizosphere microorganisms. Phytoremediation is the use of vegetation for the treatment of contaminated soils, sediments, and water. The potential for phytoremediation of chlorinated solvents has been demonstrated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Miscellaneous Chemical Basin, Southern Sector of A/M Area and TNX/D-Area. Recent characterization work at the SRS has delineated widespread plumes (1-2 miles) of low concentration (40 ppb -10-ppm range) trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) contaminated groundwater. Phytoremediation deployments are underway for TCE and PCE phytoremediation in select SRS areas. Phytoremediation appears to be an excellent technology to intercept and control plume migration. The ongoing Southern Sector treatability study is part of a multi-year field study of SRS seepline-soil systems maintained under saturated conditions. The primary focus is on determining how trees, seepline groundcover, soil microbial communities, and geochemical and surface-volatilization processes affect TCE and PCE in contaminated groundwater that flows through surface seepline areas. Therefore, FY00 represented an initial acclimation phase for soil and plant systems and will facilitate examination of seepline phyto- and bioactivity in subsequent growth season in FY01.

Brigmon, R.L.



Mass recovery methods for trichloroethylene in plant tissue.  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring expenses form a significant fraction of the costs associated with remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater sites. A novel monitoring method that could result in significant cost savings is the use of plants as monitoring devices; previous work indicates that plant tissue samples, especially trunk (core) and branch samples, can be used to delineate soil and groundwater plumes at phytoremediation sites. An important factor in reducing the uncertainty associated with this sampling method is development of a technique to analyze, both consistently and accurately, the chemicals stored in plant tissue samples. The present research presents a simple, robust, and inexpensive technique to recover most of the contaminant in plant branch tissue, irrespective of the age or species of the plant. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was the chemical analyzed. A number of headspace and solvent extraction techniques in the literature were evaluated, including headspace extraction at different incubation times and temperatures and solvent extraction using hexane or hot methanol. Extraction using hot methanol was relatively fast, simple, and reliable; this method recovered more than 89% of the TCE present in branches of five different tree species.

Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, M. C.; Werth, C. J.; Energy Systems; Univ. of Illionis



Genetic Signature for Human Risk Assessment: Lessons from Trichloroethylene  

PubMed Central

Trichloroethylene (TCE), an organic solvent commonly used for metal degreasing and as a chemical additive, is a significant environmental contaminant that poses health concerns in humans. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently revising the 2001 TCE human risk assessment draft. The next draft is expected to be ready in 2008. TCE metabolites are detectable in humans and carry varying potencies for induction of cancers in animals. Genomic mechanisms have been explored in animals and in humans to link TCE to carcinogenesis. DNA analysis provides an opportunity for detection of unique genetic alterations representing a signature of TCE exposure. These alterations can arise from genotoxic and non-genotoxic pathways at multiple points throughout tumorigenesis. Although fixation of alterations may require several stages of selection and modification, the spectra can be specific to TCE. Only a fraction of these alterations eventually lead to tumor formation and some contribute to tumor progression. Genetic events in two major TCE target organs are reviewed, including the VHL gene in kidney, and the Ras gene and genome-wide hypomethylation in liver. Attempts to identify a genetic signature of TCE exposure are challenged by inconsistent findings, lack of evidence of promutagenic lesions, biological relevance of specific genomic changes, and likelihood of coexposures. For human risk assessment, genome-wide screening is useful and is possible with the development of new DNA sequencing technologies. Genetic screening for preneoplastic and tumor tissues from high-risk population is proposed to exclude the noise of passenger mutations and genetic polymorphisms. PMID:19031419

Shiao, Yih-Horng



Key scientific issues in the health risk assessment of trichloroethylene.  


Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common environmental contaminant at hazardous waste sites and in ambient and indoor air. Assessing the human health risks of TCE is challenging because of its inherently complex metabolism and toxicity and the widely varying perspectives on a number of critical scientific issues. Because of this complexity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drew upon scientific input and expertise from a wide range of groups and individuals in developing its 2001 draft health risk assessment of TCE. This scientific outreach, which was aimed at engaging a diversity of perspectives rather than developing consensus, culminated in 2000 with 16 state-of-the-science articles published together as an Environmental Health Perspectives supplement. Since that time, a substantial amount of new scientific research has been published that is relevant to assessing TCE health risks. Moreover, a number of difficult or controversial scientific issues remain unresolved and are the subject of a scientific consultation with the National Academy of Sciences coordinated by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and co-sponsored by a number of federal agencies, including the U.S. EPA. The articles included in this mini-monograph provide a scientific update on the most prominent of these issues: the pharmacokinetics of TCE and its metabolites, mode(s) of action and effects of TCE metabolites, the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in TCE toxicity, and TCE cancer epidemiology. PMID:16966103

Chiu, Weihsueh A; Caldwell, Jane C; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Scott, Cheryl Siegel



Key Scientific Issues in the Health Risk Assessment of Trichloroethylene  

PubMed Central

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common environmental contaminant at hazardous waste sites and in ambient and indoor air. Assessing the human health risks of TCE is challenging because of its inherently complex metabolism and toxicity and the widely varying perspectives on a number of critical scientific issues. Because of this complexity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drew upon scientific input and expertise from a wide range of groups and individuals in developing its 2001 draft health risk assessment of TCE. This scientific outreach, which was aimed at engaging a diversity of perspectives rather than developing consensus, culminated in 2000 with 16 state-of-the-science articles published together as an Environmental Health Perspectives supplement. Since that time, a substantial amount of new scientific research has been published that is relevant to assessing TCE health risks. Moreover, a number of difficult or controversial scientific issues remain unresolved and are the subject of a scientific consultation with the National Academy of Sciences coordinated by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and co-sponsored by a number of federal agencies, including the U.S. EPA. The articles included in this mini-monograph provide a scientific update on the most prominent of these issues: the pharmacokinetics of TCE and its metabolites, mode(s) of action and effects of TCE metabolites, the role of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor in TCE toxicity, and TCE cancer epidemiology. PMID:16966103

Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Caldwell, Jane C.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Scott, Cheryl Siegel



Hybrid reactor for priority pollutant-trichloroethylene removal.  


The present study was initiated to explore the potential of a hybrid biological reactor, combining trickling filter (TF) and activated sludge process (ASP), to treat wastewater containing trichloroethylene (TCE) at ambient temperature at different hydraulic retention time (HRT). The biofilm acclimation was achieved in 55-60 days with gradual increase in TCE concentration from 1 mg/l to 100 mg/l with a parallel increase in the concentration of substrate sodium acetate and other nutrients. COD and TCE concentration were taken as prime parameters for monitoring the growth of biofilm. During acclimation COD removal varied between 54.6-97.5% while TCE was removed 72.6-99.9%. HRT study was performed after acclimation. The removal efficiency increased with decreasing flow rate with maximum TCE removal (99.99%) at 6 l/d corresponding to an HRT of 28 h (TF 18 h + ASP 10 h). This was followed by a C:N:P ratio study. A ratio of 100:20:1 led to the sustenance of maximum TCE removal. Maximum TCE removal (99.99%) was observed at a substrate:cosubstrate ratio of 100:1. A pH of 7.4 +/- 0.2 was found to be optimum for degradation. Finally, volatilization losses were estimated to be 18.5%. A mass balance gave an efficiency of 81.51% for biological removal of TCE. PMID:11257870

Misra, C; Gupta, S K



Optimization of electrochemical dechlorination of trichloroethylene in reducing electrolytes  

PubMed Central

Electrochemical dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) in aqueous solution is investigated in a closed, liquid-recirculation system. The anodic reaction of cast iron generates ferrous species, creating a chemically reducing electrolyte (negative ORP value). The reduction of TCE on the cathode surface is enhanced under this reducing electrolyte because of the absence of electron competition. In the presence of the iron anode, the performances of different cathodes are compared in a recirculated electrolysis system. The copper foam shows superior capability for dechlorination of aqueous TCE. Electrolysis by cast iron anode and copper foam cathode is further optimized though a multivariable experimental design and analysis. The conductivity of the electrolyte is identified as an important factor for both final elimination efficiency (FEE) of TCE and specific energy consumption. The copper foam electrode exhibits high TCE elimination efficiency in a wide range of initial TCE concentration. Under coulostatic conditions, the optimal conditions to achieve the highest FEE are 9.525 mm thick copper foam electrode, 40 mA current and 0.042 mol L?1 Na2SO4. This novel electrolysis system is proposed to remediate groundwater contaminated by chlorinated organic solvents, or as an improved iron electrocoagulation process capable of treating the wastewater co-contaminated with chlorinated compounds. PMID:22264798

Mao, Xuhui; Ciblak, Ali; Baek, Kitae; Amiri, Mohammad; Loch-Caruso, Rita; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.



The effect of low concentrations of tetrachloroethylene on H2 adsorption and activation on Pt in a fuel cell catalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The poisoning effect of tetrachloroethylene (TTCE) on the activity of a Pt fuel cell catalyst for the adsorption and activation of H2 was investigated at 60 °C and 2 atm using hydrogen surface concentration measurements. The impurity was chosen as a model compound for chlorinated cleaning and degreasing agents that may be introduced into a fuel cell as a contaminant at a fueling station and/or during vehicle maintenance. In the presence of only H2, introduction of up to 540 ppm TTCE in H2 to Pt/C resulted in a reduction of available Pt surface atoms (measured by H2 uptake) by ca. 30%, which was not enough to shift the H2-D2 exchange reaction away from being equilibrium limited. Exposure of TTCE to Pt/C in a mixed redox environment (hydrogen + oxygen), similar to that at the cathode of a fuel cell, resulted in a much more significant loss of Pt surface atom availability, suggesting a role in TTCE decomposition and/or Cl poisoning. Regeneration of catalyst activity of poisoned Pt/C showed the highest level of recovery when regenerated in only H2, with much less recovery in H2 + O2 or O2. The results from this study are in good agreement with those found in a fuel cell study by Martínez-Rodríguez et al. [2] and confirm that the majority of the poisoning from TTCE on fuel cell performance is most likely at the cathode, rather than the anode.

Zhang, Jack Z.; Colón-Mercado, Héctor R.; Goodwin, James G.



Toluene inhalation induced epididymal sperm dysfunction in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toluene is a widely abused inhaled solvent. This study was designed to determine whether toluene abuse affects the reproductive functions or general health of males. Seven-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to toluene vapor inhalation (0, 4000, or 6000 ppm; 2 h\\/day) daily for 5 weeks. Exposure-related suppression of body weight gain and food consumption were observed. Salivation and lacrimation

Atsushi Ono; Kunio Kawashima; Kiyoshi Sekita; Akihiko Hirose; Yukio Ogawa; Minoru Saito; Katsushi Naito; Kazuo Yasuhara; Toyozo Kaneko; Tsuyoshi Furuya; Tohru Inoue; Yuji Kurokawa



Inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by toluene exposure  

PubMed Central

Toluene is an industrial solvent widely used as a drug of abuse, which can produce sudden sniffing death due to cardiac arrhythmias. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that toluene inhibits cardiac sodium channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes transfected with Nav1.5 cDNA and in isolated rat ventricular myocytes. In oocytes, toluene inhibited sodium currents (INa+) in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 274 ?M (confidence limits: 141–407?M). The inhibition was complete, voltage-independent, and slowly reversible. Toluene had no effect on: (i) the shape of the I–V curves; (ii) the reversal potential of Na+; and (iii) the steady-state inactivation. The slow recovery time constant from inactivation of INa+ decreased with toluene exposure, while the fast recovery time constant remained unchanged. Block of INa+ by toluene was use- and frequency-dependent. In rat cardiac myocytes, 300 ?M toluene inhibited the sodium current (INa+) by 62%; this inhibition was voltage independent. These results suggest that toluene binds to cardiac Na+ channels in the open state and unbinds either when channels move between inactivated states or from an inactivated to a closed state. The use- and frequency-dependent block of INa+ by toluene might be responsible, at least in part, for its arrhythmogenic effect. PMID:14534149

Cruz, Silvia L; Orta-Salazar, Gerardo; Gauthereau, Marcia Y; Millan-Perez Pena, Lourdes; Salinas-Stefanon, Eduardo M



Comparison of trichloroethylene and enflurane as adjuncts to nitrous oxide and relaxant anaesthesia.  


Forty women who underwent gynaecological surgery were randomly allocated to receive trichloroethylene, enflurane, or enflurane plus fentanyl as adjuncts to nitrous oxide/relaxant anaesthesia with controlled ventilation. No serious cardiac dysrhythmias were seen in any group. Each patient was observed postoperatively for 4 hours by a nurse blind to the technique used, and questioned at 24 hours by a similarly blinded anaesthetist. Recovery after trichloroethylene was not significantly prolonged although postoperative analgesia by visual analogue was better, opiate analgesia was required less frequently and there was less nausea and vomiting than in either of the enflurane groups. We argue for the continued use of trichloroethylene by this technique, because it costs one hundred times less than enflurane and because of the potential morbidity of the postoperative opiate dosage required after enflurane. PMID:3434765

Rice, A S; Reynolds, F



Role of heterotrophic bacteria in complete mineralization of trichloroethylene by Methylocystis sp. strain M.  

PubMed Central

Biodegradation experiments with radioactively labeled trichloroethylene showed that 32% of the radioactive carbon was converted to glyoxylic acid, dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid and that the same percentage was converted to CO2 and CO after 140 h of incubation by a pure culture of a type II methane-utilizing bacterium, Methylocystis sp. strain M, isolated from a mixed culture, MU-81, in our laboratory. In contrast, these water-soluble (14C)trichloroethylene degradation products were completely or partially degraded further and converted to CO2 by the MU-81 mixed culture. This phenomenon was attributed to the presence of a heterotrophic bacterium (strain DA4), which was identified as Xanthobacter autotrophicus, in the MU-81 culture. The results indicate that the heterotrophic bacteria play an important role in complete trichloroethylene degradation by methanotrophs. PMID:1444420

Uchiyama, H; Nakajima, T; Yagi, O; Nakahara, T



Physiological Relevance of Successive Hydroxylations of Toluene by Toluene para-Monooxygenase of Ralstonia pickettii  

E-print Network

of benzene (Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 3814, 2004) as well as hydroxylates toluene to a mixture of 90% p-cresol and 10% m-cresol which are then further oxidized to 100% 4- methylcatechol (J. Bacteriol. 186: 3117, 2004) whereas it was thought previously that TpMO forms 100% m-cresol and is not capable of successive

Wood, Thomas K.


Detection of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylenes (BTEX) using toluene dioxygenase-peroxidase coupling reactions.  


We have developed a simple, whole-cell bioassay for the detection of bioavailable benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and similar compounds. A genetically engineered E. coli strain expressing toluene dioxygenase (TDO) and toluene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (TodD) was constructed, enabling the conversion of BTEX into their respective catechols, which were quickly converted into colored products by a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-coupled reaction. The intensity of the color formation was correlated to concentrations of the BTEX compounds. Under the optimized conditions, a detection limit (defined as three times the standard deviation of the response obtained from the blank) of 10, 10, 20, and 50 microM was observed for benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene, respectively. The bioassay was selective toward BTEX-related compounds with no interference observed with commonly used pesticides, herbicides, and organic solvent. The bioassay was very stable with little change in response over a 10-week period. The excellent stability suggests that the reported bioassay may be suitable for field monitoring of BTEX to identify and track contaminated water and follow the bioremediation progress. PMID:14656160

Xu, Zhaohui; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred



Benzene\\/toluene\\/ p -xylene degradation. Part I. Solvent selection and toluene degradation in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-phase organic\\/aqueous reactor configuration was developed for use in the biodegradation of benzene, toluene and p-xylene, and tested with toluene. An immiscible organic phase was systematically selected on the basis of predicted and experimentally\\u000a determined properties, such as high boiling points, low solubilities in the aqueous phase, good phase stability, biocompatibility,\\u000a and good predicted partition coefficients for benzene, toluene

L. D. Collins; A. J. Daugulis



Copper Enhanced Monooxygenase Activity and FT-IR Spectroscopic Characterisation of Biotransformation Products in Trichloroethylene Degrading Bacterium: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PM102  

PubMed Central

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PM102 (NCBI GenBank Acc. no. JQ797560) is capable of growth on trichloroethylene as the sole carbon source. In this paper, we report the purification and characterisation of oxygenase present in the PM102 isolate. Enzyme activity was found to be induced 10.3-fold in presence of 0.7?mM copper with a further increment to 14.96-fold in presence of 0.05?mM NADH. Optimum temperature for oxygenase activity was recorded at 36°C. The reported enzyme was found to have enhanced activity at pH 5 and pH 8, indicating presence of two isoforms. Maximum activity was seen on incubation with benzene compared to other substrates like TCE, chloroform, toluene, hexane, and petroleum benzene. Km and Vmax for benzene were 3.8?mM and 340?U/mg/min and those for TCE were 2.1?mM and 170?U/mg/min. The crude enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by dialysis. Zymogram analysis revealed two isoforms in the 70% purified enzyme fraction. The activity stain was more prominent when the native gel was incubated in benzene as substrate in comparison to TCE. Crude enzyme and purified enzyme fractions were assayed for TCE degradation by the Fujiwara test. TCE biotransformation products were analysed by FT-IR spectroscopy. PMID:24083236

Mukherjee, Piyali; Roy, Pranab



Saturation mutagenesis of Bradyrhizobium sp. BTAi1 toluene 4-monooxygenase at alpha-subunit residues proline 101, proline 103, and histidine 214 for regiospecific oxidation of aromatics.  


A novel toluene monooxygenase (TMO) six-gene cluster from Bradyrhizobium sp. BTAi1 having an overall 35, 36, and 38 % protein similarity with toluene o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) of Pseudomonas sp. OX1, toluene 4-monooxygenase (T4MO) of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1, and toluene-para-monooxygenase (TpMO) of Ralstonia pickettii PKO1, respectively, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli TG1, and its potential activity was investigated for aromatic hydroxylation and trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation. The natural substrate toluene was hydroxylated to p-cresol, indicating that the new toluene monooxygenase (T4MO·BTAi1) acts as a para hydroxylating enzyme, similar to T4MO and TpMO. Some shifts in regiospecific hydroxylations were observed compared to the other wild-type TMOs. For example, wild-type T4MO·BTAi1 formed catechol (88 %) and hydroquinone (12 %) from phenol, whereas all the other wild-type TMOs were reported to form only catechol. Furthermore, it was discovered that TG1 cells expressing wild-type T4MO·BTAi1 mineralized TCE at a rate of 0.67?±?0.10 nmol Cl(-)/h/mg protein. Saturation and site directed mutagenesis were used to generate eight variants of T4MO·BTAi1 at alpha-subunit positions P101, P103, and H214: P101T/P103A, P101S, P101N/P103T, P101V, P103T, P101V/P103T, H214G, and H214G/D278N; by testing the substrates phenol, nitrobenzene, and naphthalene, positions P101 and P103 were found to influence the regiospecific oxidation of aromatics. For example, compared to wild type, variant P103T produced four fold more m-nitrophenol from nitrobenzene as well as produced mainly resorcinol (60 %) from phenol whereas wild-type T4MO·BTAi1 did not. Similarly, variants P101T/P103A and P101S synthesized more 2-naphthol and 2.3-fold and 1.6-fold less 1-naphthol from naphthalene, respectively. PMID:25016343

Yan?k-Y?ld?r?m, K Cansu; Vardar-Schara, Gönül



Impact of iron sulfide transformation on trichloroethylene degradation  

SciTech Connect

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the most common and persistent groundwater contaminants encountered at hazardous waste sites around the world. A growing body of evidence indicates that iron sulfides play an important role in degrading TCE in natural environments and in engineered systems designed for groundwater cleanup. In this study, we investigate transformation processes of iron sulfides and consequent impacts on TCE degradation using batch experimental techniques, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Our results show that mackinawite is highly reactive toward TCE and no detectable mineralogical changes were detected during the course of reaction. However, freeze-dried FeS transformed to a mixture of mackinawite and greigite during the freeze drying process, with further mineralogical changes during reaction with TCE to lepidocrocite, goethite and pyrite. Newly formed lepidocrocite is a transient phase, with conversion to goethite over time. TCE transformation kinetics show that freeze-dried FeS is 20-50 times less reactive in degrading TCE than non-freeze-dried FeS, and the TCE degradation rate increases with pH (from 5.4 to 8.3), possibly due to an increase of surface deprotonation or electron transfer at higher pH. Results suggest that freeze drying could cause FeS particle aggregation, decreased surface area and availability of reactive sites; it also could change FeS mineralogy and accelerate mineral transformation. These aspects could contribute to the lower reactivity of freeze-dried FeS toward TCE degradation. Modeling results show that FeS transformation in natural environments depends on specific biogeochemical conditions, and natural FeS transformation may affect mineral reactivity in a similar way as compared to the freeze drying process. Rapid transformation of FeS to FeS{sub 2} could significantly slow down TCE degradation in both natural and engineered systems.

He, Y. Thomas; Wilson, John T.; Wilkin, Richard T. (EPA)



Cinnarizinium bis-(p-toluene-sulfonate) dihydrate  

PubMed Central

The asymmetric unit of the title salt [systematic name: 1-benzhydryl-4-cinnamylpiperazine-1,4-diium bis­(p-toluene­sulfonate) dihydrate], C26H30N2 2+·2C7H7O3S?·2H2O, consists of a diprotonated cinnarizinium cation hydrogen bonded through two water mol­ecules to two independent p-toluene­sulfonate anions, one which is disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.793?(3):0.207?(3) ratio. In the cation, the piperazine ring adopts a chair configuration and contains two positively charged N atoms with quarternery character. The dihedral angle between the two benzene rings in the benzhydr­yl group is 71.8?(1)°. The benzene ring flanked opposite the piperazine ring is twisted by 75.9?(9) and 8.8?(3)° from these two benzene rings. In the crystal, the [N—H?Owater—H?O( S)]2 hydrogen-bonded asymmetric unit is connected by further O—H?O hydrogen bonds linking the components into chains along [100]. PMID:23634038

Kavitha, C. N.; Butcher, Ray J.; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Yathirajan, H. S.; Dayananda, A. S.



Spatiotemporal variability of tetrachloroethylene in residential indoor air due to vapor intrusion: a longitudinal, community-based study.  


The migration of volatile contaminants from groundwater and soil into indoor air is a potential health threat at thousands of contaminated sites across the country. This phenomenon, known as vapor intrusion, is characterized by spatial and temporal heterogeneity. This study examined short-term fluctuations in concentrations of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in the indoor air of residential homes due to vapor intrusion in a community in San Antonio, Texas, that sits atop an extensive, shallow plume of contaminated groundwater. Using a community-based design, we removed potential indoor sources of PCE and then collected twelve 3-day passive indoor air samples in each of the 20 homes. Results demonstrated a one-order-of-magnitude variability in concentration across both space and time among the study homes, although all measured concentrations were below risk-based screening levels. We found that within any given home, indoor concentrations increase with the magnitude of the barometric pressure drop (P=0.048) and humidity (P<0.001), while concentrations decrease as wind speed increases (P<0.001) and also during winter (P=0.001). In a second analysis to examine sources of spatial variability, we found that indoor air PCE concentrations between homes increase with groundwater concentration (P=0.030) and a slab-on-grade (as compared with a crawl space) foundation (P=0.028), whereas concentrations decrease in homes without air conditioners (P=0.015). This study offers insights into the drivers of temporal and spatial variability in vapor intrusion that can inform decisions regarding monitoring and exposure assessment at affected sites. PMID:23549403

Johnston, Jill E; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald




EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a drinking water criteria document on toluene. The criteria document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of toluene toxicokinetics and human exposure...


Toluene-Water Clusters: Ion Fragmentation and Chemistry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report we explore the cluster ion chemistry of toluene/water clusters. The chemistry of toluene/ammonia cluster ions is dealt with in a separate report. The particular focus of this paper concerns four main themes: association of a given resolved ...

E. R. Bernstein, S. Li




EPA Science Inventory

Toluene and other volatile organic compounds have often been shown to affect behavior in animals when given by inhalation, and less effective when given orally. Previous work showed that toluene increased heart rate (HR) and motor activity (MA), and reduced core temperature (Tc) ...


Cranial MR Findings in Chronic Toluene Abuse by Inhalation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic abuse of toluene by inhalation causes variable white matter changes and thalamic hypointensity on T2-weighted MR images. The purpose of our study was to assess cranial MR findings in a large series of patients who chronically abuse toluene-containing solvents to investigate the factors causing the qualitative variability of white matter changes and thalamic hypointensity. METHODS: We

Kubilay Aydin; Serra Sencer; Turkay Demir; Kultekin Ogel; Atadan Tunaci; Ozenc Minareci



Comparison of blood toluene levels after inhalation and oral administration  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation was to compare blood toluene levels in Sprague-Dawley rats after oral and inhalation administration. Groups of 30 rats were dosed by gavage with 86.7, 217, 433, or 867 mg toluene/kg body wt or exposed for up to 6 hr, 5 rats per exposure, to an atmosphere of either 200 or 1000 ppm toluene. Blood was sampled by cardiac puncture from 5 rats in each of the six dose groups at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 24.0 hr after gavage dosing or the beginning of the inhalation exposure. Blood toluene levels were analyzed. A four-parameter model was fitted to the blood toluene levels of the orally dosed rats. The area under the curve generated by this model, representing total blood toluene concentration over 6 hr, was calculated and compared to the area under the blood toluene curve for the 6-hr inhalation exposure. Integrated areas from the two routes of exposure were used for direct comparison of oral and inhalation exposures. The data demonstrate that gavage dosing can be used to approximate inhalation exposure to toluene.

Sullivan, M.J.; Conolly, R.B.



Impedimetric microbial biosensor based on single wall carbon nanotube modified microelectrodes for trichloroethylene detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of soils and groundwaters with persistent organic pollutants is a matter of increasing concern. The most common organic pollutants are chlorinated hydrocarbons such as perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene (TCE). In this study, we developed a bacterial impedimetric biosensor for TCE detection, based on the immobilization of Pseudomonas putida F1 strain on gold microelectrodes functionalized with single wall carbon nanotubes covalently

M. Hnaien; S. Bourigua; F. Bessueille; J. Bausells; A. Errachid; F. Lagarde; N. Jaffrezic-Renault


78 FR 67372 - Evaluation of Trichloroethylene for the Report on Carcinogens; Request for Nominations of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 trichloroethylene (TCE) and cancer. DATES: The deadline for receipt...identified non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and cancer of the liver and kidney as sites of concern in...epidemiologic studies of exposure to TCE and cancer risk and use this input to...



Trichloroethylene, Trichloroacetic Acid, and Dichloroacetic Acid: Do They Affect Fetal Rat Heart Development&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichloroethylene (TCE), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and dichloroacetic acid (DCA) are commonly found as groundwater contaminants in many regions of the United States. Cardiac birth defects in children have been associated with TCE, and laboratory studies with rodents report an increased incidence of fetal cardiac malformations resulting from maternal exposures to TCE, TCA, and DCA. The objective of this study was

Jeffrey W. Fisher; Stephen R. Channel; Jeffrey S. Eggers; Paula D. Johnson; Kathleen L. MacMahon; Chuck D. Goodyear; Gregory L. Sudberry; D. Alan Warren; John R. Latendresse; Linda J. Graeter




EPA Science Inventory

In support of the trichloroethylene (TCE) risk assessment for the Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, and Office of Water, NERL and NCEA are developing an updated physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. The PBPK modeling effor...



EPA Science Inventory

In support of the trichloroethylene (TCE) risk assessment for the Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, and Office of Water, NERL and NCEA are developing an updated physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. The PBPK modeling effort ...


Degradation of trichloroethylene in wetland microcosms containing broad-leaved cattail and eastern cottonwood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remediation of aquifers containing trichloroethylene (TCE) relies primarily on physical extraction of contaminated groundwater and soil. Unfortunately, this is typically expensive and does not always attain the desired treatment goals. In situ bioremediation via natural attenuation is an alternative treatment process in which TCE is transformed by indigenous microorganisms and plants. In this study, TCE was observed in a surficial

Jamie L. Bankston; Daniel L. Sola; Andrew T. Komor; Daryl F. Dwyer



FY00 Phytoremediation of Trichloroethylene and Perchloroethylene in the Southern Sector of SRS  

SciTech Connect

This treatability study addresses the fate of volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) in an experiment that simulates a vegetated seepline supplied with trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) -contaminated groundwater. The primary objective is to determine how the trees uptake TCE and PCE, accumulate it, and/or transform it.

Brigmon, R.L.




EPA Science Inventory

Electrochemical dechlorination of Trichloroethylene (TCE) in aqueous phase was studied using graphite as a cathode in a packed bed reactor in a closed system. TCE contaminated matrix solution was circulated through the electrochemical reactor where TCE was reduced at the graphite...



EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common contaminant of underground water supplies. To examine the effect of TCE on the developing central nervous system, rats were exposed to TCE throughout gestation until 21 days postpartum via their dams' drinking water. TCE concentrations of 312 p...


Monitoring remediation of trichloroethylene using a chemical fiber optic sensor: Field studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field tests of a remote fiber optic chemical sensor have recently been completed. The sensor has measured trace quantities of organohalides in the vadose zone and groundwater. Due to its toxicological importance and accessibility, a specific contaminant monitored was trichloroethylene (TCE). Two elements considered in these field measurements included temperature and carbon dioxide (COâ) fluctuations. The effects of these properties

B. Jr. Colston; S. B. Brown; K. Langry; P. Daley; F. P. Milanovich



Monitoring remediation of trichloroethylene using a chemical fiber optic sensor: Field studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field tests of a remote fiber optic chemical sensor have recently been completed. The sensor has measured trace quantities of organohalides in the vadose zone and groundwater. Due to its toxicological importance and accessibility, a specific contaminant monitored was trichloroethylene (TCE). Two elements considered in these field measurements included temperature and carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) fluctuations. The effects of these

B. Jr. Colston; S. B. Brown; K. Langry; P. Daley; F. P. Milanovich



Oxidative degradation of trichloroethylene adsorbed on active carbons: Use of microwave energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds (CHCl), such as chlorinated alkanes\\/alkenes, benzene and biphenyl etc, represent an important fraction of the industrial hazardous wastes produced. Trichloroethylene (TCE) can be removed from waste streams by adsorption on active carbons. The primary objective of the present work was to study the detoxification in air-stream of TCE adsorbed on different types of active carbons using in

R. Varma; S. P. Nandi



Phase-transfer catalysis applied to the oxidation of nonaqueous phase trichloroethylene by potassium permanganate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of potassium permanganate to oxidize chlorinated solvents has been demonstrated as an effective process for treating nonaqueous phase liquids in ground-water systems. This study evaluates the effectiveness of phase-transfer catalysts (PTCs) in enhancing the degradation rate. PTCs work by transferring permanganate ion into the nonaqueous phase where it initiates oxidative decomposition. We studied the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE)

Yongkoo Seol; Franklin W. Schwartz




EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a volatile organic solvent (VOC) that is used as a metal degreasing agent and in paints and glue. In addition to being a commonly abused inhalant, run-off from hazardous waste sites contain enough TCE and other VOCs to contaminate ground water and near...


Effects of long?term exposure to trichloroethylene on the behavior of mongolian gerbils (meriones unguiculatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two groups of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were continuously exposed to 150 ppm trichloroethylene (TCE) for 77 and 106 d, respectively. The behavior of the animals was tested in a symmetrical maze baited with sunflower seeds during a period of 23 d, beginning at the end of exposure. One additional group was exposed for 150 d and then allowed 40

P. Kjellstrand; M. Bjerkemo; I. Mortensen; L. Månsson; J. Lanke; B. Holmquist




EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this project was to compare the cost and performance of technologies used for the remediation of dissolved trichloroethylene plumes. Data for the conventional treatment technology (pump and treat) as well as innovative/emerging technologies, e.g., surfactant inject...



EPA Science Inventory

Chronic exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) results in hepatocellular cancer in mice but not rats. The induction of hepatic tumors by TCE appears to be mediated through nongenotoxic or tumor promotion mechanisms. One cellular effect exhibited by a number of nongentoxic carcinogen...



EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a neurotoxic volatile organic compound (VOC) that is produced in large quantities as a degreasing agent and general solvent, and it appears on the list of 188 HAPs specified by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. TCE was selected as a model VOC for de...


Uses of and Exposure to Trichloroethylene in U.S. Industry: A Systematic Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a systematic review of the industrial hygiene literature for uses of trichloroethylene (TCE) in industry for the exposure assessment of two population-based case control studies of brain cancer in the United States. Papers and reports that address uses of and exposures to TCE were identified from MEDLINE, TOXLINE, NIOSHTIC, the NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation database (keywords: chlorinated

Berit Bakke; Patricia A. Stewart; Martha A. Waters




EPA Science Inventory

Volatile organic compounds such as toleune, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene are potent and reversible blockers of voltage-gated calcium current in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. It is hypothesized that effects of VOCs on ICa contri...



EPA Science Inventory

The metabolism of trichloroethylene (Tri) by cytochrome P450 (P450) was studied in microsomes from liver and kidney homogenates and from isolated renal proximal tubular (PT) and distal tubular (DT) cells from male Fischer 344 rats. Chloral hydrate (CH) was the only metabolite con...



EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a solvent of concern to the EPA due to its extensive use in industry, its prevalence in urban air, and its appearance in water supplies. Human clinical studies have associated short and long-termsolvent exposures with cognitive dysfunction including att...


Dioxinlike properties of a trichloroethylene combustion-generated aerosol.  

PubMed Central

Conventional chemical analyses of incineration by-products identify compounds of known toxicity but often fail to indicate the presence of other chemicals that may pose health risks. In a previous report, extracts from soot aerosols formed during incomplete combustion of trichloroethylene (TCE) and pyrolysis of plastics exhibited a dioxinlike response when subjected to a keratinocyte assay. To verify this dioxinlike effect, the complete extract, its polar and nonpolar fractions, some containing primarily halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, were evaluated for toxicity using an embryo assay, for antiestrogenicity using primary liver cell cultures, and for the ability to transform the aryl hydrocarbon receptor into its DNA binding form using liver cytosol in a gel retardation assay. Each of these assays detect dioxinlike effects. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos and primary liver cell cultures of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to concentrations of extract ranging from 0.05 to 45 micrograms/l. Cardiotoxicity with pericardial, yolk sac, and adjacent peritoneal edema occurred after exposure of embryos to concentrations of 7 micrograms/l or greater. These same exposure levels were associated with abnormal embryo development and, at the higher concentrations, death. Some of the fractions were toxic but none was as toxic as the whole extract. In liver cells, total cellular protein and cellular lactate dehydrogenase activity were not altered by in vitro exposure to whole extract (0.05-25 micrograms/l). However, induction of cytochrome P4501A1 protein and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity occurred. In the presence of whole extract, estradiol-dependent vitellogenin synthesis was reduced. Of the fractions, only fraction 1 (nonpolar) showed a similar trend, although vitellogenin synthesis inhibition was not significant. The soot extract and fractions bound to the Ah receptor and showed a significantly positive result in the gel retardation/DNA binding test. Chemical analyses using GC-MS with detection limits for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran in the picomole range did not show presence of these compounds. Our results indicate that other chemicals associated with TCE combustion and not originally targeted for analysis may also pose health risks through dioxinlike mechanisms. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 4. C Figure 4. D Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8841759

Villalobos, S A; Anderson, M J; Denison, M S; Hinton, D E; Tullis, K; Kennedy, I M; Jones, A D; Chang, D P; Yang, G; Kelly, P



Dioxinlike properties of a trichloroethylene combustion-generated aerosol.  


Conventional chemical analyses of incineration by-products identify compounds of known toxicity but often fail to indicate the presence of other chemicals that may pose health risks. In a previous report, extracts from soot aerosols formed during incomplete combustion of trichloroethylene (TCE) and pyrolysis of plastics exhibited a dioxinlike response when subjected to a keratinocyte assay. To verify this dioxinlike effect, the complete extract, its polar and nonpolar fractions, some containing primarily halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, were evaluated for toxicity using an embryo assay, for antiestrogenicity using primary liver cell cultures, and for the ability to transform the aryl hydrocarbon receptor into its DNA binding form using liver cytosol in a gel retardation assay. Each of these assays detect dioxinlike effects. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos and primary liver cell cultures of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to concentrations of extract ranging from 0.05 to 45 micrograms/l. Cardiotoxicity with pericardial, yolk sac, and adjacent peritoneal edema occurred after exposure of embryos to concentrations of 7 micrograms/l or greater. These same exposure levels were associated with abnormal embryo development and, at the higher concentrations, death. Some of the fractions were toxic but none was as toxic as the whole extract. In liver cells, total cellular protein and cellular lactate dehydrogenase activity were not altered by in vitro exposure to whole extract (0.05-25 micrograms/l). However, induction of cytochrome P4501A1 protein and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity occurred. In the presence of whole extract, estradiol-dependent vitellogenin synthesis was reduced. Of the fractions, only fraction 1 (nonpolar) showed a similar trend, although vitellogenin synthesis inhibition was not significant. The soot extract and fractions bound to the Ah receptor and showed a significantly positive result in the gel retardation/DNA binding test. Chemical analyses using GC-MS with detection limits for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran in the picomole range did not show presence of these compounds. Our results indicate that other chemicals associated with TCE combustion and not originally targeted for analysis may also pose health risks through dioxinlike mechanisms. PMID:8841759

Villalobos, S A; Anderson, M J; Denison, M S; Hinton, D E; Tullis, K; Kennedy, I M; Jones, A D; Chang, D P; Yang, G; Kelly, P



Trichloroethylene effects on gene expression during cardiac development  

SciTech Connect

Background: Halogenated hydrocarbon exposure is associated with changes in gene expression in adult and embryonic tissue. The present study was undertaken to identify differentially expressed mRNA transcripts in embryonic hearts from Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE) or potential bio-transformation products of TCE, Dichloroethylene (DCE) and Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA). Methods: cDNA subtractive hybridization was used to selectively amplify expressed mRNA in either control or day 11 embryonic rat hearts exposed to one of these halogenated hydrocarbons from day 0 to 11. The doses used were 1100 and 110 ppm (8300 and 830 mu M) TCE, 110 and 11 ppm (1100 and 110 mu M) DCE, 27.3 and 2.75 mg/ml (100 and 10 mM) TCAA. Control animals were given distilled drinking water throughout the period of experiments. Results: Sequencing of over 100 clones derived from halogenated hydrocarbon exposed groups=resulted in identification of numerous differentially regulate gene sequences. Up-regulated transcripts identified include genes associated with stress response (Hsp 70) and homeostasis (several ribosomal proteins). Down-regulated transcripts include extracellular matrix components (GPI-p137 and vimentin) and Ca2 + responsive proteins (Serca-2 Ca2+-ATPase and beta-catenin). Two possible markers for fetal TCE exposure were identified: Serca-2 and GPI-p137, a GPI-linked protein of unknown function. Both markers show a dose-related decrease in mRNA transcript levels associated with fetal exposure to TCE. Differential regulation of expression of both markers by TCE was confirmed by dot blot analysis and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Levels of exposure between 100 and 250 ppb (0.76 and 1.9 mu M) TCE are sufficient to decrease expression of both the Ca2+-AT Pase and GPI-p137. Conclusion: Sequences down-regulated with TCE exposure appear to be those associated with cellular=housekeeping, cell adhesion and developmental processes, while TCE=exposure up-regulates expression of numerous stress response and homeostatic genes. Two potentially useful marker genes show a correlation between increasing levels of maternal TCE exposure and a decrease in marker transcript levels expressed at E11 in fetal rat heart tissue.

Collier, John Michael; Selmin, Ornella; Johnson, Paula D.; Runyan, Raymond B.



Behavioral effects of subchronic inhalation of toluene in adult rats.  


Whereas the acute neurobehavioral effects of toluene are robust and well characterized, evidence for persistent effects of repeated exposure to this industrial solvent is less compelling. The present experiment sought to determine whether subchronic inhalation of toluene caused persistent behavioral changes in rats. Adult male Long-Evans rats inhaled toluene vapor (0, 10, 100, or 1000 ppm) for 6h/day, 5 days/week for 13 weeks and were evaluated on a series of behavioral tests beginning 3 days after the end of exposure. Toluene delayed appetitively-motivated acquisition of a lever-press response, but did not affect motor activity, anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze, trace fear conditioning, acquisition of an appetitively-motivated visual discrimination, or performance of a visual signal detection task. Challenges with acute inhalation of toluene vapor (1200-2400 ppm for 1 h) and injections of quinpirole (0.01-0.03 mg/kg) and raclopride (0.03-0.10 mg/kg) revealed no toluene-induced latent impairments in visual signal detection. These results are consistent with a pattern of subtle and inconsistent long-term effects of daily exposure to toluene vapor, in contrast to robust and reliable effects of acute inhalation of the solvent. PMID:20580818

Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Gilbert, Mary E; Bushnell, Philip J



Somatosensory evoked potentials in workers exposed to toluene and styrene.  

PubMed Central

Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were used to evaluate possible subclinical impairment of the nervous system due to occupational exposure to toluene and styrene. A group of 36 rotogravure printers with severe exposure to toluene, 20 workers with severe exposure to styrene in a glass laminate manufacturing plant, and a comparison group of healthy subjects were studied. The severity of exposure was documented by measurements of toluene and styrene concentrations in breathing zone air, by hippuric acid concentration in urine in the group exposed to toluene, and by urinary mandelic acid concentration in the group exposed to styrene. Somatosensory evoked potentials were measured by stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist and the tibial nerve at the ankle. Peripheral conduction velocities (CVs) in both extremities and central conduction time (CCT) after tibial nerve stimulation were significantly decreased in both exposed groups. Significantly prolonged latencies of peripheral and cortical SEPs to median nerve stimulation as well as cortical SEPs to tibial nerve stimulation were found in workers exposed to styrene. Some abnormalities in SEPs at peripheral or spinal and cortical levels were found in eight workers exposed to toluene and six workers exposed to styrene. Of these, in three workers exposed to toluene and two to styrene increased CCT and delayed latencies of cortical responses at normal conduction values in the periphery were found. A trend for increased frequency of abnormal SEPs with duration of exposure to toluene and styrene and alcohol abuse was found. Abnormalities in SEPs in the exposed groups are most probably of multifactorial origin. Central SEP abnormalities in both exposed groups could indicate early signs of subclinical dysfunction at spinal and cortical levels and could be due to toluene or styrene exposure probably potentiated by alcohol consumption in the group exposed to toluene. PMID:8329318

St?tkárová, I; Urban, P; Procházka, B; Lukás, E



Reductive dehalogenation of chlorinated benzenes and toluenes under methanogenic conditions  

SciTech Connect

The anaerobic metabolism of chlorinated benzenes and toluenes was evaluated in soil slurry microcosms under methanogenic conditions. A mixture of hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) in soil slurries was biotransformed through sequential reductive dechlorination to chlorobenzene (CB). The metabolic pathway for hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene decay proceeded via 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (TTCB) [yields] 1,2,3-TCB + 1,2,4-TCB [yields] 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB) + 1,4-DCB [yields] CB. In a mineral salts medium, the CB-adapted soil microorganisms dehalogenated individual 1,2,4,5-TTCB, 1,2,3,4-TTCB, 1,2,3-TCB, and 1,2,4-TCB but not 1,2,3,5-TTCB or 1,3,5-TCB. Similarly, a mixture of 2,3,6-trichlorotoluene (TCT), 2,5-dichlorotoluene (DCT), and 3,4-DCT was reductively dechlorinated in soil slurries to predominantly toluene and small amounts of 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorotoluene (CT). Toluene was further degraded. When tested individually in a mineral salts medium, the CT-adapted soil microorganisms dechlorinated several TCT and DCT isomers. Key metabolic routes for TCTs followed: 2,3,5-TCT [yields] 2,5-DCT [yields] 2-CT [yields] toluene; 2,4,5-TCT [yields] 2,5-DCT + 3,4-DCT [yields] 3-CT + 4-CT [yields] toluene. Among DCTs tested, 2,4-DCT and 3,4-DCT were dechlorinated via the removal of o- and m-chlorine, respectively, to 4-CT and subsequently to toluene via p-chlorine removal. Likewise, 2,5-DCT was dechlorinated via 2-CT to toluene. Evidently, microorganisms capable of removing o-, m-, and p-chlorines are present in the soil system, as reflected by the dechlorination of different isomers of CBs and CTs to CB and toluene, respectively. These findings help clarify the metabolic fate of chlorinated benzenes and toluenes in anaerobic environments.

Ramanand, K.; Balba, M.T. (TreaTek-CRA Company, Grand Island, NY (United States)); Duffy, J. (Occidental Chemical Corporation, Grand Island, NY (United States))




EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial chemical and an environmental contaminant. TCE and its metabolites may be carcinogenic and affect human health. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models that differ in compartmentalization are developed for TCE metabo...


Effect of Ethanol, Acetate, and Phenol on Toluene Degradation Activity and todlux  

E-print Network

with other cosubstrates, its metabolic flux (defined as the toluene utilization rate per cell) decreasedEffect of Ethanol, Acetate, and Phenol on Toluene Degradation Activity and tod­lux Expression occurring cosubstrates on toluene degrada- tion activity. Although toluene was simultaneously utilized

Alvarez, Pedro J.


Conducting Polymer Electrochemically Generated Via Anodic Oxidation of Toluene.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As opposed to the much harsher conditions demanded in homogeneous solutions, a conducting polymer of toluene is readily formed by anodic oxidation of acetonitrile solutions containing the precursor. The fabrication of new conductive polymers is of interes...

D. B. Parry, J. M. Harris, K. Ashley, S. Pons



Hepatotoxicity in Rats Treated with Dimethylformamide or Toluene or Both  

PubMed Central

The effects of toluene in dimethylformamide (DMF)-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated with respect to the induction of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) and the activities of related enzymes. The rats were treated intraperitoneally with the organic solvents in olive oil (Single treatment groups: 450 [D1], 900 [D2], 1,800 [D3] mg DMF, and 346 mg toluene [T] per kg of body weight; Combined treatment groups: D1+T, D2+T, and D3+T) once a day for three days, while the control group received just the olive oil. Each group consisted of 4 rats. The activities of the xenobiotic metabolic enzymes and the hepatic morphology were assessed. The immunoblots indicated that the expression of CYP2E1 was considerably enhanced depending on the dosage of DMF and the CYP2E1 blot densities were significantly increased after treatment with both DMF and toluene, compared to treatment with DMF alone. The activities of glutathione- S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase were either decreased or remained unaltered after treatment with DMF and toluene, whereas the lipid peroxide levels were increased with increasing dosage of DMF and toluene. The liver tissue in the D3 group (1,800 mg/kg of DMF) showed signs of microvacuolation in the central vein region and a large necrotic zone around the central vein, in rats treated with both DMF (1,800 mg/kg) and toluene (D3T). These results suggest that the expression of CYP2E1 is induced by DMF and enhanced by toluene. These changes may have facilitated the accelerated formation of Nmethylformamide (NMF) from toluene, and the generated NMF may directly induce liver damage. PMID:24386519

Chung, Yong Hyun



Toluene and styrene removal from air in biofilters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two identical sized laboratory-scale biofilters, filled with the same type of packing material, consisting of a mixture of peat and glass beads in a 4:1 volume ratio, are investigated for the purification of toluene and styrene-containing off-gas streams. One of the biofilters was inoculated with a toluene-degrading strain of Acinetobacter sp. NCIMB 9689, and the other with a styrene-degrading strain

Mario Zilli; Emilio Palazzi; Luciane Sene; Attilio Converti; Marco Del Borghi



Metabolism of benzene, toluene, and xylene hydrocarbons in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enrichment cultures obtained from soil exposed to benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) mineralized benzene and toluene but cometabolized only xylene isomers, forming polymeric residues. This observation prompted the authors to investigate the metabolism of ¹⁴C-labeled BTX hydrocarbons in soil, either individually or as mixtures. BTX-supplemented soil was incubated aerobically for up to 4 weeks in a sealed system that automatically

C.-W. TSAO; H.-G. SONG; R. Bartha



Secondary organic aerosol formation from m -xylene, toluene, and benzene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the photooxidation of m-xylene, toluene, and benzene is in- vestigated in the Caltech environmental chambers. Exper- iments are performed under two limiting NOx conditions; under high-NOx conditions the peroxy radicals (RO2) react only with NO, while under low-NOx conditions they react only with HO2. For all three aromatics studied (m-xylene, toluene, and benzene), the

N. L. Ng; J. H. Kroll; A. W. H. Chan; P. S. Chhabra; R. C. Flagan; J. H. Seinfeld



Transalkylation of toluene with trimethylbenzenes over large-pore zeolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zeolites Beta, mordenite and Y were evaluated for their activity in transalkylation reaction of toluene with trimethylbenzenes. Zeolite Beta was found to possess the highest conversion in toluene–trimethylbenzene transalkylation as well as a higher stability in time-on-stream compared with mordenite and zeolite Y. The effect of Si\\/Al ratio in zeolite Beta was evaluated and it was found that transalkylation activity

Andrea Krej?í; Sulaiman Al-Khattaf; Muhammad Ashraf Ali; Martina Bejblová; Ji?í ?ejka



Toluene Diffusion and Reaction in Unsaturated Pseudomonas putida Biofilms  

PubMed Central

Biofilms are frequently studied in the context of submerged or aquatic systems. However, much less is known about biofilms in unsaturated systems, despite their importance to such processes as food spoilage, terrestrial nutrient cycling, and biodegradation of environmental pollutants in soils. Using modeling and experimentation, we have described the biodegradation of toluene in unsaturated media by bacterial biofilms as a function of matric water potential, a dominant variable in unsaturated systems. We experimentally determined diffusion and kinetic parameters for Pseudomonas putida biofilms, then predicted biodegradation rates over a range of matric water potentials. For validation, we measured the rate of toluene depletion by intact biofilms and found the results to reasonably follow the model predictions. The diffusion coefficient for toluene through unsaturated P. putida biofilm averaged 1.3 × 10?7 cm2/s, which is approximately two orders of magnitude lower than toluene diffusivity in water. Our studies show that, at the scale of the microbial biofilm, the diffusion of toluene to biodegrading bacteria can limit the overall rate of biological toluene depletion in unsaturated systems. PMID:18642338

Holden, Patricia A.; Hunt, James R.; Firestone, Mary K.



Toluene diffusion and reaction in unsaturated Pseudomonas putida biofilms  

SciTech Connect

Biofilms are frequently studied in the context of submerged or aquatic systems. However, much less is known about biofilms in unsaturated systems, despite their importance to such processes as food spoilage, terrestrial nutrient cycling, and biodegradation of environmental pollutants in soils. Using modeling and experimentation, the authors have described the biodegradation of toluene in unsaturated media by bacterial biofilms as a function of matric water potential, a dominant variable in unsaturated systems. They experimentally determined diffusion and kinetic parameters for Pseudomonas putida biofilms, then predicted biodegradation rates over a range of matric water potentials. For validation, the authors measured the rate of toluene depletion by intact biofilms and found the results to reasonably follow the model predictions. The diffusion coefficient for toluene through unsaturated P. putida biofilm averaged 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm{sup 2}/s, which is approximately two orders of magnitude lower than toluene diffusivity in water. Their studies show that, at the scale of the microbial biofilm, the diffusion of toluene to biodegrading bacteria can limit the overall rate of biological toluene depletion in unsaturated systems.

Holden, P.A.; Hunt, J.R.; Firestone, M.K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)



A new bacterial biosensor for trichloroethylene detection based on a three-dimensional carbon nanotubes bioarchitecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichloroethylene (TCE), a suspected human carcinogen, is one of the most common volatile groundwater contaminants. Many different\\u000a methodologies have already been developed for the determination of TCE and its degradation products in water, but most of\\u000a them are costly, time-consuming and require well-trained operators. In this work, a fast, sensitive and miniaturised whole\\u000a cell conductometric biosensor was developed for the

Mouna Hnaien; Florence Lagarde; Joan Bausells; Abdelhamid Errachid; Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault



Phylogenetic analysis of trichloroethylene-degrading bacteria newly isolated from soil polluted with this contaminant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five methanotrophs (strains 18-2, EB1, KSWIII, KSPIII and KSPIII) and three aromatic compound oxidizers (strains KP22, KP24 and KT1) were isolated from the natural field polluted with trichloroethylene (TCE). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence suggested that all of the isolates belonged to the class Proteobacteria. Two of the methanotrophic isolates, strains 18-2 and EB1, were closely related

Satoshi Hanada; Toru Shigematsu; Katsutoshi Shibuya; Masahiro Eguchi; Takeshi Hasegawa; Fusako Suda; Yoichi Kamagata; Takahiro Kanagawa; Ryuichiro Kurane



Channel flow and trichloroethylene treatment in a partly iron-filled fracture: Experimental and model results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical developments have now made it possible to emplace granular zero-valent iron (Fe0) in fractured media to create a Fe0 fracture reactive barrier (Fe0 FRB) for the treatment of contaminated groundwater. To evaluate this concept, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated water was flushed through a single uniform fracture created between two sandstone blocks. This fracture

Zuansi Cai; Corrine Merly; Neil R. Thomson; Ryan D. Wilson; David N. Lerner



Biodegradation of Trichloroethylene and Its Anaerobic Daughter Products in Freshwater Wetland Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wide range of redox conditions and diversity of microbial populations in organic-rich wetland sediments could enhance biodegradation of chlorinated solvents. To evaluate potential biodegradation rates of trichloroethylene (TCE) and its anaerobic daughter products (cis-1,2-dichloroethylene; trans-1,2-dichloroethylene; and vinyl chloride), laboratory microcosms were prepared under methanogenic, sulfate-reducing, and aerobic conditions using sediment and groundwater from a freshwater wetland that is a

Michelle M. Lorah; Lisa D. Olsen; Douglas G. Capone; Joel E. Baker



Degradation of trichloroethylene by photocatalysis in an internally circulating slurry bubble column reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of initial trichloroethylene (TCE) concentration, recirculating liquid flow rate and gas velocity on photodegradation of TCE have been determined in an internally circulating slurry bubble column reactor (0.15m-ID×0.85m-high). Titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder was employed as a photocatalyst and the optimum loading of TiO2 in the present system is found to be approximately 0.2wt%. The stripping fraction of TCE

JinHee Jeon; SangDone Kim; TakHyoung Lim; DongHyun Lee



Toxicokinetics of toluene and urinary excretion of hippuric acid after human exposure to 2H8-toluene.  

PubMed Central

Nine male volunteers were exposed to 2H8-toluene (200 mg/m3 for two hours during a workload of 50 W) via inspiratory air with the aid of a breathing valve and mouthpiece. Labelled toluene was used to differentiate between hippuric acid originating from exposure to toluene and hippuric acid normally excreted in urine. The total uptake of toluene was 2.2 (standard deviation (SD) 0.2) mmol, or 50% of the amount inhaled. Four hours after the end of exposure 1.4 (SD 0.3) mmol or 65% of the total uptake had been excreted in urine as 2H-hippuric acid and 20 hours after the end of exposure the cumulative excretion of 2H-hippuric acid was 1.8 (SD 0.3) mmol, or 78% of the total uptake. By contrast the cumulative excretion of labelled plus unlabelled hippuric acid exceeded the total uptake of toluene already after four hours. The excretion rate of 2H-hippuric acid was highest, about 5 mumol/min, during exposure and the SD between the subjects was low. The background concentrations of unlabelled hippuric acid in urine were high, however, and there were large differences between subjects. These findings confirm earlier indications that for low exposure, urinary hippuric acid concentration cannot be used for biological monitoring of exposure to toluene. PMID:8431392

Lof, A; Wigaeus Hjelm, E; Colmsjo, A; Lundmark, B O; Norstrom, A; Sato, A



Diffusion of trichloroethylene through the threaded joints of PVC (polyvinylchloride) pipe  

SciTech Connect

The data engineers and scientists use to determine if the groundwater supply is contaminated are derived from analysis of samples taken largely from monitoring wells. For these data to be reliable several factors must be considered. One factor is the integrity of the monitoring well. In this project, emphasis has been placed on the potential impact on water quality caused by diffusion across the threaded joints of PVC pipe. In this study, the diffusion of trichloroethylene across several common types of threaded joints (i.e., square flush, modified ACME, modified ACME stub, and ACME) has been measured. Samples were obtained from the water inside the pipe sections and analyzed for trichloroethylene by gas chromatography. Breakthrough occurs within days of the samples being placed in the baths. The softened PVC joints of the pipes in the pure trichloroethylene split before the first sample interval of 1.5 weeks. The data show great variability in casting joints from the same manufacturer, and indicate a need for increased precision in the manufacturing of the PVC pipe joints. A one-dimensional diffusion model is used to determine an equivalent gap size through which the diffusion occurs. Flow rates through the threaded joints are calculated by using the equivalent gap width and a formula for flow through a rectangular duct running full. Comparison of the results of the gap size calculations and of the flow rates is presented. 20 refs., 13 figs. 11 tabs.

Jerome, K.M. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering)



Asymmetric orientation of toluene molecules at oil-silica interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interfacial structure of heptane and toluene at oil-silica interfaces has previously been studied by sum frequency generation [Z. Yang et al., J. Phys. Chem. C. 113, 20355 (2009)]. It was found that the toluene molecule is almost perpendicular to the silica surface with a tilt angle of about 25°. Here, we have investigated the structural properties of toluene and heptane at oil-silica interfaces using molecular dynamics simulations for two different surfaces: the oxygen-bridging (hydrophobic) and hydroxyl-terminated (hydrophilic) surfaces of quartz (silica). Based on the density profile, it was found that both heptane and toluene oscillate on silica surfaces, with heptane showing more oscillation peaks. Furthermore, the toluene molecules of the first layer were found to have an asymmetric distribution of orientations, with more CH3 groups pointed away from the silica surface than towards the silica surface. These findings are generally consistent with previous experiments, and reveal enhanced molecular structures of liquids at oil-silica interfaces.

Ledyastuti, Mia; Liang, Yunfeng; Kunieda, Makoto; Matsuoka, Toshifumi



Catalytic Decomposition of Toluene Using Various Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decomposition of toluene was experimentally investigated with various dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactors, such as wire-cylinder, wire-plate and plate-to-plate, combined with multi-metal oxides catalyst (Mn-Ni-Co-Cu-Ox/Al2O3) loaded on the cordierite honeycomb and nickel foam, respectively. The effects of some factors including the residence time, reactor configuration and catalyst, upon the toluene destruction were studied. Results revealed that the use of in-plasma catalysis was more helpful to enhancing the DRE (destruction and removal efficiency) and reducing the O3 formation than that of either post-plasma catalysis or plasma alone. It was demonstrated that the wire-plate reactor was favorable for the oxidation reaction of toluene and the nickel foam-supported catalysts exhibited good activity.

Ye, Daiqi; Huang, Haibao; Chen, Weili; Zeng, Ronghui



Mass Spectrometry Study of OH-initiated Photooxidation of Toluene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of products formed from photooxidation of the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene was investigated. The OH-initiated photooxidation experiments were conducted by irradiating toluene/CH3ONO/NO/air mixtures in a smog chamber, the gaseous products were detected under the supersonic beam conditions by utilizing vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometer using synchrotron radiation in real-time. And an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used to provide on-line measurements of the individual secondary organic aerosol particle resulting from irradiating toluene. The experimental results demonstrated that there were some differences between the gaseous products and that of particle-phase, the products of glyoxal, 2-hydroxyl-3-oxo-butanal, nitrotoluene, and methyl-nitrophenol only existed in the particle-phase. However, furane, methylglyoxal, 2-methylfurane, benzaldehyde, cresol, and benzoic acid were the predominant photooxidation products in both the gas phase and particle phase.

Huang, Ming-qiang; Zhang, Wei-jun; Wang, Zhen-ya; Fang, Li; Kong, Rui-hong; Shan, Xiao-bin; Liu, Fu-yi; Sheng, Liu-si



Selective toluene disproportionation over pore size controlled MFI zeolite  

SciTech Connect

Selective disproportionate of toluene to p-xylene was studied over modified MFI aluminosilicate. The relationship between extent of silica deposition and para selectivity was established. The effect of reaction parameters such as temperature and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) on para selectivity was considered. Kinetics of reaction in the temperature range 723--773 K was carried out. The estimated activation energy value is lower than reported for toluene disproportionation in the literature. This has been explained on the basis of enhanced intracrystalline diffusion in the modified zeolite.

Das, J.; Bhat, Y.S.; Halgeri, A.B. (Indian Petrochemicals Corp. Ltd., Gujarat (India). Research Centre)



Evaluation of the in-situ aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated ethenes by toluene-utilizing microorganisms  

E-print Network

and the production of o-cresol as an intermediate oxidation product indicated the presence of toluene by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: Aerobic cometabolism; Single-well push­pull tests; Toluene; ortho-cresol; Isobutene

Semprini, Lewis



EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory study was carried out to investigate the formation of polyketones in secondary organic aerosol from photooxidation of the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene, a major constituent of automobile exhaust. The laboratory experiments consisted of irradiating toluene/propylene...


Toxicological evaluation of inhalation exposure to benzene and toluene in a raptorial bird, the American kestrel, falco sparverius.  

E-print Network

??Benzene and toluene are representative volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released during production, storage, and transportation associated with the oil and gas industry. Benzene and toluene… (more)

Olsgard, Mandy Lee



Chloroform and trichloroethylene uptake from water into human skin in vitro: Kinetics and risk implications  

SciTech Connect

A model recently proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) predicts that short-term dermal uptakes of organic environmental water contaminants are proportional to the square root of exposure time. The model appears to underestimate dermal uptake, based on very limited in vivo uptake data obtained primarily using human subjects. To further assess this model, we examined in vitro dermal uptake kinetics for aqueous organic chemicals using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Specifically, we examined the kinetics of in vitro dermal uptake of {sup 14}C-labeled chloroform and trichloroethylene from dilute (5-ppb) aqueous solutions using full-thickness human cadaver skin exposed for ({le}1 hr).

Bogen, K.T.; Keating, G.A.; Vogel, J.S.



Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds  


A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate therethrough to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex.

Dinh, Tuan V. (Knoxville, TN)




EPA Science Inventory

Little is known regarding the effects of toluene and other volatile organic compounds on autonomic processes. Such studies should be performed in unrestrained and undisturbed animals to avoid the effects of handling stress on processes regulated by the autonomic nervous system. T...


Metabolism of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene Hydrocarbons in Soil†  

PubMed Central

Enrichment cultures obtained from soil exposed to benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) mineralized benzene and toluene but cometabolized only xylene isomers, forming polymeric residues. This observation prompted us to investigate the metabolism of 14C-labeled BTX hydrocarbons in soil, either individually or as mixtures. BTX-supplemented soil was incubated aerobically for up to 4 weeks in a sealed system that automatically replenished any O2 consumed. The decrease in solvent vapors and the production of 14CO2 were monitored. At the conclusion of each experiment, 14C distribution in solvent-extractable polymers, biomass, and humic material was determined, obtaining 14C mass balances of 85 to 98%. BTX compounds were extensively mineralized in soil, regardless of whether they were presented singly or in combinations. No evidence was obtained for the formation of solvent-extractable polymers from xylenes in soil, but 14C distribution in biomass (5 to 10%) and humus (12 to 32%) was unusual for all BTX compounds and especially for toluene and the xylenes. The results suggest that catechol intermediates of BTX degradation are preferentially polymerized into the soil humus and that the methyl substituents of the catechols derived from toluene and especially from xylenes enhance this incorporation. In contrast to inhibitory residues formed from xylene cometabolism in culture, the humus-incorporated xylene residues showed no significant toxicity in the Microtox assay. PMID:9835584

Tsao, C.-W.; Song, H.-G.; Bartha, R.




EPA Science Inventory

Toluene administered by inhalation at 400 ppm to CD-1 mice from Days 6 to 16 of gestation was teratogenic but not fetotoxic resulting in a significant shift in the fetal rib profile. At the lower concentration of 200 ppm, there was an increase in dilated renal pelves which might ...


Continuous Operation of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactors Treating Toluene Vapors  

E-print Network DOI: 10.1002/bit.20619 Abstract: Continuous operation of a new bioreactor for air pollution control Periodicals, Inc. Keywords: VOC control; biofilter; air pollution control; toluene; biologically activated effectiveness for the control of odors and volatile organic compounds, especially in high flow rates



EPA Science Inventory

TOLUENE DOSE-EFFECT META ANALYSES AND IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTS Benignus, V.A., Research Psychologist, ORD, NHEERL, Human Studies Division, 919-966-6242, Boyes, W.K., Supervisory Health Scientist, ORD, NHEERL, Neurotoxicology Division 919-541-...



EPA Science Inventory

Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) was used to determine phospholipid profiles for five reference pseudomonad strains harboring distinct toluene catabolic pathways: Pseudomonas putida mt-2, Pseudomonas putida F1, Burkholderia cepacia G4, B...


Identification of toluene degraders in a methanogenic enrichment culture.  


Methanogenic biodegradation involves the cooperative metabolism of syntrophic bacteria that catalyse the initial attack and subsequent degradation of hydrocarbons, and methanogens that convert intermediates such as hydrogen and carbon dioxide, formate, and/or acetate to methane. The identity of syntrophic microbes and the nature of their interactions with other syntrophs and methanogens are not well understood. Furthermore, it is difficult to isolate the organisms responsible for the initial activation and subsequent degradation of hydrocarbon substrates under methanogenic conditions due to the thermodynamic relationships that exist among microbes in methanogenic communities. We used time-resolved RNA stable isotope probing and RT-qPCR to identify the organisms involved in the initial attack on toluene and subsequent degradation reactions in a highly enriched toluene-degrading methanogenic culture. Our results reveal the importance of a Desulfosporosinus sp. in anaerobic toluene activation in the culture. Other organisms that appear to play roles in toluene degradation include Syntrophaceae, Desulfovibrionales and Chloroflexi. The high bacterial diversity observed in this culture and the extensive labelling of different phylogenetic groups over the course of the stable isotope probing experiment highlight the complexity of the relationships that exist in methanogenic ecosystems. PMID:24910080

Fowler, S Jane; Gutierrez-Zamora, Maria-Luisa; Manefield, Mike; Gieg, Lisa M



Evaluation of a Polyvinyl Toluene Neutron Counter Array  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to simulate the performance of a neutron detector array for empirical configuration optimization and preliminary algorithm evaluation. Utilizing a compact array of borated Polyvinyl Toluene light pipes and Photomultiplier Tubes, pulse shape analysis, standard spectral histogramming, and multiplicity counting can enable neutron measurements for multiple applications. Results demonstrate that analysis with Monte Carlo N-Particle

Robert Hayes



Occupational chronic exposure to organic solvents XII. O-cresol excretion after toluene exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five printing workers were investigated according to their external and internal exposure to toluene. The concentration of toluene in the air of the working place was determined using stationary air sampling and gas chromatography. To determine the levels of toluene in blood as well as the concentrations of o-cresol, hippuric acid, and phenol in urine, biological specimens were collected at

J. Angerer



Effects of Toluene on Microbially-Mediated Processes Involved in the Soil Nitrogen Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of toluene on indigenous microbial populations involved in the soil nitrogen cycle were examined. Ammonia oxidation potential (AOP) and nitrite oxidation potential (NOP) were both reduced after incubation with high toluene concentrations for 45 days, with the former activity showing greater sensitivity. KCl-extractable ammonium (NH 4 + ext) levels increased dramatically in soil exposed to high toluene levels,

M. E. Fuller; K. M. Scow



Mortality and cancer incidence of aircraft maintenance workers exposed to trichloroethylene and other organic solvents and chemicals: extended follow up  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To extend the follow up of a cohort of 14,457 aircraft maintenance workers to the end of 1990 to evaluate cancer risks from potential exposure to trichloroethylene and other chemicals. METHODS: The cohort comprised civilians employed for at least one year between 1952 and 1956, of whom 5727 had died by 31 December 1990. Analyses compared the mortality of

A. Blair; P. Hartge; P. A. Stewart; M. McAdams; J. Lubin



Key Issues in the Modes of Action and Effects of Trichloroethylene Metabolites for Liver and Kidney Tumorigenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure has been associated with increased risk of liver and kidney can- cer in both laboratory animal and epidemiologic studies. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2001 draft TCE risk assessment concluded that it is difficult to determine which TCE metabolites may be responsible for these effects, the key events involved in their modes of action (MOAs), and the

Jane C. Caldwell; Nagalakshmi Keshava



Nonadditive Developmental Toxicity in Mixtures of Trichloroethylene, Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate, and Heptachlor in a 5 × 5 × 5 Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonadditive Developmental Toxicity in Mixtures of Trichloroethylene, Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate, and Heptachlor in a 5 × 5 × 5 Design. Narotsky, M. G., Weller, E. A., Chinchilli V. M., and Kavlock, R. J. (1995). Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 27, 203-216.In order to identify nonadditive effects on development, three compounds were combined using five dosages of each agent (a 5 × 5 ×

Michael G. Narotsky; Edie A. Weller; Vernon M. Chinchilli; Robert J. Kavlock



Degradation of soil-sorbed trichloroethylene by stabilized zero valent iron nanoparticles: Effects of sorption, surfactants, and natural organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zero valent iron (ZVI) nanoparticles have been studied extensively for degradation of chlorinated solvents in the aqueous phase, and have been tested for in-situ remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. However, little is known about its effectiveness for degrading soil-sorbed contaminants. This work studied reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) sorbed in two model soils (a potting soil and Smith Farm

Man Zhang; Feng He; Dongye Zhao; Xiaodi Hao




EPA Science Inventory

The present experiments were undertaken in order to characterize the hearing loss associated with 1,1,2-trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure. dult male LE rats were exposed to TCE via inhalation (whole body) for 6hr/day for 5 days. he concentration-effect function (0-4000 ppm) was de...


Evaluation of the Potential Impact of Inhibition of Trichloroethylene Metabolism in the Liver on Extra-Hepatic Toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

The interaction between trichloroethylene (TCE) and chloroform (CHCI3) is less than additive, with co-exposure to TCE and CHCl3 resulting in less hepatic and renal toxicity than observed with CHCl3 alone. Vapor uptake data demonstrate that co-exposure to CHCl3 decreases the rate ...


Catalytic dehydrohalogenation and hydrogenation using H{sub 2} and palladium as a method for the removal of tetrachloroethylene from water  

SciTech Connect

The reduction of tetrachloroethylene to ethane in water by hydrogen and supported palladium was rapid at room temperature even at the low hydrogen partial pressure of 0.1 atm. The rate constant for reaction of PCE with 0.05g of 1% Pd on polyethylenimine coated beads was 0.034min{sup -1}. Ethane and ethene production were concomitant with ethane accounting for 65% of the initial PCE and ethene about 2%. When the support was alumina pellets, granular carbon, or activated carbon powder, PCE disappeared within 10 minutes and rate data could not obtained. Ethane was produced in these systems with yields of 65-80% while ethene was a reactive intermediate whose maximum amount was about 5% of the initial PCE. Particle size was important when using a carbon support. If hydrogen was added after PCE sorption onto the activated carbon powder, the amount of ethane formed was the same as when hydrogen was added initially. However, when hydrogen was added after PCE sorption onto granular carbon, less than 10% of the PCE could be accounted for as ethane.

Schreier, C.G.; Reinhard, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)



A new condensed toluene mechanism for Carbon Bond: CB05-TU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toluene is ubiquitous in urban atmospheres and is a precursor to tropospheric ozone and aerosol (smog). An important characteristic of toluene chemistry is the tendency of some degradation products (e.g., cresols and methyl-catechols) to form organic nitro and nitrate compounds that sequester NOx (NO and NO 2) from active participation in smog formation. Explaining the NOx sinks in toluene degradation has made mechanism development more difficult for toluene than for many other organic compounds. Another challenge for toluene is explaining sources of radicals early in the degradation process. This paper describes the development of a new condensed toluene mechanism consisting of 26 reactions, and evaluates the performance of CB05 with this new toluene scheme (Toluene Update, TU) against 38 chamber experiments at 7 different environmental chambers, and provides recommendations for future developments. CB05 with the current toluene mechanism (CB05-Base) under-predicted the maximum O 3 and O 3 production rate for many of these toluene-NOx chamber experiments, especially under low-NOx conditions ([NOx] t=0 < 100 ppb). CB05 with the new toluene mechanism (CB05-TU) includes changes to the yields and reactions of cresols and ring-opening products, and showed better performance than CB05-Base in predicting the maximum O 3, O 3 formation rate, NOx removal rate and cresol concentration. Additional environmental chamber simulations with xylene-NOx experiments showed that the TU mechanism updates tended to improve mechanism performance for xylene.

Whitten, Gary Z.; Heo, Gookyoung; Kimura, Yosuke; McDonald-Buller, Elena; Allen, David T.; Carter, William P. L.; Yarwood, Greg



IR-Fourier spectroscopic studies of structural changes in fullerenes C60 and C70-Toluene systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The C60-toluene and C70-toluene complexes were studied by IR-Fourier spectroscopy. The complexes were obtained by crystallization from a toluene solution at room temperature. The changes in the IR spectra caused by the deformation of toluene molecules in the complexes allowed us to study the phase transitions in the fullerene-aromatic solvent systems.

Aksenova, V. V.; Nikonova, R. M.; Lad'yanov, V. I.; Mukhgalin, V. V.; Sterkhova, I. V.



Total oxidation of toluene over calcined trimetallic hydrotalcites type catalysts.  


Two trimetallic ZnCuAl and MnCuAl hydrotalcites have been successfully synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The manganese based material was identified as a new hydrotalcite phase. Both lamellar precursors were calcined at 450 and 600 degrees C and the resulting catalysts were tested on reaction of total oxidation of toluene. The solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, N(2) adsorption and H(2) temperature-programmed reduction. It was found that ZnCuAl materials are composed of copper and zinc oxides supported on alumina; while MnCuAl ones comprise basically spinel phases, which were not completely identified. The catalytic behavior of the calcined samples showed that Mn hydrotalcite calcined at 450 degrees C exhibited the best catalytic performance that corresponds to 100% toluene conversion into CO(2) at about 300 degrees C. PMID:20047794

Palacio, Luz A; Velásquez, Juliana; Echavarría, Adriana; Faro, Arnaldo; Ribeiro, F Ramôa; Ribeiro, M Filipa



Gas phase photocatalytic removal of toluene effluents on sulfated titania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photocatalytic removal of toluene in the gas phase was carried out over UV-illuminated sulfated titania materials in a cylinder-like continuous reactor. A series of SO42?–TiO2 samples was obtained from the addition of H2SO4 on an amorphous titanium hydroxide gel synthesized according to a classical sol–gel procedure. The wide variety of materials led to varying photocatalytic behaviors depending strongly on the

Elodie Barraud; Florence Bosc; David Edwards; Nicolas Keller; Valérie Keller



Friedel–Crafts acylation of toluene catalyzed by solid superacids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzoylation of toluene (141mmol) with 2mmol of benzoic anhydride or benzoyl chloride was carried out in liquid phase over 0.5g of solid superacids of sulfated and supported metal oxides at 100°C for 3h. Yields of o-, m-, and p-methylbenzophenones in the distribution of 20–30% o-, 2–4% m-, and 70–80% p-isomers were 92, 48, 28, 27, 26, and 0% for the

Kazushi Arata; Hideo Nakamura; Miyuki Shouji



Transalkylation of toluene with trimethylbenzenes catalyzed by various AFI catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substitution of transition metals in the AlPO4-5 framework was found to afford novel heterogeneous catalysts for the transalkylation of toluene (T) with trimethylbenzenes (TMBs). The activity of MeAPO-5 catalysts follows the order of SiAPO>MgAPO>MnAPO>ZnAPO>CoAPO which can be correlated with the acid properties of catalysts. The same correlation was found for MeAPSO-5 catalysts. The strength of acid sites of the catalyst

E Dumitriu; C Guimon; V Hulea; D Lutic; I Fechete



Influence of endogenous and exogenous electron donors and trichloroethylene oxidation toxicity on trichloroethylene oxidation by methanotrophic cultures from a groundwater aquifer  

SciTech Connect

Trichloroethylene (TCE)-transforming aquifer methanotrophs were evaluated for the influence of TCE oxidation toxicity and the effect of reductant availability on TCE transformation rates during methane starvation. TCE oxidation at relatively low (6 mg liter{sup {minus}1}) TCE concentrations significantly reduced subsequent methane utilization in mixed and pure cultures tested and reduced the number of viable cells in the pure culture Methylomonas sp. strain MM2 by an order of magnitude. Perchloroethylene, tested at the same concentration, had no effect on the cultures. Neither the TCE itself nor the aqueous intermediates were responsible for the toxic effect, and it is suggested that TCE oxidation toxicity may have resulted from reactive intermediates that attacked cellular macromolecules. During starvation, all methanotrophs tested exhibited a decline in TCE transformation rates, and this decline followed exponential decay. Formate, provided as an exogenous electron donor, increased TCE transformation rates in Methylomonas sp. strain MM2, but not in mixed culture MM1 or unidentified isolate, CSC-1. Mixed culture MM2 did not transform TCE after 15 h of starvation, but mixed cultures MM1 and MM3 did. The methanotrophs in mixed cultures MM1 and MM3, and the unidentified isolate CSC-1 that was isolated from mixed culture MM1 contained lipid inclusions, whereas the methanotrophs of mixed culture MM2 and Methylomonas sp. strain MM2 did not. It is proposed that lipid storage granules serve as an endogenous source of electrons for TCE oxidation during methane starvation.

Henry, S.M.; Grbic-Galic, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA))



Suppression of Pulmonary Host Defenses and Enhanced Susceptibility to Respiratory bacterial Infection in mice Following Inhalation Exposure to Trichloroethylene and Chloroform  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous epidemiologic studies have associated episodes of increased air pollution with increased incidence of respiratory disease, including pneumonia, croup, and bronchitis. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and chloroform are among 33 hazardous air pollutants identified by the U.S. Env...


Evaluation of the Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor a (PPARa) in Mouse Liver Tumor Induction by Trichloroethylene and Metabolites  

EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent and a widespread environmental contaminant. Induction of liver cancer in mice by TCE is thought to be mediated by two metabolites, dichloroacetate (DCA) and trichloroacetate (TCA), both of which are themselves mouse liver carcinoge...


An alternate metabolic hypothesis for a binary mixture of trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride: application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling in rats.  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon tetrachloride (CC4) and trichloroethylene (TCE) are hepatotoxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and environmental contaminants. Previous physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models describe the kinetics ofindividual chemical disposition and metabolic clearance fo...


Competition by aquifer materials in a bimetallic nanoparticle/persulfate system for the treatment of trichloroethylene.  


It has been suggested in the literature that aquifer materials can compete with the target organic compounds in an activated peroxygen system. In this study, we employed a rapid treatment method using persulfate activated with bimetallic nanoparticles to investigate the competition between aquifer materials and the dissolved phase of a target organic compound. The concentration of dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) remaining after using the activated persulfate system was two- to three-fold higher in a soil slurry batch system than in an aqueous batch system. For all five aquifer materials investigated, an increase in the mass of the aquifer solids significantly decreased the degradation of TCE. A linear relationship was observed between the mass of aquifer materials and the initial TCE degradation rate, suggesting that the organic carbon and/or aquifer material constituents (e.g., carbonates and bicarbonates) compete with the oxidation of TCE. PMID:23949733

Al-Shamsi, Mohammed Ahmad; Thomson, Neil R



Mortality of aircraft maintenance workers exposed to trichloroethylene and other hydrocarbons and chemicals: extended follow up  

PubMed Central

Objective To extend follow-up of 14,455 workers from 1990 to 2000, and evaluate mortality risk from exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chemicals. Methods Multivariable Cox models were used to estimate relative risk for exposed vs. unexposed workers based on previously developed exposure surrogates. Results Among TCE exposed workers, there was no statistically significant increased risk of all-cause mortality (RR=1.04) or death from all cancers (RR=1.03). Exposure-response gradients for TCE were relatively flat and did not materially change since 1990. Statistically significant excesses were found for several chemical exposure subgroups and causes, and were generally consistent with the previous follow up. Conclusions Patterns of mortality have not changed substantially since 1990. While positive associations with several cancers were observed, and are consistent with the published literature, interpretation is limited due to the small numbers of events for specific exposures. PMID:19001957

Radican, Larry; Blair, Aaron; Stewart, Patricia; Wartenberg, Daniel



Trichloroethylene cranial neuropathy: is it really a toxic neuropathy or does it activate latent herpes virus?  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of the cranial neuropathy associated with heavy exposure to trichloroethylene (or dichloroethylene) is unknown. In severe cases there is destructive spread of the neuropathic process from the Vth cranial nerve nuclei up and down the brain stem in a manner that is difficult to explain on accepted neurotoxicological principles. However, there is a close association reported of this form of trigeminal neuropathy with reactivation of orofacial herpes simplex that suggests the possibility that the chemical, which readily gains entrance into the nervous system, may be responsible for reactivating the latent virus. This novel hypothesis is discussed in the light of current understanding of latency in herpes simplex infection in nervous tissue. PMID:2538571

Cavanagh, J B; Buxton, P H



Hydroxyl Radical Concentrations Estimated from Measurements of Trichloroethylene during the EASE\\/ACSOE Campaign at Mace Head, Ireland during July 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the EASE\\/OXICOA campaign of the NERC ACSOE programme, trichloroethylene and a wide range of man-made halocarbons and radiatively-active trace gases were monitored with high precision and high frequency throughout July 1996 at Mace Head on the Atlantic Ocean coast of Ireland. Trichloroethylene concentrations in concert with many other trace gases became elevated as regionally-polluted and photochemically-aged air masses reached

R. G. Derwent; N. Carslaw; P. G. Simmonds; M. Bassford; S. O'Doherty; D. B. Ryall; M. J. Pilling; A. C. Lewis; J. B. McQuaid



Interactions between benzene, toluene, and p-xylene (BTX) during their biodegradation  

SciTech Connect

A microbial consortium and Pseudomonas strain (PPO1) were used in studying biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and p-xylene under aerobic conditions. Studies involved removal of each compound individually as well as in mixture with the others. Both cultures exhibited a qualitatively similar behavior toward each compound. Both the pure culture and the consortium grew on benzene following Monod kinetics, on toluene following inhibitory kinetics, whereas neither could grow on p-xylene. Benzene and toluene mixtures were removed under cross-inhibitory (competitive inhibition) kinetics. In the presence of benzene and/or toluene, p-xylene was cometabolically utilized by both cultures, but was not completely mineralized. Metabolic intermediates of p-xylene accumulated in the medium and were identified. Benzene and toluene were completely mineralized. Cometabolic removal of p-xylene reduced the yields on both benzene and toluene. Except for cometabolism, kinetic constants were determined from data analysis and are compared with values published recently by other researchers.

Oh, Y.S.; Bartha, R. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Microbiology); Shareefdeen, Z.; Baltzis, B.C. (New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)



Effects of toluene on microbially-mediated processes involved in the soil nitrogen cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of toluene on indigenous microbial populations involved in the soil nitrogen cycle were examined. Ammonia oxidation potential (AOP) and nitrite oxidation potential (NOP) were both reduced after incubation with high toluene concentrations for 45 days, with the former activity showing greater sensitivity. KCl-extractable ammonium (NHsup4sup+ext) levels increased dramatically in soil exposed to high toluene levels, and arginine ammonification

M. E. Fuller; K. M. Scowl



Effect of ceria nanoparticles on soot inception and growth in toluene–oxygen–argon mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soot formation from the combustion of toluene (C6H5CH3) and of two concentrations of nano-sized-ceria-laden toluene was monitored using a shock tube to observe the effect of the organometallic additive on the formation of soot from its point of inception. Two concentrations of ceria, of chemical composition CeO1.63, were employed to examine the effect on soot production of toluene over the

B. Rotavera; A. Kumar; S. Seal; E. L. Petersen



Diversity of Five Anaerobic Toluene-Degrading Microbial Communities Investigated Using Stable Isotope Probing  

PubMed Central

Time-series DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the microbes assimilating carbon from [13C]toluene under nitrate- or sulfate-amended conditions in a range of inoculum sources, including uncontaminated and contaminated soil and wastewater treatment samples. In all, five different phylotypes were found to be responsible for toluene degradation, and these included previously identified toluene degraders as well as novel toluene-degrading microorganisms. In microcosms constructed from granular sludge and amended with nitrate, the putative toluene degraders were classified in the genus Thauera, whereas in nitrate-amended microcosms constructed from a different source (agricultural soil), microorganisms in the family Comamonadaceae (genus unclassified) were the key putative degraders. In one set of sulfate-amended microcosms (agricultural soil), the putative toluene degraders were identified as belonging to the class Clostridia (genus Desulfosporosinus), while in other sulfate-amended microcosms, the putative degraders were in the class Deltaproteobacteria, within the family Syntrophobacteraceae (digester sludge) or Desulfobulbaceae (contaminated soil) (genus unclassified for both). Partial benzylsuccinate synthase gene (bssA, the functional gene for anaerobic toluene degradation) sequences were obtained for some samples, and quantitative PCR targeting this gene, along with SIP, was further used to confirm anaerobic toluene degradation by the identified species. The study illustrates the diversity of toluene degraders across different environments and highlights the utility of ribosomal and functional gene-based SIP for linking function with identity in microbial communities. PMID:22156434

Sun, Weimin



Active site dynamics of toluene hydroxylation by cytochrome P-450  

SciTech Connect

Rat liver cytochrome P-450 hydroxylates toluene to benzyl alcohol plus o-, m-, and p-cresol. Deuterated toluenes were incubated under saturating conditions with liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats, and product yields and ratios were measured. Stepwise deuteration of the methyl leads to stepwise decreases in the alcohol/cresol ratio without changing the cresol isomer ratios. Extensive deuterium retention in the benzyl alcohols from PhCH{sub 2}D and PhCHD{sub 2} suggests there is a large intrinsic isotope effect for benzylic hydroxylation. After replacement of the third benzylic H by D, the drop in the alcohol/cresol ratio was particularly acute, suggsting that metabolic switching from D to H within the methyl group was easier than switching from the methyl to the ring. Comparison of the alcohol/cresol ratio for PhCH{sub 3} vs PhCD{sub 3} indicated a net isotope effect of 6.9 for benzylic hydroxylation. From product yield data for PhCH{sub 3} and PhCD{sub 3}, {sup D}V for benzyl alcohol formation is only 1.92, whereas {sup D}V for total product formation is 0.67 (i.e., inverse). From competitive incubations of PhCH{sub 3}/PhCD{sub 3} mixtures {sup D}(V/K) isotope effects on benzyl alcohol formation and total product formation (3.6 and 1.23, respectively) are greatly reduced, implying strong commitment to catalysis. In contrast, {sup D}(V/K) for the alcohol/cresol ratio is 6.3, indicating that the majority of the intrinsic isotope effect is expressed through metabolic switching. Overall, these data are consistent with reversible formation of a complex between toluene and the active oxygen form of cytochrome P-450, which rearranges internally and reacts to form products faster than it dissociates back to release substrate.

Hanzlik, R.P.; Kahhiing John Ling (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (United States))



Persistent reactive airway dysfunction syndrome after exposure to toluene diisocyanate.  

PubMed Central

Two police officers developed asthma like illness after a single but prolonged exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) by being in the immediate vicinity of a tank car that had overturned on a highway. One officer experienced upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms with chest tightness about 4.5 hours after initial exposure. Shortness of breath, cough, and wheezing were noted the following day. The other experienced symptoms immediately on exposure, developed shortness of breath 20 minutes later, and presented with wheezing four hours after that. Follow up examinations over seven years showed persistence of respiratory symptoms and continuation of airway hyperreactivity requiring treatment. PMID:2159772

Luo, J C; Nelsen, K G; Fischbein, A



Kinetic Modeling of Toluene Oxidation for Surrogate Fuel Applications  

SciTech Connect

New environmental issues, like the effect of combustion-generated greenhouse gases, provide motivation to better characterize oxidation of hydrocarbons. Transportation, in particular, significantly contributes to energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. Kinetic studies about the combustion of fuels under conditions typical of internal combustion engines provides important support to improve mechanism formulation and to eventually provide better computational tools that can be used to increase the engine performance. It is foreseeable that at least in the next 30 years the main transportation fuels will be either gasoline or diesel. Unfortunately, these fuels are very complex mixtures of many components. Moreover, their specifications and performance requirements significantly change the composition of these fuels: gasoline and diesel mixtures are different if coming from different refineries or they are different from winter to summer. At the same time a fuel with a well defined and reproducible composition is needed for both experimental and modeling work. In response to these issues, surrogate fuels are proposed. Surrogate fuels are defined as mixtures of a small number of hydrocarbons whose relative concentrations is adjusted in order to approximate the chemical and physical properties of a real fuel. Surrogate fuels are then very useful both for the design of reproducible experimental tests and also for the development of reliable kinetic models. The primary reference fuels (PRF) are a typical and old example of surrogate fuel: n-heptane and iso-octane mixtures are used to reproduce antiknock propensity of complex mixtures contained in a gasoline. PRFs are not able to surrogate gasoline in operating conditions different from standard ones and new surrogates have been recently proposed. Toluene is included in all of them as a species able to represent the behavior of aromatic compounds. On the other side, the toluene oxidation chemistry is not so well established and uncertainties still remain in the mechanism. This is especially true in the low temperature regime (< 850K). In these conditions, the toluene reactivity is too low to be conveniently investigated. Nonetheless, gasoline surrogates work in the engine at low temperatures, because of the presence of very reactive alkanes. The effect of these component interactions have to be taken into account. This work's aim is to present the model activity carried out by two different research groups, comparing the main pathways and results, matching data carried out in different devices both for pure toluene and mixtures. This is the starting point for a further activity to improve the two kinetic schemes.

Frassoldati, A; Mehl, M; Fietzek, R; Faravelli, T; Pitz, W J; Ranzi, E



Phenol- and Toluene-Degrading Microbial Populations from an Aquifer in Which Successful Trichloroethene Cometabolism Occurred  

PubMed Central

We characterized the bacterial populations that grew in a Moffett Field, Calif., aquifer following three sequential field tests of phenol- or toluene-driven cometabolism of trichloroethene (TCE). Reducing the toluene and phenol concentrations in most-probable-number (MPN) tubes from 50 to 5 ppm increased the population density measured for these degraders by 1.5 and 1 log units, respectively, suggesting that natural populations might be quite sensitive to these substrates. Phenol and toluene degraders were isolated from the terminal MPN dilution tubes; 63 genetically distinct strains were identified among the 273 phenol- and toluene-degrading isolates obtained. TCE was cometabolized by 60% of the genetically distinct strains. Most strains (57%) grew on both phenol and toluene, and 78% of these strains hybridized to the toluene ortho-monooxygenase (TOM) probe. None of the strains hybridized to probes from the four other toluene oxygenase pathways. Gram-positive strains comprised 30% of the collection; all of these grew on phenol, and 47% of them also grew on toluene, but none hybridized to the TOM probe. Among the gram-negative strains, 86% of those that grew on both toluene and phenol hybridized to the TOM probe, while only 5% of those that were TOM-positive grew on toluene alone. A larger proportion of TCE degraders was found among gram-negative than gram-positive strains and among organisms that grew on phenol than those that grew on toluene. Hybridization of strains to the TOM probe was somewhat predictive of their TCE-cometabolizing ability, especially for strains isolated on toluene, but there was also a significant number (20%) of strains that hybridized to the TOM probe but were poor TCE cooxidizers. No Moffett Field isolates were as effective as Burkholderia cepacia G4 in cooxidizing TCE. Most of the aquifer strains ranged from moderately effective to ineffective in TCE cooxidation. Such populations, however, apparently accounted for the successful phenol- and toluene-stimulated TCE removal that occurred during the field assessment of this remediation process. This suggests that naturally occurring communities of only moderate TCE-cooxidizing ability may support successful TCE bioremediation as long as the phenol or toluene present is not limiting. This activity, however, may not be sustainable for the long term, because TCE-inactive populations that consumed toluene at rates equal to that of the best TCE degraders were present and hence would be expected to eventually dominate the community. PMID:16535577

Fries, M. R.; Forney, L. J.; Tiedje, J. M.



Isolation and characterization of a novel toluene-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium.  

PubMed Central

A novel sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from fuel-contaminated subsurface soil, strain PRTOL1, mineralizes toluene as the sole electron donor and carbon source under strictly anaerobic conditions. The mineralization of 80% of toluene carbon to CO2 was demonstrated in experiments with [ring-U-14C]toluene; 15% of toluene carbon was converted to biomass and nonvolatile metabolic by-products, primarily the former. The observed stoichiometric ratio of moles of sulfate consumed per mole of toluene consumed was consistent with the theoretical ratio for mineralization of toluene coupled with the reduction of sulfate to hydrogen sulfide. Strain PRTOL1 also transforms o- and p-xylene to metabolic products when grown with toluene. However, xylene transformation by PRTOL1 is slow relative to toluene degradation and cannot be sustained over time. Stable isotope-labeled substrates were used in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to investigate the by-products of toluene and xylene metabolism. The predominant by-products from toluene, o-xylene, and p-xylene were benzylsuccinic acid, (2-methylbenzyl)succinic acid, and 4-methylbenzoic acid (or p-toluic acid), respectively. Metabolic by-products accounted for nearly all of the o-xylene consumed. Enzyme assays indicated that acetyl coenzyme A oxidation proceeded via the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway. Compared with the only other reported toluene-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain PRTOL1 is distinct in that it has a novel 16S rRNA gene sequence and was derived from a freshwater rather than marine environment. PMID:8919780

Beller, H R; Spormann, A M; Sharma, P K; Cole, J R; Reinhard, M



Hydrotreating of wheat straw in toluene and ethanol.  


In the present work, wheat straw was hydroliquefied at a temperature of 300°C for 4h in ethanol or toluene in order to obtain bio-components which are useful for fuel purposes. The experiments were performed in a 100mL batch reactor under hydrogen pressure of 70 bar. Typically, 2g of straw and 0.1g of catalyst (66%Ni/SiO2-Al2O3) were dispersed in 15 g of solvent. The main compounds of the oil produced during the liquefaction of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin of wheat straw in both solvents are: tetrahydrofuran-2-methanol, 1,2-butanediol and butyrolactone. Besides the mentioned compounds, ethanol favoured the decomposition of bigger molecules to short-chain alcohols such as 1-butanol, 1,2-propanediol and 1,2-ethanediol. Toluene contributes to the production of furans and other cyclic compounds. The light fractions distilled together with the solvent also contain the following: 1-propanol, 2-methyl-cyclopentanone, acetic acid and ethyl acetate. PMID:24787323

Murnieks, Raimonds; Kampars, Valdis; Malins, Kristaps; Apseniece, Lauma



Control of toluene and xylene by absorption in mineral oil  

SciTech Connect

Control of VOC is usually accomplished by thermal or catalytic incineration, by adsorption and more recently by biofiltration. In Brazil there is no specific environmental legislation for VOC control. The enforcement at the present time is based on population complaints in relation to odor outside the plant. The author feels that in the near future a regulation for VOC control will be enacted, aiming the attainment of the ozone standard or by ecological reason. This paper presents the results of a laboratory experiment for the absorption of toluene and xylene in mineral oil (fuel oil used in diesel buses and trucks) with a countercurrent flow packed tower. The resulting enriched mineral oil would still be used as a fuel and could be a more economical way of reducing emissions of VOC if it is not necessary to have collection efficiencies as high as those obtained by incineration or by adsorption. This control method could be also a way of waste recycling. Other organic liquids will be tested in the near future. A first set of experimental data showed collection efficiency of 92.69% for xylene, for inlet concentration in the tower of 1,471 ppmv, and 76.57% for toluene, for inlet concentration in the tower of 6,349.9 ppmv.

Assuncao, J.V. de [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil); [Mackenzie Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil); Vasconcelos, S.M.F. [Mackenzie Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil)



Occurrence of mental illness following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background While many studies of adults with solvent exposure have shown increased risks of anxiety and depressive disorders, there is little information on the impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure on the subsequent risk of mental illness. This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Methods A total of 1,512 subjects born between 1969 and 1983 were studied, including 831 subjects with both prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on mental illnesses, demographic and medical characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure originating from the vinyl-liner of water distribution pipes was assessed using water distribution system modeling software that incorporated a leaching and transport algorithm. Results No meaningful increases in risk ratios (RR) for depression were observed among subjects with prenatal and early childhood exposure (RR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.9-1.4). However, subjects with prenatal and early childhood exposure had a 1.8-fold increased risk of bipolar disorder (N = 36 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.9-1.4), a 1.5-fold increased risk post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 47 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.9-2.5), and a 2.1-fold increased risk of schizophrenia (N = 3 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.2-20.0). Further increases in the risk ratio were observed for bipolar disorder (N = 18 exposed cases, RR; 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3-5.6) and post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 18 exposed cases, RR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2) among subjects with the highest exposure levels. Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence against an impact of early life exposure to PCE on the risk of depression. In contrast, the results provide support for an impact of early life exposure on the risk of bipolar disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. The number of schizophrenia cases was too small to draw reliable conclusions. These findings should be confirmed in investigations of other similarly exposed populations. PMID:22264316



Risk of breast cancer following exposure to tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water in Cape Cod, Massachusetts: reanalysis of a case-control study using a modified exposure assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is an important occupational chemical used in metal degreasing and drycleaning and a prevalent drinking water contaminant. Exposure often occurs with other chemicals but it occurred alone in a pattern that reduced the likelihood of confounding in a unique scenario on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. We previously found a small to moderate increased risk of breast cancer among women with the highest exposures using a simple exposure model. We have taken advantage of technical improvements in publically available software to incorporate a more sophisticated determination of water flow and direction to see if previous results were robust to more accurate exposure assessment. Methods The current analysis used PCE exposure estimates generated with the addition of water distribution modeling software (EPANET 2.0) to test model assumptions, compare exposure distributions to prior methods, and re-examine the risk of breast cancer. In addition, we applied data smoothing to examine nonlinear relationships between breast cancer and exposure. We also compared a set of measured PCE concentrations in water samples collected in 1980 to modeled estimates. Results Thirty-nine percent of individuals considered unexposed in prior epidemiological analyses were considered exposed using the current method, but mostly at low exposure levels. As a result, the exposure distribution was shifted downward resulting in a lower value for the 90th percentile, the definition of "high exposure" in prior analyses. The current analyses confirmed a modest increase in the risk of breast cancer for women with high PCE exposure levels defined by either the 90th percentile (adjusted ORs 1.0-1.5 for 0-19 year latency assumptions) or smoothing analysis cut point (adjusted ORs 1.3-2.0 for 0-15 year latency assumptions). Current exposure estimates had a higher correlation with PCE concentrations in water samples (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.65, p < 0.0001) than estimates generated using the prior method (0.54, p < 0.0001). Conclusions The incorporation of sophisticated flow estimates in the exposure assessment method shifted the PCE exposure distribution downward, but did not meaningfully affect the exposure ranking of subjects or the strength of the association with the risk of breast cancer found in earlier analyses. Thus, the current analyses show a slightly elevated breast cancer risk for highly exposed women, with strengthened exposure assessment and minimization of misclassification by using the latest technology. PMID:21600013




EPA Science Inventory

Toluene, a volatile organic compound (VOC) used in many commercial products, is a ubiquitous air pollutant and therefore of interest to many EPA regulatory programs. A primary concern for toluene and other VOC?s is the potential for persistent neurotoxic effects from long term e...


Toluene misuse and long-term harms: A systematic review of the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic solvent abuse is associated with increased risk for serious medical, neurological, and neuropsychological impairments. While animal research suggests that exposure to organic solvents (especially toluene) may be neurotoxic, much less is known about the consequences of long-term exposure in humans. We reviewed neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies examining chronic toluene misuse in humans. Thirty empirical studies fulfilled the inclusion and

Murat Yücel; Michael Takagi; Mark Walterfang; Dan I. Lubman



Examining the Impact of an Updated Toluene Mechanism on Air Quality in the Eastern US  

EPA Science Inventory

Model simulations were performed using the CB05 chemical mechanism containing the base and an updated toluene mechanisms for the eastern US. The updated toluene mechanism increased monthly mean 8-hr ozone by 1.0-2.0 ppbv in urban areas of Chicago, the northeast US, Detroit, Cleve...


Transformation of pWWO in Rhizobium leguminosarum DPT to Engineer Toluene Degrading Ability for Rhizoremediation.  


Rhizoremediation of organic xenobiotics is based on interactions between plants and their associated micro-organisms. The present work was designed to engineer a bacterial system having toluene degradation ability along with plant growth promoting characteristics for effective rhizoremediation. pWWO harboring the genes responsible for toluene breakdown was isolated from Pseudomonas putida MTCC 979 and successfully transformed in Rhizobium DPT. This resulted in a bacterial strain (DPT(T)) which had the ability to degrade toluene as well as enhance growth of host plant. The frequency of transformation was recorded 5.7 × 10(-6). DPT produced IAA, siderophore, chitinase, HCN, ACC deaminase, solubilized inorganic phosphate, fixed atmospheric nitrogen and inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum and Macrophomina phaseolina in vitro. During pot assay, 50 ppm toluene in soil was found to inhibit the germination of Cajanus cajan seeds. However when the seeds bacterized with toluene degrading P. putida or R. leguminosarum DPT were sown in pots, again no germination was observed. Non-bacterized as well as bacterized seeds germinated successfully in toluene free soil as control. The results forced for an alternative mode of application of bacteria for rhizoremediation purpose. Hence bacterial suspension was mixed with soil having 50 ppm of toluene. Germination index in DPT treated soil was 100% while in P. putida it was 50%. Untreated soil with toluene restricted the seeds to germinate. PMID:23729882

Goel, Garima; Pandey, Piyush; Sood, Anchal; Bisht, Sandeep; Maheshwari, D K; Sharma, G D




EPA Science Inventory

Despite evidence suggesting that the acute effects of organic solvents are related to their concentration in the brain, we have observed route-dependent differences in the acute behavioral effects of toluene. Whereas inhaled toluene disrupts the performance of rats on a visual si...


Reduction of solvent content in toluene–neoprene adhesives and in acetone–polyurethane adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The desorption of toluene in a polychloroprene (neoprene)-toluene adhesive and in a commercial neoprene adhesive was studied in air at three different temperatures by monitoring the weight loss vs time. Similarly, the desorption of acetone in a polyurethane adhesive and in a commercial adhesive was also considered. The experimental weight variations are correlated with the solution of the second Fick

M. C. Sabater; M. A. Martínez



Activity-dependent Fluorescent Labeling of Bacteria that Degrade Toluene via 3-methylcatechol  

SciTech Connect

3-Hydroxyphenylacetylene (3-HPA) served as a novel, activity-dependent, fluorogenic and chromogenic probe for bacterial enzymes known to degrade toluene via meta ring fission of the intermediate, 3-methylcatechol. By this direct physiological analysis, cells grown with an aromatic substrate to induce the synthesis of toluene-degrading enzymes were fluorescently labeled.

Kauffman, Mary E; Keener, William Kelvin; Watwood, Mary Elizabeth; Reed, David William; Fujita, Yoshiko; Lehman, Richard Michael; Clingenpeel, Scott R.



Use of Selective Inhibitors and Chromogenic Substrates to Differentiate Bacteria Based on Toluene Oxygenase Activity  

SciTech Connect

In whole-cell studies, two alkynes, 1-pentyne and phenylacetylene, were selective, irreversible inhibitors of monooxygenase enzymes in catabolic pathways that permit growth of bacteria on toluene. 1-Pentyne selectively inhibited growth of Burkholderia cepacia G4 (toluene 2-monooxygenase [T2MO] pathway) and B. pickettii PKO1 (toluene 3-monooxygenase [T3MO] pathway) on toluene, but did not inhibit growth of bacteria expressing other pathways. In further studies with strain G4, chromogenic transformation of a,a,a-Trifluoro-m-cresol (TFC) was irreversibly inhibited by 1-pentyne, but the presence of phenol prevented this inhibition. Transformation of catechol by G4 was unaffected by 1-pentyne. With respect to the various pathways and bacteria tested, phenylacetylene selectively inhibited growth of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 (toluene 4-monooxygenase [T4MO] pathway) on toluene, but not on p-cresol. An Escherichia coli transformant expressing T4MO transformed indole or naphthalene in chromogenic reactions, but not after exposure to phenylacetylene. The naphthalene reaction remained diminished in phenylacetylene-treated cells relative to untreated cells after phenylacetylene was removed, indicating irreversible inhibition. These techniques were used to differentiate toluene-degrading isolates from an aquifer. Based on data generated with these indicators and inhibitors, along with results from Biolog analysis for sole carbon source oxidation, the groundwater isolates were assigned to eight separate groups, some of which apparently differ in their mode of toluene catabolism.

Keener, William Kelvin; Schaller, Kastli Dianne; Walton, Michelle Rene; Partin, Judy Kaye; Watwood, Mary Elizabeth; Smith, William Aaron; Chingenpeel, S. R.



Competitive hydrogenation of benzene and toluene on group VIII metals: correlation with the electronic structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown previously that the ratio K\\/sub T\\/B\\/ of the adsorption coefficients of toluene and benzene determined from a kinetic analysis of the competitive hydrogenation of these hydrocarbons can be used to probe the electronic structure of platinum. Because toluene is more of an electron donor than benzene, the larger the electron deficiency of platinum, the larger the

T. T. Phuong; J. Massardier; P. Gallezot



Formation of organic acids from propane, isooctane and toluene\\/isooctane flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three fuels (propane, isooctane and toluene\\/isooctane) are used for the study of the formation of organic acids from their flames. Four organic acids have been found in the combustion products: formic, acetic, propionic and isovaleric acid. These acids are formed very quickly; their concentration then generally increases to reach a maximum value, and then decreases to zero. Toluene enhances the

E. Zervas



Low temperature oxidation of benzene and toluene in mixture with ndecane  

E-print Network

Low temperature oxidation of benzene and toluene in mixture with ndecane Olivier Herbinet Abstract The oxidation of two blends, benzene/ndecane and toluene/ndecane, was studied in a jetstirred the chemistry of the lowtemperature oxidation of these two aromatic compounds which have a very low reactivity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation by a newly isolated denitrifying bacterium, Thauera sp. strain DNT-1.  


A newly isolated denitrifying bacterium, Thauera sp. strain DNT-1, grew on toluene as the sole carbon and energy source under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. When this strain was cultivated under oxygen-limiting conditions with nitrate, first toluene was degraded as oxygen was consumed, while later toluene was degraded as nitrate was reduced. Biochemical observations indicated that initial degradation of toluene occurred through a dioxygenase-mediated pathway and the benzylsuccinate pathway under aerobic and denitrifying conditions, respectively. Homologous genes for toluene dioxygenase (tod) and benzylsuccinate synthase (bss), which are the key enzymes in aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation, respectively, were cloned from genomic DNA of strain DNT-1. The results of Northern blot analyses and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR suggested that transcription of both sets of genes was induced by toluene. In addition, the tod genes were induced under aerobic conditions, whereas the bss genes were induced under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. On the basis of these results, it is concluded that strain DNT-1 modulates the expression of two different initial pathways of toluene degradation according to the availability of oxygen in the environment. PMID:15006757

Shinoda, Yoshifumi; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Uenishi, Hiroshi; Uchihashi, Yasumitsu; Hiraishi, Akira; Yukawa, Hideaki; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Kato, Nobuo



Removal of Toluene in Air by Non Thermal Plasma-Catalysis Hybrid , H. T. Pham  

E-print Network

Removal of Toluene in Air by Non Thermal Plasma-Catalysis Hybrid System A. Khacef , H. T. Pham , A, Abstract: Atmospheric Non-Thermal Plasma (ANTP) technology for indoor air treatment has the disadvantage catalysts. The products of the toluene oxidation were CO and CO2. Keywords: Non thermal Plasma, Catalysis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Anaerobic degradation of toluene and o-xylene by a methanogenic consortium  

SciTech Connect

Toluene and o-xylene were completely mineralized to stoichiometric amounts of carbon dioxide, methane, and biomass by aquifer-derived microorganisms under strictly anaerobic conditions. The source of the inoculum was creosote-contaminated sediment from Pensacola, Fla. The adaptation periods before the onset of degradation were long (100 to 120 days for toluene degradation and 200 to 255 days for o-xylene). Successive transfers of the toluene- and o-xylene-degrading cultures remained active. Cell density in the cultures progressively increased over 2 to 3 years to stabilize at approximately 10[sup 9] cells per ml. Degradation of toluene and o-xylene in stable mixed methanogenic cultures followed Monod kinetics, with inhibition noted at substrate concentrations above about 700 [mu]M for o-xylene, and 1,800 [mu]M for toluene. The cultures degraded toluene or o-xylene but did not degrade m-xylene, p-xylene, benzene, ethylbenzene, or naphthalene. The degradative activity was retained after pasteurization or after starvation for 1 year. Degradation of toluene and o-xylene was inhibited by the alternate electron acceptors oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate. Degradation was also inhibited by the addition of preferred substrates such as acetate, H[sub 2] propionate, methanol, acetone, glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, peptone, and yeast extract. These data suggest that the presence of natural organic substrates or cocontaminants may inhibit anaerobic degradation of pollutants such as toluene and o-xylene at contaminated sites.

Edwards, E.A.; Grbic-Galic, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))



Interactions between benzene, toluene, and p-xylene (BTX) during their biodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microbial consortium and Pseudomonas strain (PPO1) were used in studying biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and p-xylene under aerobic conditions. Studies involved removal of each compound individually as well as in mixture with the others. Both cultures exhibited a qualitatively similar behavior toward each compound. Both the pure culture and the consortium grew on benzene following Monod kinetics, on toluene

Young-Sook Oh; R. Bartha; Z. Shareefdeen; B. C. Baltzis




EPA Science Inventory

Long-Evans hooded rats were exposed to 1000 ppm toluene or 0 ppm toluene 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 30 days. Following removal from the exposure conditions (18-26 hr) flash-evoked potentials were recorded to paired light flashes and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure properties were ...


Effect of toluene as gaseous cosubstrate in bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted soil.  


The stimulation of the microbial population by a more bioavailable supplementary carbon source and by a surfactant pretreatment was studied in petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted soils bioremediation. Two types of soils were used, Soil A which had been recently polluted and the aged Soil B. They contained 52.4 and 50.4 g of total petroleum hydrocarbons per kg of dry soil, respectively. The effect of passing a continuous small stream of air containing a low concentration of gaseous toluene through packed 0.5 l (Ø=5.5 cm) columns was studied. For Soil A, after 62 days the THPs degradation was 28% higher in the toluene treated columns than in controls. In aged Soil B the effect of toluene was not significant, probably due to bioavailability limitations. With Soil B, the combined effect of toluene as cosubstrate and a surfactant pretreatment was studied and the hydrocarbons degradation was 29% higher in the toluene-amended columns than in the controls. Toluene removal was higher than 99% in all cases. Surfactant addition increased hydrocarbon degradation when toluene was also added suggesting that the biological reaction was the limiting process. The study shows the possibilities of using gaseous substrates, such as toluene, for the in situ or ex situ treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted soil in processes limited by the biological reaction. The main advantage of the treatment is that the compound can be easily and directly delivered to the polluted soil through the venting system. PMID:16239067

Ortiz, Irmene; Velasco, Antonio; Revah, Sergio



Microporous organic-inorganic nanocomposites as the receptor in the QCM sensing of toluene vapors.  


We have used novel microporous biphenylene-pillared layered silicates as receptors in a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for sensing toluene vapors. The silicate was successfully coated on a QCM electrode modified with 2-aminoethanethiol. The resultant electrode showed quantitative frequency responses due to enhanced adhesion between the silicate and the electrode. The silicate-coated electrodes also performed better than polystyrene-coated electrodes in terms of both sensitivity and reproducibility of the responses for toluene vapors exposures because the silicate has an organically-modified open-framework structure with a high surface area. In addition, the electrodes revealed the higher sensitivity for toluene vapors than those for alcohol vapors, suggesting selectivity toward sensing toluene vapors probably due to the ?-? stacking interaction between biphenylene units and toluene molecules. Hence, we anticipate that the materials are promising to be used as receptors in QCM devices for sensing aromatic vapors. PMID:23474716

Ishii, Ryo; Naganawa, Ryuichi; Nishioka, Masateru; Hanaoka, Taka-aki



Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical 276 (2007) 816 Oxidative carbonylation of toluene to p-toluic acid catalyzed by  

E-print Network

of p-xylene, in the course of which p-toluic acid is formed as an intermediate [2]. Given the availability and lower cost of toluene as compared to p-xylene, the direct oxidative carbonylation of toluene

Bell, Alexis T.


Determination of Electron Transfer Rate Constants in Solutions of Benzene, Toluene, and p-XyleneRadical Anions  

E-print Network

2665 Determination of Electron Transfer Rate Constants in Solutions of Benzene, Toluene, and p-Xylene radical anions and their neutral molecules for the benzene, toluene, and p-xylene systems have been

Griffin, Robert G.



EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory study was carried out to investigate the secondary organic aerosol products from photooxidation of the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene. The laboratory experiments consisted of irradiating toluene/propylene/NOX/air mixtures in a smog chamber operated in the dynamic mode...


Modeling the toxicokinetics of 24-hour toluene exposure in rats, impact of activity patterns and enzyme induction  

EPA Science Inventory

Toluene, a solvent used in numerous consumer and industrial applications, exerts its critical effects on the brain and nervous system following inhalation exposure. Our previously published PBPK model successfully predicted toluene concentrations in blood and brain over a range o...


Two-dimensional ethanol floods of toluene in homogeneous, unconfined aquifer media  

SciTech Connect

An NSF-Small Business Innovative Research Phase 1 project entitled, {open_quotes}In-Situ Cleanup of Petroleum Contaminated Soil and Groundwater Using Alcohol Flooding{close_quotes} was recently completed. As part of this study, two-dimensional flow experiments in unconfined homogeneous and layered sand samples using a combined pure ethanol and 50/50 (vol.%) ethanol-water flooding strategy were conducted on the bench-scale to mobilize lighter-than-water non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) such as toluene. The results presented here include ethanol flooding experiments in uniform No. 30 coarse crystal silica sands which was spiked with 20 ml toluene at discrete locations above the water table. The enhanced recovery of LNAPL was attained at flow rates of less than 11 m/day. Toluene emplaced slightly above the water table in homogeneous sands migrated vertically-downward along the sloping ethanol-water flooding interface because the toluene had a somewhat greater density than the ethanol. A portion of the toluene that migrated downward became trapped below the area swept by the pure ethanol flood as the ethanol broke through the source zone area. During mobilization, toluene concentrations at the leading edge of the toluene-laden ethanol-water interface were measured in excess of 300,000 mg/l. A co-injected 50/50 (vol.%) ethanol-water mixture recovered the trapped toluene by a combination of enhanced solubilization and physical displacement. Toluene appeared to be effectively removed from the sand. A very concentrated ethanol- and toluene-rich liquid phase formed above essentially clean water in the effluent manifold.

Grubb, D.G.; Empie, L.E.; Hudock, G.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Davies, R.N. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others



Differential Effects of Inhaled Toluene on Locomotor Activity in Adolescent and Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

Inhalant abuse is a world-wide public health concern among adolescents. Most preclinical studies have assessed inhalant effects in adult animals leaving unclear how behavioral effects differ in younger animals. We exposed adolescent (postnatal day [PN] 28) and adult (PN90) male rats to toluene using 1 of 3 exposure patterns. These patterns modeled those reported in toluene abuse in teens and varied concentration, number and length of exposures, as well as the inter-exposure interval. Animals were exposed repeatedly over 12 days to toluene concentrations of 0, 8,000 or 16,000 parts per million (ppm). Locomotor activity was quantified during toluene exposures and for 30 min following completion of the final daily toluene exposure. For each exposure pattern, there were significant toluene concentration-related increases and decreases in locomotor activity compared to the 0-ppm “air” controls at both ages. These changes depended upon when activity was measured – during or following exposure. Compared to adults, adolescents displayed greater locomotor activity on the first day and generally greater increases in activity over days than adults during toluene exposure. Adults displayed greater locomotor activity than adolescents in the “recovery” period following exposure on the first and subsequent days. Age group differences were clearest following the pattern of paced, brief (5-min) repeated binge exposures. The results suggest that locomotor behavior in rats during and following inhalation of high concentrations of toluene depends on age and the pattern of exposure. The results are consistent with dose-dependent shifts in sensitivity and sensitization or tolerance to repeated toluene in the adolescent animals compared to the adult animals. Alternate interpretations are possible and our interpretation is limited by the range of very high concentrations of toluene used. The results imply that both pharmacological and psychosocial factors contribute to the teen prevalence of inhalant abuse. PMID:20624418

Batis, Jeffery C.; Hannigan, John H.; Bowen, Scott E.



Biodegradation of trichloroethylene and its anaerobic daughter products in freshwater wetland sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laboratory microcosms were prepared under methanogenic, sulfate-reducing, and aerobic conditions using sediment and groundwater from a freshwater wetland that is a discharge area for a trichloroethylene (TCE) to evaluate potential biodegradation rates of TCE and its anaerobic daughter products (cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride (VC)). Anaerobic degradation of TCE was about an order of magnitude faster under methanogenic conditions than under sulfate-reducing conditions. Both 12DCE and VC were found under sulfate-reducing conditions in the microcosms containing the wetland sediment, but their production, especially for VC, was substantially slower than under methanogenic conditions. Methane concentrations remained approximately constant (when losses in the formalin-amended controls are considered) in the microcosms amended with TCE and increased in the microcosms amended with the 12DCE isomers and VC during the first 18-25 days of incubation. The most rapid decrease in concentrations of TCE, cis-12DCE, trans-12DCE, and VC was found after aerobic methane-oxidizing conditions were definitely established.

Lorah, M. M.; Olsen, L. D.



An analysis of trichloroethylene movement in groundwater at castle Air Force Base, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A trichloroethylene (TCE) plume has been identified in the groundwater under a U.S. Air Force Base in the Central Valley of California. An areal, two-dimensional numerical solute transport model indicates that the movement of TCE due to advection, dispersion, and linear sorption is simulated over a 25-year historic period. The model is used in several ways: (1) to estimate the extent of the plume; (2) to confirm the likely sources of contamination as suggested by a soil organic vapor survey of the site; and (3) to make predictions about future movement of the plume. Despite the noisy and incomplete data set, the model reproduces the general trends in contamination at a number of observation wells. The analysis indicates that soil organic vapor monitoring is an effective tool for identifying contaminant source locations. Leaky sewer pipes and underground tanks are the indicated pathways for TCE to have entered the groundwater system. The chemical mass balance indicates that a total of about 100 gallons of TCE - a relatively small amount of organic solvent - has created the observed groundwater plume. ?? 1989.

Avon, L.; Bredehoeft, J.D.



The Relationship between the Occupational Exposure of Trichloroethylene and Kidney Cancer  

PubMed Central

Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been widely used as a degreasing agent in many manufacturing industries. Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer presented “sufficient evidence” for the causal relationship between TCE and kidney cancer. The aim of this study was to review the epidemiologic evidences regarding the relationship between TCE exposure and kidney cancer in Korean work environments. The results from the cohort studies were inconsistent, but according to the meta-analysis and case–control studies, an increased risk for kidney cancer was present in the exposure group and the dose–response relationship could be identified using various measures of exposure. In Korea, TCE is a commonly used chemical for cleaning or degreasing processes by various manufacturers; average exposure levels of TCE vary widely. When occupational physicians evaluate work-relatedness kidney cancers, they must consider past exposure levels, which could be very high (>100 ppm in some cases) and associated with jobs, such as plating, cleaning, or degreasing. The exposure levels at a manual job could be higher than an automated job. The peak level of TCE could also be considered an important exposure-related variable due to the possibility of carcinogenesis associated with high TCE doses. This review could be a comprehensive reference for assessing work-related TCE exposure and kidney cancer in Korea. PMID:24955246



Identification of the proteins related to SET-mediated hepatic cytotoxicity of trichloroethylene by proteomic analysis.  


Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an effective solvent for a variety of organic materials. Since the wide use of TCE as industrial degreasing of metals, adhesive paint and polyvinyl chloride production, TCE has turned into an environmental and occupational toxicant. Exposure to TCE could cause severe hepatotoxicity; however, the toxic mechanisms of TCE remain poorly understood. Recently, we reported that SET protein mediated TCE-induced cytotoxicity in L-02 cells. Here, we further identified the proteins related to SET-mediated hepatic cytotoxicity of TCE using the techniques of DIGE (differential gel electrophoresis) and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. Among the 20 differential proteins identified, 8 were found to be modulated by SET in TCE-induced cytotoxicity and three of them (cofilin-1, peroxiredoxin-2 and S100-A11) were validated by Western-blot analysis. The functional analysis revealed that most of the identified SET-modulated proteins are apoptosis-associated proteins. These data indicated that these proteins may be involved in SET-mediated hepatic cytotoxicity of TCE in L-02 cells. PMID:24631019

Ren, Xiaohu; Yang, Xifei; Hong, Wen-Xu; Huang, Peiwu; Wang, Yong; Liu, Wei; Ye, Jinbo; Huang, Haiyan; Huang, Xinfeng; Shen, Liming; Yang, Linqing; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Jianjun



Phytoremediation of trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride: Results from bench to field  

SciTech Connect

Remediation of contaminated sites using plants, or phytoremediation, is one of the most promising new technologies for remediation.As with any new technology, solid data concerning the efficacy of this method needs to be produced before commercial groups are willing to implement the technology. This work shows that axenic poplar cell cultures produced from hybrid poplar H-11-11 (Populous trichocarpa x P. deltoides) are capable of independently oxidizing trichloroethylene (TCE) to expected metabolites. It also demonstrates that young rooted cuttings, when placed in metabolic chambers or grown under greenhouse conditions, are capable of taking up and transpiring TCE. Further tests include a pilot-scale remediation project simulating what would be seen on a contaminated site. After one year of exposure to TCE, the data shows that hybrid poplars were able to extract significant amounts of TCE from the water stream. Additionally, at dose concentrations up to 50 ppm, there is no apparent effect on the above ground growth of the trees. Continued use of bench and pilot-scale facilities will allow the testing of different species of plants challenged with a wide range of chemicals.

Newman, L.A.; Choe, N. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry; Bod, C. [Washington State Univ., Puyallup, WA (United States). Puyallup Research and Extension Center] [and others



Effect of nanopore size distributions on trichloroethylene adsorption and desorption on carbogenic adsorbents  

SciTech Connect

Two carbon adsorbents, Ambersorb-600 and Ambersorb-563 (A-600 and A-563), were compared for vapor-phase trichloroethylene (TCE) adsorption from humid air streams. These adsorbents retained capacity for TCE in humid environments and were regenerable in situ. Enhanced desorption, and hence, increased working capacities, were achieved with bimodal pore size distributions and hydrophobic surface chemistry. Vapor-phase TCE isotherms confirmed that both of these adsorbents have high capacities for TCE. Only a small difference between the micropore size distributions of A-563 and A-600 was determined by room-temperature methyl chloride adsorption and the modified Horvath-Kawazoe model. Besides differences in particle size and pore volume there was a measurable, but small change, in the fraction of the pores in the ultramicropore range (5 {angstrom} or smaller) of the A-600 adsorbent versus that of A-563. In packed-bed breakthrough curve experiments, A-600 displayed a sharper mass-transfer zone than A-563, but maintained essentially the same capacity for TCE in a humid environment. Both materials were amenable to in-situ regeneration, and the A-600 provided higher overall working capacity than that of A-563.

Kane, M.S.; Bushong, J.H.; Foley, H.C. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)] [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Brendley, W.H. Jr. [Philadelphia Coll. of Textiles, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Philadelphia Coll. of Textiles, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry



Concentration of Trichloroethylene in Breast Milk and Household Water from Nogales, Arizona  

PubMed Central

The United States Environmental Protection Agency has identified quantification of trichloroethylene (TCE), an industrial solvent, in breast milk as a high priority need for risk assessment. Water and milk samples were collected from 20 households by a lactation consultant in Nogales, Arizona. Separate water samples (including tap, bottled and vending machine) were collected for all household uses: drinking, bathing, cooking, and laundry. A risk factor questionnaire was administered. Liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether was followed by GC-MS for TCE quantification in water. Breast milk underwent homogenization, lipid hydrolysis and centrifugation prior to extraction. The limit of detection was 1.5 ng/mL. TCE was detected in 7 of 20 mothers’ breast milk samples. The maximum concentration was 6 ng/mL. TCE concentration in breast milk was significantly correlated with the concentration in water used for bathing (?=0.59, p=0.008). Detection of TCE in breast milk was more likely if the infant had a body mass index <14 (RR=5.2, p=0.02). Based on average breast milk consumption, TCE intake for 5% of the infants may exceed the proposed US EPA Reference Dose. Results of this exploratory study warrant more in depth studies to understand risk of TCE exposures from breast milk intake. PMID:22827160

Beamer, Paloma I.; Luik, Catherine E.; Abrell, Leif; Campos, Swilma; Martínez, María Elena; Sáez, A. Eduardo



Redox control for electrochemical dechlorination of trichloroethylene in bicarbonate aqueous media  

PubMed Central

The role of iron anode on electrochemical dechlorination of aqueous trichloroethylene (TCE) is evaluated using batch mixed-electrolyte experiments. A significantly higher dechlorination rate, up to 99%, is reported when iron anode and copper foam cathodes are used. In contrast to the oxygen-releasing inert anode, the cast iron anode generates ferrous species, which regulate the electrolyte to a reducing condition (low ORP value) and favor the reduction of TCE. The main products of TCE electrochemical reduction on copper foam cathode include ethene and ethane. The ratio of these two hydrocarbons gases varied with the electrolyte ORP condition and current density as more ethane gas generates at more reducing electrolyte condition and at higher current condition. A pseudo-first order model is used to describe the degradation of TCE, the first order rate constant (k) increased with the current applied, but exhibits a negative relation with initial concentration. Depending on the current, electrolysis by iron anode causes a reduction in the ORP and an increase in the pH of the mixed electrolyte. Enhanced reaction rates in this investigation indicate that the electrochemical reduction using copper foam and iron anode may be a promising process for remediation of groundwater contaminated with chlorinated organic compounds. PMID:21671641

Mao, Xuhui; Ciblak, Ali; Amiri, Mohammad; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.



Requirement of DNA Repair Mechanisms for Survival of Burkholderia cepacia G4 upon Degradation of Trichloroethylene  

PubMed Central

A Tn5-based mutagenesis strategy was used to generate a collection of trichloroethylene (TCE)-sensitive (TCS) mutants in order to identify repair systems or protective mechanisms that shield Burkholderia cepacia G4 from the toxic effects associated with TCE oxidation. Single Tn5 insertion sites were mapped within open reading frames putatively encoding enzymes involved in DNA repair (UvrB, RuvB, RecA, and RecG) in 7 of the 11 TCS strains obtained (4 of the TCS strains had a single Tn5 insertion within a uvrB homolog). The data revealed that the uvrB-disrupted strains were exceptionally susceptible to killing by TCE oxidation, followed by the recA strain, while the ruvB and recG strains were just slightly more sensitive to TCE than the wild type. The uvrB and recA strains were also extremely sensitive to UV light and, to a lesser extent, to exposure to mitomycin C and H2O2. The data from this study establishes that there is a link between DNA repair and the ability of B. cepacia G4 cells to survive following TCE transformation. A possible role for nucleotide excision repair and recombination repair activities in TCE-damaged cells is discussed. PMID:11722883

Yeager, Chris M.; Bottomley, Peter J.; Arp, Daniel J.



Differential Immunotoxicity Induced by Two Different Windows of Developmental Trichloroethylene Exposure  

PubMed Central

Developmental exposure to environmental toxicants may induce immune system alterations that contribute to adult stage autoimmune disease. We have shown that continuous exposure of MRL+/+ mice to trichloroethylene (TCE) from gestational day (GD) 0 to postnatal day (PND) 49 alters several aspects of CD4+ T cell function. This window of exposure corresponds to conception-adolescence/young adulthood in humans. More narrowly defining the window of TCE developmental exposure causes immunotoxicity that would establish the stage at which avoidance and/or intervention would be most effective. The current study divided continuous TCE exposure into two separate windows, namely, gestation only (GD0 to birth (PND0)) and early-life only (PND0-PND49). The mice were examined for specific alterations in CD4+ T cell function at PND49. One potentially long-lasting effect of developmental exposure, alterations in retrotransposon expression indicative of epigenetic alterations, was found in peripheral CD4+ T cells from both sets of developmentally exposed mice. Interestingly, certain other effects, such as alterations in thymus cellularity, were only found in mice exposed to TCE during gestation. In contrast, expansion of memory/activation cell subset of peripheral CD4+ T cells were only found in mice exposed to TCE during early life. Different windows of developmental TCE exposure can have different functional consequences. PMID:24696780

Gilbert, Kathleen M.; Woodruff, William; Blossom, Sarah J.



Biodegradation of Trichloroethylene in Continuous-Recycle Expanded-Bed Bioreactors  

PubMed Central

Experimental bioreactors operated as recirculated closed systems were inoculated with bacterial cultures that utilized methane, propane, and tryptone-yeast extract as aerobic carbon and energy sources and degraded trichloroethylene (TCE). Up to 95% removal of TCE was observed after 5 days of incubation. Uninoculated bioreactors inhibited with 0.5% Formalin and 0.2% sodium azide retained greater than 95% of their TCE after 20 days. Each bioreactor consisted of an expanded-bed column through which the liquid phase was recirculated and a gas recharge column which allowed direct headspace sampling. Pulses of TCE (20 mg/liter) were added to bioreactors, and gas chromatography was used to monitor TCE, propane, methane, and carbon dioxide. Pulsed feeding of methane and propane with air resulted in 1 mol of TCE degraded per 55 mol of substrate utilized. Perturbation studies revealed that pH shifts from 7.2 to 7.5 decreased TCE degradation by 85%. The bioreactors recovered to baseline activities within 1 day after the pH returned to neutrality. PMID:16348213

Phelps, T. J.; Niedzielski, J. J.; Schram, R. M.; Herbes, S. E.; White, D. C.



Performance characterization of a model bioreactor for the biodegradation of trichloroethylene by Pseudomonas cepacia G4.  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas cepacia G4 grown in chemostats with phenol demonstrated constant specific degradation rates for both phenol and trichloroethylene (TCE) over a range of dilution rates. Washout of cells from chemostats was evident at a dilution rate of 0.2 h-1 at 28 degrees C. Increased phenol concentrations in the nutrient feed led to increased biomass production with constant specific degradation rates for both phenol and TCE. The addition of lactate to the phenol feed led to increased biomass production but lowered specific phenol and TCE degradation rates. The maximum potential for TCE degradation was about 1.1 g per day per g of cell protein. Cell growth and degradation kinetic parameters were used in the design of a recirculating bioreactor for TCE degradation. In this reactor, the total amount of TCE degraded increased as either reaction time or biomass was increased. TCE degradation was observed up to 300 microM TCE with no significant decreases in rates. On the average, this reactor was able to degrade 0.7 g of TCE per day per g of cell protein. These results demonstrate the feasibility of TCE bioremediation through the use of bioreactors. PMID:1872599

Folsom, B R; Chapman, P J



A Study of Groundwater Matrix Effects for the Destruction of Trichloroethylene Using Fe/Pd Nanoaggregates  

PubMed Central

Iron nanoaggregates have been prepared using the sodium borohydride reduction method and post-coated with Pd using aqueous phase electro-deposition. The Fe/Pd nanoaggregates were used to examine dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) with regard to matrix effects using materials representative of a potential zero-valent metal remediation site surrounding the Paducah gaseous diffusion plant in Paducah, KY. A surface-area-normalized first-order rate constant of 1.4 × 10–1 L m–2 h–1 was obtained for the case of ideal dechlorination of 19.6 mg L–1 TCE at room temperature and pH 6.2 using 0.5 g L–1 Fe/Pd (0.42 wt % Pd) loading. This value decreases by an order of magnitude to 1.9 × 10–2 L m–2 h–1 when the reaction is carried out in a realistic background matrix when the pH is high (8.8). For all variables tested, Pd content has the most impact on reaction rates. Circulating batch-column experiments are used to study dechlorination under flow conditions and demonstrate the ability of nonstabilized Fe/Pd nanoaggregates to remove significant amounts of TCE (80–90%) over a broad range of groundwater velocities (12.9–83 ft per day) using moderate metal loadings (0.23–0.5 g L–1). PMID:20526423

Meyer, D.E.; Hampson, S.; Ormsbee, L.; Bhattacharyya, D.



Synthesis and characterization of supported polysugar-stabilized palladium nanoparticle catalysts for enhanced hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palladium (Pd) nanoparticle catalysts were successfully synthesized within an aqueous phase using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a capping ligand which offers a green alternative to conventional nanoparticle synthesis techniques. The CMC-stabilized Pd nanoparticles were subsequently dispersed within support materials using the incipient wetness impregnation technique for utilization in heterogeneous catalyst systems. The unsupported and supported (both calcined and uncalcined) Pd nanoparticle catalysts were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement and their catalytic activity toward the hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) in aqueous media was examined using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst systems, respectively. The unsupported Pd nanoparticles showed considerable activity toward the degradation of TCE, as demonstrated by the reaction kinetics. Although the supported Pd nanoparticle catalysts had a lower catalytic activity than the unsupported particles that were homogeneously dispersed in the aqueous solutions, the supported catalysts retained sufficient activity toward the degradation of TCE. In addition, the use of the hydrophilic Al2O3 support material induced a mass transfer resistance to TCE that affected the initial hydrodechlorination rate. This paper demonstrates that supported Pd catalysts can be applied to the heterogeneous catalytic hydrodechlorination of TCE.

Bacik, Deborah B.; Zhang, Man; Zhao, Dongye; Roberts, Christopher B.; Seehra, Mohinar S.; Singh, Vivek; Shah, Naresh



Bioremediation of Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Sediments Augmented with a Dehalococcoides Consortia  

SciTech Connect

At the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC there are a number of sites contaminated with Chlorinated Ethenes (CE) due to past disposal practices. Sediments from two CE contaminated SRS locations were evaluated for trichloroethylene (TCE) biodegradation through anaerobic laboratory microcosms. The testing included addition of amendments and bioaugmentation of sediments. The anaerobic microcosms were first amended with substrates including acetate, lactate, molasses, soybean oil, methanol, sulfate, yeast extract, Regenesis HRC(R), and MEAL (methanol, ethanol, acetate, lactate mixture). Microcosms were analyzed after biostimulation for 9 months and no significant TCE biodegradation was observed. At 10 months, additional TCE, fresh amendments, and a mixed culture containing Dehalococcoides ethenogenes were added to active microcosms. A significant decrease in TCE concentrations and an increase in biodegradation products cis-dichloroethylene (cDCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) were noted within 2 weeks of bioaugmentation. Microcosms amended with lactate and sulfate showed complete transformation of TCE (3 ppm) to ethene within 40 days after bioaugmentation. Microcosms amended with other substrates - soybean oil, acetate, yeast extract, and methanol - also show enhanced biodegradation of TCE to ethene. Microcosms amended with molasses and Regenesis HRC showed limited TCE transformation. No TCE transformation was seen in killed control microcosms. On the basis of these successful results, plans are underway for field-scale in-situ deployment of biostimulation/bioaugmentation at SRS.

McKinsey, P.C.



Catalytic hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene in water with supported CMC-stabilized palladium nanoparticles.  


In this work, we developed and tested a new class of supported Pd catalysts by immobilizing CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) stabilized Pd nanoparticles onto alumina support. The alumina supported Pd nanoparticles were able to facilitate rapid and complete hydrodechlorination of TCE (trichloroethylene) without intermediate by-products detected. With a Pd mass loading of 0.33 wt% of the alumina mass, the observed pseudo first order reaction rate constant, k(obs), for the catalyst was increased from 28 to 109 L/min/g when CMC concentration was raised from 0.005 to 0.15 wt%. The activity increase was in accord with an increase of the Pd dispersion (measured via CO chemisorption) from 30.4% to 45.1%. Compared to the commercial alumina supported Pd, which has a lower Pd dispersion of 21%, our CMC-stabilized Pd nanoparticles offered more than 7 times greater activity. Pre-calcination treatment of the supported catalyst resulted in minor drop in activity, yet greatly reduced bleeding (<6%) of the Pd nanoparticles from the support during multiple cycles of applications. The presence of DOM (dissolved organic matter) at up to 10 mg/L as TOC had negligible effect on the catalytic activity. The alumina supported CMC-stabilized Pd nanoparticles may serve as a class of more effective catalysts for water treatment uses. PMID:23726707

Zhang, Man; Bacik, Deborah B; Roberts, Christopher B; Zhao, Dongye



Rate limiting factors in trichloroethylene co-metabolic degradation by phenol-grown aerobic granules.  


The potential of aerobic granular sludge in co-metabolic removal of recalcitrant substances was evaluated using trichloroethylene (TCE) as the model compound. Aerobic granules cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor with phenol as the growth substrate exhibited TCE and phenol degradation activities lower than previously reported values. Depletion of reducing energy and diffusion limitation within the granules were investigated as the possible rate limiting factors. Sodium formate and citrate were supplied to the granules in batch studies as external electron sources. No significant enhancing effect was observed on the instant TCE transformation rates, but 10 mM formate could improve the ultimate transformation capacity by 26 %. Possible diffusion barrier was studied by sieving the biomass into five size fractions, and determining their specific TCE and phenol degradation rates and capacities. Biomass in the larger size fractions generally showed lower activities. Large granules of >700 ?m diameter exhibited only 22 % of the flocs' TCE transformation capacity and 35 % of its phenol dependent SOUR, indicating the possible occurrence of diffusion limitation in larger biomass. However, the highest specific TCE transformation rate was observed with the fraction that mostly consisted of small granules (150-300 ?m), suggesting an optimal size range while applying aerobic granules in TCE co-metabolic removal. PMID:23846132

Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa



Second moment method for evaluating human health risks from groundwater contaminated by trichloroethylene.  

PubMed Central

Pollutants in groundwater aquifers may constitute a significant human health risk. A large variation in response may result among human populations experiencing the same level and duration of exposure to pollutants. Variability in response, as a result of exposure to a carcinogenic contaminant such as trichloroethylene (TCE), can be represented by a distribution function of safe doses. Spatial variability in aquifer characteristics and contaminant transport parameters requires the use of stochastic transport models to quantify variability in exposure concentrations. A second moment method is used to evaluate the probability of exceeding safe dose levels for a contaminated aquifer. The name of this method stems from the fact that the formulation is based on the first and second moments of the random variables. With this method, the probability is a function of the variability of contaminant concentration (which incorporates variability in hydrogeologic parameters such as hydraulic conductivity) and the variability in response in the human population. In this manner, the severity of the health risk posed by a contaminated aquifer and the evaluation of appropriate strategies and technologies for aquifer remediation are a function of contaminant concentrations and human health risks. The applicability and limitations of this method are demonstrated with data on groundwater contaminated by TCE at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:8875161

Jacobs, T L; Warmerdam, J M; Medina, M A; Piver, W T



Photocatalytic degradation of trichloroethylene in aqueous phase using nano-ZNO/Laponite composites.  


The feasibility of nano-ZnO/Laponite composites (NZLc) as a valid alternative to TiO2 to mineralize trichloroethylene (TCE) without difficulties for recovery of photocatalysts was evaluated. Based on the experimental observations, the removal of TCE using NZLc under UV irradiation was multiple reaction processes (i.e., sorption, photolysis, and photocatalysis). Sorption of TCE was thermodynamically favorable due to the hydrophobic partitioning into crosslinked poly vinyl alcohol, and the adsorption onto high-surface-area mineral surfaces of both ZnO and Laponite. The degradation efficiency of TCE can be significantly improved using NZLc under UV irradiation, indicating that ZnO-mediated heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation occurred. However, the degradation efficiency was found to vary with experimental conditions (e.g., initial concentration of TCE, loading amount of NZLc, the intensity of light and initial solution pH). Although the removal of TCE by NZLc was found to be a complex function of sorption, photolysis, and photocatalysis, the photocatalytic degradation of TCE on the surface of ZnO was critical. Consequently, developed NZLc can be applied as a valid alternative to suspended TiO2 powder, and overcome drawbacks (e.g., filtration and recovery of photocatalysts) in degradation of TCE for various water resources. PMID:24239256

Joo, Jin Chul; Ahn, Chang Hyuk; Jang, Dae Gyu; Yoon, Young Han; Kim, Jong Kyu; Campos, Luiza; Ahn, Hosang



Effects of toxicity, aeration, and reductant supply on trichloroethylene transformation by a mixed methanotrophic culture.  

PubMed Central

The trichloroethylene (TCE) transformation rate and capacity of a mixed methanotrophic culture at room temperature were measured to determine the effects of time without methane (resting), use of an alternative energy source (formate), aeration, and toxicity of TCE and its transformation products. The initial specific TCE transformation rate of resting cells was 0.6 mg of TCE per mg of cells per day, and they had a finite TCE transformation capacity of 0.036 mg of TCE per mg of cells. Formate addition resulted in increased initial specific TCE transformation rates (2.1 mg/mg of cells per day) and elevated transformation capacity (0.073 mg of TCE per mg of cells). Significant declines in methane conversion rates following exposure to TCE were observed for both resting and formate-fed cells, suggesting toxic effects caused by TCE or its transformation products. TCE transformation and methane consumption rates of resting cells decreased with time much more rapidly when cells were shaken and aerated than when they remained dormant, suggesting that the transformation ability of methanotrophs is best preserved by storage under anoxic conditions. PMID:2036009

Alvarez-Cohen, L; McCarty, P L



Pulmonary toxicity of trichloroethylene in mice. Covalent binding and morphological manifestations  

SciTech Connect

We examined the time course of trichloroethylene (TCE)-induced pulmonary injury and focused on morphological changes and covalent binding of (/sup 14/C)TCE soon after administration of a single dose of TCE (2000 mg/kg) to CD-1 male mice. At 1 hr after chemical treatment, Clara cells of the bronchiolar epithelium exhibited necrotic changes involving the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Dilatation of the endoplasmic reticulum became more severe at 2 hr after TCE administration and, by 4 hr, distended cisternae coalesced to form small vacuoles within the cytoplasmic matrix of the Clara cell. The severity of cellular damage increased progressively between 8 and 12 hr and, by 24 hr, the majority of Clara cells within an airway were severely vacuolated. Covalent binding of (/sup 14/C)TCE to lung macromolecules was evident at 1 hr, peaked at 4 hr, declined thereafter, and reached a plateau between 12 and 24 hr. Peak binding (142.6 +/- 31.8 nmol/g of wet weight) represented approximately 20% of (/sup 14/C)TCE distributed to the lung. Although the levels of binding in the liver were at all times greater than those in the lung, liver injury was relatively insignificant. The results demonstrate a positive correlation between the onset of Clara cell injury and the formation of reactive metabolites, as assessed by covalent binding of (/sup 14/C)TCE.

Forkert, P.G.; Birch, D.W.



Evaluation of a Polyvinyl Toluene Neutron Counter Array  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this article is to simulate the performance of a neutron detector array for empirical configuration optimization and preliminary algorithm evaluation. Utilizing a compact array of borated Polyvinyl Toluene light pipes and Photomultiplier Tubes, pulse shape analysis, standard spectral histogramming, and multiplicity counting can enable neutron measurements for multiple applications. Results demonstrate that analysis with Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) can be used to obtain a better understanding of field measurement results and aid in algorithm development for unfolding in conjunction with detector optimization. Use of a handheld neutron spectrometer has promise of widespread applicability. By correlating MCNP results with empirical measurements, substantial confidence can be placed on predicting detector response to sufficiently similar spectral sources under alternate experimental configurations. In addition, use of the detector has substantial promise for operational health physics applications.

Robert Hayes



Effect of temperature and dissolved oxygen on the growth kinetics of Pseudomonas putida F1 growing on benzene and toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch experiments were conducted to determine the effect of temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration on the rates of growth and substrate (benzene and toluene) degradation by the toluene degrading strain, Pseudomonas putida F1. Over a range of temperature from 15 to 35 °C the maximum specific growth rate followed the Topiwala–Sinclair relationship when either benzene or toluene served as the

Gunaseelan Alagappan; Robert M. Cowan



Sarcosine attenuates toluene-induced motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not brain stimulation reward enhancement in mice  

SciTech Connect

Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, produces various behavioral disturbances, including motor incoordination and cognitive impairment. Toluene alters the function of a large number of receptors and ion channels. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been suggested to play a critical role in toluene-induced behavioral manifestations. The present study determined the effects of various toluene doses on motor coordination, recognition memory, body temperature, and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds in mice. Additionally, the effects of sarcosine on the behavioral and physiological effects induced by toluene were evaluated. Sarcosine may reverse toluene-induced behavioral manifestations by acting as an NMDA receptor co-agonist and by inhibiting the effects of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1). Mice were treated with toluene alone or combined with sarcosine pretreatment and assessed for rotarod performance, object recognition memory, rectal temperature, and ICSS thresholds. Toluene dose-dependently induced motor incoordination, recognition memory impairment, and hypothermia and lowered ICSS thresholds. Sarcosine pretreatment reversed toluene-induced changes in rotarod performance, novel object recognition, and rectal temperature but not ICSS thresholds. These findings suggest that the sarcosine-induced potentiation of NMDA receptors may reverse motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not the enhancement of brain stimulation reward function associated with toluene exposure. Sarcosine may be a promising compound to prevent acute toluene intoxications by occupational or intentional exposure. -- Highlights: ? Toluene induces impairments in Rotarod test and novel object recognition test. ? Toluene lowers rectal temperature and ICSS thresholds in mice. ? Sarcosine reverses toluene-induced changes in motor, memory and body temperature. ? Sarcosine pretreatment does not affect toluene-induced reward enhancement.

Chan, Ming-Huan [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China) [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Institute of Neuroscience, National Changchi University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Shiang-Sheng [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China) [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Department of Pharmacy, Yuli Veterans Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Stoker, Astrid K.; Markou, Athina [Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)] [Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Chen, Hwei-Hsien, E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China) [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Division of Mental Health and Addiction Medicine, Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China)



Evaluation of toluene degradation pathways by two-dimensional stable isotope fractionation.  


Toluene degradation by several pure and mixed microbial cultures was investigated bytwo-dimensional compound specific isotope analysis (2D-CSIA). For most of the cultures, the respective toluene degradation pathway and toluene attacking enzymatic step was known. The slope of the linear regression for hydrogen (delta delta(2)H) vs. carbon (delta delta(13)C) discrimination (lamda = delta delta(2)H/ delta delta(13)C approximately epsilonH(bulk)/epsilonC(bulk)) was determined in order to characterize aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation pathways. The highest lamda value was estimated for the monohydroxylation of the methyl group by Pseudomonas putida (lamda = 53 +/- 5). The lowest value was observed for Rhodococcus opacus (lamda = 2 +/- 2) due to its insignificant hydrogen fractionation, which indicates that a ring dioxygenase was responsible for the initial attack of toluene. The fungus Cladosprium sphaerospermum containing a cytochrome P450-dependent methyl monooxygenase grouped within these extreme values (lamda = 16 +/- 6). Lamda values for organisms attacking toluene under anoxic conditions by benzylsuccinate synthase were significantly different and ranged from lamda = 4 +/- 3 (Blastochloris sulfoviridis) to 31 +/- 11 (strain TRM1). Values were in the same range for organisms using nitrate (lamda = 11-14) or sulfate (lamda = 28-31) as electron acceptor, indicating that it might be possible to distinguish toluene degradation under different electron acceptor conditions by 2D-CSIA. PMID:19031862

Vogt, Carsten; Cyrus, Esther; Herklotz, Ilka; Schlosser, Dietmar; Bahr, Arne; Herrmann, Steffi; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Fischer, Anko



Abuse Pattern of Toluene Exposure Alters Mouse Behavior in a Waiting-for-Reward Operant Task  

PubMed Central

Inhaling solvents for recreational purposes continues to be a world-wide public health concern. Toluene, a volatile solvent in many abused products, adversely affects the central nervous system. However, the long-term neurobehavioral effects of exposure to high-concentration, binge patterns typical of toluene abuse remain understudied. We studied the behavioral effects of repeated toluene exposure on cognitive function following binge toluene exposure on behavioral impulse control in Swiss Webster mice using a “wait-for-reward” operant task. Mice were trained on a fixed-ratio (FR) schedule using sweetened milk as a reward. Upon achieving FR15, a wait component was added which delivered free rewards in the absence of responses at increasing time intervals (2 sec, 4 sec, 6 sec, etc…). Mice continued to receive free rewards until they pressed a lever that reinstated the FR component (FR Reset). Once proficient in the FR-Wait task, mice were exposed to either 1,000 ppm, 3,600 ppm or 6,000 ppm toluene, or 0 ppm (air controls) for 30 min per day for 40 days. To avoid acute effects of toluene exposure, behavior was assessed 23 hours later. Repeated toluene exposure decreased response rates, the number of FR resets, and increased mean wait time, resulting in a higher response-to-reinforcer ratio than exhibited by controls. Mice receiving the higher exposure level (6,000 ppm) showed a dramatic decrease in the number of rewards received, which was reversed when toluene exposure ceased. Mice receiving the lower exposure level (1,000 ppm) showed little change in the number of rewards. These results indicate that repeated binge exposures to high concentrations of toluene can significantly interfere with performance as measured by a waiting-for-reward task, suggesting a significant impact on cognitive and/or psychomotor function. PMID:18832024

Bowen, Scott E.; McDonald, Phillip



Autoignition of toluene reference fuels at high pressures modeled with detailed chemical kinetics  

SciTech Connect

A detailed chemical kinetic model for the autoignition of toluene reference fuels (TRF) is presented. The toluene submechanism added to the Lawrence Livermore Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) mechanism was developed using recent shock tube autoignition delay time data under conditions relevant to HCCI combustion. For two-component fuels the model was validated against recent high-pressure shock tube autoignition delay time data for a mixture consisting of 35% n-heptane and 65% toluene by liquid volume. Important features of the autoignition of the mixture proved to be cross-acceleration effects, where hydroperoxy radicals produced during n-heptane oxidation dramatically increased the oxidation rate of toluene compared to the case when toluene alone was oxidized. Rate constants for the reaction of benzyl and hydroperoxyl radicals previously used in the modeling of the oxidation of toluene alone were untenably high for modeling of the mixture. To model both systems it was found necessary to use a lower rate and introduce an additional branching route in the reaction between benzyl radicals and O{sub 2}. Good agreement between experiments and predictions was found when the model was validated against shock tube autoignition delay data for gasoline surrogate fuels consisting of mixtures of 63-69% isooctane, 14-20% toluene, and 17% n-heptane by liquid volume. Cross reactions such as hydrogen abstractions between toluene and alkyl and alkylperoxy radicals and between the PRF were introduced for completion of chemical description. They were only of small importance for modeling autoignition delays from shock tube experiments, even at low temperatures. A single-zone engine model was used to evaluate how well the validated mechanism could capture autoignition behavior of toluene reference fuels in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The model could qualitatively predict the experiments, except in the case with boosted intake pressure, where the initial temperature had to be increased significantly in order to predict the point of autoignition. (author)

Andrae, J.C.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Shell Global Solutions, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom); Bjoernbom, P. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Cracknell, R.F.; Kalghatgi, G.T. [Shell Global Solutions, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)



Volatile organic compounds detected in vapor-diffusion samplers placed in sediments along and near the shoreline at Allen Harbor Landfill and Calf Pasture Point, Davisville, Rhode Island, March-April 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volatile organic compounds are present in ground water at the Allen Harbor Landfill and the Calf Pasture Point sites on the former Naval Construction Battalion Center in Davisville, R.I. Vapor-diffusion samplers were used at the two sites during March-April 1998 to identify possible discharge points for contaminants along the shore of Allen Harbor and in two wetland areas near the shore. Results from vapor-diffusion samplers will be used in conjunction with other site information to evaluate proposed ground-water monitoring programs. Volatile organic compounds were detected in 41 of 115 samplers placed along the shoreline at the Allen Harbor Landfill. Trichloroethylene was the principal volatile organic compound detected of eight target compounds. The highest vapor concentration measured exceeded 300,000 parts per billion by volume in an area where TCE was detected in groundwater from nearby monitoring wells. Other chemicals detected in vapor-diffusion samplers included tetrachloroethylene, toluene, and benzene. Concentrations of individual volatile organic compounds were less than 100 parts per billion by volume in most samplers. Volatile organic compounds, principally trichloroethylene, were detected in 7 of 30 samplers placed along the shoreline at Calf Pasture Point; the highest trichloroethylene concentration was 1,900 parts per billion by volume. A trace concentration of tetrachloroethylene was detected in one of the samplers. One of 24 samplers placed in two wetland areas near the shore (suspected discharge areas for ground-water containing volatile organic compounds) detected trichloroethylene at a vapor concentration of 14 parts per billion by volume.

Lyford, F. P.; Kliever, J. D.; Scott, Clifford



Characterization of a methane-utilizing bacterium from a bacterial consortium that rapidly degrades trichloroethylene and chloroform.  

PubMed Central

A mixed culture of bacteria grown in a bioreactor with methane as a carbon and energy source rapidly oxidized trichloroethylene and chloroform. The most abundant organism was a crescent-shaped bacterium that bound the fluorescent oligonucleotide signature probes that specifically hybridize to serine pathway methylotrophs. The 5S rRNA from this bacterium was found to be 93.5% homologous to the Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b 5S RNA sequence. A type II methanotrophic bacterium, isolated in pure culture from the bioreactor, synthesized soluble methane monooxygenase during growth in a copper-limited medium and was also capable of rapid trichloroethylene oxidation. The bacterium contained the gene that encodes the soluble methane monooxygenase B component on an AseI restriction fragment identical in size to a restriction fragment present in AseI digests of DNA from bacteria in the mixed culture. The sequence of the 16S rRNA from the pure culture was found to be 92 and 94% homologous to the 16S rRNAs of M. trichosporium OB3b and M. sporium, respectively. Both the pure and mixed cultures oxidized naphthalene to naphthol, indicating the presence of soluble methane monooxygenase. The mixed culture also synthesized soluble methane monooxygenase, as evidenced by the presence of proteins that cross-reacted with antibodies prepared against purified soluble methane monooxygenase components from M. trichosporium OB3b on Western blots (immunoblots). It was concluded that a type II methanotrophic bacterium phylogenetically related to Methylosinus species synthesizes soluble methane monooxygenase and is responsible for trichloroethylene oxidation in the bioreactor. Images PMID:1377902

Alvarez-Cohen, L; McCarty, P L; Boulygina, E; Hanson, R S; Brusseau, G A; Tsien, H C



Inhaled toluene produces pentobarbital-like discriminative stimulus effects in mice  

SciTech Connect

The abuse of volatile solvents may be due to their ability to produce an intoxication similar to that produced by classical central nervous system depressants such as the barbiturates and ethanol. To evaluate this hypothesis, mice were trained to discriminate pentobarbital from saline injections in a two-lever operant task. Stimulus generalization was examined following 20-min inhalation exposures to toluene (300-5400 ppm). In 8 of 10 subjects, pentobarbital-lever responding occurred following toluene exposure indicating an overlap in the discriminative stimulus properties of toluene and pentobarbital.

Rees, D.C.; Coggeshall, E.; Balster, R.L.



Mechanism of reaction of phenol with toluene on a zeolite catalyst  

SciTech Connect

The high-molecular-weight products formed from phenol and toluene on zeolite-containing catalyst were isolated and studied. By independent synthesis, and by PMR, /sup 13/C NMR, IR, and TLC methods it was shown that these products are hydroxy- and dihydroxydiphenyl-methane type compounds. The role of hydroxy- and dihydroxydiphenylmethanes as intermediates in cresol formation from phenol and toluene and their high coking activity were proved. A probable mechanism of cresol formation was proposed with the participation of hydroxy- and dihydroxydiphenylmethanes in the reaction of phenol with toluene on zeolites.

Kozhevnikov, S.A.; Sibarov, D.A.; Proskuryakov, V.A.



Metabolic correlates of toluene abuse: decline and recovery of function in adolescent animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Children and adolescents will readily abuse household products that contain solvents such as toluene. It is likely that reinforcing\\u000a exposures to toluene alter brain glucose metabolism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  Using an animal model of drug reinforcement, we sought to identify a metabolic signature of toluene abuse in the adolescent\\u000a rodent brain. Small animal PET (microPET), in combination with the glucose analog radiotracer, 18FDG,

Wynne K. Schiffer; Dianne E. Lee; David L. Alexoff; Rich Ferrieri; Jonathan D. Brodie; Stephen L. Dewey



New perspectives on the cancer risks of trichloroethylene, its metabolites, and chlorination by-products  

SciTech Connect

Scientific developments in the 1990`s have important implications for the assessment of cancer risks posed by exposures to trichloroethylene (TCE). These new developments include: epidemiological studies; experimental studies of TCE carcinogenicity, metabolism and metabolite carcinogenicity; applications of new physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for TCE; and new pharmacodynamic data obtained for TCE and its rhetabolites. Following a review of previous assessments of TCE carcinogenicity, each of these new sets of developments is summarized. The new epidemiological data do not provide evidence of TCE carcinogenicity in humans, and the new pharmacodynamic data support the hypothesis that TCE carcinogenicity is caused by TCE-induced cytotoxicity. Based on this information, PBPK-based estimates for likely no-adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for human exposures to TCE are calculated to be 16 ppb for TCE in air respired 24 hr/day, and 210 ppb for TCE in drinking water. Cancer risks of zero are predicted for TCE exposures below these calculated NOAELs. For comparison, hypothetical cancer risks posed by lifetime ingestive and multiroute household exposures to TCE in drinking water, at the currently enforced Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) concentration of 5 ppb are extrapolated from animal bioassay data using a conservative, linear dose-response model. These TCE-related risks are compared to corresponding ones associated with concentrations of chlorination by-products (CBP) in household water. It is shown that, from the standpoint of comparative hypothetical cancer risks, based on conservative linear dose-response extrapolations, there would likely be no health benefit, and more likely a possible health detriment, associated with any switch from a household water supply containing <375 ppb TCE to one containing CBP at levels corresponding to the currently proposed 80-ppb MCL for total trihalomethanes.

Bogen, K.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Slone, T.; Gold, L.S.; Manley, N.; Revzan, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)



Toxicogenomic analysis reveals profibrogenic effects of trichloroethylene in autoimmune-mediated cholangitis in mice.  


Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to environmental chemicals increases the risk of developing autoimmune liver disease. However, the identity of specific chemical perpetrators and the mechanisms whereby environmental chemicals modify liver disease is unclear. Previous studies link exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) with the development of autoimmune liver disease and exacerbation of autoimmunity in lupus-prone MRL mice. In this study, we utilized NOD.c3c4 mice, which spontaneously develop autoimmune cholangitis bearing resemblance to some features of primary biliary cirrhosis. Nine-week-old female NOD.c3c4 mice were given TCE (0.5 mg/ml) or its vehicle (1% Cremophor-EL) in drinking water for 4 weeks. TCE had little effect on clinical chemistry, biliary cyst formation, or hepatic CD3+ T-cell accumulation. Hepatic microarray profiling revealed a dramatic suppression of early growth response 1 (EGR1) mRNA in livers of TCE-treated mice, which was verified by qPCR and immunohistochemical staining. Consistent with a reported link between reduced EGR1 expression and liver fibrosis, TCE increased hepatic type I collagen (COL1A1) mRNA and protein levels in livers of NOD.c3c4 mice. In contrast, TCE did not increase COL1A1 expression in NOD.ShiLtJ mice, which do not develop autoimmune cholangitis. These results suggest that in the context of concurrent autoimmune liver disease with a genetic basis, modification of hepatic gene expression by TCE may increase profibrogenic signaling in the liver. Moreover, these studies suggest that NOD.c3c4 mice may be a novel model to study gene-environment interactions critical for the development of autoimmune liver disease. PMID:25055964

Kopec, Anna K; Sullivan, Bradley P; Kassel, Karen M; Joshi, Nikita; Luyendyk, James P



Trichloroethylene oxidation performance in sodium percarbonate (SPC)/Fe2+ system.  


In this study, in-situ chemical oxidation technique employing Fe(II) catalytic sodium percarbonate (SPC) to stimulate the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater remediation was investigated. The effects of various factors including the SPC/TCE/Fe2+ molar ratio, the initial solution pH and the widely found constituents in groundwater matrix such as Cl(-), HCO3(-), SO4(2-) and NO3(-) anions and natural organic matters were evaluated. The experimental results showed that TCE could be completely oxidized in 5 min at 20 degrees C with a SPC/TCE/Fe2+ molar ratio of 5:1:10, indicating the significant effectiveness of the SPC/Fe2+ system for TCE removal. The initial solution pH value (from 3 to 11) has less influence on TCE oxidation rate. In contrast, Cl(-) and HCO3(-) anions had a negative effect on TCE removal in which HCO3(-) possesses a stronger influence than Cl(-), whereas the effects of both SO4(2-) and NO3(-) anions appeared to be negligible. With the 1.0-10 mg/L concentrations of humic acid in solution, slightly inhibitive effect was observed, suggesting that dissolved organic matters consumed less SPC and had a negligible effect on the oxidation of TCE in SPC/Fe2+ system. From the intermediate products' analyses and the released Cl(-) contents from TCE parent contaminant in solution, all the decomposed TCE had completely dechlorinated and led to carbon dioxide and hydrocarbon. In conclusion, Fe(II) catalytic SPC oxidation is a highly promising technique for TCE-contaminated groundwater remediation, but some complex constituents such as HCO3(-), in in-situ groundwater matrix should be carefully considered for its practical application. PMID:24645461

Zang, Xueke; Gu, Xiaogang; Lu, Shuguang; Qiu, Zhaofu; Sui, Qian; Lin, Kuangfei; Du, Xiaoming



Degradation of trichloroethylene in wetland microcosms containing broad-leaved cattail and eastern cottonwood.  


Remediation of aquifers containing trichloroethylene (TCE) relies primarily on physical extraction of contaminated groundwater and soil. Unfortunately, this is typically expensive and does not always attain the desired treatment goals. In situ bioremediation via natural attenuation is an alternative treatment process in which TCE is transformed by indigenous microorganisms and plants. In this study, TCE was observed in a surficial aquifer that discharges into a wetland. Experiments were undertaken to determine whether natural attenuation of TCE in the wetland was possible. Microcosms were constructed using sandy soil+/-eastern cottonwoods (Populus deltoides) from the wetland's edge and organic soil+broad-leaved cattails (Typha latifolia) from the wetland's interior. [14C] TCE was added to each microcosm (1.27 microCi). Overtime, 14C was recovered from four microcosm compartments: (1) as 14C bound to soil and water, (2) as volatilized [14C] TCE, (3) as [14C] CO2 produced by mineralization of [14C] TCE, and (4) as 14C incorporated into the plants. Total recoveries of the 14C-label ranged from 73.6% to 95.8%. Volatilized [14C] TCE accounted for the majority ( > 50%) of the recovered label. In microcosms without plants, [14C] CO2 represented 3.2% (organic soil) to 15.6% (sandy soil) of the recovered 14C, indicating that TCE was mineralized by indigenous microorganisms. The presence of the broad-leaved cattail resulted in increased production of [14C] CO2 to 5.3% in the organic soil. The data thus suggest that natural attenuation is a potential bioremediative strategy for TCE-contaminated wetlands. PMID:11996342

Bankston, Jamie L; Sola, Daniel L; Komor, Andrew T; Dwyer, Daryl F



Modeling toxicodynamic effects of trichloroethylene on liver in mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis.  


Chronic exposure to industrial solvent and water pollutant trichloroethylene (TCE) in female MRL+/+mice generates disease similar to human autoimmune hepatitis. The current study was initiated to investigate why TCE-induced autoimmunity targeted the liver. Compared to other tissues the liver has an unusually robust capacity for repair and regeneration. This investigation examined both time-dependent and dose-dependent effects of TCE on hepatoprotective and pro-inflammatory events in liver and macrophages from female MRL+/+mice. After a 12-week exposure to TCE in drinking water a dose-dependent decrease in macrophage production of IL-6 at both the transcriptional and protein level was observed. A longitudinal study similarly showed that TCE inhibited macrophage IL-6 production. In terms of the liver, TCE had little effect on expression of pro-inflammatory genes (Tnfa, Saa2 or Cscl1) until the end of the 40-week exposure. Instead, TCE suppressed hepatic expression of genes involved in IL-6 signaling (Il6r, gp130, and Egr1). Linear regression analysis confirmed liver histopathology in the TCE-treated mice correlated with decreased expression of Il6r. A toxicodynamic model was developed to estimate the effects of TCE on IL-6 signaling and liver pathology under different levels of exposure and rates of repair. This study underlined the importance of longitudinal studies in mechanistic evaluations of immuntoxicants. It showed that later-occurring liver pathology caused by TCE was associated with early suppression of hepatoprotection rather than an increase in conventional pro-inflammatory events. This information was used to create a novel toxicodynamic model of IL-6-mediated TCE-induced liver inflammation. PMID:25026505

Gilbert, Kathleen M; Reisfeld, Brad; Zurlinden, Todd J; Kreps, Meagan N; Erickson, Stephen W; Blossom, Sarah J



Identification of antigenic proteins associated with trichloroethylene-induced autoimmune disease by serological proteome analysis  

SciTech Connect

Although many studies indicated that trichloroethylene (TCE) could induce autoimmune diseases and some protein adducts were detected, the proteins were not identified and mechanisms remain unknown. To screen and identify autoantigens which might be involved in TCE-induced autoimmune diseases, three groups of sera were collected from healthy donors (I), patients suffering from TCE-induced exfoliative dermatitis (ED) (II), and the healed ones (III). Serological proteome analysis (SERPA) was performed with total proteins of TCE-treated L-02 liver cells as antigen sources and immunoglobins of the above sera as probes. Highly immunogenic spots (2-fold or above increase compared with group I) in group II and III were submitted to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry sequencing. Western blot analysis was followed using commercial antibodies and individual serum. Six proteins were identified. Among them, Enoyl Coenzyme A hydratase peroxisoma 1 and lactate dehydrogenase B only showed stronger immunogenicity for group II sera, while Purine nucleoside phosphorylase, ribosomal protein P0 and proteasome activator subunit1 isoform1 also showed stronger immunogenicity for group III sera. Noteworthy, NM23 reacted only with group II sera. Western blot analysis of NM23 expression indicated that all of the individual serum of group II showed immune activity, which confirmed the validity of SERPA result. These findings revealed that there exist autoantibodies in group II and III sera. Besides, autoantibodies of the two stages of disease course were different. These autoantigens might serve as biomarkers to elucidate mechanisms underlying TCE toxicity and are helpful for diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of TCE-induced autoimmune diseases.

Liu Jianjun; Xing Xiumei; Huang Haiyan; Jiang Yingzhi; He Haowei; Xu Xinyun; Yuan Jianhui; Zhou Li; Yang Linqing [Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 21, Rd 1st Tianbei, 518020 Shenzhen (China); Zhuang Zhixiong, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 21, Rd 1st Tianbei, 518020 Shenzhen (China)



Evaluating noncancer effects of trichloroethylene: dosimetry, mode of action, and risk assessment.  

PubMed Central

Alternatives for developing chronic exposure limits for noncancer effects of trichloroethylene (TCE) were evaluated. These alternatives were organized within a framework for dose-response assessment--exposure:dosimetry (pharmacokinetics):mode of action (pharmacodynamics): response. This framework provides a consistent structure within which to make scientific judgments about available information, its interpretation, and use. These judgments occur in the selection of critical studies, internal dose metrics, pharmacokinetic models, approaches for interspecies extrapolation of pharmacodynamics, and uncertainty factors. Potentially limiting end points included developmental eye malformations, liver effects, immunotoxicity, and kidney toxicity from oral exposure and neurological, liver, and kidney effects by inhalation. Each end point was evaluated quantitatively using several methods. Default analyses used the traditional no-observed adverse effect level divided by uncertainty factors and the benchmark dose divided by uncertainty factors methods. Subsequently, mode-of-action and pharmacokinetic information were incorporated. Internal dose metrics were estimated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for TCE and its major metabolites. This approach was notably useful with neurological and kidney toxicities. The human PBPK model provided estimates of human exposure doses for the internal dose metrics. Pharmacodynamic data or default assumptions were used for interspecies extrapolation. For liver and neurological effects, humans appear no more sensitive than rodents when internal dose metrics were considered. Therefore, the interspecies uncertainty factor was reduced, illustrating that uncertainty factors are a semiquantitative approach fitting into the organizational framework. Incorporation of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics can result in values that differ significantly from those obtained with the default methods. PMID:10807562

Barton, H A; Clewell, H J



Molecular mechanism of trichloroethylene-induced hepatotoxicity mediated by CYP2E1  

SciTech Connect

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 was suggested to be the major enzyme involved in trichloroethylene (TRI) metabolism and TRI-induced hepatotoxicity, although the latter molecular mechanism is not fully understood. The involvement of CYP2E1 in TRI-induced hepatotoxicity and its underlying molecular mechanism were studied by comparing hepatotoxicity in cyp2e1{sup +/+} and cyp2e1{sup -/-} mice. The mice were exposed by inhalation to 0 (control), 1000, or 2000 ppm of TRI for 8 h a day, for 7 days, and TRI-hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and histopathology. Urinary metabolites of trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) were considerably greater in cyp2e1{sup +/+} compared to cyp2e1{sup -/-} mice, suggesting that CYP2E1 is the major P450 involved in the formation of these metabolites. Consistent with elevated plasma ALT and AST activities, cyp2e1{sup +/+} mice in the 2000 ppm group showed histopathological inflammation. TRI significantly upregulated PPAR{alpha}, which might function to inhibit NF{kappa}B p50 and p65 signalling. In addition, TRI-induced NF{kappa}B p52 mRNA, and significantly positive correlation between NF{kappa}B p52 mRNA expression and plasma ALT activity levels were observed, suggesting the involvement of p52 in liver inflammation. Taken together, the current study directly demonstrates that CYP2E1 was the major P450 involved in the first step of the TRI metabolism, and the metabolites produced may have two opposing roles: one inducing hepatotoxicity and the other protecting against the toxicity. Intermediate metabolite(s) from TRI to chloral hydrate produced by CYP2E1-mediated oxidation may be involved in the former, and TCA in the latter.

Ramdhan, Doni Hikmat; Kamijima, Michihiro; Yamada, Naoyasu; Ito, Yuki; Yanagiba, Yukie; Nakamura, Daichi; Okamura, Ai; Ichihara, Gaku [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Aoyama, Toshifumi [Department of Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Aging and Adaptation, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Gonzalez, Frank J. [Laboratory of Metabolism, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Nakajima, Tamie [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)], E-mail:



A Case-Control Study of Occupational Exposure to Trichloroethylene and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background Previous epidemiologic findings suggest an association between exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE), a chlorinated solvent primarily used for vapor degreasing of metal parts, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Objectives We investigated the association between occupational TCE exposure and NHL within a population-based case–control study using detailed exposure assessment methods. Methods Cases (n = 1,189; 76% participation rate) and controls (n = 982; 52% participation rate) provided information on their occupational histories and, for selected occupations, on possible workplace exposure to TCE using job-specific interview modules. An industrial hygienist assessed potential TCE exposure based on this information and a review of the TCE industrial hygiene literature. We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating NHL and different metrics of estimated TCE exposure, categorized using tertiles among exposed controls, with unexposed subjects as the reference group. Results We observed associations with NHL for the highest tertiles of estimated average weekly exposure (23 exposed cases; OR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–6.1) and cumulative exposure (24 exposed cases; OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.0–5.0) to TCE. Tests for trend with these metrics surpassed or approached statistical significance (p-value for trend = 0.02 and 0.08, respectively); however, we did not observe dose–response relationships across the exposure levels. Overall, neither duration nor intensity of exposure was associated with NHL, although we observed an association with the lowest tertile of exposure duration (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0–4.7). Conclusions Our findings offer additional support for an association between high levels of exposure to TCE and increased risk of NHL. However, we cannot rule out the possibility of confounding from other chlorinated solvents used for vapor degreasing and note that our exposure assessment methods have not been validated. PMID:21370516

Purdue, Mark P.; Bakke, Berit; Stewart, Patricia; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schenk, Maryjean; Lynch, Charles F.; Bernstein, Leslie; Morton, Lindsay M.; Cerhan, James R.; Severson, Richard K.; Cozen, Wendy; Davis, Scott; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hartge, Patricia; Colt, Joanne S.



Occupational trichloroethylene exposure and risk of lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers: a meta-analysis.  


The carcinogenic potential of trichloroethylene (TCE) continues to generate much controversy, even after the US Environmental Protection Agency raised its classification to 'carcinogenic to humans'. We conducted a meta-analysis of published cohort and case-control studies exploring occupational TCE exposure in relation to five different lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers: non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, N=24), Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL, N=13), multiple myeloma (MM, N=11), leukaemia (N=12) and chronic/small lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL/SLL, N=7).  Studies published between 1950 and 2011 were identified through a PubMed Medline search. All studies included in analyses were classified as those that assessed either occupational TCE exposure specifically ('TCE-exposure' studies) or a broader classification of all chlorinated solvents ('chlorinated solvent-exposure' studies).  A significantly raised summary estimate for NHL was seen for all cohort and case-control 'TCE-exposure' studies combined (N=19; relative risk (RR)=1.32, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.54; I(2)=25.20; p-heterogeneity=0.12) and for cohort 'TCE-exposure' studies (N=10; RR=1.52, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.79; I(2)=7.09; p-heterogeneity=0.63). A non-significant but raised summary estimate was seen for NHL case-control 'TCE-exposure' studies. No significant association with NHL risk was detected overall for any 'chlorinated solvent-exposure' studies. Summary estimates for occupational TCE exposure were not associated with risk of HL, MM, leukaemia or CLL/SLL.  Our updated meta-analysis of NHL, which incorporates new analytical results from three cohort and four case-control studies, supports an association between occupational TCE exposure and NHL. PMID:23723297

Karami, Sara; Bassig, Bryan; Stewart, Patricia A; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Rothman, Nathaniel; Moore, Lee E; Lan, Qing



Aerobic degradation of trichloroethylene by co-metabolism using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates.  


Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common groundwater contaminant of toxic and carcinogenic concern. Aerobic co-metabolic processes are the predominant pathways for TCE complete degradation. In this study, Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied as the active microorganism to degrade TCE under aerobic condition by co-metabolic degradation using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates. Operating conditions influencing TCE degradation efficiency were optimized. TCE co-metabolic degradation rate reached the maximum of 80% under the optimized conditions of degradation time of 3 days, initial OD600 of microorganism culture of 0.14 (1.26×10? cell/mL), initial phenol concentration of 100 mg/L, initial TCE concentration of 0.1 mg/L, pH of 6.0, and salinity of 0.1%. The modified transformation capacity and transformation yield were 20 ?g (TCE)/mg (biomass) and 5.1 ?g (TCE)/mg (phenol), respectively. Addition of nutrient broth promoted TCE degradation with phenol as growth substrate. It was revealed that catechol 1,2-dioxygenase played an important role in TCE co-metabolism. The dechlorination of TCE was complete, and less chlorinated products were not detected at the end of the experiment. TCE could also be co-metabolized in the presence of gasoline; however, the degradation rate was not high (28%). When phenol was introduced into the system of TCE and gasoline, TCE and gasoline could be removed at substantial rates (up to 59% and 69%, respectively). This study provides a promising approach for the removal of combined pollution of TCE and gasoline. PMID:24857922

Li, Yan; Li, Bing; Wang, Cui-Ping; Fan, Jun-Zhao; Sun, Hong-Wen



Toluene Elicits a Carbon Starvation Response in Pseudomonas putida mt-2 Containing the TOL Plasmid pWW0  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas putida mt-2(pWWO) exhibited a carbon starvation response in the presence of toluene, a utilizable carbon source. When growth-supporting (4-mg/liter), inhibitory (130-mg/liter), and lethal (267-mg/ liter) levels of toluene were provided as the sole carbon source, P. putida responded by rapidly inhibiting protein synthesis and by producing 26 new proteins, 22 of which overlapped with those induced by carbon starvation. P. putida produced the same proteins when cultures were starved by depleting their carbon source or were downshifted into a carbon-free medium. Carbon supplementation of toluene-exposed cells suppressed the production of the toluene-induced proteins. The level of toluene provided as the sole carbon source influenced the length of time that this response was observed. Following 1.5 to 3 h in a basal salts medium with 4 mg of toluene per liter, protein synthesis increased, the production of the majority of the toluene-induced proteins ceased, and the cells began to grow. In cells provided with 130 mg of toluene per liter, protein synthesis remained inhibited over a 6.5-h experimental period. At this concentration, the production of 15 toluene-induced proteins was prolonged, with nine still detectable in the profiles at 6.5 h. In cells provided with 267 mg of toluene per liter, there was a rapid loss of viability and the toluene-induced proteins were detected prior to death. In cells provided with 4 mg of toluene per liter, the carbon starvation response is transient and likely reflects a period of induction and/or adaptation prior to growth on toluene. At the toluene concentrations which inhibit growth, P. putida exhibits a prolonged starvation response despite the presence of an excess of a utilizable carbon source. PMID:16535605

Vercellone-Smith, P.; Herson, D. S.



The atmospheric release of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene from contaminated soils  

E-print Network

for the remediation of gasoline contaminated soils. Excavation and removal of soils containing hydrocarbons is the most widely used remediation technique because of immediate and total site cleanup. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) combined are from...

Ramsey, Ronald Roland




EPA Science Inventory

Reductive biotransformation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) to ethene occurred during anaerobic degradation of toluene in an enrichment culture. Ethene was detected as a dominant daughter product of PCE dechlorination with negligible accumulation of other partially chlorinated ethenes...


Insights into the different dioxygen activation pathways of methane and toluene monooxygenase hydroxylases  

E-print Network

The methane and toluene monooxygenase hydroxylases (MMOH and TMOH, respectively) have almost identical active sites, yet the physical and chemical properties of their oxygenated intermediates, designated P*, H[subscript ...

Bochevarov, Arteum D.


Controlling the Regiospecific Oxidation of Aromatics via Active Site Engineering of Toluene para-Monooxygenase of  

E-print Network

% p-cresol and p-nitrophenol from tol- uene and nitrobenzene, respectively, as well as pro- duced 2 that formed 75% m-cresol from toluene and 100% m-nitrophenol from nitrobenzene; thus, for the first time

Wood, Thomas K.



EPA Science Inventory

Petroleum contamination of groundwater is widely recognized as a serious environmental problem. Toluene (methylbenzene) occurs naturally in crude oil and is commonly found as a contaminant in the subsurface as a result of waste disposal and storage activities. Biological transf...


Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 29 (2001) 327336 Gas-phase photo-oxidation of toluene using  

E-print Network

) and UV or near-UV light source. When the catalyst absorbs photons having greater en- ergy than the band the photo-oxidation of toluene [8]. The slow reaction rate obtained for these processes led Lue


75 FR 52768 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Dichlorophene and Toluene Capsules  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...withdrawing approval of two new animal drug applications (NADAs) for use of dichlorophene and toluene deworming capsules for cats and dogs. In a final rule published elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is amending the regulations to...



Bronchoalveolar neutrophilia during late asthmatic reactions induced by toluene diisocyanate.  


The mechanism by which late asthmatic reactions are induced by toluene diisocyanate (TDI), a low molecular weight chemical that causes occupational asthma in exposed subjects, is unknown. We investigated whether early and late asthmatic reactions induced by TDI are associated with changes in airway responsiveness to methacholine and airway inflammation as determined by bronchoalveolar lavage. We measured FEV1 before and at regular intervals after exposure to TDI, and performed dose-response curves to methacholine and bronchoalveolar lavage at 8 h after TDI in a group of 6 subjects with late asthmatic reactions and in 6 subjects with only early asthmatic reactions. The same procedure was followed 2 h after TDI in a group of 6 subjects with previously documented late asthmatic reactions and in a group of 6 subjects without any previously documented asthmatic reaction after TDI. In subjects with late asthmatic reactions, neutrophils were increased at both 2 and 8 h, and eosinophils and airway responsiveness were increased only at 8 h. By contrast, neutrophils, eosinophils and airway responsiveness were not increased at 8 h after TDI in subjects with an early asthmatic reaction or at 2 h after TDI in normal control subjects. These results suggest that late asthmatic reactions to TDI, and the associated increase in airway responsiveness, may be caused by airway inflammation. PMID:3037957

Fabbri, L M; Boschetto, P; Zocca, E; Milani, G; Pivirotto, F; Plebani, M; Burlina, A; Licata, B; Mapp, C E



Toluene pyrolysis studies and high temperature reactions of propargyl chloride  

SciTech Connect

The main focus of this program is to investigate the thermal decompositions of fuels that play an important role in the pre-particle soot formation process. It has been demonstrated that the condition of maximum soot yield is established when the reaction conditions of temperature and pressure are sufficient to establish a radical pool to support the production of polyaromatic hydrocarbon species and the subsequent formation of soot particles. However, elevated temperatures result in lower soot yields which are attributed to thermolyses of aromatic ring structures and result in the bell-shaped dependence of soot yield on temperature. The authors have selected several acyclic hydrocarbons to evaluate the chemical thermodynamic and kinetic effects attendant to benzene formation. To assess the thermal stability of the aromatic ring, the authors have studied the pyrolyses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene and pyridine. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF) is employed to analyze the reaction zone behind reflected shock waves. Reaction time histories of the reactants, products, and intermediates are constructed and mechanisms are formulated to model the experimental data. The TOF work is often performed with use of laser schlieren densitometry (LS) to measure density gradients resulting from the heats of various reactions involved in a particular pyrolytic system. The two techniques, TOF and LS, provide independent and complementary information about ring formation and ring rupture reactions.

Kern, R.D.; Chen, H.; Qin, Z. [Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States)



Fatal asthma in a subject sensitized to toluene diisocyanate  

SciTech Connect

We report the case of a 43-yr-old car painter who died within 1 h of exposure to a polyurethane paint in the workplace. A diagnosis of asthma induced by toluene diisocyanate (TDI) had been established 6 yr before, when he underwent inhalation challenges with carbachol and with TDI. The subject had airway hyperresponsiveness to carbachol (PD20FEV1 carbachol = 0.32 mg; normal value greater than 1.0 mg) and developed an early and long-lasting asthmatic reaction after exposure to TDI in the laboratory. Although it was recommended that he change his job or stop using paints containing isocyanates, he continued to work as a car painter, taking antiasthmatic drugs both at work and at home to control asthma symptoms. On Monday, October 6, 1986, at 11:30 A. M., he developed a severe attack of asthma while he was mixing the 2 components of a polyurethane paint. Taken to hospital, he was dead on arrival. Autopsy showed no evidence of cardiac or brain disease; lungs were overinflated, the cut surface showed grey glistening mucous plugs in in the airways. Histologic examination showed denudation of airway epithelium and thickening of the basement membrane with infiltration of the lamina propria by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, mainly eosinophils, and diffuse mucous plugging of bronchioles. Bronchial smooth muscle appeared hyperplastic and disarrayed, and lung parenchyma showed focal areas of alveolar destruction adjacent to areas of perfectly intact alveolar walls.

Fabbri, L.M.; Danieli, D.; Crescioli, S.; Bevilacqua, P.; Meli, S.; Saetta, M.; Mapp, C.E.



Impact of coexposure on toluene biomarkers in rats.  


1.?Toluene (TOL) is widely used in industry. Occupational exposure to TOL is commonly assessed using TOL in blood, hippuric acid and ortho-cresol. Levels of these biomarkers may depend on factors potentially interfering with TOL biotransformation, such as the presence of other solvents in the workplace. Mercapturic acids (MAs) could be an alternative to the "traditional" TOL biomarkers. 2.?This study aims (1) to investigate in rat the effects of an exposure to vapours mixtures on the TOL metabolism, and (2) to assess how well MAs performed in these contexts compared to the traditional TOL biomarkers. 3.?Rats were exposed by inhalation to binary mixtures of TOL with n-butanol (BuOH), ethyl acetate (EtAc), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) or xylenes (XYLs); biological exposure indicators were then measured. 4.?Depending on the compounds in the mixture and their concentrations, TOL metabolism was accelerated (with BuOH), unchanged (with EtAc) or inhibited (with XYLs and MEK). Inhibition leads to an increase in blood TOL concentrations, even at authorized atmospheric concentrations, which may potentiate the effect of TOL. 5.?MAs excretions are little affected by coexposure scenarios, their levels correlating well with atmospheric TOL levels. They could thus be suitable bioindicators of atmospheric TOL exposure. PMID:24015909

Cosnier, Frédéric; Nunge, Hervé; Brochard, Céline; Burgart, Manuella; Rémy, Aurélie; Décret, Marie-Josèphe; Cossec, Benoît; Campo, Pierre



Vapor-liquid equilibria for the binary systems of benzene/toluene, diphenylmethane/toluene, m-cresol/1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, and quinoline/benzene  

SciTech Connect

Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for the binary systems of benzene/toluene, diphenylmethane/toluene, m-cresol/1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, and benzene/quinoline were measured at low to moderate pressures (0-1733 kPa) by using a static equilibrium cell. The data were isothermally correlated by using the Peng-Robinson equation of state to describe both vapor and liquid phases. The data were also correlated by using the Peng-Robinson equation of state to describe the vapor phase and the universal quasi-chemical (UNIQUAC) excess Gibbs free energy expression for the liquid phase.

Klara, S.M.; Mohamed, R.S.; Dempsey, D.M.; Holder, G.D.



Multiple pathways for toluene degradation in Burkholderia sp. strain JS150.  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) sp. strain JS150 uses multiple pathways for the metabolism of catechols that result from degradation of aromatic compounds. This suggests that the strain also uses multiple upstream pathways for the initial hydroxylation of aromatic substrates. Two distinct DNA fragments that allowed Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1c to grow with benzene as a sole carbon source were cloned from strain JS150. One of the recombinant plasmids containing the initial steps for the degradative pathway contained a 14-kb DNA insert and was designated pRO2016. We have previously shown that the DNA insert originated from a plasmid carried by strain JS150 and contained genes encoding a multicomponent toluene-2-monooxygenase (tbmABCDEF) as well as the cognate regulatory protein (tbmR) that controls expression of the 2-monooxygenase (G. R. Johnson and R. H. Olsen, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:3336-3346, 1995). Subsequently, we have identified an additional region on this DNA fragment that encodes toluene-4-monooxygenase activity. The toluene-4-monooxygenase activity was also regulated by the tbmR gene product. A second DNA fragment that allowed P. aeruginosa to grow with benzene was obtained as a 20-kb insert on a recombinant plasmid designated pRO2015. The DNA insert contained genes encoding toluene-4-monooxygenase activity but no toluene-2-monooxygenase activity. The pRO2015 insert originated from the chromosome of strain JS150, unlike the region cloned in pRO2016. Southern blots and restriction map comparisons showed that the genes for the individual 4-monooxygenases were distinct from one another. Thus, strain JS150 has been shown to have at least three toluene/benzene monooxygenases to initiate toluene metabolism in addition to the toluene dioxygenase reported previously by others. PMID:9327568

Johnson, G R; Olsen, R H



Development and Testing of a Bacterial Biosensor for Toluene-Based Environmental Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial biosensor for benzene, toluene, and similar compounds has been constructed, characterized, and field tested on contaminated water and soil. The biosensor is based on a plasmid incorporating the transcrip- tional activator xylR from the TOL plasmid of Pseudomonas putida mt-2. The XylR protein binds a subset of toluene-like compounds and activates transcription at its promoter, Pu. A reporter




Kinetics of aerobic biodegradation of benzene and toluene in sandy aquifer material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monod's equation adequately described aerobic biodegradation rates of benzene and toluene by the microbial population of a sandy aquifer when these compounds were initially present at concentrations lower than 100 mg\\/l each. Concentrations higher than 100 mg\\/l were inhibitory, and no benzene or toluene degradation was observed when these compounds were initially present at 250 mg\\/l each. The Monod coefficients

Pedro J. J. Alvarez; Paul J. Anid; Timothy M. Vogel



Structures of the Multicomponent Rieske Non-Heme Iron Toluene 2,3Dioxygenase Enzyme System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases catalyze the initial hydroxylation of aromatic hydrocarbon substrates. The structures of all three components of one such system, the toluene 2,3-dioxygenase system, have now been determined. This system consists of a reductase, a ferredoxin and a terminal dioxygenase. The dioxygenase, which was cocrystallized with toluene, is a heterohexamer containing a catalytic and a structural subunit.

R. Friemann; K Lee; E Brown; D Gibson; H Eklund; S Ramaswamy



Hippuric acid and o-cresol in the urine of workers exposed to Toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factory workers, 74 males and 56 females exposed predominantly to toluene up to 129 ppm, were examined for the urinary excretion of hippuric acid and o-cresol. The time-weighted averages (TWA) of toluene exposure were measured by personal sampling with carbon felt dosimeters. A preliminary study revealed that the concentrations of hippuric acid and o-cresol in urine increased during work and

Kenji Hasegawa; Shoji Shiojima; Akio Koizmui; Masayuki Ikeda



Urinary excretion of O -cresol and hippuric acid after toluene exposure in rotogravure printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In 62 male rotogravure printers, the time-weighted average (TWA) toluene exposure during one workweek ranged from 8 to 496 mg\\/m3 (median 96). Post-shift urinary excretion of hippuric acid showed a poor correlation with the air toluene concentration. Level of o-cresol excretion ranged from 0.08 to 2.37 mmol\\/mol creatinine and was associated with the exposure (rs = 0.57, PP =

Gun Nise



Binge Toluene Exposure in Pregnancy and Pre-weaning Developmental Consequences in Rats  

PubMed Central

The persistent rate of abuse of inhaled organic solvents, especially among women of child-bearing age, raises the risk for teratogenic effects of maternal toluene abuse. In this study, timed-pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were exposed from Gestation Day (GD) 8 to GD20 to 12,000 or 8,000 parts per million (ppm) toluene, or 0 ppm (controls) for 30 min twice daily, 60 min total daily exposure. Pups were assessed from postnatal day (PN) 4 to PN21 using a developmental battery measuring growth (i.e., body weight), maturational milestones (e.g., eye opening & incisor eruption), and biobehavioral development (e.g., negative geotaxis & surface righting). Pups exposed in utero to 12,000 ppm or 8,000 ppm toluene weighed significantly less than the non-exposed control pups beginning at PN4 and PN12 (respectively) until PN21. Toluene resulted in significant increases in an index of poor perinatal outcome, specifically a composite of malformations, defined “runting” and neonatal death. No significant delays were observed in reaching maturational milestones. The results reveal that brief, repeated, prenatal exposure to high concentrations of toluene can cause growth retardation and malformations in rats. A comparison of the present, conservative results with findings in previous studies implies that binge patterns of toluene exposure in pregnant rats modeling human solvent abuse can result in developmental and morphological deficits in offspring. These results do not exclude the possibility that maternal toxicity as well as teratogenic effects of toluene may contribute to outcomes. The results suggest that abuse of inhaled organic solvents like toluene may result in similar early developmental outcomes in humans. PMID:23597557

Bowen, Scott E.; Hannigan, John H.



Humidity Effect on Toluene Decomposition in a Wire-plate Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory-scale experiments were performed to evaluate the humidity effect on toluene decomposition by using a wire-plate\\u000a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The toluene decomposition efficiency\\u000a as well as the carbon dioxide selectivity with\\/without water in a gas stream of N2 with 5% O2 was investigated. Under the optimal humidity of 0.2% the characteristics of

Guo Yu-fang; Ye Dai-qi; Tian Ya-feng; Chen Ke-fu



Removal of hydrogen sulfide, benzene and toluene by a fluidized bed bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant off gases from publicly owned treatment works include hydrogen sulfide, benzene, and toluene. In this research,\\u000a hydrogen sulfide oxidized byBacillus cereus, and benzene with toluene were removed by VOC-degrading microbial consortium. The optimum operating condition of the fluidized\\u000a bed bioreactor including both microorganisms was 30 ‡C, pH 6–8, and 150 cm of liquid bed height. The critical loading

Kwang Joong Oh; Ki Chul Cho; Young Hean Choung; Suk Kyong Park; Sung Ki Cho; Donguk Kim



Competitive Hydrogenation of Benzene and Toluene on Palladium and Platinum Catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the influence of the support on the relative hydrogenation rates of benzene and toluene in mixtures, and it also analyzes the influence of the chosen reaction model on the interpretation of fitted rate parameters. The relative hydrogenation rates,RT\\/B, over Pd catalysts at an equimolar feed composition of 50% toluene and 50% benzene were 0.65±0.10 and had little

Deepak Poondi; M. Albert Vannice



HCCI experiments with toluene reference fuels modeled by a semidetailed chemical kinetic model  

SciTech Connect

A semidetailed mechanism (137 species and 633 reactions) and new experiments in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine on the autoignition of toluene reference fuels are presented. Skeletal mechanisms for isooctane and n-heptane were added to a detailed toluene submechanism. The model shows generally good agreement with ignition delay times measured in a shock tube and a rapid compression machine and is sensitive to changes in temperature, pressure, and mixture strength. The addition of reactions involving the formation and destruction of benzylperoxide radical was crucial to modeling toluene shock tube data. Laminar burning velocities for benzene and toluene were well predicted by the model after some revision of the high-temperature chemistry. Moreover, laminar burning velocities of a real gasoline at 353 and 500 K could be predicted by the model using a toluene reference fuel as a surrogate. The model also captures the experimentally observed differences in combustion phasing of toluene/n-heptane mixtures, compared to a primary reference fuel of the same research octane number, in HCCI engines as the intake pressure and temperature are changed. For high intake pressures and low intake temperatures, a sensitivity analysis at the moment of maximum heat release rate shows that the consumption of phenoxy radicals is rate-limiting when a toluene/n-heptane fuel is used, which makes this fuel more resistant to autoignition than the primary reference fuel. Typical CPU times encountered in zero-dimensional calculations were on the order of seconds and minutes in laminar flame speed calculations. Cross reactions between benzylperoxy radicals and n-heptane improved the model predictions of shock tube experiments for {phi}=1.0 and temperatures lower than 800 K for an n-heptane/toluene fuel mixture, but cross reactions had no influence on HCCI simulations. (author)

Andrae, J.C.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Brinck, T. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Kalghatgi, G.T. [Shell Global Solutions (UK), P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)



Phase transition and dynamic structure in the toluene clathrate of t-butylcalix[4]arene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variable temperature solid-state C NMR and differential scanning calorimetry were used to show that the toluene clathrate of t-butylcalix[4]arene undergoes a symmetry lowering phase transition at 248.0 K. H NMR was used to show that the high symmetry of the complex at room temperature is due to dynamic disorder of the toluene guest, which is most easily described as an

G. A. Facey; R. H. Dubois; M. Zakrzewski; C. I. Ratcliffe; J. L. Atwood; J. A. Ripmeester



Construction of a bacterial consortium for the biofiltration of benzene, toluene and xylene emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

On equal parts of benzene, toluene and p-xylene (BTX), a stable bacterial consortium was enriched for removal of BTX vapours from air. As demonstrated by gas chromatographic monitoring, this consortium removed all three BTX components but was able to grow only on benzene and\\/or toluene. A Pseudomonas putida strain, PPO1, isolated from this consortium behaved in an identical manner. When

Y.-S. Oh; R. Bartha



Auditory and vestibular functions after single or combined exposure to toluene: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toluene is a widely used organic solvent, heavily employed in many manufacturing industries. Recently, evidence has begun\\u000a to accumulate on the deleterious effect of toluene exposure has on the auditory and vestibular systems. Although little published\\u000a information exists regarding these effects, the reported findings indicate a need for further investigation. The results of\\u000a such investigations may dramatically affect occupational hearing

Thais C. Morata; Per Nylén; Ann-Christin Johnson; Derek E. Dunn



Dietary and ethanol induced alterations of the toxikokinetics of toluene in humans.  

PubMed Central

This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of a carbohydrate restricted diet, a subacute ethanol intake, and their combined effect on the kinetics of toluene in humans. Eight healthy male volunteers were exposed by inhalation at four different occasions to 200 mg/m3 2H8-toluene for two hours at a work load of 50 W after a one week low (30%) carbohydrate (CH) diet or high (60%) CH diet with (+EtOH) or without (-EtOH) ethanol consumption (47 g ethanol) on the evening before exposure. Deuterium labelled toleune was used to measure the excretion of hippuric acid originating from toluene separately from hippuric acid from other sources. The results indicated that subacute ethanol consumption combined with a carbohydrate restricted diet, may enhance the metabolism of toluene in humans at an exposure concentration of 200 mg/m3. The cumulative amount of hippuric acid excreted in the urine up to 20 hours after the end of exposure in % of the net uptake of toluene was enhanced by 22% (p = 0.05) in the low CH + EtOH compared with the low CH-EtOH experiment. The apparent blood clearance of toluene was 37% higher in the low CH + EtOH than in the low CH-EtOH experiment, but this effect was not statistically significant (p = 0.1). There were no significant changes in the kinetics of toluene as a result of a low carbohydrate diet alone. Neither did subacute ethanol intake without the combination with a carbohydrate restricted diet influence the kinetics of toluene. PMID:8044249

Hjelm, E W; Lof, A; Sato, A; Colmsjo, A; Lundmark, B O; Norstrom, A



Behavioral effects of sub-acute inhalation of toluene in adult rats.  


Reports of behavioral effects of repeated inhalation of toluene in rats have yielded inconsistent findings. A recent study from this laboratory (Beasley et al., 2010) observed that after 13 weeks of inhaled toluene ("subchronic" exposure scenario), rats showed mild but persistent changes in behavior, primarily involving acquisition of an autoshaped lever-press response. The present experiment sought to systematically replicate these findings, using a 4-week "sub-acute" exposure scenario. Adult male Long-Evans rats inhaled toluene vapor (0, 10, 100, or 1000 ppm) for 6h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. As in the subchronic study, toluene had no effect on motor activity, anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus-maze, or acquisition of the visual discrimination. However, sub-acute toluene did not affect appetitively-motivated acquisition of the lever-press response, but did reduce accuracy of signal detection at the end of training. Analysis of the deficit in accuracy in the 1000 ppm group by means of manipulations of different task parameters suggested a greater influence of attentional impairment than visual or motor dysfunction as a source for the deficit. These results confirm a pattern of subtle and inconsistent long-term effects of repeated daily exposure to concentrations of toluene vapor of 1000 ppm and below, in contrast to robust and reliable effects of acute inhalation of the solvent at concentrations above 1000 ppm. PMID:22138552

Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Bushnell, Philip J



Development and Testing of a Bacterial Biosensor for Toluene-Based Environmental Contaminants  

PubMed Central

A bacterial biosensor for benzene, toluene, and similar compounds has been constructed, characterized, and field tested on contaminated water and soil. The biosensor is based on a plasmid incorporating the transcriptional activator xylR from the TOL plasmid of Pseudomonas putida mt-2. The XylR protein binds a subset of toluene-like compounds and activates transcription at its promoter, Pu. A reporter plasmid was constructed by placing the luc gene for firefly luciferase under the control of XylR and Pu. When Escherichia coli cells were transformed with this plasmid vector, luminescence from the cells was induced in the presence of benzene, toluene, xylenes, and similar molecules. Accurate concentration dependencies of luminescence were obtained and exhibited K1/2 values ranging from 39.0 ± 3.8 ?M for 3-xylene to 2,690 ± 160 ?M for 3-methylbenzylalcohol (means ± standard deviations). The luminescence response was specific for only toluene-like molecules that bind to and activate XylR. The biosensor cells were field tested on deep aquifer water, for which contaminant levels were known, and were able to accurately detect toluene derivative contamination in this water. The biosensor cells were also shown to detect BETX (benzene, toluene, and xylene) contamination in soil samples. These results demonstrate the capability of such a bacterial biosensor to accurately measure environmental contaminants and suggest a potential for its inexpensive application in field-ready assays. PMID:9501440

Willardson, Barry M.; Wilkins, Jon F.; Rand, Timothy A.; Schupp, James M.; Hill, Karen K.; Keim, Paul; Jackson, Paul J.



Uptake of toluene and ethylbenzene by plants: removal of volatile indoor air contaminants.  


Air borne uptake of toluene and ethylbenzene by twelve plant species was examined. Of the twelve plant species examined, the highest toluene removal was found in Sansevieria trifasciata, while the ethylbenzene removal from air was with Chlorophytum comosum. Toluene and ethylbenzene can penetrate the plant?s cuticle. However, the removal rates do not appear to be correlated with numbers of stomata per plant. It was found that wax of S. trifasciata and Sansevieria hyacinthoides had greater absorption of toluene and ethylbenzene, and it contained high hexadecanoic acid. Hexadecanoic acid might be involved in toluene and ethylbenzene adsorption by cuticles wax of plants. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis or the potential quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) in toluene exposed plants showed no significant differences between the control and the treated plants, whereas plants exposed to ethylbenzene showed significant differences or those parameters, specifically in Dracaena deremensis (Lemon lime), Dracaena sanderiana, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, and Cordyline fruticosa. The Fv/Fm ratio can give insight into the ability of plants to tolerate (indoor) air pollution by volatile organic chemicals (VOC). This index can be used for identification of suitable plants for treating/sequestering VOCs in contaminated air. PMID:24530730

Sriprapat, Wararat; Suksabye, Parinda; Areephak, Sirintip; Klantup, Polawat; Waraha, Atcharaphan; Sawattan, Anuchit; Thiravetyan, Paitip



ReaxFF molecular dynamics simulations of oxidation of toluene at high temperatures.  


Aromatic hydrocarbon fuels, such as toluene, are important components in real jet fuels. In this work, reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations employing the ReaxFF reactive force field have been performed to study the high-temperature oxidation mechanisms of toluene at different temperatures and densities with equivalence ratios ranging from 0.5 to 2.0. From the ReaxFF MD simulations, we have found that the initiation consumption of toluene is mainly through three ways, (1) the hydrogen abstraction reactions by oxygen molecules or other small radicals to form the benzyl radical, (2) the cleavage of the C-H bond to form benzyl and hydrogen radicals, and (3) the cleavage of the C-C bond to form phenyl and methyl radicals. These basic reaction mechanisms are in good agreement with available chemical kinetic models. The temperatures and densities have composite effects on toluene oxidation; concerning the effect of the equivalence ratio, the oxidation reaction rate is found to decrease with the increasing of equivalence ratio. The analysis of the initiation reaction of toluene shows that the hydrogen abstraction reaction dominates the initial reaction stage at low equivalence ratio (0.5-1.0), while the contribution from the pyrolysis reaction increases significantly as the equivalence ratio increases to 2.0. The apparent activation energies, E(a), for combustion of toluene extracted from ReaxFF MD simulations are consistent with experimental results. PMID:22998396

Cheng, Xue-Min; Wang, Quan-De; Li, Juan-Qin; Wang, Jing-Bo; Li, Xiang-Yuan



A detailed kinetic modeling study of toluene oxidation in a premixed laminar flame  

PubMed Central

An improved chemical kinetic model for the toluene oxidation based on experimental data obtained in a premixed laminar low-pressure flame with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization and molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) techniques has been proposed. The present mechanism consists of 273 species up to chrysene and 1740 reactions. The rate constants of reactions of toluene decomposition, reaction with oxygen, ipso-additions and metatheses with abstraction of phenylic H-atom are updated; new pathways of C4 + C2 species giving benzene and fulvene are added. Based on the experimental observations, combustion intermediates such as fulvenallene, naphtol, methylnaphthalene, acenaphthylene, 2-ethynylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, 1-methylphenanthrene, pyrene and chrysene are involved in the present mechanism. The final toluene model leads to an overall satisfactory agreement between the experimentally observed and predicted mole fraction profiles for the major products and most combustion intermediates. The toluene depletion is governed by metathese giving benzyl radicals, ipso-addition forming benzene and metatheses leading to C6H4CH3 radicals. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the unimolecular decomposition via the cleavage of a methyl C-H bond has a strong inhibiting effect, while decomposition via C-C bond breaking, ipso-addition of H-atom to toluene, decomposition of benzyl radicals and reactions related to C6H4CH3 radicals have promoting effect for the consumption of toluene. Moreover, flow rate analysis is performed to illustrate the formation pathways of mono- and polycyclic aromatics. PMID:23762016

Tian, Zhenyu; Pitz, William J.; Fournet, Rene; Glaude, Pierre-Alexander; Battin-Leclerc, Frederique



Effects of the abused inhalant toluene on the mesolimbic dopamine system  

PubMed Central

Toluene is a representative member of a class of inhaled solvents that are voluntarily used by adolescents and adults for their euphorigenic effects. Research into the mechanisms of action of inhaled solvents has lagged behind that of other drugs of abuse despite mounting evidence that these compounds exert profound neurobehavioral and neurotoxicological effects. Results from studies carried out by the authors and others suggest that the neural effects of inhalants arise from their interaction with a discrete set of ion channels that regulate brain activity. Of particular interest is how these interactions allow toluene and other solvents to engage portions of an addiction neurocircuitry that includes midbrain and cortical structures. In this review, we focus on the current state of knowledge regarding toluene’s action on midbrain dopamine neurons, a key brain region involved in the initial assessment of natural and drug-induced rewards. Findings from recent studies in the authors’ laboratory show that brief exposures of adolescent rats to toluene vapor induce profound changes in markers of glutamatergic plasticity in VTA DA neurons. These changes are restricted to VTA DA neurons that project to limbic structures and are prevented by transient activation of the medial prefrontal cortex prior to toluene exposure. Together, these data provide the first evidence linking the voluntary inhalation of solvents to changes in reward –sensitive dopamine neurons.

Woodward, John J.; Beckley, Jacob




EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a multimedia environmental pollution that is carcinogenic in mouse liver. The ability of TCE to modulate DNA methylation and the expression of immediate-early protooncogenes was evaluated. Female B6C3F1 mice were administered 1000 mg/kg TCE by gavage 5 ...


Full-scale demonstration of in situ cometabolic biodegradation of trichloroethylene in groundwater 2. Comprehensive analysis of field data using reactive transport modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an analysis of an extensively monitored full-scale field demonstration of in situ treatment of trichloroethylene (TCE) contamination by aerobic cometabolic biodegradation. The demonstration was conducted at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California. There are two TCE-contaminated aquifers at the site, separated from one another by a clay aquitard. The treatment system consisted of two recirculating wells located

Rahul K. Gandhi; Gary D. Hopkins; Mark N. Goltz; Steven M. Gorelick; Perry L. McCarty




EPA Science Inventory

Subacute toxicity of trichloroethylene (TCE) was evaluated in male and female B6C3F1 mice using corn oil or aqueous gavage vehicles. Mice received oral doses of TCE five times a week for 4 weeks at 600, 1200 and 2400 mg/kg/day for males and 450, 900 and 1800 mg/kg/day for females...


Treatment of mixtures of toluene and n-propanol vapours in a compost-woodchip-based biofilter.  


The present work describes the biofiltration of mixture of n-propanol (as a model hydrophilic volatile organic compound (VOC)) and toluene (as a model hydrophobic VOC) in a biofilter packed with a compost-woodchip mixture. Initially, the biofilter was fed with toluene vapours at loadings up to 175 g m(-3) h(-1) and removal efficiencies of 70%-99% were observed. The biofilter performance when removing mixtures of toluene and n-propanol reached elimination capacities of up to 67g(toluene) m(-3) h(-1) and 85 g(n-propanol) m(-3) h(-1) with removal efficiencies of 70%-100% for toluene and essentially 100% for n-propanol. The presence of high n-propanol loading negatively affected the toluene removal; however, n-propanol removal was not affected by the presence of toluene and was effectively removed in the biofilter despite high toluene loadings. A model for toluene and n-propanol biofiltration could predict the cross-inhibition effect of n-propanol on toluene removal. PMID:22720398

Dixit, R M; Deshmukh, S C; Gadhe, A A; Kannade, G S; Lokhande, S K; Pandey, R A; Vaidya, A N; Mudliar, S N; Deshusses, M A



Effect of Trichloroethylene on Minimum Energy Requirement and Gene Expression in a Nutrient Limited Methanotroph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) of contaminant plumes requires data for predictive modeling of plume destruction including the rates of microbial contaminant degradation. Methanotrophs are implicated in co-metabolism of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) where MNA is the selected method of treatment. Our research aims to: 1) determine realistic activities of these cells when starved, a condition typical of subsurface microbes, and 2) detect the genes that are transcribed when methanotrophs experience stress or starvation related to TCE exposure and conditions in the subsurface. Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b (OB3b), a model methanotroph, was starved in a biomass recycle reactor and soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) activities determined, with and without TCE exposure (ca. 100 ?g TCE/L). Starved methanotrophs, present at 3 x 109 cells/mL in the reactor, consumed methane at 0.001 fmoles of methane/cell/day and gradually increased sMMO activities when exposed to higher methane concentrations. sMMO activities of starved OB3b cells exposed to TCE were indistinguishable from cells that were not exposed over brief (one day) periods. The sequences of eight genes, known to code for starvation/stress proteins, were retrieved from phylogenetic relatives (?-proteobacteria) of OB3b. Primers (18-22 bp) were designed from conserved regions in the consensus sequences to obtain OB3b-specific sequences for the eight genes. Primers for the starvation/stress genes successfully amplified all eight genes in OB3b using PCR. Our plan is to clone and sequence these OB3b genes then synthesize oligonucleotides that can be added to a microarray that includes targets for OB3b structural and regulatory gene sequences as a prelude to evaluating gene expression under different nutrient availability conditions and in the presence and absence of TCE. Incorporation of starvation-based rate estimates into natural attenuation models of contaminant plumes will permit estimates of the fraction of TCE natural attenuation that can be attributed to methanotrophic co-metabolism in a given aquifer system.

Colwell, F. S.; Delwiche, M.; Newby, D.; Wood, A.; Bingham, M.; Crawford, R. L.; Strap, J. L.



Kinetic effects of toluene blending on the extinction limit of n-decane diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect

The impact of toluene addition in n-decane on OH concentrations, maximum heat release rates, and extinction limits were studied experimentally and computationally by using counterflow diffusion flames with laser induced fluorescence imaging. Sensitivity analyses of kinetic path ways and species transport on flame extinction were also conducted. The results showed that the extinction strain rate of n-decane/toluene/nitrogen flames decreased significantly with an increase of toluene addition and depended linearly on the maximum OH concentration. It was revealed that the maximum OH concentration, which depends on the fuel H/C ratio, can be used as an index of the radical pool and chemical heat release rate, since it plays a significant role on the heat production via the reaction with other species, such as CO, H{sub 2}, and HCO. Experimental results further demonstrated that toluene addition in n-decane dramatically reduced the peak OH concentration via H abstraction reactions and accelerated flame extinction via kinetic coupling between toluene and n-decane mechanisms. Comparisons between experiments and simulations revealed that the current toluene mechanism significantly over-predicts the radical destruction rate, leading to under-prediction of extinction limits and OH concentrations, especially caused by the uncertainty of the H abstraction reaction from toluene, which rate coefficient has a difference by a factor of 5 in the tested toluene models. In addition, sensitivity analysis of diffusive transport showed that in addition to n-decane and toluene, the transport of OH and H also considerably affects the extinction limit. A reduced linear correlation between the extinction limits of n-decane/toluene blended fuels and the H/C ratio as well as the mean fuel molecular weight was obtained. The results suggest that an explicit prediction of the extinction limits of aromatic and alkane blended fuels can be established by using H/C ratio (or radical index) and the mean fuel molecular weight which represent the rates of radical production and the fuel transport, respectively. (author)

Won, Sang Hee; Sun, Wenting; Ju, Yiguang [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)



Kinetic effects of toluene blending on the extinction limit of n-decane diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect

The impact of toluene addition in n-decane on OH concentrations, maximum heat release rates, and extinction limits were studied experimentally and computationally by using counterflow diffusion flames with laser induced fluorescence imaging. Sensitivity analyses of kinetic path ways and species transport on flame extinction were also conducted. The results showed that the extinction strain rate of n-decane/toluene/nitrogen flames decreased significantly with an increase of toluene addition and depended linearly on the maximum OH concentration. It was revealed that the maximum OH concentration, which depends on the fuel H/C ratio, can be used as an index of the radical pool and chemical heat release rate, since it plays a significant role on the heat production via the reaction with other species, such as CO, H{sub 2}, and HCO. Experimental results further demonstrated that toluene addition in n-decane dramatically reduced the peak OH concentration via H abstraction reactions and accelerated flame extinction via kinetic coupling between toluene and n-decane mechanisms. Comparisons between experiments and simulations revealed that the current toluene mechanism significantly over-predicts the radical destruction rate, leading to under-prediction of extinction limits and OH concentrations, especially caused by the uncertainty of the H abstraction reaction from toluene, which rate coefficient has a difference by a factor of 5 in the tested toluene models. In addition, sensitivity analysis of diffusive transport showed that in addition to n-decane and toluene, the transport of OH and H also considerably affects the extinction limit. A reduced linear correlation between the extinction limits of n-decane/toluene blended fuels and the H/C ratio as well as the mean fuel molecular weight was obtained. The results suggest that an explicit prediction of the extinction limits of aromatic and alkane blended fuels can be established by using H/C ratio (or radical index) and the mean fuel molecular weight which represent the rates of radical production and the fuel transport, respectively.

Won, Sang Hee; Sun, Wenting; Ju, Yiguang



Prednisone, indomethacin and airway responsiveness in toluene diisocyanate sensitized subjects.  


We investigated whether late asthmatic reactions and the associated increase in airway responsiveness induced by toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in sensitized subjects are inhibited by indomethacin and/or prednisone. Four sets of experiments were conducted in five subjects sensitized to TDI. To assess late asthmatic reactions to TDI, FEV1 was measured immediately before and after exposure to TDI and then hourly for 8 h. To assess change in airway responsiveness, the provocative dose (mg) of methacholine that caused a decrease in FEV1 of 20% (PD20FEV1) before treatment, and then before and after exposure to TDI was measured. In the first set of experiments, each subject was given no treatment and was studied before and 8 h after exposure to TDI; in the other two sets, each subject was studied before treatment, then during treatment with indomethacin (50 mg q.i.d. for 3 days, orally) or prednisone (50 mg once a day, for 3 days, orally), both before and 8 h after TDI exposure. In a fourth series of experiments, each subject was again given no treatment and studied before and 8 h after TDI. When the subjects were given no treatment or indomethacin, TDI caused late asthmatic reactions and increased airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. In contrast, when the subjects were given prednisone, TDI caused neither late asthmatic reactions nor increased airway responsiveness. Treatment with indomethacin and prednisone did not change baseline FEV1 and airway responsiveness. These results suggest that release of prostaglandins does not contribute to late asthmatic reactions and the associated increase in airway responsiveness induced by TDI. Inflammatory mediators inhibited by prednisone but not by indomethacin may be involved. PMID:2998519

Fabbri, L M; Di Giacomo, R; Dal Vecchio, L; Zocca, E; De Marzo, N; Maestrelli, P; Mapp, C E



Adolescent Toluene Inhalation in Rats Affects White Matter Maturation with the Potential for Recovery Following Abstinence  

PubMed Central

Inhalant misuse is common during adolescence, with ongoing chronic misuse associated with neurobiological and cognitive abnormalities. While human imaging studies consistently report white matter abnormalities among long-term inhalant users, longitudinal studies have been lacking with limited data available regarding the progressive nature of such abnormalities, including the potential for recovery following periods of sustained abstinence. We exposed adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 27) to chronic intermittent inhaled toluene (3,000 ppm) for 1 hour/day, 3 times/week for 8 weeks to model abuse patterns observed in adolescent and young adult human users. This dosing regimen resulted in a significant retardation in weight gain during the exposure period (p<0.05). In parallel, we performed longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (T2-weighted) and diffusion tensor imaging prior to exposure, and after 4 and 8 weeks, to examine the integrity of white matter tracts, including the anterior commissure and corpus callosum. We also conducted imaging after 8 weeks of abstinence to assess for potential recovery. Chronic intermittent toluene exposure during adolescence and early adulthood resulted in white matter abnormalities, including a decrease in axial (p<0.05) and radial (p<0.05) diffusivity. These abnormalities appeared region-specific, occurring in the anterior commissure but not the corpus callosum and were not present until after at least 4 weeks of exposure. Toluene-induced effects on both body weight and white matter parameters recovered following abstinence. Behaviourally, we observed a progressive decrease in rearing activity following toluene exposure but no difference in motor function, suggesting cognitive function may be more sensitive to the effects of toluene. Furthermore, deficits in rearing were present by 4 weeks suggesting that toluene may affect behaviour prior to detectable white matter abnormalities. Consequently, exposure to inhalants that contain toluene during adolescence and early adulthood appear to differentially affect white matter maturation and behavioural outcomes, although recovery can occur following abstinence. PMID:23028622

Egan, Gary; Kolbe, Scott; Gavrilescu, Maria; Wright, David; Lubman, Dan Ian; Lawrence, Andrew John




EPA Science Inventory

Ground water contamination frequently consists of mixed chlorinated solvents [e.g., tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and trans-1,2- dichloroethylene (DCE)]. In this research, mixtures of the food grade (edible) surfactants bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinat...



EPA Science Inventory

Ten out of the 25 most frequently detected groundwater contaminants at hazardous waste sites are chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 1. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are among the top three 1. Granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption is widel...



EPA Science Inventory

Ten out of the 25 most frequently detected groundwater contaminants at hazardous waste sites are chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 1 . Trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are among the top three 1 . Granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption is w...



EPA Science Inventory

The AWD technology simultaneously treats groundwater and soil-gas contaminated with volatile or ganic compounds (VOC), such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). This technology integrates two processes: (1) AquaDetox®, a moderate vacuum (pressure about 50 ...


Applications of Monitored Natural Attenuation in the USA (Presentation)  

EPA Science Inventory

Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is widely applied in the USA to control the risk associated with ground water contamination from chlorinated solvents such a tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). MNA relies on the natural processes of degradation, sorption an...


Applications of Monitored Natural Attenuation in the USA (Abstract)  

EPA Science Inventory

Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is widely applied in the USA to control the risk associated with ground water contamination from chlorinated solvents such a tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). MNA relies on the natural processes of degradation, sorption an...



EPA Science Inventory

Chlorinated solvents such as tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, and dichloromethane (methylene chloride) can exist in contaminated subsurface material as (1) the neat oil, (2) a component of a mixed oily waste, (3) a solu...


Transport in Porous Media 37: 327346, 1999. c 1999 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-print Network

reactive species. In recent years, increased interest in the fate and transport of reactive contam- inants. For example, chlorinated solvent contam- inants such as PCE (tetrachloroethylene) and TCE (trichloroethylene

Clement, Prabhakar


Mass transfer of trichloroethylene through the palladized iron coated reactive geomembrane.  


Palladized iron coated reactive geomembrane (Pd/Fe RGM) was developed to mitigate the mass transfer of chlorinated volatile organic compounds through HDPE geomembrane. It had good performance in mitigating the mass transfer of TCE at the preliminary study. This study focused on the effects of Pd/Fe coating on the mass transfer parameters and the reaction rate constant of RGM. Also, the effects of sulfide and aging on the RGM were evaluated. It was proved that the effect of Pd/Fe coating on partition and diffusion coefficients of toluene was not significant by batch immersion test results with student's t-test. The reactivity of Pd/Fe RGM had a linear correlation with an increase in the Pd/Fe loading rate on RGM. However, it was lower than the reactivity of the Pd/Fe powder by a factor of one hundred because the effective surface area of Pd/Fe was blocked partially by the geomembrane and the opportunity to contact Pd/Fe and TCE was reduced. The reactivity of Pd/Fe RGM decreased severely at 10mM sulfide concentration and with long-term aging of RGM in the atmosphere for three years. However, the reactivity of aged RGM was recovered slightly by acid treatment, but not completely. PMID:22169147

Kim, Yong-Keun; Shin, Ji-Young; Lee, Kwang-Keun; Cho, Hang Sang; Jeon, Han Yong; Kim, Jae Young



Benzylmercapturic acid is superior to hippuric acid and o-cresol as a urinary marker of occupational exposure to toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was initiated to examine whether urinary benzylmercapturic acid (or N-acetyl-S-benzyl cysteine, BMA), a mercapturate metabolite of toluene, increases in relation to the intensity of toluene exposure, and whether this metabolite is a better marker of occupational exposure to toluene than two traditional markers, hippuric acid and o-cresol. Accordingly, end-of-shift urine samples were collected from 122 printers and

O Inoue; E Kanno; K Kasai; H Ukai; S Okamoto; M Ikeda



Fate of dissolved toluene during steady infiltration throughout unsaturated soil: II. Biotransformation under nutrient-limited conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotransformation rates for dissolved toluene in unsaturated sandy soil were determined in dynamic column infiltration experiments. Transformation rates under N-limited conditions and in the presence of sufficient oxygen were 8 to 35 mg (kg d)⁻¹ and appeared to follow zero order kinetics. Toluene-degrading microoganisms were demonstrated to increase significantly in both activity and numbers with exposure to toluene. Relatively low

Richelle M. Allen-King; Robert W. Gillham; James F. Barker; Edward A. Sudicky



Effects of Toluene Exposure during Brain Growth Spurt on GABAA Receptor-Mediated Functions in Juvenile Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toluene is a commonly abused inhalant. Its neurobiological effects are, at least in part, mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors. Since GABAA receptor function is critical during brain development, the long-term effects of toluene expo- sure during brain growth spurt were investigated. Spargue-Dawley male rats were administered with toluene (500 mg\\/kg, i.p.) on postnatal day (PN) 4-9. Behavioral and electrophysiological

Chien-Lu Liu; Yi-Ruu Lin; Ming-Huan Chan; Hwei-Hsien Chen



Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and toluene biodegradation, Knox Street fire pits, Fort Bragg, North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation was conducted at the Knox Street fire pits, Fort Bragg, North Carolina, to monitor the distribution of toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (TEX) in soil vapor, ground water, and ground-water/vapor to evaluate if total concentrations of TEX at the site are decreasing with time, and to quantify biodegradation rates of toluene in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Soil-vapor and ground-water samples were collected around the fire pits and ground-water/vapor samples were collected along the ground-water discharge zone, Beaver Creek, on a monthly basis from June 1994 through June 1995. Concentrations of TEX compounds in these samples were determined with a field gas chro- matograph. Laboratory experiments were performed on aquifer sediment samples to measure rates of toluene biodegradation by in situ micro- organisms. Based on field gas chromatographic analytical results, contamination levels of TEX compounds in both soil vapor and ground water appear to decrease downgradient of the fire-pit source area. During the 1-year study period, the observed temporal and spatial trends in soil vapor TEX concentrations appear to reflect differences in the distribution of TEX among solid, aqueous, and gaseous phases within fuel-contaminated soils in the unsaturated zone. Soil temperature and soil moisture are two important factors which influence the distribution of TEX com- pounds among the different phases. Because of the short period of data collection, it was not possible to distinguish between seasonal fluc- tuations in soil vapor TEX concentrations and an overall net decrease in TEX concentrations at the study site. No seasonal trend was observed in total TEX concentrations for ground- water samples collected at the study site. Although the analytical results could not be used to determine if ground-water TEX concen- trations decreased during the study at a specific location, the data were used to examine rate constants of toluene biodegradation. Based on ground-water toluene concentration data, a maximum rate constant for anaerobic biodegradation of toluene in the saturated zone was estimated to be as low as 0.002 d-1 or as high as 0.026 d-1. Based on analyses of ground-water/vapor samples, toluene was the prin- cipal TEX compound identified in ground water discharging to Beaver Creek. Observed decreases in ground-water/vapor toluene concentrations during the study period may reflect a decrease in source inputs, an increase in dilution caused by higher ground-water flow, and(or) removal by biological or other physical processes. Rate constants of toluene anaerobic biodegradation determined by laboratory measurements illustrate a typical acclimation response of micro-organisms to hydrocarbon contamination in sediments collected from the site. Toluene biodegradation rate constants derived from laboratory microcosm studies ranged from 0.001 to 0.027 d-1, which is similar to the range of 0.002 to 0.026 d-1 for toluene biodegradation rate constants derived from ground-water analytical data. The close agreement of toluene biodegradation rate constants reported using both approaches offer strong evidence that toluene can be degraded at environmentally significant rates at the study site.

Harden, S. L.; Landmeyer, J. E.



Dermal exposure assessment to benzene and toluene using charcoal cloth pads.  


Charcoal cloth pads have been used to assess volatile chemicals on the skin in a laboratory setting; however, they have not yet been applied to measure dermal exposure in occupational settings. This study aimed at evaluating whether charcoal pads can be used to assess dermal exposure to benzene and toluene in workers of a petrochemical plant. Inhalation and dermal exposure levels to benzene and toluene were assessed for workers of a petrochemical plant performing different jobs. Benzene uptake was assessed by determining S-phenylmercapturic acid in workers' urine samples. Dermal exposure levels on the charcoal pads were adjusted for ambient air levels of benzene and toluene by subtracting the amount of benzene or toluene measured in personal air from the amount of benzene or toluene measured on the charcoal pad. In general, measured external and internal exposure levels were low. The estimated contribution of the dermal route to internal benzene exposure levels was less than 0.06% for all jobs. Toluene personal air concentrations and benzene and toluene dermal exposure levels differed statistically significantly between job titles. For benzene, differences between jobs were larger for adjusted dermal exposures (maximum 17-fold, P = 0.02) than for inhalation exposures (maximum two-fold, P = 0.08). Also for toluene, although less clear, differences between jobs were larger for adjusted dermal exposures (maximum 23-fold, P = 0.01) as compared to inhalation exposures (maximum 10-fold, P = 0.01). Charcoal pads appeared to measure dermal exposures to benzene and toluene in addition to ambient air levels. Future studies applying charcoal cloth pads for the dermal exposure assessment at workplaces with higher dermal exposure to organic solvents may provide more insight into the biological relevance of dermal exposure levels measured by charcoal cloth pads. In addition, the design of the dermal sampler might be improved by configuring a dermal sampler, where part of the sampler is protected against direct contact and splashes, but still permeable for the gas phase. This design would most likely result in a better ability to correct for airborne concentrations at a given body location. PMID:15083162

van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Tielemans, Erik; Vermeulen, Roel; Wegh, Hillion; Kromhout, Hans



Assessment of Anaerobic Toluene Biodegradation Activity by bssA Transcript/Gene Ratios  

PubMed Central

Benzylsuccinate synthase (bssA) genes associated with toluene degradation were profiled across a groundwater contaminant plume under nitrate-reducing conditions and were detected in significant numbers throughout the plume. However, differences between groundwater and core sediment samples suggested that microbial transport, rather than local activity, was the underlying cause of the high copy numbers within the downgradient plume. Both gene transcript and reactant concentrations were consistent with this hypothesis. Expression of bssA genes from denitrifying toluene degraders was induced by toluene but only in the presence of nitrate, and transcript abundance dropped rapidly following the removal of either toluene or nitrate. The drop in bssA transcripts following the removal of toluene could be described by an exponential decay function with a half-life on the order of 1 h. Interestingly, bssA transcripts never disappeared completely but were always detected at some level if either inducer was present. Therefore, the detection of transcripts alone may not be sufficient evidence for contaminant degradation. To avoid mistakenly associating basal-level gene expression with actively degrading microbial populations, an integrated approach using the ratio of functional gene transcripts to gene copies is recommended. This approach minimizes the impact of microbial transport on activity assessment and allows reliable assessments of microbial activity to be obtained from water samples. PMID:23811506

Brow, Christina N.; O'Brien Johnson, Reid; Johnson, Richard L.



PANI and graphene/PANI nanocomposite films--comparative toluene gas sensing behavior.  


The present work discusses and compares the toluene sensing behavior of polyaniline (PANI) and graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite (C-PANI) films. The graphene-PANI ratio in the nanocomposite polymer film is optimized at 1:2. For this, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent is used to prepare PANI-NMP solution as well as graphene-PANI-NMP solution. The films are later annealed at 230 °C, characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and tested for their sensing behavior towards toluene. The sensing behaviors of the films are analyzed at different temperatures (30, 50 and 100 °C) for 100 ppm toluene in air. The nanocomposite C-PANI films have exhibited better overall toluene sensing behavior in terms of sensor response, response and recovery time as well as repeatability. Although the sensor response of PANI (12.6 at 30 °C, 38.4 at 100 °C) is comparatively higher than that of C-PANI (8.4 at 30 °C, 35.5 at 100 °C), response and recovery time of PANI and C-PANI varies with operating temperature. C-PANI at 50 °C seems to have better toluene sensing behavior in terms of response time and recovery time. PMID:24300600

Parmar, Mitesh; Balamurugan, Chandran; Lee, Dong-Weon



Treatment of co-mingled benzene, toluene and TCE in groundwater.  


This work addressed a hypothetical but practical scenario that includes biological oxidation and reductive dechlorination in treating groundwater containing co-mingled plume of trichloroethene (TCE), benzene and toluene. Groundwater immediately downgradient from the commonly used zero-valent iron (ZVI) has shown alkaline pH (up to 10.7). The elevated pH may influence BTEX compounds (i.e., benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylenes) biodegradation, which could also be inhibited by elevated concentrations of TCE. Data from this work suggests that the inhibition coefficients (IC) value for 100 ?g/L and 500 ?g/L of TCE on benzene and toluene degradation are 2.1-2.8 at pH 7.9, and 3.5-6.1 at pH 10.5. For a co-mingled plume, it appears to be more effective to reduce TCE by ZVI before addressing benzene and toluene biodegradation. The ample buffering capacity of most groundwater and the adaptation of benzene and toluene-degrading microbes are likely able to eliminate the adverse influence of pH shifts downgradient from a ZVI-PRB. PMID:24857895

Chen, Liang; Liu, Yulong; Liu, Fei; Jin, Song



Autoignition of toluene and benzene at elevated pressures in a rapid compression machine  

SciTech Connect

Autoignition of toluene and benzene is investigated in a rapid compression machine at conditions relevant to HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) combustion. Experiments are conducted for homogeneous mixtures over a range of equivalence ratios at compressed pressures from 25 to 45 bar and compressed temperatures from 920 to 1100 K. Experiments varying oxygen concentration while keeping the mole fraction of toluene constant reveal a strong influence of oxygen in promoting ignition. Additional experiments varying fuel mole fraction at a fixed equivalence ratio show that ignition delay becomes shorter with increasing fuel concentration. Moreover, autoignition of benzene shows significantly higher activation energy than that of toluene. In addition, the experimental pressure traces for toluene show behavior of heat release significantly different from the results of Davidson et al. [D.F. Davidson, B.M. Gauthier, R.K. Hanson, Proc. Combust. Inst. 30 (2005) 1175-1182]. Predictability of various detailed kinetic mechanisms is also compared. Results demonstrate that the existing mechanisms for toluene and benzene fail to predict the experimental data with respect to ignition delay and heat release. Flux analysis is further conducted to identify the dominant reaction pathways and the reactions responsible for the mismatch of experimental and simulated data. (author)

Mittal, Gaurav; Sung, Chih-Jen [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)



Hearing loss in rats first exposed to toluene as weanlings or as young adults.  


Male Fischer-344 rats were exposed by inhalation to 1200 ppm toluene (14 hr/day, 7 days/week for 5 weeks) beginning just after weaning or as young adults. During the fifth week of exposure, they were trained to perform a multisensory conditioned pole-climb avoidance response (CAR) task using a 4-kHz tone, a change in the intensity of the test chamber light, or a nonaversive current on the grill floor as the stimuli. When tested the week after the exposures ended, both groups of toluene-exposed rats were deficient in their performance of the CAR to a 20-kHz tone. This effect was significantly greater for the rats exposed beginning just after weaning than it was for the young adult rats. Subsequent behavioral and electrophysiologic audiometry confirmed the presence of a toluene-induced high-frequency hearing loss in both groups of rats with the more severe deficits occurring in the younger rats. Preliminary morphologic examinations revealed loss of, and/or damage to, hair cells in the basal turn of the cochlea of the younger toluene-exposed rats. These results confirm our earlier discovery that inhalation exposure to toluene causes hearing deficits in rats, and they indicate that young, prepubertal rats are more severely affected than older rats. PMID:6472555

Pryor, G T; Dickinson, J; Feeney, E; Rebert, C S



Analysis of the Gene Cluster Encoding Toluene/o-Xylene Monooxygenase from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1  

PubMed Central

The toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase cloned from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1 displays a very broad range of substrates and a very peculiar regioselectivity, because it is able to hydroxylate more than one position on the aromatic ring of several hydrocarbons and phenols. The nucleotide sequence of the gene cluster coding for this enzymatic system has been determined. The sequence analysis revealed the presence of six open reading frames (ORFs) homologous to other genes clustered in operons coding for multicomponent monooxygenases found in benzene- and toluene-degradative pathways cloned from Pseudomonas strains. Significant similarities were also found with multicomponent monooxygenase systems for phenol, methane, alkene, and dimethyl sulfide cloned from different bacterial strains. The knockout of each ORF and complementation with the wild-type allele indicated that all six ORFs are essential for the full activity of the toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase in Escherichia coli. This analysis also shows that despite its activity on both hydrocarbons and phenols, toluene/ o-xylene monooxygenase belongs to a toluene multicomponent monooxygenase subfamily rather than to the monooxygenases active on phenols. PMID:9758777

Bertoni, Giovanni; Martino, Manuela; Galli, Enrica; Barbieri, Paola



Analysis of the gene cluster encoding toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1  

SciTech Connect

The toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase cloned from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1 displays a very broad range of substrates and a very peculiar regioselectivity, because it is able to hydroxylate more than one position on the aromatic ring of several hydrocarbons and phenols. The nucleotide sequence of the gene cluster coding for this enzymatic system has been determined. The sequence analysis revealed the presence of six open reading frames (ORFs) homologous to other genes clustered in operons coding for multicomponent monooxygenases found in benzene- and toluene-degradative pathways cloned from Pseudomonas strains. Significant similarities were also found with multicomponent monooxygenase systems for phenol, methane, alkene, and dimethyl sulfide cloned from different bacterial strains. The knockout of each ORF and complementation with the wild-type allele indicated that all six ORFs are essential for the full activity of the toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase in Escherichia coli. This analysis also shows that despite its activity on both hydrocarbons and phenols, toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase belongs to a toluene multicomponent monooxygenase subfamily rather than to the monooxygenases active on phenols.

Bertoni, G.; Martino, M.; Galli, E.; Barbieri, P. [Univ. degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy). Dept. di Genetica e di Biologia dei Microorganismi



Development and mathematical modeling of a two-stage reactor system for trichloroethylene degradation using Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.  


A two-stage reactor system was developed for the continuous degradation of gas-phase trichloroethylene (TCE). Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b was immobilized on activated carbon in a TCE degradation reactor, trickling biofilter (TBF). The TBF was coupled with a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) to allow recirculation of microbial cells from/to the TBF for the reactivation of inactivated cells during TCE degradation. The mass transfer aspect of the TBF was analyzed, and mass transfer coefficient of 3.9 h(-1) was estimated. The loss of soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) activity was modeled based on a material balance on the CSTR and TBF, and transformation capacity (T (c)) was determined to be 20.2 micromol mg(-1). Maximum TCE degradation rate of 525 mg 1(-1) d(-1) was obtained and reactor has been stably operated for more than 270 days. PMID:16467965

Hwang, Jae Woong; Choi, Young Bum; Park, Sunghoon; Choi, Cha Yong; Lee, Eun Yeol



Investigation into the potential toxicity of zero-valent iron nanoparticles to a trichloroethylene-degrading groundwater microbial community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microbiological impact of zero-valent iron remediation of groundwater was investigated by exposing a trichloroethylene-degrading anaerobic microbial community to bare and coated iron nanoparticles. Changes in population numbers and metabolic activity were analyzed using qPCR and were compared to those of a blank, negative, and positive control to assess for microbial toxicity. Additionally, these results were compared to those of samples exposed to an equal concentration of iron filings in an attempt to discern the source of toxicity. Statistical analysis revealed that the three iron treatments were equally toxic to total Bacteria and Archaea populations, as compared with the controls. Therefore, toxicity appears to result either from the release of iron ions and the generation of reactive oxygen species, or from alteration of the redox system and the disruption of microbial metabolisms. There does not appear to be a unique nanoparticle-based toxicity.

Zabetakis, Kara M.



EPA Science Inventory

Previous work showed that trichloroethylene (TCE) impairs sustained attention as evidenced by a reduction in accuracy and elevation of response latencies in rats trained to perform a visual signal detection task (SDT). This work also showed that these effects abate during repeat...


Pharmacological modulation of the contractile response to toluene diisocyanate in the rat isolated urinary bladder.  

PubMed Central

1. Toluene diisocyanate produced concentration-dependent contractions of the rat isolated urinary bladder. 2. The contractions were tetrodotoxin-resistant and were abolished by previous exposure of the strips to capsaicin. 3. Indomethacin (5 microM) and ruthenium red (30 microM) inhibited toluene diisocyanate-induced contractions. Responses expressed as a percentage of the response obtained with substance P, 30 nM, were respectively 141.6 +/- 24.8% and 20.1 +/- 5.1% in control and indomethacin-treated strips (P less than 0.005); 123.0 +/- 30.2% and 14.0 +/- 6.5% in control and ruthenium red-treated strips (0.01 less than P less than 0.05). 4. These results suggest that toluene diisocyanate-induced contractions of the rat isolated bladder are the result of the release of cyclo-oxygenase products which may act by activating the capsaicin receptor. PMID:1698499

Mapp, C. E.; Chitano, P.; Fabbri, L. M.; Patacchini, R.; Maggi, C. A.



Surface modification of aluminum by toluene plasma at low-pressure and its surface properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Condition processes are commonly implemented in semiconductor fabrication to prepare plasma chamber for the optimal performance of plasma processes. When used with plasma ash and etch chambers, conditioning processes typically involve generating conditioning plasma in the plasma chamber for a predetermined length of time to prepare, or “season”, the chamber for the performance of ash and etch processes with production wafers. We report on the seasoning of aluminum baffle surfaces by plasma with non-polar aromatic hydrocarbon such as toluene. The aluminum surface was simply treated by radio frequency (RF) plasma with toluene. The non-polar property of the sample increases with increasing plasma treatments. Therefore, the ashing rate of toluene coated baffle improved 1.3 times without scavenging activative species.

Ji, Youngyeon; Cho, Jeong-Hee; Chae, Hee-Sun



A Nanopore Structured High Performance Toluene Gas Sensor Made by Nanoimprinting Method  

PubMed Central

Toluene gas was successfully measured at room temperature using a device microfabricated by a nanoimprinting method. A highly uniform nanoporous thin film was produced with a dense array of titania (TiO2) pores with a diameter of 70?80 nm using this method. This thin film had a Pd/TiO2 nanoporous/SiO2/Si MIS layered structure with Pd-TiO2 as the catalytic sensing layer. The nanoimprinting method was useful in expanding the TiO2 surface area by about 30%, as confirmed using AFM and SEM imaging. The measured toluene concentrations ranged from 50 ppm to 200 ppm. The toluene was easily detected by changing the Pd/TiO2 interface work function, resulting in a change in the I–V characteristics. PMID:22315567

Kim, Kwang-Su; Baek, Woon-Hyuk; Kim, Jung-Min; Yoon, Tae-Sik; Lee, Hyun Ho; Kang, Chi Jung; Kim, Yong-Sang



Toluene oxidation by non-thermal plasma combined with palladium catalysts.  


The oxidation of toluene in air was investigated using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) combined with a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst. When using only plasma, rather low selectivity toward CO2 was obtained: 32-35%. By filling the DBD reactor with Pd/Al2O3 catalyst the CO2 selectivity was significantly enhanced (80-90%), however, a large amount of toluene was desorbed from the catalyst when the discharge was operated. By filling a quarter of the discharge gap with catalyst and placing the rest of the catalyst downstream of the plasma reactor, an important increase of CO2 selectivity (~75%) and a 15% increase in toluene conversion were achieved as compared to the results with plasma alone. The catalyst exhibited a very good stability in this reaction. PMID:24790936

Magureanu, Monica; Dobrin, Daniela; Mandache, Nicolae B; Cojocaru, Bogdan; Parvulescu, Vasile I



Aromatic hydroxylation catalyzed by toluene 4-monooxygenase in organic solvent/aqueous buffer mixtures.  


Toluene 4-monooxygenase is a four-protein component diiron enzyme complex. The enzyme catalyzes the hydroxylation of toluene to give p-cresol with approximately 96% regioselectivity. The performance of the enzyme in two-phase reaction systems consisting of toluene, hexane, or perfluorohexane and an aqueous buffer was tested. In each of the cosolvent systems, containing up to 93% (v/v) of solvent, the enzyme was active and exhibited regioselectivity indistinguishable from the aqueous reaction. Using the perfluorohexane/buffer system, a number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were oxidized that were not readily oxidized in aqueous buffer. An instability of the hydroxylase component and a substantial uncoupling of NADH utilization and product formation were observed in reactions that were continued for longer than approximately 3 min. More stable enzyme complexes will be needed for broad applicability of this hydroxylating system in nonaqueous media. PMID:11318032

Oppenheim, S F; Studts, J M; Fox, B G; Dordick, J S



Toluene oxidation by non-thermal plasma combined with palladium catalysts  

PubMed Central

The oxidation of toluene in air was investigated using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) combined with a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst. When using only plasma, rather low selectivity toward CO2 was obtained: 32–35%. By filling the DBD reactor with Pd/Al2O3 catalyst the CO2 selectivity was significantly enhanced (80–90%), however, a large amount of toluene was desorbed from the catalyst when the discharge was operated. By filling a quarter of the discharge gap with catalyst and placing the rest of the catalyst downstream of the plasma reactor, an important increase of CO2 selectivity (~75%) and a 15% increase in toluene conversion were achieved as compared to the results with plasma alone. The catalyst exhibited a very good stability in this reaction. PMID:24790936

Magureanu, Monica; Dobrin, Daniela; Mandache, Nicolae B.; Cojocaru, Bogdan; Parvulescu, Vasile I.



Electrophilic and free radical nitration of benzene and toluene with various nitrating agents*  

PubMed Central

Electrophilic nitration of toluene and benzene was studied under various conditions with several nitrating systems. It was found that high orthopara regioselectivity is prevalent in all reactions and is independent of the reactivity of the nitrating agent. The methyl group of toluene is predominantly ortho-para directing under all reaction conditions. Steric factors are considered to be important but not the sole reason for the variation in the ortho/para ratio. The results reinforce our earlier views that, in electrophilic aromatic nitrations with reactive nitrating agents, substrate and positional selectivities are determined in two separate steps. The first step involves a ?-aromatic-NO2+ ion complex or encounter pair, whereas the subsequent step is of arenium ion nature (separate for the ortho, meta, and para positions). The former determines substrate selectivity, whereas the latter determines regioselectivity. Thermal free radical nitration of benzene and toluene with tetranitromethane in sharp contrast gave nearly statistical product distributions. PMID:16592503

Olah, George A.; Lin, Henry C.; Olah, Judith A.; Narang, Subhash C.



Evaluation of toluene LIF thermometry detection strategies applied in an internal combustion engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of toluene laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) thermometry, the two common LIF detection strategies, namely one-color and two-color detection, have been simultaneously applied to compare each strategy's ability to accurately resolve thermal gradients during an engine cycle within an optically accessible internal combustion (IC) engine. Temperature images are obtained from high-speed toluene LIF measurements and are combined with high-speed particle image velocimetry. The combination with flow data and Mie scattering images facilitates the interpretation of differences between the toluene LIF detection strategies. Two-color temperature images are limited in their ability to detect thermal gradients near the end of compression due to larger precision uncertainties. Local regions of cold gases in the two-color images are better identified with the guidance of the one-color images when homogeneous toluene mixtures preside. During expansion, large differences exist between one- and two-color temperature images and likely caused by local mixture fraction heterogeneities that bias the one-color detection strategy. Toluene condensation occurs during the expansion and exhaust stroke and causes local mixture fraction heterogeneities in the combustion chamber. Liquid toluene is in contact with solid surfaces and crevices of the combustion chamber and can evaporate during compression or expansion causing both local temperature and mixture stratification. This work demonstrates the advantage of high-speed imaging and use of multiple image diagnostics to reveal the development of natural temperature and mixture stratification in a motored IC engine. This work also suggests that natural temperature stratification typically regarded from gas-wall heat transfer may also be caused by liquid droplet evaporation on solid surfaces. Such phenomenon, however, is expected to be pertinent for all modern-day engine operating systems.

Peterson, Brian; Baum, Elias; Böhm, Benjamin; Sick, Volker; Dreizler, Andreas



Isolation, characterization, and distribution of denitrifying toluene degraders from a variety of habitats.  

PubMed Central

Enrichments capable of toluene degradation under O2-free denitrifying conditions were established with diverse inocula including agricultural soils, compost, aquifer material, and contaminated soil samples from different geographic regions of the world. Successful enrichment was strongly dependent on the initial use of relatively low toluene concentrations, typically 5 ppm. From the enrichments showing positive activity for toluene degradation, 10 bacterial isolates were obtained. Fingerprints generated by PCR-amplified DNA, with repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence primers, showed that eight of these isolates were different. Under aerobic conditions, all eight isolates degraded toluene, five degraded ethylbenzene, three consumed benzene, and one degraded chlorobenzene, meta-Xylene was the only other substrate used anaerobically and was used by only one isolate. All isolates were motile gram-negative rods, produced N2 from denitrification, and did not hydrolyze starch. All strains but one fixed nitrogen as judged by ethylene production from acetylene, but only four strains hybridized to the nifHDK genes. All strains appeared to have heme nitrite reductase since their DNA hybridized to the heme (nirS) but not to the Cu (nirU) genes. Five strains hybridized to a toluene ortho-hydroxylase catabolic probe, and two of those also hybridized to a toluene meta-hydroxylase probe. Partial sequences of the 16S rRNA genes of all isolates showed substantial similarity to 16S rRNA sequences of Azoarcus sp. Physiological, morphological, fatty acid, and 16S rRNA analyses indicated that these strains were closely related to each other and that they belong to the genus Azoarcus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:8085824

Fries, M R; Zhou, J; Chee-Sanford, J; Tiedje, J M



Modeling formation and distribution of toluene-2,4-diamine (TDA) after spillage of toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) into a river.  


Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is a large volume chemical used for the production of polyurethanes. It is sparingly soluble in water, but hydrolyses instantaneously liberating toluene diamine (TDA), which is highly reactive to TDI. The ecotoxicity of TDI is dominated by TDA. The hydrolysis of TDI under static and dynamic conditions was investigated previously. Previously published data on TDI hydrolysis were re-visited, and based on these data a model was developed that allows a conservative and quick estimation of TDA concentrations in rivers following a major incident with TDI. As earlier published model experiments indicate, the maximum achievable TDA concentration is about 30 mg/L. Model simulations based on these experiments indicate that the TDA concentrations in a river after TDI discharge may be up to three orders of magnitude lower. PMID:23507364

Schupp, Thomas



Statistical Comparison of Carcinogenic Effects and Dose-Response Relationships in Rats and Mice for 2,4-Toluene Diamine to those Ascribed to Toluene Diisocyanate  

PubMed Central

The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) conducted 2-year bioassays of commercial grade toluene diisocyanate (TDI) (80% 2,4-TDI and 20% 2,6-TDI) and 2,4-toluene diamine (TDA) and concluded that both were carcinogenic in rodents. In the TDI study, there was an unproven but likely formation of TDA either because of flawed test-substance handling and storage conditions and/or the atypical exposure conditions employed. Although the carcinogenic responses in both studies were qualitatively similar, several statistical analyses were performed to substantiate this possibility more rigorously. Seven different statistical approaches combine to yield a robust and consistent conclusion that, if only a small fraction (approximately 5%) of the dose of TDI were hydrolyzed to TDA in the TDI study, then that would be sufficient to explain the observed carcinogenic responses in the TDI study. PMID:23172986

Sielken, Robert L.; Bretzlaff, Robert S.; Valdez-Flores, Ciriaco; Parod, Ralph



Part 1: Vadose-zone column studies of toluene (enhanced bioremediation) in a shallow unconfined aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objectives of the laboratory study described in this paper were (1) to determine the effectiveness of four nutrient solutions and a control in stimulating the microbial degradation of toluene in the unsaturated zone as an alternative to bioremediation methodologies such as air sparging, in situ vitrification, or others (Part I), and (2) to compare the effectiveness of the addition of the most effective nutrient solution from Part I (modified Hoagland type, nitrate-rich) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on microbial degradation of toluene for repeated, simulated spills in the unsaturated zone (Part II). For Part 1, fifteen columns (30-cm diameter by 150-cm height), packed with air-dried, 0.25-mm, medium-fine sand, were prepared to simulate shallow unconfined aquifer conditions. Toluene (10 mL) was added to the surface of each column, and soil solution and soil gas samples were collected from the columns every third day for 21 days. On day 21, a second application of toluene (10 mL) was made, and the experiment was run for another 21 days. Solution 4 was the most effective for microbial degradation in Part I. For Part II, three columns were designated nutrient-rich 3-day toluene columns and received toluene injections every 3 days; three columns were designated as nutrient-rich 7-day columns and received toluene injections every 7 days; and two columns were used as controls to which no nutrient was added. As measured by CO2 respiration, the initial benefits for aerobic organisms from the O2 enhancement were sustained by the bacteria for only a short period of time (about 8 days). Degradation benefits from the nutrient solution were sustained throughout the experiment. The O2 and nutrient-enhanced columns degraded significantly more toluene than the control columns when simulating repeated spills onto the unsaturated zone, and demonstrated a potentially effective in situ bioremediation technology when used immediately or within days after a spill. The combined usage of H 2O2 and nitrate-rich nutrients served to effectively maximize natural aerobic and anaerobic metabolic processes that biodegrade hydrocarbons in petroleum-contaminated media. Applications of this technology in the field may offer economical advantages to other, more intrusive abatement technologies. ?? Springer 2005.

Tindall, J.A.; Friedel, M.J.; Szmajter, R.J.; Cuffin, S.M.



Solubilities of Toluene, Benzene and TCE in High-Biomass Systems  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements of solubility limits for benzene, toluene, and TCE in systems that contain varying levels of biomass up to 0.13 g/mL. The solubility limit increased from 20 to 48 mM when biomass (in the form of yeast) was added to aqueous batch systems containing benzene. The toluene solubility limit increased from 4.9 to greater than 20 mM. For TCE, the solubility increased from 8 mM to more than 1000 mM. Solubility for TCE was most heavily impacted by biomass levels, changing by two orders of magnitude.

Barton, John W. [Battelle Eastern Science & Technology Center; Vodraska, Christopher D [ORNL; Flanary, Sandie A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Davison, Brian H [ORNL



Study of hydroxylation of benzene and toluene using a micro-DBD plasma reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydroxylation behaviour of benzene and toluene were studied using a micro-plasma reactor, where an atmospheric non-thermal plasma was generated by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The results indicated that oxidation products primarily consisted of phenol and C4-compounds for benzene hydroxylation, whereas cresol, benzaldehyde, benzylalcohol and C4-compounds were detected for toluene hydroxylation. By taking into consideration the reaction mechanism in the plasma reactor, these products were classified into (1) oxidation of the aromatic ring and functional group on the ring and (2) cleavage of the aromatic ring or dissociation of the functional group on the ring.

Sekiguchi, H.; Ando, M.; Kojima, H.



Toluene 2-Monooxygenase-Dependent Growth of Burkholderia cepacia G4/PR1 on Diethyl Ether  

PubMed Central

Aerobic bacterial growth on aromatic hydrocarbons typically requires oxygenase enzymes, which are known to fortuitously oxidize nongrowth substrates. In this study, we found that oxidation of diethyl ether by toluene 2-monooxygenase supported more rapid growth of Burkholderia cepacia G4/PR1 than did the aromatic substrates n-propylbenzene and o-xylene. The wild-type Burkholderia cepacia G4 failed to grow on diethyl ether. Purified toluene 2-monooxygenase protein components oxidized diethyl ether stoichiometrically to ethanol and acetaldehyde. Butyl methyl ether, diethyl sulfide, and 2-chloroethyl ethyl ether were oxidized by B. cepacia G4/PR1. PMID:16535583

Hur, H.; Newman, L. M.; Wackett, L. P.; Sadowsky, M. J.



Toluene-induced oxidative stress in several brain regions and other organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vivo dose-response relationship between toluene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in rat brain, liver, kidney,\\u000a and lung, and the time-course of these effects has been characterized. The rate of oxygen radical formation was measured using\\u000a the probe 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. In vivo exposure to various doses of toluene (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 g\\/kg ip) elicited\\u000a a dose-dependent elevation

Cara J. Mattia; Syed F. Ali; Stephen C. Bondy



Health assessment for Mystery Bridge Road/US Highway 20 Site, Brookhurst Subdivision, Evansville, Natrona County, Wyoming, Region 8. CERCLIS No. WYD981546005. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The Mystery Bridge Road, U.S. Highway 20 site, also known as the Brookhurst Subdivision (BSD), is located adjacent to industrial sites in Wyoming. The sites include a natural gas processing facility, an oil and gas well servicing company, and a railroad siding. Organic chemicals from the industrial sites have contaminated the underlying aquifer and resulted in contamination of downgradient drinking water wells in the BSD. The list of organic contaminants detected on-site include toluene, xylene, benzene, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), 1,1-dichloroethane, trichloroethylene (TCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. An estimated 414 persons in the subdivision rely on groundwater wells for potable water. An alternative supply of potable water has been provided for these residents.

Not Available



Analysis of organic compounds (VOC) in the forest air of the Southern Black Forest  

SciTech Connect

The volatile organic compounds of forest air (Kaelbelescheuer, Southern Black Forest) and, for comparison, suburban air (Tuebingen) were qualitatively analyzed by gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods. 94 Individual compounds were identified, 6 of them belonged to biogenic monoterpenes (..cap alpha..-pinene,, myrcene, limonene, eucalyptol, camphene). While the monoterpenes were enriched in forest air, a similar collection of the pollution products was observed in both locations. Predominant substances were aromatic compounds (toluene, ethylbenzene, benzene, xylenes, ethyltoluenes, pseudocumene and naphthalene) which can be regarded as constituents of vehicle exhaust fumes and incineration processes. Other important substances in forest air were various solvents, of which butyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene, butanol-1, and several ketones were prominent species.

Juettner, F.



Amplification of toluene dioxygenase genes in a hybrid Pseudomonas strain to enhance the biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and p-xylene mixture  

SciTech Connect

A hybrid metabolic pathway through which benzene, toluene, and p-xylene (BTX) mixture could be simultaneously mineralized was previously constructed in Pseudomonas putida TB101. In this work, the authors improved the performance of the hybrid pathway by cloning the todC1C2BA genes in the broad-host-range multicopy vector RSF1010 and by introducing the resulting plasmid pTOL037 into P. putida mt-2 which harbors the archetypal TOL plasmid. As a result, a new hybrid strain, P. putida TB103, possessing the enhanced activity of toluene dioxygenase in the hybrid pathway was constructed. The degradation rates of benzene, toluene, and p-xylene by P. putida TB103 were increased by about 9.3-, 3.7-, and 1.4-fold, respectively, compared with those by previously constructed P. putida TB101. Apparently, this improved capability of P. putida TB103 for the degradation of BTX mixture resulted from the amplification of the todC1C2BA genes. Furthermore, a relatively long lag period for benzene degradation observed when P. putida TB101 was used for the degradation of BTX mixture at low dissolved oxygen (DO) tension disappeared when P. putida TB103 was employed.

Lee, J.Y.; Jung, K.H.; Kim, H.S. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Biotechnology



Catalytic oxidation of toluene in contaminant emission control systems using Mn-Ce/gamma-Al2O3.  


Toluene, the alkyl benzene, is a common constituent of contaminant streams emitted by hydrocarbon fuel combustion systems. The oxidation of toluene to less toxic compounds can be enhanced through catalysis. The capacity of Mn-Ce/gamma-Al2O3 to catalyze toluene oxidation was investigated using a fixed bed flow reactor, operating within a temperature range of 160-400 degrees C. Mono-metallic catalysts were prepared with the manganese and cerium contents of 1-21 wt% on gamma-Al2O3, support and bi-metallic catalysts were prepared with cerium (0.5-21 wt%/) on 18.2 wt% manganese. The results indicate that the 18.2 wt% Mn-10.0 wt% Ce catalyst combination had the best catalytic efficiency for toluene oxidation. Increase in cerium loading reduces the surface area of catalytic materials measured by BET, but increases catalytic activity. Data obtained through TGA (Thermogravimetric analysis), XRD (X-ray diffraction) and toluene-TPR (Temperature Programmed Reduction) measurements show that the reduction of the catalysts in the process of toluene oxidation is directly proportional to observed weight loss under hydrogen flow. From these results, it is concluded that cerium improves the catalytic role of manganese in toluene oxidation. Oxygen mobility is also promoted in a redox mechanism in which MnO2 serves as the active sites. These results are useful in the development of toluene emission control systems for hydrocarbon fuel combustion systems. PMID:18661740

Kim, H-J; Choi, S-W; Inyang, H I



The Role of Physical Activity and Feeding Schedule on the Kinetics of Inhaled and Oral Toluene in Rats  

EPA Science Inventory

This manuscript provides new information regarding factors that affect the toxicokinetics of toluene, a hazardous air pollutant with acute neurotoxic activity. Toluene is a prototype compound of the class of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which have similar CNS activity and k...



EPA Science Inventory

In vitro studies have demonstrated that toluene disrupts the function of NMDA-glutamate receptors, as well as other channels. This has led to the hypothesis that effects on NMDA receptor function may contribute to toluene neurotoxicity, CNS depression, and altered visual evoked ...


Evaluation of the In Situ Aerobic Cometabolism of Chlorinated Ethenes by Toluene-Utilizing Microorganisms Using Push-Pull Tests  

SciTech Connect

Single-well-push-pull tests were used in a contaminated aquifer to evaluate the ability of toluene-oxidizing microorganisms to aerobically cometabolize chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) such as trichloroethene (TCE). Groundwater containing dissolved toluene was injected into the saturated zone in biostimulate indigenous toluene-utilizers. The test solution was injected into the aquifer using a standard monitoring well and then was transported under natural-gradient conditions. Transport tests demonstrated similar transport characteristics of the conservative tracer and the reactive solutes. Biostimulation tests were then performed by injecting a test solution containing dissolved toluene substrate, hydrogen peroxide, bromide and nitrate in order to increase the biomass of toluene-utilizing microorganisms. During the biostimulation tests, decreases in toluene concentration and the production of o-cresol as an intermediate oxidation product, indicated the simulation of toluene-utilizing microorganisms containing an ortho-monooxygenase enzyme. Transformation tests conducted after biostimulation demonstrated that indigenous microorganisms have the capability to transform the surrogate compounds (e.g. isobutene). Isobutene was transformed to isobutene oxide, indicating transformation by a toluene ortho-monooxygenase.

Azizian, Mohammad F.; Istok, Jonathan; Semprini, Lewis



[Isolation and characterization of 4 benzene/toluene-degrading bacterial strains and detection of related degradation genes].  


Four bacteria with the ability of benzene or toluene degradation were isolated from the active sludge of a life sewage treatment farm, two of which degraded benzene, and named B1 and B2; and other two degraded toluene, and named J2 and J6, respectively. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA showed that strain B1 and J2 belonged to Pseudomonas, and B2, J6 belonged to Acinetobacter. They all well adapted to the circumstances from 18 degrees C to 37 degrees C, 0% to 3% NaCl, and pH 7-10. The isolate J2 showed a high tolerance to organic solvent as it could grow well in the medium containing 70% (V/V) toluene, and degraded 92.4% of 0.1% (V/V) toluene within 72 hrs in a medium with toluene as the sole carbon source; while J6 presented 84.8% degradation under the same conditions to toluene. In the case of B1 and B2, they degraded 67.7% and 94.2% of 0.1% (V/V) benzene within 72 hours, respectively. Moreover, all strains were detected harboring the same benzene dioxygenase gene. In addition, J2 and J6 also had toluene dioxygenase genes which share 86.5% homology from each other. These bacteria are of potential in bio-treatment of benzene and toluene pollutants. PMID:17172023

Wang, Lin; Shao, Zong-Ze



The Role of Physical Activity and Feeding Schedule on the Kinetics of Inhaled and Oral Toluene in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published studies of the kinetics of toluene in rats have shown that its concentration in the blood rises during inhalation and falls after exposure stops; a similar uptake profile and longer persistence in blood typify the kinetics after oral exposure. Because rats in these studies are typically inactive during exposure, and behavioral tests of the acute effects of toluene require

Philip J. Bushnell; Wendy M. Oshiro; Tracey E. Samsam; Robert Klinger



Cytogenetic effects of low-level exposure to toluene, xylene, and their mixture on human blood lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to investigate, both in vitro and in vivo, the genotoxic potential of short-term low-level exposure to toluene, xylene, and their mixture, for which information is limited at the present time. Five adult healthy white men were exposed for 7 consecutive hours per day over 3 consecutive days to 50 ppm toluene and 40 ppm xylene

C.-L. Richer; S. Chakrabarti; M. Senécal-Quevillon; M. A. Duhr; X. X. Zhang; R. Tardif



Synthesis and characterization of Fe doped mesoporous Al 2 O 3 by sol–gel method and its use in trichloroethylene combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two mesoporous alumina samples were synthesized using the sol–gel method, and these samples were tested as catalysts in trichloroethylene\\u000a combustion reaction. One alumina sample was doped with Fe to study the influence of a small amount of this agent on the characteristics\\u000a and properties of alumina as a catalyst. Both catalysts (pure alumina and alumina doped with Fe) were thoroughly

Carlos J. Lucio-Ortiz; Javier Rivera De la Rosa; Aracely Hernandez Ramirez; Jose A. De los Reyes Heredia; Paz del Angel; Severino Muñoz-Aguirre; Lina M. De León-Covián



Influences of H 2 and O 2 and in situ Ca(OH) 2 absorption on nonthermal plasma decomposition of trichloroethylene in N 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decomposition of trichloroethylene (TCE) with a wire-in-tube pulsed corona reactor was experimentally investigated. It was found that the decomposition of TCE was higher in N2 gas, compared to the decomposition in the gas stream containing H2 or O2 gas. The main gaseous products were HCl and Cl2 for TCE decomposition in N2 gas. With the existence of 2% H2

Liwei Huang; Takafumi Fujita; Xuemei Zhang; Hitoki Matsuda



Drinking Water Contaminants (Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Benzene, and Trichloroethylene). 2. Effects on Reproductive Performance, Egg Quality, and Embryo Toxicity in Broiler Breeders1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broiler breeder hens were used to determine the effect of drinking water containing a low concentration of a chemical mixture (arsenic, 0.8 ppm; benzene, 1.3 ppm; cadmium, 5.1 ppm; lead, 6.7 ppm; and trichloroethylene, 0.65 ppm) and a high (10 times greater than the low concentration of the chemical mixture) levels of the chemical mixture. These chemicals are present in



Henry's Law Coefficient (Solubility) of Toluene in Water with GC-FID A laboratory experiment for junior level undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Lab course  

E-print Network

of uniform particle size, evenly coated with a thin layer of the liquid phase. Capillary columns are made gasoline; natural toluene also occurs in crude oil. Toluene is used in paints and solvents. Inhalation

Lee, Shan-Hu


Modeling acute and chronic toxicity of nonpolar narcotic chemicals and mixtures to Ceriodaphnia dubia.  


The response of the daphnid Ceriodaphnia dubia to six widely used industrial chemicals acting through nonpolar narcosis and a mixture was determined. Toxicological effect levels were based on reasonably steady-state, measured concentrations. Reproductive IC50S were 149 microM benzene, 82 microM trichloroethylene, 35 microM toluene, 31 microM ethylbenzene, 26 microM m-xylene, and 4 microM tetrachloroethylene. A QSAR describing 2-day LC50S as a function of log Kow accounted for 90.97% of the variation in response across chemical. A similar QSAR for chronic effects on reproduction accounted for 78.92%. Mixtures of benzene, trichloroethylene, and toluene had effects at concentrations below their individual LOELs. Observed effects of 20/24 mixtures tested fell within the 95% prediction interval for a concentration-addition model of joint action derived from tests with individual components. However, the observed response differed significantly from the predictive relationship. In general, the predictive relationship overestimated mixture toxicity. Fitted relationships reduced observed error by as much as 82% compared to the predictive model. PMID:9515086

Niederlehner, B R; Cairns, J; Smith, E P




EPA Science Inventory

Four isocyanates are listed for regulation in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: hexamethylene-1,6 diisocyanate, methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, and 2,4-toluene diisocyanate, each of which is used in the production of polymers, and methyl isocyanate which is an intermediate i...


Deoxygenative reduction of carbon dioxide to methane, toluene, and diphenylmethane with [Et2Al]+ as catalyst.  


The strong Lewis acid [Et(2)Al](+) catalyzes the reduction of carbon dioxide with hydrosilanes under mild conditions to methane. In benzene solution, the side products toluene and diphenylmethane are also obtained through Lewis acid catalyzed benzene alkylation by reaction intermediates. PMID:22696242

Khandelwal, Manish; Wehmschulte, Rudolf J



Low temperature oxidation of benzene and toluene in mixture with n-decane  

PubMed Central

The oxidation of two blends, benzene/n-decane and toluene/n-decane, was studied in a jet-stirred reactor with gas chromatography analysis (temperatures from 500 to 1100 K, atmospheric pressure, stoichiometric mixtures). The studied hydrocarbon mixtures contained 75% of aromatics in order to highlight the chemistry of the low-temperature oxidation of these two aromatic compounds which have a very low reactivity compared to large alkanes. The difference of behavior between the two aromatic reactants is highly pronounced concerning the formation of derived aromatic products below 800 K. In the case of benzene, only phenol could be quantified. In the case of toluene, significant amounts of benzaldehyde, benzene, and cresols were also formed, as well as several heavy aromatic products such as bibenzyl, phenylbenzylether, methylphenylbenzylether, and ethylphenylphenol. A comparison with results obtained with neat n-decane showed that the reactivity of the alkane is inhibited by the presence of benzene and, to a larger extent, toluene. An improved model for the oxidation of toluene was developed based on recent theoretical studies of the elementary steps involved in the low-temperature chemistry of this molecule. Simulations using this model were successfully compared with the obtained experimental results. PMID:23762017

Herbinet, Olivier; Husson, Benoit; Ferrari, Maude; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Battin-Leclerc, Frederique



Simultaneous Measurement of the Density and Viscosity of Compressed Liquid Toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vibrating-wire densimeter described previously has been used to perform simultaneous measurements of the density and viscosity of toluene at temperatures from 222 to 348 K and pressures up to 80 MPa. The density measurements are essentially based on the hydrostatic weighing principle, using a vibrating-wire device operated in forced mode of oscillation, as a sensor of the apparent weight

H. M. T. Avelino; J. M. N. A. Fareleira; W. A. Wakeham



The effect of aging on the bioavailability of toluene sorbed to municipal solid waste components.  


Past practice of co-disposing priority pollutants with municipal solid waste (MSW) has led to the placement of more than 150 MSW landfills in the US on the National Priorities List of Superfund. Interactions between organic contaminants and MSW constituents and the effects of these interactions on contaminant fate are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sorbate-sorbent aging time and sorbent decomposition on toluene bioavailability and fate. The bioavailability of (14)C-toluene sorbed to individual MSW constituents [office paper, newsprint, model food and yard waste, high density polyethylene (HDPE), and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)] was evaluated after aging times of 1, 30, and 180 d. Biodegradable sorbents were tested in both fresh and anaerobically degraded forms to evaluate the effect of sorbent decomposition. At the termination of bioavailability tests, the distribution of (14)C that was not converted to (14)CO(2) was measured by sequential lipophilic solvent and base extractions of sorbents followed by combustion of extracted sorbents. Increasing the toluene-sorbent aging time reduced the rate of toluene biodegradation for all MSW components except for HDPE. (14)C remaining in sorbents at the completion of bioavailability tests was physically sequestered within and/or covalently bound to sorbent organic matter, and this fraction increased with increasing aging time. Up to 18.6% of (14)C was associated with humic matter (humic and fulvic acids, humin) at the completion of bioavailability tests. PMID:22850276

Chen, Ye; Knappe, Detlef R U; Barlaz, Morton A




EPA Science Inventory

Knowledge of the appropriate metric of dose for a toxic chemical facilitates quantitative extrapolation of toxicity observed in the laboratory to the risk of adverse effects in the human population. Here we utilize a physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model for toluene, a...


Toluene Disrupts Outer Hair Cell Morphometry and Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis in Cochlear Cells of Guinea Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aromatic hydrocarbon, toluene, has been demonstrated to disrupt auditory system function both in occupational epidemiological and in laboratory animal investigations. This agent, along with several other organic solvents, impairs hearing preferentially at middle frequencies—a finding that distinguishes these agents from the traditional high-frequency impairment observed with ototoxic drugs such as aminoglycoside antibiotics and cisplatin. Prior investigations have identified the

Ye Liu; Laurence D. Fechter




EPA Science Inventory

Microcosms were prepared with subsurface material from two aquifers to examine the effects of preparation methods on rates of toluene biodegradation under denitrifying conditions. In both cases, the data fit a zero-order kinetics plot. However, rates of removal were generally pro...


Mortality of workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate in the polyurethane foam industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cancer mortality among United States workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in the manufacture of polyurethane foam. METHODS: This cohort mortality study included 4611 men and women employed in four polyurethane foam plants for at least three months between the late 1950s and 1987. The mortality experience of the cohort was then compared with that of the

T M Schnorr; K Steenland; G M Egeland; M Boeniger; D Egilman



Journal of Biotechnology 115 (2005) 145156 Protein engineering of toluene-o-xylene monooxygenase from  

E-print Network

A107T/E214A acts like a para enzyme and forms p-cresol as the major product (93%) from toluene with enhanced activity (2.3-fold), whereas wild-type ToMO forms 32%, 21%, and 47% of o-, m-, and p-cresol

Wood, Thomas K.


Biomonitoring Equivalents (BE) Dossier for Toluene (Cas No. 108-88-3)  

EPA Science Inventory

This document reviews available pharmacokinetic data and models for toluene and applies these data and models to existing health-based exposure guidance values from the US Environmental Protection Agency, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Health Canada, and th...



EPA Science Inventory

A continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was used to study the gas phase reaction between HO and toluene. HO was generated by the in situ photolysis of nitrous acid. Flow reactor operation at steady state conditions with a residence time of 20 minutes allowed investigation of pri...


Microbiological and kinetic aspects of a biofilter for the removal of toluene from waste gases  

SciTech Connect

Microbiological and kinetic aspects of a biofilter inoculated with a consortium of five bacteria and two yeast adapted to remove toluene vapors were investigated. Initially the toluene sorption isotherm on peat and the effect of different environmental conditions on the toluene consumption rates of this consortium were measured. The fast start-up of the biofilter and the decay in the elimination capacity (EC) were reproduced using microcosm assays with toluene successive additions. Nutrient limitation and a large degree of heterogeneity were also detected. EC values, extrapolated from microcosms, were higher than biofilter EC when it was operating close to 100% efficiency but tended to relate better as the biofilter EC diminished. In studies on the microbial evolution in the biofilter, an increase in the cell count and variation in the ecology of the consortium were noted. Bacterial counts up to 10 {times} 10{sup 11} cfu/g{sub dry peat} were found in 88 days, which corresponds to about a 10{sup 4} increase from inoculum. Observations with SEM showed a nonuniform biofilm development on the support and the presence of an extracellular material. The results obtained in this work demonstrated that activity measurement in microcosms concomitant to the biofilter operation could be an important tool for understanding, predicting and improving the biofiltration performance.

Acuna, M.E.; Perez, F.; Revah, S. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica] [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica; Auria, R. [ORSTOM, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. Francais of Recherche Scientifique pour Developpement en Cooperation] [ORSTOM, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. Francais of Recherche Scientifique pour Developpement en Cooperation



?–? * hyperconjugation mechanism on methyl rotation in cationic state of substituted toluenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal rotation of methyl group in cationic state of substituted toluenes has been investigated by the ab initio theory. Substituted groups studied here are F (fluorotoluene), NH2 (toluidine), OH (cresol), and CN (tolunitrile). The rotational barriers in the neutral and cationic ground states calculated by the Hartree–Fock method are in reasonable agreement with experimental values. Variations of the rotational barriers

Masaaki Kawai; Hiromi Nakai



Photochromic copolymers containing 3-indolylfulgides/indolylfulgimides: synthesis and photochemical properties in toluene and as films  

PubMed Central

Photochromic indolylfulgimides covalently attached to polymers have beneficial properties for optical switching. A 3-indolylfulgide and two 3-indolylfulgimides with one or two polymerizable styrene groups attached on the nitrogen atom(s) were synthesized. Copolymerization with methyl methacrylate (MMA) provided linear copolymers (one styrene group) or a cross-linked copolymer (two styrene groups). The properties of the monomers and copolymers in toluene or as thin films were characterized. The new copolymers were photochromic (reversible Z-to-C isomerization), absorbed visible light, and revealed good thermal and photochemical stability. At room temperature, all copolymer films showed no loss of absorbance after 5 weeks. At 80 °C in either toluene or as films, the Z-forms copolymers were less stable than the C-form copolymers, which showed little or no degradation after 400 h. The degradation rate due to repeated ring-closing – ring opening cycles was less than 3% per 100 cycles. The cross-linked copolymer showed photochemical stability comparable to monomeric fulgides in toluene, <1% per 100 cycles. In general, the properties of the linear and cross-linked copolymers were similar to the corresponding monomers in toluene. In films, the conformations of the Z-form were restricted due to the matrix indicating that the preparation of films from the C-form is advantageous. PMID:23935228

Islamova, Nadezhda I.; Chen, Xi; Fan, Changjun; Andino, Richard S.; Lees, Watson J.



Field evaluation of an immunoassay for benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) demonstration of an immunoassay for benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) compounds was conducted at four field sites within Las Vegas Valley, Nevada. The BTX immunoassay was developed by Antox, Inc. (South Portland, ME) as a semiquantitative test designed as a screening technology for classifying samples as above or below 25

Robert W. Gerlach; Richard J. White; N. F. Deirdre O'Leary; Jeanette M. Van Emon




EPA Science Inventory

There is increasing interest in being able to evaluate potential benefit-cost relationships of controlling exposure to toxic substances. Behavioral effects of acute toluene exposure could be subjected to benefit-cost analysis if it's effects were quantitatively compared to tho...


Review of toluene action: clinical evidence, animal studies and molecular targets  

PubMed Central

It has long been known that individuals will engage in voluntary inhalation of volatile solvents for their rewarding effects. However, research into the neurobiology of these agents has lagged behind that of more commonly used drugs of abuse such as psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine. This imbalance has begun to shift in recent years as the serious effects of abused inhalants, especially among children and adolescents, on brain function and behavior have become appreciated and scientifically documented. In this review, we discuss the physicochemical and pharmacological properties of toluene, a representative member of a large class of organic solvents commonly used as inhalants. This is followed by a brief summary of the clinical and pre-clinical evidence showing that toluene and related solvents produce significant effects on brain structures and processes involved in the rewarding aspects of drugs. This is highlighted by tables highlighting toluene’s effect on behaviors (reward, motor effects, learning, etc.) and cellular proteins (e.g. voltage and ligand-gated ion channels) closely associated the actions of abused substances. These sections demonstrate not only the significant progress that has been made in understanding the neurobiological basis for solvent abuse but also reveal the challenges that remain in developing a coherent understanding of this often overlooked class of drugs of abuse. PMID:25360325

Cruz, Silvia L.; Rivera-Garcia, Maria Teresa; Woodward, John J.



Atmosphere-Water Interaction of Chloroform, Toluene, and MTBE in Small Perennial Urban Streams  

E-print Network

; past detection in surface water, ground water, and drinking water; and potential for large-scale use of their potential emerging significance in drinking water. Preliminary national NAWQA Program findings for VOCsAtmosphere-Water Interaction of Chloroform, Toluene, and MTBE in Small Perennial Urban Streams


Toluene-degrading Antarctic Pseudomonas strains from fuel-contaminated soil.  


Two psychrotolerant toluene-degrading Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from JP8 jet-fuel-contaminated soils, Scott Base, Antarctica. Isolates metabolized meta-toluate as sole carbon source at temperatures ranging from 6 to 30 degrees C. Large plasmids (>64kb) were isolated from both isolates. Sequence analysis of PCR products amplified using xylB (the gene encoding benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase) primers revealed that isolates 7/167 and 8/46 were 100% and 92% homologous, respectively, to the xylB gene of the meta-cleavage toluene degradative pathway encoded by the TOL plasmid (pWWO) of Pseudomonas putida mt-2. Assays of cell-free extracts of 7/167 and 8/46 demonstrated activity of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase, indicating that the isolates use the meta-cleavage pathway enzymes of toluene degradation typical of TOL type plasmids. As both isolates are able to grow at 6 degrees C ex situ it is feasible that they would be able to metabolize toluene in the Antarctic soils from where they were originally isolated. PMID:14630048

Farrell, Roberta L; Rhodes, Phillippa L; Aislabie, Jackie



Application of Atmospheric Non Thermal Plasma-Catalysis Hybrid System for Air Pollution Control: Toluene removal.  

E-print Network

1 Application of Atmospheric Non Thermal Plasma-Catalysis Hybrid System for Air Pollution Control rue d'Issoudun, BP 6744, 45067 Orléans Cedex 02, France. Keywords: Non thermal Plasma, Catalysis, Toluene, oxidation. Abstract The combination of heterogeneous catalysts with non-thermal plasma (DBD

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Deuterium Isotope Effects in the Unusual Addition of Toluene to Fumarate Catalyzed by Benzylsuccinate Synthase†  

PubMed Central

The first step in the anaerobic metabolism of toluene is a highly unusual reaction: the addition of toluene across the double bond of fumarate to produce (R)-benzylsuccinate that is catalyzed by benzylsuccinate synthase. Benzylsuccinate synthase is a member of the glycyl radicalcontaining family of enzymes, and the reaction is initiated by abstraction of a hydrogen atom from the methyl group of toluene. To gain insight into the free energy profile of this reaction, we have measured the kinetic isotope effects on Vmax and Vmax/Km when deuterated toluene is the substrate. At 30 °C the isotope effects are 1.7 ± 0.2 and 2.9 ± 0.1 on Vmax and Vmax/Km, respectively, at 4 °C they increase slightly to2.2 ± 0.2 and 3.1 ± 0.1 respectively. We compare these results with the theoretical isotope effects on Vmax and Vmax/Km that are predicted from the free energy profile for the uncatalyzed reaction, which has previously been computed using density functional theory. The comparison allows us to draw some conclusions on how the enzyme may catalyze this unusual reaction. PMID:17105211

Li, Lei; Marsh, E. Neil G.



Environmental factors affecting toluene degradation in ground water at a hazardous-waste site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial ecology of pristine and contaminated ground water at a chemical waste disposal site was investigated. Recently, it was determined that ground water downslope from the disposal site contained elevated levels of toxic pollutants, including benzene, toluene, xylene and methylene chloride, as well as iron and manganese. Microbial mineralization and uptake of radio-labeled glucose and amino acids indicated a

Anthony Q. Armstrong; Robert E. Hodson; Huey-Min Hwang; David L. Lewis



Toluene vapor capture by activated carbon particles in a dual gas-solid cyclone system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capturing of odorous compounds such as toluene vapor by a particulate activated carbon adsorbent was investigated in a gas-solid cyclone, which is one of mobile beds. The test cyclone was early modified with the PoC and a spiral flow guide to the vortex finder. The proposed process may contribute to the reduction of gases and dust from industrial exhausts, especially

Yun Hui Lim; Khanh Quoc Ngo; Young Koo Park; Young Min Jo



Analysis of the gene cluster encoding toluene\\/o-xylene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toluene\\/o-xylene monooxygenase cloned from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1 displays a very broad range of substrates and a very peculiar regioselectivity, because it is able to hydroxylate more than one position on the aromatic ring of several hydrocarbons and phenols. The nucleotide sequence of the gene cluster coding for this enzymatic system has been determined. The sequence analysis revealed the presence




Catalytic Transformation of Toluene over High Acidity Y-Zeolite Based S. Al-Khattaf*  

E-print Network

was impregnated with 8.5 wt% of phosphorus to enhance p-xylene selectivity. Peng et al [9] studied toluene to that of mordenite and much higher than that of ZSM-5. The fraction of p-xylene in xylene isomers (para zeolites which were modified with phosphorus, boron, or magnesium compounds. The increment of p-xylene

Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman


Kinetics of toluene disproportionation over unmodified and modified ZSM-5 zeolites  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of toluene disproportionation has been studied over both unmodified and Si-Mg modified ZSM-5 catalysts using an integral reactor and taking into account the reversibility of the reaction. It has been found that xylene dealkylation is the major secondary reaction, whereas toluene dealkylation can be considered negligible. For the unmodified ZSM-5, heterogeneous models based in the alkyl-transfer mechanism allowed the experimental results to be fit better than first and second pseudohomogeneous models, the best concordance being obtained when toluene adsorption is assumed as the rate-limiting step. The corresponding kinetic equation has been further applied to the modified zeolite (SiMg/ZSM-5), leading to the development of a kinetic model which includes the effect of the toluene and p-xylene intracrystalline diffusion rate and the presence of nonselective acid sites on the external zeolite surface. This model describes adequately the selective formation of p-xylene over modified ZSM-5, reproducing the experimental product distribution with an average relative error of 2.8%.

Uguina, M.A.; Sotelo, J.L.; Serrano, D.P. (Complutense Univ., Madrid (Spain))



Personal exposure to benzene, toluene and xylene in different microenvironments at the Mexico City metropolitan zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (ZMCM) population's exposure to benzene, toluene and xylene was measured at different microenvironments to establish basic indicators of the presence and effects of these characteristic volatile organic compounds (VOC). In particular, VOC personal exposures were measured in different microenvironments during a 5-day working week, with 12-h daily periods. We have found a good agreement of

E. Ortiz; E. Alemón; D. Romero; J. L. Arriaga; P. Olaya; F. Guzmán; C. R??os



Ambient Air Levels and the Exposure of Children to Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the study were to evaluate if the front-door concentrations of benzene, toluene, and xylenes can be used to classify the personal exposures of Danish children and to identify factors that affect their personal exposure. Average concentrations were measured over 1 week with diffusive samplers, and the personal exposures of 98 children and the concentrations outside the front

Ole Raaschou-Nielsen; Christian Lohse; Birthe L. Thomsen; Henrik Skov; Jørgen H. Olsen



Effect of simultaneous exposure to toluene and xylene on their respective biological exposure indices in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Studies that specifically address the influence of controlled human exposure to a combination of solvents on the biological monitoring of exposure are limited in number. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether simultaneous exposure of human volunteers to toluene and xylene could modify the respective metabolic disposition of these solvents. Five adult Caucasian men were exposed for 7

R. Tardif; S. Laparé; G. L. Plaa; J. Brodeur



Modeling the Toxicokinetics of Inhaled Toluene in Rats: Influence of Physical Activity and Feeding Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toluene is found in petroleum-based fuels and used as a solvent in consumer products and industrial applications. The critical effects following inhalation exposure involve the brain and nervous system in both humans and experimental animals, whether exposure duration is acute or chronic. The goals of this physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development effort were twofold: (1) to evaluate and explain

Elaina M. Kenyon; Vernon Benignus; Christopher Eklund; Jerry W. Highfill; Wendy M. Oshiro; Tracey E. Samsam; Philip J. Bushnell



Determination of benzene and toluene in soils and plant material by azeotropic distillation  

SciTech Connect

The suspected dumping of gasoline near a garden resulted in the need for a method that would measure trace amounts of benzene and toluene in both soil and plant samples. In this report the authors show that a method involving methanolic extraction and azeotropic distillation is a highly sensitive technique that eliminated the contamination of the GC column by non-volatile material.

Kozloski, R.P.



Recycling of a spent iron based catalyst for the complete oxidation of toluene: effect of palladium.  


Complete oxidation of volatile organic compound (toluene) was carried out to assess the property and activity of the palladium-spent iron based catalyst. The properties of the prepared catalysts were characterized by using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method and by conducting temperature-programmed reduction, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and field emission transmission electron microscopy. The addition of palladium to the spent iron based catalyst pretreated with oxalic acid shifted the conversion curve for the total oxidation of toluene to lower temperature. An increase in the toluene conversion due to palladium was highly related to the easier lattice oxygen mobility of the catalysts. Instrumental analysis suggested the presence of a strong interaction between palladium and iron oxide species. Moreover, in the case of reducing the Pd/Fe catalyst with hydrogen, palladium accelerated the reducing iron oxides, subsequently decreasing the toluene conversion. As a result, the oxidation states of palladium and iron had an important effect on the catalytic activity. PMID:25413115

Kim, Sang Chai; Nah, Jae Woon



Chemical characterisation of semi-volatile and aerosol compounds from the photooxidation of toluene and NOx  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of a gas phase and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mixture from toluene photooxidation in NOx was determined. Aerosol from toluene photooxidation was generated in a smog chamber and was collected onto glass fibre filters along with those gas phase compounds which adhered to the filter. The filter bound organic material was extracted, derivatised with O-2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl hydroxylamine (PFBHA) and N,O-bistrimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), then analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Compound identification was aided by the use of isotopically-labelled toluene. The effect of humidity on product formation was investigated by raising water vapour concentration in one experiment. Sixty compounds were identified, of which twenty had not been identified from toluene photooxidation previously. Small carboxylic acids and dicarbonyls provided the highest proportion of identifiable compounds by relative response. The use of water to extract the filter samples resulted in much higher relative responses for oxocarboxylic acids, such as glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid, than has been observed in previous studies. The formation of levulinic acid was determined to be due to the reaction of water with aromatic photooxidation products in the gas phase or particle phase of the chamber experiment. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to determine the functional groups of water-extracted organic material, which indicated that the water-soluble components were comprised of compounds which contain similar functional groups, primarily alcohols and carboxylic acids.

White, Stephen J.; Jamie, Ian M.; Angove, Dennys E.




EPA Science Inventory

The introduction of bacteria into aquifers for bioremediation purposes requires monitoring of the persistence and activity of microbial populations for efficacy and risk assessment purposes. Burkholderia cepacia G4 PR1 constitutively expresses a toluene ortho-monooxygenase (tom) ...


Substrate Interactions during the Biodegradation of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenze, and Xylene (BTEX) Hydrocarbons by the Fungus Cladophialophora sp. Strain T1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil fungus Cladophialophora sp. strain T1 (= ATCC MYA-2335) was capable of growth on a model water-soluble fraction of gasoline that contained all six BTEX components (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the xylene isomers). Benzene was not metabolized, but the alkylated benzenes (toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) were degraded by a combination of assimilation and cometabolism. Toluene and ethylbenzene were used

F. X. Prenafeta-Boldú; J. Vervoort; J. T. C. Grotenhuis; Groenestijn van J. W



Mixing-controlled biodegradation in a toluene plume — Results from two-dimensional laboratory experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various abiotic and biotic processes such as sorption, dilution, and degradation are known to affect the fate of organic contaminants, such as petroleum hydrocarbons in saturated porous media. Reactive transport modeling of such plumes indicates that the biodegradation of organic pollutants is, in many cases, controlled by mixing and therefore occurs locally at the plume's fringes, where electron donors and electron-acceptors mix. Herein, we aim to test whether this hypothesis can be verified by experimental results obtained from aerobic and anaerobic degradation experiments in two-dimensional sediment microcosms. Toluene was selected as a model compound for oxidizable contaminants. The two-dimensional microcosm was filled with quartz sand and operated under controlled flow conditions simulating a contaminant plume in otherwise uncontaminated groundwater. Aerobic degradation of toluene by Pseudomonas putida mt-2 reduced a continuous 8.7 mg L - 1 toluene concentration by 35% over a transport distance of 78 cm in 15.5 h. In comparison, under similar conditions Aromatoleum aromaticum strain EbN1 degraded 98% of the toluene infiltrated using nitrate (68.5 ± 6.2 mg L - 1 ) as electron acceptor. A major part of the biodegradation activity was located at the plume fringes and the slope of the electron-acceptor gradient was steeper during periods of active biodegradation. The distribution of toluene and the significant overlap of nitrate at the plume's fringe indicate that biokinetic and/or microscale transport processes may constitute additional limiting factors. Experimental data is corroborated with results from a reactive transport model using double Monod kinetics. The outcome of the study shows that in order to simulate degradation in contaminant plumes, detailed data sets are required to test the applicability of models. These will have to deal with the incorporation of existing parameters coding for substrate conversion kinetics and microbial growth.

Bauer, Robert D.; Maloszewski, Piotr; Zhang, Yanchun; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Griebler, Christian



Dealkylation of Alkylbenzenes: A Significant Pathway in the Toluene, o-, m-, p-Xylene + OH Reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OH-radical initiated oxidation of a series of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, o-, m-, and p-xylene) in the presence of oxygen and NOx was investigated in a flowtube coupled with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). OH-radical addition to the aromatic ring - the major reaction pathway - has previously been shown to have a particular sensitivity to experimental conditions. This is the first flowtube study that demonstrates the atmospheric relevance of product yields from the OH-addition channel on the millisecond time scale (35-75 ms); the phenol yield from benzene and cresol yields from toluene are found to be 51.0 ± 4.3% and 17.7 ± 2.1%, in excellent agreement with previous studies under close to atmospheric conditions. We further report unambiguous experimental evidence that dealkylation is a novel and significant pathway for toluene and o-, m-, and p-xylene oxidation. At 150 Torr of O2 partial pressure, toluene is found to dealkylate with a yield of 5.4 ± 1.2% phenol; similarly, m-, o-, and p-xylene dealkylate with yields of 11.2 ± 3.8%, 4.5 ± 3.2%, and 4.3 ± 3.1% cresol, respectively. A dealkylation mechanism via OH-addition in the ipso position is feasible (?H = -9 kcal/mol for phenol formation from toluene) but does not lend itself easily to explain the significant isomer effect observed among xylenes; instead an alternative mechanism is presented that can explain this isomer effect and forms phenol and likely epoxide type products with identical m/z (indistinguishable in our CIMS analysis) via a carbene-type intermediate. Dealkylation adds to the atmospheric production of phenol- and likely epoxide-type products, with aldehydes as expected co-products, and helps improve the carbon balance in the initial stages of aromatic oxidation.

Noda, Jun; Volkamer, Rainer; Molina, Mario J.



Cloning and characterization of a Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 gene cluster encoding toluene-4-monooxygenase  

SciTech Connect

Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 metabolizes toluene as a carbon source by a previously unknown pathway. The initial step of the pathway is hydroxylation of toluene to form p-cresol by a multicomponent toluene-4-monooxygenase (T4MO) system. The authors have cloned and characterized a gene cluster from KR 1 that determines the T4MO activity. To clone the T4MO genes, KR1 DNA libraries were constructed in Escherichia coli HB 101 by using a broad-host-range vector and transferred to a KR1 mutant able to grow on p-cresol but no on toluene. An insert consisting of two SacI fragments of identical size was shown to complement the mutant for growth on toluene. One of the SacI fragments, when cloned into the E. coli vector pUC19, was found to direct the synthesis of indigo dye. The indigo-forming property was correlated with the presence of T4MO activity. The T4MO genes were mapped to a 3.6-kb region, and the direction of transcription was determined. DNA sequencing and N-terminal amino acid determination identified a five-gene cluster, tmoABCDE, within this region. Expression of this cluster carrying a single mutation in each gene demonstrated that each of the five genes is essential for T4MO activity. Other evidence presented indicated that none of the tmo genes was involved in the regulation of the tmo gene cluster, in the control of substrate transport of the T4MO system, or in major processing of the products of the tmo genes. It was tentatively concluded that the tmoABCDE genes encode structural polypeptides of the T4MO enzyme system. One of the tmo genes was tentatively identified as a ferredoxin gene.

Kwangmu Yen; Karl, M.R.; Blatt, L.M.; Simon, M.J.; Winter, R.B.; Fausset, P.R.; Lu, H.S.; Harcourt, A.A.; Chen, K.K. (Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States))



The abused inhalant toluene increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens by directly stimulating ventral tegmental area neurons.  


Recreational abuse of toluene-containing volatile inhalants by adolescents is a significant public health problem. The mechanisms underlying the abuse potential of such substances remain unclear, but could involve increased activity in mesoaccumbal dopamine (DA) afferents innervating the nucleus accumbens (ACB). Here, using in vitro electrophysiology, we show that application of behaviorally relevant concentrations of toluene directly stimulates DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but not surrounding midbrain regions. Toluene stimulation of VTA neurons persists when synaptic transmission is reduced. Moreover, unlike non-DA neurons, the magnitude of VTA DA neuron firing does not decline during longer exposures designed to emulate 'huffing'. Using dual-probe in vivo microdialysis, we show that perfusion of toluene directly into the VTA increases DA concentrations in the VTA (somatodendritic release) and its terminal projection site, the ACB. These results provide the first demonstration that even brief exposure to toluene increases action potential drive onto mesoaccumbal VTA DA neurons, thereby enhancing DA release in the ACB. The finding that toluene stimulates mesoaccumbal neurotransmission by activating VTA DA neurons directly (independently of transynaptic inputs) provide insights into the neural substrates that may contribute to the initiation and pathophysiology of toluene abuse. PMID:17213847

Riegel, Arthur C; Zapata, Agustin; Shippenberg, Toni S; French, Edward D



Deuterium isotope effects on toluene metabolism. Product release as a rate-limiting step in cytochrome P-450 catalysis  

SciTech Connect

Liver microsomes from phenobarbital-induced rats oxidize toluene to a mixture of benzyl alcohol plus o-, m- and p-cresol (ca. 69:31). Stepwise deuteration of the methyl group causes stepwise decreases in the yield of benzyl alcohol relative to cresols (ca. 24:76 for toluene-d3). For benzyl alcohol formation from toluene-d3 DV = 1.92 and D(V/K) = 3.53. Surprisingly, however, stepwise deuteration induces stepwise increases in total oxidation, giving rise to an inverse isotope effect overall (DV = 0.67 for toluene-d3). Throughout the series (i.e. d0, d1, d2, d3) the ratios of cresol isomers remain constant. These results are interpreted in terms of product release for benzyl alcohol being slower than release of cresols (or their epoxide precursors), and slow enough to be partially rate-limiting in turnover. Thus metabolic switching to cresol formation causes a net acceleration of turnover.

Ling, K.H.; Hanzlik, R.P.



Trace level determination of trichloroethylene from liver, lung and kidney tissues by gas chromatography - magnetic sector mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common industrial chemical that has been heavily used as a metal degreaser and a solvent for the past 100 years. As a result of the extensive use and production of this compound, it has become prevalent in the environment, appearing at over 50% of the hazardous waste sites on the US EPA's National Priorities List (NPL). TCE exposure has been linked to neurological dysfunction as well as to several types of cancer in animals. This paper describes the development and validation of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the quantitation of trace levels of TCE in its target tissues (i.e. liver, kidney and lungs). The limit of quantitation (5 ng/ml) is substantially lower than currently published methods for the analysis of TCE in tissues. The % RSD and % Error for the assay falls within the acceptable range (<15% for middle and high QC points and <20% for low QC points), and the recovery is high from all tissues (>79%).

Stacy D. Brown; S. Muralidhara; James V. Bruckner, Michael G. Bartlett



Metabolic changes and DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum are associated with behavioral alterations in mice exposed to trichloroethylene postnatally  

PubMed Central

Previous studies demonstrated that low-level postnatal and early life exposure to the environmental contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), in the drinking water of MRL+/+ mice altered glutathione redox homeostasis and increased biomarkers of oxidative stress indicating a more oxidized state. Plasma metabolites along the interrelated transmethylation pathway were also altered indicating impaired methylation capacity. Here we extend these findings to further characterize the impact of TCE exposure in mice exposed to water only or two doses of TCE in the drinking water (0, 2, and 28 mg/kg/day) postnatally from birth until 6 weeks of age on redox homeostasis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in the cerebellum. In addition, pathway intermediates involved in methyl metabolism and global DNA methylation patterns were examined in cerebellar tissue. Because the cerebellum is functionally important for coordinating motor activity, including exploratory and social approach behaviors, these parameters were evaluated in the present study. Mice exposed to 28 mg/kg/day TCE exhibited increased locomotor activity over time as compared with control mice. In the novel object exploration test, these mice were more likely to enter the zone with the novel object as compared to control mice Similar results were obtained in a second test when an unfamiliar mouse was introduced into the testing arena. The results show for the first time that postnatal exposure to TCE causes key metabolic changes in the cerebellum that may contribute to global DNA methylation deficits and behavioral alterations in TCE-exposed mice. PMID:23566951

Blossom, Sarah J.; Cooney, Craig A.; Melnyk, Stepan B.; Rau, Jenny L.; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Wessinger, William D.



Evaluation of the effects of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) dispersants on intrinsic biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE).  


In this study, the biodegradability of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) dispersants and their effects on the intrinsic biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) were evaluated. Results of a microcosm study show that the biodegradability of three dispersants followed the sequence of: polyvinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate-co-itaconic acid (PV3A) > polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20) > polyacrylic acid (PAA) under aerobic conditions, and PV3A > Tween 20 > PAA under anaerobic conditions. Natural biodegradation of TCE was observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. No significant effects were observed on the intrinsic biodegradation of TCE under aerobic conditions with the presence of the dispersants. The addition of PAA seemed to have a slightly adverse impact on anaerobic TCE biodegradation. Higher accumulation of the byproducts of anaerobic TCE biodegradation was detected with the addition of PV3A and Tween 20. The diversity of the microbial community was enhanced under aerobic conditions with the presence of more biodegradable PV3A and Tween 20. The results of this study indicate that it is necessary to select an appropriate dispersant for nZVI to prevent a residual of the dispersant in the subsurface. Additionally, the effects of the dispersant on TCE biodegradation and the accumulation of TCE biodegrading byproducts should also be considered. PMID:24901632

Chang, Y C; Huang, S C; Chen, K F