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1

Use of Mini-Sprinklers to Strip Trichloroethylene and Tetrachloroethylene from Contaminated Ground Water.  

SciTech Connect

Berisford, Y.C., P.B. Bush, J.I. Blake, and C.L. Bayer. 2003. Use of mini-sprinklers to strip trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene from contaminated ground water. J. Env. Qual. 32:801-815. Three low-volume mini-sprinklers were tested for their efficacy to strip trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) from water. Deionized water spiked with TCE and PCE was pumped through a mini-sprinkler supported on top of a 1.8-m-tall. Water was collected in collection vessels at 0.61 and 1.22 m above the ground on support columns that were spaced at 0.61-m intervals from the riser base, and samples were composited per height and distance from the riser. Overall, air-stripping reduced dissolved concentrations of TCE and PCE by 99.1 to 100 and 96.9 to 100%, respectively. Mini-sprinklers offer the advantages of (i) easy setup in series that can be used on practically any terrain; (ii) operation over a long period of time that does not threaten aquifer depletion; (iii) use in small or confined aquifers in which the capacity is too low to support large irrigation or pumping systems; and (iv) use in forests in which the small, low-impact droplets of the mini-sprinklers do not damage bark and in which trees can help manage (via evapotransporation) excess waste water.

Brerisford, Yvette, C.; Bush, Parshall, B.; Blake, John, I.; Bayer, Cassandra L.

2003-01-01

2

ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES FOR TREATING GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATED WITH TCE (TRICHLOROETHYLENE) AND PCE (TETRACHLOROETHYLENE): LABORATORY STUDIES (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) with various dosages of ozone or ozone plus hydrogen peroxide was studied in laboratory experiments. The results show that hydrogen peroxide accelerates the oxidation of TCE and PCE by ozone. At peroxide-to-ozone ...

3

Trichloroethylene oxidation by purified toluene 2-monooxygenase: products, kinetics, and turnover-dependent inactivation.  

PubMed Central

Trichloroethylene is oxidized by several types of nonspecific bacterial oxygenases. Toluene 2-monooxygenase from Burkholderia cepacia G4 is implicated in trichloroethylene oxidation and is uniquely suggested to be resistant to turnover-dependent inactivation in vivo. In this work, the oxidation of trichloroethylene was studied with purified toluene 2-monooxygenase. All three purified toluene 2-monooxygenase protein components and NADH were required to reconstitute full trichloroethylene oxidation activity in vitro. The apparent Km and Vmax were 12 microM and 37 nmol per min per mg of hydroxylase component, respectively. Ten percent of the full activity was obtained when the small-molecular-weight enzyme component was omitted. The stable oxidation products, accounting for 84% of the trichloroethylene oxidized, were carbon monoxide, formic acid, glyoxylic acid, and covalently modified oxygenase proteins that constituted 12% of the reacted [14C]trichloroethylene. The stable oxidation products may all derive from the unstable intermediate trichloroethylene epoxide that was trapped by reaction with 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine. Chloral hydrate and dichloroacetic acid were not detected. This finding differs from that with soluble methane monooxygenase and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase, which produce chloral hydrate. Trichloroethylene-dependent inactivation of toluene 2-monooxygenase activity was observed. All of the protein components were covalently modified during the oxidation of trichloroethylene. The addition of cysteine to reaction mixtures partially protected the enzyme system against inactivation, most notably protecting the NADH-oxidoreductase component. This suggested the participation of diffusible intermediates in the inactivation of the oxidoreductase. PMID:8981984

Newman, L M; Wackett, L P

1997-01-01

4

Trichloroethylene removal and oxidation toxicity mediated by toluene dioxygenase of Pseudomonas putida.  

PubMed

Whole cells of Pseudomonas putida containing toluene dioxygenase were able to remove all detectable trichloroethylene (TCE) from assay mixtures. The capacity of cells to remove TCE was 77 microM/mg of protein with an initial rate of removal of 5.2 nmol/min/ng of protein. TCE oxidation resulted in a decrease in the growth rate of cultures and caused rapid cell death. Addition of dithiothreitol to assay mixtures increased the TCE removal capacity of cells by up to 67% but did not prevent TCE-mediated cell death. TCE induced toluene degradation by whole cells to a rate approximately 40% of that induced by toluene itself. PMID:7811103

Heald, S; Jenkins, R O

1994-12-01

5

Reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene catalyzed by vitamin B{sub 12} in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems  

SciTech Connect

The reduction of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) catalyzed by vitamin B{sub 12} was examined in homogeneous and heterogeneous (B{sub 12} bound to agarose) batch systems using titanium(III) citrate as the bulk reductant. The solution and surface-mediated reaction rates at similar B{sub 12} loadings were comparable, indicating that binding vitamin B{sub 12} to a surface did not lower catalytic activity. No loss in PCE reducing activity was observed with repeated usage of surface-bound vitamin B{sub 12}. Carbon mass recoveries were 81-84% for PCE reduction and 89% for TCE reduction, relative to controls. In addition to sequential hydrogenolysis, a second competing reaction mechanism for the reduction of PCE and TCE by B{sub 12}, reductive {beta}-elimination, is proposed to account for the observation of acetylene as a significant reaction intermediate. Reductive {beta}-elimination should be considered as a potential pathway in other reactive systems involving the reduction of vicinal polyhaloethenes. Surface-bound catalysts such as vitamin B{sub 12} may have utility in the engineered degradation of aqueous phase chlorinated ethenes. 19 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Burris, D.R.; Smith, M.H. [Armstrong Lab., Tyndall Air Force Base, FL (United States)] [Armstrong Lab., Tyndall Air Force Base, FL (United States); Delcomyn, C.A. [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Tyndall Air Force Base, FL (United States)] [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Tyndall Air Force Base, FL (United States); Roberts, A.L. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)] [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1996-10-01

6

Potential of physiologically based pharmacokinetics to amalgamate kinetic data of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene obtained in rats and man.  

PubMed Central

A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was used to amalgamate information obtained in rats and man by various routes of exposure to trichloroethylene (TRI) and tetrachloroethylene (TETRA). Since there have been no pharmacokinetic data on drinking water exposure, drinking water exposure to TRI was conducted in rats using 14C-TRI. Several partition coefficients of TRI and TETRA were also determined in the present study. Simulations of the kinetics of TRI and TETRA were made with the unified physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to determine whether reported pharmacokinetic data from different routes of exposure to TRI and TETRA (inhalation, intravenous, drinking water in rats, and inhalation in man) could be simulated. The results indicated that the unified model used in this study successfully simulates the pharmacokinetics of TRI and TETRA irrespective of the routes and exposure intensities. Subsequently, sensitivity analyses were performed. Since both TRI and TETRA require bioactivation to produce their toxicity, the amounts metabolised in the body were used as indicators of toxicity. Vmax (maximum velocity of metabolism in the liver), alveolar ventilation, and the blood/air partition coefficient had a more profound effect than other factors on the amounts of these chemicals metabolised when parameter values were altered. The model was applied to simulate the biologically permissible values of exhaled air concentration and blood concentration of these compounds for monitoring exposure intensities in occupational settings. The simulated maximum permissible values showed good agreement with those obtained by field studies. Finally, the model was applied to the risk assessment of drinking water exposures to TRI and TETRA, assuming that a man weighing 70 kg drinks 2 l of the most contaminated drinking water ever reported in the US; 32 ppb for TRI and 5 ppb for TETRA. The simulated metabolised amounts of TRI and TETRA under steady state condition in man were a fifth of an order of magnitude lower than non-cancer causing metabolised amounts of TRI and TETRA in rats through inhalation. PMID:2713280

Koizumi, A

1989-01-01

7

Comparison of factors influencing trichloroethylene degradation by toluene-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) by toluene-oxidizing bacteria has been extensively studied, and yet the influence of environmental conditions and physiological characteristics of individual strains has received little attention. To consider these effects, the levels of TCE degradation by strains distinguishable on the basis of toluene and nitrate metabolism were compared under aerobic or hypoxic conditions in the presence and absence of nitrate and an exogenous electron donor, lactate. Under aerobic conditions with toluene-induced cells, strains expressing toluene dioxygenases (Pseudomonas putida F1, Pseudomonas sp. strain JS150, Pseudomonas fluorescens CFS215, and Pseudomonas sp. strain W31) degraded TCE at low rates, with less than 12% of the TCE removed in 18 h. In contrast, strains expressing toluene monooxygenases (Burkholderia cepacia G4, Burkholderia pickettii PKO1, and Pseudomonas mendocina KR1) degraded 36 to 67% of the TCE over the same period. Under hypoxic conditions (1.7 mg of dissolved oxygen per liter) or when lactate was added as an electron donor, the extent of TCE degradation by toluene-induced cells was generally lower. In the presence of lactate, degradation of TCE by denitrifying strain PKO1 was enhanced by nitrate under conditions in which dissimilatory nitrate reduction was observed. The results of experiments performed with strains F1, G4, PKO1, and KR1 suggested that TCE or an oxidation product induces toluene degradation and that TCE induces its own degradation in the monooxygenase strains. The role of TCE as an inducer of toluene oxygenase activity in PKO1 was confirmed by performing a promoter probe analysis, in which we found that TCE activates transcription from the PKO1 3-monooxygenase operon promoter. PMID:8975612

Leahy, J G; Byrne, A M; Olsen, R H

1996-01-01

8

Oxidation of trichloroethylene, toluene, and ethanol vapors by a partially saturated permeable reactive barrier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mitigation of volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors in the unsaturated zone largely relies on the active removal of vapor by ventilation. In this study we considered an alternative method involving the use of solid potassium permanganate to create a horizontal permeable reactive barrier for oxidizing VOC vapors. Column experiments were carried out to investigate the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE), toluene, and ethanol vapors using a partially saturated mixture of potassium permanganate and sand grains. Results showed a significant removal of VOC vapors due to the oxidation. We found that water saturation has a major effect on the removal capacity of the permeable reactive layer. We observed a high removal efficiency and reactivity of potassium permanganate for all target compounds at the highest water saturation (Sw = 0.6). A change in pH within the reactive layer reduced oxidation rate of VOCs. The use of carbonate minerals increased the reactivity of potassium permanganate during the oxidation of TCE vapor by buffering the pH. Reactive transport of VOC vapors diffusing through the permeable reactive layer was modeled, including the pH effect on the oxidation rates. The model accurately described the observed breakthrough curve of TCE and toluene vapors in the headspace of the column. However, miscibility of ethanol in water in combination with produced water during oxidation made the modeling results less accurate for ethanol. A linear relationship was found between total oxidized mass of VOC vapors per unit volume of permeable reactive layer and initial water saturation. This behavior indicates that pH changes control the overall reactivity and longevity of the permeable reactive layer during oxidation of VOCs. The results suggest that field application of a horizontal permeable reactive barrier can be a viable technology against upward migration of VOC vapors through the unsaturated zone.

Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba G.; Hassanizadeh, S. Majid; Hartog, Niels; Raoof, Amir

2014-08-01

9

Activity-Dependent Enzymatic Assay for the Detection of Toluene-Oxidizing Bacteria Capable of Trichloroethylene Degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toluene-oxidizing bacteria produce enzymes that cometabolically degrade trichloroethylene (TCE). These inducible enzymes are produced only in the presence of certain aromatic substrates such as toluene or phenol. Recent laboratory studies have utilized analog chemical substrates to identify production of bacterial enzymes capable of degrading trichloroethylene. These analog substrates produce chromogenic and/or fluorescent products when biotransformed by the enzymes of interest. In this study, 3-hydroxyphenylacetylene (3-HPA) was identified as an activity-dependent enzymatic probe for the detection of three of the four known toluene oxygenase enzymes capable of TCE degradation. Laboratory studies were conducted using pure cultures of Burkholderia cepacia G4, Burkholderia pickettii PKO1, and Pseudomonas putida F1. Cell cultures grown on lactate (non-enzyme inducing) or lactate and toluene (inducing) were trapped trapped on black polycarbonate filters, exposed to 3-HPA, and examined for fluorescence using an epifluorescent microscope. Additionally, B. cepacia G4 cells were grown under the same conditions, but in the presence of mineral and basalt specimens to allow for bacterial attachment. The specimens were then exposed to 3-HPA and examined under an epifluorescent microscope. Our results demonstrate that cells induced for the production of oxygenase enzymes, both unattached and attached, are able to transform 3-HPA to a fluorescent product, although cells attached to geologic materials, such as basalt, take substantially longer to transform the probe. Cells grown under non-inducing conditions do not transform the probe, regardless of their attachment status. Additionally, well water samples taken from a TCE-contaminated aquifer were successfully assayed using the 3-HPA enzymatic probe. The development of this enzyme activity-dependent enzymatic assay provides a fast and reliable method to assess the potential for TCE and aromatic contaminant bioremediation.

Kauffman, M. E.; Kauffman, M. E.; Keener, W. K.; Watwood, M. E.; Lehman, R. M.

2001-12-01

10

BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The organic contaminants that are most commonly detected in groundwater are low-molecular-weight, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform. The authors exposed unsatu...

11

Modeling trichloroethylene degradation by a recombinant pseudomonad expressing toluene ortho-monooxygenase in a fixed-film bioreactor  

SciTech Connect

Burkholderia cepacia PR1{sub 23}(TOM{sub 23C}), expressing constitutively the TCE-degrading enzyme toluene ortho-monooxygenase (Tom), was immobilized on SIRAN{trademark} glass beads in a biofilter for the degradation and mineralization of gas-phase trichloroethylene (TCE). To interpret the experimental results, a mathematical model has been developed which includes axial dispersion, convection, film mass-transfer, and biodegradation coupled with deactivation of the TCE-degrading enzyme. Parameters used for numerical simulation were determined from either independent experiments or values reported in the literature. The model was compared with the experimental data, and there was good agreement between the predicted and measured TCE breakthrough curves. The simulations indicated that TCE degradation in the biofilter was not limited by mass transfer of TCE or oxygen from the gas phase to the liquid/biofilm phase (biodegradation limits), and predicts that improving the specific TCE degradation rates of bacteria will not significantly enhance long-term biofilter performance. The most important factors for prolonging the performance of biofilter are increasing the amount of active biomass and the transformation capacity enhancing resistance to TCE metabolism.

Sun, A.K.; Hong, J.; Wood, T.K. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering] [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

1998-07-05

12

SURFACTANT-ENHANCED SOLUBILIZATION OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE AND DEGRADATION PRODUCTS IN PUMP AND TREAT REMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were conducted to investigate the enhanced solubilization of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and 1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE) in nonionic surfactant solutions of Triton X-100, Brij-30, Igepal CA-720, and Tergitol NP-10 (alkylpolyoxyethylenes). urfact...

13

TRICHLOROETHYLENE METABOLISM BY MICROORGANISMS THAT DEGRADE AROMATIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) was metabolized by the natural microflora of three different environmental water samples when stimulated by the addition of either toluene or phenol. Two different strains of Pseudomonas putida that degrade toluene by a pathway containing a toluene dioxyge...

14

A freshwater anaerobe coupling acetate oxidation to tetrachloroethylene dehalogenation.  

PubMed Central

Strain TT4B has been isolated from anaerobic sediments known to be contaminated with a variety of organic solvents. It is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium and grew anaerobically with acetate as the electron donor and tetrachloroethylene as the electron acceptor in a mineral medium. cis-Dichloroethylene was the halogenated product. This strain did not grow fermentatively and used only acetate or pyruvate as electron donors. Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene were used as electron acceptors, as were ferric nitriloacetate and fumarate. Nitrogen and sulfur oxyanions were not able to substitute as the electron acceptor for this organism. Modest growth occurred in a two-phase system with 1 ml of hexadecane containing 50 to 200 mM tetrachloroethylene (aqueous concentrations, 25 to 100 microM) and 10 ml of anaerobic mineral solution with Na2S as the reducing agent. Growth was completely inhibited at tetrachloroethylene levels above 100 microM. PMID:8900001

Krumholz, L R; Sharp, R; Fishbain, S S

1996-01-01

15

Is neurotoxicity associated with environmental trichloroethylene (TCE)?  

PubMed

Individuals who lived near 2 electronic manufacturing plants were exposed to odorous chlorinated solvents by inhalation (directly) and by out gassing from well water. An exposure zone was defined by concentrations of trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, and vinyl chloride in groundwater. The author adopted trichloroethylene as a "shorthand" for the exposure designation. Residents complained of impaired recall and concentration, and of dizziness; therefore, the focus of this investigation was brain functions. Neurobehavioral functions, Profile of Mood States, frequencies of 35 symptoms, and questionnaire responses provided by 236 residents from exposure zones were compared with responses provided by 161 unexposed regional referents and by 67 Phoenix residents who lived outside the exposure zone areas. Pulmonary functions were measured with spirometry. Residents of the exposure zones were compared with regional referents, and the former had significantly (p < .05) delayed simple and choice reaction times, impaired balance, delayed blink reflex latency R-1, and abnormal color discrimination. In addition, these individuals had impaired (1) cognitive functions, (2) attention and perceptual motor speed, and (3) recall. Individuals who lived in exposure zones had airway obstructions. Adverse mood state scores and frequencies of 33 of 35 symptoms were elevated. In conclusion, individuals who lived in the exposure zones had neurobehavioral impairments, reduced pulmonary functions, elevated Profile of Mood State scores, and excessive symptom frequencies. PMID:12194155

Kilburn, Kaye H

2002-01-01

16

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Tetrachloroethylene (PERC) is believed to exert its adverse effects upon humans via metabolism by the liver. Concern that PERC is likely to be a human carcinogen is based upon the evidence of the National Cancer Institute bioassay, in which PERC induced a statistically significan...

17

Post-plasma catalytic technology for the removal of toluene from indoor air: Effect of humidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid plasma catalyst technology has great potential for indoor air purification. However, humidity is a critical parameter in plasma catalytic processes. In this work, several catalysts were tested downstream of a DC corona discharge and the effect of humidity was investigated on both ozone and toluene removal. Next, sorption measurements onto the catalysts were performed for toluene, trichloroethylene and acetone,

J. Van Durme; J. Dewulf; K. Demeestere; C. Leys; H. Van Langenhove

2009-01-01

18

TRICHLOROETHYLENE (TCE) ISSUE PAPERS  

EPA Science Inventory

These issue papers are a part of EPA's effort to develop a trichloroethylene (TCE) human health risk assessment. These issue papers were developed by EPA to provide scientific and technical information to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) for use in developing their advice ...

19

Trichloroethylene (TCE) adsorption using sustainable organic mulch.  

PubMed

Soluble substrates (electron donors) have been commonly injected into chlorinated solvent contaminated plume to stimulate reductive dechlorination. Recently, different types of organic mulches with economic advantages and sustainable benefits have received much attention as new supporting materials that can provide long term sources of electron donors for chlorinated solvent bioremediation in engineered biowall systems. However, sorption capacities of organic mulches for chlorinated solvents have not been studied yet. In this study, the physiochemical properties of organic mulches (pine, hardwood and cypress mulches) were measured and their adsorption capacity as a potential media was elucidated. Single, binary and quaternary isotherm tests were conducted with trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trans-dichloroethylene (trans-DCE) and cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE). Among the three tested mulches, pine mulch showed the highest sorption capacity for the majority of the tested chemicals in single isotherm test. In binary or quaternary isotherm tests, competition among chemicals appears to diminish the differences in Q(e) for tested mulches. However, pine mulch also showed higher adsorption capacity for most chemicals when compared to hardwood and cypress mulches in the two isotherm tests. Based upon physicochemical properties of the three mulches, higher sorption capacity of pine mulch over hardwood and cypress mulches appears to be attributed to a higher organic carbon content and the lower polarity. PMID:20605328

Wei, Zongsu; Seo, Youngwoo

2010-09-15

20

Induction of toluene oxidation activity in pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 by chlorinated solvents and alkanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toluene oxidation activity in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 was induced by trichloroethylene (TCE), and induction was followed by the degradation of TCE. Higher levels of toluene oxidation activity were achieved in the presence of a supplemental growth substrate such as glutamate, with levels of activity of up to 86% of that observed with toluene-induced cells. Activity

K. McClay; S. H. Streger; R. J. Steffan

1995-01-01

21

Dependence of tetrachloroethylene dechlorination on methanogenic substrate consumption by Methanosarcina sp. strain DCM.  

PubMed Central

Tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) is a suspected carcinogen and a common groundwater contaminant. Although PCE is highly resistant to aerobic biodegradation, it is subject to reductive dechlorination reactions in a variety of anaerobic habitats. The data presented here clearly establish that axenic cultures of Methanosarcina sp. strain DCM dechlorinate PCE to trichloroethylene and that this is a biological reaction. Growth on methanol, acetate, methylamine, and trimethylamine resulted in PCE dechlorination. The reductive dechlorination of PCE occurred only during methanogenesis, and no dechlorination was noted when CH4 production ceased. There was a clear dependence of the extent of PCE dechlorination on the amount of methanogenic substrate (methanol) consumed. The amount of trichloroethylene formed per millimole of CH4 formed remained essentially constant for a 20-fold range of methanol concentrations and for growth on acetate, methylamine, and trimethylamine. These results suggest that the reducing equivalents for PCE dechlorination are derived from CH4 biosynthesis and that the extent of chloroethylene dechlorination can be enhanced by stimulating methanogenesis. It is proposed that electrons transferred during methanogenesis are diverted to PCE by a reduced electron carrier involved in methane formation. Images PMID:3223763

Fathepure, B Z; Boyd, S A

1988-01-01

22

Toluene embryopathy  

SciTech Connect

Three children with microcephaly, central nervous system dysfunction, minor craniofacial and limb anomalies, and variable growth deficiency were born to women who inhaled large quantities of pure toluene throughout pregnancy. The features in there patients were reminiscent of the patterns of malformation previously described following in utero exposure to alcohol, certain anticonvulsants, and hyperphenylalaninemia. It is possible that there is a variable and nonspecific teratogenic phenotype characterized by alterations in growth, development, and morphogenesis. Careful evaluation and monitoring of infants exposed to toluene in utero are needed to determine the significance of these findings.

Hersh, J.H.; Podruch, P.E.; Rogers, G.; Weisskopf, B.

1985-06-01

23

ACUTE TOXICITY OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE AND TETRACHLOROETHYLENE WITH DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE TO RAINBOW TROUT (SALMO GAIRDNERI)  

EPA Science Inventory

In this study, two acute toxicity tests were conducted with tetrachloroethylene (TCE) using rainbow trout. DMF was used as an additive in one of the tests and was proportionally diluted with the toxicant. The 96 hr LC50 was 4.99 mg/l in the test without DMF and 5.84 mg/l for DMF ...

24

Metabolism of trichloroethylene.  

PubMed Central

A major focus in the study of metabolism and disposition of trichloroethylene (TCE) is to identify metabolites that can be used reliably to assess flux through the various pathways of TCE metabolism and to identify those metabolites that are causally associated with toxic responses. Another important issue involves delineation of sex- and species-dependent differences in biotransformation pathways. Defining these differences can play an important role in the utility of laboratory animal data for understanding the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of TCE in humans. Sex-, species-, and strain-dependent differences in absorption and distribution of TCE may play some role in explaining differences in metabolism and susceptibility to toxicity from TCE exposure. The majority of differences in susceptibility, however, are likely due to sex-, species-, and strain-dependent differences in activities of the various enzymes that can metabolize TCE and its subsequent metabolites. An additional factor that plays a role in human health risk assessment for TCE is the high degree of variability in the activity of certain enzymes. TCE undergoes metabolism by two major pathways, cytochrome P450 (P450)-dependent oxidation and conjugation with glutathione (GSH). Key P450-derived metabolites of TCE that have been associated with specific target organs, such as the liver and lungs, include chloral hydrate, trichloroacetate, and dichloroacetate. Metabolites derived from the GSH conjugate of TCE, in contrast, have been associated with the kidney as a target organ. Specifically, metabolism of the cysteine conjugate of TCE by the cysteine conjugate ss-lyase generates a reactive metabolite that is nephrotoxic and may be nephrocarcinogenic. Although the P450 pathway is a higher activity and higher affinity pathway than the GSH conjugation pathway, one should not automatically conclude that the latter pathway is only important at very high doses. A synthesis of this information is then presented to assess how experimental data, from either animals or from (italic)in vitro (/italic)studies, can be extrapolated to humans for risk assessment. (italic)Key words(/italic): conjugate beta-lyase, cysteine glutathione, cytochrome P450, glutathione (italic)S(/italic)-transferases, metabolism, sex dependence, species dependence, tissue dependence, trichloroethylene. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10807551

Lash, L H; Fisher, J W; Lipscomb, J C; Parker, J C

2000-01-01

25

Transformation capacities of chlorinated organics by mixed cultures enriched on methane, propane, toluene, or phenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE), chloroform (CF), and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) by four aerobic mixed cultures (methane, propane, toluene, and phenol oxidizers) growth under similar chemostat conditions was measured. Methane and propane oxidizers were capable of degrading both saturated and unsaturated chlorinated organics (TCE, CF, and 1,2-DCA). Toluene and phenol oxidizers degraded TCE but were not able to degrade CF, 1,2-DCA,

Hsiao-Lung Chang; Lisa Alvarez-Cohen

1995-01-01

26

Reductive dechlorination of Tri- and tetrachloroethylenes depends on transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed Central

Aerobic enrichment cultures from contaminated groundwaters dechlorinated trichloroethylene (TCE) (14.6 mg/liter; 111 mumol/liter) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) (16.2 mg/liter; 98 mumol/liter) reductively within 4 days after the transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions. The transformation products were equimolar amounts of cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and traces of 1,1-dichloroethylene. No other chlorinated product and no methane were detected. The change was accompanied by the release of sulfide, which caused a decrease in the redox potential from 0 to -150 mV. In sterile control experiments, sulfide led to the abiotic formation of traces of 1,1-dichloroethylene without cis-1,2-dichloroethylene production. The reductive dechlorination of PCE via TCE depended on these specific transition conditions after consumption of the electron acceptor oxygen or nitrate. Repeated feeding of TCE or PCE to cultures after the change to anaerobic conditions yielded no further dechlorination. Only aerobic subcultures with an air/liquid ratio of 1:4 maintained dechlorination activities; anaerobic subcultures showed no transformation. Bacteria from noncontaminated sites showed no reduction under the same conditions. PMID:1892393

Kästner, M

1991-01-01

27

Chloroform mineralization by toluene-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Seven toluene-oxidizing bacterial strains (Pseudomonas mendocina KR1, Burkholderia cepacia G4, Pseudomonas putida F1, Pseudomonas pickettii PKO1, and Pseudomonas sp. strains ENVPC5, ENVBF1, and ENV113) were tested for their ability to degrade chloroform (CF). The greatest rate of CF oxidation was achieved with strain ENVBF1 (1.9 nmol/min/mg of cell protein). CF also was oxidized by P. mendocina KR1 (0.48 nmol/min/mg of cell protein), strain ENVPC5 (0.49 nmol/min/mg of cell protein), and Escherichia coli DH510B(pRS202), which contained cloned toluene 4-monooxygenase genes from P. mendocina KR1 (0.16 nmol/min/mg of cell protein). Degradation of [14C]CF and ion analysis of culture extracts revealed that CF was mineralized to CO2 (approximately 30 to 57% of the total products), soluble metabolites (approximately 15%), a total carbon fraction irreversibly bound to particulate cellular constituents (approximately 30%), and chloride ions (approximately 75% of the expected yield). CF oxidation by each strain was inhibited in the presence of trichloroethylene, and acetylene significantly inhibited trichloroethylene oxidation by P. mendocina KR1. Differences in the abilities of the CF-oxidizing strains to degrade other halogenated compounds were also identified. CF was not degraded by B. cepacia G4, P. putida F1, P. pickettii PKO1, Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV113, or P. mendocina KRMT, which contains a tmo mutation. PMID:8702263

McClay, K; Fox, B G; Steffan, R J

1996-01-01

28

Trichloroethylene: environmental and occupational exposure.  

PubMed

Trichloroethylene is used in paint strippers, rug cleaners, spot removers, typewriter correction fluid and industrial cleaners. It is a common environmental contaminant, detected in over one-third of hazardous waste sites and in 10 percent of groundwater sources. Acute workplace exposure above acceptable levels can cause neurologic, respiratory and hepatic problems. The health effects of prolonged occupational and environmental low-level exposure are probably minimal, but whether such exposure poses a risk remains controversial. Although trichloroethylene has been shown to cause cancer in some animals, it has not been proven to be a human carcinogen. Trichloroethylene has been involved in several well-publicized cases of contamination of community water supplies, and family physicians are likely to receive questions about this chemical. PMID:1636564

Campos-Outcalt, D

1992-08-01

29

Trichloroethylene: environmental and occupational exposure  

SciTech Connect

Trichloroethylene is used in paint strippers, rug cleaners, spot removers, typewriter correction fluid and industrial cleaners. It is a common environmental contaminant, detected in over one-third of hazardous waste sites and in 10 percent of groundwater sources. Acute workplace exposure above acceptable levels can cause neurologic, respiratory and hepatic problems. The health effects of prolonged occupational and environmental low-level exposure are probably minimal, but whether such exposure poses a risk remains controversial. Although trichloroethylene has been shown to cause cancer in some animals, it has not been proven to be a human carcinogen. Trichloroethylene has been involved in several well-publicized cases of contamination of community water supplies, and family physicians are likely to receive questions about this chemical.22 references.

Campos-Outcalt, D. (University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson (United States))

1992-08-01

30

Trichloroethylene and cancer: epidemiologic evidence.  

PubMed Central

Trichloroethylene is an organic chemical that has been used in dry cleaning, for metal degreasing, and as a solvent for oils and resins. It has been shown to cause liver and kidney cancer in experimental animals. This article reviews over 80 published papers and letters on the cancer epidemiology of people exposed to trichloroethylene. Evidence of excess cancer incidence among occupational cohorts with the most rigorous exposure assessment is found for kidney cancer (relative risk [RR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.7), liver cancer (RR = 1.9, 95% CI(1.0-3.4), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (RR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.9-2.3) as well as for cervical cancer, Hodgkin's disease, and multiple myeloma. However, since few studies isolate trichloroethylene exposure, results are likely confounded by exposure to other solvents and other risk factors. Although we believe that solvent exposure causes cancer in humans and that trichloroethylene likely is one of the active agents, we recommend further study to better specify the specific agents that confer this risk and to estimate the magnitude of that risk. PMID:10807550

Wartenberg, D; Reyner, D; Scott, C S

2000-01-01

31

Factors affecting the adsorption of trichloroethylene onto activated carbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, an experimental study aimed at the assessment of the factors affecting the adsorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) from water solutions onto activated carbons is presented. The influence of sorbent properties, such as B.E.T. surface area, micropore volume, chemical composition and acid/basic surface functional groups on TCE adsorption capacity is experimentally assessed by testing a set of 12 sorbents. Moreover, the effect of the presence of other species in solution, such as sodium acetate and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), is studied through parametric TCE adsorption isotherms realization. The experimental results show that the TCE adsorption capacity is promoted by a high B.E.T. surface area, micropore volume and C content and it is significantly affected by the presence of a non-ionic compound of similar structure (PCE), however it does not depend on the presence of an organic salt (sodium acetate). These results confirm that neither TCE-carbon ionic interaction nor sorbent ionization phenomena are involved in the TCE adsorption, since its mechanism is based on dispersion forces (London-Van Der Walls interaction). A thorough analysis of the experimental data set suggests that, in consideration of the TCE adsorption mechanism, the maximization of basal plane extent (as the B.E.T. surface area) and its effective fraction (as the C content) is a valid criterion to select or synthesize a new suitable sorbent for TCE adsorption from waters.

Erto, A.; Andreozzi, R.; Lancia, A.; Musmarra, D.

2010-06-01

32

SURFACTANT ENHANCED REMEDIATION OF SOIL COLUMNS CONTAMINATED BY RESIDUAL TETRACHLOROETHYLENE  

EPA Science Inventory

The ability of aqueous surfactant solutions to recover tetrachloroethylene (PCE) entrapped in Ottawa and was evaluated in four column experiments. esidual PCE was emplaced by injecting 14 C-labeled PCE into water-saturated soil columns and displacing the free product with water. ...

33

Health Assessment Document for Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) (Final Report)  

EPA Science Inventory

Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is a volatile solvent with important commercial applications. It has been detected in the ambient air of a variety of urban and nonurban areas of the United States. It has less frequently been detected in water but has been monitored generally at levels ...

34

Enhancing trichloroethylene degradation using non-aromatic compounds as growth substrates.  

PubMed

The effect of non-aromatic compounds on the trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation of toluene-oxidizing bacteria were evaluated using Burkholderia cepacia G4 that expresses toluene 2-monooxygenase and Pseudomonas putida that expresses toluene dioxygenase. TCE degradation rates for B. cepacia G4 and P. putida with toluene alone as growth substrate were 0.144 and 0.123 ?g-TCE/mg-protein h, respectively. When glucose, acetate and ethanol were fed as additional growth substrates, those values increased up to 0.196, 0.418 and 0.530 ?g-TCE/mg-protein h, respectively for B. cepacia G4 and 0.319, 0.219 and 0.373 ?g-TCE/mg-protein h, respectively for P. putida. In particular, the addition of ethanol resulted in a high TCE degradation rate regardless of the initial concentration. The use of a non-aromatic compound as an additional substrate probably enhanced the TCE degradation because of the additional supply of NADH that is consumed in co-metabolic degradation of TCE. Also, it is expected that the addition of a non-aromatic substrate can reduce the necessary dose of toluene and, subsequently, minimize the potential competitive inhibition upon TCE co-metabolism by toluene. PMID:24857894

Kim, Seungjin; Hwang, Jeongmin; Chung, Jinwook; Bae, Wookeun

2014-06-30

35

Toluene emissions from plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of toluene from different plants was observed in continuously stirred tank reactors and in field measurements. For plants growing without stress, emission rates were low and ranged from the detection limit up to 2·10-16 mol·cm-2·s-1. Under conditions of stress, the emission rates exceeded 10-14 mol·cm-2·s-1. Exposure of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Gigantheus) to 13CO2 resulted in 13C-labeling of the emitted toluene on a time scale of hours. Although no biochemical pathway for the production of toluene is known, these results indicate that toluene is synthesized by the plants. The emission rates of toluene from sunflower are dependent on nutrient supply and wounding. Since ?-pinene emission rates are also influenced by these factors, toluene and ?-pinene emissions show a high correlation. During pathogen attack on Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) significant toluene emissions were observed. In this case emissions of toluene and ?-pinene also show a good correlation. Toluene emissions were also found in field experiments with pines using branch enclosures.

Heiden, A. C.; Kobel, K.; Komenda, M.; Koppmann, R.; Shao, M.; Wildt, J.

36

Treatment of trichloroethylene (TCE) in a membrane biofilter  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in a hollow-fiber membrane biofilter. Air contaminated with TCE was passed through microporous hollow fibers while an oxygen-free nutrient solution was recirculated through the shell side of the membrane module. The biomass was attached to the outside surface of the microporous hollow fibers by initially supplying toluene in the gas phase that flows through the fibers. While studies on TCE biodegradation were conducted, there was no toluene present in the gas phase. At 20-ppmv inlet concentration of TCE and 36-s gas-phase residence time, based on total internal volume of the hollow fibers, 30% removal efficiency of TCE was attained. At higher air flow rates or lower gas-phase residence times, lower removal efficiencies were observed. During TCE degradation, the pH of the liquid phase on the shell side of the membrane module decreased due to release of chloride ions. A mathematical model was developed to describe the synchronous aerobic/anaerobic biodegradation of TCE.

Parvatiyar, M.G.; Govind, R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Bishop, D.F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.] [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

1996-04-05

37

Anaerobic biodegradation of alkylbenzenes and trichloroethylene in aquifer sediment down gradient of a sanitary landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the anaerobic biodegradability of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, ortho-, meta- and para-xylene (BTEX) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in aquifer sediment down gradient of an unlined landfill. The major organic contaminants identified in the shallow unconfined aquifer are cis-dichloroethylene ( c-DCE) and toluene. The biodegradative potential of the contaminated aquifer was measured in three sets of microcosms constructed using anaerobic aquifer sediment from three boreholes down gradient of the landfill. The degradability of BTEX and TCE was examined under ambient and amended conditions. TCE was degraded in microcosms with aquifer material from all three boreholes. Toluene biodegradation was inconsistent, exhibiting biodegradation with no lag in one set of microcosms but more limited biodegradation in two additional sets of microcosms. TCE exhibited an inhibitory effect on toluene degradation at one location. The addition of calcium carbonate stimulated TCE biodegradation which was not further stimulated by nutrient addition. TCE was converted to ethylene, a harmless byproduct, in all tests. Benzene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers were recalcitrant in both ambient and amendment experiments. Biodegradation occurred under methanogenic conditions as methane was produced in all experiments. Bromoethane sulfonic acid (BES), a methanogenic inhibitor, inhibited methane and ethylene production and TCE biodegradation. The results indicate the potential for intrinsic bioremediation of TCE and toluene down gradient of the Wilder's Grove, North Carolina, landfill. The low concentrations of TCE in monitoring wells was consistent with its biodegradation in laboratory microcosms.

Johnston, James J.; Borden, Robert C.; Barlaz, Morton A.

1996-08-01

38

Human Health Effects of Tetrachloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues  

PubMed Central

Background: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) in February 2012 in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Objectives: We reviewed key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of PCE described in the U.S. EPA’s Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene). Methods: The updated assessment of PCE synthesized and characterized a substantial database of epidemiological, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies. Key scientific issues were addressed through modeling of PCE toxicokinetics, synthesis of evidence from neurological studies, and analyses of toxicokinetic, mechanistic, and other factors (tumor latency, severity, and background rate) in interpreting experimental animal cancer findings. Considerations in evaluating epidemiological studies included the quality (e.g., specificity) of the exposure assessment methods and other essential design features, and the potential for alternative explanations for observed associations (e.g., bias or confounding). Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites that contribute to PCE toxicity. The exposure assessment approach—a key evaluation factor for epidemiological studies of bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma—provided suggestive evidence of carcinogenicity. Bioassay data provided conclusive evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Neurotoxicity was identified as a sensitive noncancer health effect, occurring at low exposures: a conclusion supported by multiple studies. Evidence was integrated from human, experimental animal, and mechanistic data sets in assessing adverse health effects of PCE. Conclusions: PCE is likely to be carcinogenic to humans. Neurotoxicity is a sensitive adverse health effect of PCE. Citation: Guyton KZ, Hogan KA, Scott CS, Cooper GS, Bale AS, Kopylev L, Barone S Jr, Makris SL, Glenn B, Subramaniam RP, Gwinn MR, Dzubow RC, Chiu WA. 2014. Human health effects of tetrachloroethylene: key findings and scientific issues. Environ Health Perspect 122:325–334;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307359 PMID:24531164

Hogan, Karen A.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Cooper, Glinda S.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Kopylev, Leonid; Barone, Stanley; Makris, Susan L.; Glenn, Barbara; Subramaniam, Ravi P.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.

2014-01-01

39

Engineering Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene  

E-print Network

Chemical Engineering Abstract Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE) form a class carriers/supports for NZVI particles to address the in situ remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. We Remediation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Dr. Vijay John Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering

40

Cometabolic degradation of trichloroethylene by Burkholderia cepacia G4 with poplar leaf homogenate.  

PubMed

Trichloroethylene (TCE), a chlorinated organic solvent, is one of the most common and widespread groundwater contaminants worldwide. Among the group of TCE-degrading aerobic bacteria, Burkholderia cepacia G4 is the best-known representative. This strain requires the addition of specific substrates, including toluene, phenol, and benzene, to induce the enzymes to degrade TCE. However, the substrates are toxic and introducing them into the soil can result in secondary contamination. In this study, poplar leaf homogenate containing natural phenolic compounds was tested for the ability to induce the growth of and TCE degradation by B. cepacia G4. The results showed that the G4 strain could grow and degrade TCE well with the addition of phytochemicals. The poplar leaf homogenate also functioned as an inducer of the toluene-ortho-monooxygenase (TOM) gene in B. cepacia G4. PMID:24992516

Kang, Jun Won; Doty, Sharon Lafferty

2014-07-01

41

Immunotoxicity and hematotoxicity induced by tetrachloroethylene in egyptian dry cleaning workers.  

PubMed

The immune and hematological systems can be a target for environmental contaminants with potential adverse effects, so the purpose of this study is to provide documentation on immunotoxicity and hematotoxicity of tetrachloroethylene, which is widely used in dry cleaning in Egypt. This study was carried out on 80 adult males. Subjects designated as controls (n = 40) were healthy persons and others were tetrachloroethylene-exposed dry-cleaning workers (n = 40). The controls and tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers were then divided into four equal groups (20 individuals/group): group I, control group never smoking; group II, smoking control group; and groups III and IV, tetrachloroethylene-exposed nonsmoking and smoking workers, respectively. Blood level of tetrachloroethylene, complete blood count, immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, IgG, and IgE), the total numbers of white blood cells (WBC), and leukocyte differential counts, as well as interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), were measured. The immunotoxicity of tetrachloroethylene appeared in the form of an increase in serum immunoglobulin E in nonsmoking and smoking tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers, while the serum immunoglobulins A, M, and G levels showed no significant change in all studied groups. In addition, our results demonstrated a significant increase in white cell count, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK; CD3+CD16CD56+) cells, and B (CD19+) lymphocytes. The increase in WBC and lymphocytes may be attributed to allergic reaction. Moreover, serum and lymphocytic interlukin-4 levels were significantly increased in nonsmoking and smoking tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers. Tetrachloroethylene exposure is associated with immunotoxicity, which may lead to the augmentation of allergic diseases or appearance of autoimmune reaction. PMID:20044880

Emara, Ashraf M; Abo El-Noor, Mona M; Hassan, Neven A; Wagih, Ayman A

2010-02-01

42

RESPONSE TO ISSUES AND DATA SUBMISSIONS ON THE CARCINOGENICITY OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE)  

EPA Science Inventory

The scientific debate over the potential carcinogenicity of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, perc, PCE) spans several years. his document reviews the issues considered by the EPA's Science Advisory Board (SAB) during its review of the Draft Addendum to the Health Assessmen...

43

Factors influencing tetrachloroethylene concentrations in residences above dry-cleaning establishments  

SciTech Connect

Indoor air quality has been increasingly recognized as a significant public health problem. Proximity to industrial or commercial sources contributes to contamination in homes. Air sampling was conducted at 12 residences in 8 buildings that housed dry cleaners and 6 residential control sites. The authors found that concentrations of tetrachloroethylene, a dry-cleaning solvent, were elevated significantly in residences located in buildings that also housed dry-cleaning establishments relative to their concentrations in control residences. Tetrachloroethylene concentrations remained elevated when the cleaners were closed on weekends. The authors verified that colorimetric detector tubes were a useful screening tool for residences. Also identified were factors that could affect tetrachloroethylene concentrations. The use of exhaust fans and the implementation of required inspection and maintenance requirements by dry cleaners were associated significantly with reduced tetrachloroethylene concentrations in residences. In all cases, tetrachloroethylene concentrations exceeded minimal risk levels posited by the Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry for chronic exposure to tetrachloroethylene. Residents who live in buildings that house dry cleaners may be exposed at concentrations that are of public health concern. Measures that might reduce this exposure were also identified.

Garetano, G.; Gochfeld, M.

2000-02-01

44

Test Pile Reactivity Loss Due to Trichloroethylene  

SciTech Connect

The presence of trichloroethylene in the test pile caused a continual decrease in pile reactivity. A system which removed, purified, and returned 12,000 cfh helium to the pile has held contamination to a negligible level and has permitted normal pile operation.

Plumlee, K.E.

2001-03-09

45

Silylene- and disilyleneacetylene polymers from trichloroethylene  

DOEpatents

Organosilane polymers having recurring silyleneacetylene and/or disilyleneacetylene units are prepared in a one-pot synthesis from trichloroethylene. Depending on the organic substituents (R and R'), these polymers have useful film-forming properties, and are converted to the ceramic, silicon carbide upon heating in very uniform high yields. They can also be pulled into fibers.

Barton, Thomas J. (Ames, IA); Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina (Ames, IA)

1990-07-10

46

Silylene- and disilyleneacetylene polymers from trichloroethylene  

DOEpatents

Organosilane polymers having recurring silyleneacetylene and/or disilyleneacetylene units are prepared in a one-pot synthesis from trichloroethylene. Depending on the organic substituents (R and R[prime]), these polymers have useful film-forming properties, and are converted to the ceramic, silicon carbide upon heating in very uniform high yields. They can also be pulled into fibers.

Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.

1990-07-10

47

Indoor tetrachloroethylene levels and determinants in Paris dwellings.  

PubMed

There is growing public health concern about indoor air quality. Tetrachloroethylene (PERC), a chlorinated volatile organic compound widely used as a solvent in dry cleaning facilities, can be a residential indoor air pollutant. As part of an environmental investigation included in the PARIS (Pollution and asthma Risk: an Infant Study) birth cohort, this study firstly aimed to document domestic PERC levels, and then to identify the factors influencing these levels using standardized questionnaires about housing characteristics and living conditions. Air samples were collected in the child's bedroom over one week using passive devices when infants were 1, 6, 9, and 12 months. PERC was identified and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. PERC annual domestic level was calculated by averaging seasonal levels. PERC was omnipresent indoors, annual levels ranged from 0.6 to 124.2 ?g/m3. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models showed that proximity to dry cleaning facilities, do-it-yourself activities (e.g.: photographic development, silverware), presence of air vents, and building construction date (<1945) were responsible for higher domestic levels of PERC. This study, conducted in an urban context, provides helpful information on PERC contamination in dwellings, and identifies parameters influencing this contamination. PMID:23127492

Roda, Célina; Kousignian, Isabelle; Ramond, Anna; Momas, Isabelle

2013-01-01

48

Electronic transitions in cis- and trans-dichloroethylenes and tetrachloroethylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic structures of trans- and cis-dichloroethylenes and tetrachloroethylene were studied using symmetry-adapted cluster configuration interaction theory. Basis sets up to the aug-cc-pVTZ of Dunning, Jr., augmented with appropriate Rydberg functions were used for the calculations. The results derived in the present study show good agreement with the available experimental values. In all cases, the main bright excitation was the ? ??? transition. The other vertical excitations, ? ???, n ???, and n ???, which have not been studied before, were also investigated. First Rydberg series involving transitions from the ? orbitals to one 3s, three 3p, and five 3d orbitals were identified clearly. Several new assignments and reassignments of features in the experimental spectra were suggested. Contrary to earlier prediction, two n-? ? states, along with a ?-? ? state in the dichloroethylenes, were calculated to be located above the main ?-? ? state. Accordingly, crossing between both the n-? ? states with the bright ?-? ? state is highly likely, unlike conclusions made in the earlier studies. This indicates that the photodissociation mechanism proposed by the earlier calculations warrants revision. Several low-lying triplet excited states were also studied. Electronic spectra of trans-1-chloro-2-fluoroethylene and cis-1-chloro-2-fluoroethylene were also calculated. The ? ??? transitions of these haloethylenes are compared and interpreted in terms of the inductive and resonance effects.

Arulmozhiraja, Sundaram; Ehara, Masahiro; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

2008-11-01

49

Electronic transitions in cis- and trans-dichloroethylenes and tetrachloroethylene.  

PubMed

Electronic structures of trans- and cis-dichloroethylenes and tetrachloroethylene were studied using symmetry-adapted cluster configuration interaction theory. Basis sets up to the aug-cc-pVTZ of Dunning, Jr., augmented with appropriate Rydberg functions were used for the calculations. The results derived in the present study show good agreement with the available experimental values. In all cases, the main bright excitation was the pi-->pi( *) transition. The other vertical excitations, pi-->sigma( *), n-->sigma( *), and n-->pi( *), which have not been studied before, were also investigated. First Rydberg series involving transitions from the pi orbitals to one 3s, three 3p, and five 3d orbitals were identified clearly. Several new assignments and reassignments of features in the experimental spectra were suggested. Contrary to earlier prediction, two n-sigma( *) states, along with a pi-sigma( *) state in the dichloroethylenes, were calculated to be located above the main pi-pi( *) state. Accordingly, crossing between both the n-sigma( *) states with the bright pi-pi( *) state is highly likely, unlike conclusions made in the earlier studies. This indicates that the photodissociation mechanism proposed by the earlier calculations warrants revision. Several low-lying triplet excited states were also studied. Electronic spectra of trans-1-chloro-2-fluoroethylene and cis-1-chloro-2-fluoroethylene were also calculated. The pi-->pi( *) transitions of these haloethylenes are compared and interpreted in terms of the inductive and resonance effects. PMID:19045357

Arulmozhiraja, Sundaram; Ehara, Masahiro; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

2008-11-01

50

Prenatal and Early Childhood Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene and Adult Vision  

PubMed Central

Background: Tetrachloroethylene (PCE; or perchloroethylene) has been implicated in visual impairments among adults with occupational and environmental exposures as well as children born to women with occupational exposure during pregnancy. Objectives: Using a population-based retrospective cohort study, we examined the association between prenatal and early childhood exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and deficits in adult color vision and contrast sensitivity. Methods: We estimated the amount of PCE that was delivered to the family residence from participants’ gestation through 5 years of age. We administered to this now adult study population vision tests to assess acuity, contrast sensitivity, and color discrimination. Results: Participants exposed to higher PCE levels exhibited lower contrast sensitivity at intermediate and high spatial frequencies compared with unexposed participants, although the differences were generally not statistically significant. Exposed participants also exhibited poorer color discrimination than unexposed participants. The difference in mean color confusion indices (CCI) was statistically significant for the Farnsworth test but not Lanthony’s D-15d test [Farnsworth CCI mean difference = 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.003, 0.10; Lanthony CCI mean difference = 0.07, 95% CI: –0.02, 0.15]. Conclusions: Prenatal and early childhood exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water may be associated with long-term subclinical visual dysfunction in adulthood, particularly with respect to color discrimination. Further investigation of this association in similarly exposed populations is necessary. PMID:22784657

Getz, Kelly D.; Janulewicz, Patricia A.; Rowe, Susannah; Weinberg, Janice M.; Winter, Michael R.; Martin, Brett R.; Vieira, Veronica M.; White, Roberta F.

2012-01-01

51

Concentration of tetrachloroethylene in indoor air at a former dry cleaner facility as a function of subsurface contamination: a case study.  

PubMed

A field study was performed to evaluate indoor air concentrations and vapor intrusion (VI) of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and other chlorinated solvents at a commercial retail site in Dallas, TX. The building is approximately 40 yr old and once housed a dry cleaning operation. Results from an initial site characterization were used to select sampling locations for the VI study. The general approach for evaluating VI was to collect time-integrated canister samples for off-site U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method TO-15 analyses. PCE and other chlorinated solvents were measured in shallow soil gas, subslab soil-gas, indoor air, and ambient air. The subslab soil gas exhibited relatively high values: PCE < or =2,600,000 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) and trichloroethylene < or =170 ppbv. The attenuation factor, the ratio of indoor air and subslab soil-gas concentrations, was unusually low: approximately 5 x 10(-6) based on the maximum subslab soil-gas concentration of PCE and 1.4 x 10(-5) based on average values. PMID:17608009

Eklund, Bart M; Simon, Michelle A

2007-06-01

52

Role of water and other H-rich additives in the catalytic combustion of 1,2-dichloroethane and trichloroethylene.  

PubMed

In several practical applications gas streams containing chlorinated volatile organic compounds with variable chemical nature (namely, 1,2-dichloroethane and trichloroethylene) and a significant moisture content (15000ppm) must be addressed. In this paper the control of such emissions by catalytic oxidation over Ce/Zr mixed oxides was analysed. Results in terms of activity and selectivity were compared with those obtained when other H-rich additives (1000ppm), such as hexane or toluene, were fed. High activity was found from mixed oxides featuring a suitable combination of a large population of acid sites, easily accessible oxygen species, and hydrophobic nature attributable to cerium content. The presence of additional H-rich compounds in the feed stream (water, toluene or hexane) tended to decrease the catalytic activity due to the blockage and/or competition for actives sites. However, the increased presence of hydrogen atoms in the stream notably promoted the selectivity to hydrogen chloride instead of molecular chlorine. PMID:19278711

de Rivas, Beatriz; López-Fonseca, Rubén; Gutiérrez-Ortiz, Miguel A; Gutiérrez-Ortiz, José I

2009-06-01

53

Systematic literature review of uses and levels of occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene.  

PubMed

Tetrachloroethylene has been one of the most widely used chlorinated solvents in the United States. This review provides a basis for tetrachloroethylene exposure assessment in population-based case-control studies. We performed literature searches in MEDLINE, TOXLINE, NIOSHTIC, and the NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation databases using relevant search terms. We calculated weighted arithmetic means from the measurement data and compiled these into three summary tables by type of operation: (1) dry cleaning, (2) degreasing, and (3) other operations. We identified 258 relevant documents, of which 179 (69%) contained useful descriptive information. Within the dry cleaning industry, the overall arithmetic mean (AM) for personal tetrachloroethylene exposures was 59 ppm (range: 0-4636, n = 1395). Machine operators who transferred wet garments to a dryer had the highest levels (AM = 150 ppm [range: 0-1000, n = 441]) of the jobs in this industry. The AM for personal measurements associated with degreasing was 95 ppm (range: 0-1800, n = 206). In addition, we identified several other sources of substantial tetrachloroethylene exposure, including cleaning mining equipment, testing coal, cleaning animal coats in taxidermy, and cleaning and duplicating film. Exposure assessment in population-based, case-control studies is a complex process requiring substantial resources. Researchers conducting these types of studies will be able to use results of the measurements to quantify tetrachloroethylene exposure levels for various jobs. PMID:18949603

Gold, Laura S; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Waters, Martha; Stewart, Patricia

2008-12-01

54

Tetrachloroethylene Exposure and Bladder Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Dry-Cleaning-Worker Studies  

PubMed Central

Background: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified tetrachloroethylene, used in the production of chemicals and the primary solvent used in dry cleaning, as “probably carcinogenic to humans” based on limited evidence of an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry cleaners. Objectives: We assessed the epidemiological evidence for the association between tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer from published studies estimating occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene or in workers in the dry-cleaning industry. Methods: Random-effects meta-analyses were carried out separately for occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene and employment as a dry cleaner. We qualitatively summarized exposure–response data because of the limited number of studies available. Results: The meta-relative risk (mRR) among tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.42; three studies; 463 exposed cases). For employment as a dry cleaner, the overall mRR was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.85; seven studies; 139 exposed cases), and for smoking-adjusted studies, the mRR was 1.50 (95% CI: 0.80, 2.84; 4 case–control studies). Conclusions: Our meta-analysis demonstrates an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry cleaners, reported in both cohort and case–control studies, and some evidence for an exposure–response relationship. Although dry cleaners incur mixed exposures, tetrachloroethylene could be responsible for the excess risk of bladder cancer because it is the primary solvent used and it is the only chemical commonly used by dry cleaners that is currently identified as a potential bladder carcinogen. Relatively crude approaches in exposure assessment in the studies of “tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers” may have attenuated the relative risks. Citation: Vlaanderen J, Straif K, Ruder A, Blair A, Hansen J, Lynge E, Charbotel B, Loomis D, Kauppinen T, Kyyronen P, Pukkala E, Weiderpass E, Guha N. 2014. Tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis of dry-cleaning-worker studies. Environ Health Perspect 122:661–666;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307055 PMID:24659585

Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt; Ruder, Avima; Blair, Aaron; Hansen, Johnni; Lynge, Elsebeth; Charbotel, Barbara; Loomis, Dana; Kauppinen, Timo; Kyyronen, Pentti; Pukkala, Eero; Weiderpass, Elisabete

2014-01-01

55

Pulmonary reactions caused by welding-induced decomposed trichloroethylene  

SciTech Connect

This is the report of a welder who performed argon-shielded electric arc welding in an atmosphere containing trichloroethylene. He developed immediate respiratory symptoms, pulmonary edema 12 hours after exposure, and recurring dyspnea ten days after exposure. These pulmonary reactions might be explained by inhalation of decomposition products of trichloroethylene such as dichloroacetyl chloride and phosgene.

Sjoegren, B.P.; Plato, N.; Alexandersson, R.; Eklund, A.; Falkenberg, C. (Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden))

1991-01-01

56

Induction of toluene oxidation activity in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 by chlorinated solvents and alkanes.  

PubMed

Toluene oxidation activity in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 was induced by trichloroethylene (TCE), and induction was followed by the degradation of TCE. Higher levels of toluene oxidation activity were achieved in the presence of a supplemental growth substrate such as glutamate, with levels of activity of up to 86% of that observed with toluene-induced cells. Activity in P. mendocina KR1 was also induced by cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, chloroethane, hexane, pentane, and octane, but not by trans-1,2-dichloroethylene. Toluene oxidation was not induced by TCE in Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4, P. putida F1, Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV110, or Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV113. PMID:7574658

McClay, K; Streger, S H; Steffan, R J

1995-09-01

57

Induction of toluene oxidation activity in pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 by chlorinated solvents and alkanes  

SciTech Connect

Toluene oxidation activity in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 was induced by trichloroethylene (TCE), and induction was followed by the degradation of TCE. Higher levels of toluene oxidation activity were achieved in the presence of a supplemental growth substrate such as glutamate, with levels of activity of up to 86% of that observed with toluene-induced cells. Activity in P. mendocina KR1 was also induced by cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, chloroethane, hexane, pentane, and octane, but not by trans-1,2-dichloroethylene. Toluene oxidation was not induced by TCE in Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4, P. putida F1, Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV110, or Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV113. 22 refs., 4 tabs.

McClay, K.; Streger, S.H.; Steffan, R.J. [Envirogen Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

1995-09-01

58

Induction of toluene oxidation activity in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 by chlorinated solvents and alkanes.  

PubMed Central

Toluene oxidation activity in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 was induced by trichloroethylene (TCE), and induction was followed by the degradation of TCE. Higher levels of toluene oxidation activity were achieved in the presence of a supplemental growth substrate such as glutamate, with levels of activity of up to 86% of that observed with toluene-induced cells. Activity in P. mendocina KR1 was also induced by cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, chloroethane, hexane, pentane, and octane, but not by trans-1,2-dichloroethylene. Toluene oxidation was not induced by TCE in Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4, P. putida F1, Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV110, or Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV113. PMID:7574658

McClay, K; Streger, S H; Steffan, R J

1995-01-01

59

Mineralization of trichloroethylene by heterotrophic enrichment cultures  

SciTech Connect

Microbial consortia capable of aerobically degrading greater than 99% of 50 mg/l exogenous trichloroethylene (TCE) have been enriched from TCE contaminated subsurface sediments. Concentrations of TCE greater than 300 mg/l were not degraded nor was TCE used as a sole energy source. Successful electron donors for growth included tryptone-yeast extract, methanol, methane or propane. The optimum temperature for growth was 22--37 C and the ph optimum was 7.0--8.1. Utilization of TCE occurred only after apparent microbial growth had ceased. The major end products recovered were hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide. Minor products included dichloroethylene, vinylidine chloride and possibly chloroform.

Phelps, T.J.; Ringelberg, D.; Mikell, A.T.; White, D.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Inst. for Applied Microbiology]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., Knoxville, TN (United States); Fliermans, C.B. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Lab.

1988-12-31

60

ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF SOME CHLORINATED BENZENES, CHLORINATED ETHANES, AND TETRACHLOROETHYLENE TO 'DAPHNIA MAGNA'  

EPA Science Inventory

Chronic effect and no effect concentrations (28 day) and acute toxicity (48 hr, LC50 and EC50) values were determined for Daphnia magna with some chlorinated benzenes, chlorinated ethanes, and tetrachloroethylene. Acute and chronic toxicity generally increased with the degree of ...

61

Dissolution of residual tetrachloroethylene in fractional wettability porous media: correlation development and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work explores the dissolution behavior of residual tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in chemically heterogeneous soils. A numerical solute transport simulator, that incorporates rate-limited dissolution and desorption using linear driving force expressions, was developed and applied to analyze soil column dissolution data and to conduct numerical dissolution experiments. Published mass transfer coefficients were unable to accurately predict the observed dissolution of entrapped

Scott A. Bradford; Thomas J. Phelan; Linda M. Abriola

2000-01-01

62

EVALUATION OF GEOPHYSICAL METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF SUBSURFACE TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PCE) IN CONTROLLED SPILL EXPERIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Tetrachloroethylene (PCE), typically used as a dry cleaning solvent, is a predominant contaminant in the subsurface at Superfund Sites. PCE is a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) that migrates downward into the earth, leaving behind areas of residual saturation and free prod...

63

SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE) ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING WATER OF RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

The study provides data on the effects of tetrachloroethylene in drinking solutions. The acute oral LD(50) was determined in male and female Charles River rats and found to be 3835 mg/kg for males and 3005 mg/kg for females. Male and female rats received theoretical daily doses o...

64

Evaluation of toxicity of trichloroethylene for plants  

SciTech Connect

Trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure of several species of plants was studied. Although earlier studies indicated that the root systems of plants could tolerate an aqueous phase concentration of 1 mM for a day, toxicity to whole plants was observed at somewhat lower levels in the gas phase in this study. The tested species included pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), sweet potato (Dioscoria batata), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), soybean (Glycine max L. Merr), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Damage was observable as wilting or failure of the gravitropic response of shoots at levels above about 0.2 mM in the gas phase, which corresponds to 0.5 mM in the aqueous phase. Plants were usually killed quickly at gas phase concentrations above 0.4 mM.

Ryu, S.B.; Davis, L.C.; Dana, J.; Selk, K.; Erickson, L.E. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

1996-12-31

65

MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION FOR TRICHLOROETHYLENE METABOLISM IN HUMANS  

EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial chemical and an environmental contaminant. TCE and its metabolites may be carcinogenic and affect human health. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models that differ in compartmentalization are developed for TCE metabolism, and...

66

Genotoxicity of trichloroethylene in the natural milieu.  

PubMed

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a suspected genotoxic and carcinogenic compound which is usually present in the air, soil and water as pollutant. To estimate the genotoxic potential of TCE in a pure chemical form as well as an ingredient of the complex sample, Ames fluctuation test using TA98 and TA100 strains and Allium cepa genotoxicity assay were performed. For the genotoxicity analysis of TCE in natural milieu, the above mentioned tests were performed on the waste waters collected from two different stations of northern India namely Saharanpur and Aligarh, U.P., and these waste waters were supplemented with 50 and 100 mg/l of trichloroethylene. TCE alone was found to be non-genotoxic by both the testing system up to the range of 1000 mg/l concentration (data not shown). However, the test water samples supplemented with 100 mg/l of TCE, exhibited a significant increase in the genotoxicity compared with control by both the testing systems. In Ames fluctuation test, Mi(f) value was found to be increased by 41% and 53% with 100 mg/l of TCE supplemented Saharanpur and Aligarh waste water samples respectively, in the presence of S9 fraction compared with their respective controls. Allium cepa genotoxicity test also showed around 25% increase in total chromosomal aberration frequency following 100 mg/l TCE supplementation. However, supplementation of 50 mg/l TCE to the test water samples could not enhance the genotoxicity to a significant extent. From these results, we can conclude that TCE itself was non-genotoxic but it may promote mutation and/or DNA damage at a concentration of 100 mg/l under certain environmental conditions. We suggest that some chemicals in the test water samples might be interacting with TCE and/or metabolite(s) to cause the enhancement in genotoxicity. The mechanism of these synergistic effects should be explored further. PMID:21920816

Tabrez, Shams; Ahmad, Masood

2012-04-01

67

Ototoxicity of trichloroethylene in concentrations relevant for the working environment.  

PubMed

Organic solvents can cause hearing loss themselves or promote noise-induced hearing loss. The objective of this study was to review the literature on the effects of low-level exposure to trichloroethylene on the auditory system and consider its relevance for the occupational settings. Both human and animal investigations were evaluated only for realistic exposure concentrations based on the Quebec permissible exposure limits: 50 ppm 8-h time-weighed average exposure value (TWAEV) and 200 ppm short-term exposure value (STEV). In humans, the upper limit for considering ototoxicity data relevant to the occupational exposure situation was set at the STEV. Animal data were evaluated only for exposure concentrations up to 100 times the TWAEV. There is no convincing evidence of trichloroethylene-induced hearing losses in workers. In rats, trichloroethylene affects the auditory function mainly in the cochlear mid- to high-frequency range with a lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) of 2000 ppm. No studies on ototoxic interaction after combined exposure to noise and trichloroethylene were identified in humans. In rats, supra-additive interaction was reported. Further studies with sufficient data on the trichloroethylene exposure of workers are necessary to make a definitive conclusion. In the interim, we recommend considering trichloroethylene as an ototoxic agent. PMID:18650250

Vyskocil, A; Leroux, T; Truchon, G; Lemay, F; Gagnon, F; Gendron, M; Viau, C

2008-03-01

68

Surfactant enhanced recovery of tetrachloroethylene from a porous medium containing low permeability lenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A matrix of batch, column and two-dimensional (2-D) box experiments was conducted to investigate the coupled effects of rate-limited solubilization and layering on the entrapment and subsequent recovery of a representative dense NAPL, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), during surfactant flushing. Batch experiments were performed to determine the equilibrium solubilization capacity of the surfactant, polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80), and to measure

Tammy P. Taylor; Kurt D. Pennell; Linda M. Abriola; Jacob H. Dane

2001-01-01

69

Leaching of toluene-neoprene adhesive wastes.  

PubMed

This work consists of the study of the extraction of solvent (toluene) from a polymeric (neoprene) substrate during a leaching process. Total organic carbon (TOC) is the main contaminant parameter in the leaching of these systems due to the solution of the toluene and the dispersion of the polymer. The toxicity of the extracts was measured with a Microtox equipment, using Photobacteria phosphoreum, deducing that the toxicity of the extracts is low due to the low solubility of toluene but that the toxicity of toluene is high. On the basis of the experimental results, the amount of toluene diffused vs time in plane sheet systems was studied. A kinetic model has been developed considering two stages: In the first stage, the toluene diffuses into the system across the neoprene chains at a constant rate, not depending on the initial toluene concentration. This fact is explained by considering that there is a constant difference of the toluene concentration between the interface with the water and the inner part of the sample. In the second stage, the dispersion of the polymer with the corresponding amount of toluene takes place. The diffusion of toluene in the leaching process is compared and analyzed considering the diffusion of toluene in a desorption process in air so that the difference of toluene concentration between the interface and the interior can be estimated. A mathematical model is also proposed for considering the leaching process in other operating conditions. PMID:11351545

Font, R; Sabater, M C; Martínez, M A

2001-03-01

70

Toluene stability Space Station Rankine power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dynamic test loop is designed to evaluate the thermal stability of an organic Rankine cycle working fluid, toluene, for potential application to the Space Station power conversion unit. Samples of the noncondensible gases and the liquid toluene were taken periodically during the 3410 hour test at 750 F peak temperature. The results obtained from the toluene stability loop verify that toluene degradation will not lead to a loss of performance over the 30-year Space Station mission life requirement. The identity of the degradation products and the low rates of formation were as expected from toluene capsule test data.

Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Sibert, L.; Miller, D.

1987-01-01

71

Current trends in trichloroethylene biodegradation: a review.  

PubMed

Over the past few years biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) using different microorganisms has been investigated by several researchers. In this review article, an attempt has been made to present a critical summary of the recent results related to two major processes--reductive dechlorination and aerobic co-metabolism used for TCE biodegradation. It has been shown that mainly Clostridium sp. DC-1, KYT-1, Dehalobacter, Dehalococcoides, Desulfuromonas, Desulfitobacterium, Propionibacterium sp. HK-1, and Sulfurospirillum bacterial communities are responsible for the reductive dechlorination of TCE. Efficacy of bacterial communities like Nitrosomonas, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Xanthobacter sp. etc. for TCE biodegradation under aerobic conditions has also been examined. Mixed cultures of diazotrophs and methanotrophs have been used for TCE degradation in batch and continuous cultures (biofilter) under aerobic conditions. In addition, some fungi (Trametes versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME-446) and Actinomycetes have also been used for aerobic biodegradation of TCE. The available information on kinetics of biofiltration of TCE and its degradation end-products such as CO2 are discussed along with the available results on the diversity of bacterial community obtained using molecular biological approaches. It has emerged that there is a need to use metabolic engineering and molecular biological tools more intensively to improve the robustness of TCE degrading microbial species and assess their diversity. PMID:23057686

Shukla, Awadhesh Kumar; Upadhyay, Siddh Nath; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

2014-06-01

72

Displacement of soil pore water by trichloroethylene  

SciTech Connect

Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLS) are important pollutants because of their widespread use as chemical and industrial solvents. An example of the pollution caused by the discharge of DNAPLs is found at the Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, where trichloroethylene (TCE) has been discharged directly into the unsaturated zone. This discharge has resulted in the formation of a plume of TCE-contaminated water in the aquifer downgradient of the discharge. A zone of dark-colored groundwater containing a high dissolved organic C content has been found near the point of discharge of the TCE. The colored-water plume extends from the point of discharge at least 30 m (100 feet) downgradient. Fulvic acids isolated from the colored-waters plume, from water from a background well that has not been affected by the discharge of chlorinated solvents, and from soil pore water collected in a lysimeter installed at an uncontaminated site upgradient of the study area have been compared. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the fulvic acids from the colored waters and from the lysimeter am very similar, but are markedly different from the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the fulvic acid from the background well. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum and the DOC fractionation profile of the colored groundwater and the soil pore water are very similar to each other, but quite different from those of the background water. It is proposed from these observations that this colored water is soil pore water that has been displaced by a separate DNAPL liquid phase downward to the saturated zone. 15 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Wershaw, R.L.; Aiken, G.R. [Denver Federal Center, CO (United States); Imbrigiotta, T.E. [Geological Survey, West Trenton, NJ (United States)

1994-07-01

73

Displacement of soil pore water by trichloroethylene  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLS) are important pollutants because of their widespread use as chemical and industrial solvents. An example of the pollution caused by the discharge of DNAPLs is found at the Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, where trichloroethylene (TCE) has been discharged directly into the unsaturated zone. This discharge has resulted in the formation of a plume of TCE-contaminated water in the aquifer downgradient of the discharge. A zone of dark-colored groundwater containing a high dissolved organic C content has been found near the point of discharge of the TCE. The colored-water plume extends from the point of discharge at least 30 m (100 feet) downgradient. Fulvic acids isolated from the colored-waters plume, from water from a background well that has not been affected by the discharge of chlorinated solvents, and from soil pore water collected in a lysimeter installed at an uncontaminated site upgradient of the study area have been compared. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the fulvic acids from the colored waters and from the lysimeter are very similar, but are markedly different from the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the fulvic acid from the background well. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum and the DOC fractionation profile of the colored groundwater and the soil pore water are very similar to each other, but quite different from those of the background water. It is proposed from these observations that this colored water is soil pore water that has been displaced by a separate DNAPL liquid phase downward to the saturated zone.

Wershaw, R.L.; Aiken, G.R.; Imbrigiotta, T.E.; Goldberg, M.C.

1994-01-01

74

Sonolysis of an aqueous mixture of trichloroethylene and chlorobenzene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the initial concentration on the ultrasonic degradation of two volatile organic compounds trichloroethylene (TCE) and chlorobenzene (CB) was investigated. At higher concentrations, slower sonolysis rates were obtained due to the lowering of the average specific heat ratio ? of the gas inside the cavitation bubbles. Furthermore, the effect of different concentrations of CB on the sonolysis of

D. Drijvers; H. van Langenhove; L. Nguyen Thi Kim; L. Bray

1999-01-01

75

Intrinsic bioremediation of trichloroethylene and chlorobenzene: field and laboratory studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities at a former fire training area at Robins Air Force Base in Georgia, USA resulted in contamination of groundwater with a mixture of trichloroethylene (TCE) and chlorobenzene (CB). Results from the field investigation suggest that intrinsic bioremediation process is occurring, which caused the decrease in TCE and CB concentrations, and increase in TCE degradation byproducts [e.g., dichloroethylene isomers (DCEs),

C. M. Kao; Jason Prosser

1999-01-01

76

EFFECTS OF THERMAL TREATMENTS ON THE CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of experiments was completed to investigate abiotic degradation and reaction product formation of trichloroethylene (TCE) when heated. A quartz-tube apparatus was used to study short residence time and high temperature conditions that are thought to occur during thermal ...

77

EFFECTS OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE EXPOSURE ON MALE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

The present study was designed to evaluate the influences of trichloroethylene (TCE) on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, information was obtained on the distribution and metabolism of TCE. At 100 days of age, male rats were allowed to copulate with ovariectomize...

78

USE OF GRANULAR GRAPHITE FOR ELECTROLYTIC DECHLORINATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE  

EPA Science Inventory

Granular graphite is a potential electrode material for the electrochemical remediation of refractory chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE). However, the use of granular graphite can complicate the experimental results. On one hand, up to 99% of TCE was re...

79

Documentation of trichloroethylene for the material safety data sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made of all available research data to evaluate and determine the toxic effects of trichloroethylene (TCE) for the Material Safety Data Sheet. It is a study of the toxic effects on humans and animals of exposure to various concentrations of TCE. The study, which includes chronic exposure to TCE causing damage to the skin, eyes, and all

B. C. Fields; L. MacDonald

1984-01-01

80

AEROBIC METABOLISM OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE BY A BACTERIAL ISOLATE  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of soil and water samples were screened for the biological capacity to metabolize trichloroethylene. One water sample was found to contain this capacity, and a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium which appeared to be responsible for the metabolic activity was isolated fr...

81

BIODEGRADATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE AND INVOLVEMENT OF AN AROMATIC BIODEGRADATIVE PATHWAY  

EPA Science Inventory

Biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) by the bacterial isolate strain G4 resulted in complete dechlorination of the compound as indicated by the production of inorganic chloride. A component of the water from which strain G4 was isolated that was required for TCE degradation ...

82

ADSORPTION AND CATALYTIC DESTRUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN HYDROPHOBIC ZEOLITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Several chromium exchanged ZSM-5 zeolites of varying SiO2/Al2O3 ratio were prepared and investigated for ambient (23 ?C) adsorption and subsequent oxidative destruction (250-400 ?C) of gaseous trichloroethylene (TCE, Cl2C=CHCl) in a humid air stream. With an increase in the SiO2...

83

THE EFFECT OF VOLTAGE ON ELECTROCHEMICAL DEGRADATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE  

EPA Science Inventory

This study investigates electrochemical degradation of Trichloroethylene (TCE) using granular graphite as electrodes in a flow-through reactor system. The experiments were conducted to obtain information on the effect of voltage and flow rates on the degradation rates of TCE. The...

84

EFFECT OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE ON MALE SEXUAL BEHAVIOR: POSSIBLE OPIOID ROLE  

EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent which is widely used as an industrial degreasing agent. Workers exposed to TCE often exhibit symptoms similar to those symptoms produced by narcotics. The present studies evaluated the effects of TCE exposure on measure...

85

Impact of Iron Sulfide Transformation on Trichloroethylene Degradation  

EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the most common and persistent groundwater contaminants encountered at hazardous waste sites around the world. A growing body of evidence indicates that iron sulfides play an important role in degrading TCE in natural environments and in enginee...

86

SURFACTANT ENHANCED RECOVERY OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE FROM A POROUS MEDIUM CONTAINING LOW PERMEABILITY LENSES. 1. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES. (R825409)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract A matrix of batch, column and two-dimensional (2-D) box experiments was conducted to investigate the coupled effects of rate-limited solubilization and layering on the entrapment and subsequent recovery of a representative dense NAPL, tetrachloroethylene (PCE)...

87

Acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge degrading benzene derivatives and co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene by benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge.  

PubMed

The acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge for degradation of benzene derivatives was investigated in batch experiments. Phenol, benzoic acid, toluene, aniline and chlorobenzene were concurrently added to five different bioreactors which contained the aerobic-activated sludge. After the acclimation process ended, the acclimated phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic-activated sludge were used to explore the co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene (TCE). Monod equation was employed to simulate the kinetics of co-metabolic degradation of TCE by benzene derivative-grown sludge. At the end of experiments, the mixed microbial communities grown under different conditions were identified. The results showed that the acclimation periods of microorganisms for different benzene derivatives varied. The maximum degradation rates of TCE for phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic sludge were 0.020, 0.017, 0.016, 0.0089 and 0.0047 mg g SS(-1) h(-1), respectively. The kinetic of TCE degradation in the absence of benzene derivative followed Monod equation well. Also, eight phyla were observed in the acclimated benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge. Each of benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge had different microbial community composition. This study can hopefully add new knowledge to the area of TCE co-metabolic by mixed microbial communities, and further the understanding on the function and applicability of aerobic-activated sludge. PMID:25409590

Wang, Shizong; Yang, Qi; Bai, Zhiyong; Wang, Shidong; Wang, Yeyao; Nowak, Karolina M

2015-01-01

88

Cometabolic biodegradation of trichloroethylene in microcosms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laboratory microcosms were used to determine the concentrations of oxygen (O2) and methane (CH4) that optimize trichloroethylene (TCE) biodegradation in sediment and ground-water samples from a TCE-contaminated aquifer at Picatinny Arsenal, Morris County, New Jersey. The mechanism for degradation is the cometabolic activity of methanotrophic bacteria. The laboratory data will be used to support a field study designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of combining air sparging with cometabolic degradation of TCE for the purpose of aquifer remediation. Microcosms were constructed in autoclaved 250-mL (milliliter) amber glass bottles with valves for repeated headspace sampling. Equal volumes (25 mL) of sediment and ground water, collected from a depth of 40 feet, were added. TCE was added to attain initial aqueous concentrations equal to the field level of 1,400 mu g/L (micrograms per liter). Nine microcosms were constructed with initial headspace O2 concentrations of 5%, 10%, or 14% and CH4 concentrations of 0.5%, 3%, or 5%, with nitrogen making up the balance. Sterile controls, controls without CH4, and controls without sediment were also constructed. A 4-mL gas sample was removed periodically and TCE, O2 , CH4 , and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured by using gas chromatography. As biodegradation proceeded, the decrease in O2, CH4 , and TCE concentrations and the production of CO2 were monitored. An initial acclimation period of at least 100 days was observed in those microcosms in which significant microbial activity occurred, as determined from decreases in O2 and CH4 concentrations and an increase in CO2 content. Degradation of TCE occurred with O2 concentrations of 2.7 to 8.7% and CH4 concentrations of 0.5 to 3.5%. Microcosms that initially contained 10% O2 and 3% CH4 showed the greatest microbial activity and the greatest amount of TCE degradation. The greatest rates of TCE degradation occurred when O2 and CH4 headspace concentrations reached levels of 7.7 to 8.7% and 1.7 to 2.7%, respectively, which correspond to aqueous concentrations of 2.9 to 3.5 mg/L and 0.4 to 0.6 mg/L, respectively. Over these ranges, TCE degradation rates ranged from 15 to 20 mu g of TCE per kilogram of sediment per day. Analysis of the control microcosms indicated that these TCE degradation rates are much greater than those attributable to experimental variation. The results indicate that the microbial community of the sediment is capable of TCE degradation and that significant rates of degradation can be achieved with obtainable O2 and CH4 concentrations.

Kane, Allen C.; Wilson, Timothy P.; Fischer, Jeffrey M.

1997-01-01

89

Transformation capacities of chlorinated organics by mixed cultures enriched on methane, propane, toluene, or phenol.  

PubMed

The degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE), chloroform (CF), and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) by four aerobic mixed cultures (methane, propane, toluene, and phenol oxidizers) grown under similar chemostat conditions was measured. Methane and propane oxidizers were capable of degrading both saturated and unsaturated chlorinated organics (TCE, CF, and 1,2-DCA). Toluene and phenol oxidizers degraded TCE but were not able to degrade CF, 1,2-DCA, or other saturated organics. None of the cultures tested were able to degrade perchloroethylene (PCE) or carbon tetrachloride (CC(4)). For the four cultures tested, degradation of each of the chlorinated organics resulted in cell inactivation due to product toxicity. In all cases, the toxic products were rapidly depleted, leaving no toxic residues in solution. Among the four tested cultures, the resting cells of methane oxidizers exhibited the highest transformation capacities (T(c)) for TCE, CF, and 1,2-DCA. The T(c) for each chlorinated organic was observed to be inversely proportional to the chlorine carbon ratio (Cl/C). The addition of low concentrations of growth substrate or some catabolic intermediates enhanced TCE transformation capacities and degradation rates, presumably due to the regeneration of reducing energy (NADH); however, addition of higher concentrations of most amendments reduced TCE transformation capacities and degradation rates. Reducing energy limitations and amendment toxicity may significantly affect T(c) measurements, causing a masking of the toxicity associated with chlorinated organic degradation. PMID:18623237

Chang, H L; Alvarez-Cohen, L

1995-03-01

90

Enhanced Biotransformation of Trichloroethylene Under Mixed Electron Acceptor Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biotransformation of trichloroethylene (TCE) under various electron acceptor conditions was investigated by using enrichment\\u000a cultures developed from the anaerobic digester sludge of Thibodaux sewage treatment plant. The results indicated that TCE\\u000a was biotransformed under sulfate reducing, methanogenic, nitrate reducing, iron reducing, and fermenting conditions. However,\\u000a the rates of TCE removal varied among the conditions studied. The fastest removal of

Ramaraj Boopathy; Robert Peters

2001-01-01

91

Gas chromatographic determination of residual methylene chloride and trichloroethylene in decaffeinated instant and ground coffee with electrolytic conductivity and electron capture detection.  

PubMed

A method is described for the quantitative determination of residual methylene chloride (MC) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in decaffeinated instant and ground roasted coffees. The residual solvents were isolated by a closed system vacuum distillation technique with toluene as a carrier solvent, chromatographed on Chromosorb 102, detected by both electron capture and electrolytic conductivity detectors, and quantitated by comparison with an internal standard. Average recoveries of MC from instant and ground coffees spiked at 1, 10, and 25 ppm were 100.0 (88-113), 93.2 (92-95), and 97.7% (94-102%); and for TCE, 97.2 (92-101), 96.2 (95-99), and 96.5% (92-100%), respectively. The results from both detectors are compared. At lower attenuations, levels less than 1 ppm can be readily measured. The procedure developed was applied to domestic and imported coffee samples. PMID:858707

Page, B D; Charbonneau, C F

1977-05-01

92

Cloning and characterization of a Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 gene cluster encoding toluene-4-monooxygenase.  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 metabolizes toluene as a carbon source by a previously unknown pathway. The initial step of the pathway is hydroxylation of toluene to form p-cresol by a multicomponent toluene-4-monooxygenase (T4MO) system. The T4MO enzyme system has broad substrate specificity and provides a new opportunity for biodegradation of toxic compounds and bioconversions. Its known activities include conversion of a variety of phenyl compounds into the phenolic derivatives and the complete degradation of trichloroethylene. We have cloned and characterized a gene cluster from KR1 that determines the offO activity. To clone the T4MO genes, KR1 DNA libraries were constructed in Escherichia coli HB101 by using a broad-host-range vector and transferred to a KR1 mutant able to grow on p-cresol but not on toluene. An insert consisting of two SacI fragments of identical size (10.2 kb) was shown to complement the mutant for growth on toluene. One of the SacI fragments, when cloned into the E. coli vector pUC19, was found to direct the synthesis of indigo dye. The indigo-forming property was correlated with the presence of T4MO activity. The T4MO genes were mapped to a 3.6-kb region, and the direction of transcription was determined. DNA sequencing and N-terminal amino acid determination identified a five-gene cluster, tmoABCDE, within this region. Expression of this cluster carrying a single mutation in each gene demonstrated that each of the five genes is essential for T4MO activity. Other evidence presented indicated that none of the tmo genes was involved in the regulation of the tmo gene cluster, in the control of substrate transport for the T4MO system, or in major processing of the products of the tmo genes. It was tentatively concluded that the tmoABCDE genes encode structural polypeptides of the T4MO enzyme system. One of the tmo genes was tentatively identified as a ferredoxin gene. Images PMID:1885512

Yen, K M; Karl, M R; Blatt, L M; Simon, M J; Winter, R B; Fausset, P R; Lu, H S; Harcourt, A A; Chen, K K

1991-01-01

93

Primary atmospheric oxidation mechanism for toluene.  

PubMed

The products of the primary OH-initiated oxidation of toluene were investigated using the turbulent flow chemical ionization mass spectrometry technique at temperatures ranging from 228 to 298 K. A major dienedial-producing pathway was detected for the first time for toluene oxidation, and glyoxal and methylglyoxal were found to be minor primary oxidation products. The results suggest that secondary oxidation processes involving dienedial and epoxide primary products are likely responsible for previous observations of glyoxal and methylglyoxal products from toluene oxidation. Because the dienedial-producing pathway is a null cycle for tropospheric ozone production and glyoxal and methylglyoxal are important secondary organic aerosol precursors, these new findings have important implications for the modeling of toluene oxidation in the atmosphere. PMID:19118482

Baltaretu, Cristian O; Lichtman, Eben I; Hadler, Amelia B; Elrod, Matthew J

2009-01-01

94

Oxidation Mechanisms of Toluene and Benzene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expanded and improved version of a previously published benzene oxidation mechanism is presented and shown to model published experimental data fairly successfully. This benzene submodel is coupled to a modified version of a toluene oxidation submodel from the recent literature. This complete mechanism is shown to successfully model published experimental toluene oxidation data for a highly mixed flow reactor and for higher temperature ignition delay times in a shock tube. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis showing the most important reactions is presented for both the benzene and toluene reacting systems. The NASA Lewis toluene mechanism's modeling capability is found to be equivalent to that of the previously published mechanism which contains a somewhat different benzene submodel.

Bittker, David A.

1995-01-01

95

Two cases of acute toluene intoxication.  

PubMed Central

Two patients exposed to high concentrations of toluene in air (greater than 7000 mg/m3) were found at the bottom of a small swimming pool under construction. Their symptoms were stupefaction, paresis, and amnesia. Patient A had been exposed for three hours and patient B for two hours. Ninety minutes after the exposure, the toluene blood concentration in patient A was 4.1 mg/l and in patient B 2.2 mg/l. Urinary ortho-cresol secretion was shown to be a good index of exposure to toluene. After high level exposure, urinary meta-cresol excretion may also be used to monitor toluene exposure. PMID:2378819

Meulenbelt, J; de Groot, G; Savelkoul, T J

1990-01-01

96

TRICHLOROETHYLENE ACCELERATES AN AUTOIMMUNE RESPONSE IN ASSOCIATION WITH TH1 T-CELL ACTIVATION IN MRL+/+ MICE. (R826409)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Trichloroethylene (1,1,2-trichloroethene) is a major environmental contaminant. There is increasing evidence relating exposure to trichloroethylene with autoimmunity. To investigate potential mechanisms, we treated the autoimmune-prone MRL+/+ mice with trichlo...

97

Reduction of benzene toxicity by toluene  

SciTech Connect

BDF{sub 1} mice were exposed in inhalation chambers to benzene (900 ppm, 300 ppm) and/or toluene (500 ppm, 250 ppm) 6 hr per day, 5 days per week, for up to 8 weeks. Benzene alone induced a slight anemia after 4 and 8 weeks and a reduction of BFU-E and CFU-E numbers in the marrow. The coexposure to toluene reduced the degree of anemia. These results confirm previous studies where toluene was found to reduce benzene toxicity. This protective effect was most pronounced when DNA damage was studied in peripheral blood cells, bone marrow, and liver using the single cell gel (SCG) assay. With benzene alone, either with 300 or 900 ppm, a significant increase in DNA damage was detected in cells sampled from all three organs. Toluene alone did not induce a significant increase in DNA damage. The coexposure of benzene and toluene reduced the extent of DNA damage to about 50% of benzene alone. This result is considered a clear indication for a protective effect of toluene on the genetic toxicity of benzene. 18 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Plappert, U.; Barthel, E.; Seidel, H.J. [Universitaet Ulm (Germany)

1994-12-31

98

Toluene-induced ototoxicity by subcutaneous administration  

SciTech Connect

Inhalation exposure of rats to toluene causes irreversible hearing loss (e.g., Pryor et al.). To determine whether noise emanating from the inhalation system was a major contributing factor and whether exposure by a noninhalation route would cause a similar effect, weanling, male Fischer-344 rats were injected SC twice daily in a quiet environment with PEG-300 (control) or with 1.5 or 1.7 g/kg of toluene for 7 days. After being trained to perform a multisensory conditioned avoidance response (CAR) task, tone intensity-response functions were generated at 4, 8, 12, and 20 kHz, and behavioral auditory response thresholds were estimated. Toluene caused a dose-related hearing loss at frequencies of 8 kHz and above, with no effect on performance of the CAR in response to light, nonaversive footshock, or the 4-kHz tone. The similarity of this effect to that observed following inhalation exposure indicates that noise is not a major factor in the toluene-induced hearing loss, although possible interactions between noise and toluene remain to be investigated. These results also demonstrate that direct penetration of the toluene vapors through the external ear structure, as might occur during inhalation exposure, is not a necessary condition for inducing the hearing loss.

Pryor, G.T.; Howd, R.A.

1986-01-01

99

Tetrachloroethylene in Drinking Water and Birth Outcomes at the US Marine Corps Base at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of mean birth weight, small-for-gestational-age infants, and preterm birth was conducted at the US Marine Corps Base at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, where drinking water was contaminated with volatile organic compounds. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was the predominant contaminant. The authors used multiple linear and logistic regression to analyze 1968-1985 data from 11,798 birth certificates. Overall, at most weak associations

N. Sonnenfeld; I. Hertz-Picciotto; W. E. Kaye

2001-01-01

100

Single-Well Push-Pull Tests for Evaluating In Situ TCE, cis-DCE, and trans-DCE Cometabolism by Toluene-Utilizing Microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-well-push-pull tests were performed to assess the feasibility of in situ aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), by toluene-grown microorganisms. The tests were performed in the saturated zone at Fort Lewis, Washington, which is contaminated with TCE and cis-DCE. The tests assessed the heterogeneity of the indigenous microorganisms towards toluene utilization and CAH transformation. The tests were conducted in two multi-level monitoring wells at two different depths. Transport characteristics of the dissolved solutes were compared using bromide as a conservative tracer. Toluene utilization was evaluated by observing repeated uptake under natural gradient flow conditions and during push-pull activity tests. For the push-pull activity tests, the injected solution was amended with the substrates of interest, and after injection was permitted to reside in the formation for 24 hours and then extracted. Toluene utilization was indicated by decreases in concentration, when normalized to bromide as a conservative tracer, dissolved oxygen uptake, and the production of ortho-cresol as an intermediate oxidation product. Isobutene added to the injected groundwater was transformed to isobutene oxide, indicating that microorganisms that express an ortho-monooxygenase were stimulated. Similar rates of toluene utilization, isobutene, cis-DCE, and trans-DCE transformation were achieved at the four different locations tested. Rate estimates obtained in the 24-hour activity tests were similar to those achieved in the 50-hour natural gradient tests. The results indicated that at the four locations tested, there was little difference in the rates of toluene utilization and cometabolic transformation.

Semprini, L.; Azizian, M.; Istok, J. D.

2004-12-01

101

Surfactant enhanced recovery of tetrachloroethylene from a porous medium containing low permeability lenses. 1. Experimental studies.  

PubMed

A matrix of batch, column and two-dimensional (2-D) box experiments was conducted to investigate the coupled effects of rate-limited solubilization and layering on the entrapment and subsequent recovery of a representative dense NAPL, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), during surfactant flushing. Batch experiments were performed to determine the equilibrium solubilization capacity of the surfactant, polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80), and to measure fluid viscosity, density and interfacial tension. Results of one-dimensional column studies indicated that micellar solubilization of residual PCE was rate-limited at Darcy velocities ranging from 0.8 to 8.2 cm/h and during periods of flow interruption. Effluent concentration data were used to develop effective mass transfer coefficient (Ke) expressions that were dependent upon the Darcy velocity and duration of flow interruption. To simulate subsurface heterogeneity, 2-D boxes were packed with layers of F-70 Ottawa sand and Wurtsmith aquifer material within 20-30 mesh Ottawa sand. A 4% Tween 80 solution was then flushed through PCE-contaminated boxes at several flow velocities, with periods of flow interruption. Effluent concentration data and visual observations indicated that both rate-limited solubilization and pooling of PCE above the fine layers reduced PCE recovery to levels below those anticipated from batch and column measurements. These experimental results demonstrate the potential impact of both mass transfer limitations and subsurface layering on the recovery of PCE during surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation. PMID:11285937

Taylor, T P; Pennell, K D; Abriola, L M; Dane, J H

2001-04-01

102

Surfactant enhanced recovery of tetrachloroethylene from a porous medium containing low permeability lenses. 1. Experimental studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A matrix of batch, column and two-dimensional (2-D) box experiments was conducted to investigate the coupled effects of rate-limited solubilization and layering on the entrapment and subsequent recovery of a representative dense NAPL, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), during surfactant flushing. Batch experiments were performed to determine the equilibrium solubilization capacity of the surfactant, polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80), and to measure fluid viscosity, density and interfacial tension. Results of one-dimensional column studies indicated that micellar solubilization of residual PCE was rate-limited at Darcy velocities ranging from 0.8 to 8.2 cm/h and during periods of flow interruption. Effluent concentration data were used to develop effective mass transfer coefficient ( Ke) expressions that were dependent upon the Darcy velocity and duration of flow interruption. To simulate subsurface heterogeneity, 2-D boxes were packed with layers of F-70 Ottawa sand and Wurtsmith aquifer material within 20-30 mesh Ottawa sand. A 4% Tween 80 solution was then flushed through PCE-contaminated boxes at several flow velocities, with periods of flow interruption. Effluent concentration data and visual observations indicated that both rate-limited solubilization and pooling of PCE above the fine layers reduced PCE recovery to levels below those anticipated from batch and column measurements. These experimental results demonstrate the potential impact of both mass transfer limitations and subsurface layering on the recovery of PCE during surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation.

Taylor, Tammy P.; Pennell, Kurt D.; Abriola, Linda M.; Dane, Jacob H.

2001-04-01

103

Surfactant enhanced recovery of tetrachloroethylene from a porous medium containing low permeability lenses. 2. Numerical simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model of surfactant enhanced solubilization was developed and applied to the simulation of nonaqueous phase liquid recovery in two-dimensional heterogeneous laboratory sand tank systems. Model parameters were derived from independent, small-scale, batch and column experiments. These parameters included viscosity, density, solubilization capacity, surfactant sorption, interfacial tension, permeability, capillary retention functions, and interphase mass transfer correlations. Model predictive capability was assessed for the evaluation of the micellar solubilization of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in the two-dimensional systems. Predicted effluent concentrations and mass recovery agreed reasonably well with measured values. Accurate prediction of enhanced solubilization behavior in the sand tanks was found to require the incorporation of pore-scale, system-dependent, interphase mass transfer limitations, including an explicit representation of specific interfacial contact area. Predicted effluent concentrations and mass recovery were also found to depend strongly upon the initial NAPL entrapment configuration. Numerical results collectively indicate that enhanced solubilization processes in heterogeneous, laboratory sand tank systems can be successfully simulated using independently measured soil parameters and column-measured mass transfer coefficients, provided that permeability and NAPL distributions are accurately known. This implies that the accuracy of model predictions at the field scale will be constrained by our ability to quantify soil heterogeneity and NAPL distribution.

Rathfelder, Klaus M.; Abriola, Linda M.; Taylor, Tammy P.; Pennell, Kurt D.

2001-04-01

104

Process waste assessment: Area 143C trichloroethylene vapor degreaser  

SciTech Connect

A process waste assessment (PWA) is a systematic, planned procedure with the overall objective of identifying opportunities and methods to reduce and eliminate waste. This specific PWA examines waste minimization and emission information for the trichloroethylene vapor degreaser in area 143, Chem Clean. Area 143 Chem Clean is involved in the solvent cleaning and acid cleaning (etching) of various metal and ceramic parts in preparation for further processing (e.g., electroplating, brazing, final assembly). A standard set of worksheets for a level three PWA is included.

Not Available

1994-04-01

105

Detection of toluene in an adipoceratous body.  

PubMed

A 24-year-old male was found dead in a car left in a river for about 3 months. The cadaver was almost adipoceratous and autopsy findings revealed that there were neither remarkable injuries nor lethal diseases. Toluene, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, isovaleraldehyde and n-butyl n-butyrate were detected in the specimens collected at the autopsy by head space gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The toluene concentrations (micrograms/g) were 31.0 in brain, 10.6 in liver, 5.4 in kidney, 15.0 in skeletal muscle and 187.1 in adipose tissue. The presence of diatom in lung, liver and kidney suggested that death was caused by drowning. So far as we know, this is the first report of detection of toluene in an adipoceratous body. PMID:8621118

Inoue, H; Iwasa, M; Maeno, Y; Koyama, H; Sato, Y; Matoba, R

1996-04-01

106

Biological exposure assessment to tetrachloroethylene for workers in the dry cleaning industry  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of conducting biological tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) exposure assessments of dry cleaning employees in conjunction with evaluation of possible PCE health effects. Methods Eighteen women from four dry cleaning facilities in southwestern Ohio were monitored in a pilot study of workers with PCE exposure. Personal breathing zone samples were collected from each employee on two consecutive work days. Biological monitoring included a single measurement of PCE in blood and multiple measurements of pre- and post-shift PCE in exhaled breath and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in urine. Results Post-shift PCE in exhaled breath gradually increased throughout the work week. Statistically significant correlations were observed among the exposure indices. Decreases in PCE in exhaled breath and TCA in urine were observed after two days without exposure to PCE. A mixed-effects model identified statistically significant associations between PCE in exhaled breath and airborne PCE time weighted average (TWA) after adjusting for a random participant effect and fixed effects of time and body mass index. Conclusion Although comprehensive, our sampling strategy was challenging to implement due to fluctuating work schedules and the number (pre- and post-shift on three consecutive days) and multiplicity (air, blood, exhaled breath, and urine) of samples collected. PCE in blood is the preferred biological index to monitor exposures, but may make recruitment difficult. PCE TWA sampling is an appropriate surrogate, although more field intensive. Repeated measures of exposure and mixed-effects modeling may be required for future studies due to high within-subject variability. Workers should be monitored over a long enough period of time to allow the use of a lag term. PMID:18412959

McKernan, Lauralynn T; Ruder, Avima M; Petersen, Martin R; Hein, Misty J; Forrester, Christy L; Sanderson, Wayne T; Ashley, David L; Butler, Mary A

2008-01-01

107

21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene capsules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.580 Dichlorophene and toluene capsules. (a) Specifications. Each soft gelatin capsule contains 50 milligrams of dichlorophene and 60 milligrams of toluene or multiples thereof. (b) Sponsor....

2011-04-01

108

21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene capsules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.580 Dichlorophene and toluene capsules. (a) Specifications. Each soft gelatin capsule contains 50 milligrams of dichlorophene and 60 milligrams of toluene or multiples thereof. (b) Sponsor....

2010-04-01

109

21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene capsules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.580 Dichlorophene and toluene capsules. (a) Specifications. Each soft gelatin capsule contains 50 milligrams of dichlorophene and 60 milligrams of toluene or multiples thereof. (b) Sponsor....

2012-04-01

110

Dynamics of toluene degradation in biofilters  

SciTech Connect

Biodegradation processes have been validated as a promising alternative to other conventional air pollution control technologies. The objective of this research was to systematically investigate the transient behavior of shut down and restart-up operation and shock loading of the biofilter. Experiments were conducted in three laboratory-scale biofilters with mixtures of chaff/compost, D.E. (diatomaceous earth)/compost, and GAC (granular activated carbon)/compost, respectively as the filter materials. Toluene was used as the gas pollutant in this study. The response of each biofilter to shock loading was studied by abruptly changing the concentration or flow rate of the inlet gas. For each transient operation, toluene concentration was continuously measured until a new steady state was achieved. The results indicated that the biofilters responded effectively to the shut down and restart-up operation and shock loading of toluene concentration or gas flow rate. Moreover, the highly adsorptive GAC could improve the biofilter performance, especially for the treatment of less water soluble compounds such as toluene. Therefore, the GAC/compost biofilter had the highest maximum elimination capacity of 97 (g hr{sup {minus}1} m{sup {minus}3}). 17 refs., 8 figs.

Tang, Hsiu-Mu; Hwang, Shyh-Jye [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsin Chu (Taiwan, Province of China); Hwang, Sz-Chwun [ITRI, Hsin Chu (Taiwan, Province of China)

1995-12-31

111

Toluene Monooxygenase-Catalyzed Epoxidation of Alkenes  

PubMed Central

Several toluene monooxygenase-producing organisms were tested for their ability to oxidize linear alkenes and chloroalkenes three to eight carbons long. Each of the wild-type organisms degraded all of the alkenes that were tested. Epoxides were produced during the oxidation of butene, butadiene, and pentene but not hexene or octadiene. A strain of Escherichia coli expressing the cloned toluene-4-monooxygenase (T4MO) of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 was able to oxidize butene, butadiene, pentene, and hexene but not octadiene, producing epoxides from all of the substrates that were oxidized. A T4MO-deficient variant of P. mendocina KR1 oxidized alkenes that were five to eight carbons long, but no epoxides were detected, suggesting the presence of multiple alkene-degrading enzymes in this organism. The alkene oxidation rates varied widely (ranging from 0.01 to 0.33 ?mol of substrate/min/mg of cell protein) and were specific for each organism-substrate pair. The enantiomeric purity of the epoxide products also varied widely, ranging from 54 to >90% of a single epoxide enantiomer. In the absence of more preferred substrates, such as toluene or alkenes, the epoxides underwent further toluene monooxygenase-catalyzed transformations, forming products that were not identified. PMID:10788354

McClay, Kevin; Fox, Brian G.; Steffan, Robert J.

2000-01-01

112

Project Overview: IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR TOLUENE  

EPA Science Inventory

Toluene is used as an additive to gasoline mixtures (BTEX) to increase octane ratings, in benzene production, and as a solvent in paints, coatings, inks, adhesives, and cleaners. Additionally, toluene is used in the production of nylon, plastics, and polyurethanes. Toluene was o...

113

Acute behavioural comparisons of toluene and ethanol in human subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of toluene and ethanol (EtOH) induced changes in central nervous system (CNS) function and symptoms were evaluated in two studies, and when possible the effects of toluene were expressed in EtOH equivalent units. The toluene concentrations were 0, 75, and 150 ppm, bracketing the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value (ACGIH TLV) of 100 ppm.

D Echeverria; L Fine; G Langolf; T Schork; C Sampaio

1991-01-01

114

Air trichloroethylene oxidation in a corona plasma-catalytic reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxidative decomposition of trichloroethylene (TCE; 300 ppm) by non-thermal corona plasma was investigated in dry air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, both in the absence and presence of catalysts including MnOx, CoOx. The catalysts were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The morphology and structure of the catalysts were characterized by BET surface area measurement and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) methods. Decomposition of TCE and distribution of products were evaluated by a gas chromatograph (GC) and an FTIR. In the absence of the catalyst, TCE removal is increased with increases in the applied voltage and current intensity. Higher TCE removal and CO2 selectivity is observed in presence of the corona and catalysts, as compared to those with the plasma alone. The results show that MnOx and CoOx catalysts can dissociate the in-plasma produced ozone to oxygen radicals, which enhances the TCE decomposition.

Masoomi-Godarzi, S.; Ranji-Burachaloo, H.; Khodadadi, A. A.; Vesali-Naseh, M.; Mortazavi, Y.

2014-08-01

115

Biodegradation of vapor phase trichloroethylene (TCE) in compost packed biofilters  

SciTech Connect

Batch and column scale biofiltration experiments were performed to measure biodegradation of gaseous trichloroethylene (TCE) in finished compost. Compost was amended with hydrocarbon gas (methane or propane) as primary substrate to support microorganisms capable of cometabolic TCE degradation. In column biofilter experiments hydrocarbon utilization was observed within 10-15 days; gaseous TCE (50 ppmv) was then introduced continuously into the biofilter at approximately 1 L min{sup -1}. Columns supplied with 0.5% v/v methane removed 73% TCE after 8 days of continuous column operation, whereas amendment with 0.25% v/v methane corresponded with TCE removal of 93%, which was observed after 1.5 h of column operation. Similar results were obtained for propane amendment. Biofilters without hydrocarbon amendment exhibited no TCE biodegradation over 35 days. These results, analyzed together with those obtained in batch experiments, indicate that hydrocarbon identity and concentration and other related parameters influence the extent of ICE breakdown.

Sukesan, S.; Watwood, M.E. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

1996-10-01

116

ATSDR's trichloroethylene subregistry methods and results: 1989-2000.  

PubMed

The National Exposure Registry of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) uses standard methods to study human exposure in four chemical subregistries: trichloroethylene (TCE), dioxin, benzene, and trichloroethane. The TCE Subregistry includes a baseline cohort of 4006 white registrants with drinking water exposure in Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Pennsylvania, and Arizona. Between 3 and 6 follow-ups per site were conducted from 1989 to 2000, after baseline. Standardized morbidity ratios, controlling for age and sex, compared prevalences of 16 general health conditions in the subregistry with aggregated national estimates from the 1989-1994 National Health Interview surveys. Excess cases of dermatologic, hematologic, or hepatic disorders and strokes persisted over the lifetime of the registry. Persistent excess urinary tract disorders are likely caused by a systematic bias. This review of first-generation methods may be used to strengthen future exposure registries. PMID:17153085

Davis, Stephanie I; Laszlo Pallos, L; Wu, Jennifer Q; Sapp, James H; Cusack, Caroline

2005-01-01

117

COMPARISON OF MINERAL AND SOLUBLE IRON FENTON'S CATALYSTS FOR THE TREATMENT OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE. (R826163)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Contaminant degradation, stoichiometry, and role of hydroxyl radicals (OH·) in four Fenton's systems were investigated using trichloroethylene (TCE) as a model contaminant. A standard Fenton's system, a modified soluble iron system with a...

118

DEGRADATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE UNDER HIGH-TEMPERATURE THERMAL SOURCE-ZONE REMOVAL CONDITIONS (POSTER PRESENTATION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a contaminant commonly found in the subsurface at industrial and military installations in the United States. Oxidation of TCE (C2HCl3) to carbon dioxide (CO2) and chloride ions (Cl-) has been reported to occu...

119

DEGRADATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE UNDER HIGH-TEMPERATURE THERMAL SOURCE-ZONE REMOVAL CONDITIONS (ABSTRACT ONLY)  

EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a contaminant commonly found in the subsurface at industrial and military installations in the United States. Oxidation of TCE (C2HCl3) to carbon dioxide (CO2) and chloride ions (Cl-) has been reported to occu...

120

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR TRICHLOROETHYLENE : SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

This assessment presents EPA's most current evaluation of the potential health risks from exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE). TCE exposure is associated with several adverse health effects, including neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, developmental toxicity, liver toxicity, kidney t...

121

MODELING THE ELECTROLYTIC DECHLORINATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN A GRANULAR GRAPHITE-PACKED REACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

A comprehensive reactor model was developed for the electrolytic dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) at a granular-graphite cathode. The reactor model describes the dynamic processes of TCE dechlorination and adsorption, and the formation and dechlorination of all the major...

122

PHASE-TRANSFER-CATALYST APPLIED TO THE OXIDATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE BY POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorinated ethylenes such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) are common contaminants (Plumb 1991; Westrick et al., 1984). They opccur in the subsurface as zones of residual saturation or occasionally as free products. Because of their inherently low solubil...

123

TRICHLOROETHYLENE ADSORPTION BY ACTIVATED CARBON PRELOADED WITH HUMIC SUBSTANCES: EFFECTS OF SOLUTION CHEMISTRY. (R828157)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Trichloroethylene (TCE) adsorption by activated carbon previously loaded ("preloaded") with humic substances was found to decrease with increasing concentrations of monovalent ions (NaCl), calcium (until solubility was exceeded), or dissolved oxygen in...

124

Behavior of toluene added to sludge-amended soils  

SciTech Connect

Toluene is a priority pollutant that can be introduced to soils in a variety of wastes, including some municipal sludges. Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the behavior of toluene in two soils in the presence and absence of municipal sludge. Sludge additions increased toluene adsorption in two soils because of increased organic C content. The source of organic C (soil or sludge) and soil clay content also influenced toluene adsorption. Toluene adsorption-desorption was reversible in one soil, but slightly hysteretic in the other soil. An air-flow incubation system was used to evaluate toluene volatilization and degradation. The primary fate of surface-applied toluene in both soils was volatilization. Toluene volatilization rates were independent of sludge treatments. Toluene degradation was negligible in all treatments because of rapid volatilization losses. Despite increased toluene adsorption in the presence of sludge and reduced volatilization in saturated soils, gaseous transfer dominated all soils and treatments so that no toluene remained after 10 d.

Jin, Y.; O'Connor, G.A.

1990-01-01

125

Effect of toluene on the hemolytic resistance of rat erythrocytes.  

PubMed

The effect of toluene on rat erythrocyte hemolytic resistance was studied both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, toluene at concentrations up to 1000 ppm showed a marked antihemolytic effect, the maximum being at 300 ppm. Above 1000 ppm, an increase in the hypotonic hemolysis was seen. The antihemolytic effect of toluene was temperature-dependent. Elevation of temperature diminished the ability of toluene to protect erythrocytes. In the in vivo experiments, when the rats breathed 2000 ppm of toluene in an inhalation chamber for 7 days and for 21 days (6 h/day), the antihemolytic effect of toluene was evident. Our results demonstrate that toluene, at moderate concentrations, increases the hemolytic resistance of rat erythrocytes in hypotonic media both in vitro and in inhalation exposures in vivo. PMID:6623518

Korpela, M; Vapaatalo, H; Tähti, H

1983-07-01

126

A sequential tape monitor for toluene diisocyanate.  

PubMed

An electronic microcircuit controller has been designed to convert a commercially available continuous tape monitor for toluene diisocyanate (TDI) into a sequential sampler in order to eliminate deficiencies in response and resolution of fluctuating TDI concentrations. The modified monitor will collect up to fourteen 12-min samples per work shift. The sensitivity of the monitor was doubled approximately by the inclusion of a blue filter in the optics of the reader unit. Recalibration of several modified monitors indicated a wide range in response to TDI necessitating individual calibrations. No significant difference in response to the 2,4 and 2,6 isomers of toluene diisocyanate was noted for modified personal monitors, in contrast to a 25% lower response to 2,6-TDI by an area monitor in which the same detection tape was used. The modified monitor has shown a reliability rate of about 90% during a three-year field survey of TDI exposures. PMID:3039820

Rando, R J; Duvoisin, P F; Abdel-Kader, H; Hammad, Y Y

1987-06-01

127

The thermal conductivity of benzene and toluene  

SciTech Connect

The thermal conductivity of liquid toluene and benzene was measured in the temperature range 298 to 370 K, near the saturation line, using an absolute transient hot-wire technique. The measurements were made in a modified version of an existing instrument, equipped with a new automatic Wheatstone bridge, computer controlled. The bridge measures the time that the resistance of a 7-{mu}m-diameter platinum wire takes to reach predetermined values, programmed by the computer. The computer can generate up to 1,024 analog voltages, via a 12-bit D/A converter. The accuracy of the measurements with this new arrangement was assessed by measuring the thermal conductivity of a primary standard, toluene, at several temperatures and was found to be of the order of 0.3%. Benzene was chosen because it is under study as a possible secondary standard for liquid thermal conductivity by the Subcommittee on Transport Properties of IUPAC.

Ramires, M.L.V.; Vieira dos Santos, F.J.; Mardolcar, U.V.; Nieto de Castro, C.A. (Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal))

1989-09-01

128

Activity-dependent fluorescent labeling of bacteria that degrade toluene via toluene 2,3-dioxygenase.  

PubMed

Alternative substrates for the toluene 2,3-dioxygenase pathway of several pseudomonads served as enzyme-activity-dependent fluorescent probes for the bacteria. Phenylacetylene and cinnamonitrile were transformed to fluorescent and brightly colored products by Pseudomonas putida F1, Pseudomonas fluorescens CFS215, and Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) strain JS150. Active bacteria transformed phenylacetylene, producing bright yellow solutions containing the putative product 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-7-octyn-2,4-dienoate. Transformation of cinnamonitrile resulted in bright orange solutions due to accumulation of the putative product 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-8-cyanoocta-2,4,7-trienoate. Chemical and physical properties of the products supported their identification, which indicated that the first three enzymes of the pathway catalyzed product formation. Phenylacetylene labeled bacteria with green fluorescence emission; bacteria were concentrated on black 0.2-micron-pore-size polycarbonate filters containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a wetting agent. Bacteria labeled with cinnamonitrile were fluorescent orange; labeling was effective with bacteria trapped on PVP-free polycarbonate filters. Production of the enzymes involved in labeling of P. putida F1 and P. fluorescens CFS215 was induced by growth (on arginine) in the presence of toluene; cells grown on arginine without toluene were not labeled. Labeling of P. putida F1 by phenylacetylene was inhibited by toluene, indicating that the same enzymatic pathway was required for transformations of both substrates. Bacteria expressing other toluene-degrading enzymatic pathways were not fluorescently labeled with phenylacetylene. PMID:9615486

Keener, W K; Watwood, M E; Apel, W A

1998-04-01

129

Impact of nitrate dose on toluene degradation under denitrifying condition.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the impact of nitrate dose on toluene degradation by Pseudomonas putida to elucidate the upper limit of nitrate concentration and whether an optimum ratio of nitrate to toluene concentration exists. Batch microcosm studies were conducted in order to monitor toluene degradation for various ratios (2-20) of nitrate to toluene with nitrate concentrations ranging from 0 to 700 mg?L(-1) for a given toluene concentration of 50 and 25 mg?L(-1) during 4-day (short term) and 14-day (long term) incubation time, respectively. The short-term study revealed that nitrate concentration of 500 mg?L(-1) was toxic to bacteria and the optimum concentration was 300 mg?L(-1) yielding the highest toluene degradation rate (0.083 mg?L(-1)?h(-1)). In the batch study of long term, toluene degradation was limited to 6 days after which the nitrate at 50 mg?L(-1) was depleted, indicating that nitrate was a necessary electron acceptor. For both batch studies, an optimum ratio of 6 was found yielding the highest toluene degradation rate. This indicates that an appropriate nitrate dose is essential for efficient degradation of toluene when bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with toluene is under consideration. PMID:23504564

Kim, Dong-Ju; Park, Mee-Rye; Lim, Dae-Soon; Choi, Jae-Woo

2013-05-01

130

Apartment residents' and day care workers' exposures to tetrachloroethylene and deficits in visual contrast sensitivity.  

PubMed

Tetrachloroethylene (also called perchloroethylene, or perc), a volatile organic compound, has been the predominant solvent used by the dry-cleaning industry for many years. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified perc as a hazardous air pollutant because of its potential adverse impact on human health. Several occupational studies have indicated that chronic, airborne perc exposure adversely affects neurobehavioral functions in workers, particularly visual color discrimination and tasks dependent on rapid visual-information processing. A 1995 study by Altmann and colleagues extended these findings, indicating that environmental perc exposure at a mean level of 4,980 microg/m(3) (median=1,360 microg/m(3)) alters neurobehavioral functions in residents living near dry-cleaning facilities. Although the U.S. EPA has not yet set a reference concentration guideline level for environmental exposure to airborne perc, the New York State Department of Health set an air quality guideline of 100 microg/m(3). In the current residential study, we investigated the potential for perc exposure and neurologic effects, using a battery of visual-system function tests, among healthy members of six families living in two apartment buildings in New York City that contained dry-cleaning facilities on the ground floors. In addition, a day care investigation assessed the potential for perc exposure and effects among workers at a day care center located in the same one-story building as a dry-cleaning facility. Results from the residential study showed a mean exposure level of 778 microg/m(3) perc in indoor air for a mean of 5.8 years, and that perc levels in breath, blood, and urine were 1-2 orders of magnitude in excess of background values. Group-mean visual contrast sensitivity (VCS), a measure of the ability to detect visual patterns, was significantly reduced in the 17 exposed study participants relative to unexposed matched-control participants. The groups did not differ in visual acuity, suggesting that the VCS deficit was of neurologic origin. Healthy workers in the day care investigation were chronically exposed to airborne perc at a mean of 2,150 microg/m(3) for a mean of 4.0 years. Again, group-mean VCS, measured 6 weeks after exposure cessation, was significantly reduced in the nine exposed workers relative to matched controls, and the groups did not differ significantly in visual acuity. These results suggested that chronic, environmental exposure to airborne perc adversely affects neurobehavioral function in healthy individuals. Further research is needed to assess the susceptibility of the young and elderly to perc-induced effects, to determine whether persistent solvent-induced VCS deficits are a risk factor for the development of neurologic disease, and to identify the no observable adverse effect level for chronic, environmental, perc exposure in humans. PMID:12117642

Schreiber, Judith S; Hudnell, H Kenneth; Geller, Andrew M; House, Dennis E; Aldous, Kenneth M; Force, Michael S; Langguth, Karyn; Prohonic, Elizabeth J; Parker, Jean C

2002-07-01

131

Interfacial Properties of a Hydrophobic Dye in the Tetrachloroethylene-Water-Glass Systems  

SciTech Connect

Interfacial effects play an important role in governing multiphase fluid behavior in porous media. Strongly hydrophobic organic dyes, used in many experimental studies to facilitate visual observation of the phase distributions, have generally been implicitly assumed to have no influence on the interfacial properties of the various phases in porous media. Sudan IV is the most commonly used dye for non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in laboratory experiments. It has also been used in at least one field experiment. The effects of this dye on the tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-water-glass system were investigated to test the assumption that the dye does not effect the interfacial properties and therefore PCE mobility. The results indicate that the dye does indeed change the interfacial relationships.The effect of the dye on the interfacial relationships is a complex function of the dye concentration, the solid phase composition, and the dynamic rate of new interface formation. The dye caused a slight (<10 percent) increase in interfacial tension at low concentrations (<0.1 g/L) and high rates of new interface formation. The dye reduced interfacial tension between PCE and water at low rates of new interface formation for all dye concentrations tested (0.00508 to 5.08 g/L). At the highest dye concentration, the PCE-water interfacial tension was significantly reduced regardless of the rate of new interface formation. The apparent interfacial tension increase at low dye concentrations is suspected to be an artifact of a low measured IFT value for the undyed PCE caused by leaching of rubber o-rings by the PCE prior to testing in the final drop-volume configuration.In addition to reducing interfacial tension, the dye was found to significantly alter the wetting relationship between PCE and water on a glass surface at and above the range of reported dye concentrations cited in the literature (1.1 to 1.7 g/L). The wetting relationship was rendered neutral from a water-wet initial condition at the highest dye concentration. The contact angle, measured through the aqueous phase, changed from 58 degrees for undyed PCE to 93 degrees at a dye concentration of 5.08 g/L. Complete reversal of the wettability is likely given the short equilibration time used in this study (approximately five minutes) together with literature indications that hundreds to thousands of hours may be required to reach equilibrium during contact angle measurements. Observations suggesting changing wetting relationships were also noted between PCE, water, and the platinum-iridium surface used in the standard du No/374y ring method for measuring interfacial tension.Observations of the dyed-PCE-water interface behavior during du No/374y ring interfacial tension measurements were similar to observations noted previously during measurements of the interfacial tension between the Savannah River Site (SRS) M-Area Settling Basin DNAPL (M-Area DNAPL) and water. This observation suggests that the M-Area DNAPL may contain surface active components. If this proves to be the case, it would have significant implications for how the M-Area DNAPL is distributed and moves in the SRS subsurface.

Tuck, D.M.

1999-02-23

132

Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling of two binary mixtures: metabolic activation of carbon tetrachloride by trichloroethylene and metabolic inhibition of chloroform by trichloroethylene.  

EPA Science Inventory

The interaction between trichloroethylene (TCE) and chloroform (CHCI3) has been described as less than additive, with co-exposure to TCE and CHC13 resulting in less hepatic and renal toxicity than observed with CHCl3 alone. In contrast, the nonadditive interaction between TCE and...

133

Anaerobic degradation of toluene by pure cultures of denitrifying bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several denitrifying Pseudomonas spp., isolated with various aromatic compounds, were tested for the ability to degrade toluene in the absence of molecular oxygen. Four out of seven strains were able to degrade toluene in the presence of N2O. More than 50% of the 14C from ring-labelled toluene was released as CO2, and up to 37% was assimilated into cell material.

Riet J. Schocher; Birgit Seyfried; Francisco Vazquez; Josef Zeyer

1991-01-01

134

Optimization of electrochemical dechlorination of trichloroethylene in reducing electrolytes  

PubMed Central

Electrochemical dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) in aqueous solution is investigated in a closed, liquid-recirculation system. The anodic reaction of cast iron generates ferrous species, creating a chemically reducing electrolyte (negative ORP value). The reduction of TCE on the cathode surface is enhanced under this reducing electrolyte because of the absence of electron competition. In the presence of the iron anode, the performances of different cathodes are compared in a recirculated electrolysis system. The copper foam shows superior capability for dechlorination of aqueous TCE. Electrolysis by cast iron anode and copper foam cathode is further optimized though a multivariable experimental design and analysis. The conductivity of the electrolyte is identified as an important factor for both final elimination efficiency (FEE) of TCE and specific energy consumption. The copper foam electrode exhibits high TCE elimination efficiency in a wide range of initial TCE concentration. Under coulostatic conditions, the optimal conditions to achieve the highest FEE are 9.525 mm thick copper foam electrode, 40 mA current and 0.042 mol L?1 Na2SO4. This novel electrolysis system is proposed to remediate groundwater contaminated by chlorinated organic solvents, or as an improved iron electrocoagulation process capable of treating the wastewater co-contaminated with chlorinated compounds. PMID:22264798

Mao, Xuhui; Ciblak, Ali; Baek, Kitae; Amiri, Mohammad; Loch-Caruso, Rita; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

2012-01-01

135

A Case of Occupational Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Associated with Trichloroethylene  

PubMed Central

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a toxic chemical commonly used as a degreasing agent, and it is usually found in a colorless or blue liquid form. TCE has a sweet, chloroform-like odor, and this volatile chlorinated organic chemical can cause toxic hepatitis, neurophysiological disorders, skin disorders, and hypersensitivity syndromes. However, the hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) attributed to TCE has rarely been reported. We hereby describe a case of HP associated with TCE in a 29-year-old man who was employed as a lead welder at a computer repair center. He was installing the capacitors on computer chip boards and had been wiped down with TCE. He was admitted to our hospital with complaints of dry coughs, night sweats, and weight losses for the past two months. HP due to TCE exposure was being suspected due to his occupational history, and the results of a video-associated thoracoscopic biopsy confirmed the suspicions. Symptoms have resolved after the steroid pulse therapy and his occupational change. TCE should be taken into consideration as a potential trigger of HP. Early recognition and avoidance of the TCE exposure in the future is important for the treatment of TCE induced HP. PMID:24624216

Kim, Young Jae; Hwang, Eu Dong; Leem, Ah Young; Kang, Beo Deul; Chang, Soo Yun; Kim, Ho Keun; Park, In Kyu; Kim, Song Yee; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon

2014-01-01

136

Key scientific issues in the health risk assessment of trichloroethylene.  

PubMed

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common environmental contaminant at hazardous waste sites and in ambient and indoor air. Assessing the human health risks of TCE is challenging because of its inherently complex metabolism and toxicity and the widely varying perspectives on a number of critical scientific issues. Because of this complexity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drew upon scientific input and expertise from a wide range of groups and individuals in developing its 2001 draft health risk assessment of TCE. This scientific outreach, which was aimed at engaging a diversity of perspectives rather than developing consensus, culminated in 2000 with 16 state-of-the-science articles published together as an Environmental Health Perspectives supplement. Since that time, a substantial amount of new scientific research has been published that is relevant to assessing TCE health risks. Moreover, a number of difficult or controversial scientific issues remain unresolved and are the subject of a scientific consultation with the National Academy of Sciences coordinated by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and co-sponsored by a number of federal agencies, including the U.S. EPA. The articles included in this mini-monograph provide a scientific update on the most prominent of these issues: the pharmacokinetics of TCE and its metabolites, mode(s) of action and effects of TCE metabolites, the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in TCE toxicity, and TCE cancer epidemiology. PMID:16966103

Chiu, Weihsueh A; Caldwell, Jane C; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Scott, Cheryl Siegel

2006-09-01

137

Mass recovery methods for trichloroethylene in plant tissue.  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring expenses form a significant fraction of the costs associated with remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater sites. A novel monitoring method that could result in significant cost savings is the use of plants as monitoring devices; previous work indicates that plant tissue samples, especially trunk (core) and branch samples, can be used to delineate soil and groundwater plumes at phytoremediation sites. An important factor in reducing the uncertainty associated with this sampling method is development of a technique to analyze, both consistently and accurately, the chemicals stored in plant tissue samples. The present research presents a simple, robust, and inexpensive technique to recover most of the contaminant in plant branch tissue, irrespective of the age or species of the plant. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was the chemical analyzed. A number of headspace and solvent extraction techniques in the literature were evaluated, including headspace extraction at different incubation times and temperatures and solvent extraction using hexane or hot methanol. Extraction using hot methanol was relatively fast, simple, and reliable; this method recovered more than 89% of the TCE present in branches of five different tree species.

Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, M. C.; Werth, C. J.; Energy Systems; Univ. of Illionis

2009-06-01

138

Phytoremediation of Trichloroethylene and Perchloroethylene at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation of chlorinated solvents, both natural and accelerated, is exemplified by phytoremediation and biodegradation by rhizosphere microorganisms. Phytoremediation is the use of vegetation for the treatment of contaminated soils, sediments, and water. The potential for phytoremediation of chlorinated solvents has been demonstrated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Miscellaneous Chemical Basin, Southern Sector of A/M Area and TNX/D-Area. Recent characterization work at the SRS has delineated widespread plumes (1-2 miles) of low concentration (40 ppb -10-ppm range) trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) contaminated groundwater. Phytoremediation deployments are underway for TCE and PCE phytoremediation in select SRS areas. Phytoremediation appears to be an excellent technology to intercept and control plume migration. The ongoing Southern Sector treatability study is part of a multi-year field study of SRS seepline-soil systems maintained under saturated conditions. The primary focus is on determining how trees, seepline groundcover, soil microbial communities, and geochemical and surface-volatilization processes affect TCE and PCE in contaminated groundwater that flows through surface seepline areas. Therefore, FY00 represented an initial acclimation phase for soil and plant systems and will facilitate examination of seepline phyto- and bioactivity in subsequent growth season in FY01.

Brigmon, R.L.

2001-01-10

139

Trichloroethylene oxidative metabolism in plants: the trichloroethanol pathway.  

PubMed

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widespread and persistent environmental contaminant. Recently, plants, poplar trees in particular, have been investigated as a tool to remove TCE from soil and groundwater. The metabolism of TCE in plants is being investigated for two reasons: one, plant uptake and metabolism represent an important aspect of the environmental fate of the contaminant; two, metabolism pattern and metabolite identification will help assess the applicability of phytoremediation. It was previously shown that TCE metabolites in plants are similar to ones that result from cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation in mammals: trichloroethanol, trichloroacetate and dichloroacetate. Our measurements indicate that one of these metabolites, trichloroethanol, is further glycosylated in tobacco and poplar. The glycoside was detected in all tissues (roots, stems and leaves) in comparable levels, and was at least 10 fold more abundant than free trichloroethanol. The glycoside in tobacco was identified as the ss-D-glucoside of trichloroethanol by comparison of the mass spectra and the chromatographic retention time of its acetylation product to that of the synthesized standard. Trichloroethanol and its glucoside did not persist in plant tissue once plants are removed from TCE contaminated water, indicating further metabolism. PMID:11730869

Shang, T Q; Doty, S L; Wilson, A M; Howald, W N; Gordon, M P

2001-12-01

140

Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, Epidemiologic and Other Supporting Evidence of Carcinogenic Hazard  

PubMed Central

The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including from hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. Strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE. PMID:23973663

Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Lash, Lawrence H.; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

2013-01-01

141

Permeation of polymeric materials by toluene  

SciTech Connect

The permeation of toluene through protective clothing materials composed of butyl, butyl-coated nomex, neoprene, and polyvinyl alcohol was tested at 25/sup 0/C and 45/sup 0/C with the use of ASTM method F-739. Butyl exhibited breakthrough of 18 min at 25/sup 0/C and 11 min at 45/sup 0/ C. Butyl nomex exhibited breakthrough times of 11 min and 25/sup 0/C and 6 min at 45/sup 0/C. PVA showed no breakthrough in 20 hr. The steady-state permeation rates and the diffusion coefficients were determined.

Vahdat, N.

1987-02-01

142

Physiological Relevance of Successive Hydroxylations of Toluene by Toluene para-Monooxygenase of Ralstonia pickettii  

E-print Network

-Monooxygenase of Ralstonia pickettii PKO1 AYELET FISHMAN, YING TAO and THOMAS K. WOOD* Departments of Chemical Engineering (TpMO) of Ralstonia pickettii PKO1 (encoded by tbuA1UBVA2C) performs successive hydroxylations para-monooxygenase (TpMO) of Ralstonia pickettii PKO1, formerly known as toluene 3-mono- oxygenase (T3

Wood, Thomas K.

143

Bioremediation of trichloroethylene contaminated groundwater using anaerobic process.  

PubMed

Anaerobic remediation of trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated soil and groundwater was studied in laboratory setups. In this process fermentation of polymeric organic materials (POMS) produced volatile fatty acids (VFAs) that were electron donors in reductive dechlorination of TCE. Shredded peanut shell was selected as low cost POM and the experiments were set up in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flasks. In the setups, approximately 25 mg of leachate contaminated soil was used as the main source of microorganisms and about 5 g of shredded peanut shell (0.5-2.36 mm) was added to produce VFAs for dechlorination of TCE. In the first set of experiments, fermentation of soil and shredded peanut shell was studied and it was found that VFAs were produced continuously with increasing concentration (5.63 mM as CH3COOH from the first day to 17.17 in the 10th day of the experiment). During the fermentation, concentration of ammonia-nitrogen was 22-50 mg/L, the ratio of VFA to NH3 was 15.29-23.44 and pH was 5.24-6.00. These results show that the system was appropriate for microorganism activities. In the second set of experiments, TCE (approximately 48 mg/L) was added to the fermentation system and remediation of TCE by reductive dechlorination was studied. It was found that 0.04(+/-0.01) mg TCE adsorbed to a gram of soil and peanut shells at the beginning of the experiment and based on mass balance of the system, TCE concentration in water was linearly reduced at the rate of 0.0098 mg/hr. PMID:19092188

Chomsurin, Cheema; Kajorntraidej, Juthathip; Luangmuang, Kongrit

2008-01-01

144

Dielectric relaxation in the fragile viscous liquid state of toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dielectric measurements were carried out on viscous toluene covering a frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz. In order to suppress the pronounced crystallization tendency of this supercooled liquid it was contained in thin walled capillaries with outer diameters of 300 ?m. From the temperature dependence of the characteristic dielectric relaxation times it was found that toluene is one

Axel Döß; Gerald Hinze; Bernd Schiener; Joachim Hemberger; Roland Böhmer

1997-01-01

145

PERFORMANCE OF TRICKLE BED BIOFILTERS UNDER HIGH TOLUENE LOADING  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of two pelletized media biofilters, highly loaded with toluene, was evaluated in this study. oth biofilters were operated as the same influent concentration of 250 ppmv toluene. iofilter "A" was operated at 1 minute EBRT and biofilter "B" at 0.67 minute EBRT. he i...

146

Continuous Operation of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactors Treating Toluene Vapors  

E-print Network

biofilters and biotrickling filters for the treatment of air pollutants such as toluene. Ã? 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Keywords: VOC control; biofilter; air pollution control; toluene; biologically activated pollution control are biofilters and biotrickling filters (Cox and Deshusses, 1998; Devinny et al., 1999

147

CARDIOVASCULAR AND THERMOREGULATORY RESPONSE TO ORAL TOLUENE IN THE RAT.  

EPA Science Inventory

Toluene and other volatile organic compounds have often been shown to affect behavior in animals when given by inhalation, and less effective when given orally. Previous work showed that toluene increased heart rate (HR) and motor activity (MA), and reduced core temperature (Tc) ...

148

TOLUENE EXPERIMENTAL EXPOSURES IN HUMANS: PHARMACOKINETICS AND BEHAVIOR  

EPA Science Inventory

Toluene Experimental Exposures in Humans: Pharmacokinetics and Behavioral Effects (Ongoing Research) Vernon A. Benignus1, Philip J. Bushnell2 and William K. Boyes2 Human subjects will be exposed to 250 and 500 ppm toluene for one hour in the Human St...

149

Trichloroethylene effects on gene expression during cardiac development  

SciTech Connect

Background: Halogenated hydrocarbon exposure is associated with changes in gene expression in adult and embryonic tissue. The present study was undertaken to identify differentially expressed mRNA transcripts in embryonic hearts from Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE) or potential bio-transformation products of TCE, Dichloroethylene (DCE) and Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA). Methods: cDNA subtractive hybridization was used to selectively amplify expressed mRNA in either control or day 11 embryonic rat hearts exposed to one of these halogenated hydrocarbons from day 0 to 11. The doses used were 1100 and 110 ppm (8300 and 830 mu M) TCE, 110 and 11 ppm (1100 and 110 mu M) DCE, 27.3 and 2.75 mg/ml (100 and 10 mM) TCAA. Control animals were given distilled drinking water throughout the period of experiments. Results: Sequencing of over 100 clones derived from halogenated hydrocarbon exposed groups=resulted in identification of numerous differentially regulate gene sequences. Up-regulated transcripts identified include genes associated with stress response (Hsp 70) and homeostasis (several ribosomal proteins). Down-regulated transcripts include extracellular matrix components (GPI-p137 and vimentin) and Ca2 + responsive proteins (Serca-2 Ca2+-ATPase and beta-catenin). Two possible markers for fetal TCE exposure were identified: Serca-2 and GPI-p137, a GPI-linked protein of unknown function. Both markers show a dose-related decrease in mRNA transcript levels associated with fetal exposure to TCE. Differential regulation of expression of both markers by TCE was confirmed by dot blot analysis and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Levels of exposure between 100 and 250 ppb (0.76 and 1.9 mu M) TCE are sufficient to decrease expression of both the Ca2+-AT Pase and GPI-p137. Conclusion: Sequences down-regulated with TCE exposure appear to be those associated with cellular=housekeeping, cell adhesion and developmental processes, while TCE=exposure up-regulates expression of numerous stress response and homeostatic genes. Two potentially useful marker genes show a correlation between increasing levels of maternal TCE exposure and a decrease in marker transcript levels expressed at E11 in fetal rat heart tissue.

Collier, John Michael; Selmin, Ornella; Johnson, Paula D.; Runyan, Raymond B.

2003-05-09

150

Dioxinlike properties of a trichloroethylene combustion-generated aerosol.  

PubMed Central

Conventional chemical analyses of incineration by-products identify compounds of known toxicity but often fail to indicate the presence of other chemicals that may pose health risks. In a previous report, extracts from soot aerosols formed during incomplete combustion of trichloroethylene (TCE) and pyrolysis of plastics exhibited a dioxinlike response when subjected to a keratinocyte assay. To verify this dioxinlike effect, the complete extract, its polar and nonpolar fractions, some containing primarily halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, were evaluated for toxicity using an embryo assay, for antiestrogenicity using primary liver cell cultures, and for the ability to transform the aryl hydrocarbon receptor into its DNA binding form using liver cytosol in a gel retardation assay. Each of these assays detect dioxinlike effects. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos and primary liver cell cultures of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to concentrations of extract ranging from 0.05 to 45 micrograms/l. Cardiotoxicity with pericardial, yolk sac, and adjacent peritoneal edema occurred after exposure of embryos to concentrations of 7 micrograms/l or greater. These same exposure levels were associated with abnormal embryo development and, at the higher concentrations, death. Some of the fractions were toxic but none was as toxic as the whole extract. In liver cells, total cellular protein and cellular lactate dehydrogenase activity were not altered by in vitro exposure to whole extract (0.05-25 micrograms/l). However, induction of cytochrome P4501A1 protein and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity occurred. In the presence of whole extract, estradiol-dependent vitellogenin synthesis was reduced. Of the fractions, only fraction 1 (nonpolar) showed a similar trend, although vitellogenin synthesis inhibition was not significant. The soot extract and fractions bound to the Ah receptor and showed a significantly positive result in the gel retardation/DNA binding test. Chemical analyses using GC-MS with detection limits for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran in the picomole range did not show presence of these compounds. Our results indicate that other chemicals associated with TCE combustion and not originally targeted for analysis may also pose health risks through dioxinlike mechanisms. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 4. C Figure 4. D Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8841759

Villalobos, S A; Anderson, M J; Denison, M S; Hinton, D E; Tullis, K; Kennedy, I M; Jones, A D; Chang, D P; Yang, G; Kelly, P

1996-01-01

151

Cardiogenic Effects of Trichloroethylene and Trichloroacetic Acid Following Exposure during Heart Specification of Avian Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichloroethylene (TCE) and its metabolite trichloroacetic acid (TCA) are common drinking water contaminants in the United States. Both chemicals have been implicated in causing congenital heart defects (CHD) in human epidemiological and animal model studies. However, the latter studies have primarily focused on assessment of cardiac morphology at late embryonic stages. Here, we tested whether treating avian embryos with TCE

Victoria J. Drake; Stacy L. Koprowski; Norman Hu; Susan M. Smith; John Lough

2006-01-01

152

Ultrasonic degradation of trichloroethylene and chlorobenzene at micromolar concentrations: kinetics and modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most papers in the field of sonochemical degradation of volatile organics in aqueous media describe experiments at the millimolar concentration range, this study focuses on the degradation kinetics of chlorobenzene (CB) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in the micromolar range. It was found that the reaction kinetics increase with decreasing initial substrate concentrations. For example, the pseudo-first-order reaction rate constant of

J. Dewulf; H. Van Langenhove; A. De Visscher; S. Sabbe

2001-01-01

153

Atmospheric pressure discharge plasma decomposition for gaseous air contaminants-trichlorotrifluoroethane and trichloroethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decomposition performance of gaseous environmental destructive contaminants in air by using atmospheric pressure discharge plasma including the surface discharge induced plasma chemical processing (SPCP) was examined. The main contaminants tested were chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-113) and trichloroethylene, typically. The discharge exciting frequency range studied was wide-50 Hz to 50 kHz. Results showed the low frequency discharge requires high voltage to inject

Tetsuji Oda; Ryuichi Yamashita; Tadashi Takahashi; Senichi Masuda

1996-01-01

154

Trichloroethylene and stoddard solvent reduction alternatives in a small shop. 1989 summer intern report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aero Precision Engineering Corp. is a small screw machine shop which produces precision parts for industry located in St. Paul Park, MN. The project focused on identifying satisfactory water-based substitutes for trichloroethylene (TCE) used both as a vapor degreaser and as a cold solvent in a small covered container. At the time of the project, the company used about 500

1989-01-01

155

FY00 Phytoremediation of Trichloroethylene and Perchloroethylene in the Southern Sector of SRS  

SciTech Connect

This treatability study addresses the fate of volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) in an experiment that simulates a vegetated seepline supplied with trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) -contaminated groundwater. The primary objective is to determine how the trees uptake TCE and PCE, accumulate it, and/or transform it.

Brigmon, R.L.

2000-12-15

156

Decomposition of dilute trichloroethylene by nonthermal plasma processing-gas flow rate, catalyst, and ozone effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decomposition performance of dilute (100-1000 ppm) trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated in air by using nonthermal plasma processing was studied to improve the decomposition efficiency. Three kinds of experiments were performed. One is the observation of the decomposition efficiency related to the processing gas flow rate. There exists an optimal gas flow rate for our reactor. The second experiment is the plasma

Tetsuji Oda; Kei Yamaji; Tadashi Takahashi

2004-01-01

157

TRICHLOROETHYLENE SORPTION AND OXIDATION USING A DUAL FUNCTION SORBENT/CATALYST IN A FALLING FURNACE REACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

A dual function medium (Cr-ZSM-5), capable of physisorbing trichloroethylene (TCE) at ambient temperature and catalytically oxidizing it at elevated temperature (-350 degrees C) was utilized in a novel continuous falling furnace reactor system to store and periodically destroy t...

158

INHIBITION OF HUMAN A7 NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS BY THE VOLATILE ORGANIC SOLVENT TRICHLOROETHYLENE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Volatile organic compounds such as toleune, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene are potent and reversible blockers of voltage-gated calcium current in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. It is hypothesized that effects of VOCs on ICa contri...

159

MICROCOSM AND IN SITU FIELD STUDIES OF ENHANCED BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE BY PHENOL-UTILIZING MICROORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The ability of different aerobic groundwater microorganisms to cometabolically degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene (c-DCE), and 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene (t-DCE) was evaluated both in groundwater-fed microcosms and in situ in a shallow aquifer. icrocosms am...

160

EXPOSURE DOSE REPONSE MODELING FOR THE EFFECTS OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS ON HEALTH: TRICHLOROETHYLENE  

EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a neurotoxic volatile organic compound (VOC) that is produced in large quantities as a degreasing agent and general solvent, and it appears on the list of 188 HAPs specified by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. TCE was selected as a model VOC for de...

161

EFFECTS OF PH ON DECHLORINATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE BY ZERO-VALENT IRON  

EPA Science Inventory

The reduction rates of trichloroethylene (TCE) using zero-valent iron (ZVI) and the rates of iron hydrolysis were characterized at pH values of 5 to 10. The reduction of TCE by ZVI was carried out in batch reactors filled with pH-buffered (phosphate based) solutions under anaerob...

162

CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: TRICHLOROETHANE, TRICHLOROETHYLENE AND PERCHLOROETHYLENE. (R826694C633)  

EPA Science Inventory

The effective destruction of trichloroethane, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene by steam reforming with a commercial nickel catalyst has been demonstrated. Conversion levels of up to 0.99999 were attained in both laboratory and semi-pilot experiments, with the products c...

163

Development of a replacement for trichloroethylene in the two-stage cleaning process  

SciTech Connect

A solvent was sought to replace trichloroethylene in the two-stage cleaning process that is used in the Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD) Miniature Electro-Mechanical Assembly Department. The process is an ultrasonic cleaning process in which product is first cleaned in trichloroethylene and then in isopropyl alcohol. After a general review of the properties of available solvents, isopropyl alcohol, d-limonene, and a synthetic mineral spirits, were chosen to be evaluated as trichloroethylene replacements. Stainless steel test panels were cleaned and then soiled with several different organic materials. Certain of the panels were cleaned by the two-stage process. The others were cleaned by the two-stage process using one or another of the solvents under evaluation in the place of the trichloroethylene. The cleanliness of the panels was determined by Auger and photoelectron spectroscopy. The panels cleaned with any of the three solvents under evaluation were found to be as clean as those cleaned by the standard two-stage process. Because of simplicity and minimization of inventory, it is recommended that the two-stage process be changed to use isopropyl alcohol in both stages.

Harding, W.B.

1992-12-01

164

A SEARCH FOR RESIDUAL BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE (TCE) IN RATS EXPOSED AS YOUNG ADULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a solvent of concern to the EPA due to its extensive use in industry, its prevalence in urban air, and its appearance in water supplies. Human clinical studies have associated short and long-termsolvent exposures with cognitive dysfunction including att...

165

SPERMATID MICRONUCLEUS ANALYSES OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE AND CHLORAL HYDRATE EFFECTS IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Mice were exposed by inhalation to trichloroethylene (TCE), or by i.p. injection to the TCE metabolite, chloral hydrate (CH). arly spermatids were analyzed for micronucleus (MN) frequency and kinetochore status (presence or absence) using fluorochrome-labeled anti-kinetochore ant...

166

EFFECT OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE ON THE EXPLORATORY AND LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY OF RATS EXPOSED DURING DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common contaminant of underground water supplies. To examine the effect of TCE on the developing central nervous system, rats were exposed to TCE throughout gestation until 21 days postpartum via their dams' drinking water. TCE concentrations of 312 p...

167

HUMAN ALPHA-7 NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS EXPRESSED IN XENOPUS OOCYTES ARE INHIBITED BY TRICHLOROETHYLENE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a volatile organic solvent (VOC) that is used as a metal degreasing agent and in paints and glue. In addition to being a commonly abused inhalant, run-off from hazardous waste sites contain enough TCE and other VOCs to contaminate ground water and near...

168

Uses of and Exposure to Trichloroethylene in U.S. Industry: A Systematic Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a systematic review of the industrial hygiene literature for uses of trichloroethylene (TCE) in industry for the exposure assessment of two population-based case control studies of brain cancer in the United States. Papers and reports that address uses of and exposures to TCE were identified from MEDLINE, TOXLINE, NIOSHTIC, the NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation database (keywords: chlorinated

Berit Bakke; Patricia A. Stewart; Martha A. Waters

2007-01-01

169

Long-Term Capacity of Plant Mulch to Remediate Trichloroethylene in Groundwater  

EPA Science Inventory

Passive reactive barriers are commonly used to treat groundwater that is contaminated with chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE). A number of passive reactive barriers have been constructed with plant mulch as the reactive medium. The TCE is removed in these barr...

170

CARCINOGENICITY OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE AND ITS METABOLITES, TRICHLOROACETIC ACID AND DICHLOROACETIC ACID, IN MOUSE LIVER  

EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) has previously been shown to be carcinogenic in mouse liver when given by daily gavage in corn oil. The metabolism of TCE results, in part, in the formation of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) as a major metabolite and dichloroacetic acid (DCA) as a minor metabo...

171

Reductive dehalogenation of chlorinated benzenes and toluenes under methanogenic conditions  

SciTech Connect

The anaerobic metabolism of chlorinated benzenes and toluenes was evaluated in soil slurry microcosms under methanogenic conditions. A mixture of hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) in soil slurries was biotransformed through sequential reductive dechlorination to chlorobenzene (CB). The metabolic pathway for hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene decay proceeded via 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (TTCB) [yields] 1,2,3-TCB + 1,2,4-TCB [yields] 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB) + 1,4-DCB [yields] CB. In a mineral salts medium, the CB-adapted soil microorganisms dehalogenated individual 1,2,4,5-TTCB, 1,2,3,4-TTCB, 1,2,3-TCB, and 1,2,4-TCB but not 1,2,3,5-TTCB or 1,3,5-TCB. Similarly, a mixture of 2,3,6-trichlorotoluene (TCT), 2,5-dichlorotoluene (DCT), and 3,4-DCT was reductively dechlorinated in soil slurries to predominantly toluene and small amounts of 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorotoluene (CT). Toluene was further degraded. When tested individually in a mineral salts medium, the CT-adapted soil microorganisms dechlorinated several TCT and DCT isomers. Key metabolic routes for TCTs followed: 2,3,5-TCT [yields] 2,5-DCT [yields] 2-CT [yields] toluene; 2,4,5-TCT [yields] 2,5-DCT + 3,4-DCT [yields] 3-CT + 4-CT [yields] toluene. Among DCTs tested, 2,4-DCT and 3,4-DCT were dechlorinated via the removal of o- and m-chlorine, respectively, to 4-CT and subsequently to toluene via p-chlorine removal. Likewise, 2,5-DCT was dechlorinated via 2-CT to toluene. Evidently, microorganisms capable of removing o-, m-, and p-chlorines are present in the soil system, as reflected by the dechlorination of different isomers of CBs and CTs to CB and toluene, respectively. These findings help clarify the metabolic fate of chlorinated benzenes and toluenes in anaerobic environments.

Ramanand, K.; Balba, M.T. (TreaTek-CRA Company, Grand Island, NY (United States)); Duffy, J. (Occidental Chemical Corporation, Grand Island, NY (United States))

1993-10-01

172

Swelling of cross-linked polystyrene spheres in toluene vapor  

SciTech Connect

The swelling behavior of individual micron-sized polystyrene (PS) spheres in toluene vapor was studied via mass loading by means of micromechanical cantilever sensors. For 4%-8% cross-linked PS a mass increase of 180% in saturated toluene vapor was measured. The mass of the swollen PS sphere decreases with increasing exposure time to ultraviolet light. In addition, the swelling response is significantly different between the first and the second exposure to toluene vapor. This is attributed to the formation of a cross-linked shell at the surface of the PS spheres. Shape persistent parts were observed for locally irradiated PS spheres.

Zhang, R.; Graf, K.; Berger, R. [Polymer Physics Group, Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Polymer Physics Group, Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz, Germany and Research Center for Micro- and Nanochemistry and Engineering, University of Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Polymer Physics Group, Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

2006-11-27

173

The effect of low concentrations of tetrachloroethylene on H2 adsorption and activation on Pt in a fuel cell catalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The poisoning effect of tetrachloroethylene (TTCE) on the activity of a Pt fuel cell catalyst for the adsorption and activation of H2 was investigated at 60 °C and 2 atm using hydrogen surface concentration measurements. The impurity was chosen as a model compound for chlorinated cleaning and degreasing agents that may be introduced into a fuel cell as a contaminant at a fueling station and/or during vehicle maintenance. In the presence of only H2, introduction of up to 540 ppm TTCE in H2 to Pt/C resulted in a reduction of available Pt surface atoms (measured by H2 uptake) by ca. 30%, which was not enough to shift the H2-D2 exchange reaction away from being equilibrium limited. Exposure of TTCE to Pt/C in a mixed redox environment (hydrogen + oxygen), similar to that at the cathode of a fuel cell, resulted in a much more significant loss of Pt surface atom availability, suggesting a role in TTCE decomposition and/or Cl poisoning. Regeneration of catalyst activity of poisoned Pt/C showed the highest level of recovery when regenerated in only H2, with much less recovery in H2 + O2 or O2. The results from this study are in good agreement with those found in a fuel cell study by Martínez-Rodríguez et al. [2] and confirm that the majority of the poisoning from TTCE on fuel cell performance is most likely at the cathode, rather than the anode.

Zhang, Jack Z.; Colón-Mercado, Héctor R.; Goodwin, James G.

2011-10-01

174

Solar\\/UV?induced photocatalytic degradation of volatile toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradations of gaseous toluene (2–20 ppmv) by solar irradiation (solar), solar irradiation and ozone (solar + O3), solar photocatalytic reaction (solar + TiO2) and solar photocatalytic reaction in the presence of ozone (solar + O3 + TiO2) were studied in a pilot plant. The effects of the inlet concentration of toluene, flow rate and relative humidity on the decomposition

Fares Al Momani; Nabeel Jarrah

2009-01-01

175

Hepatotoxicity in Rats Treated with Dimethylformamide or Toluene or Both  

PubMed Central

The effects of toluene in dimethylformamide (DMF)-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated with respect to the induction of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) and the activities of related enzymes. The rats were treated intraperitoneally with the organic solvents in olive oil (Single treatment groups: 450 [D1], 900 [D2], 1,800 [D3] mg DMF, and 346 mg toluene [T] per kg of body weight; Combined treatment groups: D1+T, D2+T, and D3+T) once a day for three days, while the control group received just the olive oil. Each group consisted of 4 rats. The activities of the xenobiotic metabolic enzymes and the hepatic morphology were assessed. The immunoblots indicated that the expression of CYP2E1 was considerably enhanced depending on the dosage of DMF and the CYP2E1 blot densities were significantly increased after treatment with both DMF and toluene, compared to treatment with DMF alone. The activities of glutathione- S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase were either decreased or remained unaltered after treatment with DMF and toluene, whereas the lipid peroxide levels were increased with increasing dosage of DMF and toluene. The liver tissue in the D3 group (1,800 mg/kg of DMF) showed signs of microvacuolation in the central vein region and a large necrotic zone around the central vein, in rats treated with both DMF (1,800 mg/kg) and toluene (D3T). These results suggest that the expression of CYP2E1 is induced by DMF and enhanced by toluene. These changes may have facilitated the accelerated formation of Nmethylformamide (NMF) from toluene, and the generated NMF may directly induce liver damage. PMID:24386519

Chung, Yong Hyun

2013-01-01

176

Toluene and styrene removal from air in biofilters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two identical sized laboratory-scale biofilters, filled with the same type of packing material, consisting of a mixture of peat and glass beads in a 4:1 volume ratio, are investigated for the purification of toluene and styrene-containing off-gas streams. One of the biofilters was inoculated with a toluene-degrading strain of Acinetobacter sp. NCIMB 9689, and the other with a styrene-degrading strain

Mario Zilli; Emilio Palazzi; Luciane Sene; Attilio Converti; Marco Del Borghi

2001-01-01

177

AN EXAMPLE OF MODEL STRUCTURE DIFFERENCES USING SENSITIVITY ANALYSES IN PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN HUMANS  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial chemical and an environmental contaminant. TCE and its metabolites may be carcinogenic and affect human health. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models that differ in compartmentalization are developed for TCE metabo...

178

INFLUENCES OF PH AND CURRENT ON ELECTROLYTIC DECHLORINATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE AT A GRANULAR-GRAPHITE PACKED ELECTRODE  

EPA Science Inventory

Electrolytic dechlorination using a granular-graphite packed cathode is an alternative method for the remediation of chlorinated organic compounds. Its effectiveness under various conditions needs experimental investigation. Dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) was conducted...

179

COUNTER-DIFFUSION OF ISOTOPICALLY LABELED TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN SILICA GEL AND GEOSORBENT MICROPORES: COLUMN RESULTS. (R822626)  

EPA Science Inventory

To investigate counter-diffusion in microporous sorbents, the rate of exchange between deuterated trichloroethylene (DTCE) in fast desorbing sites and nondeuterated TCE (1HTCE) in slow desorbing sites was measured. Exchange rates were measured for a sili...

180

Permanent loss of chromosome initiation in toluene-treated Bacillus subtilis cells.  

PubMed Central

Initiation of deoxyribonucleic acid replication is absent in Bacillus subtilis cells made permeable by toluene. The absence of initiation may be (i) a temporary removal of toluene, or (ii) irreversibly lost due to damage by toluene treatment to a cellular structure or a process required for chromosome initiation. Washed cells, previously treated with toluene and subsequently washed free of detectable amounts of toluene, have the same characteristics of toluene-treated cells in which toluene is not removed. The continued absence of initiation in the washed cells indicates a permanent loss of initiation in cells treated with toluene. Protein synthesis is also inhibited irreversibly by toluene treatment, indicating damage to translation as a possible mechanism for loss of initiation of toluene-treated cells. PMID:808538

Winston, S; Matsushita, T

1975-01-01

181

Toluene Diffusion and Reaction in Unsaturated Pseudomonas putida Biofilms  

PubMed Central

Biofilms are frequently studied in the context of submerged or aquatic systems. However, much less is known about biofilms in unsaturated systems, despite their importance to such processes as food spoilage, terrestrial nutrient cycling, and biodegradation of environmental pollutants in soils. Using modeling and experimentation, we have described the biodegradation of toluene in unsaturated media by bacterial biofilms as a function of matric water potential, a dominant variable in unsaturated systems. We experimentally determined diffusion and kinetic parameters for Pseudomonas putida biofilms, then predicted biodegradation rates over a range of matric water potentials. For validation, we measured the rate of toluene depletion by intact biofilms and found the results to reasonably follow the model predictions. The diffusion coefficient for toluene through unsaturated P. putida biofilm averaged 1.3 × 10?7 cm2/s, which is approximately two orders of magnitude lower than toluene diffusivity in water. Our studies show that, at the scale of the microbial biofilm, the diffusion of toluene to biodegrading bacteria can limit the overall rate of biological toluene depletion in unsaturated systems. PMID:18642338

Holden, Patricia A.; Hunt, James R.; Firestone, Mary K.

2010-01-01

182

Prenatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water and the risk of congenital anomalies: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Prior animal and human studies of prenatal exposure to solvents including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) have shown increases in the risk of certain congenital anomalies among exposed offspring. Objectives This retrospective cohort study examined whether PCE contamination of public drinking water supplies in Massachusetts influenced the occurrence of congenital anomalies among children whose mothers were exposed around the time of conception. Methods The study included 1,658 children whose mothers were exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water and a comparable group of 2,999 children of unexposed mothers. Mothers completed a self-administered questionnaire to gather information on all of their prior births, including the presence of anomalies, residential histories and confounding variables. PCE exposure was estimated using EPANET water distribution system modeling software that incorporated a fate and transport model. Results Children whose mothers had high exposure levels around the time of conception had an increased risk of congenital anomalies. The adjusted odds ratio of all anomalies combined among children with prenatal exposure in the uppermost quartile was 1.5 (95% CI: 0.9, 2.5). No meaningful increases in the risk were seen for lower exposure levels. Increases were also observed in the risk of neural tube defects (OR: 3.5, 95% CI: 0.8, 14.0) and oral clefts (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 0.7, 15.0) among offspring with any prenatal exposure. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the risk of certain congenital anomalies is increased among the offspring of women who were exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water around the time of conception. Because these results are limited by the small number of children with congenital anomalies that were based on maternal reports, a follow-up investigation should be conducted with a larger number of affected children who are identified by independent records. PMID:19778411

2009-01-01

183

Spatiotemporal variability of tetrachloroethylene in residential indoor air due to vapor intrusion: a longitudinal, community-based study.  

PubMed

The migration of volatile contaminants from groundwater and soil into indoor air is a potential health threat at thousands of contaminated sites across the country. This phenomenon, known as vapor intrusion, is characterized by spatial and temporal heterogeneity. This study examined short-term fluctuations in concentrations of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in the indoor air of residential homes due to vapor intrusion in a community in San Antonio, Texas, that sits atop an extensive, shallow plume of contaminated groundwater. Using a community-based design, we removed potential indoor sources of PCE and then collected twelve 3-day passive indoor air samples in each of the 20 homes. Results demonstrated a one-order-of-magnitude variability in concentration across both space and time among the study homes, although all measured concentrations were below risk-based screening levels. We found that within any given home, indoor concentrations increase with the magnitude of the barometric pressure drop (P=0.048) and humidity (P<0.001), while concentrations decrease as wind speed increases (P<0.001) and also during winter (P=0.001). In a second analysis to examine sources of spatial variability, we found that indoor air PCE concentrations between homes increase with groundwater concentration (P=0.030) and a slab-on-grade (as compared with a crawl space) foundation (P=0.028), whereas concentrations decrease in homes without air conditioners (P=0.015). This study offers insights into the drivers of temporal and spatial variability in vapor intrusion that can inform decisions regarding monitoring and exposure assessment at affected sites. PMID:23549403

Johnston, Jill E; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

2014-11-01

184

Risk of Learning and Behavioral Disorders Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

This population-based retrospective cohort study examined the association between developmental disorders of learning, attention and behavior and prenatal and early postnatal drinking water exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Mothers completed a questionnaire on disorders of attention, learning and behavior in their children and on potential confounding variables. The final cohort consisted of 2,086 children. Results of crude and multivariate analyses showed no association between prenatal exposure and receiving tutoring for reading or math, being placed on an Individual Education Plan, or repeating a school grade (adjusted Odds Ratios (OR)=1.0–1.2). There was also no consistent pattern of increased risk for receiving a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Hyperactive Disorder (HD), special class placement for academic or behavioral problems, or lower educational attainment. Modest associations were observed for the latter outcomes only in the low exposure group (e.g., adjusted ORs for ADD were 1.4 and 1.0 for low and high exposure, respectively). (All ORs are based on an unexposed referent group.) Results for postnatal exposure through age five years were similar to those for prenatal exposure. We conclude that prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure is not associated with disorders of attention, learning and behavior identified on the basis of questionnaire responses and at the exposure levels experienced by this population. PMID:18353612

Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Gallagher, Lisa E; Vieira, Veronica; Webster, Thomas F; Aschengrau, Ann

2008-01-01

185

Exposure assessment to trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene for workers in the dry cleaning industry.  

PubMed

Perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene are two particular organochloro compounds, are often used for dry-cleaning. In the present study the excretion of urinary Perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene were evaluated as biomarkers of exposure to these compounds. The mean value of Perchloroethylene in breathing zone and the total Perchloroethylene uptake during the work shift of the three groups of dry-cleaning workers according to the capacity of the dry-cleaning machine (8, 12 and 18 kg) were 31.04, 50.87 and 120.99 mg m(-3) and 11.46, 22.6 and 41.6 ?g L(-1), respectively, which were significantly greater than the occupationally nonexposed groups. A good correlation (r = 0.907) between the mean values of Perchloroethylene in breathing zone and the urinary concentrations was observed. PMID:21416139

Rastkari, Noushin; Yunesian, Masud; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza

2011-04-01

186

EFFECTS OF PH ON DECHLORINATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE BY ZERO-VALENT IRON  

EPA Science Inventory

The surface normalized reaction rate constants (ksa) of trichloroethylene (TCE) and zero-valent iron (ZVI) was quantified in batch reactors at pH values between 1.7 and 10. The ksa of TCE linearly decreased from 0.044 to 0.009 L/hr-m2 between pH 3.8 and 8.0, whereas the ksa at pH...

187

Physical properties of contaminated trichloroethylene and 1,1,1- trichloroethane  

SciTech Connect

The specific gravity, volume change, dielectric constant, dissipation factor, boiling point, and nonvolatile residue carryover during distillation was measured for various contamination levels of rosin in trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Solvent stabilizers and the vapor pressure of solvents were examined. The effects of unknown contamination in solvents from manufacturing departments were measured. The theoretical effects of oil contamination on the boiling point are discussed. 18 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

Holt, R.D.

1990-10-01

188

Effects of temperature on trichloroethylene desorption from silica gel and natural sediments. 2. Kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isothermal desorption rates were measured at 15, 30, and 60°C for trichloroethylene (TCE) on a silica gel, an aquifer sediment, a soil, a sand fraction, and a clay and silt fraction, all at 100% relative humidity. Temperature-stepped desorption (TSD) rates were measured for these solids in columns prepared and equilibrated at 30°C, but heated instantaneously to 60°C after nearly 1000

Charles J. Werth; Martin Reinhard

1997-01-01

189

Persulfate oxidation of trichloroethylene with and without iron activation in porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ chemical oxidation with persulfate anion (S2O82-) is a viable technique for remediation of groundwater contaminants such as trichloroethylene (TCE). An accelerated reaction using S2O82- to destroy TCE can be achieved via chemical activation with ferrous ion to generate sulfate radicals (SO4-·)(E°=2.6V). The column study presented here simulates persulfate oxidation of TCE in porous media (glass beads and a

Chenju Liang; I-Ling Lee; I-Yuang Hsu; Ching-Ping Liang; Yu-Ling Lin

2008-01-01

190

Kinetics of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and Toxicity of Trichloroethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) and seven other chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b were studied. All experiments were performed with cells grown under copper stress and thus expressing soluble methane monooxygenase. Compounds that were readily degraded included chloroform, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, and TCE, with Vmax values of 550, 330, and 290 nmol min-1 mg of cells-1, respectively.

Dick B. Janssen; Jacob J. van der Waarde; Johannes Y. Oedzes; Roelof Oldenhuis

1991-01-01

191

Incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a laboratory incinerator  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports results on incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a small laboratory incinerator. The incinerator temperature, excess air ratio and mean residence time were varied to simulate both complete and incomplete combustion conditions. The flue gas was monitored on line using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupling with a heated long path cell (LPC). Methane, toluene, benzene, chlorobenzene, hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide in the flue gas were simultaneously analyzed. Experimental results indicate that benzene is a major product of incomplete combustion (PIC), besides carbon monoxide, in the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene and is very sensitive to the combustion conditions. This suggests that benzene is a target analyte to be monitored in full-scale incinerators.

Mao, Zhuoxiong; McIntosh, M.J.; Demirgian, J.C.

1992-01-01

192

Incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a laboratory incinerator  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports results on incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a small laboratory incinerator. The incinerator temperature, excess air ratio and mean residence time were varied to simulate both complete and incomplete combustion conditions. The flue gas was monitored on line using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupling with a heated long path cell (LPC). Methane, toluene, benzene, chlorobenzene, hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide in the flue gas were simultaneously analyzed. Experimental results indicate that benzene is a major product of incomplete combustion (PIC), besides carbon monoxide, in the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene and is very sensitive to the combustion conditions. This suggests that benzene is a target analyte to be monitored in full-scale incinerators.

Mao, Zhuoxiong; McIntosh, M.J.; Demirgian, J.C.

1992-12-31

193

Incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a laboratory incinerator  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports experimental results on the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a small laboratory incinerator. Temperature of the incinerator, excess air ratio and mean residence time were varied to simulate both complete and incomplete combustion conditions. The flue gas was monitored on line using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupling with a heated long path cell (LPC). Methane, toluene, benzene, chlorobenzene, hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide in the flue gas were simultaneously analyzed. Experimental results indicate that benzene is a major product of incomplete combustion (PIC) besides carbon monoxide in the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene, and is very sensitive to combustion conditions. This suggests that benzene is a target analyle to be monitored in full-scale incinerators.

Mao, Z.; Mcintosh, M.J.; Demirgian, J.C.

1992-01-01

194

Performance test plan for a space station toluene heater tube  

SciTech Connect

Sundstrand Energy Systems was awarded a contract to investigate the performance capabilities of a toluene heater tube integral to a heat pipe as applied to the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) solar dynamic power system for the Space Station. This heat pipe is a subassembly of the heat receiver. The heat receiver, the heat absorption component of the ORC solar dynamic power system, consists of forty liquid metal heat pipes located circumferentially around the heat receiver`s outside diameter. Each heat pipe contains a toluene heater, two thermal energy storage (TES) canisters and potassium. The function of the heater tube is to heat the supercritical toluene to the required turbine inlet temperature. During the orbit of the space station, the heat receiver and thereby the heat pipe and heater tube will be subjected to variable heat input. The design of the heater must be such that it can accommodate the thermal and hydraulic variations that will be imposed upon it.

Parekh, M.B. [Sundstrand Energy Systems, Rockford, IL (United States)

1987-10-01

195

Biofiltration of toluene vapors in a carbon-medium biofilter  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of toluene vapors in a biofilter with a packed bed of activated carbon pellets was tested. The flowrate was 0.14 m{sup 3}/min, the volume of the bed was 0.25 m{sup 3}, and the bed depth was 1 m. The reactor was capable of removing 70% of the toluene at an input concentration of 2,700 {micro}g/L with an empty bed detection time of 1.8 min. Total removal was 64 g/m{sup 3}/h. Organic carbon removed from the air in a biofilter may be oxidized or incorporated into the biomass. Measurements of heat production and carbon dioxide production indicated, respectively, that 29% or 38% of the removed toluene was oxidized, while the remainder, 62% to 71%, was incorporated into biomass by cell synthesis. The rapid growth of the biomass indicates clogging may occur in biofilters operated at these rates.

Medina, V.F. [RMT Inc., Waukesha, WI (United States); Devinny, J.S. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Environmental Engineering Program; Ramaratnam, M. [Westates Carbon, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

196

Evaluation of the Webler-Brown model for estimating tetrachloroethylene exposure from vinyl-lined asbestos-cement pipes  

PubMed Central

Background From May 1968 through March 1980, vinyl-lined asbestos-cement (VL/AC) water distribution pipes were installed in New England to avoid taste and odor problems associated with asbestos-cement pipes. The vinyl resin was applied to the inner pipe surface in a solution of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE). Substantial amounts of PCE remained in the liner and subsequently leached into public drinking water supplies. Methods Once aware of the leaching problem and prior to remediation (April-November 1980), Massachusetts regulators collected drinking water samples from VL/AC pipes to determine the extent and severity of the PCE contamination. This study compares newly obtained historical records of PCE concentrations in water samples (n = 88) with concentrations estimated using an exposure model employed in epidemiologic studies on the cancer risk associated with PCE-contaminated drinking water. The exposure model was developed by Webler and Brown to estimate the mass of PCE delivered to subjects' residences. Results The mean and median measured PCE concentrations in the water samples were 66 and 0.5 ?g/L, respectively, and the range extended from non-detectable to 2432 ?g/L. The model-generated concentration estimates and water sample concentrations were moderately correlated (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.48, p < 0.0001). Correlations were higher in samples taken at taps and spigots vs. hydrants (? = 0.84 vs. 0.34), in areas with simple vs. complex geometry (? = 0.51 vs. 0.38), and near pipes installed in 1973–1976 vs. other years (? = 0.56 vs. 0.42 for 1968–1972 and 0.37 for 1977–1980). Overall, 24% of the variance in measured PCE concentrations was explained by the model-generated concentration estimates (p < 0.0001). Almost half of the water samples had undetectable concentrations of PCE. Undetectable levels were more common in areas with the earliest installed VL/AC pipes, at the beginning and middle of VL/AC pipes, at hydrants, and in complex pipe configurations. Conclusion PCE concentration estimates generated using the Webler-Brown model were moderately correlated with measured water concentrations. The present analysis suggests that the exposure assessment process used in prior epidemiological studies could be improved with more accurate characterization of water flow. This study illustrates one method of validating an exposure model in an epidemiological study when historical measurements are not available. PMID:18518975

Spence, Lisa A; Aschengrau, Ann; Gallagher, Lisa E; Webster, Thomas F; Heeren, Timothy C; Ozonoff, David M

2008-01-01

197

Hearing loss in workers exposed to toluene and noise.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to both toluene and noise. We recruited 58 workers at an adhesive materials manufacturing plant who were exposured to both toluene and noise [78.6-87.1 A-weighted decibels; dB(A)], 58 workers exposed to noise only [83.5-90.1 dB(A)], and 58 administrative clerks [67.9-72.6 dB(A)] at the same company. We interviewed participants to obtain sociodemographic and employment information and performed physical examinations, including pure-tone audiometry tests between 0.5 and 6 kHz. A contracted laboratory certified by the Council of Labor in Taiwan conducted on-site toluene and noise exposure measurements. The prevalence of hearing loss of >or=25 dB in the toluene plus noise group (86.2%) was much greater than that in the noise-only group (44.8%) and the administrative clerks (5.0%) (p<0.001). The prevalence rates were 67.2, 32.8, and 8.3% (p<0.001), respectively, when 0.5 kHz was excluded from the estimation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the toluene plus noise group had an estimated risk for hearing loss>or=25 dB, 10.9 times higher than that of the noise-only group. The risk ratio dropped to 5.8 when 0.5 kHz was excluded from the risk estimation. Hearing impairment was greater for the pure-tone frequency of 1 kHz than for that of 2 kHz. However, the mean hearing threshold was the poorest for 6 kHz, and the least effect was observed for 2 kHz. Our results suggest that toluene exacerbates hearing loss in a noisy environment, with the main impact on the lower frequencies. PMID:16882540

Chang, Shu-Ju; Chen, Chiou-Jong; Lien, Chih-Hui; Sung, Fung-Chang

2006-08-01

198

Comparative evaluation of biomarkers of occupational exposure to toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  This study was initiated to make comparative evaluation of five proposed urinary markers of occupational exposure to toluene,\\u000a i.e., benzyl alcohol, benzylmercapturic acid, o-cresol, hippuric acid and un-metabolized toluene.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In practice, six plants in Japan were surveyed, and 122 Japanese workers (mostly printers; all men) together with 12 occupationally\\u000a nonexposed control subjects (to be called controls; all men) agreed to

Hirohiko Ukai; Toshio Kawai; Osamu Inoue; Yuki Maejima; Yoshinari Fukui; Fumiko Ohashi; Satoru Okamoto; Shiro Takada; Haruhiko Sakurai; Masayuki Ikeda

2007-01-01

199

Performance of trickle bed biofilters under high toluene loading  

SciTech Connect

The performance of two pelletized media biofilters, highly loaded with toluene, was evaluated in this study. Both biofilters were operated at the same influent concentration of 250 ppmv toluene. Biofilter `A` was operated at 1 minute EBRT and biofilter `B` at 0.67 minute EBRT. The impact of backwash duration on performance was studied for both biofilters, primarily the stability of performance between backwashings. This biofilter behavior indicated that increasing the backwash period from 1 to 2 hours was effective in improving the performance stability of both biofilters. This improved performance stability is due to reduction of short circuiting within the media, caused by accumulating biomass.

Sorial, G.A.; Smith, F.L.; Pandit, A.; Suidan, M.T.; Biswas, P.

1995-07-01

200

MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF TOLUENE UNDER SULFATE- REDUCING CONDITIONS AND THE INFLUENCE OF IRON ON THE PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Toluene degradation occurred concomitantly with sulfate reduction in anaerobic microcosms inoculated with contaminated subsurface soil from an aviation fuel storage facility near the Patuxent River (Md.). Similar results were obtained for enrichment cultures in which toluene was ...

201

FORMATION OF POLYKETONES IN IRRADIATED TOLUENE/PROPYLENE/NOX/AIR MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory study was carried out to investigate the formation of polyketones in secondary organic aerosol from photooxidation of the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene, a major constituent of automobile exhaust. The laboratory experiments consisted of irradiating toluene/propylene...

202

Simultaneous removal of ethyl acetate and toluene in air streams using compost-based biofilters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofitration was successfully applied to treat air streams containing a mixture of ethyl acetate and toluene. The experiment was performed by two identical bench-scale biofilters, which were acclimated by ethyl acetate and toluene, respectively. During a 3 month steady-state performance, the two biofilters showed equivalent elimination capacity (EC) for toluene (50g\\/m3 bed\\/h of pure toluene). However, the biofilter acclimated with

Yonghui Liu; Xie Quan; Yumei Sun; Jingwen Chen; Daming Xue; Jong Shik Chung

2002-01-01

203

Growth of the fungus Cladosporium sphaerospermum with toluene as the sole carbon and energy source  

SciTech Connect

The fungus Cladosporium sphaerospermum was isolated from a biofilter used for the removal of toluene from waste gases. This is the first report describing growth of a eukaryotic organism with toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy. The oxygen consumption rates, as well as the measured enzyme activities, of toluene-grown C. sphaerospermum indicate that toluene is degraded by an initial attack on the methyl group. 32 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Weber, F.J.; Hage, K.C.; De Bont, J.A.M. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands)

1995-10-01

204

Toxicological evaluation of inhalation exposure to benzene and toluene in a raptorial bird, the American kestrel, falco sparverius.  

E-print Network

??Benzene and toluene are representative volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released during production, storage, and transportation associated with the oil and gas industry. Benzene and toluene… (more)

Olsgard, Mandy Lee

2007-01-01

205

Identification of toluene degraders in a methanogenic enrichment culture.  

PubMed

Methanogenic biodegradation involves the cooperative metabolism of syntrophic bacteria that catalyse the initial attack and subsequent degradation of hydrocarbons, and methanogens that convert intermediates such as hydrogen and carbon dioxide, formate, and/or acetate to methane. The identity of syntrophic microbes and the nature of their interactions with other syntrophs and methanogens are not well understood. Furthermore, it is difficult to isolate the organisms responsible for the initial activation and subsequent degradation of hydrocarbon substrates under methanogenic conditions due to the thermodynamic relationships that exist among microbes in methanogenic communities. We used time-resolved RNA stable isotope probing and RT-qPCR to identify the organisms involved in the initial attack on toluene and subsequent degradation reactions in a highly enriched toluene-degrading methanogenic culture. Our results reveal the importance of a Desulfosporosinus sp. in anaerobic toluene activation in the culture. Other organisms that appear to play roles in toluene degradation include Syntrophaceae, Desulfovibrionales and Chloroflexi. The high bacterial diversity observed in this culture and the extensive labelling of different phylogenetic groups over the course of the stable isotope probing experiment highlight the complexity of the relationships that exist in methanogenic ecosystems. PMID:24910080

Fowler, S Jane; Gutierrez-Zamora, Maria-Luisa; Manefield, Mike; Gieg, Lisa M

2014-09-01

206

Fenton-like initiation of a toluene transformation mechanism  

EPA Science Inventory

In Fenton-driven oxidation treatment systems, reaction intermediates derived from parent compounds can play a significant role in the overall treatment process. Fenton-like reactions in the presence of toluene or benzene, involved a transformation mechanism that was highly effici...

207

PERINATAL STUDY OF TOLUENE IN CD-1 MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Toluene administered by inhalation at 400 ppm to CD-1 mice from Days 6 to 16 of gestation was teratogenic but not fetotoxic resulting in a significant shift in the fetal rib profile. At the lower concentration of 200 ppm, there was an increase in dilated renal pelves which might ...

208

PHOSPHOLIPIDS OF FIVE PSEUDOMONAD ARCHETYPES FOR DIFFERENT TOLUENE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) was used to determine phospholipid profiles for five reference pseudomonad strains harboring distinct toluene catabolic pathways: Pseudomonas putida mt-2, Pseudomonas putida F1, Burkholderia cepacia G4, B...

209

Performance evaluation of a compost biofilter treating toluene vapours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofiltration is a versatile waste gas and odour treatment technology that has gained much acceptance in recent years to treat Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). A compost-based biofilter unit inoculated with a mixed microbial population was examined to treat toluene vapours from a synthetic and real gas stream. This biofilter was operated continuously for a period of 8 months at different

Eldon R. Rene; D. V. S. Murthy; T. Swaminathan

2005-01-01

210

Catalytic Transformation of Toluene over High Acidity Y-Zeolite Based S. Al-Khattaf*  

E-print Network

Catalytic Transformation of Toluene over High Acidity Y-Zeolite Based Catalyst S. Al Abstract Catalytic transformation of toluene has been investigated over Y-zeolite based catalysts of the reported studies on toluene disproportionation have been conducted at relatively high pressure

Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman

211

Simultaneous biodegradation of chlorobenzene and toluene by a Pseudomonas strain  

SciTech Connect

Pseudomonas sp. strain JS6 grows on a wide range of chloro- and methylaromatic substrates. The simultaneous degradation of these compounds is prevented in most previously studied isolates because the catabolic pathways are incompatible. The purpose of this study was to determine whether strain JS6 could degrade mixtures of chloro- and methyl-substituted aromatic compounds. Strain JS6 was maintained in a chemostat on a minimal medium with toluene or chlorobenzene as the sole carbon source, supplied via a syringe pump. Strain JS6 contained an active catechol 2,3-dioxygenase when grown in the presence of chloroaromatic compounds; however, in cell extracts, this enzyme was strongly inhibited by 3-chlorocatechol. When cells grown to steady state on toluene were exposed to 50% toluene-50% chlorobenzene, 3-chlorocatechol and 3-methylcatechol accumulated in the medium and the cell density decreased. After 3 h, the enzyme activities of the modified ortho ring fission pathway were induced, the metabolites disappeared, and the cell density returned to previous levels. In cell extracts, 3-methylcatechol was degraded by both catechol 1,2- and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase. Strain JS62, a catechol 2,3-dioxygenase mutant of JS6, grew on toluene, and ring cleavage of 3-methylcatechol was catalyzed by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. The transient metabolite 2-methyllactone was identified in chlorobenzene-grown JS6 cultures exposed to toluene. These results indicate that strain JS6 can degrade mixtures of chloro- and methylaromatic compounds by means of a modified ortho ring fission pathway.

Pettigrew, C.A.; Haigler, B.E.; Spain, J.C. (Air Force Engineering and Services Center, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL (USA))

1991-01-01

212

Simultaneous biodegradation of chlorobenzene and toluene by a Pseudomonas strain.  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas sp. strain JS6 grows on a wide range of chloro- and methylaromatic substrates. The simultaneous degradation of these compounds is prevented in most previously studied isolates because the catabolic pathways are incompatible. The purpose of this study was to determine whether strain JS6 could degrade mixtures of chloro- and methyl-substituted aromatic compounds. Strain JS6 was maintained in a chemostat on a minimal medium with toluene or chlorobenzene as the sole carbon source, supplied via a syringe pump. Strain JS6 contained an active catechol 2,3-dioxygenase when grown in the presence of chloroaromatic compounds; however, in cell extracts, this enzyme was strongly inhibited by 3-chlorocatechol. When cells grown to steady state on toluene were exposed to 50% toluene-50% chlorobenzene, 3-chlorocatechol and 3-methylcatechol accumulated in the medium and the cell density decreased. After 3 h, the enzyme activities of the modified ortho ring fission pathway were induced, the metabolites disappeared, and the cell density returned to previous levels. In cell extracts, 3-methylcatechol was degraded by both catechol 1,2- and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase. Strain JS62, a catechol 2,3-dioxygenase mutant of JS6, grew on toluene, and ring cleavage of 3-methylcatechol was catalyzed by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. The transient metabolite 2-methyllactone was identified in chlorobenzene-grown JS6 cultures exposed to toluene. These results indicate that strain JS6 can degrade mixtures of chloro- and methylaromatic compounds by means of a modified ortho ring fission pathway. PMID:2036002

Pettigrew, C A; Haigler, B E; Spain, J C

1991-01-01

213

Psychomotor performance and subjective symptoms at low level toluene exposure  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Possible effects of long term occupational exposure to toluene below the level of 100 ppm on psychomotor performance and subjective symptoms were investigated in a cross sectional approach. Methods: From German rotogravure printing plants 278 male workers, mean age 39.8 years, mean duration of employment 14.9 years, were examined. A mean lifetime weighted average exposure (LWAE) of 45.1 ppm toluene in ambient air was found for 154 exposed workers (rotogravure printing area), with a mean current exposure of 24.7 ppm. The corresponding data for a second group of 124 workers with very low exposure (endprocessing area) had LWAE of 9.3 ppm and a current exposure of 3.3 ppm toluene. Psychomotor performance (steadiness, line tracing, aiming, tapping, and peg board) and subjective symptoms were examined. Results: No significant differences between the two exposure groups were found by analysis of variance (ANOVA). By stepwise linear regression analyses there were weak associations of LWAE with one performance variable and two symptoms scales, but the results were not significant after correction for the ? error. Psychomotor performance was mostly affected by age (maximum explained variance up to 13%), and handedness (up to 9%), whereas subjective symptoms are mostly affected by anxiety (up to 38%). Conclusions: The weak associations between long term exposure to toluene should be used to indicate further longitudinal investigations. The results of this cross sectional study show no obvious dose response relation for psychomotor functions and subjective symptoms among workers exposed to toluene at a current exposure level of 1–88 ppm. PMID:11934954

Zupanic, M; Demes, P; Seeber, A

2002-01-01

214

Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds  

DOEpatents

A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate therethrough to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex.

Dinh, Tuan V. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01

215

Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds  

DOEpatents

A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate there through to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex. 23 figs.

Dinh, T.V.

1996-06-11

216

Restoring biochemical activity and bacterial diversity in a trichloroethylene-contaminated soil: the reclamation effect of vermicomposted olive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  In this work, the potential for using olive-mill solid waste as an organic amendment for biochemical and biological restoration\\u000a of a trichloroethylene-contaminated soil, which has previously been stabilized through vermicomposting processes, has been\\u000a explored.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Trichloroethylene-contaminated water was pumped into soil columns with a layer of vermicompost at 10-cm depth (biobarrier\\u000a system). The impacts of the

Beatriz Moreno; Astrid Vivas; Rogelio Nogales; Cristina Macci; Grazia Masciandaro; Emilio Benitez

2009-01-01

217

Performances of toluene removal by activated carbon derived from durian shell.  

PubMed

In the effort to find alternative low cost adsorbent for volatile organic vapors has prompted this research in assessing the effectiveness of activated carbon produced from durian shell in removing toluene vapors. Durian shells were impregnated with different concentrations of H3PO4 followed by carbonization at 500 °C for 20 min under nitrogen atmosphere. The prepared durian shell activated carbon (DSAC) was characterized for its physical and chemical properties. The removal efficiency of toluene by DSAC was performed using different toluene concentrations. Results showed that the highest BET surface area of the produced DSAC was 1404 m2/g. Highest removal efficiency of toluene vapors was achieved by using DSAC impregnated with 30% of acid concentration heated at 500 °C for 20 min heating duration. However, there is insignificant difference between removal efficiency of toluene by DSAC and different toluene concentrations. The toluene adsorption by DSAC was better fitted into Freundlich model. PMID:20884200

Tham, Y J; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Abdullah, A M; Shamala-Devi, A; Taufiq-Yap, Y H

2011-01-01

218

Uptake of trichloroethylene by hybrid poplar trees grown hydroponically in flow-through plant growth chambers  

SciTech Connect

Phytoremediation in being promoted as a cost-effective treatment option for shallow groundwater and soils contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE). However, its effectiveness is difficult to assess due to contradictory reports regarding the magnitude of plant uptake and phytovolatilization. Experimental artifacts and plants stress, resulting from the use of static or low-flow plants growth laboratory systems, may account for part of the discrepancy. High exposure concentrations and short durations may also cause artifacts in laboratory studies. A dual-chamber plant growth system designed to minimize experimental artifacts was used to determine the uptake of [{sup 14}C] TCE by hydroponically grown hybrid poplar as a function of plant stress, exposure concentration, and exposure duration. The [{sup 14}]TCE recoveries ranged from 92 to 101% in 11 dosed chambers. Trichloroethylene mass equivalent concentrations in the shoot tissue were dependent on the amount of water transpired and the exposure concentration. Root-zone oxygen status die not significantly impact TCE uptake. Transpiration stream concentration factors (TSCFs) determined in these studies were independent of exposure duration and are much lower than those previously reported and predicted. The role of TSCF and other factors in estimating the significance of plant uptake in the phytoremediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater is discussed.

Orchard, B.J.; Doucette, W.J.; Chard, J.K.; Bugbee, B.

2000-04-01

219

Effects of trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene on wild rodents at Edwards Air Force Base, California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effects of inhalation of volatilized trichloroethylene (TCE) or perchloroethylene (PCE) were assessed based on the health and population size of wild, burrowing mammals at Edwards Air Force Base (CA, USA). Organic soil-vapor concentrations were measured at three sites with aquifer contamination of TCE or PCE of 5.5 to 77 mg/L and at two uncontaminated reference sites. Population estimates of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami and D. panamintinus) as well as hematology, blood chemistry, and histopathology of kangaroo rats and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were compared between contaminated and uncontaminated populations. Maximum soil-gas concentrations associated with groundwater contamination were less than 1.5 ??l/L of TCE and 0.07 ??l/L of PCE. Population estimates of kangaroo rats were similar at contaminated and reference sites. Hematology, blood chemistry, and histopathology of kangaroo rats and deer mice indicated no evidence of health effects caused by exposure. Trichloroethylene or PCE in groundwater and in related soil gas did not appear to reduce the size of small mammal populations or impair the health of individuals.

Spring, S.E.; Miles, A.K.; Anderson, M.J.

2004-01-01

220

Ground discarded tires remove naphthalene, toluene, and mercury from water.  

PubMed

Ground discarded tires adsorb naphthalene, toluene, and mercury ions (Hg2+) from aqueous solutions. Their sorption properties and kinetics were determined by batch equilibration techniques at 20 degrees C. The isotherms were linear for naphthalene and toluene and their sorption coefficients were about 1340 and 255 (ml/g), respectively. Sorption of the organic compounds by the ground rubber particles was relatively fast (within 30 min). However, the mercury isotherms were non-linear, and its sorption was slow as compared to the sorption of the organics. The rubber particles had a strong affinity for Hg2+. These results show that ground discarded tires are effective in removing organic compounds and Hg2+ from wastewater and other contaminated environments. In addition it would be a useful, environmentally friendly use of discarded tires (one tire per year per capita is discarded in the United States). PMID:10901240

Gunasekara, A S; Donovan, J A; Xing, B

2000-10-01

221

Electrical Properties of SandClay Mixtures Containing Trichloroethylene and Ethanol Jeffery J. Roberts and Dorthe Wildenschild*  

E-print Network

, and deionized water. A sample containing 10% dispersed clay was also studied using fluids containing 20- and 500-ppm trichloroethylene (TCE). Each sample's electrical properties after fluid saturation were measured through porous media occurs primarily by the movement of ions through bulk-saturating fluid. In addition

Wildenschild, Dorthe

222

Evaluation of the Potential Impact of Inhibition of Trichloroethylene Metabolism in the Liver on Extra-Hepatic Toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

The interaction between trichloroethylene (TCE) and chloroform (CHCI3) is less than additive, with co-exposure to TCE and CHCl3 resulting in less hepatic and renal toxicity than observed with CHCl3 alone. Vapor uptake data demonstrate that co-exposure to CHCl3 decreases the rate ...

223

Fifteen-year assessment of a permeable reactive barrier for treatment of chromate and trichloroethylene in groundwater.  

PubMed

The fifteen-year performance of a granular iron, permeable reactive barrier (PRB; Elizabeth City, North Carolina) is reviewed with respect to contaminant treatment (hexavalent chromium and trichloroethylene) and hydraulic performance. Due to in-situ treatment of the chromium source zone, reactive and hydraulic longevity of the PRB has outlived the mobile chromate plume. Chromium concentrations exceeding 3 ?g/L have not been detected in regions located hydraulically down-gradient of the PRB. Trichloroethylene treatment has also been effective, although non-constant influent concentrations of trichloroethylene have at times resulted in incomplete dechlorination. Daughter products: cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, ethene, and ethane have been observed within and down-gradient of the PRB at levels <10% of the influent trichloroethylene. Analysis of potentiometric surfaces up-gradient and across the PRB suggests that the PRB may currently represent a zone of reduced hydraulic conductivity; however, measurements of the in-situ hydraulic conductivity provide values in excess of 200 m/d in some intervals and indicate no discernible loss of bulk hydraulic conductivity within the PRB. The results presented here are particularly significant because they provide the longest available record of performance of a PRB. The longevity of the Elizabeth City PRB is principally the result of favorable groundwater geochemistry and hydrologic properties of the site. PMID:24021639

Wilkin, Richard T; Acree, Steven D; Ross, Randall R; Puls, Robert W; Lee, Tony R; Woods, Leilani L

2014-01-15

224

MID-FREQUENCY HEARING LOSS IN RATS FOLLOWING INHALATION EXPOSURE TO TRICHLOROETHYLENE: EVIDENCE FROM REFLEX MODIFICATION AUDIOMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The present experiments were undertaken in order to characterize the hearing loss associated with 1,1,2-trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure. dult male LE rats were exposed to TCE via inhalation (whole body) for 6hr/day for 5 days. he concentration-effect function (0-4000 ppm) was de...

225

Effect of Nitrogen Limitation on Performance of Toluene Degrading Biofilters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature reports conflicting observations regarding the need for nutrient addition to biofilters treating contaminated gases. Such conflicts are often based on quasi-steady-state performance data collected on biofilters operated under continuous loading conditions. In the studies described herein, the impact of nitrogen limitations on two toluene-fed biofilters was assessed over a 97-day period. The biofilters were packed with polyurethane foam

William M Moe; Robert L Irvine

2001-01-01

226

Draft Genome Sequence of Uncultivated Toluene-Degrading Desulfobulbaceae Bacterium Tol-SR, Obtained by Stable Isotope Probing Using [13C6]Toluene  

PubMed Central

The draft genome of a member of the bacterial family Desulfobulbaceae (phylum Deltaproteobacteria) was assembled from the metagenome of a sulfidogenic [13C6]toluene-degrading enrichment culture. The “Desulfobulbaceae bacterium Tol-SR” genome is distinguished from related, previously sequenced genomes by suites of genes associated with anaerobic toluene metabolism, including bss, bbs, and bam. PMID:25593261

Abu Laban, Nidal; Tan, BoonFei; Dao, Anh

2015-01-01

227

Effect of Nitrogen Source on Growth and Trichloroethylene Degradation by Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria  

E-print Network

d CAC-2 cultures than in nitrate- or ammonia-supplied cells. TCE transformation capacities were found to correlate with cellular PHB content in all three cultures. The results of this study suggest that the nitrogen-fixing capabilities of methane-oxidizing bacteria can be used to select for high-activity TCE degraders for the enhancement of bioremediation in fixed-nitrogen-limited environments. Optimal bioremediation conditions within contaminated aquifers are often found to be limited by the availability of nutrients, including nitrogen. Consequently, microorganisms that are capable of degrading contaminants as well as fixing molecular nitrogen as their sole nitrogen source could have a growth advantage in fixed-nitrogen-deficient environments that would be favorable for promoting in situ bioremediation. Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a major groundwater contaminant of concern in the United States due to its suspected carcinogenity and persistence in subsurface environments (3

Kung-Hui Chu Lisa; Lisa Alvarez-cohen

228

Evaluation of the Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor a (PPARa) in Mouse Liver Tumor Induction by Trichloroethylene and Metabolites  

EPA Science Inventory

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent and a widespread environmental contaminant. Induction of liver cancer in mice by TCE is thought to be mediated by two metabolites, dichloroacetate (DCA) and trichloroacetate (TCA), both of which are themselves mouse liver carcinoge...

229

ESTABLISHING CHANGES IN METABOLISM OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE IN THE PRESENCE OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN THE RAT THROUGH THE USE OF PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicological interactions of chemicals can affect metabolism, often decreasing overall associated metabolic rates; and changes in metabolism can be evaluated through the use of mathematical models. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are common co...

230

Comparative Study on the Implication of Three Nanoparticles on the Removal of Trichloroethylene by Adsorption - The Pilot and Rapid Small-Scale Column Tests  

EPA Science Inventory

The impact of three commercially-available nanoparticles (NPs) on trichloroethylene (TCE) adsorption onto granular activated carbon (GAC) was investigated. TCE Adsorption isotherm and column breakthrough experiments were conducted in the presence and absence of silicon dioxide (S...

231

An alternate metabolic hypothesis for a binary mixture of trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride: application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling in rats.  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon tetrachloride (CC4) and trichloroethylene (TCE) are hepatotoxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and environmental contaminants. Previous physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models describe the kinetics ofindividual chemical disposition and metabolic clearance fo...

232

COMPARISON OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE REDUCTIVE DEHALOGENATION BY MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES STIMULATED ON SILICON-BASED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS SLOW-RELEASE ANAEROBIC SUBSTRATES. (R828772C001)  

EPA Science Inventory

Microcosm studies were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of tetrabutoxysilane (TBOS) as a slow-release anaerobic substrate to promote reductive dehalogenation of trichloroethylene (TCE). The abiotic hydrolysis of TBOS and tetrakis(2-ethylbutoxy)silane (TKEBS), and the...

233

Suppression of Pulmonary Host Defenses and Enhanced Susceptibility to Respiratory bacterial Infection in mice Following Inhalation Exposure to Trichloroethylene and Chloroform  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous epidemiologic studies have associated episodes of increased air pollution with increased incidence of respiratory disease, including pneumonia, croup, and bronchitis. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and chloroform are among 33 hazardous air pollutants identified by the U.S. Env...

234

Uses of and exposure to trichloroethylene in U.S. industry: a systematic literature review.  

PubMed

This article describes a systematic review of the industrial hygiene literature for uses of trichloroethylene (TCE) in industry for the exposure assessment of two population-based case control studies of brain cancer in the United States. Papers and reports that address uses of and exposures to TCE were identified from MEDLINE, TOXLINE, NIOSHTIC, the NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation database (keywords: chlorinated solvents and trichloroethylene), and in other reviews. This search was complemented by reviewing the reference lists from the identified literature. The collected information was systematized by the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system, and measurement data reported in the literature were summarized in a database. TCE use was extensive from the early 1920s through the 1970s mainly as a degreasing agent in metal-fabricating operations. After the 1970s it became less popular because of environmental concerns. TCE historically has had a multitude of uses in many other industries, e.g., dry cleaning, textile, electronics, leather, and rubber. Also, many products like adhesives, drugs, paints, inks, and various industrial products have contained TCE. It was banned as a food additive and in cosmetics in 1977. The arithmetic mean (AM) of the measurements across all industries and decades was 38.2 ppm. The highest personal and area air levels were reported in vapor degreasing (AM of 44.6 ppm). Most TCE measurements were performed in the 1950s, 1970s, and 1980s. The data described here could be used by exposure assessors as is to identify the presence and approximate levels of exposure. Using the same information as a basis should increase the reliability of the assessments, making it easier to compare both the exposure assessment methods and the epidemiologic results across different studies. PMID:17454505

Bakke, Berit; Stewart, Patricia A; Waters, Martha A

2007-05-01

235

Effects of toluene on microbially-mediated processes involved in the soil nitrogen cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of toluene on indigenous microbial populations involved in the soil nitrogen cycle were examined. Ammonia oxidation potential (AOP) and nitrite oxidation potential (NOP) were both reduced after incubation with high toluene concentrations for 45 days, with the former activity showing greater sensitivity. KCl-extractable ammonium (NHsup4sup+ext) levels increased dramatically in soil exposed to high toluene levels, and arginine ammonification

M. E. Fuller; K. M. Scowl

1996-01-01

236

Degradation of off-gas toluene in continuous pyrite Fenton system.  

PubMed

Degradation of off-gas toluene from a toluene reservoir and a soil vapor extraction (SVE) process was investigated in a continuous pyrite Fenton system. The removal of off-gas toluene from the toluene reservoir was >95% by 8h in the pyrite Fenton system, while it was ?97 % by 3h in classic Fenton system and then rapidly decreased to initial level by 8h. Continuous consumption of low Fe(II) concentration dissolved from pyrite surface (0.05-0.11 mM) was observed in the pyrite Fenton system, which can lead to the effective and successful removal of the gas-phase toluene due to stable production of OH radical (OH). Inhibitor and spectroscopic test results showed that OH was a dominant radical that degraded gas-phase toluene during the reaction. Off-gas toluene from the SVE process was removed by 96% in the pyrite Fenton system, and remnant toluene from rebounding effect was treated by 99%. Main transformation products from toluene oxidation were benzoic acid (31.4%) and CO2 (38.8%) at 4h, while traces of benzyl alcohol (1.3%) and benzaldehyde (0.7%) were observed. Maximum operation time of continuous pyrite Fenton system was estimated to be 56-61 d and its optimal operation time achieving emission standard was 28.9 d. PMID:25125037

Choi, Kyunghoon; Bae, Sungjun; Lee, Woojin

2014-09-15

237

Kinetic Modeling of Toluene Oxidation for Surrogate Fuel Applications  

SciTech Connect

New environmental issues, like the effect of combustion-generated greenhouse gases, provide motivation to better characterize oxidation of hydrocarbons. Transportation, in particular, significantly contributes to energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. Kinetic studies about the combustion of fuels under conditions typical of internal combustion engines provides important support to improve mechanism formulation and to eventually provide better computational tools that can be used to increase the engine performance. It is foreseeable that at least in the next 30 years the main transportation fuels will be either gasoline or diesel. Unfortunately, these fuels are very complex mixtures of many components. Moreover, their specifications and performance requirements significantly change the composition of these fuels: gasoline and diesel mixtures are different if coming from different refineries or they are different from winter to summer. At the same time a fuel with a well defined and reproducible composition is needed for both experimental and modeling work. In response to these issues, surrogate fuels are proposed. Surrogate fuels are defined as mixtures of a small number of hydrocarbons whose relative concentrations is adjusted in order to approximate the chemical and physical properties of a real fuel. Surrogate fuels are then very useful both for the design of reproducible experimental tests and also for the development of reliable kinetic models. The primary reference fuels (PRF) are a typical and old example of surrogate fuel: n-heptane and iso-octane mixtures are used to reproduce antiknock propensity of complex mixtures contained in a gasoline. PRFs are not able to surrogate gasoline in operating conditions different from standard ones and new surrogates have been recently proposed. Toluene is included in all of them as a species able to represent the behavior of aromatic compounds. On the other side, the toluene oxidation chemistry is not so well established and uncertainties still remain in the mechanism. This is especially true in the low temperature regime (< 850K). In these conditions, the toluene reactivity is too low to be conveniently investigated. Nonetheless, gasoline surrogates work in the engine at low temperatures, because of the presence of very reactive alkanes. The effect of these component interactions have to be taken into account. This work's aim is to present the model activity carried out by two different research groups, comparing the main pathways and results, matching data carried out in different devices both for pure toluene and mixtures. This is the starting point for a further activity to improve the two kinetic schemes.

Frassoldati, A; Mehl, M; Fietzek, R; Faravelli, T; Pitz, W J; Ranzi, E

2009-04-21

238

A Set of Genes Encoding a Second Toluene Efflux System in Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E Is Linked to the tod Genes for Toluene Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Sequence analysis in Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E revealed a second toluene efflux system for toluene metabolism encoded by the ttgDEF genes, which are adjacent to the tod genes. The ttgDEF genes were expressed in response to the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons such as toluene and styrene in the culture medium. To characterize the contribution of the TtgDEF system to toluene tolerance in P. putida, site-directed mutagenesis was used to knock out the gene in the wild-type DOT-T1E strain and in a mutant derivative, DOT-T1E-18. This mutant carried a Tn5 insertion in the ttgABC gene cluster, which encodes a toluene efflux pump that is synthesized constitutively. For site-directed mutagenesis, a cassette to knock out the ttgD gene and encoding resistance to tellurite was constructed in vitro and transferred to the corresponding host chromosome via the suicide plasmid pKNG101. Successful replacement of the wild-type sequences with the mutant cassette was confirmed by Southern hybridization. A single ttgD mutant, DOT-T1E-1, and a double mutant with knock outs in the ttgD and ttgA genes, DOT-T1E-82, were obtained and characterized for toluene tolerance. This was assayed by the sudden addition of toluene (0.3% [vol/vol]) to the liquid culture medium of cells growing on Luria-Bertani (LB) medium (noninduced) or on LB medium with toluene supplied via the gas phase (induced). Induced cells of the single ttgD mutant were more sensitive to sudden toluene shock than were the wild-type cells; however, noninduced wild-type and ttgD mutant cells were equally tolerant to toluene shock. Noninduced cells of the double DOT-T1E-82 mutant did not survive upon sudden toluene shock; however, they still remained viable upon sudden toluene shock if they had been previously induced. These results are discussed in the context of the use of multiple efflux pumps involved in solvent tolerance in P. putida DOT-T1E. PMID:10648517

Mosqueda, Gilberto; Ramos, Juan-Luis

2000-01-01

239

A pilot study on the stability of toluene in blood from workers  

PubMed Central

Background Biological monitoring is used to assess toluene exposure in medical examinations. The American Conference of Industrial Hygienists, Japanese Society for Occupational Health and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft have proposed various biological exposure determinants, such as toluene in blood and urine, and o-cresol in urine. Toluene in blood is a common biomarker among them. Toluene is a volatile organic solvent; therefore, sample preservation under appropriate conditions before measurement is necessary. However, little study has been done on the stability of toluene in workers’ blood samples under conditions simulating those of a medical examination. Finding We carried out a pilot study on the stability of toluene in blood from humans, according to different methods of sample preservation. Toluene in blood was analyzed by head space-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The sealing performance of the vial was examined by using toluene-added blood and the stability of toluene in blood according to the preservation period was examined by using blood from toluene-handling workers, which was collected with vacuum blood tubes. The sealing performance of the headspace vial used in this study was good for three days and toluene in blood in tubes from workers was stable at least within 8 hours up to blood packing at 4°C. Conclusion We could propose that the collected blood need only be transferred into headspace vials on the collection day and analyzed within a few days, if the samples are preserved at 4°C. Our data size is limited; however, it may be considered basic information for biological monitoring in medical examinations. PMID:23199215

2012-01-01

240

Hydrotreating of wheat straw in toluene and ethanol.  

PubMed

In the present work, wheat straw was hydroliquefied at a temperature of 300°C for 4h in ethanol or toluene in order to obtain bio-components which are useful for fuel purposes. The experiments were performed in a 100mL batch reactor under hydrogen pressure of 70 bar. Typically, 2g of straw and 0.1g of catalyst (66%Ni/SiO2-Al2O3) were dispersed in 15 g of solvent. The main compounds of the oil produced during the liquefaction of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin of wheat straw in both solvents are: tetrahydrofuran-2-methanol, 1,2-butanediol and butyrolactone. Besides the mentioned compounds, ethanol favoured the decomposition of bigger molecules to short-chain alcohols such as 1-butanol, 1,2-propanediol and 1,2-ethanediol. Toluene contributes to the production of furans and other cyclic compounds. The light fractions distilled together with the solvent also contain the following: 1-propanol, 2-methyl-cyclopentanone, acetic acid and ethyl acetate. PMID:24787323

Murnieks, Raimonds; Kampars, Valdis; Malins, Kristaps; Apseniece, Lauma

2014-07-01

241

Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an adult cohort following prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water.  

PubMed

This population-based retrospective cohort study examined Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and Geographic Information System (GIS) methodology. Brain imaging was performed on 26 exposed and 16 unexposed subjects. Scans were acquired on a Philips 3T whole body scanner using the ADNI T1-weighted MP-RAGE scan. The scans were processed by FreeSurfer version 4.3.1 software to obtain measurements of specific brain regions. There were no statistically significant differences between exposed and unexposed subjects on the measures of white matter hypointensities (?: 127.5mm(3), 95% CI: -259.1, 1514.0), white matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral white matter: ?: 21230.0mm(3), 95% CI: -4512.6, 46971.7) or gray matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral gray matter: ?: 11976.0mm(3), 95% CI: -13657.2, 37609.3). The results of this study suggest that exposure to PCE during gestation and early childhood, at the levels observed in this population, is not associated with alterations in the brain structures studied. PMID:23571160

Janulewicz, Patricia A; Killiany, Ronald J; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Aschengrau, Ann

2013-01-01

242

Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Adult Cohort Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

This population-based retrospective cohort study examined Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and Geographic Information System (GIS) methodology. Brain imaging was performed on 26 exposed and 16 unexposed subjects. Scans were acquired on a Philips 3T whole body scanner using the ADNI T1-weighted MP-RAGE scan. The scans were processed by FreeSurfer version 4.3.1 software to obtain measurements of specific brain regions. There were no statistically significant differences between exposed and unexposed subjects on measures of white matter hypointensities (?: 127.5 mm3, 95% CI: ?259.1, 1514.0), white matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral white matter: ?: 21230.0 mm3, 95% CI: ?4512.6, 46971.7) or gray matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral gray matter: ?: 11976.0 mm3, 95% CI: ?13657.2, 37609.3). The results of this study suggest that exposure to PCE during gestation and early childhood, at the levels observed in this population, is not associated with alterations in the brain structures studied. PMID:23571160

Janulewicz, Patricia A; Killiany, Ronald J; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Aschengrau, Ann

2013-01-01

243

Optimization of trichloroethylene oxidation by methanotrophs and the use of a colorimetric assay to detect soluble methane monooxygenase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b biosynthesizes a broad specificity soluble methane monooxygenase that rapidly oxidizes trichloroethylene (TCE). The selective expression of the soluble methane monooxygenase was followed in vivo by a rapid colorimetric assay. Naphthalene was oxidized by purified soluble methane monooxygenase or by cells grown in copper-deficient media to a mixture of 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol. The naphthols were detected by reaction

Gregory A. Brusseau; Hsien-Chyang Tsien; Richard S. Hanson; Lawrence P. Wackett

1990-01-01

244

Quantitative and rapid detection of the trichloroethylene-degrading bacterium Methylocystis sp. M in groundwater by real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a method based on real-time PCR for the specific and rapid enumeration of a trichloroethylene-degrading methanotroph, Methylocystis sp. M, with the aim of monitoring the strain in groundwater. A primer set designed from the nucleotide sequence of the mmoC gene of a soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) gene cluster from Methylocystis sp. M was specific to amplify the DNA

T. Kikuchi; K. Iwasaki; H. Nishihara; Y. Takamura; O. Yagi

2002-01-01

245

Thermally Activated Persulfate Oxidation of Trichloroethylene (TCE) and 1,1,1Trichloroethane (TCA) in Aqueous Systems and Soil Slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under thermally activated conditions (i.e., temperature of 40?99°C), there is considerable evidence that the persulfate anion () can be converted to a powerful oxidant known as the sulfate free radical (), which could be used in situ to destroy groundwater contaminants. In this laboratory study only limited trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation and no 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) degradation was observed at 20°C. However,

Chen Ju Liang; Clifford J. Bruell; Michael C. Marley; Kenneth L. Sperry

2003-01-01

246

Effect of toluene as gaseous cosubstrate in bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted soil.  

PubMed

The stimulation of the microbial population by a more bioavailable supplementary carbon source and by a surfactant pretreatment was studied in petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted soils bioremediation. Two types of soils were used, Soil A which had been recently polluted and the aged Soil B. They contained 52.4 and 50.4 g of total petroleum hydrocarbons per kg of dry soil, respectively. The effect of passing a continuous small stream of air containing a low concentration of gaseous toluene through packed 0.5 l (Ø=5.5 cm) columns was studied. For Soil A, after 62 days the THPs degradation was 28% higher in the toluene treated columns than in controls. In aged Soil B the effect of toluene was not significant, probably due to bioavailability limitations. With Soil B, the combined effect of toluene as cosubstrate and a surfactant pretreatment was studied and the hydrocarbons degradation was 29% higher in the toluene-amended columns than in the controls. Toluene removal was higher than 99% in all cases. Surfactant addition increased hydrocarbon degradation when toluene was also added suggesting that the biological reaction was the limiting process. The study shows the possibilities of using gaseous substrates, such as toluene, for the in situ or ex situ treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted soil in processes limited by the biological reaction. The main advantage of the treatment is that the compound can be easily and directly delivered to the polluted soil through the venting system. PMID:16239067

Ortiz, Irmene; Velasco, Antonio; Revah, Sergio

2006-04-17

247

Abatement of toluene from gas streams via ferro-electric packed bed dielectric barrier discharge plasma.  

PubMed

Destruction of gaseous toluene via ferro-electric packed bed dielectric barrier discharge plasma in a coaxial cylindrical reactor was carried out at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The difference among three kinds of reactors was compared in terms of specific energy density (SED), energy yield (EY), toluene decomposition. In order to optimize the geometry of the reactor, the removal efficiency of toluene was compared for various inner electrode diameters. In addition, qualitative analysis on by-products and particular discussion on toluene abatement mechanisms were also presented. It has been found that ferro-electric packed bed DBD reactor could effectively decompose toluene. Toluene removal efficiency enhanced with increasing SED. With respect to toluene conversion, 1.62 mm electrode appeared to be superior to 1.06 mm electrodes. BaTiO3 reactor had the highest toluene removal efficiency among the reactors. For NaNO2 reactor, the highest EY could reach 17.0 mg/kWh to a certain extent. PMID:19515490

Liang, Wenjun; Li, Jian; Li, Jie; Jin, Yuquan

2009-10-30

248

Toluene in Rotogravure Printed Brochures: High Speed Emission Testing and Comparison with Exposure Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residual solvent in rotogravure printed brochures has given rise to complaints and injury reports among postal workers in Denmark. A method has been developed for a fast determination of the emission of toluene from rotogravure printed brochures by use of the field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC). Emitted compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Toluene head space concentration in

Bo Jensen; Erik Olsen; Peder Wolkoff

1996-01-01

249

Construction and use of recombinant Escherichia coli strains for the synthesis of toluene cis-glycol.  

PubMed

The toluene dioxygenase genes derived from Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 11767 were subcloned from a previously constructed recombinant plasmid, pIG, using pUC18 as the cloning vector and E. coli TG2 as the host strain. The resulting strain, E. coli TG2 (p1/1), produced toluene cis-glycol when grown in LB broth or minimal medium in the presence of toluene. Restriction mapping and partial DNA sequencing provided evidence for the presence of ORFs with extensive homology to parts of the tod operon from P. putida F1. The clones exhibited some residual toluene cis-glycol dehydrogenase activity which resulted in the formation of small amounts of 3-methylcatechol. Expression of the dioxygenase was induced by toluene, but was not directed by the lac promoter within the cloning vector. The clones were assessed for toluene cis-glycol production in pH-controlled batch cultures, and the maximum product concentration obtained was 1.02 g l-1. Product formation was dependent upon the presence of glucose in the culture medium. Although the substrate was toxic, the biotransformation was apparently limited by the supply of toluene. The results suggest that it should be possible to improve toluene cis-glycol production by recombinants substantially by improving both the strain and fermentation process. PMID:8987488

Wahbi, L P; Gokhale, D; Minter, S; Stephens, G M

1996-09-01

250

Interactions between benzene, toluene, and p-xylene (BTX) during their biodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microbial consortium and Pseudomonas strain (PPO1) were used in studying biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and p-xylene under aerobic conditions. Studies involved removal of each compound individually as well as in mixture with the others. Both cultures exhibited a qualitatively similar behavior toward each compound. Both the pure culture and the consortium grew on benzene following Monod kinetics, on toluene

Young-Sook Oh; R. Bartha; Z. Shareefdeen; B. C. Baltzis

1994-01-01

251

CHANGES IN MRNA EXPRESSION PROFILES IN RAT CORTEX AND STRIATUM FOLLOWING SUB CHRONIC TOLUENE EXPOSURE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Toluene, a volatile organic compound (VOC) used in many commercial products, is a ubiquitous air pollutant and therefore of interest to many EPA regulatory programs. A primary concern for toluene and other VOC?s is the potential for persistent neurotoxic effects from long term e...

252

EVALUATING MOLECULAR SITES OF ACTION FOR TOLUENE USING AN IN VIVO MODEL.  

EPA Science Inventory

In vitro studies have demonstrated that toluene disrupts the function of several ion channels localized in the brain, including the NMDA-glutamate receptor. This has led to the hypothesis that effects on ion channel function may contribute to toluene neurotoxicity, CNS depres...

253

Behavioral Effects of Sub-Acute Inhalation of Toluene in Adult Rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Reports of behavioral effects of repeated inhalation of toluene in rats have Yielded inconsistent fmdings. A recent study from this laboratory (Beasley et al., 2010) observed that after 13 weeks of inhaled toluene ("sub-chronic" exposure scenario), rats showed mild but persiste...

254

MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF TOLUENE UNDER SULFATE-REDUCING CONDITIONS AND THE INFLUENCE OF IRON ON THE PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Toluene degradation occurred concomitantly with sulfate reduction in anaerobic microcosms inoculated with contaminated subsurface soil from an aviation fuel storage facility near the Patuxent River (MD). imilar results were obtained for enrichment cultures in which toluene was th...

255

Modeling the toxicokinetics of 24-hour toluene exposure in rats, impact of activity patterns and enzyme induction  

EPA Science Inventory

Toluene, a solvent used in numerous consumer and industrial applications, exerts its critical effects on the brain and nervous system following inhalation exposure. Our previously published PBPK model successfully predicted toluene concentrations in blood and brain over a range o...

256

DETERMINATION OF SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL PRODUCTS FROM THE PHOTOOXIDATION OF TOLUENE AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS IN AMBIENT PM2.5  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory study was carried out to investigate the secondary organic aerosol products from photooxidation of the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene. The laboratory experiments consisted of irradiating toluene/propylene/NOX/air mixtures in a smog chamber operated in the dynamic mode...

257

Protein Engineering of Toluene Monooxygenases for Synthesis of Chiral Sulfoxides?  

PubMed Central

Enantiopure sulfoxides are valuable asymmetric starting materials and are important chiral auxiliaries in organic synthesis. Toluene monooxygenases (TMOs) have been shown previously to catalyze regioselective hydroxylation of substituted benzenes and phenols. Here we show that TMOs are also capable of performing enantioselective oxidation reactions of aromatic sulfides. Mutagenesis of position V106 in the ?-hydroxylase subunit of toluene ortho-monooxygenase (TOM) of Burkholderia cepacia G4 and the analogous position I100 in toluene 4-monooxygenase (T4MO) of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 improved both rate and enantioselectivity. Variant TomA3 V106M of TOM oxidized methyl phenyl sulfide to the corresponding sulfoxide at a rate of 3.0 nmol/min/mg protein compared with 1.6 for the wild-type enzyme, and the enantiomeric excess (pro-S) increased from 51% for the wild type to 88% for this mutant. Similarly, T4MO variant TmoA I100G increased the wild-type oxidation rate by 1.7-fold, and the enantiomeric excess rose from 86% to 98% (pro-S). Both wild-type enzymes showed lower activity with methyl para-tolyl sulfide as a substrate, but the improvement in the activity and enantioselectivity of the mutants was more dramatic. For example, T4MO variant TmoA I100G oxidized methyl para-tolyl sulfide 11 times faster than the wild type did and changed the selectivity from 41% pro-R to 77% pro-S. A correlation between regioselectivity and enantioselectivity was shown for TMOs studied in this work. Using in silico homology modeling, it is shown that residue I100 in T4MO aids in steering the substrate into the active site at the end of the long entrance channel. It is further hypothesized that the main function of V106 in TOM is the proper positioning or docking of the substrate with respect to the diiron atoms. The results from this work suggest that when the substrate is not aligned correctly in the active site, the oxidation rate is decreased and enantioselectivity is impaired, resulting in products with both chiral configurations. PMID:18192418

Feingersch, Roi; Shainsky, Janna; Wood, Thomas K.; Fishman, Ayelet

2008-01-01

258

Analysis of the relative abundance of different types of bacteria capable of toluene degradation in a compost biofilter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microbial community of a compost biofilter treating toluene vapors was investigated using serum-bottle assays and mineral-agar\\u000a plates. Toluene was not consumed in the absence of oxygen. However, filter-bed extracts exposed to toluene vapor as the only\\u000a carbon source produced distinct colony types (phenotypic groups) that were counted separately. Strains from each group were\\u000a isolated and checked for toluene-degradation activity

P. Juteau; D. Rho; R. Larocque; A. LeDuy

1999-01-01

259

Redox control for electrochemical dechlorination of trichloroethylene in bicarbonate aqueous media  

PubMed Central

The role of iron anode on electrochemical dechlorination of aqueous trichloroethylene (TCE) is evaluated using batch mixed-electrolyte experiments. A significantly higher dechlorination rate, up to 99%, is reported when iron anode and copper foam cathodes are used. In contrast to the oxygen-releasing inert anode, the cast iron anode generates ferrous species, which regulate the electrolyte to a reducing condition (low ORP value) and favor the reduction of TCE. The main products of TCE electrochemical reduction on copper foam cathode include ethene and ethane. The ratio of these two hydrocarbons gases varied with the electrolyte ORP condition and current density as more ethane gas generates at more reducing electrolyte condition and at higher current condition. A pseudo-first order model is used to describe the degradation of TCE, the first order rate constant (k) increased with the current applied, but exhibits a negative relation with initial concentration. Depending on the current, electrolysis by iron anode causes a reduction in the ORP and an increase in the pH of the mixed electrolyte. Enhanced reaction rates in this investigation indicate that the electrochemical reduction using copper foam and iron anode may be a promising process for remediation of groundwater contaminated with chlorinated organic compounds. PMID:21671641

Mao, Xuhui; Ciblak, Ali; Amiri, Mohammad; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

2011-01-01

260

Remediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated soils by star technology using vegetable oil smoldering.  

PubMed

Self-sustaining treatment for active remediation (STAR) is an innovative soil remediation approach based on smoldering combustion that has been demonstrated to effectively destroy complex hydrocarbon nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) with minimal energy input. This is the first study to explore the smoldering remediation of sand contaminated by a volatile NAPL (trichloroethylene, TCE) and the first to consider utilizing vegetable oil as supplemental fuel for STAR. Thirty laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the relationship between key outcomes (TCE destruction, rate of remediation) to initial conditions (vegetable oil type, oil: TCE mass ratio, neat versus emulsified oils). Several vegetable oils and emulsified vegetable oil formulations were shown to support remediation of TCE via self-sustaining smoldering. A minimum concentration of 14,000mg/kg canola oil was found to treat sand exhibiting up to 80,000mg/kg TCE. On average, 75% of the TCE mass was removed due to volatilization. This proof-of-concept study suggests that injection and smoldering of vegetable oil may provide a new alternative for driving volatile contaminants to traditional vapour extraction systems without supplying substantial external energy. PMID:25528233

Salman, Madiha; Gerhard, Jason I; Major, David W; Pironi, Paolo; Hadden, Rory

2015-03-21

261

In situ detection of organic molecules: Optrodes for TCE (trichloroethylene) and CHCl sub 3  

SciTech Connect

We have developed new absorption-based chemical indicators for detecting chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}) and trichloroethylene (TCE). These indicators were used to make very sensitive optical chemical sensors (optrodes) for each of these two contaminants. Concentrations below 10 ppb can be accurately measured using these sensors. Furthermore, they are selective and do not response to similar contaminants commonly found with TCE and CHCl{sub 3} in contaminated groundwater. In addition, the sensor response is linearly proportional to the chemical concentration. In this report, we describe the details of this optrode and the putative reaction sequences of the indicator chemistries with CHCl{sub 3} and TCE and present an analysis of the spectral data obtained from the reaction products. A key part of the development of this optrode was designing a simple readout device. The readout is a dual-channel fiber-optic fluorimeter modified to measure transmission or absorption of light. The system is controlled by a lap-top microcomputer and is fully field portable. In addition to describing the final absorption optrode, details of the chemical indicator reactions are presented for both absorption- (colorimetric) and fluorescence-based optrodes. Finally, we report on the syntheses of several compounds used to evaluate the indicator chemical reactions that led to the development of the absorption optrode. 23 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab.

Angel, S. M.; Langry, K. C.; Ridley, M. N.

1990-05-01

262

Removal of trichloroethylene by zerovalent iron/activated carbon derived from agricultural wastes.  

PubMed

Activated carbon (AC) and zerovalent iron (ZVI) have been widely used in the adsorption and dehalogenation process, respectively, for the removal of organic compounds in environmental treatments. This study aims to prepare ZVI/AC derived from an agricultural waste, coir pith, through simple one-step pyrolysis. The effect of activation temperature and time on the surface area, iron content, and zerovalent iron ratio of ZVI/AC was systemically investigated. The results indicated that the activation of AC by FeSO4 significantly increased surface area of AC and distributed elemental iron over the AC. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of ZVI/AC revealed that zerovalent iron was present. As compared to AC without FeSO4 activation, ZVI/AC increased the trichloroethylene removal rate constant by 7 times. The dechlorination ability of ZVI/AC was dominated by the zerovalent iron content. We have shown that lab-made ZVI/AC from coir pith can effectively adsorb and dehalogenate the chlorinated compounds in water. PMID:23994578

Su, Yuh-fan; Cheng, Yu-ling; Shih, Yang-hsin

2013-11-15

263

The transfer of trichloroethylene (TCE) from a shower to indoor air: Experimental measurements and their implications  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were performed to measure the transfer of trichloroethylene (TCE), a volatile organic compound (VOC), from tap water in showers to indoor air. In these experiments, the loss of TCE from tap water in the shower is based on the difference between influent and effluent concentrations.We have developed and previously published a three-compartment model, which we use to simulate the 24-h concentration history of VOCs in the shower, bathroom, and remaining household volumes resulting from the use of contaminated tap water. An important input to this model is the transfer efficiency of the VOC from water to air. The experiments reveal that the transfer efficiency of TCE from shower water to air has an arithmetic mean value of 51 percent and an arithmetic standard deviation of 9 percent. Analysis of the results shows that there is no statistically significant difference between the transfer efficiency measured with hot (37C) or cold (22C) shower water and that there is no statistically significant change in transfer efficiency with time during a 20-min shower. The implications for exposure assessment are considered.

McKone, T.E.; Knezovich, J.P. (Univ. of California, Livermore (United States))

1991-08-01

264

The transfer of trichloroethylene (TCE) from a shower to indoor air: Experimental measurements and their implications  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were performed to measure the transfer of trichloroethylene (TCE), a volatile organic compound (VOC), from tap water to showers to indoor air. In these experiments, the loss of TCE from tap water in the shower is based on the difference between influent and effluent concentrations. We have developed and previously published a three-compartment model, which we use to simulate the 24-h concentration history of VOCs in the shower, bathroom, and remaining household volumes resulting from the use of contaminated tap water. An important input to this model is the transfer efficiency of the VOC from water to air. The experiments reveal that the transfer efficiency of TCE from shower water to air has an arithmetic mean value of 61 percent and an arithmetic standard deviation of 9 percent. Analysis of the results shows that there is no statistically significant difference between the transfer efficiency measured with hot (37C) or cold (22C) shower water and that there is no statistically significant change in transfer efficiency with time during a 20-min shower. The implications for exposure assessment are considered.

McKone, T.E.; Knezovich, J.P. (Univ. of California, Livermore (United States))

1991-05-01

265

A Study of Groundwater Matrix Effects for the Destruction of Trichloroethylene Using Fe/Pd Nanoaggregates  

PubMed Central

Iron nanoaggregates have been prepared using the sodium borohydride reduction method and post-coated with Pd using aqueous phase electro-deposition. The Fe/Pd nanoaggregates were used to examine dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) with regard to matrix effects using materials representative of a potential zero-valent metal remediation site surrounding the Paducah gaseous diffusion plant in Paducah, KY. A surface-area-normalized first-order rate constant of 1.4 × 10–1 L m–2 h–1 was obtained for the case of ideal dechlorination of 19.6 mg L–1 TCE at room temperature and pH 6.2 using 0.5 g L–1 Fe/Pd (0.42 wt % Pd) loading. This value decreases by an order of magnitude to 1.9 × 10–2 L m–2 h–1 when the reaction is carried out in a realistic background matrix when the pH is high (8.8). For all variables tested, Pd content has the most impact on reaction rates. Circulating batch-column experiments are used to study dechlorination under flow conditions and demonstrate the ability of nonstabilized Fe/Pd nanoaggregates to remove significant amounts of TCE (80–90%) over a broad range of groundwater velocities (12.9–83 ft per day) using moderate metal loadings (0.23–0.5 g L–1). PMID:20526423

Meyer, D.E.; Hampson, S.; Ormsbee, L.; Bhattacharyya, D.

2010-01-01

266

Degradation of trichloroethylene in aqueous solution by calcium peroxide activated with ferrous ion.  

PubMed

The application of calcium peroxide (CaO2) activated with ferrous ion to stimulate the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) was investigated. The experimental results showed that TCE could be completely degraded in 5min at a CaO2/Fe(II)/TCE molar ratio of 4/8/1. Probe compound tests demonstrated the presence of reactive oxygen species HO and O2(-) in CaO2/Fe(II) system, while scavenging tests indicated that HO was the dominant active species responsible for TCE removal, and O2(-) could promote TCE degradation in CaO2/Fe(II) system. In addition, the influences of initial solution pH and solution matrix were evaluated. It suggested that the elevation of initial solution pH suppressed TCE degradation. Cl(-) had significant scavenging effect on TCE removal, whereas HCO3(-) of high concentration showed favorable function. The influences of NO3(-) and SO4(2-) could be negligible, while natural organic matter (NOM) had a negative effect on TCE removal at a relatively high concentration. The results demonstrated that the technique of CaO2 activated with ferrous ion is a highly promising technique in in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) remediation in TCE contaminated sites. PMID:25463240

Zhang, Xiang; Gu, Xiaogang; Lu, Shuguang; Miao, Zhouwei; Xu, Minhui; Fu, Xiaori; Qiu, Zhaofu; Sui, Qian

2015-03-01

267

A biologically based pharmacodynamic model for lipid peroxidation stimulated by trichloroethylene in vitro.  

PubMed

It is often necessary for chemical risk assessment to determine a quantitative relationship between the internal dose of a chemical and its biological effect. The tool best suited for this purpose is a biologically based pharmacodynamic (BBPD) model. Such a BBPD model was developed previously (10) to simulate chemically induced lipid peroxidation, and it was experimentally calibrated in precision-cut mouse liver slices in vitro. The BBPD model simulated formation of lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) over time and was originally calibrated with different concentrations of tert-butyl hydroperoxide and bromotrichloromethane. The objective of the present work is to refine this BBPD model so it can describe the kinetics and the dose response of lipid peroxidation induced by a weakly pro-oxidant chemical, trichloroethylene (TCE). The chemical-dependent model parameters were optimized to reflect the chemistry of TCE. Two basic algorithms, linear and square root, for the description of stoichiometric free radical production from TCE were tested. Predictions with the square root algorithm fit the experimental data employing TBARS as an end point better than those by the linear algorithm. The calibrated BBPD model will be used to support our future mathematical description of TCE pharmacodynamics in vivo. PMID:10098906

Byczkowski, J Z; Channel, S R; Miller, C R

1999-01-01

268

Modulation of trichloroethylene in vitro metabolism by different drugs in human.  

PubMed

Toxicological interactions with drugs have the potential to modulate the toxicity of trichloroethylene (TCE). Our objective is to identify metabolic interactions between TCE and 14 widely used drugs in human suspended hepatocytes and characterize the strongest using microsomal assays. Changes in concentrations of TCE and its metabolites were measured by headspace GC-MS. Results with hepatocytes show that amoxicillin, cimetidine, ibuprofen, mefenamic acid and ranitidine caused no significant interactions. Naproxen and salicylic acid showed to increase both TCE metabolites levels, whereas acetaminophen, carbamazepine and erythromycin rather decreased them. Finally, diclofenac, gliclazide, sulphasalazine and valproic acid had an impact on the levels of only one metabolite. Among the 14 tested drugs, 5 presented the most potent interactions and were selected for confirmation with microsomes, namely naproxen, salicylic acid, acetaminophen, carbamazepine and valproic acid. Characterization in human microsomes confirmed interaction with naproxen by competitively inhibiting trichloroethanol (TCOH) glucuronidation (Ki=2.329 mM). Inhibition of TCOH formation was also confirmed for carbamazepine (partial non-competitive with Ki=70 ?M). Interactions with human microsomes were not observed with salicylic acid and acetaminophen, similar to prior results in rat material. For valproic acid, interactions with microsomes were observed in rat but not in human. Inhibition patterns were shown to be similar in human and rat hepatocytes, but some differences in mechanisms were noted in microsomal material between species. Next research efforts will focus on determining the adequacy between in vitro observations and the in vivo situation. PMID:24632077

Cheikh Rouhou, Mouna; Haddad, Sami

2014-08-01

269

Differential Immunotoxicity Induced by Two Different Windows of Developmental Trichloroethylene Exposure  

PubMed Central

Developmental exposure to environmental toxicants may induce immune system alterations that contribute to adult stage autoimmune disease. We have shown that continuous exposure of MRL+/+ mice to trichloroethylene (TCE) from gestational day (GD) 0 to postnatal day (PND) 49 alters several aspects of CD4+ T cell function. This window of exposure corresponds to conception-adolescence/young adulthood in humans. More narrowly defining the window of TCE developmental exposure causes immunotoxicity that would establish the stage at which avoidance and/or intervention would be most effective. The current study divided continuous TCE exposure into two separate windows, namely, gestation only (GD0 to birth (PND0)) and early-life only (PND0-PND49). The mice were examined for specific alterations in CD4+ T cell function at PND49. One potentially long-lasting effect of developmental exposure, alterations in retrotransposon expression indicative of epigenetic alterations, was found in peripheral CD4+ T cells from both sets of developmentally exposed mice. Interestingly, certain other effects, such as alterations in thymus cellularity, were only found in mice exposed to TCE during gestation. In contrast, expansion of memory/activation cell subset of peripheral CD4+ T cells were only found in mice exposed to TCE during early life. Different windows of developmental TCE exposure can have different functional consequences. PMID:24696780

Gilbert, Kathleen M.; Woodruff, William; Blossom, Sarah J.

2014-01-01

270

Effects of Phenol Feeding Pattern on Microbial Community Structure and Cometabolism of Trichloroethylene  

PubMed Central

Cometabolism of trichloroethylene (TCE) by phenol-fed enrichments was evaluated in four reactors with distinct phenol feeding patterns. The reactors were inoculated from the same source, operated at the same average dilution rate, and received the same mass of phenol over time. Only the timing of phenol addition differed. Reactor C received phenol continuously; reactor SC5 received phenol semicontinuously--alternating between 5 h of feed and 3 h without feed; reactor SC2 alternated between 2 h of feed and 6 h without feed; and reactor P received a single pulse every 24 h. The structure of the enrichments and their capacity for TCE transformation were analyzed. In long-term operation, reactors C and SC5 were dominated by fungi, had higher levels of predators, were more susceptible to biomass fluctuations, and exhibited reduced capacity for TCE transformation. Reactors P and SC2 were characterized by lower levels of fungi, higher bacterial biomass, higher concentrations of TCE-degrading organisms, and higher rates of TCE transformation. After 200 days of operation, rates of TCE transformation increased 10-fold in reactor P, resulting in TCE transformation rates that were 20 to 100 times higher than the rates of the other reactor communities. The cause of this shift is unknown. Isolates capable of the highest rates of TCE transformation were obtained from reactor P. We conclude that cometabolic activity depends upon microbial community structure and that the community structure can be manipulated by altering the growth substrate feeding pattern. PMID:16535382

Shih, C.; Davey, M. E.; Zhou, J.; Tiedje, J. M.; Criddle, C. S.

1996-01-01

271

Phytoremediation of trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride: Results from bench to field  

SciTech Connect

Remediation of contaminated sites using plants, or phytoremediation, is one of the most promising new technologies for remediation.As with any new technology, solid data concerning the efficacy of this method needs to be produced before commercial groups are willing to implement the technology. This work shows that axenic poplar cell cultures produced from hybrid poplar H-11-11 (Populous trichocarpa x P. deltoides) are capable of independently oxidizing trichloroethylene (TCE) to expected metabolites. It also demonstrates that young rooted cuttings, when placed in metabolic chambers or grown under greenhouse conditions, are capable of taking up and transpiring TCE. Further tests include a pilot-scale remediation project simulating what would be seen on a contaminated site. After one year of exposure to TCE, the data shows that hybrid poplars were able to extract significant amounts of TCE from the water stream. Additionally, at dose concentrations up to 50 ppm, there is no apparent effect on the above ground growth of the trees. Continued use of bench and pilot-scale facilities will allow the testing of different species of plants challenged with a wide range of chemicals.

Newman, L.A.; Choe, N. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry; Bod, C. [Washington State Univ., Puyallup, WA (United States). Puyallup Research and Extension Center] [and others

1997-12-31

272

Microcosm and in situ field studies of enhanced biotransformation of trichloroethylene by phenol-utilizing microorganisms.  

PubMed Central

The ability of different aerobic groundwater microorganisms to cometabolically degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene (c-DCE), and 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene (t-DCE) was evaluated both in groundwater-fed microcosms and in situ in a shallow aquifer. Microcosms amended with phenol or toulene were equally effective in removing c-DCE (> 90%) followed by TCE (60 to 70%), while the microcosm fed methane was most effective in removing t-DCE (> 90%). The microcosm fed ammonia was the least effective. None of the microcosms effectively degraded 1,1,1-trichloroethane. At the Moffett Field groundwater test site, in situ removal of c-DCE and TCE coincided with biostimulation through phenol and oxygen injection and utilization, with c-DCE removed more rapidly than TCE. Greater TCE and c-DCE removal was observed when the phenol concentration was increased. Over 90% removal of c-DCE and TCE was observed in the 2-m biostimulated zone. This compares with 40 to 50% removal of c-DCE and 15 to 25% removal of TCE achieved by methane-grown microorganisms previously evaluated in an adjacent in situ test zone. The in situ removal with phenol-grown microorganisms agrees qualitatively with the microcosm studies, with the rates and extents of removal ranked as follows: c-DCE > TCE > t-DCE. These studies demonstrate the potential for in situ TCE bioremediation using microorganisms grown on phenol. PMID:8357259

Hopkins, G D; Semprini, L; McCarty, P L

1993-01-01

273

Effect of Nitrogen Source on Growth and Trichloroethylene Degradation by Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The effect of nitrogen source on methane-oxidizing bacteria with respect to cellular growth and trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation ability were examined. One mixed chemostat culture and two pure type II methane-oxidizing strains, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and strain CAC-2, which was isolated from the chemostat culture, were used in this study. All cultures were able to grow with each of three different nitrogen sources: ammonia, nitrate, and molecular nitrogen. Both M. trichosporium OB3b and strain CAC-2 showed slightly lower net cellular growth rates and cell yields but exhibited higher methane uptake rates, levels of poly-?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production, and naphthalene oxidation rates when grown under nitrogen-fixing conditions. The TCE-degrading ability of each culture was measured in terms of initial TCE oxidation rates and TCE transformation capacities (mass of TCE degraded/biomass inactivated), measured both with and without external energy sources. Higher initial TCE oxidation rates and TCE transformation capacities were observed in nitrogen-fixing mixed, M. trichosporium OB3b, and CAC-2 cultures than in nitrate- or ammonia-supplied cells. TCE transformation capacities were found to correlate with cellular PHB content in all three cultures. The results of this study suggest that the nitrogen-fixing capabilities of methane-oxidizing bacteria can be used to select for high-activity TCE degraders for the enhancement of bioremediation in fixed-nitrogen-limited environments. PMID:9726896

Chu, Kung-Hui; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

1998-01-01

274

Evaluation of the effectiveness of using alfalfa and buffalo grass for remediation of trichloroethylene from groundwater  

SciTech Connect

Phytoremediation is receiving increasing attention due to the potential for vegetation to play a significant role in bioremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. The purpose of this research was to conduct a pilot study to determine if buffalo grass would enhance the remediation of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE). A mass-balance experiment was designed and executed to determine the extent of TCE remediation/degradation occurring through buffalo grass. Measurements for TCE in air, water, and soil were completed for three treatments: (1) buffalo grass, (2) alfalfa, and (3) soil following challenge with a water-TCE mixture. In total, 267 air samples, 43 water samples, 85 soil samples, and 40 vegetative samples were collected and analyzed. The analysis identified two important facts. First, there were no significant differences detected between TCE concentrations in soil, water, and air between groups. Second, there is a significant difference in the amount of the TCE-water mixture consumed in chambers with plants versus chambers without plants. The mass balance of the experiment was not achieved due to unaccountable losses of TCE from the chambers. The major loss mechanism for TCE appears to be from the breakthrough of air sampling media during the experiment. Thus, the data are insufficient to determine if remediation occurred via plants or by preferential pathways through the soil. Future experiments should be designed to include daily monitoring of the aquifer, humidity tolerant air sampling protocol, and relief from the build-up of humidity and transpiration inside the chambers.

Caravello, V.

1998-06-03

275

In situ bioremediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated water by a resting-cell methanotrophic microbial filter  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is testing and developing an in situ microbial filter technology for remediating migrating subsurface plumes contaminated with low concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE). Their current focus is the establishment of a replenishable bioactive zone (catalytic filter) along expanding plume boundaries by the Injection of a representative methanotrophic bacterium, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. We have successfully demonstrated this microbial filter strategy using emplaced, attached resting cells (no methane additions) in a 1.1-m flow-through test bed loaded with water-saturated sand. Two separate 24 h pulses of TCE (109 ppb and 85 ppb), one week apart, were pumped through the system at a flow velocity of 1.5 cm/h; no TCE (<0.5 ppb) was detected on the downstream side of the microbial filter. Subsequent excavation of the wet sand confirmed the existence of a TCE-bioactive zone 19 days after it had been created. An enhanced longevity of the cellular, soluble-form methane monooxygenase produced by this methanotroph Is a result of our laboratory bioreactor culturing conditions. Additional experiments with cells in sealed vials and emplaced in the 1.1-m test bed yielded a high resting-cell finite TCE biotransformation capacity of [approximately] 0.25 mg per mg of bacteria; this is suitable for a planned sand-filled trench field demonstration at a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site.

Taylor, R T; Duba, A G; Durham, W B; Hanna, M L; Jackson, K J; Jovanovich, M C; Knapp, R B; Knezovich, J P; Shah, N N; Shonnard, D R; Wijesinghe, A M

1992-10-01

276

Artificial neural networks for the automated detection of trichloroethylene by passive Fourier transform infrared spectrometry  

PubMed

Artificial neural networks are applied to the automated classification of trichloroethylene (TCE) signatures from passive Fourier transform infrared remote sensing interferogram data. Through the use of three data collection methods, a combination of laboratory and field data is acquired that allows the methodology to be evaluated under a variety of infrared background conditions and in the presence of potentially interfering compounds such as sulfur hexafluoride, methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, carbon tetrachloride, and ammonia. To maximize the computational efficiency of the network optimization, experimental design techniques are employed to develop a training protocol for the network that takes into account the relationships among five variables that are related either to the network architecture or to the training process. This protocol is implemented for the case of a back-propagation neural network (BNN) and is used to develop an optimized network for the detection of TCE. The classification performance of the network is assessed by comparing both TCE detection capabilities and false detection rates to similar classification results obtained with the technique of piecewise linear discriminant analysis (PLDA). When applied to prediction data withheld from the optimization of both the BNN and PLDA algorithms, the BNN method is observed to outperform PLDA overall, with TCE detection rates in excess of 99% and false detection rates less than 0.5%. PMID:10763269

Hammer; Small; Combs; Knapp; Kroutil

2000-04-01

277

An analysis of trichloroethylene movement in groundwater at castle Air Force Base, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A trichloroethylene (TCE) plume has been identified in the groundwater under a U.S. Air Force Base in the Central Valley of California. An areal, two-dimensional numerical solute transport model indicates that the movement of TCE due to advection, dispersion, and linear sorption is simulated over a 25-year historic period. The model is used in several ways: (1) to estimate the extent of the plume; (2) to confirm the likely sources of contamination as suggested by a soil organic vapor survey of the site; and (3) to make predictions about future movement of the plume. Despite the noisy and incomplete data set, the model reproduces the general trends in contamination at a number of observation wells. The analysis indicates that soil organic vapor monitoring is an effective tool for identifying contaminant source locations. Leaky sewer pipes and underground tanks are the indicated pathways for TCE to have entered the groundwater system. The chemical mass balance indicates that a total of about 100 gallons of TCE - a relatively small amount of organic solvent - has created the observed groundwater plume. ?? 1989.

Avon, L.; Bredehoeft, J.D.

1989-01-01

278

Immunological techniques as tools to characterize the subsurface microbial community at a trichloroethylene contaminated site  

SciTech Connect

Effective in situ bioremediation strategies require an understanding of the effects pollutants and remediation techniques have on subsurface microbial communities. Therefore, detailed characterization of a site's microbial communities is important. Subsurface sediment borings and water samples were collected from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated site, before and after horizontal well in situ air stripping and bioventing, as well as during methane injection for stimulation of methane-utilizing microorganisms. Subsamples were processed for heterotrophic plate counts, acridine orange direct counts (AODC), community diversity, direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) enumeration for several nitrogen-transforming bacteria, and Biolog [reg sign] evaluation of enzyme activity in collected water samples. Plate counts were higher in near-surface depths than in the vadose zone sediment samples. During the in situ air stripping and bioventing, counts increased at or near the saturated zone, remained elevated throughout the aquifer, but did not change significantly after the air stripping. Sporadic increases in plate counts at different depths as well as increased diversity appeared to be linked to differing lithologies. AODCs were orders of magnitude higher than plate counts and remained relatively constant with depth except for slight increases near the surface depths and the capillary fringe. Nitrogen-transforming bacteria, as measured by serospecific DFA, were greatly affected both by the in situ air stripping and the methane injection. Biolog[reg sign] activity appeared to increase with subsurface stimulation both by air and methane. The complexity of subsurface systems makes the use of selective monitoring tools imperative.

Fliermans, C.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Franck, M.M.; McKinzey, P.C.; Hazen, T.C.

1992-01-01

279

Immunological techniques as tools to characterize the subsurface microbial community at a trichloroethylene contaminated site  

SciTech Connect

Effective in situ bioremediation strategies require an understanding of the effects pollutants and remediation techniques have on subsurface microbial communities. Therefore, detailed characterization of a site`s microbial communities is important. Subsurface sediment borings and water samples were collected from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated site, before and after horizontal well in situ air stripping and bioventing, as well as during methane injection for stimulation of methane-utilizing microorganisms. Subsamples were processed for heterotrophic plate counts, acridine orange direct counts (AODC), community diversity, direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) enumeration for several nitrogen-transforming bacteria, and Biolog {reg_sign} evaluation of enzyme activity in collected water samples. Plate counts were higher in near-surface depths than in the vadose zone sediment samples. During the in situ air stripping and bioventing, counts increased at or near the saturated zone, remained elevated throughout the aquifer, but did not change significantly after the air stripping. Sporadic increases in plate counts at different depths as well as increased diversity appeared to be linked to differing lithologies. AODCs were orders of magnitude higher than plate counts and remained relatively constant with depth except for slight increases near the surface depths and the capillary fringe. Nitrogen-transforming bacteria, as measured by serospecific DFA, were greatly affected both by the in situ air stripping and the methane injection. Biolog{reg_sign} activity appeared to increase with subsurface stimulation both by air and methane. The complexity of subsurface systems makes the use of selective monitoring tools imperative.

Fliermans, C.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Franck, M.M.; McKinzey, P.C.; Hazen, T.C.

1992-12-31

280

Biochar supported nanoscale zerovalent iron composite used as persulfate activator for removing trichloroethylene.  

PubMed

Biochar (BC) supported nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) composite was synthesized and used as an activator for persulfate to enhance the trichloroethylene (TCE) removal in aqueous solutions. The degradation efficiency of TCE (0.15mmolL(-1)) was 99.4% in the presence of nZVI/BC (4.5mmolL(-1), nZVI to BC mass ratio was 1:5) and persulfate (4.5mmolL(-1)) within 5min, which was significantly higher than that (56.6%) in nZVI-persulfate system under the same conditions. Owing to large specific surface area and oxygen-containing functional groups of BC, nZVI/BC enhanced the SO4(-) generation and accelerated TCE degradation. On the basis of the characterization and analysis data, possible activation mechanisms of the Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) (Fe(II)/Fe(III)) redox action and the electron-transfer mediator of the BC oxygen functional groups promoting the generation of SO4(-) in nZVI/BC-persulfate system were clarified. PMID:25459832

Yan, Jingchun; Han, Lu; Gao, Weiguo; Xue, Song; Chen, Mengfang

2014-10-25

281

pH dependence of persulfate activation by EDTA/Fe(III) for degradation of trichloroethylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of free ferrous ion activated persulfate (S 2O 82-) to generate sulfate radicals (SO 4- rad ) for the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) is limited by the scavenging of SO 4- rad with excess Fe 2+ and a quick conversion of Fe 2+ to Fe 3+. This study investigated the applicability of ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) chelated Fe 3+ in activating persulfate for the destruction of TCE in aqueous phase under pH 3, 7 and 10. Fe 3+ and EDTA alone did not appreciably degrade persulfate. The presence of TCE in the EDTA/Fe 3+ activated persulfate system can induce faster persulfate and EDTA degradation due to iron recycling to activate persulfate under a higher pH condition. Increasing the pH leads to increases in pseudo-first-order-rate constants for TCE, S 2O 82- and EDTA degradations, and Cl generation. Accordingly, the experiments at pH 10 with different EDTA/Fe 3+ molar ratios indicated that a 1/1 ratio resulted in a remarkably higher degradation rate at the early stage of reaction as compared to results by other ratios. Higher persulfate dosage under the EDTA/Fe 3+ molar ratio of 1/1 resulted in greater TCE degradation rates. However, increases in persulfate concentration may also lead to an increase in the rate of persulfate consumption.

Liang, Chenju; Liang, Ching-Ping; Chen, Chi-Chin

2009-05-01

282

Catalytic incineration of chlorocarbons  

SciTech Connect

The authors have evaluated the performance of several supported metal and transition metal oxide catalysts for the oxidation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and have developed a proprietary catalyst (VOCat35OHC{sup TM}) which shows excellent activity and stability. Performance data for the oxidative destruction of trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, methyl chloride, methylene chloride, chlorobenzene and toluene (1000 ppm, 1.5% H{sub 2}O in air, 7500 VHSV) studies show no decrease in activity after 1000 hours at 450{degrees}C and 1000 ppm TCE. Analysis of reactor effluents show formation of CO{sub 2}, HCI and only relatively minor amounts of Cl{sub 2}. Parametric studies using a central composite experimental design produced response surface models for both VOC at and Pt/alumina using mixed streams of TCE and toluene. These allow one to predict conversion levels as well as levels of Cl{sub 2} and CO produced.

Nguyen, P.; Stern, E.W.; Amundsen, A.R.; Balko, E.N. [Engelhard Corp., Iselin, NJ (United States)

1993-12-31

283

Impact of tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water on the risk of breast cancer: Using a dose model to assess exposure in a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background A population-based case-control study was undertaken in 1997 to investigate the association between tetrachloroethylene (PCE) exposure from public drinking water and breast cancer among permanent residents of the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts. PCE, a volatile organic chemical, leached from the vinyl lining of certain water distribution pipes into drinking water from the late 1960s through the early 1980s. The measure of exposure in the original study, referred to as the relative delivered dose (RDD), was based on an amount of PCE in the tap water entering the home and estimated with a mathematical model that involved only characteristics of the distribution system. Methods In the current analysis, we constructed a personal delivered dose (PDD) model that included personal information on tap water consumption and bathing habits so that inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption were also considered. We reanalyzed the association between PCE and breast cancer and compared the results to the original RDD analysis of subjects with complete data. Results The PDD model produced higher adjusted odds ratios than the RDD model for exposures > 50th and >75th percentile when shorter latency periods were considered, and for exposures < 50th and >90th percentile when longer latency periods were considered. Overall, however, the results from the PDD analysis did not differ greatly from the RDD analysis. Conclusion The inputs that most heavily influenced the PDD model were initial water concentration and duration of exposure. These variables were also included in the RDD model. In this study population, personal factors like bath and shower temperature, bathing frequencies and durations, and water consumption did not differ greatly among subjects, so including this information in the model did not significantly change subjects' exposure classification. PMID:15733317

Vieira, Verónica; Aschengrau, Ann; Ozonoff, David

2005-01-01

284

Competition in chemostat culture between Pseudomonas strains that use different pathways for the degradation of toluene.  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas putida mt-2, P. cepacia G4, P. mendocina KR1, and P. putida F1 degrade toluene through different pathways. In this study, we compared the competition behaviors of these strains in chemostat culture at a low growth rate (D = 0.05 h-1), with toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy. Either toluene or oxygen was growth limiting. Under toluene-limiting conditions, P. mendocina KR1, in which initial attack is by monooxygenation of the aromatic nucleus at the para position, outcompeted the other three strains. Under oxygen limitation, P. cepacia G4, which hydroxylates toluene in the ortho position, was the most competitive strain. P. putida mt-2, which metabolizes toluene via oxidation of the methyl group, was the least competitive strain under both growth conditions. The apparent superiority of strains carrying toluene degradation pathways that start degradation by hydroxylation of the aromatic nucleus was also found during competition experiments with pairs of strains of P. cepacia, P. fluorescence, and P. putida that were freshly isolated from contaminated soil. PMID:8085826

Duetz, W A; de Jong, C; Williams, P A; van Andel, J G

1994-01-01

285

Enhanced degradation efficiency of toluene using titania/silica photocatalysis as a regeneration process.  

PubMed

Three kinds of titania/silica pellets were prepared using the sol-gel method with surface areas of 50.4 m2 g(-1), 421.1 m2 x g(-1) and 89.1 m2 x g(-1). An annular reactor was designed and built to determine the degradation efficiency of toluene and to investigate the relationship between the adsorption and desorption-photocatalytic processes. Surface area is an important factor influencing the adsorption-photocatalytic efficiency. Higher surface areas of pellets contribute to high rates of conversion of toluene. Un-reacted toluene and reaction intermediates accumulating on their surface deactivated the titania/silica catalyst. To overcome this problem, the adsorption and regeneration process were alternated in a dual reactor system. Connecting or disconnecting the toluene feed gas enabled one reactor to adsorb toluene, while the second reactor was regenerated by photocatalysis. Using UV irradiation and titania/silica pellets with high BET surface area (421.1 m2 x g(-1)), the alternating adsorption/regeneration processes kept the degradation efficiency of toluene at 90% after 8 hours operation. By improving the adsorption-photocatalysis efficiency, and minimising the generation and accumulation of intermediate on the surface of pellets, the method extended catalyst life and maintained a high degradation efficiency of toluene. PMID:16583820

Luo, Y; Zou, L; Hu, E

2006-04-01

286

Optimizing nutrient supply in a rotatory-switching biofilter for toluene vapor treatment.  

PubMed

The influence of nutrient conditions on the degradation of toluene vapor in a rotatory-switching biofilter (RSB) was investigated. The biofilter consists of four segments connected in series, each with a packing layer made of polyvinyl formal. The influent airstreams including toluene vapors were passed through segments 1-3 as up-flow with a toluene concentration of 0.9-1.2 g m(-3) and with an empty-bed retention time of 26-52 sec. Nutrient solutions were fed to all packed segments once a day by means of immersion. The nutrient solution was used repeatedly and replenished by the addition of (NH4)2SO4. The result at 155 days showed nitrogen depletion was particularly obvious and the lack of nitrogen affected toluene removal. By adding 161 g of nitrogen solution per volumetric cubic meter of reactor, toluene removal efficiency was immediately increased to greater than 99%. With long-term biofilter operation, 21%-32% of ammonium was utilized for nitrification because of the growth of nitrifying bacteria such as Nitrosomonas sp. Based on the carbon-nitrogen balance, the daily nitrogen demand for toluene removal was estimated 2.1 g day(-1) at a toluene load of 70 g m(-3) hr(-1). PMID:22616287

Morita, Yasutaka; Okunishi, Suguru; Higuchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Jun

2012-04-01

287

Adsorption of toluene onto activated carbon fibre cloths and felts: application to indoor air treatment.  

PubMed

Due to their bad effects on human health, removing Volatile Organic Compounds from indoor air has become an issue of major interest. In this study, the potential use of six commercial activated carbon felts and cloths for indoor toluene removal was investigated. Both batch and dynamic adsorption studies were performed, at toluene concentrations ranging from 21 to 18160 mg m(-3), for an air velocity representative of indoor air treatment (0.37 m s(-1)). Batch measurements showed that felts exhibited higher adsorption capacities at equilibrium than cloths at high toluene concentrations, whereas this trend may be inverted at low concentrations. Experimental isotherms and kinetics were satisfactorily fitted by the Langmuir-Freundlich model and the Linear Driving Force model respectively. No main differences between the adsorption kinetics of felts and cloths were reported. Dynamic adsorption capacities at saturation appeared to be higher than 120 mg g(-1) for both cloths and felts, irrespective of relative humidity levels and toluene concentrations. The influence of relative humidity on the adsorption capacity of felts was not significant for the higher toluene concentration studied in dynamics (307 mg m(-3)), whereas an increase in relative humidity induced a decrease in adsorption capacity at the lower toluene concentration (38 mg m(-3)). Moreover, experimental curves of breakthrough time versus thickness of medium were satisfactorily fitted by the Adams-Bohart model, and the critical thickness determined by this model appeared to be below 1.3 mm, regardless of the medium or toluene concentration. PMID:16335597

Lorimier, C; Subrenat, A; Le Coq, L; Le Cloirec, P

2005-11-01

288

Sarcosine attenuates toluene-induced motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not brain stimulation reward enhancement in mice  

SciTech Connect

Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, produces various behavioral disturbances, including motor incoordination and cognitive impairment. Toluene alters the function of a large number of receptors and ion channels. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been suggested to play a critical role in toluene-induced behavioral manifestations. The present study determined the effects of various toluene doses on motor coordination, recognition memory, body temperature, and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds in mice. Additionally, the effects of sarcosine on the behavioral and physiological effects induced by toluene were evaluated. Sarcosine may reverse toluene-induced behavioral manifestations by acting as an NMDA receptor co-agonist and by inhibiting the effects of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1). Mice were treated with toluene alone or combined with sarcosine pretreatment and assessed for rotarod performance, object recognition memory, rectal temperature, and ICSS thresholds. Toluene dose-dependently induced motor incoordination, recognition memory impairment, and hypothermia and lowered ICSS thresholds. Sarcosine pretreatment reversed toluene-induced changes in rotarod performance, novel object recognition, and rectal temperature but not ICSS thresholds. These findings suggest that the sarcosine-induced potentiation of NMDA receptors may reverse motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not the enhancement of brain stimulation reward function associated with toluene exposure. Sarcosine may be a promising compound to prevent acute toluene intoxications by occupational or intentional exposure. -- Highlights: ? Toluene induces impairments in Rotarod test and novel object recognition test. ? Toluene lowers rectal temperature and ICSS thresholds in mice. ? Sarcosine reverses toluene-induced changes in motor, memory and body temperature. ? Sarcosine pretreatment does not affect toluene-induced reward enhancement.

Chan, Ming-Huan [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China) [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Institute of Neuroscience, National Changchi University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Shiang-Sheng [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China) [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Department of Pharmacy, Yuli Veterans Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Stoker, Astrid K.; Markou, Athina [Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)] [Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Chen, Hwei-Hsien, E-mail: hwei@nhri.org.tw [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China) [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Division of Mental Health and Addiction Medicine, Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China)

2012-12-01

289

Maternal and Fetal Blood and Organ Toluene Levels in Rats Following Acute and Repeated Binge Inhalation Exposure  

PubMed Central

Inhalation of organic solvents is a persistent form of drug abuse with particular concern being the abuse of inhalants by women of child-bearing age. While studies have begun assessing postnatal outcomes of offspring exposed prenatally to inhalants, relatively little is known about the distribution of toluene in blood and body tissues of pregnant, inhalant-abusing women, or in the fetuses. The present study assessed the tissue toluene levels attained following brief toluene exposures using a pre-clinical rat model of maternal inhalant abuse. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to toluene at 8,000 or 12,000 parts per million (ppm) for 15, 30 or 45 min/exposure. Exposures occurred twice each day from gestational day 8 (GD8) through GD20. Immediately following the second exposure on GD8, GD14 and GD20 blood was taken from the saphenous vein of the dams. Following saphenous vein blood collection on GD20, dams were sacrificed and trunk blood was collected along with maternal tissue specimens from cerebellum, heart, lung, kidney and liver. The placenta, amniotic fluid and fetal brain were also collected. Results demonstrated that maternal saphenous blood toluene levels increased as the inhaled concentration of toluene and duration of exposure increased. The maternal cerebellum, heart, kidney and liver appeared to be saturated after 30 min on GD20 such that toluene levels in those organs were equivalent across all ambient concentrations of inhaled toluene. Toluene levels also increased in fetal brain as the inhaled concentration of toluene increased and in placenta and amniotic fluid as the duration of exposure increased. Toluene levels in all tissues at GD20, except maternal lung and amniotic fluid, were higher than in maternal saphenous blood suggesting that toluene concentrated in those organs. Measurement of toluene levels in blood and other tissues following repeated toluene exposure demonstrated that toluene readily reaches a variety of potential sites of action throughout the maternal-placental-fetal unit. PMID:17669620

Bowen, Scott E.; Hannigan, John H.; Irtenkauf, Susan

2007-01-01

290

Simultaneous determination of benzene and toluene in the blood using head-space gas chromatography.  

PubMed

A head-space method for the simultaneous determination of benzene and toluene in blood using a gas chromatograph equipped with a photoionization detector was developed. Internal standards for benzene and toluene were fluorobenzene and o-xylene, respectively, and the detection limit was 5 nmol/l for both solvents. This method is sensitive enough for needs of biological monitoring of benzene and toluene in exposed workers. With automation it offers a possibility for routine measurements. An application of the method in monitoring exposed workers in the industry is presented. PMID:2808617

Pekari, K; Riekkola, M L; Aitio, A

1989-07-21

291

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ggg of... - Partially Soluble HAP  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Tetrachloroethene (perchloroethylene) Bromomethane Tetrachloromethane (carbon tetrachloride Butadiene Toluene Carbon disulfide Trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-) Chlorobenzene Trichloroethylene Chloroethane (ethyl chloride)...

2010-07-01

292

Mechanism involved in trichloroethylene-induced liver cancer: Importance to environmental cleanup. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'The objective of this project is to develop critical data for changing risk-based clean-up standards for trichloroethylene (TCE). The project is organized around two interrelated tasks: Task 1 addresses the tumorigenic and dosimetry issues for the metabolites of TCE that produce liver cancer in mice, dichloroacetate (DCA) and trichloroacetate (TCA). Early work had suggested that TCA was primarily responsible for TCE-induced liver tumors, but several, more mechanistic observations suggest that DCA may play a prominent role. This task is aimed at determining the basis for the selection hypothesis and seeks to prove that this mode of action is responsible for TCE-induced tumors. This project will supply the basic dose-response data from which low-dose extrapolations would be made. Task 2 seeks specific evidence that TCA and DCA are capable of promoting the growth of spontaneously initiated cells from mouse liver, in vitro. The data provide the clearest evidence that both metabolites act by a mechanism of selection rather than mutation. These data are necessary to select between a linear (i.e. no threshold) and non-linear low-dose extrapolation model. As of May of 1998, this research has identified two plausible modes of action by which TCE produces liver tumors in mice. These modes of action do not require the compounds to be mutagenic. The bulk of the experimental evidence suggests that neither TCE nor the two hepatocarcinogenic metabolites of TCE are mutagenic. The results from the colony formation assay clearly establish that both of these metabolites cause colony growth from initiated cells that occur spontaneously in the liver of B 6 C 3 F 1 mice, although the phenotypes of the colonies differ in the same manner as tumors differ, in vivo. In the case of DCA, a second mechanism may occur at a lower dose involving the release of insulin. This observation is timely as it was recently reported that occupational exposures to trichloroethylene results in 2 to 4-fold elevations in serum insulin concentrations, as well. The increases in insulin have not been shown responsible for the induction of liver tumors. Therefore, this problem is a subject of a proposal to the Office of Biological and Environmental Research Low-Dose Initiative. However, even if this is demonstrated to be the most sensitive mechanism for liver tumor induction, it is unlikely to contribute to induction of cancer at lower doses, since this involves modification of normal endocrine function. As doses are decreased to levels that do not induce increase in serum insulin level, there should be no risk from this metabolite either. Therefore, there is clearly a rational basis for considering a margin of exposure for low dose extrapolation of liver cancer risks for TCE.'

Bull, R.J.; Thrall, B.D.; Sasser, L.B.; Miller, J.H.; Schultz, I.R.

1998-06-01

293

Modulation of trichloroethylene in vitro metabolism by different drugs in rats.  

PubMed

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely used chemical to which humans are frequently exposed. Toxicological interactions with drugs are among factors having the potential to modulate the toxicity of TCE. The aim of this study was to identify metabolic interactions between TCE and 14 widely used drugs in rat suspended hepatocytes and characterize the strongest using microsomal assays (oxidation and/or glucuronidation). The concentrations of TCE and its metabolites, trichloroethanol (TCOH) and trichloroacetate (TCA), were measured by gas chromatography with injection headspace coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results in hepatocyte incubations show that selected drugs can be segregated into four groups: group 1: drugs causing no significant interactions (five drugs: amoxicillin, carbamazepine, ibuprofen, mefenamic acid and ranitidine); group 2: increasing both TCE metabolites (two drugs: naproxen and salicylic acid); group 3: decreasing both TCE metabolites (five drugs: acetaminophen, gliclazide, valproic acid, cimetidine and diclofenac) and group 4: affecting only one (two drugs: erythromycin and sulphasalazine). Naproxen and salicylic acid (group 2) and acetaminophen, gliclazide and valproic acid (from group 3) presented the strongest interactions (i.e. drugs changing metabolite levels by 50% or more). For group 2 drugs, characterization in rat microsomes confirmed interaction with naproxen only, which was found to partially competitively inhibit TCOH glucuronidation (K(i) = 211.6 ?M). For group 3 selected drugs, confirmation was positive only for gliclazide (K(i) = 58 ?M for TCOH formation) and valproic acid (K(i) = 1215.8 ?M for TCA formation and K(i) = 932.8 ?M for TCOH formation). The inhibition was found to be partial non competitive for both drugs. Our results confirm the existence of interactions between TCE and a variety of widely used drugs. Further efforts are undertaken to determine if these interactions are plausible in humans and if they can impact the risk of toxicity of TCE in medicated population. PMID:23089131

Cheikh Rouhou, Mouna; Rheault, Isabelle; Haddad, Sami

2013-02-01

294

Inhibition of iron (III) minerals and acidification on the reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene.  

PubMed

Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes is inhibited by acidification and by the presence of Fe (III) as a competitive electron acceptor. Synergism between both factors on dechlorination is predicted as reductive dissolution of Fe (III) minerals is facilitated by acidification. This study was set-up to assess this synergism for two common aquifer Fe (III) minerals, goethite and ferrihydrite. Anaerobic microbial dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) by KB-1 culture and formate as electron donor was investigated in anaerobic batch containers at different solution pH values (6.2-7.2) in sand coated with these Fe minerals and a sand only as control. In the absence of Fe, lowering substrate pH from 7.2 to 6.2 increased the time for 90% TCE degradation from 14±1d to 42±4d. At pH 7.2, goethite did not affect TCE degradation time while ferrihydrite increased the degradation time to 19±1d compared to the no Fe control. At pH 6.2, 90% degradation was at 78±1 (ferrihydrite) or 131±1d (goethite). Ferrous iron production in ferrihydrite treatment increased between pH 7.2 and 6.5 but decreased by further lowering pH to 6.2, likely due to reduced microbial activity. This study confirms that TCE is increasingly inhibited by the combined effect of acidification and bioavailable Fe (III), however no evidence was found for synergistic inhibition since Fe reduction did not increase as pH decreases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study where effect of pH and Fe (III) reduction on TCE was simultaneously tested. Acid Fe-rich aquifers need sufficient buffering and alkalinity to ensure swift degradation of chlorinated ethenes. PMID:24997954

Paul, Laiby; Smolders, Erik

2014-09-01

295

Trichloroethylene uptake by apple and peach trees and transfer to fruit.  

PubMed

A greenhouse study was conducted to quantify 14C-trichloroethylene (TCE) uptake and transfer into the edible fruit of apple and peach trees. Trees were subsurface irrigated with solutions of 14C [TCE] that bracketed groundwater concentrations (5 and 500 microg/L) found in residential areas surrounding Hill Air Force Base, UT, where trace amounts of TCE had been found in several fruits during a preliminary field survey. Nondosed control trees were grown within the canopy of the dosed trees and in a separate greenhouse. Tissue samples were analyzed for 14C and TCE using combustion/liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and headspace/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS/GC/MS). Tissue was also extracted and analyzed by GC/MS for dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), and trichloroethanol (TCEt), three specific TCE metabolites that have been previously identified in laboratory and field studies. No 14C was detected in the nonexposed control trees. Exposed trees contained levels of 14C that were proportional to the exposure concentration. 14C concentrations were greatest in leaves followed by branches and fruits. At the end of the study, TCE was detected only in roots implying that the 14C in the leaves, branches, and fruit was associated with unidentified nonvolatile TCE transformation products and/or is nonextractable. However, TCAA and DCAA were positively identified only in leaves collected during the first year from an apple tree exposed to the high dose treatment. Additional data for other chemicals and fruittrees are needed to better understand the potential transfer of organic compounds to edible fruit. PMID:16913140

Chard, Brandon K; Doucette, William J; Chard, Julie K; Bugbee, Bruce; Gorder, Kyle

2006-08-01

296

Trichloroethylene biotransformation and its role in mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and target organ toxicity.  

PubMed

Metabolism is critical for the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and other adverse health effects of trichloroethylene (TCE). Despite the relatively small size and simple chemical structure of TCE, its metabolism is quite complex, yielding multiple intermediates and end-products. Experimental animal and human data indicate that TCE metabolism occurs through two major pathways: cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent oxidation and glutathione (GSH) conjugation catalyzed by GSH S-transferases (GSTs). Herein we review recent data characterizing TCE processing and flux through these pathways. We describe the catalytic enzymes, their regulation and tissue localization, as well as the evidence for transport and inter-organ processing of metabolites. We address the chemical reactivity of TCE metabolites, highlighting data on mutagenicity of these end-products. Identification in urine of key metabolites, particularly trichloroacetate (TCA), dichloroacetate (DCA), trichloroethanol and its glucuronide (TCOH and TCOG), and N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (NAcDCVC), in exposed humans and other species (mostly rats and mice) demonstrates function of the two metabolic pathways in vivo. The CYP pathway primarily yields chemically stable end-products. However, the GST pathway conjugate S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione (DCVG) is further processed to multiple highly reactive species that are known to be mutagenic, especially in kidney where in situ metabolism occurs. TCE metabolism is highly variable across sexes, species, tissues and individuals. Genetic polymorphisms in several of the key enzymes metabolizing TCE and its intermediates contribute to variability in metabolic profiles and rates. In all, the evidence characterizing the complex metabolism of TCE can inform predictions of adverse responses including mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and acute and chronic organ-specific toxicity. PMID:25484616

Lash, Lawrence H; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Rusyn, Ivan

2014-01-01

297

Identification of serum biomarkers for occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by trichloroethylene using mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by trichloroethylene (OMLDT) is an autoimmune disease and it has become a serious occupational health hazard. In the present study, we collected fasting blood samples from patients with OMLDT (n = 18) and healthy volunteers (n = 33) to explore serum peptidome patterns. Peptides in sera were purified using weak cation exchange magnetic beads (MB-WCX), and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and ClinProTools bioinformatics software. The intensities of thirty protein/peptide peaks were significantly different between the healthy control and OMLDT patients. A pattern of three peaks (m/z 2106.3, 2134.5, and 3263.67) was selected for supervised neural network (SNN) model building to separate the OMLDT patients from the healthy controls with a sensitivity of 95.5% and a specificity of 73.8%. Furthermore, two peptide peaks of m/z 4091.61 and 4281.69 were identified as fragments of ATP-binding cassette transporter family A member 12 (ABCA12), and cationic trypsinogen (PRRS1), respectively. Our findings not only show that specific proteomic fingerprints in the sera of OMLDT patients can be served as a differentiated tool of OMLDT patients with high sensitivity and high specificity, but also reveal the novel correlation between OMLDT with ABC transports and PRRS1, which will be of potential value for clinical and mechanistic studies of OMLDT. - Highlights: • Identify 30 differential protein/peptide peaks between OMLDT and healthy control • The test sensitivity and test specificity were 95.5% and 73.8%, respectively. • ABCA12 and PRSS1 were identified as potential biomarkers in OMLDT patients.

Hong, Wen-Xu; Liu, Wei [Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Medical Key Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Medical Key Laboratory of Health Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zhang, Yanfang [Shenzhen Prevention and Treatment Center for Occupational Disease, Shenzhen 518001 (China); Huang, Peiwu; Yang, Xifei; Ren, Xiaohu; Ye, Jinbo; Huang, Haiyan [Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Medical Key Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Medical Key Laboratory of Health Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Tang, Haiyan [Shenzhen Prevention and Treatment Center for Occupational Disease, Shenzhen 518001 (China); Zhou, Guifeng [Medical School of Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410006 (China); Huang, Xinfeng; Zhuang, Zhixiong [Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Medical Key Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Medical Key Laboratory of Health Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Liu, Jianjun, E-mail: bio-research@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Medical Key Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Medical Key Laboratory of Health Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

2013-11-15

298

Biogeochemistry of Methane-Driven Destruction of Trichloroethylene in a Basalt Aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the biogeochemical processes responsible for cycling methane and the fortuitous destruction of trichloroethylene (TCE) across spatially distinct locations in a basalt aquifer. This field study was accomplished by examining the attached and unattached microbial communities inherent to the aquifer by using a flow-through in situ reactor (FTISR) and large volumes of aquifer water from which microbial communities were concentrated. After incubation for 238 days, basalt and water were collected from the FTISR and analyzed using proteomics, gene expression, metabolic activity, microbial community structure, and kinetics of TCE degradation. Stable carbon isotopes and PhyloChip gene hybridization analyses were done on groundwater samples. Microbes from the FTSIR co-metabolically degraded approximately 7.5 mg of TCE per liter of groundwater. Proteins from aerobic methanotrophs were detected in the aquifer and on the basalt from the FTISR. Methanotrophic activity in the groundwater and on the FTISR basalt was also confirmed by combined use of enzyme biochemical probes and fluorescent in situ hybridization. Real-time PCR identified ca. 3000 copies of mmoX (a methanotrophic gene) per g of basalt and reverse transcriptase PCR determined that the mmoX subunit was actively transcribed. Stable carbon isotope ratios of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved methane indicated increased levels of methane oxidation with distance from the source of the TCE (-55 to 28 per mil for methane; >8 to -13 per mil for DIC) corresponding to increased dissolved oxygen concentrations in the aquifer. These geochemistry data are consistent with community composition and activity determinations that identified a gradient of methanogenic to methanotrophic populations along the contaminant plume. Multiple analyses using samples from the FTISR and aquifer water comprehensively demonstrate that both attached and unattached microbial communities are responsible for methane-driven co-metabolism of TCE at this site.

Colwell, F.; Conrad, M.; Paszcynski, A.; Brodie, E.; Delwiche, M.; Radtke, C.; Lee, H.; Paidisetti, R.; Crawford, R.; Bernardini, N.; Johnson, A.; Starr, R.; Swift, D.; Newby, D.; Barnes, J.

2008-12-01

299

Evaluating noncancer effects of trichloroethylene: dosimetry, mode of action, and risk assessment.  

PubMed Central

Alternatives for developing chronic exposure limits for noncancer effects of trichloroethylene (TCE) were evaluated. These alternatives were organized within a framework for dose-response assessment--exposure:dosimetry (pharmacokinetics):mode of action (pharmacodynamics): response. This framework provides a consistent structure within which to make scientific judgments about available information, its interpretation, and use. These judgments occur in the selection of critical studies, internal dose metrics, pharmacokinetic models, approaches for interspecies extrapolation of pharmacodynamics, and uncertainty factors. Potentially limiting end points included developmental eye malformations, liver effects, immunotoxicity, and kidney toxicity from oral exposure and neurological, liver, and kidney effects by inhalation. Each end point was evaluated quantitatively using several methods. Default analyses used the traditional no-observed adverse effect level divided by uncertainty factors and the benchmark dose divided by uncertainty factors methods. Subsequently, mode-of-action and pharmacokinetic information were incorporated. Internal dose metrics were estimated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for TCE and its major metabolites. This approach was notably useful with neurological and kidney toxicities. The human PBPK model provided estimates of human exposure doses for the internal dose metrics. Pharmacodynamic data or default assumptions were used for interspecies extrapolation. For liver and neurological effects, humans appear no more sensitive than rodents when internal dose metrics were considered. Therefore, the interspecies uncertainty factor was reduced, illustrating that uncertainty factors are a semiquantitative approach fitting into the organizational framework. Incorporation of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics can result in values that differ significantly from those obtained with the default methods. PMID:10807562

Barton, H A; Clewell, H J

2000-01-01

300

Trichloroethylene oxidation performance in sodium percarbonate (SPC)/Fe2+ system.  

PubMed

In this study, in-situ chemical oxidation technique employing Fe(II) catalytic sodium percarbonate (SPC) to stimulate the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater remediation was investigated. The effects of various factors including the SPC/TCE/Fe2+ molar ratio, the initial solution pH and the widely found constituents in groundwater matrix such as Cl(-), HCO3(-), SO4(2-) and NO3(-) anions and natural organic matters were evaluated. The experimental results showed that TCE could be completely oxidized in 5 min at 20 degrees C with a SPC/TCE/Fe2+ molar ratio of 5:1:10, indicating the significant effectiveness of the SPC/Fe2+ system for TCE removal. The initial solution pH value (from 3 to 11) has less influence on TCE oxidation rate. In contrast, Cl(-) and HCO3(-) anions had a negative effect on TCE removal in which HCO3(-) possesses a stronger influence than Cl(-), whereas the effects of both SO4(2-) and NO3(-) anions appeared to be negligible. With the 1.0-10 mg/L concentrations of humic acid in solution, slightly inhibitive effect was observed, suggesting that dissolved organic matters consumed less SPC and had a negligible effect on the oxidation of TCE in SPC/Fe2+ system. From the intermediate products' analyses and the released Cl(-) contents from TCE parent contaminant in solution, all the decomposed TCE had completely dechlorinated and led to carbon dioxide and hydrocarbon. In conclusion, Fe(II) catalytic SPC oxidation is a highly promising technique for TCE-contaminated groundwater remediation, but some complex constituents such as HCO3(-), in in-situ groundwater matrix should be carefully considered for its practical application. PMID:24645461

Zang, Xueke; Gu, Xiaogang; Lu, Shuguang; Qiu, Zhaofu; Sui, Qian; Lin, Kuangfei; Du, Xiaoming

2014-01-01

301

A Case–Control Study of Occupational Exposure to Trichloroethylene and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background Previous epidemiologic findings suggest an association between exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE), a chlorinated solvent primarily used for vapor degreasing of metal parts, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Objectives We investigated the association between occupational TCE exposure and NHL within a population-based case–control study using detailed exposure assessment methods. Methods Cases (n = 1,189; 76% participation rate) and controls (n = 982; 52% participation rate) provided information on their occupational histories and, for selected occupations, on possible workplace exposure to TCE using job-specific interview modules. An industrial hygienist assessed potential TCE exposure based on this information and a review of the TCE industrial hygiene literature. We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating NHL and different metrics of estimated TCE exposure, categorized using tertiles among exposed controls, with unexposed subjects as the reference group. Results We observed associations with NHL for the highest tertiles of estimated average weekly exposure (23 exposed cases; OR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–6.1) and cumulative exposure (24 exposed cases; OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.0–5.0) to TCE. Tests for trend with these metrics surpassed or approached statistical significance (p-value for trend = 0.02 and 0.08, respectively); however, we did not observe dose–response relationships across the exposure levels. Overall, neither duration nor intensity of exposure was associated with NHL, although we observed an association with the lowest tertile of exposure duration (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0–4.7). Conclusions Our findings offer additional support for an association between high levels of exposure to TCE and increased risk of NHL. However, we cannot rule out the possibility of confounding from other chlorinated solvents used for vapor degreasing and note that our exposure assessment methods have not been validated. PMID:21370516

Purdue, Mark P.; Bakke, Berit; Stewart, Patricia; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schenk, Maryjean; Lynch, Charles F.; Bernstein, Leslie; Morton, Lindsay M.; Cerhan, James R.; Severson, Richard K.; Cozen, Wendy; Davis, Scott; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hartge, Patricia; Colt, Joanne S.

2011-01-01

302

Aerobic Degradation of Trichloroethylene by Co-Metabolism Using Phenol and Gasoline as Growth Substrates  

PubMed Central

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common groundwater contaminant of toxic and carcinogenic concern. Aerobic co-metabolic processes are the predominant pathways for TCE complete degradation. In this study, Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied as the active microorganism to degrade TCE under aerobic condition by co-metabolic degradation using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates. Operating conditions influencing TCE degradation efficiency were optimized. TCE co-metabolic degradation rate reached the maximum of 80% under the optimized conditions of degradation time of 3 days, initial OD600 of microorganism culture of 0.14 (1.26 × 107 cell/mL), initial phenol concentration of 100 mg/L, initial TCE concentration of 0.1 mg/L, pH of 6.0, and salinity of 0.1%. The modified transformation capacity and transformation yield were 20 ?g (TCE)/mg (biomass) and 5.1 ?g (TCE)/mg (phenol), respectively. Addition of nutrient broth promoted TCE degradation with phenol as growth substrate. It was revealed that catechol 1,2-dioxygenase played an important role in TCE co-metabolism. The dechlorination of TCE was complete, and less chlorinated products were not detected at the end of the experiment. TCE could also be co-metabolized in the presence of gasoline; however, the degradation rate was not high (28%). When phenol was introduced into the system of TCE and gasoline, TCE and gasoline could be removed at substantial rates (up to 59% and 69%, respectively). This study provides a promising approach for the removal of combined pollution of TCE and gasoline. PMID:24857922

Li, Yan; Li, Bing; Wang, Cui-Ping; Fan, Jun-Zhao; Sun, Hong-Wen

2014-01-01

303

Vertical cross contamination of trichloroethylene in a borehole in fractured sandstone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Boreholes drilled through contaminated zones in fractured rock create the potential for vertical movement of contaminated ground water between fractures. The usual assumption is that purging eliminates cross contamination; however, the results of a field study conducted in a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume in fractured sandstone with a mean matrix porosity of 13% demonstrates that matrix-diffusion effects can be strong and persistent. A deep borehole was drilled to 110 m below ground surface (mbgs) near a shallow bedrock well containing high TCE concentrations. The borehole was cored continuously to collect closely spaced samples of rock for analysis of TCE concentrations. Geophysical logging and flowmetering were conducted in the open borehole, and a removable multilevel monitoring system was installed to provide hydraulic-head and ground water samples from discrete fracture zones. The borehole was later reamed to complete a well screened from 89 to 100 mbgs; persistent TCE concentrations at this depth ranged from 2100 to 33,000 ??g/L. Rock-core analyses, combined with the other types of borehole information, show that nearly all of this deep contamination was due to the lingering effects of the downward flow of dissolved TCE from shallower depths during the few days of open-hole conditions that existed prior to installation of the multilevel system. This study demonstrates that transfer of contaminant mass to the matrix by diffusion can cause severe cross contamination effects in sedimentary rocks, but these effects generally are not identified from information normally obtained in fractured-rock investigations, resulting in potential misinterpretation of site conditions. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

Sterling, S.N.; Parker, B.L.; Cherry, J.A.; Williams, J.H.; Lane, J.W., Jr.; Haeni, F.P.

2005-01-01

304

Vibrations of the low energy states of toluene (tilde X 1A1 and tilde A 1B2) and the toluene cation (tilde X 2B1)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We commence by presenting an overview of the assignment of the vibrational frequencies of the toluene molecule in its ground (S0) state. The assignment given is in terms of a recently proposed nomenclature, which allows the ring-localized vibrations to be compared straightforwardly across different monosubstituted benzenes. The frequencies and assignments are based not only on a range of previous work, but also on calculated wavenumbers for both the fully hydrogenated (toluene-h8) and the deuterated-methyl group isotopologue (?3-toluene-d3), obtained from density functional theory (DFT), including artificial-isotope shifts. For the S1 state, one-colour resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectroscopy was employed, with the vibrational assignments also being based on previous work and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculated values; but also making use of the activity observed in two-colour zero kinetic energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy. The ZEKE experiments were carried out employing a (1 + 1') ionization scheme, using various vibrational levels of the S1 state with an energy <630 cm-1 as intermediates; as such we only discuss in detail the assignment of the REMPI spectra at wavenumbers <700 cm-1, referring to the assignment of the ZEKE spectra concurrently. Comparison of the ZEKE spectra for the two toluene isotopologues, as well as with previously reported dispersed-fluorescence spectra, and with the results of DFT calculations, provide insight both into the assignment of the vibrations in the S1 and D0+ states, as well as the couplings between these vibrations. In particular, insight into the nature of a complicated Fermi resonance feature at ˜460 cm-1 in the S1 state is obtained, and Fermi resonances in the cation are identified. Finally, we compare activity observed in both REMPI and ZEKE spectroscopy for both toluene isotopologues with that for fluorobenzene and chlorobenzene.

Gardner, Adrian M.; Green, Alistair M.; Tamé-Reyes, Victor M.; Wilton, Victoria H. K.; Wright, Timothy G.

2013-04-01

305

Insights into the different dioxygen activation pathways of methane and toluene monooxygenase hydroxylases  

E-print Network

The methane and toluene monooxygenase hydroxylases (MMOH and TMOH, respectively) have almost identical active sites, yet the physical and chemical properties of their oxygenated intermediates, designated P*, H[subscript ...

Bochevarov, Arteum D.

306

Denitrification and nitric oxide reduction in an aerobic toluene-treating biofilter  

SciTech Connect

The presence of significant denitrification activity in an aerobic toluene-treating biofilter was demonstrated under batch and flow-through conditions. N{sub 2}O concentrations of 9.2 ppm{sub v} were produced by denitrifying bacteria in the presence of 15% acetylene, in a flow-through system with a bulk gas phase O{sub 2} concentration of >17%. The carbon source for denitrification was not toluene but a byproduct or metabolite of toluene catabolism. Denitrification conditions were successfully used for the reduction of 60 ppm{sub v} nitric oxide to 15 ppm{sub v} at a flow rate of 3 L/min (EBRT of 3 min) in a fully aerated, 17%/v/v O{sub 2} (superficially aerobic) biofilter. Higher NO removal efficiency (97%) was obtained by increasing the toluene supply to the biofilter.

Plessis, C.A. du; Kinney, K.A.; Schroeder, E.D.; Chang, D.P.Y.; Scow, K.M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1998-05-20

307

Controlling the Regiospecific Oxidation of Aromatics via Active Site Engineering of Toluene para-Monooxygenase of  

E-print Network

-Monooxygenase of Ralstonia pickettii PKO1* Received for publication, September 8, 2004, and in revised form, October 18, 2004- and dihydroxy- lated products. Toluene para-monooxygenase (TpMO,1 formerly known as T3MO) of Ralstonia pickettii

Wood, Thomas K.

308

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING TOLUENE DEGRADATION IN GROUND WATER AT A HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

The microbial ecology of pristine and contaminated ground water at a chemical waste disposal site was investigated. ecently, it was determined that ground water downslope from the disposal site contained elevated levels of toxic pollutants, including benzene, toluene, xylene and ...

309

REDUCTIVE BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TETRACHLOROETHENE TO ETHENE DURING ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION OF TOLUENE: EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE AND KINETICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Reductive biotransformation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) to ethene occurred during anaerobic degradation of toluene in an enrichment culture. Ethene was detected as a dominant daughter product of PCE dechlorination with negligible accumulation of other partially chlorinated ethenes...

310

Atomic picture of ligand migration in toluene 4-monooxygenase.  

PubMed

Computational modeling combined with mutational and activity assays was used to underline the substrate migration pathways in toluene 4-monooxygenase, a member of the important family of bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases (BMMs). In all structurally defined BMM hydroxylases, several hydrophobic cavities in the ?-subunit map a preserved path from the protein surface to the diiron active site. Our results confirm the presence of two pathways by which different aromatic molecules can enter/escape the active site. While the substrate is observed to enter from both channels, the more hydrophilic product is withdrawn mainly from the shorter channel ending at residues D285 and E214. The long channel ends in the vicinity of S395, whose variants have been seen to affect activity and specificity. These mutational effects are clearly reproduced and rationalized by the in silico studies. Furthermore, the combined computational and experimental results highlight the importance of residue F269, which is located at the intersection of the two channels. PMID:24798294

Hosseini, Ali; Brouk, Moran; Lucas, Maria Fatima; Glaser, Fabian; Fishman, Ayelet; Guallar, Victor

2015-01-22

311

Toluene pyrolysis studies and high temperature reactions of propargyl chloride  

SciTech Connect

The main focus of this program is to investigate the thermal decompositions of fuels that play an important role in the pre-particle soot formation process. It has been demonstrated that the condition of maximum soot yield is established when the reaction conditions of temperature and pressure are sufficient to establish a radical pool to support the production of polyaromatic hydrocarbon species and the subsequent formation of soot particles. However, elevated temperatures result in lower soot yields which are attributed to thermolyses of aromatic ring structures and result in the bell-shaped dependence of soot yield on temperature. The authors have selected several acyclic hydrocarbons to evaluate the chemical thermodynamic and kinetic effects attendant to benzene formation. To assess the thermal stability of the aromatic ring, the authors have studied the pyrolyses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene and pyridine. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF) is employed to analyze the reaction zone behind reflected shock waves. Reaction time histories of the reactants, products, and intermediates are constructed and mechanisms are formulated to model the experimental data. The TOF work is often performed with use of laser schlieren densitometry (LS) to measure density gradients resulting from the heats of various reactions involved in a particular pyrolytic system. The two techniques, TOF and LS, provide independent and complementary information about ring formation and ring rupture reactions.

Kern, R.D.; Chen, H.; Qin, Z. [Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States)

1993-12-01

312

Cardiovascular effects of oral toluene exposure in the rat monitored by radiotelemetry.  

PubMed

Toluene is a hazardous air pollutant that can be toxic to the nervous and cardiovascular systems. The cardiotoxicity data for toluene come from acute studies in anesthetized animals and from clinical observations made on toluene abusers and there is little known on the response of the cardiovascular and other autonomic processes to graded doses of toluene. This study assessed the effects of toluene (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g/kg; gavage) on heart rate (HR), blood pressure, core temperature (Tc), and motor activity (MA) in unrestrained, male Long-Evans rats monitored by telemetry. Toluene doses of 0.8 and 1.2 g/kg elicited significant elevations in HR, characterized by a transient 100 beats/min increase in HR lasting 1 h followed with a steady state tachycardia lasting >6 h. Overall, HR increased by 25 and 50 beats/min in the 0.8 and 1.2 g/kg groups, respectively. MA increased markedly in the 0.8 and 1.2 g/kg groups but the tachycardia persisted in spite of recovery of MA in the 0.8 g/kg group. There was a small (<0.5 degrees C) increase in Tc above controls in rats dosed with 0.8 g/kg toluene, whereas 1.2 g/kg toluene elicited a transient reduction in Tc followed by a small elevation lasting several hours. In a second study, rats were implanted with transmitters to monitor blood pressure (BP), and were administered with toluene as in the first study. HR, Tc, and MA were also monitored. The tachycardic effects of toluene at 0.8 and 1.2 g/kg were associated with a rise in blood pressure. Doses of 0.8 and 1.2 g/kg elicited a mean BP elevation of 6 and 16 mm Hg, respectively, for 7-hour post-dosing. The biphasic tachycardia to toluene suggests multiple sites for eliciting the cardiotoxic effects of this toxicant. PMID:17140765

Gordon, Christopher J; Samsam, Tracey E; Oshiro, Wendy M; Bushnell, Philip J

2007-01-01

313

Renal effects of acute exposure to toluene. A controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

Urinary excretion rates of beta 2-microglobulin and albumin were measured in 43 male printing trade workers and 43 age-matched male controls before and during exposure to toluene, 382 mg/m3, for 6 1/2 hours in a climate chamber. There were no significant changes in renal excretion rates of albumin and beta 2-microglobulin during toluene exposure indicating that no causal relationship exists between moderate exposure to organic solvents and renal injury. PMID:3907288

Nielsen, H K; Krusell, L; Baelum, J; Lundqvist, G; Omland, O; Vaeth, M; Husted, S E; Mogensen, C E; Geday, E

1985-01-01

314

HCCI experiments with toluene reference fuels modeled by a semidetailed chemical kinetic model  

SciTech Connect

A semidetailed mechanism (137 species and 633 reactions) and new experiments in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine on the autoignition of toluene reference fuels are presented. Skeletal mechanisms for isooctane and n-heptane were added to a detailed toluene submechanism. The model shows generally good agreement with ignition delay times measured in a shock tube and a rapid compression machine and is sensitive to changes in temperature, pressure, and mixture strength. The addition of reactions involving the formation and destruction of benzylperoxide radical was crucial to modeling toluene shock tube data. Laminar burning velocities for benzene and toluene were well predicted by the model after some revision of the high-temperature chemistry. Moreover, laminar burning velocities of a real gasoline at 353 and 500 K could be predicted by the model using a toluene reference fuel as a surrogate. The model also captures the experimentally observed differences in combustion phasing of toluene/n-heptane mixtures, compared to a primary reference fuel of the same research octane number, in HCCI engines as the intake pressure and temperature are changed. For high intake pressures and low intake temperatures, a sensitivity analysis at the moment of maximum heat release rate shows that the consumption of phenoxy radicals is rate-limiting when a toluene/n-heptane fuel is used, which makes this fuel more resistant to autoignition than the primary reference fuel. Typical CPU times encountered in zero-dimensional calculations were on the order of seconds and minutes in laminar flame speed calculations. Cross reactions between benzylperoxy radicals and n-heptane improved the model predictions of shock tube experiments for {phi}=1.0 and temperatures lower than 800 K for an n-heptane/toluene fuel mixture, but cross reactions had no influence on HCCI simulations. (author)

Andrae, J.C.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Brinck, T. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Kalghatgi, G.T. [Shell Global Solutions (UK), P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

2008-12-15

315

Risk of breast cancer following exposure to tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water in Cape Cod, Massachusetts: reanalysis of a case-control study using a modified exposure assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is an important occupational chemical used in metal degreasing and drycleaning and a prevalent drinking water contaminant. Exposure often occurs with other chemicals but it occurred alone in a pattern that reduced the likelihood of confounding in a unique scenario on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. We previously found a small to moderate increased risk of breast cancer among women with the highest exposures using a simple exposure model. We have taken advantage of technical improvements in publically available software to incorporate a more sophisticated determination of water flow and direction to see if previous results were robust to more accurate exposure assessment. Methods The current analysis used PCE exposure estimates generated with the addition of water distribution modeling software (EPANET 2.0) to test model assumptions, compare exposure distributions to prior methods, and re-examine the risk of breast cancer. In addition, we applied data smoothing to examine nonlinear relationships between breast cancer and exposure. We also compared a set of measured PCE concentrations in water samples collected in 1980 to modeled estimates. Results Thirty-nine percent of individuals considered unexposed in prior epidemiological analyses were considered exposed using the current method, but mostly at low exposure levels. As a result, the exposure distribution was shifted downward resulting in a lower value for the 90th percentile, the definition of "high exposure" in prior analyses. The current analyses confirmed a modest increase in the risk of breast cancer for women with high PCE exposure levels defined by either the 90th percentile (adjusted ORs 1.0-1.5 for 0-19 year latency assumptions) or smoothing analysis cut point (adjusted ORs 1.3-2.0 for 0-15 year latency assumptions). Current exposure estimates had a higher correlation with PCE concentrations in water samples (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.65, p < 0.0001) than estimates generated using the prior method (0.54, p < 0.0001). Conclusions The incorporation of sophisticated flow estimates in the exposure assessment method shifted the PCE exposure distribution downward, but did not meaningfully affect the exposure ranking of subjects or the strength of the association with the risk of breast cancer found in earlier analyses. Thus, the current analyses show a slightly elevated breast cancer risk for highly exposed women, with strengthened exposure assessment and minimization of misclassification by using the latest technology. PMID:21600013

2011-01-01

316

Affinity for risky behaviors following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies of adults with acute and chronic solvent exposure have shown adverse effects on cognition, behavior and mood. No prior study has investigated the long-term impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure to the solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on the affinity for risky behaviors, defined as smoking, drinking or drug use as a teen or adult. Objectives This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Methods Eight hundred and thirty-one subjects with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects were studied. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on risky behaviors as a teenager and young adult, demographic characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure was estimated using the U.S. EPA's water distribution system modeling software (EPANET) that was modified to incorporate a leaching and transport model to estimate PCE exposures from pipe linings. Results Individuals who were highly exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water during gestation and early childhood experienced 50-60% increases in the risk of using two or more major illicit drugs as a teenager or as an adult (Relative Risk (RR) for teen use = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2; and RR for adult use = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9). Specific drugs for which increased risks were observed included crack/cocaine, psychedelics/hallucinogens, club/designer drugs, Ritalin without a prescription, and heroin (RRs:1.4-2.1). Thirty to 60% increases in the risk of certain smoking and drinking behaviors were also seen among highly exposed subjects. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that risky behaviors, particularly drug use, are more frequent among adults with high PCE exposure levels during gestation and early childhood. These findings should be confirmed in follow-up investigations of other exposed populations. PMID:22136431

2011-01-01

317

Development and Testing of a Bacterial Biosensor for Toluene-Based Environmental Contaminants  

PubMed Central

A bacterial biosensor for benzene, toluene, and similar compounds has been constructed, characterized, and field tested on contaminated water and soil. The biosensor is based on a plasmid incorporating the transcriptional activator xylR from the TOL plasmid of Pseudomonas putida mt-2. The XylR protein binds a subset of toluene-like compounds and activates transcription at its promoter, Pu. A reporter plasmid was constructed by placing the luc gene for firefly luciferase under the control of XylR and Pu. When Escherichia coli cells were transformed with this plasmid vector, luminescence from the cells was induced in the presence of benzene, toluene, xylenes, and similar molecules. Accurate concentration dependencies of luminescence were obtained and exhibited K1/2 values ranging from 39.0 ± 3.8 ?M for 3-xylene to 2,690 ± 160 ?M for 3-methylbenzylalcohol (means ± standard deviations). The luminescence response was specific for only toluene-like molecules that bind to and activate XylR. The biosensor cells were field tested on deep aquifer water, for which contaminant levels were known, and were able to accurately detect toluene derivative contamination in this water. The biosensor cells were also shown to detect BETX (benzene, toluene, and xylene) contamination in soil samples. These results demonstrate the capability of such a bacterial biosensor to accurately measure environmental contaminants and suggest a potential for its inexpensive application in field-ready assays. PMID:9501440

Willardson, Barry M.; Wilkins, Jon F.; Rand, Timothy A.; Schupp, James M.; Hill, Karen K.; Keim, Paul; Jackson, Paul J.

1998-01-01

318

Initial reactions in the anaerobic oxidation of toluene and m-xylene by denitrifying bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas sp. strain T and Pseudomonas sp. strain K172 grow with toluene under denitrifying conditions. We demonstrated that anaerobic degradation of toluene was initiated by direct oxidation of the methyl group. Benzaldehyde and benzoate accumulated sequentially after toluene was added when cell suspensions were incubated at 5 degrees C. Strain T also grows anaerobically with m-xylene, and we demonstrated that degradation was initiated by oxidation of one methyl group. In cell suspensions incubated at 5 degrees C 3-methylbenzaldehyde and 3-methylbenzoate accumulated after m-xylene was added. Toluene- or m-xylene-grown strain T cells were induced to the same extent for oxidation of both hydrocarbons. In addition, the methyl group-oxidizing enzyme system of strain T also catalyzed the oxidation of each isomer of the chloro- and fluorotoluenes to the corresponding halogenated benzoate derivatives. In contrast, strain K172 only oxidized 4-fluorotoluene to 4-fluorobenzoate, probably because of the narrow substrate specificity of the methyl group-oxidizing enzymatic system. During anaerobic growth with toluene strains T and K172 produced two transformation products, benzylsuccinate and benzylfumarate. About 0.5% of the toluene carbon was converted to these products. PMID:7993091

Seyfried, B; Glod, G; Schocher, R; Tschech, A; Zeyer, J

1994-01-01

319

Uptake of toluene and ethylbenzene by plants: removal of volatile indoor air contaminants.  

PubMed

Air borne uptake of toluene and ethylbenzene by twelve plant species was examined. Of the twelve plant species examined, the highest toluene removal was found in Sansevieria trifasciata, while the ethylbenzene removal from air was with Chlorophytum comosum. Toluene and ethylbenzene can penetrate the plant?s cuticle. However, the removal rates do not appear to be correlated with numbers of stomata per plant. It was found that wax of S. trifasciata and Sansevieria hyacinthoides had greater absorption of toluene and ethylbenzene, and it contained high hexadecanoic acid. Hexadecanoic acid might be involved in toluene and ethylbenzene adsorption by cuticles wax of plants. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis or the potential quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) in toluene exposed plants showed no significant differences between the control and the treated plants, whereas plants exposed to ethylbenzene showed significant differences or those parameters, specifically in Dracaena deremensis (Lemon lime), Dracaena sanderiana, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, and Cordyline fruticosa. The Fv/Fm ratio can give insight into the ability of plants to tolerate (indoor) air pollution by volatile organic chemicals (VOC). This index can be used for identification of suitable plants for treating/sequestering VOCs in contaminated air. PMID:24530730

Sriprapat, Wararat; Suksabye, Parinda; Areephak, Sirintip; Klantup, Polawat; Waraha, Atcharaphan; Sawattan, Anuchit; Thiravetyan, Paitip

2014-04-01

320

Effects of the abused inhalant toluene on the mesolimbic dopamine system  

PubMed Central

Toluene is a representative member of a class of inhaled solvents that are voluntarily used by adolescents and adults for their euphorigenic effects. Research into the mechanisms of action of inhaled solvents has lagged behind that of other drugs of abuse despite mounting evidence that these compounds exert profound neurobehavioral and neurotoxicological effects. Results from studies carried out by the authors and others suggest that the neural effects of inhalants arise from their interaction with a discrete set of ion channels that regulate brain activity. Of particular interest is how these interactions allow toluene and other solvents to engage portions of an addiction neurocircuitry that includes midbrain and cortical structures. In this review, we focus on the current state of knowledge regarding toluene’s action on midbrain dopamine neurons, a key brain region involved in the initial assessment of natural and drug-induced rewards. Findings from recent studies in the authors’ laboratory show that brief exposures of adolescent rats to toluene vapor induce profound changes in markers of glutamatergic plasticity in VTA DA neurons. These changes are restricted to VTA DA neurons that project to limbic structures and are prevented by transient activation of the medial prefrontal cortex prior to toluene exposure. Together, these data provide the first evidence linking the voluntary inhalation of solvents to changes in reward –sensitive dopamine neurons. PMID:25360326

Woodward, John J.; Beckley, Jacob

2014-01-01

321

A detailed kinetic modeling study of toluene oxidation in a premixed laminar flame  

PubMed Central

An improved chemical kinetic model for the toluene oxidation based on experimental data obtained in a premixed laminar low-pressure flame with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization and molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) techniques has been proposed. The present mechanism consists of 273 species up to chrysene and 1740 reactions. The rate constants of reactions of toluene decomposition, reaction with oxygen, ipso-additions and metatheses with abstraction of phenylic H-atom are updated; new pathways of C4 + C2 species giving benzene and fulvene are added. Based on the experimental observations, combustion intermediates such as fulvenallene, naphtol, methylnaphthalene, acenaphthylene, 2-ethynylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, 1-methylphenanthrene, pyrene and chrysene are involved in the present mechanism. The final toluene model leads to an overall satisfactory agreement between the experimentally observed and predicted mole fraction profiles for the major products and most combustion intermediates. The toluene depletion is governed by metathese giving benzyl radicals, ipso-addition forming benzene and metatheses leading to C6H4CH3 radicals. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the unimolecular decomposition via the cleavage of a methyl C-H bond has a strong inhibiting effect, while decomposition via C-C bond breaking, ipso-addition of H-atom to toluene, decomposition of benzyl radicals and reactions related to C6H4CH3 radicals have promoting effect for the consumption of toluene. Moreover, flow rate analysis is performed to illustrate the formation pathways of mono- and polycyclic aromatics. PMID:23762016

Tian, Zhenyu; Pitz, William J.; Fournet, René; Glaude, Pierre-Alexander; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

2013-01-01

322

Kinetic effects of toluene blending on the extinction limit of n-decane diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect

The impact of toluene addition in n-decane on OH concentrations, maximum heat release rates, and extinction limits were studied experimentally and computationally by using counterflow diffusion flames with laser induced fluorescence imaging. Sensitivity analyses of kinetic path ways and species transport on flame extinction were also conducted. The results showed that the extinction strain rate of n-decane/toluene/nitrogen flames decreased significantly with an increase of toluene addition and depended linearly on the maximum OH concentration. It was revealed that the maximum OH concentration, which depends on the fuel H/C ratio, can be used as an index of the radical pool and chemical heat release rate, since it plays a significant role on the heat production via the reaction with other species, such as CO, H{sub 2}, and HCO. Experimental results further demonstrated that toluene addition in n-decane dramatically reduced the peak OH concentration via H abstraction reactions and accelerated flame extinction via kinetic coupling between toluene and n-decane mechanisms. Comparisons between experiments and simulations revealed that the current toluene mechanism significantly over-predicts the radical destruction rate, leading to under-prediction of extinction limits and OH concentrations, especially caused by the uncertainty of the H abstraction reaction from toluene, which rate coefficient has a difference by a factor of 5 in the tested toluene models. In addition, sensitivity analysis of diffusive transport showed that in addition to n-decane and toluene, the transport of OH and H also considerably affects the extinction limit. A reduced linear correlation between the extinction limits of n-decane/toluene blended fuels and the H/C ratio as well as the mean fuel molecular weight was obtained. The results suggest that an explicit prediction of the extinction limits of aromatic and alkane blended fuels can be established by using H/C ratio (or radical index) and the mean fuel molecular weight which represent the rates of radical production and the fuel transport, respectively.

Won, Sang Hee; Sun, Wenting; Ju, Yiguang

2010-01-01

323

Effect of Trichloroethylene on Minimum Energy Requirement and Gene Expression in a Nutrient Limited Methanotroph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) of contaminant plumes requires data for predictive modeling of plume destruction including the rates of microbial contaminant degradation. Methanotrophs are implicated in co-metabolism of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) where MNA is the selected method of treatment. Our research aims to: 1) determine realistic activities of these cells when starved, a condition typical of subsurface microbes, and 2) detect the genes that are transcribed when methanotrophs experience stress or starvation related to TCE exposure and conditions in the subsurface. Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b (OB3b), a model methanotroph, was starved in a biomass recycle reactor and soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) activities determined, with and without TCE exposure (ca. 100 ?g TCE/L). Starved methanotrophs, present at 3 x 109 cells/mL in the reactor, consumed methane at 0.001 fmoles of methane/cell/day and gradually increased sMMO activities when exposed to higher methane concentrations. sMMO activities of starved OB3b cells exposed to TCE were indistinguishable from cells that were not exposed over brief (one day) periods. The sequences of eight genes, known to code for starvation/stress proteins, were retrieved from phylogenetic relatives (?-proteobacteria) of OB3b. Primers (18-22 bp) were designed from conserved regions in the consensus sequences to obtain OB3b-specific sequences for the eight genes. Primers for the starvation/stress genes successfully amplified all eight genes in OB3b using PCR. Our plan is to clone and sequence these OB3b genes then synthesize oligonucleotides that can be added to a microarray that includes targets for OB3b structural and regulatory gene sequences as a prelude to evaluating gene expression under different nutrient availability conditions and in the presence and absence of TCE. Incorporation of starvation-based rate estimates into natural attenuation models of contaminant plumes will permit estimates of the fraction of TCE natural attenuation that can be attributed to methanotrophic co-metabolism in a given aquifer system.

Colwell, F. S.; Delwiche, M.; Newby, D.; Wood, A.; Bingham, M.; Crawford, R. L.; Strap, J. L.

2005-12-01

324

Oxidation of Benzene to Phenol, Catechol, and 1,2,3Trihydroxybenzene by Toluene 4Monooxygenase of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and Toluene 3Monooxygenase of Ralstonia pickettii PKO1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aromatic hydroxylations are important bacterial metabolic processes but are difficult to perform using traditional chemical synthesis, so to use a biological catalyst to convert the priority pollutant benzene into industrially relevant intermediates, benzene oxidation was investigated. It was discovered that toluene 4-mono- oxygenase (T4MO) of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1, toluene 3-monooxygenase (T3MO) of Ralstonia pickettii PKO1, and toluene ortho-monooxygenase (TOM) of

Ying Tao; Ayelet Fishman; William E. Bentley; Thomas K. Wood

2004-01-01

325

DIFFERING HEPATOTOXICITY AND LETHALITY AFTER SUBACUTE TRICHLOROETHYLENE EXPOSURE IN AQUEOUS OR CORN OIL GAVAGE VEHICLES IN B6C3F1 MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Subacute toxicity of trichloroethylene (TCE) was evaluated in male and female B6C3F1 mice using corn oil or aqueous gavage vehicles. Mice received oral doses of TCE five times a week for 4 weeks at 600, 1200 and 2400 mg/kg/day for males and 450, 900 and 1800 mg/kg/day for females...

326

Vapor phase nitration of toluene over CuFe 0.8Al 1.2O 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor phase nitration of toluene by using CuFe0.8Al1.2O4 as a catalyst was studied by varying strength of nitric acid (10–69%) as a nitrating agent. Water vapor generated during the reaction acts as a diluent for the exothermic process. Varying the reaction temperature in the range of 100–200°C revealed that below 125°C lower conversion of toluene to mono-nitro toluene was obtained

Nivedita S. Chaubal; Manohar R. Sawant

2007-01-01

327

Response of Pseudomonas putida F1 cultures to fluctuating toluene loads and operational failures in suspended growth bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of Pseudomonas putida F1 to process fluctuations and operational failures during toluene biodegradation was evaluated in a chemostat suspended\\u000a growth bioreactor. The ability of P. putida F1 to rapidly increase its specific toluene degradation capacity resulted in no significant variation in process removal\\u000a efficiency when toluene load was increased from 188 to 341 g m?3 h?1. Likewise, bacterial activity rapidly reached steady

Raúl Muñoz; Luís Felipe Díaz; Sergio Bordel; Santiago Villaverde

2008-01-01

328

Mass transfer of trichloroethylene through the palladized iron coated reactive geomembrane.  

PubMed

Palladized iron coated reactive geomembrane (Pd/Fe RGM) was developed to mitigate the mass transfer of chlorinated volatile organic compounds through HDPE geomembrane. It had good performance in mitigating the mass transfer of TCE at the preliminary study. This study focused on the effects of Pd/Fe coating on the mass transfer parameters and the reaction rate constant of RGM. Also, the effects of sulfide and aging on the RGM were evaluated. It was proved that the effect of Pd/Fe coating on partition and diffusion coefficients of toluene was not significant by batch immersion test results with student's t-test. The reactivity of Pd/Fe RGM had a linear correlation with an increase in the Pd/Fe loading rate on RGM. However, it was lower than the reactivity of the Pd/Fe powder by a factor of one hundred because the effective surface area of Pd/Fe was blocked partially by the geomembrane and the opportunity to contact Pd/Fe and TCE was reduced. The reactivity of Pd/Fe RGM decreased severely at 10mM sulfide concentration and with long-term aging of RGM in the atmosphere for three years. However, the reactivity of aged RGM was recovered slightly by acid treatment, but not completely. PMID:22169147

Kim, Yong-Keun; Shin, Ji-Young; Lee, Kwang-Keun; Cho, Hang Sang; Jeon, Han Yong; Kim, Jae Young

2012-01-30

329

Respiratory effects in toluene diisocyanate manufacture: a multidisciplinary approach.  

PubMed Central

A new plant manufacturing toluene diisocyanate (TDI) has provided a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of TDI vapor inhalation on respiratory health in a group of exposed workers who have been studied prior to the start of plant operation. In order to establish dose-response relationships and determine host factors, complete biologic monitoring, including pulmonary function and immunologic studies, has been performed concurrently with a comprehensive environmental monitoring program including continuous sampling for atmospheric concentrations of TDI. Study groups include workers with regular exposure to TDI in production jobs (83), workers with intermittent contact with this vapor, usually in maintenance (28), and a control group of workers employed outside the TDI area (55). This population is being followed for a period of 5 yr. The plant began operations in August 1973 with start-up procedures completed by the end of October. TDI spills occurred for numerous reasons, usually attributed to pump failure and resultant line blockage. Significant exposures also occurred in the drumming operation. The influence of these malfunctions is noted in the continuous monitoring data on atmospheric TDI concentrations which continue to reveal frequent excursions above the threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.02 ppm ceiling. These data are presented in relation to time and plant location. Although the first full year follow-up following initial exposure was not complete, certain preliminary clinical observations were made. A number of workers had episodes of acute respiratory symptoms related to single exposure to an irritant gas at work, usually either TDI or phosgene. It appears that two or three workers in the study population have become "clinically sensitized" to TDI and have been removed from regular TDI exposure. To date, the total number of workers who report the presence of recurring respiratory symptoms has not increased in comparison with the pre-exposure survey. Pulmonary function data after one full year of TDI exposure are not yet available. Pre- and post-shift ventilatory function studies do not indicate significant differences between the exposed and control groups. Selected individuals had carefully controlled inhalation challenge tests to monitored concentrations of TDI vapor under laboratory conditions. In workers suspected of having become "sensitized", immediate and/or late air flow obstruction was demonstrated and could be related to dose of inhaled TDI. PMID:170075

Weill, H; Salvaggio, J; Neilson, A; Butcher, B; Ziskind, M

1975-01-01

330

PANI and Graphene/PANI Nanocomposite Films — Comparative Toluene Gas Sensing Behavior  

PubMed Central

The present work discusses and compares the toluene sensing behavior of polyaniline (PANI) and graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite (C-PANI) films. The graphene–PANI ratio in the nanocomposite polymer film is optimized at 1:2. For this, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent is used to prepare PANI-NMP solution as well as graphene-PANI-NMP solution. The films are later annealed at 230 °C, characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and tested for their sensing behavior towards toluene. The sensing behaviors of the films are analyzed at different temperatures (30, 50 and 100 °C) for 100 ppm toluene in air. The nanocomposite C-PANI films have exhibited better overall toluene sensing behavior in terms of sensor response, response and recovery time as well as repeatability. Although the sensor response of PANI (12.6 at 30 °C, 38.4 at 100 °C) is comparatively higher than that of C-PANI (8.4 at 30 °C, 35.5 at 100 °C), response and recovery time of PANI and C-PANI varies with operating temperature. C-PANI at 50 °C seems to have better toluene sensing behavior in terms of response time and recovery time. PMID:24300600

Parmar, Mitesh; Balamurugan, Chandran; Lee, Dong-Weon

2013-01-01

331

Analysis of the gene cluster encoding toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1  

SciTech Connect

The toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase cloned from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1 displays a very broad range of substrates and a very peculiar regioselectivity, because it is able to hydroxylate more than one position on the aromatic ring of several hydrocarbons and phenols. The nucleotide sequence of the gene cluster coding for this enzymatic system has been determined. The sequence analysis revealed the presence of six open reading frames (ORFs) homologous to other genes clustered in operons coding for multicomponent monooxygenases found in benzene- and toluene-degradative pathways cloned from Pseudomonas strains. Significant similarities were also found with multicomponent monooxygenase systems for phenol, methane, alkene, and dimethyl sulfide cloned from different bacterial strains. The knockout of each ORF and complementation with the wild-type allele indicated that all six ORFs are essential for the full activity of the toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase in Escherichia coli. This analysis also shows that despite its activity on both hydrocarbons and phenols, toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase belongs to a toluene multicomponent monooxygenase subfamily rather than to the monooxygenases active on phenols.

Bertoni, G.; Martino, M.; Galli, E.; Barbieri, P. [Univ. degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy). Dept. di Genetica e di Biologia dei Microorganismi

1998-10-01

332

The effect of explicit solvent on photodegradation of decabromodiphenyl ether in toluene: insights from theoretical study.  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have received special environmental concern because of their potential toxicity to humans and wildlife worldwide. However, their photochemical degradation mechanisms remain largely unknown. Herein, a PCM/TD-DFT scheme (time-dependent density functional theory combined with the polarizable continuum model) augmented with explicit solute-solvent interactions is used to explore the promotive effects of the toluene solvent on the photochemical degradation debromination of deca-BDE (BDE209). The face-to-face ?-? interactions between penta-bromine-substituted phenyl and toluene are investigated. The calculations indicate that the face-to-face ?-? interaction plays an important role in the low-lying ???* transitions of BDE209-toluene ?-stacking complex at around 300 nm in the sunlight region, which leads to notable changes for the ??* excited states and which promotes the breaking of the C-Br bonds. The photodegradation reaction via an intermolecular charge-transfer excited state formed by the electronic transition from a ? orbital of toluene to a ?* orbital of BDE209 is found to be a dominant mechanism. Our calculation results reveal the mechanism of how the participation of an explicit toluene solvent molecule catalyzes the photodegradation of BDE209 and explain the experimental results successfully. The present study may provide helpful information for the removal of PBDE contamination. PMID:23725399

Pan, Lu; Bian, Wensheng; Zhang, Jiaxu

2013-06-27

333

PANI and graphene/PANI nanocomposite films--comparative toluene gas sensing behavior.  

PubMed

The present work discusses and compares the toluene sensing behavior of polyaniline (PANI) and graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite (C-PANI) films. The graphene-PANI ratio in the nanocomposite polymer film is optimized at 1:2. For this, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent is used to prepare PANI-NMP solution as well as graphene-PANI-NMP solution. The films are later annealed at 230 °C, characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and tested for their sensing behavior towards toluene. The sensing behaviors of the films are analyzed at different temperatures (30, 50 and 100 °C) for 100 ppm toluene in air. The nanocomposite C-PANI films have exhibited better overall toluene sensing behavior in terms of sensor response, response and recovery time as well as repeatability. Although the sensor response of PANI (12.6 at 30 °C, 38.4 at 100 °C) is comparatively higher than that of C-PANI (8.4 at 30 °C, 35.5 at 100 °C), response and recovery time of PANI and C-PANI varies with operating temperature. C-PANI at 50 °C seems to have better toluene sensing behavior in terms of response time and recovery time. PMID:24300600

Parmar, Mitesh; Balamurugan, Chandran; Lee, Dong-Weon

2013-01-01

334

Assessment of Anaerobic Toluene Biodegradation Activity by bssA Transcript/Gene Ratios  

PubMed Central

Benzylsuccinate synthase (bssA) genes associated with toluene degradation were profiled across a groundwater contaminant plume under nitrate-reducing conditions and were detected in significant numbers throughout the plume. However, differences between groundwater and core sediment samples suggested that microbial transport, rather than local activity, was the underlying cause of the high copy numbers within the downgradient plume. Both gene transcript and reactant concentrations were consistent with this hypothesis. Expression of bssA genes from denitrifying toluene degraders was induced by toluene but only in the presence of nitrate, and transcript abundance dropped rapidly following the removal of either toluene or nitrate. The drop in bssA transcripts following the removal of toluene could be described by an exponential decay function with a half-life on the order of 1 h. Interestingly, bssA transcripts never disappeared completely but were always detected at some level if either inducer was present. Therefore, the detection of transcripts alone may not be sufficient evidence for contaminant degradation. To avoid mistakenly associating basal-level gene expression with actively degrading microbial populations, an integrated approach using the ratio of functional gene transcripts to gene copies is recommended. This approach minimizes the impact of microbial transport on activity assessment and allows reliable assessments of microbial activity to be obtained from water samples. PMID:23811506

Brow, Christina N.; O'Brien Johnson, Reid; Johnson, Richard L.

2013-01-01

335

Analysis of the gene cluster encoding toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1.  

PubMed

The toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase cloned from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1 displays a very broad range of substrates and a very peculiar regioselectivity, because it is able to hydroxylate more than one position on the aromatic ring of several hydrocarbons and phenols. The nucleotide sequence of the gene cluster coding for this enzymatic system has been determined. The sequence analysis revealed the presence of six open reading frames (ORFs) homologous to other genes clustered in operons coding for multicomponent monooxygenases found in benzene- and toluene-degradative pathways cloned from Pseudomonas strains. Significant similarities were also found with multicomponent monooxygenase systems for phenol, methane, alkene, and dimethyl sulfide cloned from different bacterial strains. The knockout of each ORF and complementation with the wild-type allele indicated that all six ORFs are essential for the full activity of the toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase in Escherichia coli. This analysis also shows that despite its activity on both hydrocarbons and phenols, toluene/ o-xylene monooxygenase belongs to a toluene multicomponent monooxygenase subfamily rather than to the monooxygenases active on phenols. PMID:9758777

Bertoni, G; Martino, M; Galli, E; Barbieri, P

1998-10-01

336

Follow-up of the antihemolytic effect of toluene inhalation in rats.  

PubMed

The antihemolytic effects of toluene were studied with inhalation exposures in vivo. At a concentration of 2000 ppm the effect seemed to begin 0.5 h after the onset of exposure, and it ended completely 0.5 h after the end of the exposure. There was no significant change in the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), although it increased at first during and also following the exposure. The antihemolytic effect of different toluene concentrations was also tested with inhalation exposures. The inhalation of 300-2000 ppm of toluene caused a significant antihemolytic effect in a 1-h exposure, but it did not change the MCV. The greatest antihemolytic effect was obtained with a concentration of 1500 ppm of toluene. Our results confirm the assumption that the effect of toluene as a membrane-stabilizing agent is a reversible phenomenon that requires the presence of the agent molecules during the hemolytic process. The antihemolytic effect does not seem to be caused by an increase in the MCV. PMID:6719483

Korpela, M; Tähti, H

1984-04-01

337

Assessment of anaerobic toluene biodegradation activity by bssA transcript/gene ratios.  

PubMed

Benzylsuccinate synthase (bssA) genes associated with toluene degradation were profiled across a groundwater contaminant plume under nitrate-reducing conditions and were detected in significant numbers throughout the plume. However, differences between groundwater and core sediment samples suggested that microbial transport, rather than local activity, was the underlying cause of the high copy numbers within the downgradient plume. Both gene transcript and reactant concentrations were consistent with this hypothesis. Expression of bssA genes from denitrifying toluene degraders was induced by toluene but only in the presence of nitrate, and transcript abundance dropped rapidly following the removal of either toluene or nitrate. The drop in bssA transcripts following the removal of toluene could be described by an exponential decay function with a half-life on the order of 1 h. Interestingly, bssA transcripts never disappeared completely but were always detected at some level if either inducer was present. Therefore, the detection of transcripts alone may not be sufficient evidence for contaminant degradation. To avoid mistakenly associating basal-level gene expression with actively degrading microbial populations, an integrated approach using the ratio of functional gene transcripts to gene copies is recommended. This approach minimizes the impact of microbial transport on activity assessment and allows reliable assessments of microbial activity to be obtained from water samples. PMID:23811506

Brow, Christina N; O'Brien Johnson, Reid; Johnson, Richard L; Simon, Holly M

2013-09-01

338

Toluene oxidation by non-thermal plasma combined with palladium catalysts.  

PubMed

The oxidation of toluene in air was investigated using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) combined with a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst. When using only plasma, rather low selectivity toward CO2 was obtained: 32-35%. By filling the DBD reactor with Pd/Al2O3 catalyst the CO2 selectivity was significantly enhanced (80-90%), however, a large amount of toluene was desorbed from the catalyst when the discharge was operated. By filling a quarter of the discharge gap with catalyst and placing the rest of the catalyst downstream of the plasma reactor, an important increase of CO2 selectivity (~75%) and a 15% increase in toluene conversion were achieved as compared to the results with plasma alone. The catalyst exhibited a very good stability in this reaction. PMID:24790936

Magureanu, Monica; Dobrin, Daniela; Mandache, Nicolae B; Cojocaru, Bogdan; Parvulescu, Vasile I

2013-01-01

339

Ignition delay times of benzene and toluene with oxygen in argon mixtures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ignition delay times of benzene and toluene with oxygen diluted in argon were investigated over a wide range of conditions. For benzene the concentration ranges were 0.42 to 1.69 percent fuel and 3.78 to 20.3 percent oxygen. The temperature range was 1212 to 1748 K and the reflected shock pressures were 1.7 to 7.89 atm. Statistical evaluation of the benzene experiments provided an overall equation which is given. For toluene the concentration ranges were 0.5 to 1.5 percent fuel and 4.48 to 13.45 percent oxygen. The temperature range was 1339 to 1797 K and the reflected shock pressures were 1.95 to 8.85 atm. The overall ignition delay equation for toluene after a statistical evaluation is also given. Detailed experimental information is provided.

Burcat, A.; Snyder, C.; Brabbs, T.

1985-01-01

340

A Nanopore Structured High Performance Toluene Gas Sensor Made by Nanoimprinting Method  

PubMed Central

Toluene gas was successfully measured at room temperature using a device microfabricated by a nanoimprinting method. A highly uniform nanoporous thin film was produced with a dense array of titania (TiO2) pores with a diameter of 70?80 nm using this method. This thin film had a Pd/TiO2 nanoporous/SiO2/Si MIS layered structure with Pd-TiO2 as the catalytic sensing layer. The nanoimprinting method was useful in expanding the TiO2 surface area by about 30%, as confirmed using AFM and SEM imaging. The measured toluene concentrations ranged from 50 ppm to 200 ppm. The toluene was easily detected by changing the Pd/TiO2 interface work function, resulting in a change in the I–V characteristics. PMID:22315567

Kim, Kwang-Su; Baek, Woon-Hyuk; Kim, Jung-Min; Yoon, Tae-Sik; Lee, Hyun Ho; Kang, Chi Jung; Kim, Yong-Sang

2010-01-01

341

Biofiltration of air polluted with toluene under steady-state conditions: Experimental observations  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the authors describe the removal of toluene vapors in a pilot scale biofilter. Biofiltration tests have been performed in a column fed upward with contaminated air at ambient conditions. The column was packed with a mixture of conditioned biomass and structuring agent on which a mixed microbial population of four selected strains was immobilized and then formed a biolayer. The biofilter was operated under various inlet-airstream toluene concentrations and flow rates of the contaminated airstream. Based on the present measurements, the biofilter proved effective in removing toluene at rates up to 165 g/h {center_dot} m{sup 3} of packing. The effect of some design and operation parameters (concentration of nutrients solution, presence of xylene, gas flow rate, pressure drop, temperature, etc.) are reported.

Kiared, K. [Univ. de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)] [Univ. de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); [Valoraction Inc., Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Fundenberger, B.; Brzezinski, R.; Heitz, M. [Univ. de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)] [Univ. de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Viel, G. [Valoraction Inc., Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)] [Valoraction Inc., Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)

1997-11-01

342

Toluene oxidation by non-thermal plasma combined with palladium catalysts  

PubMed Central

The oxidation of toluene in air was investigated using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) combined with a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst. When using only plasma, rather low selectivity toward CO2 was obtained: 32–35%. By filling the DBD reactor with Pd/Al2O3 catalyst the CO2 selectivity was significantly enhanced (80–90%), however, a large amount of toluene was desorbed from the catalyst when the discharge was operated. By filling a quarter of the discharge gap with catalyst and placing the rest of the catalyst downstream of the plasma reactor, an important increase of CO2 selectivity (~75%) and a 15% increase in toluene conversion were achieved as compared to the results with plasma alone. The catalyst exhibited a very good stability in this reaction. PMID:24790936

Magureanu, Monica; Dobrin, Daniela; Mandache, Nicolae B.; Cojocaru, Bogdan; Parvulescu, Vasile I.

2013-01-01

343

Remote monitoring of sub ppb levels of vinyl chloride, dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene via modem operated automated GC  

SciTech Connect

The need for remote monitoring of certain compounds in a sparsely populated area with limited user assistance led to the development and manufacture of a self contained, portable gas chromatography with the appropriate software. Part per billion levels of vinyl chloride, cis 1,2 dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene were detected in air using a trap for preconcentration of the compounds. The units were continuously calibrated with certified standards from Scott Specialty Gases, which in one case was 1 part per billion of the aforementioned compounds. The entire operation of the units, including monitoring instrument responses, changing operating parameters, data transfer, data review and data reporting was done entirely on a remote basis from approximately 600 miles away using a remote computer with a modem and remote operating software. The entire system concept promises the availability of highly sensitive remote monitoring in sparsely populated areas for long periods of time.

Linenberg, A.; Lander, N.J. [Sentex Systems Inc., Ridgefield, NJ (United States)

1994-12-31

344

Whole-cell kinetics of trichloroethylene degradation by phenol hydroxylase in a Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 derivative  

SciTech Connect

The rate, progress, and limits of trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation by Ralstonia eutropha AEK301/pYK3021 whole cells were examined in the absence of aromatic induction. At TCE concentrations up to 800 {micro}M, degradation rates were sustained until TCE was no longer detectable. The K{sub s} and V{sub max} for TCE degradation by AEK301/pYK3021 whole cells were determined to be 630 {micro}M and 22.6 nmol/min/mg of total protein, respectively. The sustained linear rates of TCE degradation by AEK301/pYK3021 up to a concentration of 800 {micro}M TCE suggest that solvent effects are limited during the degradation of TCE and that this construct is little affected by the formation of toxic intermediates at the TCE levels and assay duration tested. TCE degradation by this strain is subject to carbon catabolite repression.

Ayoubi, P.J.; Harker, A.R. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics

1998-11-01

345

Separation of volatile organic compounds by pervaporation for a binary compound combination: Trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the behavior of sweeping air pervaporation when used to separate trichloroethylene (TCE) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCEthane) from wastewater. Selectivity and membrane preference are studied. Models for binary compounds are studied to evaluate the extent of cross influence on TCE flux due to the presence of another volatile organic compound, TCEthane. Using the models, the integral dry diffusion coefficient for TCEthane is evaluated. Results indicate that the membrane exhibits a preference for TCE over TCEthane. However, the values of the diffusion rates are found to be comparable. Selectivity values are found to be independent of the air flow rate but dependent on the relative concentration of the compounds in the feed solution. It is found that, due to the presence of TCEthane, the flux of TCE decreased. Further, it is found that the ratio of the integral dry diffusion coefficients of the compounds is inversely proportional to the ratio of their molecular weights.

Visvanathan, C.; Basu, B. [Asian Inst. of Tech., Bangkok (Thailand). Environmental Engineering Program; Mora, J.C. [Inst. National Polytechnique de Toulouse (France)

1995-11-01

346

Metabolic changes and DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum are associated with behavioral alterations in mice exposed to trichloroethylene postnatally  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies demonstrated that low-level postnatal and early life exposure to the environmental contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), in the drinking water of MRL +/+ mice altered glutathione redox homeostasis and increased biomarkers of oxidative stress indicating a more oxidized state. Plasma metabolites along the interrelated transmethylation pathway were also altered indicating impaired methylation capacity. Here we extend these findings to further characterize the impact of TCE exposure in mice exposed to water only or two doses of TCE in the drinking water (0, 2, and 28 mg/kg/day) postnatally from birth until 6 weeks of age on redox homeostasis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in the cerebellum. In addition, pathway intermediates involved in methyl metabolism and global DNA methylation patterns were examined in cerebellar tissue. Because the cerebellum is functionally important for coordinating motor activity, including exploratory and social approach behaviors, these parameters were evaluated in the present study. Mice exposed to 28 mg/kg/day TCE exhibited increased locomotor activity over time as compared with control mice. In the novel object exploration test, these mice were more likely to enter the zone with the novel object as compared to control mice. Similar results were obtained in a second test when an unfamiliar mouse was introduced into the testing arena. The results show for the first time that postnatal exposure to TCE causes key metabolic changes in the cerebellum that may contribute to global DNA methylation deficits and behavioral alterations in TCE-exposed mice. - Highlights: • We exposed male mice to low-level trichloroethylene from postnatal days 1 through 42. • This exposure altered redox potential and increased oxidative stress in cerebellum. • This exposure altered metabolites important in cellular methylation in cerebellum. • This exposure promoted DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum. • This exposure enhanced locomotor activity and exploratory behavior.

Blossom, Sarah J., E-mail: blossomsarah@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, 13 Children's Way, Little Rock, AR 72202 (United States); Cooney, Craig A. [Department of Research and Development, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, John L. McClellan Memorial Veterans Hospital, 4300 West 7th St., Little Rock, AR 72205-5484 (United States); Melnyk, Stepan B.; Rau, Jenny L.; Swearingen, Christopher J. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, 13 Children's Way, Little Rock, AR 72202 (United States); Wessinger, William D. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, 4301 West Markham St., Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

2013-06-15

347

Anaerobic Mineralization of Toluene by Enriched Sediments with Quinones and Humus as Terminal Electron Acceptors  

PubMed Central

The anaerobic microbial oxidation of toluene to CO2 coupled to humus respiration was demonstrated by use of enriched anaerobic sediments from the Amsterdam petroleum harbor (APH) and the Rhine River. Both highly purified soil humic acids (HPSHA) and the humic quinone moiety model compound anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) were utilized as terminal electron acceptors. After 2 weeks of incubation, 50 and 85% of added uniformly labeled [13C]toluene were recovered as 13CO2 in HPSHA- and AQDS-supplemented APH sediment enrichment cultures, respectively; negligible recovery occurred in unsupplemented cultures. The conversion of [13C]toluene agreed with the high level of recovery of electrons as reduced humus or as anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate. APH sediment was also able to use nitrate and amorphous manganese dioxide as terminal electron acceptors to support the anaerobic biodegradation of toluene. The addition of substoichiometric amounts of humic acids to bioassay reaction mixtures containing amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide as a terminal electron acceptor led to more than 65% conversion of toluene (1 mM) after 11 weeks of incubation, a result which paralleled the partial recovery of electron equivalents as acid-extractable Fe(II). Negligible conversion of toluene and reduction of Fe(III) occurred in these bioassay reaction mixtures when humic acids were omitted. The present study provides clear quantitative evidence for the mineralization of an aromatic hydrocarbon by humus-respiring microorganisms. The results indicate that humic substances may significantly contribute to the intrinsic bioremediation of anaerobic sites contaminated with priority pollutants by serving as terminal electron acceptors. PMID:11571145

Cervantes, Francisco J.; Dijksma, Wouter; Duong-Dac, Tuan; Ivanova, Anna; Lettinga, Gatze; Field, Jim A.

2001-01-01

348

A detailed kinetic modeling study of toluene oxidation in a premixed laminar flame  

SciTech Connect

An improved chemical kinetic model for the toluene oxidation based on experimental data obtained in a premixed laminar low-pressure flame with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization and molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) techniques has been proposed. The present mechanism consists of 273 species up to chrysene and 1740 reactions. The rate constants of reactions of toluene, decomposition, reaction with oxygen, ipso-additions and metatheses with abstraction of phenylic H-atom are updated; new pathways of C{sub 4} + C{sub 2} species giving benzene and fulvene are added. Based on the experimental observations, combustion intermediates such as fulvenallene, naphtol, methylnaphthalene, acenaphthylene, 2-ethynylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, 1-methylphenanthrene, pyrene and chrysene are involved in the present mechanism. The final toluene model leads to an overall satisfactory agreement between the experimentally observed and predicted mole fraction profiles for the major products and most combustion intermediates. The toluene depletion is governed by metathese giving benzyl radicals, ipso-addition forming benzene and metatheses leading to C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 3} radicals. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the unimolecular decomposition via the cleavage of a C-H bond has a strong inhibiting effect, while decomposition via C-C bond breaking, ipso-addition of H-atom to toluene, decomposition of benzyl radicals and reactions related to C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 3} radicals have promoting effect for the consumption of toluene. Moreover, flow rate analysis is performed to illustrate the formation pathways of mono- and polycyclic aromatics.

Tian, Z; Pitz, W J; Fournet, R; Glaude, P; Battin-Leclerc, F

2009-12-18

349

Evaluation of toluene LIF thermometry detection strategies applied in an internal combustion engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of toluene laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) thermometry, the two common LIF detection strategies, namely one-color and two-color detection, have been simultaneously applied to compare each strategy's ability to accurately resolve thermal gradients during an engine cycle within an optically accessible internal combustion (IC) engine. Temperature images are obtained from high-speed toluene LIF measurements and are combined with high-speed particle image velocimetry. The combination with flow data and Mie scattering images facilitates the interpretation of differences between the toluene LIF detection strategies. Two-color temperature images are limited in their ability to detect thermal gradients near the end of compression due to larger precision uncertainties. Local regions of cold gases in the two-color images are better identified with the guidance of the one-color images when homogeneous toluene mixtures preside. During expansion, large differences exist between one- and two-color temperature images and likely caused by local mixture fraction heterogeneities that bias the one-color detection strategy. Toluene condensation occurs during the expansion and exhaust stroke and causes local mixture fraction heterogeneities in the combustion chamber. Liquid toluene is in contact with solid surfaces and crevices of the combustion chamber and can evaporate during compression or expansion causing both local temperature and mixture stratification. This work demonstrates the advantage of high-speed imaging and use of multiple image diagnostics to reveal the development of natural temperature and mixture stratification in a motored IC engine. This work also suggests that natural temperature stratification typically regarded from gas-wall heat transfer may also be caused by liquid droplet evaporation on solid surfaces. Such phenomenon, however, is expected to be pertinent for all modern-day engine operating systems.

Peterson, Brian; Baum, Elias; Böhm, Benjamin; Sick, Volker; Dreizler, Andreas

2014-10-01

350

REPEATED INHALATION OF TOLUENE BY RATS PERFORMING A SIGNAL DETECTION TASK LEADS TO BEHVIORAL TOLERANCE ON SOME PERFORMANCE MEASURES.  

EPA Science Inventory

Previous work showed that trichloroethylene (TCE) impairs sustained attention as evidenced by a reduction in accuracy and elevation of response latencies in rats trained to perform a visual signal detection task (SDT). This work also showed that these effects abate during repeat...

351

Toluene 2-Monooxygenase-Dependent Growth of Burkholderia cepacia G4/PR1 on Diethyl Ether  

PubMed Central

Aerobic bacterial growth on aromatic hydrocarbons typically requires oxygenase enzymes, which are known to fortuitously oxidize nongrowth substrates. In this study, we found that oxidation of diethyl ether by toluene 2-monooxygenase supported more rapid growth of Burkholderia cepacia G4/PR1 than did the aromatic substrates n-propylbenzene and o-xylene. The wild-type Burkholderia cepacia G4 failed to grow on diethyl ether. Purified toluene 2-monooxygenase protein components oxidized diethyl ether stoichiometrically to ethanol and acetaldehyde. Butyl methyl ether, diethyl sulfide, and 2-chloroethyl ethyl ether were oxidized by B. cepacia G4/PR1. PMID:16535583

Hur, H.; Newman, L. M.; Wackett, L. P.; Sadowsky, M. J.

1997-01-01

352

Toluene laser-induced fluorescence for in-cylinder temperature imaging in internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-laser single-camera imaging technique was demonstrated for in-cylinder temperature distribution measurements in a\\u000a direct-injection internal combustion engine. The single excitation wavelength two-color detection technique is based on toluene\\u000a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). Toluene-LIF emission spectra show a red-shift with increasing temperature. Temperature can\\u000a thus be determined from the ratio of the signal measured in two separate wavelength ranges independent of

M. Luong; R. Zhang; C. Schulz; V. Sick

2008-01-01

353

Solubilities of Toluene, Benzene and TCE in High-Biomass Systems  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements of solubility limits for benzene, toluene, and TCE in systems that contain varying levels of biomass up to 0.13 g/mL. The solubility limit increased from 20 to 48 mM when biomass (in the form of yeast) was added to aqueous batch systems containing benzene. The toluene solubility limit increased from 4.9 to greater than 20 mM. For TCE, the solubility increased from 8 mM to more than 1000 mM. Solubility for TCE was most heavily impacted by biomass levels, changing by two orders of magnitude.

Barton, John W. [Battelle Eastern Science & Technology Center; Vodraska, Christopher D [ORNL; Flanary, Sandie A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Davison, Brian H [ORNL

2008-01-01

354

Part 1: Vadose-zone column studies of toluene (enhanced bioremediation) in a shallow unconfined aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objectives of the laboratory study described in this paper were (1) to determine the effectiveness of four nutrient solutions and a control in stimulating the microbial degradation of toluene in the unsaturated zone as an alternative to bioremediation methodologies such as air sparging, in situ vitrification, or others (Part I), and (2) to compare the effectiveness of the addition of the most effective nutrient solution from Part I (modified Hoagland type, nitrate-rich) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on microbial degradation of toluene for repeated, simulated spills in the unsaturated zone (Part II). For Part 1, fifteen columns (30-cm diameter by 150-cm height), packed with air-dried, 0.25-mm, medium-fine sand, were prepared to simulate shallow unconfined aquifer conditions. Toluene (10 mL) was added to the surface of each column, and soil solution and soil gas samples were collected from the columns every third day for 21 days. On day 21, a second application of toluene (10 mL) was made, and the experiment was run for another 21 days. Solution 4 was the most effective for microbial degradation in Part I. For Part II, three columns were designated nutrient-rich 3-day toluene columns and received toluene injections every 3 days; three columns were designated as nutrient-rich 7-day columns and received toluene injections every 7 days; and two columns were used as controls to which no nutrient was added. As measured by CO2 respiration, the initial benefits for aerobic organisms from the O2 enhancement were sustained by the bacteria for only a short period of time (about 8 days). Degradation benefits from the nutrient solution were sustained throughout the experiment. The O2 and nutrient-enhanced columns degraded significantly more toluene than the control columns when simulating repeated spills onto the unsaturated zone, and demonstrated a potentially effective in situ bioremediation technology when used immediately or within days after a spill. The combined usage of H 2O2 and nitrate-rich nutrients served to effectively maximize natural aerobic and anaerobic metabolic processes that biodegrade hydrocarbons in petroleum-contaminated media. Applications of this technology in the field may offer economical advantages to other, more intrusive abatement technologies. ?? Springer 2005.

Tindall, J.A.; Friedel, M.J.; Szmajter, R.J.; Cuffin, S.M.

2005-01-01

355

Stepwise oxygenations of toluene and 4-nitrotoluene by a fungal peroxygenase.  

PubMed

Fungal peroxygenases have recently been shown to catalyze remarkable oxidation reactions. The present study addresses the mechanism of benzylic oxygenations catalyzed by the extracellular peroxygenase of the agaric basidiomycete Agrocybe aegerita. The peroxygenase oxidized toluene and 4-nitrotoluene via the corresponding alcohols and aldehydes to give benzoic acids. The reactions proceeded stepwise with total conversions of 93% for toluene and 12% for 4-nitrotoluene. Using H(2)(18)O(2) as the co-substrate, we show here that H(2)O(2) is the source of the oxygen introduced at each reaction step. A. aegerita peroxygenase resembles cytochromes P450 and heme chloroperoxidase in catalyzing benzylic hydroxylations. PMID:20470751

Kinne, Matthias; Zeisig, Christian; Ullrich, René; Kayser, Gernot; Hammel, Kenneth E; Hofrichter, Martin

2010-06-18

356

A PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR TOLUENE IN THE LONG EVANS RAT: BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY.  

EPA Science Inventory

A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for inhaled toluene was developed for Long-Evans rats as a component of an exposure-dose-response (EDR) model for volatile organic compounds. The PBPK model was needed to link airborne toluene exposure to its concentration in b...

357

1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene Transformation Reaction Compared with its Transalkylation Reaction with Toluene over USY Zeolite Catalyst  

E-print Network

with Toluene over USY Zeolite Catalyst Sulaiman Al-Khattaf,* Nasir M. Tukur, and Adnan Al-Amer Chemical,2,4-Trimethylbenzene (TMB) transalkylation with toluene has been studied over USY zeolite type catalyst using a riser by Mobil-CPC.1,2 Zeolites such as Y, zeolite beta, and modernite possess a pore size large enough

Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman

358

Catalytic hydroxylation of benzene and toluene by an iron complex bearing a chelating di-pyridyl-di-NHC ligand.  

PubMed

This work reports on iron-catalysed hydroxylation of benzene and toluene using aqueous H2O2. While benzene is hydroxylated with a high selectivity to phenol, toluene is hydroxylated to cresols with a high selectivity for the ortho and para-position. An inverse KIE indicates the presence of a high valent Fe=O species during catalysis. PMID:24840886

Raba, Andreas; Cokoja, Mirza; Herrmann, Wolfgang A; Kühn, Fritz E

2014-10-01

359

Biotransformation of d-Limonene to (+) trans-Carveol by Toluene-Grown Rhodococcus opacus PWD4 Cells  

PubMed Central

The toluene-degrading strain Rhodococcus opacus PWD4 was found to hydroxylate d-limonene exclusively in the 6-position, yielding enantiomerically pure (+) trans-carveol and traces of (+) carvone. This biotransformation was studied using cells cultivated in chemostat culture with toluene as a carbon and energy source. The maximal specific activity of (+) trans-carveol formation was 14.7 U (g of cells [dry weight])?1, and the final yield was 94 to 97%. Toluene was found to be a strong competitive inhibitor of the d-limonene conversion. Glucose-grown cells did not form any trans-carveol from d-limonene. These results suggest that one of the enzymes involved in toluene degradation is responsible for this allylic monohydroxylation. Another toluene degrader (Rhodococcus globerulus PWD8) had a lower specific activity but was found to oxidize most of the formed trans-carveol to (+) carvone, allowing for the biocatalytic production of this flavor compound. PMID:11375201

Duetz, Wouter A.; Fjällman, Ann H. M.; Ren, Shuyu; Jourdat, Catherine; Witholt, Bernard

2001-01-01

360

FIELD APPLICATIONS OF CHEMICAL TIME-SERIES SAMPLING  

EPA Science Inventory

Two municipal supply wells in Lakewood, Washington, were found to be contaminated with trichloroethylene, transdichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene. Sequential samples were taken for chemical analyses, in conjunction with drawdown measurement during aquifer (pump) tests desi...

361

MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO TOXICOLOGICAL SCREENING: I. SYSTEMIC TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicity of 10 chemicals (carbaryl, carbon tetrachloride, chlordane, ethylhexylphthalate, dichloromethane, heptachlor, phenol, tetrachloroethylene, triadimefon, and trichloroethylene were examined in the liver, kidney, spleen, thymus, and adrenal of female F-344 rats. cute le...

362

Does increasing the temperature induce DNAPL migration?  

EPA Science Inventory

Tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and chlorobenzene have been identified as contaminants in groundwater and are sometimes called Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPL). Thermal methods for remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater rely on raising the temperature o...

363

IN-PLACE REGENERATION OF SVE LOADED GAC USING FENTON'S REAGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ten out of the 25 most frequently detected groundwater contaminants at hazardous waste sites are chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 1. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are among the top three 1. Granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption is widel...

364

IN-PLACE REGENERATION OF SVE LOADED GAC USING FENTON'S REAGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ten out of the 25 most frequently detected groundwater contaminants at hazardous waste sites are chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 1 . Trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are among the top three 1 . Granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption is w...

365

Applications of Monitored Natural Attenuation in the USA (Presentation)  

EPA Science Inventory

Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is widely applied in the USA to control the risk associated with ground water contamination from chlorinated solvents such a tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). MNA relies on the natural processes of degradation, sorption an...

366

Applications of Monitored Natural Attenuation in the USA (Abstract)  

EPA Science Inventory

Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is widely applied in the USA to control the risk associated with ground water contamination from chlorinated solvents such a tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). MNA relies on the natural processes of degradation, sorption an...

367

EVALUATION OF EMISSION TEST METHODS FOR HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS. VOLUME I, CC14, C2H4C12, C2C14, AND C2HC13  

EPA Science Inventory

A test method for halogenated hydrocarbons has been evaluated and information is provided for the user. Four compounds were investigated, carbon tetrachloride, ethylene dichloride, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene. The subject compounds remained stable in compressed gas...

368

Determination of adsorption isotherms of chlorinated hydrocarbons on halloysite adsorbent by inverse gas chromatography.  

PubMed

Inverse gas chromatographic methods of isotherm determination peak maximum (PM) and peak division (PD) were compared. These methods were applied to determine adsorption isotherms of dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene on acid-activated halloysite and adsorption enthalpy. PMID:23523065

Czech, K; S?omkiewicz, P M

2013-05-01

369

BINARY DESORPTION ISOTHERMS OF TCE AND PCE FROM SILICA GEL AND NATURAL SOLIDS. (R822626)  

EPA Science Inventory

Binary solute desorption isotherms of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) at 100% relative humidity from silica gel and two well-characterized natural solids were investigated. Results indicated that the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) was able to descr...

370

Simulation of solute transport of tetrachloroethylene in ground water of the glacial-drift aquifer at the Savage Municipal Well Superfund Site, Milford, New Hampshire, 1960-2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Savage Municipal Well Superfund site, named after the former municipal water-supply well for the town of Milford, is underlain by a 0.5-square mile plume of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The plume occurs mostly within a highly transmissive sand-and-gravel unit, but also extends to an underlying till and bedrock unit. The plume logistically is divided into two areas termed Operable Unit No. 1 (OU1), which contains the primary source area, and Operable Unit No. 2 (OU2), which is the extended plume area. PCE concentrations in excess of 100,000 parts per billion (ppb) had been detected in the OU1 area in 1995, indicating a likely Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) source. In the fall of 1998, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) installed a remedial system in OU1. The OU1 remedial system includes a low-permeability barrier that encircles the highest detected concentrations of PCE, and a series of injection and extraction wells. The barrier primarily sits atop bedrock and penetrates the full thickness of the sand and gravel; and in some places, the full thickness of the underlying basal till. The sand and gravel unit and the till comprise the aquifer termed the Milford-Souhegan glacial-drift aquifer (MSGD). Two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite-difference solute-transport models of the unconsolidated sediments (MSGD aquifer) were constructed to help evaluate solute-transport processes, assess the effectiveness of remedial activities in OU1, and to help design remedial strategies in OU2. The solute-transport models simulate PCE concentrations, and model results were compared to observed concentrations of PCE. Simulations were grouped into the following three time periods: an historical calibration of the distribution of PCE from the initial input (circa 1960) of PCE into the subsurface to the 1990s, a pre-remedial calibration from 1995 to 1998, and a remedial (post-barrier wall) calibration from 1998 to 1999. Model results also were checked against observed PCE concentrations from May and June 2000 as a post-audit of model performance. Results of the simulations of the two-dimensional model for the historical calibration indicate that the model-computed length of the plume is affected by the retardation factor (retardation). Values of retardation greater than 3 caused the longitudinal length of the computed plume to be too short compared to the observed plume. A retardation of 2-2.5 produced a reasonable comparison between computed and observed PCE concentrations. Testing of different starting times and rates of mass input of PCE indicated that the plume reaches a quasi steady-state distribution in about 20 years regardless of the rate of mass input or values of the solute-transport parameters (retardation, dispersion, and irreversible reaction) assigned the model. Results of the simulations of the three-dimensional model for the pre-remedial (1995-98) calibration of PCE for the OU2 area identified some spatial biases in computed concentrations that generally were unaffected by changes in retardation. The computed PCE concentrations exceeded observed concentrations along the northern part of the plume in OU2, where PCE increases were observed in a bedrock well. These results indicate that some PCE in this area may be entering the bedrock, which is not simulated in the model. Conversely, computed PCE concentrations were less than observed concentrations along the southern part of the plume in OU2. Because testing of high (above 4) values of retardation did little to reduce residuals, it is concluded that the low computed PCE concentrations along the southern flank are likely the result of an underestimation of the initial PCE mass in this area or an unaccounted source of PCE. Results of the simulations of the three-dimensional model for the remedial calibration period (1998-99) and po

Harte, Philip T.

2004-01-01

371

Treatment of O?-free toluene emissions by anoxic biotrickling filtration.  

PubMed

Toluene biotrickling filtration under anoxic denitrifying conditions was evaluated in two identical bioreactors (R1 and R2) operated at liquid recycling rates of 1.3, 2.7 and 5.3 m h?1 and liquid renewal rates of 0 and 0.17 d?1. R1 and R2 achieved a similar maximum elimination capacity (EC ?30 g m?3 h?1) at the same toluene inlet load (?50 g m?3 h?1), which was approximately 7 times higher compared with available literature on continuous toluene removal under anoxic conditions. Nevertheless, higher metabolite accumulation was observed in the bioreactor operated without periodical liquid phase renewal (R2), leading to intermittent drops in its toluene removal performance. This is the first work operating an anoxic biotrickling filter at empty bed residence time of 3 min, which is comparable with those employed in conventional aerobic systems. A characterization of the metabolites accumulated in the liquid phase revealed a dynamic metabolite production and degradation. PMID:25461947

Saucedo-Lucero, J Octavio; Marcos, Raúl; Salvador, María; Arriaga, Sonia; Muñoz, Raúl; Quijano, Guillermo

2014-12-01

372

Exposure to benzene, toluene, xylenes and total hydrocarbons among snowmobile drivers in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposure to benzene, toluene, xylenes and total hydrocarbons among 25 individuals exposed to exhaust from a snowmobile equipped with a two-stroke engine has been evaluated. Sampling was performed by pumped and diffusive sampling in parallel. There was a relatively bad agreement between the two air-sampling methods. The bad agreement can in part be explained by back diffusion of the

Kåre Eriksson; Dan Tjärner; Inger Marqvardsen; Bengt Järvholm

2003-01-01

373

Degree of branching in hyperbranched poly(glycerol-co-diacid)s synthesized in toluene  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hyperbranched polymers were synthesized by using a Lewis acid (dibutyltin(IV)oxide) to catalyze the polycondensation of glycerol with either succinic acid (n (aliphatic chain length)=2), glutaric acid (n=3) or azelaic acid (n=7) in toluene. These are the first examples of diacid-glycerol hyperbranc...

374

The effect of aging on the bioavailability of toluene sorbed to municipal solid waste components.  

PubMed

Past practice of co-disposing priority pollutants with municipal solid waste (MSW) has led to the placement of more than 150 MSW landfills in the US on the National Priorities List of Superfund. Interactions between organic contaminants and MSW constituents and the effects of these interactions on contaminant fate are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sorbate-sorbent aging time and sorbent decomposition on toluene bioavailability and fate. The bioavailability of (14)C-toluene sorbed to individual MSW constituents [office paper, newsprint, model food and yard waste, high density polyethylene (HDPE), and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)] was evaluated after aging times of 1, 30, and 180 d. Biodegradable sorbents were tested in both fresh and anaerobically degraded forms to evaluate the effect of sorbent decomposition. At the termination of bioavailability tests, the distribution of (14)C that was not converted to (14)CO(2) was measured by sequential lipophilic solvent and base extractions of sorbents followed by combustion of extracted sorbents. Increasing the toluene-sorbent aging time reduced the rate of toluene biodegradation for all MSW components except for HDPE. (14)C remaining in sorbents at the completion of bioavailability tests was physically sequestered within and/or covalently bound to sorbent organic matter, and this fraction increased with increasing aging time. Up to 18.6% of (14)C was associated with humic matter (humic and fulvic acids, humin) at the completion of bioavailability tests. PMID:22850276

Chen, Ye; Knappe, Detlef R U; Barlaz, Morton A

2013-01-01

375

BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS OF LONG EVANS RATS FOLLOWING A 13-WEEK SUBCHRONIC TOLUENE EXPOSURE.  

EPA Science Inventory

The current study sought to develop an animal model of the neurotoxicity of long-term exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which may be used to predict the effects of chronic exposure to VOCs on public health. The effects of Subchronic inhalation exposure to toluene (0,...

376

EFFECT OF AGING ON THE CARDIOVASCULAR AND THERMOREGULATORY RESPONSE TO TOLUENE IN THE BROWN NORWAY RATS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Since the proportion of aged in the U.S. will expand markedly for the next several decades, the U.S.EPA is assessing if the aged are more susceptible to environmental toxicants. The neurotoxicity of toluene (TOL) has been well characterized in young adults but has not been studie...

377

AMS-1B crystalline borosilicate molecular sieve-based catalyst compositions and process for toluene alkylation  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for making ethyltoluene by reacting ethylene with toluene in the presence of a catalyst composition comprising: HAMS-1B crystalline borosilicate molecular sieve incorporated into an inorganic matrix; composition impregnated by a magnesium compound and subsequently heated to substantially convert to the oxide form; and containing composition between about 4 and about 25% by weight magnesium.

Nimry, T.S.; Ellyn, G.; De Simone, R.E.

1987-06-16

378

Organic Rankine-cycle power systems working fluids study: Topical report No. 2, Toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy initiated an investigation at Argonne National Laboratory in 1982 to experimentally determine the thermal stability limits and degradation rates of toluene as a function of maximum cycle temperature. Following the design and construction of a dynamic test loop capable of closely simulating the thermodynamic conditions of typical organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) power systems, four test runs,

R. L. Cole; J. C. Demirgian; J. W. Allen

1987-01-01

379

Organic Rankine-cycle power systems working fluids study: Topical report No. 2, Toluene  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy initiated an investigation at Argonne National Laboratory in 1982 to experimentally determine the thermal stability limits and degradation rates of toluene as a function of maximum cycle temperature. Following the design and construction of a dynamic test loop capable of closely simulating the thermodynamic conditions of typical organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) power systems, four test runs, totaling about 3900 h of test time and covering a temperature range of 600-677(degree)F, were completed. Both liquid and noncondensable-vapor (gaseous) samples were drawn periodically and analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. A computer program that can predict degradation in an ORC engine was developed. Experimental results indicate that, if oxygen can be excluded from the system, toluene is a stable fluid up to the maximum test temperature; the charge of toluene could be used for several years before replacement became necessary. (Additional data provided by Sundstrand Corp. from tests sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration indicate that toluene may be used at temperatures up to 750(degree)F.) Degradation products are benign; the main liquid degradation products are bibenzyls, and the main gaseous degradation products are hydrogen and methane. A cold trap to remove gaseous degradation products from the condenser is necessary for extended operation. 21 figs., 22 tabs.

Cole, R.L.; Demirgian, J.C.; Allen, J.W.

1987-02-01

380

Comparative studies on toluene removal and pressure drop in biofilters using different packing materials.  

PubMed

To select the best available packing material for malodorous organic gases such as toluene and benzene, biofilter performance was compared in biofilters employed different packing materials including porous ceramic (celite), Jeju scoria (lava), a mixture of granular activated carbon (GAC) and celite (GAC/celite), and cubic polyurethane foam (PU). A toluene-degrading bacterium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia T3-c, was used as the inoculum. The maximum elimination capacities in the celite, lava, and GAC/celite biofilters were 100, 130, and 110 gm(-3) hr(-1), respectively. The elimination capacity for the PU biofilter was approximately 350 g m(-3) hr(-1) at an inlet loading of approximately 430 g m(-3) hr(-1), which was 2 to 3.5 times higher than for the other biofilters. The pressure drop gradually increased in the GAC/ celite, celite and lava biofilters after 23 day due to bacterial over-growth, and the toluene removal efficiency remarkably decreased with increasing pressure drop. Backwashing method was not effective for the control of biomass in these biofilters. In the PU biofilter however, backwashing allowed maintenance of a pressure drop of 1 to 3 mm H2O m(-1) and a removal efficiency of > 80%, indicating that the PU was the best packing material for toluene removal among the packing materials tested. PMID:21047004

Ryu, Hee Wook; Kim, So Jung; Cho, Kyung Suk

2010-05-01

381

Intrinsic potential for immediate biodegradation of toluene in a pristine, energy-limited aquifer.  

PubMed

Pristine and energy-limited aquifers are considered to have a low resistance and resilience towards organic pollution. An experiment in an indoor aquifer system revealed an unexpected high intrinsic potential for the attenuation of a short-term toluene contamination. A 30 h pulse of 486 mg of toluene, used as a model contaminant, and deuterated water (D2O) through an initially pristine, oxic, and organic carbon poor sandy aquifer revealed an immediate aerobic toluene degradation potential. Based on contaminant and tracer break-through curves, as well as mass balance analyses and reactive transport modelling, a contaminant removal of 40 % over a transport distance of only 4.2 m in less than one week of travel time was obtained. The mean first-order degradation rate constant was ? = 0.178 day(-1), corresponding to a half-life time constant T1/2 of 3.87 days. Toluene-specific stable carbon isotope analysis independently proved that the contaminant mass removal can be attributed to microbial biodegradation. Since average doubling times of indigenous bacterial communities were in the range of months to years, the aerobic biodegradation potential observed is assumed to be present and active in the pristine, energy-limited groundwater ecosystems at any time. Follow-up experiments and field studies will help to quantify the immediate natural attenuation potential of aquifers for selected priority contaminants and will try to identify the key-degraders within the autochthonous microbial communities. PMID:24062165

Herzyk, Agnieszka; Maloszewski, Piotr; Qiu, Shiran; Elsner, Martin; Griebler, Christian

2014-06-01

382

Evaluation of the polymer–solvent interaction parameter ? for the system cured polybutadiene rubber and toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most popular cured rubbers used in industrial applications is polybutadiene rubber (BR) and frequently its network structure, in the cured state, is studied by means of swelling in a solvent. Normally, toluene is used as solvent in this test. In order to estimate the crosslink density from the equilibrium volume fraction of rubber in the swollen state,

A. J. Marzocca; A. L. Rodríguez Garraza; M. A. Mansilla

2010-01-01

383

Electron attachment to toluene in n-hexane and 2,2-dimethylbutane at high pressure  

SciTech Connect

The effect of dilute concentration of toluene on the electron mobility in two isometric hexanes was studied as a function of pressure from 1 bar to 3 kbar and at selected temperatures between 9 and 60[degrees]C. The effect of toluene on the mobility is small at 1 bar but quite large at the higher pressures. The results are interpreted in terms of reversible electron attachment to a toluene species which is the monomer in n-hexane. For this reaction [triangle]H[sub r] is - 12.0 kcal /mol in n-hexane at 2.5 kbar. In 2,2-dimethylbutane attachment to a dimeric species is indicated. The volume changes for these attachment reactions are large, between [minus]80 and [minus]100 cm[sup 3]/mol. In hexane the volume changes are attributed in part to the electrostriction of the solvent by the toluene anion and in part to a positive molar volume of the electron. 19 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Itoh, Kengo; Nishikawa, Masaru (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Holroyd, R. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

1993-01-14

384

Acute Toluene Exposure alters expression of genes associated with synaptic structure and function  

EPA Science Inventory

Toluene (TOL), a volatile organic compound, is a ubiquitous air pollutant of interest to EPA regulatory programs. Whereas its acute functional effects are well described, several potential modes of action in the CNS have been proposed. Therefore, the genomic response to acute TOL...

385

Environmental factors affecting toluene degradation in ground water at a hazardous-waste site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial ecology of pristine and contaminated ground water at a chemical waste disposal site was investigated. Recently, it was determined that ground water downslope from the disposal site contained elevated levels of toxic pollutants, including benzene, toluene, xylene and methylene chloride, as well as iron and manganese. Microbial mineralization and uptake of radio-labeled glucose and amino acids indicated a

Anthony Q. Armstrong; Robert E. Hodson; Huey-Min Hwang; David L. Lewis

1991-01-01

386

REMOVAL OF TOLUENE AND DICHLOROMETHANE FROM AQUEOUS PHASE BY GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON (GAC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorinated hydrocarbons and aromatics constitute the major class of volatile organic compounds that contaminate groundwater. In this study, the equilibrium uptake and column dynamics for the adsorption of dichloromethane (as a typical chlorinated hydrocarbon) and toluene (as a representative of aromatic compounds) from aqueous phase on coal-based granular activated carbon (GAC) were investigated. The adsorption isotherms were measured in a

F. Zeinali; A. A. Ghoreyshi; G. Najafpour

2012-01-01

387

Anaerobic degradation of toluene and xylene by aquifer microorganisms under sulfate-reducing conditions.  

PubMed Central

Toluene and the three isomers of xylene were completely mineralized to CO2 and biomass by aquifer-derived microorganisms under strictly anaerobic conditions. The source of the inoculum was gasoline-contaminated sediment from Seal Beach, Calif. Evidence confirming that sulfate was the terminal electron acceptor is presented. Benzene and ethylbenzene were not degraded under the experimental conditions used. Successive transfers of the mixed cultures that were enriched from aquifer sediments retained the ability to degrade toluene and xylenes. Greater than 90% of 14C-labeled toluene or 14C-labeled o-xylene was mineralized to 14CO2. The doubling time for the culture grown on toluene or m-xylene was about 20 days, and the cell yield was about 0.1 to 0.14 g of cells (dry weight) per g of substrate. The accumulation of sulfide in the cultures as a result of sulfate reduction appeared to inhibit degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:1575482

Edwards, E A; Wills, L E; Reinhard, M; Grbi?-Gali?, D

1992-01-01

388

TOWARD COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF ACUTE BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF TOLUENE IN HUMANS  

EPA Science Inventory

There is increasing interest in being able to express the consequences of exposure to potentially toxic compounds in monetary terms in order to evaluate potential cost-benefit relationships of controlling exposure. Behavioral effects of acute toluene exposure could be subjected ...

389

75 FR 52768 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Dichlorophene and Toluene Capsules  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...withdrawing approval of two new animal drug applications (NADAs) for use of dichlorophene and toluene deworming capsules for cats and dogs. In a final rule published elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is amending the regulations to remove...

2010-08-27

390

Cyclodextrin-enhanced degradation of toluene and p-toluic acid by Pseudomonas putida.  

PubMed Central

Degradation of an immiscible aromatic solvent, toluene, and a water-soluble aromatic compound, p-toluic acid, by a Pseudomonas putida strain in the presence of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) was investigated. The ability of CDs to interact with hydrophobic organics and form inclusion compounds was exploited in this study to remove or alleviate the toxicities of substrates and consequently to enable or enhance degradation. Liquid toluene was found to be highly toxic to P. putida. However, this phase toxicity was removed when crystalline beta-CD-complexed toluene was provided as the substrate. The latter was fully degraded at a concentration of up to 10 g/liter. Degradation of toluene vapors was enhanced in the presence of beta-CD as a result of reduced molecular toxicity and facilitated absorption of the gaseous substrate. Similarly, beta-CD alleviated the inhibitory effect of p-toluic acid on P. putida. This protective effect of CD was remarkably more prominent when the microbial culture was shock loaded with an otherwise toxic dose of p-toluic acid (1.8 g/liter). PMID:7618884

Schwartz, A; Bar, R

1995-01-01

391

Rats Repeatedly Exposed to Toluene Diisocyanate Exhibit Immune Reactivity against Methyl Isocyanate-Protein Conjugates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Volatile monoisocyanates are formed through thermal degradation when products containing polyurethane are heated. Repeated exposure to diisocyanates, such as toluene diisocyanate (TDI) are a well-known cause of occupational asthma. However, although monoisocyanates are abundant in occupational settings, there are few data concerning their ability to provoke immune reactions and asthma. We compared immune reactivity and respiratory disease following single

Linda Svensson-Elfsmark; Bo L. Koch; Åsa Gustafsson; Anders Bucht

2009-01-01

392

AGING AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TOLUENE IN RATS: A PHARMACOKINETIC, BIOMARKER, AND PHYSIOLOGICAL APPROACH.  

EPA Science Inventory

Aging adults are a growing segment of the U.S. population and are likely to exhibit increased susceptibility to many environmental toxicants. However, there is little information on the susceptibility of the aged to toxicants. The toxicity of toluene has been well characterized i...

393

PERSISTENT EFFECTS OF REPEATED INHALATION OF TOLUENE: 4 WEEKS VS. 13 WEEKS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding and predicting the extent of neurotoxic damage from repeated exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a problem for many EPA programs. Eighty adult, male Long-Evans rats inhaled toluene (0, 10, 100, or 1000 ppm) 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks in a systema...

394

COMPARING BEHAVIORAL DOSE-EFFECT CURVES FOR HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS ACUTELY EXPOSED TO TOLUENE.  

EPA Science Inventory

The utility of laboratory animal data in toxicology depends upon the ability to generalize the results quantitatively to humans. To compare the acute behavioral effects of inhaled toluene in humans to those in animals, dose-effect curves were fitted by meta-analysis of published...

395

EFFECTS OF TOLUENE INHALATION ON DETECTION OF AUDITORY SIGNALS IN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhalation of organic solvents can affect vigilance and reaction time in humans. n animal model of vigilance was designed to assess the effects of toluene on these processes. dult male Long-Evans rats were trained to detect auditory signals (increases of 1 to 7 dB, 20 msec in dur...

396

Degradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) by the lignin-degrading basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Microsoft Academic Search

BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), from gasoline, aviation fuels, and industrial syntheses, frequently contaminate soil, sediments, and ground water. Both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial have been shown to degrade BTEX compounds, but no one pure strain of bacterial is known to degrade all components of BTEX efficiently. Phanerochaite chrysosporium, a naturally occurring wood-degrading white-rot fungus, has a versatile

J. S. Yadav; C. A. Reddy

1993-01-01

397

Microbiological and kinetic aspects of a biofilter for the removal of toluene from waste gases  

SciTech Connect

Microbiological and kinetic aspects of a biofilter inoculated with a consortium of five bacteria and two yeast adapted to remove toluene vapors were investigated. Initially the toluene sorption isotherm on peat and the effect of different environmental conditions on the toluene consumption rates of this consortium were measured. The fast start-up of the biofilter and the decay in the elimination capacity (EC) were reproduced using microcosm assays with toluene successive additions. Nutrient limitation and a large degree of heterogeneity were also detected. EC values, extrapolated from microcosms, were higher than biofilter EC when it was operating close to 100% efficiency but tended to relate better as the biofilter EC diminished. In studies on the microbial evolution in the biofilter, an increase in the cell count and variation in the ecology of the consortium were noted. Bacterial counts up to 10 {times} 10{sup 11} cfu/g{sub dry peat} were found in 88 days, which corresponds to about a 10{sup 4} increase from inoculum. Observations with SEM showed a nonuniform biofilm development on the support and the presence of an extracellular material. The results obtained in this work demonstrated that activity measurement in microcosms concomitant to the biofilter operation could be an important tool for understanding, predicting and improving the biofiltration performance.

Acuna, M.E.; Perez, F.; Revah, S. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica] [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica; Auria, R. [ORSTOM, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. Francais of Recherche Scientifique pour Developpement en Cooperation] [ORSTOM, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. Francais of Recherche Scientifique pour Developpement en Cooperation

1999-04-20

398

EFFECTS OF MICROCOSM PREPARATION ON RATES OF TOLUENE BIODEGRADATION UNDER DENITRIFYING CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Microcosms were prepared with subsurface material from two aquifers to examine the effects of preparation methods on rates of toluene biodegradation under denitrifying conditions. In both cases, the data fit a zero-order kinetics plot. However, rates of removal were generally pro...

399

A QUANTITATIVE COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE INHALED TOLUENE IN HUMAN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of acute exposure to toluene have been explored more thoroughly than other hydrocarbon solvents. These effects have been experimentally studied in humans and other species, e.g., rats, as well as in a number of in vitro preparations. The existence ofdosimetric and eff...

400

ASSESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF THE BEHAVIORAL EFFECT OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO TOLUENE IN HUMANS.  

EPA Science Inventory

There is increasing interest in being able to evaluate potential benefit-cost relationships of controlling exposure to toxic substances. Behavioral effects of acute toluene exposure could be subjected to benefit-cost analysis if it's effects were quantitatively compared to tho...

401

Chemical characterisation of semi-volatile and aerosol compounds from the photooxidation of toluene and NOx  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of a gas phase and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mixture from toluene photooxidation in NOx was determined. Aerosol from toluene photooxidation was generated in a smog chamber and was collected onto glass fibre filters along with those gas phase compounds which adhered to the filter. The filter bound organic material was extracted, derivatised with O-2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl hydroxylamine (PFBHA) and N,O-bistrimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), then analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Compound identification was aided by the use of isotopically-labelled toluene. The effect of humidity on product formation was investigated by raising water vapour concentration in one experiment. Sixty compounds were identified, of which twenty had not been identified from toluene photooxidation previously. Small carboxylic acids and dicarbonyls provided the highest proportion of identifiable compounds by relative response. The use of water to extract the filter samples resulted in much higher relative responses for oxocarboxylic acids, such as glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid, than has been observed in previous studies. The formation of levulinic acid was determined to be due to the reaction of water with aromatic photooxidation products in the gas phase or particle phase of the chamber experiment. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to determine the functional groups of water-extracted organic material, which indicated that the water-soluble components were comprised of compounds which contain similar functional groups, primarily alcohols and carboxylic acids.

White, Stephen J.; Jamie, Ian M.; Angove, Dennys E.

2014-02-01

402

Combined air treatment: Effect of composition of fibrous filters on toluene adsorption and particle filtration efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obtain a system as efficient for collecting particles with a size less than 10?m (PM10) as removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs), prototype fibrous media containing activated carbon fibers (ACF) associated with non-adsorptive fibers such as cellulose (C) and polyester (PET) fibers have been developed. Influence of process operating parameters on toluene adsorption and particle filtration efficiency was

Agnès Rochereau; Benesse Marc; Le Coq Laurence; Evelyne Mauret; Subrenat Albert; Le Cloirec Pierre

2008-01-01

403

Laboratory Evolution of Toluene Dioxygenase To Accept 4Picoline as a Substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are using directed evolution to extend the range of dioxygenase-catalyzed biotransformations to include substrates that are either poorly accepted or not accepted at all by the naturally occurring enzymes. Here we report on the oxidation of a heterocyclic substrate, 4-picoline, by toluene dioxygenase (TDO) and improvement of the enzyme's activity by laboratory evolution. The biotransformation of 4-picoline proceeds at

TAKESHI SAKAMOTO; JOHN M. JOERN; AKIRA ARISAWA; FRANCES H. ARNOLD

2001-01-01

404

Investigation of a cylindrical chemosorptive denuder for sampling and phase separation of toluene diisocyanate aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cylindrical chemosorptive denuder in series with a glass fibre filter has been evaluated for sampling toluene diisocyanate (TDI) aerosols. The sampler is designed for measuring personal exposure to diisocyanates. Several denuder coatings and derivatising reagents were investigated. Dimethylpolysiloxane (SE-30) and 5% phenyl dimethylpolysiloxane (SE-54) with either dibutylamine (DBA) or dipentylamine (DPeA) as derivatising reagents yielded the lowest vapour breakthrough

Yvonne Nordqvist; Ulrika Nilsson; Anders Colmsjö

2005-01-01

405

Effect of Methanol on Exhaust Composition of a Fuel Containing Toluene, n-Heptane, and Isooctane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the variations in the chemical composition of the exhaust from a single cylinder engine when up to 25% methanol is added to a fuel blend of toluene, isooctane, and n-heptane. Under fuel-rich conditions, and with increasing methanol concentration, it is observed that unburned fuel and benzene emissions increase, exhaust acetylene remains constant, and propylene, isobutylene, methane, ethylbenzene,

J. S. Ninomiya; A. Golovoy; S. S. Labana

1970-01-01

406

Horizontal Gene Transfer to Endogenous Endophytic Bacteria from Poplar Improves Phytoremediation of Toluene  

PubMed Central

Poplar, a plant species frequently used for phytoremediation of groundwater contaminated with organic solvents, was inoculated with the endophyte Burkholderia cepacia VM1468. This strain, whose natural host is yellow lupine, contains the pTOM-Bu61 plasmid coding for constitutively expressed toluene degradation. Noninoculated plants or plants inoculated with the soil bacterium B. cepacia Bu61(pTOM-Bu61) were used as controls. Inoculation of poplar had a positive effect on plant growth in the presence of toluene and reduced the amount of toluene released via evapotranspiration. These effects were more dramatic for VM1468, the endophytic strain, than for Bu61. Remarkably, none of the strains became established at detectable levels in the endophytic community, but there was horizontal gene transfer of pTOM-Bu61 to different members of the endogenous endophytic community, both in the presence and in the absence of toluene. This work is the first report of in planta horizontal gene transfer among plant-associated endophytic bacteria and demonstrates that such transfer could be used to change natural endophytic microbial communities in order to improve the remediation of environmental insults. PMID:16332840

Taghavi, Safiyh; Barac, Tanja; Greenberg, Bill; Borremans, Brigitte; Vangronsveld, Jaco; van der Lelie, Daniel

2005-01-01

407

AGE-RELATED TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental exposures is poorly understood. To investigate-the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of an acute exposure to the volatile organic compound, toluene (0.0 or 1.0 g/kg), i...

408

Review of toluene action: clinical evidence, animal studies and molecular targets  

PubMed Central

It has long been known that individuals will engage in voluntary inhalation of volatile solvents for their rewarding effects. However, research into the neurobiology of these agents has lagged behind that of more commonly used drugs of abuse such as psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine. This imbalance has begun to shift in recent years as the serious effects of abused inhalants, especially among children and adolescents, on brain function and behavior have become appreciated and scientifically documented. In this review, we discuss the physicochemical and pharmacological properties of toluene, a representative member of a large class of organic solvents commonly used as inhalants. This is followed by a brief summary of the clinical and pre-clinical evidence showing that toluene and related solvents produce significant effects on brain structures and processes involved in the rewarding aspects of drugs. This is highlighted by tables highlighting toluene’s effect on behaviors (reward, motor effects, learning, etc.) and cellular proteins (e.g. voltage and ligand-gated ion channels) closely associated the actions of abused substances. These sections demonstrate not only the significant progress that has been made in understanding the neurobiological basis for solvent abuse but also reveal the challenges that remain in developing a coherent understanding of this often overlooked class of drugs of abuse. PMID:25360325

Cruz, Silvia L.; Rivera-García, María Teresa; Woodward, John J.

2014-01-01

409

STIMULATION OF THE REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF TETRACHLOROETHENE IN ANAEROBIC AQUIFER MICROCOSMS BY THE ADDITION OF TOLUENE  

EPA Science Inventory

In this study, the biologically mediated interactions of toluene and PCE under anaerobic conditions were investigated by using microcosms constructed with aquifer solids from an area that was exposed to both alkylbenzenes and chlorinated ethenes at the U.S. Coast Guard Air Statio...

410

Phase equilibria of toluene\\/heptane with deep eutectic solvents based on ethyltriphenylphosphonium iodide for the potential use in the separation of aromatics from naphtha  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the liquid-liquid extraction of toluene from hydrocarbons mixtures (toluene\\/heptane) was investigated using deep eutectic solvents as solvents. Ethyltriphenylphosphonium iodide as a salt with either ethylene glycol or sulfolane as hydrogen-bond donors (HBDs) were utilized for synthesizing six DESs. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria data were determined experimentally for the ternary system (toluene + heptane + DES) at (30,

M. A. Kareem; F. S. Mjalli; M. A. Hashim; M. K. O. Hadj-Kali; F. S. Ghareh Bagh; I. M. Alnashef

2013-01-01

411

IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE USING BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA G4 PR1: ANALYSIS OF MICROBIAL ECOLOGY PARAMETERS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT (RESEARCH BRIEF)  

EPA Science Inventory

The introduction of bacteria into aquifers for bioremediation purposes requires monitoring of the persistence and activity of microbial populations for efficacy and risk assessment purposes. Burkholderia cepacia G4 PR1 constitutively expresses a toluene ortho-monooxygenase (tom) ...

412

Effect of bumetanide on toluene diisocyanate induced contractions in guinea pig airways.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The loop diuretic frusemide has been shown to inhibit the bronchoconstrictor response to exercise, inhaled allergen, distilled water, adenosine, and sodium metabisulphite. Toluene diisocyanate contracts smooth muscle by activating capsaicin sensitive nerves and causes asthma that shares many features with allergen induced asthma. METHODS: The study was designed to assess the effect of two loop diuretics, bumetanide (10 and 100 microM) and frusemide (100 microM), on smooth muscle contraction induced by toluene diisocyanate (0.03-1000 microM) in guinea pig airways with and, in the case of bumetanide, without epithelium. The effect of bumetanide on the response to acetylcholine, neurokinin A, and electrical field stimulation in guinea pig bronchial smooth muscle rings was also examined. RESULTS: Bumetanide (10 and 100 microM) had no effect on toluene diisocyanate induced contraction whether airway epithelium was present or not. Frusemide (100 microM) caused no significant inhibition of toluene diisocyanate induced contraction (mean reduction on the entire curve 25%). Bumetanide inhibited non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic contraction induced by electrical field stimulation of bronchi pretreated with atropine (1 microM) and indomethacin (5 microM) and this inhibition was inversely related to the frequency of stimulation, suggesting that bumetanide may be inhibiting transmitter release at the prejunctional level. Bumetanide and frusemide did not inhibit the responses to exogenous acetylcholine (0.1 microM) or neurokinin A (1 nM). CONCLUSIONS: Bumetanide and frusemide in doses that are known to inhibit non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic contraction due to electrical field stimulation failed to inhibit the response to toluene diisocyanate in guinea pig airways. PMID:8381989

Mapp, C E; Boniotti, A; Papi, A; Maggi, C A; Di Stefano, A; Saetta, M; Ciaccia, A; Fabbri, L M

1993-01-01

413

Change of sludge consortium in response to sequential adaptation to benzene, toluene, and o-xylene.  

PubMed

Activated sludge was sequentially adapted to benzene, toluene, and o-xylene (BTX) to study the effects on the change of microbial community. Sludge adapted to BTX separately degraded each by various rates in the following order; toluene>o-xylene>benzene. Degradation rates were increased after exposure to repeated spikes of substrates. Eleven different kinds of sludge were prepared by the combination of BTX sequential adaptations. Clustering analyses (Jaccard, Dice, Pearson, and cosine product coefficient and dimensional analysis of MDS and PCA for DGGE patterns) revealed that acclimated sludge had different features from nonacclimated sludge and could be grouped together according to their prior treatment. Benzene- and xylene-adapted sludge communities showed similar profiles. The sludge profile was affected from the point of the final adaptation substrate regardless of the adaptation sequence followed. In the sludge adapted to 50 ppm toluene, Nitrosomonas sp. and bacterium were dominant, but these bands were not dominant in benzene and benzene after toluene adaptations. Instead, Flexibacter sp. was dominant in these cultures. Dechloromonas sp. was dominant in the culture adapted to 50 ppm benzene. Thauera sp. was the main band in the sludge adapted to 50 ppm xylene, but became vaguer as the xylene concentration was increased. Rather, Flexibacter sp. dominated in the sludge adapted to 100 ppm xylene, although not in the culture adapted to 250 ppm xylene. Two bacterial species dominated in the sludge adapted to 250 ppm xylene, and they also existed in the sludge adapted to 250 ppm xylene after toluene and benzene. PMID:18092460

Park, Jae Yeon; Sang, Byoung-In

2007-11-01

414

Effects of toluene, acrolein and vinyl chloride on motor activity of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

The data generated by current high-throughput assays for chemical toxicity require information to link effects at molecular targets to adverse outcomes in whole animals. In addition, more efficient methods for testing volatile chemicals are needed. Here we begin to address these issues by determining the utility of measuring behavioral responses of Drosophila melanogaster to airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as a potential model system for discovering adverse outcome pathways and as a method to test for toxicity. In these experiments, we measured motor activity in male and female flies to determine concentration-effect functions for three VOCs that differ in their mode of action: toluene, a narcotic; acrolein, an irritant; and vinyl chloride, a hepatocarcinogen. These experiments were conducted in Flyland, an outbred population of flies derived from 40 lines of the Drosophila Genetics Reference Panel (DGRP) (Mackay et al., 2012), in preparation for subsequent experiments with individual lines of the DGRP. Systematic, concentration-related changes in activity were observed with toluene, but not with acrolein; high concentrations of vinyl chloride reduced activity by a small amount. Despite higher activity levels in males than in females under control conditions, the sexes were equally sensitive to toluene. Transient increases in activity at the onset and offset of exposure to toluene and vinyl chloride suggested that the flies detected changes in air quality at concentrations that did not persistently suppress activity. The effects and potency of toluene are consistent with those observed in rodents. The lack of clear concentration-related changes in response to acrolein and vinyl chloride shows limitations of this method is for screening toxicity attributed to VOCs. This abstract does not reflect U.S. EPA policy. PMID:25445728

Tatum-Gibbs, K R; McKee, J M; Higuchi, M; Bushnell, P J

2015-01-01

415

Health assessment for Aerojet-General Corporation, Rancho Cordova, Sac Ramento County, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CAD980358832. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The Aerojet-General Corporation site is on the National Priorities List. Since the 1950s, Aerojet-General has manufactured liquid and solid propellent rocket engines for military and commercial applications, and has formulated a number of chemicals. The environmental contamination on-site (maximum concentrations reported) consists of trichloroethylene (12 ppm), toluene (4.2 ppm), chloroform (100 ppm), and methylene chloride (5.9 ppm) in ground water; and 1,1-dichloroethane (1.6 ppm), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1.8 ppm), carbon tetrachloride (1 ppm), and tetrachloroethylene (0.6 ppm) in surface water. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the likelihood of exposure to hazardous substances via contaminated ground water.

Not Available

1988-12-05

416

Analysis of organic compounds (VOC) in the forest air of the Southern Black Forest  

SciTech Connect

The volatile organic compounds of forest air (Kaelbelescheuer, Southern Black Forest) and, for comparison, suburban air (Tuebingen) were qualitatively analyzed by gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods. 94 Individual compounds were identified, 6 of them belonged to biogenic monoterpenes (..cap alpha..-pinene, ..delta..3-carene, myrcene, limonene, eucalyptol, camphene). While the monoterpenes were enriched in forest air, a similar collection of the pollution products was observed in both locations. Predominant substances were aromatic compounds (toluene, ethylbenzene, benzene, xylenes, ethyltoluenes, pseudocumene and naphthalene) which can be regarded as constituents of vehicle exhaust fumes and incineration processes. Other important substances in forest air were various solvents, of which butyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene, butanol-1, and several ketones were prominent species.

Juettner, F.

1986-01-01

417

Intercomparison of sampling techniques for toxic organic compounds in indoor air. Final report, March 1985-September 1986  

SciTech Connect

People spend a major fraction of their time indoors, and there is concern over exposure to volatile organic compounds present in indoor air. The study was initiated to compare several VOC sampling techniques in an indoor environment. The techniques which were compared include distributive air volume sampling, high- and low-rate passive sampling, and whole air collection in canisters. The study focused on ten target compounds: chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, benzene, bromodichloromethane, trichloroethylene, toluene, tetrachloroethylene, styrene, p-dichlorobenzene, and hexachlorobutadiene. Altogether, ten separate 12-hour sampling experiments were conducted. Two experiments sampled the background air of the residence. For the other eight experiments, the indoor air was spiked with the target compounds. Statistical analysis of the results indicates generally high correlation coefficients (greater than 0.90) between the methods. The most notable exception was benzene, which had lower correlation coefficients. In general, the distributed air volume sampling technique measure concentrations less than or equal to the canister method.

Spicer, C.W.; Holdren, M.W.; Slivon, L.E.; Coutant, R.W.; Shadwick, D.S.

1987-03-01

418

Health assessment for Powell Road Landfill, Dayton, Montgomery County, Ohio, Region 5. CERCLIS No. OHD000382663. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The Powell Road Landfill site is listed on the National Priorities List. The 67-acre site began operation in 1959 as a municipal landfill after being used as a gravel pit for an unspecified period of time. The environmental contamination on-site consists of benzidine, benzene (5 ppb), trichloroethylene, trans- 1,2-dichloroethylene (78 ppb), styrene (16 ppb), tetrachloroethylene (29 ppb), ethylbenzene (88 ppb), toluene (757 ppb), xylenes (257 ppb), methylene chloride (14 ppb), chloroethane (28 ppb), phenol (202 ppb), methyl ethyl ketone, chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichlorobenzene (34 ppb), bromodichloromethane, and strontium chromate. Based on the available information, the site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via contaminated ground water.

Not Available

1989-01-17

419

Health assessment for Olmsted County Sanitary Landfill, Oronoco Township, Minnesota, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MND000874354. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

Olmsted County Sanitary Landfill is listed on the National Priorities List. The landfill is in Olmsted County in southeastern Minnesota and was owned and operated by the City of Rochester. The landfill accepted much hazardous material, including electroplating sludge, asbestos, transformers, and paint and solvents. By 1984, ground water under the landfill was heavily contaminated with leachate from the pile. Representative contamination found in the monitoring wells include 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, chloroform, methylene chloride, tetrahydrofuran, methyl ethyl ketone, chloromethane, ethylbenzene, toluene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, dichlorobenzene, benzene, and xylenes. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via the ground water.

Not Available

1989-06-27

420

Temperature, pressure, and bath gas composition dependence of fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetimes of toluene and naphthalene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-resolved fluorescence spectra of gas-phase toluene and naphthalene were investigated upon picosecond laser excitation at 266 nm as a function of temperature (toluene 296-1,025 K, naphthalene 374-1,123 K), pressure (1-10 bar), and bath gas composition (varying concentrations of N2, O2, and CO2) with a temporal resolution of 50 ps. In the investigated temperature range, the fluorescence spectra of both toluene and naphthalene show a significant red-shift, whereas the fluorescence lifetime decreases with increasing temperature, more pronounced for toluene than for naphthalene. Increasing the total pressure of either N2 or CO2 from atmospheric to 10 bar leads to an increase by about 20 % (naphthalene at 373 K) and a decrease by 60 % (toluene at 575 K) in fluorescence lifetimes, respectively. As expected, at atmospheric pressure collisions with O2 shorten the fluorescence lifetime of both toluene and naphthalene significantly, e.g., by a factor of 30 and 90 when changing O2 partial pressure at 373 K from 0 to 0.21 bar, respectively. The fluorescence model of Koban et al. (Appl Phys B 80: 777, 2005) for the dependence of the toluene quantum yield on temperature and O2 partial pressure at atmospheric pressure describes toluene fluorescence lifetimes well within its range of validity. The model is modified to satisfactorily predict effective toluene fluorescence lifetimes in N2 at pressures up to 10 bar. However, it still fails to predict the dependence at simultaneously elevated temperatures and pressures in air as bath gas. Similarly, an empirical model is presented for predicting (relative) fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes of naphthalene. Although the fitting models have their shortcomings this publication presents a data set of great importance for practical LIF applications, e.g., in-cylinder mixture formation diagnostics in internal combustion engines.

Faust, Stephan; Tea, Gabrielle; Dreier, Thomas; Schulz, Christof

2013-01-01

421

Isolation of the toluene degrading bacteria and application to the biotrickling filtration system of off-gas treatment  

SciTech Connect

The period of acclimation in biotrickling filtration system was studied using toluene degrading bacteria. Toluene degrading bacteria were isolated from the test biotrickling filtration apparatus used for the degradation of toluene off-gas. Five colonies found in an agar culture medium were identified to be toluene degrading bacteria; one was classified Acinetobacter genospecies 10 and the other four were Rhodococcus erythropolis. The count of the toluene degrading bacteria was 5.6 x 10 to the power 8th Colony Forming Units/ml-packing space. The toluene elimination activity was found to be 7.4 and 2.0 mg-toluene/g-dry cell/min for colony {number{underscore}sign}1 and colony {number{underscore}sign}2, respectively, using batch vial system. They were higher than that obtained when the original sludge in the test biotrickling filtration apparatus was applied to the same system. The performance of colony {number{underscore}sign}1 was also tested by the test biotrickling filtration system. Urethane foam, which constituted a lattice-like structure internally, was used as the microbial carrier. The artificial off-gas of 100ppm toluene/air was prepared with reagent grade chemical. The space velocity (versus the packed bed) was 100/h. Immediately after the start-up, the removal percentages of toluene was 39%, and it became 84% after two days continuous treatment. This result indicates that addition of colony {number{underscore}sign}1 was thus shown to be an effective means of shortening the acclimation period of a trickle bed biofilter.

Yamashita, Shigeki

1999-07-01

422

Elimination kinetics of volatile organics in humans using breath measurements  

SciTech Connect

During the past decade significant strides have been made toward understanding the sources and factors which lead to volatile organic chemical (VOC) exposure in the general population. Less is known, however, about the impact of low-level environmental exposure on human health. Investigations are underway in a number of laboratories in an effort to determine the uptake, distribution, metabolism, and elimination kinetics for VOCs in humans. We examined the elimination kinetics for the third phase for ten VOCs--1,1,-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, benzene, toluene, m,p-xylenes, o-xylene, ethylbenzene, p-dichlorobenzene, and limonene--in human subjects. Subjects were exposed to a variety of common consumer products and breath samples were collected post-exposure while the subjects spent up to 10 hr in a clean air environment. VOCs from breath samples were collected into canisters or onto Tenax GC cartridges and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Exponential modeling of the decay data was performed to obtain kinetic parameters. The half-lives for trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were approximately 5 to 8 hr for the four subjects. In general, the magnitude and range of variability was larger for toluene, limonene, and p-dichlorobenzene than for the other VOCs; the elimination rate spanning a few hours to a day or two. Thus, VOCs exhibit relatively short residence times in the body relative to other halo-carbons, such as polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins.

Pellizzari, E.D.; Wallace, L.A.; Gordon, S.M. (Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1992-07-01

423

CONTRIBUTIONS OF TOLUENE AND ¿ -PINENE TO SOA FORMED IN AN IRRADIATED TOLUENE/¿-PINENE/NOX/AIR MIXTURE: COMPARISON OF RESULTS USING 14C CONTENT AND SOA ORGANIC TRACER METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

An organic tracer method, recently proposed for estimating individual contributions of toluene and a-pinene to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, was evaluated by conducting a laboratory study where a binary hydrocarbon mixture, containing the anthropogenic aromatic hydro...

424

Confronting workplace exposure to chemicals with LCA: examples of trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene in metal degreasing and dry cleaning.  

PubMed

Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) aims to assess all environmental impacts "from cradle to grave". Nevertheless, existing methods for Life-Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) generally do not consider impacts from chemical exposure at the workplace. This is a severe drawback, because neglecting occupational health effects may result in product or process optimizations at the expense of workers' health. We adapt an existing LCIA method to consider occupational health effects from the use of perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in dry cleaning and metal degreasing. The results show that, in applications such as metal degreasing and dry cleaning, long-term (steady-state) concentrations at the workplace are up to 6 orders of magnitude higher than ambient air levels. Legal threshold values may be exceeded, depending on machine technology, size, and surrounding working conditions. The impact from workplace exposure to the total human-toxicity potential of the complete life cycle of PCE and TCE (including use, production, and disposal) is accordingly high. We therefore conclude that occupational health effects need to be considered in LCA to prevent overlooking key environmental-health impacts in LCA. PMID:16245853

Hellweg, Stefanie; Demou, Evangelia; Scheringer, Martin; McKone, Thomas E; Hungerbühler, Konrad

2005-10-01

425

Evaluation of the effects of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) dispersants on intrinsic biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE).  

PubMed

In this study, the biodegradability of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) dispersants and their effects on the intrinsic biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) were evaluated. Results of a microcosm study show that the biodegradability of three dispersants followed the sequence of: polyvinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate-co-itaconic acid (PV3A) > polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20) > polyacrylic acid (PAA) under aerobic conditions, and PV3A > Tween 20 > PAA under anaerobic conditions. Natural biodegradation of TCE was observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. No significant effects were observed on the intrinsic biodegradation of TCE under aerobic conditions with the presence of the dispersants. The addition of PAA seemed to have a slightly adverse impact on anaerobic TCE biodegradation. Higher accumulation of the byproducts of anaerobic TCE biodegradation was detected with the addition of PV3A and Tween 20. The diversity of the microbial community was enhanced under aerobic conditions with the presence of more biodegradable PV3A and Tween 20. The results of this study indicate that it is necessary to select an appropriate dispersant for nZVI to prevent a residual of the dispersant in the subsurface. Additionally, the effects of the dispersant on TCE biodegradation and the accumulation of TCE biodegrading byproducts should also be considered. PMID:24901632

Chang, Y C; Huang, S C; Chen, K F

2014-01-01

426

Application of polycolloid-releasing substrate to remediate trichloroethylene-contaminated groundwater: a pilot-scale study.  

PubMed

The objectives of this pilot-scale study were to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation of trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater with the supplement of slow polycolloid-releasing substrate (SPRS) (contained vegetable oil, cane molasses, surfactants) under reductive dechlorinating conditions, (2) apply gene analyses to confirm the existence of TCE-dechlorinating genes, and (3) apply the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to evaluate the variations in TCE-dechlorinating bacteria (Dehalococcoides spp.). Approximately 350L of SPRS solution was supplied into an injection well (IW) and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed from IW and monitor wells periodically. Results show that the SPRS caused a rapid increase of the total organic carbon concentration (up to 5794mg/L), and reductive dechlorination of TCE was significantly enhanced. TCE dechlorination byproducts were observed and up to 99% of TCE removal (initial TCE concentration=1872?g/L) was observed after 50 days of operation. The population of Dehalococcoides spp. increased from 4.6×10(1) to 3.41×10(7)cells/L after 20 days of operation. DNA sequencing results show that there were 31 bacterial species verified, which might be related to TCE biodegradation. Results demonstrate that the microbial analysis and real-time PCR are useful tools to evaluate the effectiveness of TCE reductive dechlorination. PMID:24468531

Tsai, T T; Liu, J K; Chang, Y M; Chen, K F; Kao, C M

2014-03-15

427

Mechanism insights into enhanced trichloroethylene removal using xanthan gum-modified microscale zero-valent iron particles.  

PubMed

This report focuses on the enhancement in trichloroethylene (TCE) removal from contaminated groundwater using xanthan gum (XG)-modified, microscale, zero-valent iron (mZVI). Compared with bare mZVI, XG-coated mZVI increased the TCE removal efficiency by 30.37% over a 480-h experimental period. Because the TCE removal is attributed to both sorption and reduction processes, the contributions from sorption and reduction were separately investigated to determine the mechanism of XG on TCE removal using mZVI. The results showed that the TCE sorption capacity of mZVI was lower in the presence of XG, whereas the TCE reduction capacity was significantly increased. The FTIR spectra confirmed that XG, which is rich in hydrophilic functional groups, was adsorbed onto the iron surface through intermolecular hydrogen bonds, which competitively repelled the sorption and mass transfer of TCE toward reactive sites. The variations in the pH, Eh, and Fe(2+) concentration as functions of the reaction time were recorded and indicated that XG buffered the solution pH, inhibited surface passivation, and promoted TCE reduction by mZVI. Overall, the XG-modified mZVI was considered to be potentially effective for the in-situ remediation of TCE contaminated groundwater due to its high stability and dechlorination reactivity. PMID:25556871

Xin, Jia; Han, Jun; Zheng, Xilai; Shao, Haibing; Kolditz, Olaf

2015-03-01

428

Methanol suppression of trichloroethylene degradation by Methylosinus trichosporium (OB3b) and methane-oxidizing mixed cultures  

SciTech Connect

The effect of methanol on trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation by mixed and pure methylotrophic cultures was examined in batch culture experiments. Methanol was found to relieve growth inhibition of Methylosinus trichosporium (OB3b) at high (14 mg/L) TCE concentrations. Degradation of TCE was determined by both radiolabeling and gas chromatography techniques. When cultures were grown on methanol over 10 to 14 d with 0.3 mg/L TCE, OB3b degraded 16.89 {+-} 0.82% (mean {+-} SD) of the TCE, and a mixed culture (DT type II) degraded 4.55 {+-} 0.11%. Mixed culture (JS type I) degraded 4.34 {+-} 0.06% of the TCE. When grown on methane with 0.3 mg/L TCE, 32.93 {+-} 2.01% of the TCE was degraded by OB3b, whereas the JS culture degraded 24.3 {+-} 1.38% of the TCE, and the DT culture degraded 34.3 {+-} 2.97% of the TCE. The addition of methanol to cultures grown on methane reduced TCE degradation to 16.21 {+-} 1.17% for OB3b and to 5.08 {+-} 0.56% for JS. Although methanol reduces the toxicity of TCE to the cultures, biodegradation of TCE cannot be sustained in methanol-grown cultures. Since high TCE concentrations appear to inhibit methane uptake and growth, we suggest the primary toxicity of TCE is directed towards the methane monooxygenase.

Eng, W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Palumbo, A.V.; Strandberg, G.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sriharan, S. [Selma Univ., AL (United States)

1991-12-31

429

Metabolic changes and DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum are associated with behavioral alterations in mice exposed to trichloroethylene postnatally  

PubMed Central

Previous studies demonstrated that low-level postnatal and early life exposure to the environmental contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), in the drinking water of MRL+/+ mice altered glutathione redox homeostasis and increased biomarkers of oxidative stress indicating a more oxidized state. Plasma metabolites along the interrelated transmethylation pathway were also altered indicating impaired methylation capacity. Here we extend these findings to further characterize the impact of TCE exposure in mice exposed to water only or two doses of TCE in the drinking water (0, 2, and 28 mg/kg/day) postnatally from birth until 6 weeks of age on redox homeostasis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in the cerebellum. In addition, pathway intermediates involved in methyl metabolism and global DNA methylation patterns were examined in cerebellar tissue. Because the cerebellum is functionally important for coordinating motor activity, including exploratory and social approach behaviors, these parameters were evaluated in the present study. Mice exposed to 28 mg/kg/day TCE exhibited increased locomotor activity over time as compared with control mice. In the novel object exploration test, these mice were more likely to enter the zone with the novel object as compared to control mice Similar results were obtained in a second test when an unfamiliar mouse was introduced into the testing arena. The results show for the first time that postnatal exposure to TCE causes key metabolic changes in the cerebellum that may contribute to global DNA methylation deficits and behavioral alterations in TCE-exposed mice. PMID:23566951

Blossom, Sarah J.; Cooney, Craig A.; Melnyk, Stepan B.; Rau, Jenny L.; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Wessinger, William D.

2013-01-01

430

Evaluation of Methanotrophic Bacteria during Injection of Gaseous Nutrients for In Situ Trichloroethylene Bioremediation in a Sanitary Landfill  

SciTech Connect

Methanotrophic bacterial populations were quantified in an aquifer that was amended with air (oxygen), methane, triethyl-phosphate, and nitrous oxide to evaluate their effectiveness to stimulate aerobic bioremediation of vinyl chloride (VC), dichloroethylene, and trichloroethylene (TCE). Contaminants in groundwater resulted from leachate originating from a nearby landfill. Groundwater samples were taken during gas injection and analyzed for changes in bacterial populations. The methanotrophic populations were monitored in groundwater using direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and the most probable number (MPN) technique. Acridine orange direct counts (AODC) were used to determine the total bacterial population. Methanotrophic populations increased significantly in groundwater during the course of gaseous nutrient injections. As methanotrophic bacteria reached a maximum population in 3-4 days, contaminant levels (TCE) decreased. Cis-dichloroethylene (c-DCE) demonstrated a transient increase in concentration during the experiment but decreased rapidly over the course of the experiment. The total number of groundwater microorganisms did not change, indicating a selective stimulation of the methanotrophic bacterial population. These bacterial data were compared to physical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, redox) and contaminant (TCE , c-DCE, VC) concentrations within the saturated and unsaturated zone to reveal the efficiency of the system. The loss of contaminants appears to be due to cometabolic biodegradation through biostimulation since loss by volatilization was accounted for and was minimal. This work clearly demonstrates that one can effectively change the subsurface bacterial population in a relatively short period of time.

Brigmon, R.L.

1999-01-05

431

Toluene 4-Monooxygenase and its Complex with Effector Protein T4moD  

SciTech Connect

Toluene 4-monooxygenase (T4MO) is a multiprotein diiron enzyme complex that catalyzes the regiospecific oxidation of toluene to p-cresol. Catalytic function requires the presence of a small protein, called the effector protein. Effector protein exerts substantial control on the diiron hydroxylase catalytic cycle through protein-protein interactions. High-resolution crystal structures of the stoichometric hydroxylase and effector protein complex described here reveal how protein-protein interactions and reduction of the diiron center produce an active site configuration poised for reaction with O{sub 2}. Further information from crystal structures of mutated isoforms of the hydroxylase and a peroxo adduct is combined with catalytic results to give a fuller picture of the geometry of the enzyme-substrate complex used for the high fidelity oxidation of hydrocarbon substrates.

Bailey, Lucas J.; Fox, Brian G. (UW)

2012-10-16

432

Vapor-liquid equilibria in the systems toluene/naphthalene and cyclohexane/naphthalene  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the authors report isothermal vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for the toluene/naphthalene and cyclohexane/naphthalene systems which can be considered as model compounds for coal liquids. Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the binary systems toluene/naphthalene and cyclohexane/naphthalene were measured at 0-1,300 kPa and 370-500 K using a 1-L stirred autoclave system. All pure components and binary P-T data were well fitted with a three-constant Antoine equation. The data can bee accurately correlated with the modified Peng-Robinson equation of state using density-dependent mixing rules to describe both the vapor and liquid phases. The binary interaction parameters and correction factors for the equation of state are reported at each isotherm.

Lee, Changha; Holder, G.D. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1993-04-01

433

Separation of a toluene/ethanol mixture by pervaporation using active carbon-filled polymeric membranes  

SciTech Connect

In order to improve the separation properties of dense polymeric membranes toward a toluene/ethanol mixture, various active carbons and two types of zeolites were introduced into a thin polymeric film in order to form a heterogeneous membrane composed of solid particles surrounded by a polymer phase. Active carbons show a high adsorption selectivity for an aromatic compound over ethanol in the low concentration range of the aromatic component. Sorption and pervaporation experiments were carried out with a toluene/ethanol mixture, and they showed no improvement in selectivity and a decrease in flux for membranes filled with active carbons. For zeolite-filled membranes, both selectivity and flux decreased. A permeability model derived for heterogeneous systems was used. It confirmed that the carbon particles have a closed porous structure, allowing no transport from one side to the other, and that the zeolites have an ethanol selective permeation behavior. 21 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

Duval, J.M. (Manufacture Francaise des Pneumatiques Michelin, Clermont Ferrand (France)); Folkers, B.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A. (Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)); Desgrandchamps, G. (Elf Aquitaine, Artix (France))

1994-02-01

434

Oxidative degradation of toluene and limonene in air by pulsed corona technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxidative degradation of two volatile organic compounds, i.e. toluene (fossil fuel based VOC) and limonene (biogenic VOC), has been studied. A hybrid pulsed power corona reactor with adjustable energy density has been utilized for degradation of ppm level target compounds in large air flows. The observed oxidation product range features an energy density-dependent spectrum of oxygen-functional hydrocarbons, which has been qualitatively discussed on the basis of literature studies. Typically, observed stable oxidation products for both target compounds are the biocompatible carboxylic acids acetic and formic acid. Measured degradation G-values are 23 nmol J-1 at 74% conversion of 70 ppm toluene and 181 nmol J-1 at 81% conversion of 10 ppm limonene.

Hoeben, W. F. L. M.; Beckers, F. J. C. M.; Pemen, A. J. M.; van Heesch, E. J. M.; Kling, W. L.

2012-02-01

435

Toluene Effects on Gene Expression in the Hippocampus of Young-Adult, Middle-Age and Senescent Brown Norway Rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Differential susceptibility to environmental exposure(s) across life stages is an area of toxicology about which little is known. We examined the effects of toluene, a known neurotoxicant with reported behavioral, electrophysiological and pathological effects, on transcriptomic...

436

Mechanistic Studies of Reactions of Peroxodiiron(III) Intermediates in T201 Variants of Toluene/o-Xylene Monooxygenase Hydroxylase  

E-print Network

Site-directed mutagenesis studies of a strictly conserved T201 residue in the active site of toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase hydroxylase (ToMOH) revealed that a single mutation can facilitate kinetic isolation of two ...

Lippard, Stephen J.

437

Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios of Phenolic Compounds in Secondary Particulate Organic Matter Formed by Photooxidation of Toluene  

E-print Network

Compound-specific stable carbon isotope ratios for phenolic compounds in secondary particulate organic matter (POM) formed by photooxidation of toluene were studied. Secondary POM generated by photooxidation of toluene using a continuous-flow reactor and an 8 cubic meter indoor smog chamber was collected, and then extracted with acetonitrile. Eight phenolic compounds were identified in the extracts by a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer, and their compound-specific stable carbon isotope ratios were determined by a gas chromatograph coupled with a combustion furnace followed by an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The majority of the products, including methylnitrophenols and methylnitrocatechols, were isotopically depleted by 5 to 6 permil compared to the initial isotope ratio for toluene, whereas the isotope ratio for 4_nitrophenol remained the same as the initial isotope ratio for toluene. Based on the reaction mechanisms postulated in literature, stable carbon isotope ratios of these produc...

Irei, Satoshi; Huang, Lin; Auld, Janeen; Collin, Fabrice; Hastie, Donald

2014-01-01

438

Toluene removal in membrane bioreactors under recirculating and non-recirculating liquid conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-, dual- and multiple-tube dense phase silicone rubber membrane bioreactor were investigated for control of toluene-contaminated\\u000a air under circulating and non-recirculating liquid conditions. A mathematical model was developed to describe the system.\\u000a The reactors were seeded with a mixed bacterial consortium isolated from activated sludge and capable of aromatic biodegradation.\\u000a After operating with recirculating liquid nutrient solution, the reactors

Ellen England; Mark W. Fitch; Melanie Mormile; Michael Roberts

2005-01-01

439

Phytoremediation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene contaminated air by D. deremensis and O. microdasys plants  

PubMed Central

Background People usually spent about 90% of their time indoors, which are probably more polluted than outside the buildings. High levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known as causes of sick building syndrome. The present study was designed to determine the quantitative effects of some plants to improve the quality of the environmental air. Results D. deremensis and O. microdasys were chosen for the present study. There is no report of using O. microdasys for cleaning the air from pollutants. So, in this study, the effectiveness of O. microdasys in air removing from pollutants was studied and compared with D. dermensis. O. microdasys plant can remove 2 ppm concentration benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene from air in test chambers completely after 48, 55, 47 and 57 hours, respectively. The removal rates of benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene (BTEX) from air in the test chambers were 1.18, 0.54, 1.64 and 1.35 mg/ m2d1, respectively. Conclusions If an office containing 2.5 ppm of each of BTEX and had an approximate volume of 30 m3, it contains 16, 8, 22 and 22 mg/m3 benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene, respectively. Using ten O. microdasys pots with the same size used in this study, can remove benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene totally after 36, 40, 30 and 39 hours. The authors recommended studying the efficiency of the plants for removal of BTEX from air at higher range of concentrations such as 20-30 ppm. PMID:24451679

2014-01-01

440

AMS-1B crystalline borosilicate molecular sieve-based catalyst compositions and process for toluene methylation  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for making paraxylene by methylating toluene in the presence of a catalyst composition comprising a HAMS-1B crystalline borosilicate molecular sieve. The majority of the crystallites are between about 1 micron and about 15 microns in largest dimension, incorporated into an inorganic matrix. The composition is impregnated by a magnesium compound and subsequently heated to substantially convert the compound to the oxide form.

De Simone, R.E.; Haddad, M.S.

1987-06-02

441

Nanosized metal deposits on titanium dioxide for augmenting gas-phase toluene photooxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The build-up of intermediate species on the surface of TiO2 during gas-phase toluene (C7H8) photodegradation has been observed to deactivate the photocatalyst. Nanosized metallic deposits on the TiO2 surface may enhance the photocatalytic process and improve photocatalyst performance. In this study, noble (Ag, Au) and platinum\\u000a group (Pt, Pd, Rh) metals, at a nominal loading of 0.5 at.%, were deposited onto

Sooi Li Lee; Jason Scott; Ken Chiang; Rose Amal

2009-01-01

442

Investigations on Chlorophytum comosum ability to remove toluene from air in a closed environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants play a major role in bioregenerative systems for air and water supplies. They may also contribute to the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the air in a closed environment, based on the ability to absorb toxic compounds and to detoxify them. The aim of our work was to study the capabilities of Chlorophytum comosum for toluene removal and to identify the main parts of the plants which are responsible for the elimination. A 1-m3 sealed chamber was designed and built in 8-mm window glass assembled with UV-polymerized glue. It was equipped with one internal fan for air mixing. The other materials (low-emitting and low-adsorptive) were aluminium and PTFE. A cooling system was also used to regulate humidity content which was monitored continuously as well as temperature and carbon dioxide concentration. Experiments were carried out in this chamber with Chlorophytum comosum plants exposed to an initial concentration of 11.5x103 ?g toluene m-3. Pollutant concentration was measured every five minutes during several days. Toluene removal was studied in various configurations (potting media, hydroponic conditions{ldots}) in order to document the level of contribution of each component (leaves, roots, microorganisms and soil) of the potted plants. Results show that 54 % of toluene was removed in 72 h with the whole potted plant. A large participation of the soil in the purification process was noticed whereas foliage seemed to have little effect at the light intensity used in the experiments. Moreover, the tests realized with both natural and sterilized soils suggest that soil bacteria (in potting media) play a significant role in the removal process showing that soil and its microorganisms may have complementary roles in the elimination phenomena. Detoxifying function of potted plants could find current applications in improving air quality, in particular indoor air from domestic buildings.

Bulteau, G.; Lakel, A.

443

Photocatalytic Oxidation of Toluene on Nanoscale TiO 2 Catalysts: Studies of Deactivation and Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoscale TiO2 catalysts prepared using a sol–gel method exhibit higher initial activity than commercially available P-25 TiO2 for the photocatalytic oxidation of toluene. Unlike P-25 TiO2, nonporous, nanoscale TiO2 catalysts are composed mainly of mesopores with pore sizes in the range of 35–44 nm. Calcination at 420°C leads to agglomeration of nanoscale TiO2 particles, formation of rutile, a decrease in

Lixin Cao; Zi Gao; Steven L. Suib; Timothy N. Obee; Steven O. Hay; James D. Freihaut

2000-01-01

444

Modeling of liquid\\/liquid separation by pervaporation: Toluene from water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistances-in-series model, the modified solution-diffusion model, the Flory-Rehner theory, and the film theory were used to calculate the diffusion coefficients of two components of a liquid-feed mixture that are separated by pervaporation. The toluene and water fluxes through EPDM membranes of various thicknesses were modeled for different mass-transfer coefficients in the feed boundary layer (kL). It is shown that

Erik E. B. Meuleman; Bert Bosch; Marcel H. V. Mulder; Heiner Strathmann

1999-01-01

445

Mining gene expression data for pollutants (dioxin, toluene, formaldehyde) and low dose of gamma-irradiation.  

PubMed

General and specific effects of molecular genetic responses to adverse environmental factors are not well understood. This study examines genome-wide gene expression profiles of Drosophila melanogaster in response to ionizing radiation, formaldehyde, toluene, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. We performed RNA-seq analysis on 25,415 transcripts to measure the change in gene expression in males and females separately. An analysis of the genes unique to each treatment yielded a list of genes as a gene expression signature. In the case of radiation exposure, both sexes exhibited a reproducible increase in their expression of the transcription factors sugarbabe and tramtrack. The influence of dioxin up-regulated metabolic genes, such as anachronism, CG16727, and several genes with unknown function. Toluene activated a gene involved in the response to the toxins, Cyp12d1-p; the transcription factor Fer3's gene; the metabolic genes CG2065, CG30427, and CG34447; and the genes Spn28Da and Spn3, which are responsible for reproduction and immunity. All significantly differentially expressed genes, including those shared among the stressors, can be divided into gene groups using Gene Ontology Biological Process identifiers. These gene groups are related to defense response, biological regulation, the cell cycle, metabolic process, and circadian rhythms. KEGG molecular pathway analysis revealed alteration of the Notch signaling pathway, TGF-beta signaling pathway, proteasome, basal transcription factors, nucleotide excision repair, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, circadian rhythm, Hippo signaling pathway, mTOR signaling pathway, ribosome, mismatch repair, RNA polymerase, mRNA surveillance pathway, Hedgehog signaling pathway, and DNA replication genes. Females and, to a lesser extent, males actively metabolize xenobiotics by the action of cytochrome P450 when under the influence of dioxin and toluene. Finally, in this work we obtained gene expression signatures pollutants (dioxin, toluene), low dose of gamma-irradiation and common molecular pathways for different kind of stressors. PMID:24475070

Moskalev, Alexey; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Snezhkina, Anastasia; Kogan, Valeria; Plyusnina, Ekaterina; Peregudova, Darya; Melnikova, Nataliya; Uroshlev, Leonid; Mylnikov, Sergey; Dmitriev, Alexey; Plusnin, Sergey; Fedichev, Peter; Kudryavtseva, Anna

2014-01-01

446

Biodegradation of toluene and xylenes under microaerophilic and denitrifying conditions by Pseudomonas maltophilia  

SciTech Connect

Aerobic biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons has been well studied. Under aerobic conditions, aerobes or facultative anaerobes can utilize aromatic hydrocarbons as sole carbon and energy sources by using oxygen as the cosubstrate of oxygenase enzymes for the initial attack of the aromatic ring and as the terminal electron acceptor for aerobic respiration. However, some facultative or obligate anaerobes can degrade these hydrocarbons by using alternate electron acceptors, such as nitrate, sulfate, carbon dioxide, or iron for anaerobic respiration. Among the potential alternate electron acceptors available, nitrate is the most common one used by microorganisms under oxygen-limited conditions. The first objective of this project was to explore hydrocarbon utilization under anoxic or low oxygen conditions. A microorganism that can utilize the petroleum hydrocarbons, toluene and xylene, as sole carbon and energy sources under microaerophilic (2% oxygen) and denitrifying conditions was isolated and characterized. Since oxygen may repress microbial denitrification, it was of interest to monitor the effects of low oxygen levels on aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation coupled to denitrification. We isolated a Gram-negative rod, Pseudomonas maltophilia from anaerobic sewage digester sludge. The patterns of biodegradations of toluene and two isomers of xylenes, m- and p-xylene, were very similar under either microaerophilic or anaerobic conditions. Nitrate reduction was also observed during time course experiments under aerobic conditions. The final objective was to test the feasibility of an immobilized cell reactor to treat waste streams. Therefore, a bench-scale bioreactor was built to treat a waste stream contaminated with both toluene and nitrate without aeration. The utilization of toluene and nitrate was monitored periodically in a continuous system under anaerobic conditions.

Su, J.J.

1994-01-01

447

ACUTE EXPOSURES TO P-XYLENE AND TOLUENE ALTER VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Long-Evans hooded rats were exposed to single doses of toluene (p.o.) at 0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, to p-xylene (p.o.) at 0, 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, and to inhalation of p-xylene for 4 hrs at 0, 800 or 1600 ppm. The functional integrity of the visual system was evalu...

448

Effect of continuous ozone injection on performance and biomass accumulation of biofilters treating gaseous toluene.  

PubMed

Biofilters treating high-concentration gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) can be subject to bed clogging induced by excess biomass accumulation. In this study, O3 was continuously injected into biofilters to control biomass. Its effects on the performance of the biofilters and on biomass accumulation were investigated. Four identical biofilters designed to treat gaseous toluene were operated for 70 days, and three of them were continuously injected with O3 at different concentrations (from 80 to 320 mg/m(3)). The results showed that continuous O3 injection could effectively keep the bed pressure drop stable and had no adverse effect on toluene removal when O3 concentrations were 180-220 mg/m(3). The maximum toluene elimination capacity of the four biofilters was 140 g-toluene/m(3)/h, and the bed pressure drop of the biofilter fed with 180-220 mg/m(3) O3 remained below 3 mmH2O/m throughout the operation period. The biomass accumulation rates of the three biofilters with O3 at 80-320 mg/m(3) were lowered by 0.15-0.25 g/L/day compared with the biofilter without O3. The decreases in biomass accumulation resulted in higher void fractions of the filter beds with O3 injection. Carbon balance analysis indicated that CO2 production had increased while biomass accumulation and leachate waste production decreased in response to O3 injection. Based on the experimental results, it was concluded here that continuous O3 injection can reduce increases in bed pressure effectively, preserve VOC removal capacity, and prevent production of extra leachate waste. PMID:25492419

Xi, Jinying; Saingam, Prakit; Gu, Feng; Hu, Hong-Ying; Zhao, Xuefei

2015-01-01

449

Modulation of neurological related allergic reaction in mice exposed to low-level toluene  

SciTech Connect

The contributing role of indoor air pollution to the development of allergic disease has become increasingly evident in public health problems. It has been reported that extensive communication exists between neurons and immune cells, and neurotrophins are molecules potentially responsible for regulating and controlling this neuroimmune crosstalk. The adverse effects of volatile organic compounds which are main indoor pollutants on induction or augmentation of neuroimmune interaction have not been fully characterized yet. To investigate the effects of low-level toluene inhalation on the airway inflammatory responses, male C3H mice were exposed to filtered air (control), 9 ppm, and 90 ppm toluene for 30 min by nose-only inhalation on Days 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Some groups of mice were injected with ovalbumin intraperitoneally before starting exposure schedule and these mice were then challenged with aerosolized ovalbumin as booster dose. For analysis of airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were collected to determine inflammatory cell influx and lung tissue and blood samples were collected to determine cytokine and neurotrophin mRNA and protein expressions and plasma antibody titers using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA methods respectively. Exposure of the ovalbumin-immunized mice to low-level toluene resulted in (1) increased inflammatory cells infiltration in BAL fluid; (2) increased IL-5 mRNA, decreased nerve growth factor receptor tropomyosin-related kinase A and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNAs in lung; and (3) increased IgE and IgG{sub 1} antibodies and nerve growth factor content in the plasma. These findings suggest that low-level toluene exposure aggravates the airway inflammatory responses in ovalbumin-immunized mice by modulating neuroimmune crosstalk.

Tin-Tin-Win-Shwe [Research Center for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Yamamoto, Shoji [Research Center for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Nakajima, Daisuke [Research Center for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Furuyama, Akiko [Research Center for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Fukushima, Atsushi [Research Center for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Ahmed, Sohel [Research Center for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Goto, Sumio [Research Center for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Fujimaki, Hidekazu [Research Center for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)]. E-mail: fujimaki@nies.go.jp

2007-07-01