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1

Toxicological Profile for Tetrachloroethylene (Update).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tetrachloroethylene has been found in at least 771 of the 1,430 current or former NPL sites. Tetrachloroethylene in a synthetic chemical that is widely used for dry cleaning of fabrics and for metal-degreasing operations. It is also used as a starting mat...

C. Eisenmann S. Yee-Wan

1997-01-01

2

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Tetrachloroethylene (PERC) is believed to exert its adverse effects upon humans via metabolism by the liver. Concern that PERC is likely to be a human carcinogen is based upon the evidence of the National Cancer Institute bioassay, in which PERC induced a statistically significan...

3

Induction of rat liver drug-metabolizing enzymes by tetrachloroethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of tetrachloroethylene on Phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver was examined. Rats were treated orally with tetrachloroethylene daily for five days, at doses of 125, 250, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg\\/kg. The higher doses (>500 mg\\/kg) of tetrachloroethylene induced the hepatic microsomal 7-pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase and 7-benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylase activities associated with the CYP2B subfamily. 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase

N. Hanioka; H. Jinno; T. Toyo'oka; T. Nishimura; M. Ando

1995-01-01

4

ACUTE TOXICITY OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE AND TETRACHLOROETHYLENE WITH DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE TO RAINBOW TROUT (SALMO GAIRDNERI)  

EPA Science Inventory

In this study, two acute toxicity tests were conducted with tetrachloroethylene (TCE) using rainbow trout. DMF was used as an additive in one of the tests and was proportionally diluted with the toxicant. The 96 hr LC50 was 4.99 mg/l in the test without DMF and 5.84 mg/l for DMF ...

5

Lactational transfer of tetrachloroethylene in rats.  

PubMed

Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is a commonly used organic solvent and a suspected human carcinogen, reportedly transferred to human breast milk following inhalation exposure. Transfer of PCE to milk may represent a threat to the nursing infant. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to quantitatively assess the transfer of inhaled PCE into breast milk and the consequent exposure of the nursing infant. The model was validated in lactating rats. Lactating Sprague-Dawley female rats were exposed via inhalation to PCE at concentrations ranging from 20-1000 ppm, and then returned to their nursing, 10- to 11-day-old pups. Tetrachloroethylene concentrations in the air, blood, milk, and tissue were determined by gas chromatography and compared to model predictions. The model described the distribution of inhaled PCE in maternal blood and milk, as well as the nursed pup's gastrointestinal tract, blood, and tissue. Several computer simulations of PCE distribution kinetics in exhaled air, blood, and milk of exposed human subjects were run and compared with limited human data available from the literature. It is concluded that the PBPK model successfully described the concentration of PCE in both lactating rats and humans. Although predictions vs. observations were good, the model slightly underpredicted the peak whole pup PCE concentration and underpredicted systemic clearance of PCE from the pup. PMID:8029506

Byczkowski, J Z; Fisher, J W

1994-06-01

6

A freshwater anaerobe coupling acetate oxidation to tetrachloroethylene dehalogenation.  

PubMed Central

Strain TT4B has been isolated from anaerobic sediments known to be contaminated with a variety of organic solvents. It is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium and grew anaerobically with acetate as the electron donor and tetrachloroethylene as the electron acceptor in a mineral medium. cis-Dichloroethylene was the halogenated product. This strain did not grow fermentatively and used only acetate or pyruvate as electron donors. Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene were used as electron acceptors, as were ferric nitriloacetate and fumarate. Nitrogen and sulfur oxyanions were not able to substitute as the electron acceptor for this organism. Modest growth occurred in a two-phase system with 1 ml of hexadecane containing 50 to 200 mM tetrachloroethylene (aqueous concentrations, 25 to 100 microM) and 10 ml of anaerobic mineral solution with Na2S as the reducing agent. Growth was completely inhibited at tetrachloroethylene levels above 100 microM.

Krumholz, L R; Sharp, R; Fishbain, S S

1996-01-01

7

IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE) (INTERAGENCY SCIENCE DISCUSSION DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment...

8

IRIS Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) (External Review Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of tetrachloroethylene that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is meant to ensure that science is used credibly and ...

9

Visual Contrast Sensitivity in Children Exposed to Tetrachloroethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined relationships between indoor air, breath, and blood tetrachloroethylene (perc) levels and visual contrast sensitivity (VCS) among adult and child residents of buildings with or without a colocated dry cleaner using perc. Decreasing trends in proportions of adults or children with maximum VCS scores indicated decreased VCS at a single spatial frequency (12 cycles per degree [cpd]) among

Jan E. Storm; Kimberly A. Mazor; Kenneth M. Aldous; Benjamin C. Blount; Scott E. Brodie; Janet B. Serle

2011-01-01

10

Metabolism of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene in human subjects.  

PubMed Central

A linear correlation exists between the trichloroethylene concentration in the work environments and the level of total trichloro compounds in the urine of the workers, as expressed by the equation: Gamma = 7.25=chi + 5.5, where Gamma is trichloroethylene in air (ppm) is Chi is total trichloro compounds in urine (mg/l). Trichloroethanol level is also linearly related to trichloroethylene concentration, while trichloroacetic acid level deviates from the linear relation when trichloroethylene level exceeds 50 ppm. In the case of tetrachloroethylene exposure, both trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid levels, and consequently the total trichloro compound level, reach a plateau at tetrachloroethylene level well below 100 ppm. The mean urinary biological half-life is 41 hr for trichloroethylene and 144 hr for tetrachloroethylene. The two values are the largest of the values so far obtained with organic solvents. The respiratory half-life is shorter than the urinary half-life, both in richloroethylene and in tetrachloroethylene. Applications of the urinalyses in clinical cases are described. In one case of trichlorethylene dependency, a longer urinary half-life of 73 hr was observed. An automated system is presented for the determination of total trichloro compounds in human urine. The system can analyze the samples at the rate of 20 samples per hour with an accuracy comparable to that of the time-consuming manual analysis.

Ikeda, M

1977-01-01

11

Health Assessment Document for Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) (Final Report)  

EPA Science Inventory

Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is a volatile solvent with important commercial applications. It has been detected in the ambient air of a variety of urban and nonurban areas of the United States. It has less frequently been detected in water but has been monitored generally at levels ...

12

Biodegradation of tetrachloroethylene in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The laboratory study using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor in high strength wastewater containing tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was carried out to develop granular sludge in the presence of PCE (2 mg\\/l) and to assess the potential of UASB reactor in treating PCE containing wastewater. The granules of 0.25–4 mm size were observed after 82 days having mostly Methanothrix and Methanosarcina

S. M. Prakash; S. K. Gupta

2000-01-01

13

Human Health Effects of Tetrachloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues  

PubMed Central

Background: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) in February 2012 in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Objectives: We reviewed key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of PCE described in the U.S. EPA’s Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene). Methods: The updated assessment of PCE synthesized and characterized a substantial database of epidemiological, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies. Key scientific issues were addressed through modeling of PCE toxicokinetics, synthesis of evidence from neurological studies, and analyses of toxicokinetic, mechanistic, and other factors (tumor latency, severity, and background rate) in interpreting experimental animal cancer findings. Considerations in evaluating epidemiological studies included the quality (e.g., specificity) of the exposure assessment methods and other essential design features, and the potential for alternative explanations for observed associations (e.g., bias or confounding). Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites that contribute to PCE toxicity. The exposure assessment approach—a key evaluation factor for epidemiological studies of bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma—provided suggestive evidence of carcinogenicity. Bioassay data provided conclusive evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Neurotoxicity was identified as a sensitive noncancer health effect, occurring at low exposures: a conclusion supported by multiple studies. Evidence was integrated from human, experimental animal, and mechanistic data sets in assessing adverse health effects of PCE. Conclusions: PCE is likely to be carcinogenic to humans. Neurotoxicity is a sensitive adverse health effect of PCE. Citation: Guyton KZ, Hogan KA, Scott CS, Cooper GS, Bale AS, Kopylev L, Barone S Jr, Makris SL, Glenn B, Subramaniam RP, Gwinn MR, Dzubow RC, Chiu WA. 2014. Human health effects of tetrachloroethylene: key findings and scientific issues. Environ Health Perspect 122:325–334;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307359

Hogan, Karen A.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Cooper, Glinda S.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Kopylev, Leonid; Barone, Stanley; Makris, Susan L.; Glenn, Barbara; Subramaniam, Ravi P.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.

2014-01-01

14

Extraction of Tetrachloroethylene from Weathered Soils: A Comparison between Soxhlet Extraction and Microwave-Assisted Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inadvertent ingestion of contaminated soil can be an important source of xenobiotic exposure to the humans. Our study focuses on chlorinated hydrocarbons in soil, particularly tetrachloroethylene. Tetrachloroethylene is used for dry cleaning and textile processing, as a chemical intermediate and as a degreasing agent. It is also used for rubber coatings, solvent soaps, printing inks, adhesives, polishes, lubricants and

H. Chua

15

Health risk assessment of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in California drinking water  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an assessment of the potential health risks associated with exposure to tetrachloroethylene (also known as perchloroethylene or PCE) dissolved in California drinking waters. A primary goal of this health-risk assessment is to evaluate dose-response relationships for observed and potential toxic end points of PCE in order to define dose rates that can be used to establish standards that will protect members of the general public from adverse health effects resulting solely from water-based exposures to PCE. We also analyze the extent of human exposures attributable to PCE-contaminated ground water in California.

Bogen, K.T.; Hall, L.C.; McKone, T.E.; Layton, D.W.; Patton, S.E.

1987-04-10

16

Ultrasonic and microwave desulfurization of coal in tetrachloroethylene  

SciTech Connect

The extractive desulfurization of four high sulfur coals from China were promoted with ultrasonic and microwave in tetrachloroethylene organic solvents. It was shown that the joint promotion with ultrasonic and microwave had an active effect on extractive desulfurization. The rate of desulfurization increased with the increase of time in ultrasonic field as well as with the power of ultrasonic, but declined with the increase of the particle size of coal. The rate of desulfurization was not identical for different coal, which was perhaps related to the existed forms of organic sulfur in coal.

Mi, J.; Ren, J.; Wang, J.C.; Bao, W.R. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

2007-07-01

17

SUMMARY REPORT OF THE PEER REVIEW WORKSHOP ON THE NEUROTOXICITY OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE) DISCUSSION PAPER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, Summary Report of the Peer Review Workshop on the Neurotoxicity of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) Discussion , summarizes the discussions at a February 25, 2004, workshop that brought together recognized scientific experts to engage in a public discussi...

18

RESPONSE TO ISSUES AND DATA SUBMISSIONS ON THE CARCINOGENICITY OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE)  

EPA Science Inventory

The scientific debate over the potential carcinogenicity of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, perc, PCE) spans several years. his document reviews the issues considered by the EPA's Science Advisory Board (SAB) during its review of the Draft Addendum to the Health Assessmen...

19

THE ADDITION OF CYCLIC ETHERS TO TETRACHLOROETHYLENE BY THE $gamma$RAY IRRADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation-induced addition reaction between tetrachloroethylene and ; cyclic ethers, tetrahydrofuran and paradioxane, was studied. In a glass ampule ; tetrachloroethylene and cyclic ether were placed and the ampule was deaerated, ; sealed, and then irradiated with gamma rays at a dose rate of 1.2 to 6.0 x 10\\/sup ; 4\\/ r\\/hr at room temperature. The reaction mixture was distilled

T. Matsuda; T. Yumoto; K. Iseda

1963-01-01

20

Prenatal and Early Childhood Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene and Adult Vision  

PubMed Central

Background: Tetrachloroethylene (PCE; or perchloroethylene) has been implicated in visual impairments among adults with occupational and environmental exposures as well as children born to women with occupational exposure during pregnancy. Objectives: Using a population-based retrospective cohort study, we examined the association between prenatal and early childhood exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and deficits in adult color vision and contrast sensitivity. Methods: We estimated the amount of PCE that was delivered to the family residence from participants’ gestation through 5 years of age. We administered to this now adult study population vision tests to assess acuity, contrast sensitivity, and color discrimination. Results: Participants exposed to higher PCE levels exhibited lower contrast sensitivity at intermediate and high spatial frequencies compared with unexposed participants, although the differences were generally not statistically significant. Exposed participants also exhibited poorer color discrimination than unexposed participants. The difference in mean color confusion indices (CCI) was statistically significant for the Farnsworth test but not Lanthony’s D-15d test [Farnsworth CCI mean difference = 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.003, 0.10; Lanthony CCI mean difference = 0.07, 95% CI: –0.02, 0.15]. Conclusions: Prenatal and early childhood exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water may be associated with long-term subclinical visual dysfunction in adulthood, particularly with respect to color discrimination. Further investigation of this association in similarly exposed populations is necessary.

Getz, Kelly D.; Janulewicz, Patricia A.; Rowe, Susannah; Weinberg, Janice M.; Winter, Michael R.; Martin, Brett R.; Vieira, Veronica M.; White, Roberta F.

2012-01-01

21

Linking indoor air and pharmacokinetic models to assess tetrachloroethylene risk  

SciTech Connect

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models describing the uptake, metabolism, and excretion of xenobiotic compounds are now proposed for use in regulatory health-risk assessments. In this study the authors investigate the extent of PCE metabolism arising from domestic respiratory exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) from ground water, as predicted using a PBPK model. Indoor exposure patterns they use as input to the PBPK model are realistic ones generated from a three-compartment model describing volatilization of PCE from domestic water into household air. Values they use for the metabolic parameters of the PBPK model are estimated from data on urinary metabolites in workers exposed to PCE. It is shown that for respiratory PCE exposure due to typical levels of PCE in ground water, use of time-weighted average air concentrations with a steady-state PBPK model yields estimates of total metabolized PCE similar to those obtained using completely dynamic modeling, despite considerable uncertainty in key exposure- and metabolic-model parameters. These findings suggest that, for PCE, risk estimation taking pharmacokinetics into account may be accomplished using a simple analytic approach.

Bogen, K.T.; McKone, T.E.

1988-12-01

22

Indoor tetrachloroethylene levels and determinants in Paris dwellings.  

PubMed

There is growing public health concern about indoor air quality. Tetrachloroethylene (PERC), a chlorinated volatile organic compound widely used as a solvent in dry cleaning facilities, can be a residential indoor air pollutant. As part of an environmental investigation included in the PARIS (Pollution and asthma Risk: an Infant Study) birth cohort, this study firstly aimed to document domestic PERC levels, and then to identify the factors influencing these levels using standardized questionnaires about housing characteristics and living conditions. Air samples were collected in the child's bedroom over one week using passive devices when infants were 1, 6, 9, and 12 months. PERC was identified and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. PERC annual domestic level was calculated by averaging seasonal levels. PERC was omnipresent indoors, annual levels ranged from 0.6 to 124.2 ?g/m3. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models showed that proximity to dry cleaning facilities, do-it-yourself activities (e.g.: photographic development, silverware), presence of air vents, and building construction date (<1945) were responsible for higher domestic levels of PERC. This study, conducted in an urban context, provides helpful information on PERC contamination in dwellings, and identifies parameters influencing this contamination. PMID:23127492

Roda, Célina; Kousignian, Isabelle; Ramond, Anna; Momas, Isabelle

2013-01-01

23

Tetrachloroethylene Exposure and Bladder Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Dry-Cleaning-Worker Studies  

PubMed Central

Background: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified tetrachloroethylene, used in the production of chemicals and the primary solvent used in dry cleaning, as “probably carcinogenic to humans” based on limited evidence of an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry cleaners. Objectives: We assessed the epidemiological evidence for the association between tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer from published studies estimating occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene or in workers in the dry-cleaning industry. Methods: Random-effects meta-analyses were carried out separately for occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene and employment as a dry cleaner. We qualitatively summarized exposure–response data because of the limited number of studies available. Results: The meta-relative risk (mRR) among tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.42; three studies; 463 exposed cases). For employment as a dry cleaner, the overall mRR was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.85; seven studies; 139 exposed cases), and for smoking-adjusted studies, the mRR was 1.50 (95% CI: 0.80, 2.84; 4 case–control studies). Conclusions: Our meta-analysis demonstrates an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry cleaners, reported in both cohort and case–control studies, and some evidence for an exposure–response relationship. Although dry cleaners incur mixed exposures, tetrachloroethylene could be responsible for the excess risk of bladder cancer because it is the primary solvent used and it is the only chemical commonly used by dry cleaners that is currently identified as a potential bladder carcinogen. Relatively crude approaches in exposure assessment in the studies of “tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers” may have attenuated the relative risks. Citation: Vlaanderen J, Straif K, Ruder A, Blair A, Hansen J, Lynge E, Charbotel B, Loomis D, Kauppinen T, Kyyronen P, Pukkala E, Weiderpass E, Guha N. 2014. Tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis of dry-cleaning-worker studies. Environ Health Perspect 122:661–666;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307055

Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt; Ruder, Avima; Blair, Aaron; Hansen, Johnni; Lynge, Elsebeth; Charbotel, Barbara; Loomis, Dana; Kauppinen, Timo; Kyyronen, Pentti; Pukkala, Eero; Weiderpass, Elisabete

2014-01-01

24

Physiological pharmacokinetic modeling of inhalation exposure of tetrachloroethylene in rats and humans  

SciTech Connect

A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model which incorporates biophysical parameters such as breathing and blood flow rates, blood and tissue volumes, and chemical partition coefficients is described. The model is used to predict chemical transport and metabolism in rats and humans for tetrachloroethylene, a chemical used extensively as a dry cleaning solvent. The concept of using body weight scaling of the physiological parameters is used to extrapolate results for exhaled air from rats to humans. Model results for inhalation of tetrachloroethylene are compared to empirical data for both species. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Hetrick, D.M.; Ward, R.C.; Travis, C.C.

1986-01-01

25

Tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis of dry-cleaning-worker studies.  

PubMed

Background: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified tetrachloroethylene, used in the production of chemicals and the primary solvent used in dry cleaning, as "probably carcinogenic to humans" based on limited evidence of an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry cleaners.Objectives: We assessed the epidemiological evidence for the association between tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer from published studies estimating occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene or in workers in the dry-cleaning industry.Methods: Random-effects meta-analyses were carried out separately for occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene and employment as a dry cleaner. We qualitatively summarized exposure-response data because of the limited number of studies available.Results: The meta-relative risk (mRR) among tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.42; three studies; 463 exposed cases). For employment as a dry cleaner, the overall mRR was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.85; seven studies; 139 exposed cases), and for smoking-adjusted studies, the mRR was 1.50 (95% CI: 0.80, 2.84; 4 case-control studies).Conclusions: Our meta-analysis demonstrates an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry cleaners, reported in both cohort and case-control studies, and some evidence for an exposure-response relationship. Although dry cleaners incur mixed exposures, tetrachloroethylene could be responsible for the excess risk of bladder cancer because it is the primary solvent used and it is the only chemical commonly used by dry cleaners that is currently identified as a potential bladder carcinogen. Relatively crude approaches in exposure assessment in the studies of "tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers" may have attenuated the relative risks.Citation: Vlaanderen J, Straif K, Ruder A, Blair A, Hansen J, Lynge E, Charbotel B, Loomis D, Kauppinen T, Kyyronen P, Pukkala E, Weiderpass E, Guha N. 2014. Tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis of dry-cleaning-worker studies. Environ Health Perspect 122:661-666;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307055. PMID:24659585

Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt; Ruder, Avima; Blair, Aaron; Hansen, Johnni; Lynge, Elsebeth; Charbotel, Barbara; Loomis, Dana; Kauppinen, Timo; Kyyronen, Pentti; Pukkala, Eero; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Guha, Neela

2014-07-01

26

Apartment Residents' and Day Care Workers' Exposures to Tetrachloroethylene and Deficits in Visual Contrast Sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetrachloroethylene (also called perchloroethylene, or perc), a volatile organic compound, has been the predominant solvent used by the dry-cleaning industry for many years. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified perc as a hazardous air pollutant because of its potential adverse impact on human health. Several occupational studies have indicated that chronic, airborne perc exposure adversely affects neurobehavioral functions in

Judith S. Schreiber; H. Kenneth Hudnell; Andrew M. Geller; Dennis E. House; Kenneth M. Aldous; Michael S. Force; Karyn Langguth; Elizabeth J. Prohonic; Jean C. Parker

27

Dissolution of residual tetrachloroethylene in fractional wettability porous media: correlation development and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work explores the dissolution behavior of residual tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in chemically heterogeneous soils. A numerical solute transport simulator, that incorporates rate-limited dissolution and desorption using linear driving force expressions, was developed and applied to analyze soil column dissolution data and to conduct numerical dissolution experiments. Published mass transfer coefficients were unable to accurately predict the observed dissolution of entrapped

Scott A. Bradford; Thomas J. Phelan; Linda M. Abriola

2000-01-01

28

Anaerobic granule formation and tetrachloroethylene (TCE) removal in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The granulation process was examined using synthetic wastewater containing tetrachloroethylene (TCE) in a 2 liters laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The anaerobic biotransformation of TCE was investigated during the granulation process by reducing the HRT and increasing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and TCE loadings. Anaerobic unacclimated sludge and glucose were used as seed and primary substrate, respectively.

Delia Teresa Sponza

2001-01-01

29

SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE) ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING WATER OF RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

The study provides data on the effects of tetrachloroethylene in drinking solutions. The acute oral LD(50) was determined in male and female Charles River rats and found to be 3835 mg/kg for males and 3005 mg/kg for females. Male and female rats received theoretical daily doses o...

30

Continuous Determination of High-Vapor Phase Concentrations of Tetrachloroethylene Using On-Line Mass Spectrometry  

EPA Science Inventory

A method was developed to determine the vapor concentration of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) at and below its equilibrium vapor phase concentration, 168,000 µg/L (25°C). Vapor samples were drawn by vacuum into a six-port sampling valve and injected through a jet separator into an io...

31

ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF SOME CHLORINATED BENZENES, CHLORINATED ETHANES, AND TETRACHLOROETHYLENE TO 'DAPHNIA MAGNA'  

EPA Science Inventory

Chronic effect and no effect concentrations (28 day) and acute toxicity (48 hr, LC50 and EC50) values were determined for Daphnia magna with some chlorinated benzenes, chlorinated ethanes, and tetrachloroethylene. Acute and chronic toxicity generally increased with the degree of ...

32

Biological exposure assessment to tetrachloroethylene for workers in the dry cleaning industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of conducting biological tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) exposure assessments of dry cleaning employees in conjunction with evaluation of possible PCE health effects. METHODS: Eighteen women from four dry cleaning facilities in southwestern Ohio were monitored in a pilot study of workers with PCE exposure. Personal breathing zone samples were collected

Lauralynn T McKernan; Avima M Ruder; Martin R Petersen; Misty J Hein; Christy L Forrester; Wayne T Sanderson; David L Ashley; Mary A Butler

2008-01-01

33

Impacts of microbial community composition on isotope fractionation during reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotope fractionation has been used with increasing frequency as a tool to quantify degradation of chlorinated aliphatic\\u000a pollutants in the environment. The objective of this research was to determine if the electron donor present in enrichment\\u000a cultures prepared from uncontaminated sediments influenced the extent of isotope fractionation of tetrachloroethylene (PCE),\\u000a either directly, or through its influence on microbial community composition.

Yiran Dong; Elizabeth C. Butler; R. Paul Philp; Lee R. Krumholz

2011-01-01

34

Rapid granulation and sludge retention for tetrachloroethylene removal in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated at 35 °C for over 200 days to investigate the granulation mechanism during tetrachloroethylene (TCE) biodegradation. Anaerobic, unacclimated sludge and glucose were used as seed and primary substrate, respectively. TCE-degrading granules developed after 1.5 months of start-up. They grew at an accelerated pace for 7 months. The TCE-degrading granules

Delia Teresa Sponza

2001-01-01

35

The treatment of Fasciolopsis buski infection in children: a comparison of thiabendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, pyrantel pamoate, hexylresorcinol and tetrachloroethylene.  

PubMed

Four relatively new broad spectrum anthelmintics (thiabendazole, mebendazole, levamisole and pyrantel pamoate) were compared with two older anthelmintics, (tetrachloroethylene and hexylresorcinol) to treat heavy Fasciolopis buski infections in 17 children aged 4-13 years in hospital. Tetrachloroethylene was the most effective drug in these 17 children and another 49. Large numbers of worms were expelled and faecal egg counts were markedly reduced (99%). The mean number of worms per child was 122 with a range of 7 to 818. All the other anthelmintics tested were ineffective; no worms or only a few were expelled after treatment. However, the oral administration of tetrachloroethylene and hexylresorcinol were associated with severe anaphylactic reactions which were prevented by prior treatment with antihistamines. PMID:4082261

Rabbani, G H; Gilman, R H; Kabir, I; Mondel, G

1985-01-01

36

Correlation of tetrachloroethylene in blood and in drinking water: A case of well water pollution  

SciTech Connect

Tetrachloroethylene has been widely used for the cleaning of cloth for many years. Currently, this chemical together with trichloroethylene (TRI) appears to be the most prevailing pollutant of ground water in various countries including Japan. While the biological monitoring of TETRA exposure is popular in occupational health, TETRA was seldom analyzed in the subjects exposed through the general environment. In the present report, a case of water pollution with TETRA is described in which up to 5 {mu}g/L TETRA was detected in the blood of the inhabitants in a area where well water was contaminated with TETRA.

Kido, Kazuhiro; Shiratori, Takehiko; Watanabe, Takao; Nakatsuka, Haruo; Ohashi, Mariko; Ikeda, Masayuki (Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan))

1989-09-01

37

C60 1,1,2,2-tetra-chloro-ethyl-ene tetra-solvate  

PubMed Central

In the title complex, C60·4C2Cl4, the C60 mol­ecule is located on an inversion centre and there are two tetra­chloro­ethyl­ene (TCE) mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. Both TCE mol­ecules show positional disorder, with occupancy ratios of 0.75:0.25 and 0.56:0.44. Four fullerene C atoms form short contacts [3.208?(17) and 3.223?(17)?Å] with the centres of the TCE double bonds, indicating that C60–solvent inter­actions are largely ?–? in nature.

Arunkumar, C.; Bhyrappa, P.; Varghese, B.

2008-01-01

38

TETRACHLOROETHYLENE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF SCHIZOPHRENIA: OFFSPRING OF DRY CLEANERS IN A POPULATION BIRTH COHORT, PRELIMINARY FINDINGS  

PubMed Central

Tetrachloroethylene is a solvent used in dry cleaning with reported neurotoxic effects. Using proportional hazard methods, we examined the relationship between parental occupation as a dry cleaner and risk for schizophrenia in a prospective population-based cohort of 88, 829 offspring born in Jerusalem from 1964 through 1976, followed from birth to age 21–33 years. Of 144 offspring whose parents were dry cleaners, 4 developed schizophrenia. We observed an increased incidence of schizophrenia in offspring of parents who were dry cleaners (RR = 3.4, 95% CI, 1.3–9.2, p=0.01). Tetrachloroethylene exposure warrants further investigation as a risk factor for schizophrenia.

Perrin, Mary C.; Opler, Mark G.; Harlap, Susan; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill; Kleinhaus, Karine; Nahon, Daniella; Fennig, Shmuel; Susser, Ezra S.; Malaspina, Dolores

2009-01-01

39

ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES FOR TREATING GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATED WITH TCE (TRICHLOROETHYLENE) AND PCE (TETRACHLOROETHYLENE): LABORATORY STUDIES (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) with various dosages of ozone or ozone plus hydrogen peroxide was studied in laboratory experiments. The results show that hydrogen peroxide accelerates the oxidation of TCE and PCE by ozone. At peroxide-to-ozone ...

40

Risk of learning and behavioral disorders following prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This population-based retrospective cohort study examined the association between developmental disorders of learning, attention and behavior and prenatal and early postnatal drinking water exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling

Patricia A. Janulewicz; Roberta F. White; Michael R. Winter; Janice M. Weinberg; Lisa E. Gallagher; Veronica Vieira; Thomas F. Webster; Ann Aschengrau

2008-01-01

41

SURFACTANT ENHANCED RECOVERY OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE FROM A POROUS MEDIUM CONTAINING LOW PERMEABILITY LENSES. 1. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES. (R825409)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract A matrix of batch, column and two-dimensional (2-D) box experiments was conducted to investigate the coupled effects of rate-limited solubilization and layering on the entrapment and subsequent recovery of a representative dense NAPL, tetrachloroethylene (PCE)...

42

Enhancement of granule formation and sludge retainment for tetrachloroethylene (TCE) removal in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetrachloroethylene (TCE) in wastewater was effectively removed at 35 °C over 200 days in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor in order to investigate the formation of TCE degrading granules. Anaerobic unacclimated sludge and glucose were used as seed and primary substrate, respectively. TCE degrading massive initial granules were developed after 1.5 months of start-up, which grew at an

Delia Teresa Sponza

2003-01-01

43

Potential of physiologically based pharmacokinetics to amalgamate kinetic data of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene obtained in rats and man  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was used to amalgamate information obtained in rats and man by various routes of exposure to trichloroethylene (TRI) and tetrachloroethylene (TETRA). Since there have been no pharmacokinetic data on drinking water exposure, drinking water exposure to TRI was conducted in rats using 14C-TRI. Several partition coefficients of TRI and TETRA were also determined in the

A Koizumi

1989-01-01

44

Uncertainties in health-risk assessment: an integrated case study based on tetrachloroethylene in California groundwater  

SciTech Connect

Population risk to an environmental contaminant is represented as the product of a source term; the exposure function, which converts the source into a lifetime-equivalent contact rate in the population; the fraction metabolized; the toxic potency associated with the delivered dose; and the size of the exposed population. Using case studies for contamination of groundwater in California with tetrachloroethylene (PCE), the combined uncertainty in exposure and dose-response models is characterized. Three key issues are addressed: (a) uncertainty in quantifying pathway exposure factors that relate measured environmental concentrations to levels of contact in the exposed population; (b) the uncertainty in the human dose-response models derived from animal data; and (c) an overview of important contributors to the overall uncertainty in population risk estimates.

McKone, T.E.; Bogen, K.T. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore (United States))

1992-02-01

45

Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene-Contaminated Drinking Water and the Risk of Pregnancy Loss  

PubMed Central

There is little information on the impact of solvent-contaminated drinking water on pregnancy outcomes. This retrospective cohort study examined whether maternal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) - contaminated drinking water in the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts influenced the risk of clinically recognized pregnancy loss. The study identified exposed (n=959) and unexposed (1,087) women who completed a questionnaire on their residential and pregnancy histories, and confounding variables. Exposure was estimated using water distribution system modeling software. No meaningful associations were seen between PCE exposure level and the risk of clinically recognized pregnancy loss at the exposure levels experienced by the study population. Because PCE remains a common water contaminant, it is important to continue monitoring its impact on women and their pregnancies.

Aschengrau, Ann; Weinberg, Janice M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Winter, Michael R.; Vieira, Veronica M.; Webster, Thomas F.; Ozonoff, David M.

2010-01-01

46

Tetrachloroethylene in Drinking Water and Birth Outcomes at the US Marine Corps Base at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of mean birth weight, small-for-gestational-age infants, and preterm birth was conducted at the US Marine Corps Base at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, where drinking water was contaminated with volatile organic compounds. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was the predominant contaminant. The authors used multiple linear and logistic regression to analyze 1968-1985 data from 11,798 birth certificates. Overall, at most weak associations

N. Sonnenfeld; I. Hertz-Picciotto; W. E. Kaye

2001-01-01

47

Tetrachloroethylene as new film-forming additive to propylene carbonate-based electrolytes for lithium ion batteries with graphitic anode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetrachloroethylene (TCE) has been investigated as a new film-forming additive to propylene carbonate (PC)-based electrolytes for use in lithium ion batteries. Even in small additive amounts (3 vol.%) TCE was capable of preventing PC co-intercalation into graphite. The formation of a stable passivating film on the graphite surface is believed to be the reason for the improved cell performance. It

Yongsheng Hu; Weihe Kong; Zhaoxiang Wang; Xuejie Huang; Liquan Chen

2005-01-01

48

Urinary excretion of total trichloro-compounds, trichloroethanol, and trichloroacetic acid as a measure of exposure to trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene  

PubMed Central

Ikeda, M., Ohtsuji, H., Imamura, T., and Komoike, Y. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 328-333. Urinary excretion of total trichloro-compounds, trichloroethanol, and trichloroacetic acid as a measure of exposure to trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene. To investigate the relation between trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene concentrations in working environments and metabolite concentrations in urine, a series of surveys was conducted at 17 workshops where the vapour concentration in the air of each workshop was relatively constant. Urine samples collected from 85 male workers were analysed for total trichloro-compounds (TTC), and trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Trichloroethanol (TCE) was estimated by difference. Statistical analyses of the data revealed that the urinary concentrations of both TTC and TCE were proportional to the atmospheric concentration of trichloroethylene. The concentration of TCA was also related to the vapour concentration up to 50 p.p.m. but not at higher concentrations. Further calculations suggested that only one-third of the trichloroethylene absorbed through the lungs was excreted in the urine during working time. In tetrachloroethylene exposure, urinary metabolite levels increased until the atmospheric concentration of the solvent reached 50 to 100 p.p.m., but little increase occurred at higher concentration. This observation was further confirmed by experimental exposure of rats. The toxicological significance of changes in the metabolism of the two solvents is discussed in relation to the possible necessity of reducing the threshold limit value from the current value of 100 p.p.m.

Ikeda, Masayuki; Ohtsuji, Hatsue; Imamura, Toshiko; Komoike, Yoshihiko

1972-01-01

49

THE EFFECT OF LOW CONCENTRATIONS OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF PEM FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells use components that are susceptible to contaminants in the fuel stream. To ensure fuel quality, standards are being set to regulate the amount of impurities allowable in fuel. The present study investigates the effect of chlorinated impurities on fuel cell systems using tetrachloroethylene (PCE) as a model compound for cleaning and degreasing agents. Concentrations between 0.05 parts per million (ppm) and 30 ppm were studied. We show how PCE causes rapid drop in cell performances for all concentrations including 0.05 ppm. At concentrations of 1 and 0.05 ppm, PCE poisoned the cell at a rate dependent on the dosage of the contaminant delivered to the cell. PCE appears to affect the cell when the cell potential was over potentials higher than approximately 0.2 V. No effects were observed at voltages around or below 0.2 V and the cells could be recovered from previous poisoning performed at higher potentials. Recoveries at those low voltages could be induced by changing the operating voltage or by purging the system. Poisoning did not appear to affect the membrane conductivity. Measurements with long-path length IR results suggested catalytic decomposition of the PCE by hydrogen over the anode catalyst.

COLON-MERCHADO, H.; MARTINEZ-RODRIGUEZ, M.; FOX, E.; RHODES, W.; MCWHORTER, C.; GREENWAY, S.

2011-04-18

50

Tetrachloroethylene metabolism resulting from domestic respiratory exposure: Pharmacokinetic considerations relevant to risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models describing the uptake, metabolism, and excretion of xenobiotic compounds are now proposed for use in regulatory health-risk assessments. In this study we compare how different scenarios for domestic respiratory exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) from ground water influence the extent of PCE metabolism predicted using a PBPK model. Indoor exposure patterns we use as input to the PBPK model are realistic ones generated from a three-compartment model describing volatilization of PCE from domestic water into household air. Values we use for the metabolic parameters of the PBPK model are estimated from data on urinary metabolites in workers exposed to PCE. For respiratory PCE exposure due to typical levels of PCE in ground water, use of time-weighted average air concentrations with a steady-state PBPK model yields estimates of total metabolized PCE similar to those obtained using completely dynamic modeling, despite considerable uncertainty in key exposure and metabolic-model parameters. These findings suggest that, in this case, risk estimation taking pharmacokinetics into account may be accomplished using simple analytic methods. 31 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Bogen, K.T.; McKone, T.E.

1987-10-01

51

Integrating address geocoding, land use regression, and spatiotemporal geostatistical estimation for groundwater tetrachloroethylene.  

PubMed

Geographic information systems (GIS) based techniques are cost-effective and efficient methods used by state agencies and epidemiology researchers for estimating concentration and exposure. However, budget limitations have made statewide assessments of contamination difficult, especially in groundwater media. Many studies have implemented address geocoding, land use regression, and geostatistics independently, but this is the first to examine the benefits of integrating these GIS techniques to address the need of statewide exposure assessments. A novel framework for concentration exposure is introduced that integrates address geocoding, land use regression (LUR), below detect data modeling, and Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME). A LUR model was developed for tetrachloroethylene that accounts for point sources and flow direction. We then integrate the LUR model into the BME method as a mean trend while also modeling below detects data as a truncated Gaussian probability distribution function. We increase available PCE data 4.7 times from previously available databases through multistage geocoding. The LUR model shows significant influence of dry cleaners at short ranges. The integration of the LUR model as mean trend in BME results in a 7.5% decrease in cross validation mean square error compared to BME with a constant mean trend. PMID:22264162

Messier, Kyle P; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L

2012-03-01

52

Surfactant enhanced recovery of tetrachloroethylene from a porous medium containing low permeability lenses. 1. Experimental studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A matrix of batch, column and two-dimensional (2-D) box experiments was conducted to investigate the coupled effects of rate-limited solubilization and layering on the entrapment and subsequent recovery of a representative dense NAPL, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), during surfactant flushing. Batch experiments were performed to determine the equilibrium solubilization capacity of the surfactant, polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80), and to measure fluid viscosity, density and interfacial tension. Results of one-dimensional column studies indicated that micellar solubilization of residual PCE was rate-limited at Darcy velocities ranging from 0.8 to 8.2 cm/h and during periods of flow interruption. Effluent concentration data were used to develop effective mass transfer coefficient ( Ke) expressions that were dependent upon the Darcy velocity and duration of flow interruption. To simulate subsurface heterogeneity, 2-D boxes were packed with layers of F-70 Ottawa sand and Wurtsmith aquifer material within 20-30 mesh Ottawa sand. A 4% Tween 80 solution was then flushed through PCE-contaminated boxes at several flow velocities, with periods of flow interruption. Effluent concentration data and visual observations indicated that both rate-limited solubilization and pooling of PCE above the fine layers reduced PCE recovery to levels below those anticipated from batch and column measurements. These experimental results demonstrate the potential impact of both mass transfer limitations and subsurface layering on the recovery of PCE during surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation.

Taylor, Tammy P.; Pennell, Kurt D.; Abriola, Linda M.; Dane, Jacob H.

2001-04-01

53

Adult neuropsychological performance following prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water.  

PubMed

This population-based retrospective cohort study examined adult performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results of crude and multivariate analyses among 35 exposed and 28 unexposed subjects showed no association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure and decrements on tests that assess abilities in the domains of omnibus intelligence, academic achievement or language. The results were suggestive of an association between prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure and diminished performance on tests that assessed abilities in the domains of visuospatial functioning, learning and memory, motor, attention and mood. Because the sample size was small, most findings were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to further define the neuropsychological consequences of early developmental PCE exposure. PMID:22522125

Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Vieira, Veronica; Aschengrau, Ann

2012-01-01

54

Prenatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene-Contaminated Drinking Water and the Risk of Adverse Birth Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Prior studies of prenatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) have shown mixed results regarding its effect on birth weight and gestational age. Objectives In this retrospective cohort study we examined whether PCE contamination of public drinking-water supplies in Massachusetts influenced the birth weight and gestational duration of children whose mothers were exposed before the child’s delivery. Methods The study included 1,353 children whose mothers were exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water and a comparable group of 772 children of unexposed mothers. Birth records were used to identify subjects and provide information on the outcomes. Mothers completed a questionnaire to gather information on residential histories and confounding variables. PCE exposure was estimated using EPANET water distribution system modeling software that incorporated a fate and transport model. Results We found no meaningful associations between PCE exposure and birth weight or gestational duration. Compared with children whose mothers were unexposed during the year of the last menstrual period (LMP), adjusted mean differences in birth weight were 20.9, 6.2, 30.1, and 15.2 g for children whose mothers’ average monthly exposure during the LMP year ranged from the lowest to highest quartile. Similarly, compared with unexposed children, adjusted mean differences in gestational age were ?0.2, 0.1, ?0.1, and ?0.2 weeks for children whose mothers’ average monthly exposure ranged from the lowest to highest quartile. Similar results were observed for two other measures of prenatal exposure. Conclusions These results suggest that prenatal PCE exposure does not have an adverse effect on these birth outcomes at the exposure levels experienced by this population.

Aschengrau, Ann; Weinberg, Janice; Rogers, Sarah; Gallagher, Lisa; Winter, Michael; Vieira, Veronica; Webster, Thomas; Ozonoff, David

2008-01-01

55

Biological exposure assessment to tetrachloroethylene for workers in the dry cleaning industry  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of conducting biological tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) exposure assessments of dry cleaning employees in conjunction with evaluation of possible PCE health effects. Methods Eighteen women from four dry cleaning facilities in southwestern Ohio were monitored in a pilot study of workers with PCE exposure. Personal breathing zone samples were collected from each employee on two consecutive work days. Biological monitoring included a single measurement of PCE in blood and multiple measurements of pre- and post-shift PCE in exhaled breath and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in urine. Results Post-shift PCE in exhaled breath gradually increased throughout the work week. Statistically significant correlations were observed among the exposure indices. Decreases in PCE in exhaled breath and TCA in urine were observed after two days without exposure to PCE. A mixed-effects model identified statistically significant associations between PCE in exhaled breath and airborne PCE time weighted average (TWA) after adjusting for a random participant effect and fixed effects of time and body mass index. Conclusion Although comprehensive, our sampling strategy was challenging to implement due to fluctuating work schedules and the number (pre- and post-shift on three consecutive days) and multiplicity (air, blood, exhaled breath, and urine) of samples collected. PCE in blood is the preferred biological index to monitor exposures, but may make recruitment difficult. PCE TWA sampling is an appropriate surrogate, although more field intensive. Repeated measures of exposure and mixed-effects modeling may be required for future studies due to high within-subject variability. Workers should be monitored over a long enough period of time to allow the use of a lag term.

McKernan, Lauralynn T; Ruder, Avima M; Petersen, Martin R; Hein, Misty J; Forrester, Christy L; Sanderson, Wayne T; Ashley, David L; Butler, Mary A

2008-01-01

56

Interfacial Properties of a Hydrophobic Dye in the Tetrachloroethylene-Water-Glass Systems  

SciTech Connect

Interfacial effects play an important role in governing multiphase fluid behavior in porous media. Strongly hydrophobic organic dyes, used in many experimental studies to facilitate visual observation of the phase distributions, have generally been implicitly assumed to have no influence on the interfacial properties of the various phases in porous media. Sudan IV is the most commonly used dye for non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in laboratory experiments. It has also been used in at least one field experiment. The effects of this dye on the tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-water-glass system were investigated to test the assumption that the dye does not effect the interfacial properties and therefore PCE mobility. The results indicate that the dye does indeed change the interfacial relationships.The effect of the dye on the interfacial relationships is a complex function of the dye concentration, the solid phase composition, and the dynamic rate of new interface formation. The dye caused a slight (<10 percent) increase in interfacial tension at low concentrations (<0.1 g/L) and high rates of new interface formation. The dye reduced interfacial tension between PCE and water at low rates of new interface formation for all dye concentrations tested (0.00508 to 5.08 g/L). At the highest dye concentration, the PCE-water interfacial tension was significantly reduced regardless of the rate of new interface formation. The apparent interfacial tension increase at low dye concentrations is suspected to be an artifact of a low measured IFT value for the undyed PCE caused by leaching of rubber o-rings by the PCE prior to testing in the final drop-volume configuration.In addition to reducing interfacial tension, the dye was found to significantly alter the wetting relationship between PCE and water on a glass surface at and above the range of reported dye concentrations cited in the literature (1.1 to 1.7 g/L). The wetting relationship was rendered neutral from a water-wet initial condition at the highest dye concentration. The contact angle, measured through the aqueous phase, changed from 58 degrees for undyed PCE to 93 degrees at a dye concentration of 5.08 g/L. Complete reversal of the wettability is likely given the short equilibration time used in this study (approximately five minutes) together with literature indications that hundreds to thousands of hours may be required to reach equilibrium during contact angle measurements. Observations suggesting changing wetting relationships were also noted between PCE, water, and the platinum-iridium surface used in the standard du No/374y ring method for measuring interfacial tension.Observations of the dyed-PCE-water interface behavior during du No/374y ring interfacial tension measurements were similar to observations noted previously during measurements of the interfacial tension between the Savannah River Site (SRS) M-Area Settling Basin DNAPL (M-Area DNAPL) and water. This observation suggests that the M-Area DNAPL may contain surface active components. If this proves to be the case, it would have significant implications for how the M-Area DNAPL is distributed and moves in the SRS subsurface.

Tuck, D.M.

1999-02-23

57

Tetrachloroethylene in drinking water and birth outcomes at the US Marine Corps Base at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.  

PubMed

A study of mean birth weight, small-for-gestational-age infants, and preterm birth was conducted at the US Marine Corps Base at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, where drinking water was contaminated with volatile organic compounds. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was the predominant contaminant. The authors used multiple linear and logistic regression to analyze 1968-1985 data from 11,798 birth certificates. Overall, at most weak associations were observed between PCE exposure and study outcomes. However, associations were found between PCE exposure and birth-weight outcomes for infants of older mothers and mothers with histories of fetal loss. Adjusted mean birth-weight differences between PCE-exposed and unexposed infants were -130 g (90% confidence interval (CI): -236, -23) for mothers aged 35 years or older and -104 g (90% CI: -174, -34) for mothers with two or more previous fetal losses. Adjusted odds ratios for PCE exposure and small-for-gestational-age infants were 2.1 (90% CI: 0.9, 4.9) for older mothers and 2.5 (90% CI: 1.5, 4.3) for mothers with two or more prior fetal losses. These results suggest that some fetuses may be more vulnerable than others to chemical insult. PMID:11700244

Sonnenfeld, N; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Kaye, W E

2001-11-15

58

Risk of Learning and Behavioral Disorders Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

This population-based retrospective cohort study examined the association between developmental disorders of learning, attention and behavior and prenatal and early postnatal drinking water exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Mothers completed a questionnaire on disorders of attention, learning and behavior in their children and on potential confounding variables. The final cohort consisted of 2,086 children. Results of crude and multivariate analyses showed no association between prenatal exposure and receiving tutoring for reading or math, being placed on an Individual Education Plan, or repeating a school grade (adjusted Odds Ratios (OR)=1.0–1.2). There was also no consistent pattern of increased risk for receiving a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Hyperactive Disorder (HD), special class placement for academic or behavioral problems, or lower educational attainment. Modest associations were observed for the latter outcomes only in the low exposure group (e.g., adjusted ORs for ADD were 1.4 and 1.0 for low and high exposure, respectively). (All ORs are based on an unexposed referent group.) Results for postnatal exposure through age five years were similar to those for prenatal exposure. We conclude that prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure is not associated with disorders of attention, learning and behavior identified on the basis of questionnaire responses and at the exposure levels experienced by this population.

Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Gallagher, Lisa E; Vieira, Veronica; Webster, Thomas F; Aschengrau, Ann

2008-01-01

59

Prediction of risk from indoor exposure to tetrachloroethylene; Pharmacokinetic considerations under steady-state and dynamic exposure conditions  

SciTech Connect

Multicompartment models known as physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) models are increasingly used in health risk assessment for volatile organic compounds (VOC's). These models predict the uptake, metabolism and excretion of such chemicals in exposed animals or people. In current applications of such models, however, input has consisted of simplistic exposure scenarios that often do not represent realistic environment exposure conditions of regulatory concern. Recent studies have shown that exposure to VOC's in drinking-water supplies can result not only from direct ingestion of contaminated water, but also from inhalation and dermal absorption. McKone has shown that daily personal exposure to VOC's from tap water through inhalation can range from 1.5 to 6.0 times the exposure attributable to ingestion of 2 L/d of water. This daily exposure is dominated by large, short-term exposures during specific activities such as showering or bathing and time spent in bathrooms. In the context of PB-PK models, these observations therefore raise the question: Is the daily metabolized dose sensitive to the time profile of exposure To address this question, the authors here explore how a realistic scenario for indoor respiratory exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) from ground water affects the extent of PCE metabolism, as predicted by a PB-PK model. They focus on the degree to which dynamic, as opposed to steady-state, modeling is actually necessary to predict PCE metabolism and on whether conclusions in this regard are significantly affected by uncertainty in estimates of parameters that govern PCE metabolism in humans.

Bogen, K.T.; McKone, T.E. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1987-01-01

60

Bioactivation of tetrachloroethylene. Role of glutathione S-transferase-catalyzed conjugation versus cytochrome P-450-dependent phospholipid alkylation.  

PubMed

The metabolism of [14C]tetrachloroethylene (Tetra) and its metabolite S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (TCVC) was investigated with in vitro systems to substantiate metabolic pathways of Tetra deduced from in vivo experiments. In the presence of NADPH, rat hepatic microsomal fractions metabolized Tetra to soluble metabolites, which were identified as trichloroacetic acid and oxalic acid by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and a metabolite largely bound to microsomal macromolecules. The majority of the alkylated macromolecules were identified as N-trichloroacetylated phospholipids by high performance liquid chromatography and GC/MS. When Tetra was incubated with hepatic microsomes and cytosol in the presence of 10 mM glutathione, but in the absence of NADPH, the formation of a polar metabolite other than trichloroacetic acid and oxalic acid was observed. This metabolite was identified, after hydrolysis to the corresponding cysteine conjugate, as S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)-glutathione (TCVG). Microsomal GSH S-transferases catalyzed TCVG formation more efficiently than cytosolic GSH S-transferases; the competitive substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene inhibited TCVG formation. In the presence of both NADPH and GSH, TCVG formation in microsomes was decreased, indicating that oxidative metabolism and GSH conjugation of Tetra are competitive reactions. The Tetra metabolite TCVC was cleaved by bacterial cysteine conjugate b-lyase to dichloroacetic acid and pyruvate. The obtained results substantiate the postulated pathways of Tetra biotransformation and demonstrate that both oxidative and conjugative reactions occur in hepatic Tetra metabolism. Phospholipid alkylation, which occurs during oxidative metabolism, may be a deactivation reaction, whereas TCVG formation, renal metabolism to TCVC, and cleavage of TCVC by b-lyase under formation of mutagenic intermediates may contribute to the nephrocarcinogenic effect of Tetra. PMID:2891489

Dekant, W; Martens, G; Vamvakas, S; Metzler, M; Henschler, D

1987-01-01

61

Risk of learning and behavioral disorders following prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water.  

PubMed

This population-based retrospective cohort study examined the association between developmental disorders of learning, attention and behavior and prenatal and early postnatal drinking water exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Mothers completed a questionnaire on disorders of attention, learning and behavior in their children and on potential confounding variables. The final cohort consisted of 2086 children. Results of crude and multivariate analyses showed no association between prenatal exposure and receiving tutoring for reading or math, being placed on an Individual Education Plan, or repeating a school grade (adjusted Odds Ratios (OR)=1.0-1.2). There was also no consistent pattern of increased risk for receiving a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Hyperactive Disorder (HD), special class placement for academic or behavioral problems, or lower educational attainment. Modest associations were observed for the latter outcomes only in the low exposure group (e.g., adjusted ORs for ADD were 1.4 and 1.0 for low and high exposure, respectively). (All ORs are based on an unexposed referent group.) Results for postnatal exposure through age five years were similar to those for prenatal exposure. We conclude that prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure is not associated with disorders of attention, learning and behavior identified on the basis of questionnaire responses and at the exposure levels experienced by this population. PMID:18353612

Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Gallagher, Lisa E; Vieira, Veronica; Webster, Thomas F; Aschengrau, Ann

2008-01-01

62

Prenatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water and the risk of congenital anomalies: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Prior animal and human studies of prenatal exposure to solvents including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) have shown increases in the risk of certain congenital anomalies among exposed offspring. Objectives This retrospective cohort study examined whether PCE contamination of public drinking water supplies in Massachusetts influenced the occurrence of congenital anomalies among children whose mothers were exposed around the time of conception. Methods The study included 1,658 children whose mothers were exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water and a comparable group of 2,999 children of unexposed mothers. Mothers completed a self-administered questionnaire to gather information on all of their prior births, including the presence of anomalies, residential histories and confounding variables. PCE exposure was estimated using EPANET water distribution system modeling software that incorporated a fate and transport model. Results Children whose mothers had high exposure levels around the time of conception had an increased risk of congenital anomalies. The adjusted odds ratio of all anomalies combined among children with prenatal exposure in the uppermost quartile was 1.5 (95% CI: 0.9, 2.5). No meaningful increases in the risk were seen for lower exposure levels. Increases were also observed in the risk of neural tube defects (OR: 3.5, 95% CI: 0.8, 14.0) and oral clefts (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 0.7, 15.0) among offspring with any prenatal exposure. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the risk of certain congenital anomalies is increased among the offspring of women who were exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water around the time of conception. Because these results are limited by the small number of children with congenital anomalies that were based on maternal reports, a follow-up investigation should be conducted with a larger number of affected children who are identified by independent records.

2009-01-01

63

Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an adult cohort following prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water.  

PubMed

This population-based retrospective cohort study examined Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and Geographic Information System (GIS) methodology. Brain imaging was performed on 26 exposed and 16 unexposed subjects. Scans were acquired on a Philips 3T whole body scanner using the ADNI T1-weighted MP-RAGE scan. The scans were processed by FreeSurfer version 4.3.1 software to obtain measurements of specific brain regions. There were no statistically significant differences between exposed and unexposed subjects on the measures of white matter hypointensities (?: 127.5mm(3), 95% CI: -259.1, 1514.0), white matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral white matter: ?: 21230.0mm(3), 95% CI: -4512.6, 46971.7) or gray matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral gray matter: ?: 11976.0mm(3), 95% CI: -13657.2, 37609.3). The results of this study suggest that exposure to PCE during gestation and early childhood, at the levels observed in this population, is not associated with alterations in the brain structures studied. PMID:23571160

Janulewicz, Patricia A; Killiany, Ronald J; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Aschengrau, Ann

2013-01-01

64

Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Adult Cohort Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

This population-based retrospective cohort study examined Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and Geographic Information System (GIS) methodology. Brain imaging was performed on 26 exposed and 16 unexposed subjects. Scans were acquired on a Philips 3T whole body scanner using the ADNI T1-weighted MP-RAGE scan. The scans were processed by FreeSurfer version 4.3.1 software to obtain measurements of specific brain regions. There were no statistically significant differences between exposed and unexposed subjects on measures of white matter hypointensities (?: 127.5 mm3, 95% CI: ?259.1, 1514.0), white matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral white matter: ?: 21230.0 mm3, 95% CI: ?4512.6, 46971.7) or gray matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral gray matter: ?: 11976.0 mm3, 95% CI: ?13657.2, 37609.3). The results of this study suggest that exposure to PCE during gestation and early childhood, at the levels observed in this population, is not associated with alterations in the brain structures studied.

Janulewicz, Patricia A; Killiany, Ronald J; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Aschengrau, Ann

2013-01-01

65

Occurrence of mental illness following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background While many studies of adults with solvent exposure have shown increased risks of anxiety and depressive disorders, there is little information on the impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure on the subsequent risk of mental illness. This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Methods A total of 1,512 subjects born between 1969 and 1983 were studied, including 831 subjects with both prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on mental illnesses, demographic and medical characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure originating from the vinyl-liner of water distribution pipes was assessed using water distribution system modeling software that incorporated a leaching and transport algorithm. Results No meaningful increases in risk ratios (RR) for depression were observed among subjects with prenatal and early childhood exposure (RR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.9-1.4). However, subjects with prenatal and early childhood exposure had a 1.8-fold increased risk of bipolar disorder (N = 36 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.9-1.4), a 1.5-fold increased risk post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 47 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.9-2.5), and a 2.1-fold increased risk of schizophrenia (N = 3 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.2-20.0). Further increases in the risk ratio were observed for bipolar disorder (N = 18 exposed cases, RR; 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3-5.6) and post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 18 exposed cases, RR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2) among subjects with the highest exposure levels. Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence against an impact of early life exposure to PCE on the risk of depression. In contrast, the results provide support for an impact of early life exposure on the risk of bipolar disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. The number of schizophrenia cases was too small to draw reliable conclusions. These findings should be confirmed in investigations of other similarly exposed populations.

2012-01-01

66

Risk of breast cancer following exposure to tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water in Cape Cod, Massachusetts: reanalysis of a case-control study using a modified exposure assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is an important occupational chemical used in metal degreasing and drycleaning and a prevalent drinking water contaminant. Exposure often occurs with other chemicals but it occurred alone in a pattern that reduced the likelihood of confounding in a unique scenario on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. We previously found a small to moderate increased risk of breast cancer among women with the highest exposures using a simple exposure model. We have taken advantage of technical improvements in publically available software to incorporate a more sophisticated determination of water flow and direction to see if previous results were robust to more accurate exposure assessment. Methods The current analysis used PCE exposure estimates generated with the addition of water distribution modeling software (EPANET 2.0) to test model assumptions, compare exposure distributions to prior methods, and re-examine the risk of breast cancer. In addition, we applied data smoothing to examine nonlinear relationships between breast cancer and exposure. We also compared a set of measured PCE concentrations in water samples collected in 1980 to modeled estimates. Results Thirty-nine percent of individuals considered unexposed in prior epidemiological analyses were considered exposed using the current method, but mostly at low exposure levels. As a result, the exposure distribution was shifted downward resulting in a lower value for the 90th percentile, the definition of "high exposure" in prior analyses. The current analyses confirmed a modest increase in the risk of breast cancer for women with high PCE exposure levels defined by either the 90th percentile (adjusted ORs 1.0-1.5 for 0-19 year latency assumptions) or smoothing analysis cut point (adjusted ORs 1.3-2.0 for 0-15 year latency assumptions). Current exposure estimates had a higher correlation with PCE concentrations in water samples (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.65, p < 0.0001) than estimates generated using the prior method (0.54, p < 0.0001). Conclusions The incorporation of sophisticated flow estimates in the exposure assessment method shifted the PCE exposure distribution downward, but did not meaningfully affect the exposure ranking of subjects or the strength of the association with the risk of breast cancer found in earlier analyses. Thus, the current analyses show a slightly elevated breast cancer risk for highly exposed women, with strengthened exposure assessment and minimization of misclassification by using the latest technology.

2011-01-01

67

UPDATED HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR TETRACHLOROETHYLENE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analys...

68

NEUROTOXICITY OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE): DISCUSSION PAPER  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper is a background document for a meeting of neurotoxicity experts to discuss the central nervous system effects of exposure to perchloroethylene (perc). The document reviews the literature on neurological testing of people exposed to perc occupationally in dry cleanin...

69

CHARGE TO THE TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE) NEUROTOXICITY EXPERT PANEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Today NCEA is posting the charge which will be discussed at the expert panel meeting on neurotoxicity issues associated with exposure to tetrachlroroethylene. This charge is to be the main agenda topic for the meeting. The time and place of the meeting will be announced in a fu...

70

TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (TCE) REMOVAL DURING ANAEROBIC GRANULATION IN AN UPFLOW ANAEROBIC SLUDGE BLANKET (UASB) REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic biotransformation of TCE was investigated during the granulation process by reducing the HRT and increasing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and TCE loadings in a 2 l laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Anaerobic unacclimated sludge and glucose were used as seed and primary substrate, respectively. Initial granules were developed after 1.5 months of start-up, which grew at

Delia Teresa Sponza

2002-01-01

71

Tetrachloroethylene Metabolism Resulting from Domestic Respiratory Exposure: Pharmacokinetic Considerations Relevant to Risk Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models describing the uptake, metabolism, and excretion of xenobiotic compounds are now proposed for use in regulatory health-risk assessments. In this study the authors compare how different scenarios for dome...

K. T. Bogen T. E. McKone

1987-01-01

72

KINETICS OF THE TRANSFORMATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE AND TETRACHLOROETHYLENE BY IRON SULFIDE. (R825958)  

EPA Science Inventory

The transformation of nine halogenated aliphatic compounds by 10 g/L (0.5 m2/L) FeS at pH 8.3 was studied in batch experiments. These compounds were as follows: pentachloroethane (PCA), 1,1,2,2- and 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethanes (1122-TeCA and 1112-TeCA), 1,1,...

73

INFLUENCE OF VISCOUS AND BUOYANCY FORCES ON THE MOBILIZATION OF RESIDUAL TETRACHLOROETHYLENE DURING SURFACTANT FLUSHING  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential for nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) mobilization is one of the most important considerations in the development and implementation of surfactant-based remediation technologies. Column experiments were performed to investigate the onset and extent of tetrachloroethyle...

74

40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 261 - Basis for Listing Hazardous Waste  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tetrachloroethylene, pentachloroethane, hexachloroethane, allyl chloride (3-chloropropene), dichloropropane, dichloropropene...Tetrachloroethylene; Pentachloroethane; Hexachloroethane; Allyl chloride (3-Chloropropene); Dichloropropane;...

2010-07-01

75

SURFACTANT ENHANCED RECOVERY OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE FROM A POROUS MEDIUM CONTAINING LOW PERMEABILITY LENSES. 2. NUMERICAL SIMULATION. (R825409)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract A numerical model of surfactant enhanced solubilization was developed and applied to the simulation of nonaqueous phase liquid recovery in two-dimensional heterogeneous laboratory sand tank systems. Model parameters were derived from independent, small-scale, ...

76

Prediction of risk from indoor exposure to tetrachloroethylene: Pharmacokinetic considerations under steady-state and dynamic exposure conditions  

SciTech Connect

Steady-state analysis of the PB-PK model used here provides several simple relationships that are directly relevant to risk assessment for VOC's subject to metabolism. In particular, such an analysis provides an upper bound on the amount of inhaled chemical that is capable of being metabolized. We have further demonstrated that, for respiratory PCE exposure at indoor air concentrations arising from typical levels of PCE contamination in well water, and conditional on a given set of metabolic parameter estimates, metabolized dose can be approximated closely using estimated time-weighted average PCE concentrations with a PB-PK model under steady-state assumptions, despite the large temporal fluctuations in concentration associated with a realistic indoor exposure scenario and the large degree of uncertainty in parameter estimates for PCE metabolism in humans. 22 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Bogen, K.T.; McKone, T.E.

1987-05-14

77

Ground-penetrating radar monitoring of a controlled DNAPL release: 200 MHz radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A controlled release of tetrachloroethylene was performed in a saturated, natural sandy aquifer to evaluate the effectiveness of various geophysical techniques for detecting and monitoring dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface. Tetrachloroethylene, typical of most DNAPLs, has a low relative dielectric permittivity (2.3), which contrasts with the high relative permittivity (80) of the pore water it displaces, making

Michael L. Brewster; A. P. Annan

1994-01-01

78

FIELD EVALUATION OF A SIMPLE MICROCOSM SIMULATING THE BEHAVIOR OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN SUBSURFACE MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

A simple batch microcosm had previously been developed to simulate the behavior of volatile organic compounds in unconsolidated subsurface material. The microcosm was evaluated by comparing the behavior of tetrachloroethylene, bromoform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,2-dichlorobenzene,...

79

Applications of Monitored Natural Attenuation in the USA (Abstract)  

EPA Science Inventory

Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is widely applied in the USA to control the risk associated with ground water contamination from chlorinated solvents such a tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). MNA relies on the natural processes of degradation, sorption an...

80

Applications of Monitored Natural Attenuation in the USA (Presentation)  

EPA Science Inventory

Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is widely applied in the USA to control the risk associated with ground water contamination from chlorinated solvents such a tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). MNA relies on the natural processes of degradation, sorption an...

81

THE TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE EMISSION OF PERCHLORO- ETHYLENE FROM DRY CLEANED FABRICS  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted to evaluate the emission of perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene) from freshly dry cleaned fabrics using small environmental test chambers. The temperature dependence of the release of perchloroethylene was evaluated over a temperature range of 20 to 45°C....

82

TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE EMISSION OF PERCHLOROETHYLENE FROM DRY CLEANED FABRICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The article discusses an evaluation of the emission of perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene) from freshly dry cleaned fabrics using small environment test chambers. he temperature dependence of the release of perchloroethylene was evaluated over a temperature range of 20 to 45 ...

83

40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart O of... - Regulated Contaminants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...damage or problems with their circulatory system, and may have an increased...their liver, kidneys, or circulatory systems. p-Dichlorobenzene (ppb...their liver, kidneys, or circulatory system. Tetrachloroethylene...

2012-07-01

84

BINARY DESORPTION ISOTHERMS OF TCE AND PCE FROM SILICA GEL AND NATURAL SOLIDS. (R822626)  

EPA Science Inventory

Binary solute desorption isotherms of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) at 100% relative humidity from silica gel and two well-characterized natural solids were investigated. Results indicated that the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) was able to descr...

85

NATURAL GRADIENT EXPERIMENT ON SOLUTE TRANSPORT IN A SAND AQUIFER. 4. SORPTION OF ORGANIC SOLUTES AND ITS INFLUENCE ON MOBILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory investigations were conducted to determine whether the observed field retardation of bromoform, carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and hexachloroethane at the Borden field site could be explained by the linear, reversible, equilibrium sorpt...

86

FIELD EVALUATION OF THE SOLVENT EXTRACTION RESIDUAL BIOTREATMENT (SERB) TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was demonstrated at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of PCE (tetrachloroethylene) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site...

87

BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The organic contaminants that are most commonly detected in groundwater are low-molecular-weight, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform. The authors exposed unsatu...

88

Halomethyl Metal Compounds. LIII. Reactions of Phenyl(trihalomethyl)Mercury Compounds with Thiocarbonyl Derivatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reaction of phenyl(bromodichloromethyl)mercury with thiophosgene gave tetrachlorothiirane in excellent yield. This product also was formed in the reaction of this mercury reagent with elemental sulfur; its thermolysis gave tetrachloroethylene and sulf...

D. Seyferth R. S. Marmor W. Tronich W. E. Smith

1971-01-01

89

Hydrogeologic Framework, Ground Water Quality, and Simulation of Ground Water Flow at the Fair Lawn Well Field Superfund Site, Bergen County, New Jersey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Production wells in the Westmoreland well field, Fair Lawn, Bergen County, New Jersey (the 'Fair Lawn well field Superfund site'), are contaminated with volatile organic compounds, particularly trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroet...

J. C. Lewis-Brown D. E. Rice R. Rosman N. P. Smith

2004-01-01

90

Groundwater Pollution Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chlorinated organic compounds (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1, 1, 1 trichloroethane) were discovered in the groundwater beneath the reactor fuel and target fabrication area at the Savannah River Plant in June 1981 during routine RCRA monito...

J. L. Steele

1984-01-01

91

EVALUATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION IN AN AGGREGATE KILN: FLORIDA SOLITE CORPORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Aggregate kiln incineration of chlorinated liquid organic waste was investigated in a one-week program at Florida Solite Company. POHCs (toluene, tetrachloroethylene, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl isobutyl ketone) were monitored in waste and stack emissions. In addition, stack ...

92

ANAEROBIC BIOTRANSFORMATIONS OF POLLUTANT CHEMICALS IN AQUIFERS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic microbial communities sampled from either a methanogenic or sulfate-reducing aquifer site have been tested for their ability to degrade a variety of groundwater pollutants, including halogenated aromatic compounds, simple alkyl phenols and tetrachloroethylene. The haloa...

93

Public Health Assessment for Petitioned Public Health Assessment, Connecticut Correctional Institution (a/k/a Somers Correctional Facility), Somers, New Haven County, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD980522940.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Osborn Connecticut Correctional Facility (Osborn CCI) is located in Somers, CT. Sand filter beds received tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated wastes from the on-site laundry facility. PCE-contaminated groundwater was detected in 1986 in one of the ...

1997-01-01

94

40 CFR 465.02 - General definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1-Dichloroethylene Methylene chloride (dichloromethane) Pentachlorophenol Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate Butyl benzyl-phthalate Di-N-butyl phthalate Phenanthrene Tetrachloroethylene Toluene [47 FR 54244, Dec. 1, 1982, as...

2013-07-01

95

40 CFR 464.11 - Specialized definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 65. phenol 66. bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 67. butyl benzyl phthalate 84. pyrene 85. tetrachloroethylene 87...naphthalene 65. phenol 66. bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 67. butyl benzyl phthalate 68....

2013-07-01

96

40 CFR 469.22 - Specialized definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...naphthalene 2 Nitrophenol phenol bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate tetrachloroethylene toluene trichloroethylene 2 Chlorophenol...Dichlorophenol 4 Nitrophenol pentachlorophenol di-n-butyl phthalate anthracene 1,2 Diphenylhydrazine isophorone butyl...

2013-07-01

97

MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO TOXICOLOGICAL SCREENING: I. SYSTEMIC TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicity of 10 chemicals (carbaryl, carbon tetrachloride, chlordane, ethylhexylphthalate, dichloromethane, heptachlor, phenol, tetrachloroethylene, triadimefon, and trichloroethylene were examined in the liver, kidney, spleen, thymus, and adrenal of female F-344 rats. cute le...

98

CATALYTIC HYDRODEHALOGENATION OF CHLORINATED ETHYLENES USING PALLADIUM AND HYDROGEN FOR THE TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED WATER. (R825689C054,R825689C060)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract A kinetic model is presented for the catalytic hydrodehalogenation of chlorinated ethylenes using Pd and H2 under water treatment conditions. All five chlorinated ethylenes, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and vinyl chloride, were completely rem...

99

Body Fat as a Factor in Tolerating Exposure to Tetrachlorethylene Vapor: A Preliminary Study Using Anthropometric Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The biological effects of tetrachloroethylene, an important industrial solvent, have been described in studies of various designs. Human experimental studies and surveys of exposed workers have noted neurological signs and symptoms of mild to moderate sev...

K. Klint

1980-01-01

100

Microwave Regeneration of Activated Carbon Used for Removal of Solvents from Vented Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microwave regeneration of activated carbon used to remove organic solvents from vented air has been investigated. Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), acetone, and tetrachloroethylene (TCE) vapors were removed from vented air through adsorption onto granular activated carbon. The saturated carbon was then regenerated in a microwave field, where the solvent was quickly desorbed and recovered from the inner pores of

P. Moses Coss; Chang Yul Cha

2000-01-01

101

Gaseous TCE and PCE removal by an activated carbon biofilter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaseous trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are emitted in the treatment of contaminated groundwaters with air stripping and\\/or the remediation of contaminated soils using vapor extraction techniques. This study investigated the application of biofiltration using cometabolic process to remediate gaseous TCE and PCE that are highly recalcitrant to biodegradation. The investigation was conducted using two specially built stainless steel columns,

Jong O Kim

1997-01-01

102

Some experiments on ultrasonic cavitation using a pulsed neutron source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments on the prompt neutron-induced cavitation effect in tetrachloroethylene are described. Cavitation bubbles were detected by the fast acoustic signals they emit, probably during the collapse phase. Using a pulsed fast-neutron source phase locked to the acoustic field, and a time analyser, information was obtained on the history of bubbles which were nucleated at a known phase of the sound

R. Howlett

1968-01-01

103

Field demonstration of pervaporation for the separation of volatile organic compounds from a surfactant-based soil remediation fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a Department of Defense project, the US Environmental Protection Agency was responsible for designing, building and field operating a pilot-scale pervaporation unit. The field site was an active dry cleaning facility on the grounds of Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune in Jacksonville, NC. The overall goal of the project was to remove tetrachloroethylene (PCE) from the soil

Leland M Vane; Lynnann Hitchens; Franklin R Alvarez; Eugene L Giroux

2001-01-01

104

Dechlorination of chlorinated hydrocarbons by bimetallic Ni\\/Fe immobilized on polyethylene glycol-grafted microfiltration membranes under anoxic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the dechlorination of chlorinated hydrocarbons including trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and carbon tetrachloride (CT) by bimetallic Ni\\/Fe nanoparticles immobilized on four different membranes was investigated under anoxic conditions. Effects of several parameters including the nature of membrane, initial concentration, pH value, and reaction temperature on the dechlorination efficiency were examined. The scanning electron microscopic images showed that

Ganesh K. Parshetti; Ruey-an Doong

105

PULSED AIR SPARGING IN AQUIFERS CONTAMINATED WITH DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Air sparging was evaluated for remediation of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) present as dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) in aquifers. A two-dimensional laboratory tank with a transparent front wall allowed for visual observation of DNAPL mobilization. A DNAPL zone 50 cm high was ...

106

COMPLETE NATURAL ATTENUATION OF PCE AND TCE WITHOUT VINYL CHLORIDE AND ETHENE ACCUMULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A shallow aquifer at the Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant (TCAAP) was contaminated with tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). Cisdichloroethylene (cis-DCE) is found in ground water at the site, indicating that reductive dehalogenation of PCE and TCE is occurrin...

107

The dependence of nonthermal plasma behavior of VOCs on their chemical structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dependence of nonthermal plasma behavior of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on their chemical structures was investigated, using methane, ethane, ethylene, butane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene as target VOCs. It has been shown that the above VOCs decompose homolytically via their excited states, irrespective of their electron affinities. Efficiencies of energy transfer from hot electrons to the VOCs could be

S. Futamura; A. H. Zhang; T. Yamamoto

1997-01-01

108

A multidisciplinary approach to toxicological screening: III. Neurobehavioral toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurobehavioral effects of 10 known toxicants were examined as part of a multidiscipli?nary screening battery. The toxicants included carbaryl (CAR), triadimefon (TDM), heptachlor (HEP), chlordane (CDN), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), carbon tetrachloride (CCI4), phenol, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PER or perchlorethylene), and dichloromethane (DCM or methylene chloride). A functional observational battery and motor activity measurements were conducted before exposure, at specified

Virginia C. Moser; Billie M. Cheek; Robert C. MacPhail

1995-01-01

109

Influence of viscous, gravitational, and capillary forces on DNAPL saturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) -- bromoform, chlorobenzene, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene -- were used to investigate the influence of viscous, gravitational, and capillary forces on DNAPL saturation in a natural aquifer sand. The relative magnitudes of these forces are expressed in terms of two dimensionless groups, the Capillary Number (N{sub Ca}), defined as the ratio of the viscous force

Helen E. Dawson; Paul V. Roberts

1997-01-01

110

Observed migration of a controlled DNAPL release by geophysical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven hundred seventy liters of a dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), were released into an isolated volume of a completely saturated natural sandy aquifer. The release was monitored over a period of 984 hours with a variety of geophysical methods including ground penetrating radar, time domain reflectometry, in situ resistivity, and a neutron soil moisture probe. The PCE

M. L. Brewster; A. P. Annan; J. P. Greenhouse; J. D. Redman; B. H. Kueper; G. R. Olhoeft; K. A. Sander

1995-01-01

111

A pore-scale investigation of mass transport from dissolving DNAPL droplets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spheres and pendular rings of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene are observed dissolving in an artificial porous medium consisting of a single layer of glass beads. Given the simple geometry of the droplets, pore-scale mass transfer coefficients are calculated. For dissolving spheres, mass transfer coefficients are found to be constant over time. However, coefficients for pendular rings are found to decrease as

Christopher A. Kennedy; William C. Lennox

1997-01-01

112

Field demonstration of surfactant-enhanced solubilization of DNAPL at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on a surfactant-based flood for tetrachloroethylene (PCE) removal from a control test cell at the Dover National Test Site. The surfactant formulation (sodium dihexyl sulfosuccinate (Aerosol-MA® or AMA), isopropanol and calcium chloride) was able to achieve a high concentration of PCE in swollen micelles (supersolubilization) without vertical PCE migration. The hydraulic system included eight screened wells that

Jeffrey Childs; Edgar Acosta; Michael D. Annable; Michael C. Brooks; Carl G. Enfield; Jeffrey H. Harwell; Mark Hasegawa; Robert C. Knox; P. Suresh C. Rao; David A. Sabatini; Ben Shiau; Erika Szekeres; A. Lynn Wood

2006-01-01

113

Entrapment and dissolution of DNAPLs in heterogeneous porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional multiphase flow and transport simulators were refined and used to numerically investigate the entrapment and dissolution behavior of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in heterogeneous porous media containing spatial variations in wettability. Measured hydraulic properties, residual saturations, and dissolution parameters were employed in these simulations. Entrapment was quantified using experimentally verified hydraulic property and residual saturation models that account for hysteresis and

Scott A Bradford; Klaus M Rathfelder; John Lang; Linda M Abriola

2003-01-01

114

Critical contaminant/critical pathway analysis - surface water transport for nonradioactive contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The health risks for an individual exposed to contaminants released from SRS outfalls from 1989 to 1995 were estimated. The exposure pathways studied are ingestion of drinking water, ingestion of contaminated fish and dermal contact with contaminants in water while swimming. The estimated incremental risks for an individual developing cancer vary from 3.E-06 to 1.0E-05. The estimated total exposure chronic noncancer hazard indices vary from 6.E-02 to 1.E-01. The critical contaminants were ranked based on their cancer risks and chronic noncarcinogenic hazard quotients. For cancer risks, the critical contaminants released from SRS outfalls are arsenic, tetrachloroethylene, and benzene. For chronic noncarcinogenic risks, the critical contaminants released from srs outfalls are cadmium, arsenic, silver, chromium, mercury, selenium, nitrate, manganese, zinc, nickel, uranium, barium, copper, tetrachloroethylene, cyanide, and phenol. The critical pathways in decreasing risk order are ingestion of contaminated fish, ingestion of drinking water and dermal contact with contaminants in water while swimming.

Chen, Kuo-Fu

1996-11-01

115

Free volume analysis of organic vapor diffusion in polyurethane membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual diffusion coefficients of penetrant–polymer systems comprising two organic compounds (benzene and tetrachloroethylene) and four polyurethane membranes (spandex from E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Inc., and three Estane® polymers from B.F. Goodrich Speciality Chemicals) were measured as a function of temperature (30–60°C) and organic vapor activity by performing transient desorption experiments with a McBain quartz-spring microbalance apparatus. Diffusion

Ravi Ponangi; P. N. Pintauro; D. De Kee

2000-01-01

116

Measurement and interpretation of equilibrium organic vapor sorption in polyurethane membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equilibrium sorption of benzene, tetrachloroethylene, and hexane vapor in four commercially available polyurethanes was measured as a function of temperature (30–60°C) and organic activity with a McBain vapor uptake apparatus. The four polyurethanes were composed of the same polyether soft segments, but contained different amounts of phase-separated, hydrogen-bonded hard segment domains. For all three organic penetrants, polymer swelling was

Ravi Ponangi; Peter N. Pintauro

1998-01-01

117

H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

During second quarter 1992, tritium, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), gross alpha, mercury, lead, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic, and cadmium exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) at the Savannah River Plant. This report gives the results of the analyses of groundwater from the H-Area Seepage Basin.

Not Available

1992-09-01

118

FT–IR measurement of tagitinin C after solvent extraction from Tithonia diversifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tagitinin C, an antiplasmodial compound, identified as one major compound of the subtropical medicinal plant, Tithonia diversifolia, was determined by FT–IR spectroscopy method. The crude ether extracts from aerial parts of the plant were evaporated to dryness and re-dissolved in tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4) before analysis.The magnitude of the absorbance of the very specific C?O stretching vibration (?C?O) at 1664.8cm?1 was exploited

E. Ziémons; E. Goffin; R. Lejeune; L. Angenot; L. Thunus

2004-01-01

119

Evaluation of a passive sampler for volatile organic compounds at ppb concentrations, varying temperatures, and humidities with 24-h exposures. 2. Sampler performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the 3M 3520 organic vapor monitor (OVM) as a tool for monitoring inhalation exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in nonoccupational community environments was evaluated by using combined controlled test atmospheres of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, methylene chloride, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, and toluene. Eight OVMs were simultaneously exposed to concentrations of 10,20, and 200 μg\\/m³ in

Chih-Wen Chung; Maria T. Morandi; Thomas H. Stock; Masoud Afshar

1999-01-01

120

Monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seawaters and wastewaters using a dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation has been made of a dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) procedure for the determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different environmental waters including seawaters and wastewaters, using gas-chromatography (GC) with flame-ionization detection (FID). The optimized method requires 18 ?L of the extractant solvent tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4), 1 mL of acetonitrile as dispersive solvent, and 5 mL of aqueous sample. After centrifugation

Carmen V. Ramos-Dorta; Verónica Pino; Ana M. Afonso

2012-01-01

121

Liquid and vapor phase adsorption of chlorinated volatile organic compounds on hydrophobic molecular sieves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focused on the potential application of various hydrophobic molecular sieves for the sorption of four model chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs, i.e., chloroform, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and carbon tetrachloride) from dilute liquid water streams.Results obtained thus far have shown that silicalite-1 has a high affinity for these CVOCs, higher in fact than Centaur® activated carbon, used as a benchmark

Arjan Giaya; Robert W Thompson; Raymond Denkewicz Jr

2000-01-01

122

Health assessment for Nutmeg Valley, Wolcott, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTSI88045. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The Nutmeg Valley Industrial Park is listed on the National Priorities List. The site is an industrial park containing 40 companies (light industry metal working and finishing) and 20 private residences. The contaminants present in groundwater at the site are trichloroethylene, benzene, ethyl benzene, toluene, xylene, methylene chloride, trans 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, pentane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform. Investigation into the extent of contamination in other pathways is ongoing.

Not Available

1988-05-02

123

Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

A chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H.sub.2 O and Co.sub.2 under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

Fliermans, Carl B. (Augusta, GA)

1989-01-01

124

Concentration-dependent behavioral changes in mice following short-term inhalation exposure to various industrial solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice were exposed during a 4-hr period to various concentrations of 13 aliphatic or aromatic solvents which affect primarily the central nervous system (CNS). The test compounds were benzyl chloride, butyl alcohol, chlorobenzene, cyclohexanone, 1,2-dichloroethylene, diisobutyl ketone, isopropyl acetate, methyl ethyl ketone, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, toluene, and ortho-xylene. After exposure, measurements were made to see whether these neurotoxicants would decrease

J. De Ceaurriz; J. P. Desiles; P. Bonnet; B. Marignac; J. Muller; J. P. Guenier

1983-01-01

125

In situ air stripping using horizontal wells. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

In-situ air stripping employs horizontal wells to inject or sparge air into the ground water and vacuum extract VOC`S from vadose zone soils. The horizontal wells provide better access to the subsurface contamination, and the air sparging eliminates the need for surface ground water treatment systems and treats the subsurface in-situ. A full-scale demonstration was conducted at the Savannah River Plant in an area polluted with trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene. Results are described.

NONE

1995-04-01

126

Catalytic hydrodehalogenation of chlorinated ethylenes using palladium and hydrogen for the treatment of contaminated water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kinetic model is presented for the catalytic hydrodehalogenation of chlorinated ethylenes using Pd and H2 under water treatment conditions. All five chlorinated ethylenes, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and vinyl chloride, were completely removed from tap water within 10 minutes at room temperature by 0.5 g of 0.5% Pd on alumina and 0.1 atm H2. Ethane accounted for 55–85% of the

Cindy G. Schreier; Martin Reinhard

1995-01-01

127

Toxicity potential of compounds found in parenteral solutions with rubber stoppers.  

PubMed

Leached stopper components found in parenteral solutions produced by several manufacturers were identified and quantitated. Their toxicity potential was determined by comparing the types and quantities of the leached components with known toxicity levels and/or harmful effects. Toxicity potentials for benzaldehyde, 2-butoxyethanol, cyclohexanone, ethylbenzene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, and tetrachloroethylene are listed. Breakdown products of dextrose (furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural), which may also have harmful effects, were quantitated. PMID:1588456

Danielson, J W

1992-01-01

128

H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report  

SciTech Connect

During second quarter 1992, tritium, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), gross alpha, mercury, lead, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic, and cadmium exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) at the Savannah River Plant. This report gives the results of the analyses of groundwater from the H-Area Seepage Basin.

Not Available

1992-09-01

129

H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report  

SciTech Connect

During first quarter 1992, tritium, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), gross alpha, antimony, mercury, lead, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic, and cadmium exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) at the Savannah River Site. This report presents and discusses the groundwater monitoring results in the H-Area for first quarter 1992.

Thompson, C.Y.

1992-06-01

130

81 Gas-phase catalytic decomposition of mixtures of low-molecular-weight chlorinated VOCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidative decomposition of binary mixtures of chlorinated VOCs (1.2-dichloroethane, dichloromethane and trichloroethylene) over H-ZSM-5 and chemically dealuminated H-Y zeolite catalysts has been investigated. The ease of destruction decreased in the order: DCE>DCM>TCE. The main oxidation products were CO, CO2, HCl and Cl2. Some other chlorinated by-products were detected as well (vinyl chloride, methyl chloride and tetrachloroethylene). The destruction of

R. López-Fonseca; J. I. Gutiérrez-Ortiz; J. R. González-Velasco

2003-01-01

131

The Effectiveness of Surfactants for Remediation of Organic Pollutants in the Unsaturated Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In laboratory experiments performed to evaluate the efficiency of surfactant flushing for remediation of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in the unsaturated zone, less than 0.001% of the original mass of tetra-chloroethylene (PCE) remained in the column after 15 pore volumes of a 1% sorbitan monooleate solution or after 7 pore volumes of a 1% Ethomid O\\/17 solution were passed through

Minhee Lee; John C. Fountain

1999-01-01

132

Contamination of shallow ground water in the area of building 95, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, 1985-90  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A zone of contaminated ground water at Picatinny Arsenal has resulted from the operation of a metal- plating facility in building 95 during 1960-81, and the wastewater-treatment system that is in and adjacent to the building. Thirty-two monitoring wells were installed in 1989 to supplement 12 previously installed wells. All wells were sampled in 1989 and 1990 for analysis of ground water for inorganic constituents, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, and nutrients. Four wells also were sampled for analysis for base/neutral- and acid-extractable compounds and pesticides, and soil gas from the unsaturated zone at eight sites was analyzed for volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of dissolved solids and sulfate in the study area were consistently above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's secondary drinking-water regulations. The areal distribution of sulfate differed from that of the volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of trace elements were not elevated downgradient from the source. The estimated average velocity of contaminant movement is 0.1 to 1.1 feet per day. The major organic contaminants identified in the study area are trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Trichloroethylene was detected in wells upgradient from the wastewater- treatment site. Tetrachloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane might originate at tanks in the basement of building 95 rather than at the adjacent wastewater-treatment system. The pre- dominant gas-phase contaminant, 1,1,1- trichloroethane, was detected at a maximum con- centration of 15.7 micrograms per liter. Both trichoroethylene and tetrachloroethylene were detected in concentrations greater than 0.10 micrograms per liter in five of the eight soil- gas samples, indicating that volatilization and diffusion through the unsaturated zone could be a significant mechanism of contaminant loss from the aquifer.

Sargent, B. P.; Storck, D. A.

1994-01-01

133

Supplemental Technical Data Summary M-Area Groundwater Investigation  

SciTech Connect

This supplement to the Preliminary Technical Data Summary (TDS) (Gordon, 1982) presents the state of knowledge on the hydrogeology and contaminant plume characteristics in the vicinity of M Area as of October 1984. As discussed in the previous TDS, the contaminants consist of organic solvents used for metal degreasing, namely trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Since the issuance of the previous TDS, the groundwater consulting firm of Geraghty & Miller, Inc. has been retained to assist with program strategy, planning, and investigative techniques

Marine, I.W., Bledsoe, H.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1995-10-01

134

Spectrum of the Reductive Dehalogenation Activity of Desulfitobacterium frappieri PCP-1  

PubMed Central

Desulfitobacterium frappieri PCP-1 was induced for ortho- and para-dechlorinating activities by different chlorophenols. Dehalogenation rates ranging from 25 to 1,158 nmol/min/mg of cell protein were observed according to the chlorophenol tested and the position of the chlorine removed. D. frappieri shows a broad substrate specificity; in addition to tetrachloroethylene and pentachloropyridine, strain PCP-1 can dehalogenate at ortho, meta, and para positions a large variety of aromatic molecules with substituted hydroxyl or amino groups. Reactions of O demethylation and reduction of nitro to amino substituents on aromatic molecules were also observed.

Dennie, D.; Gladu, I.; Lepine, F.; Villemur, R.; Bisaillon, J.-G.; Beaudet, R.

1998-01-01

135

Health assessment for Hill Air Force Base, Ogden, Utah, Region 8. CERCLIS No. UT0571724350. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

Hill Air Force Base (AFB) is located approximately 25 miles north of Salt Lake City and five miles south of Ogden, Utah. A installation Restoration Program has identified several areas of environmental contamination. Contaminants of concern include: lead, chromium, manganese, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, chlorobenzene, nitrate, toluene, and methylene chloride. The site is considered to be of public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the likelihood of exposure to hazardous substances via ingestion, inhalation, and direct dermal contact with contamination in the ground water and soil.

Not Available

1989-01-27

136

Evidence for existence in human tissues of monomers for plastics and rubber manufacture.  

PubMed Central

Although exposure to many industrially important monomers is controlled by law, few of these reactive chemicals have been determined in human tissues. Analogy with other fat-soluble organic substances strongly implies that these monomers may be retained in tissue, subject to the usual physiological constraints of metabolism, solubility and volatility. The storage of DDT and PCBs is discussed, as well as tetrachloro-ethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), which are chemically similar to many industrially used monomers. Styrene in blood and breath and its metabolites in urine have been studied in humans. Styrene and vinyl chloride have been measured in fat tissue of polymerization workers.

Wolff, M S

1976-01-01

137

Scaling physiological pharmacokinetic models by physiological time  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows that a multicompartment physiological pharmacokinetic model, used to account for inhalation exposure to volatile chlorohydrocarbons in mammalian species, can be made species-independent if chronological time is re-expressed in terms of physiological time. Physiological time is defined as chronological time divided by species body weight to the 1/4 power. We demonstrate the usefulness of this time scaling of the multicompartment physiological pharmacokinetic model by using it to model the inhalation of the volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon tetrachloroethylene in mice, rats, and humans. 8 refs., 2 figs.

Ward, R.C.; Travis, C.C.

1987-01-01

138

Improvement of HS-SPME for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in water samples by simultaneous direct fiber cooling and freezing of analyte solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity and precision of headspace solid-phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) at an analyte solution temperature (T\\u000a as) of +35 C and a fiber temperature (T\\u000a fiber) of +5 C were compared with those for HS-SPME at T\\u000a as and T\\u000a fiber of ?20 C for analysis of the volatile organic compounds benzene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, toluene, o-xylene, ethylbenzene, m\\/p-xylene, and tetrachloroethylene in water samples.

Elke Fries; Wilhelm Püttmann

2006-01-01

139

Test plan for in situ bioremediation demonstration of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Project DOE/OTD TTP No.: SR 0566-01. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

This project is designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of groundwater and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms will be simulated to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated zone. in situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency and public and regulatory acceptability. Bioremediation has been found to be among the least costly technologies in applications where it will work.

Hazen, T.C.

1991-09-18

140

Desorption Behavior of Trichloroethene and Tetrachloroethene in U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site Unconfined Aquifer Sediments  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Savannah River Site (SRS) is evaluating the potential applicability of the monitored natural attenuation (MNA) process as a contributor to the understanding of the restoration of its unconfined groundwater aquifer known to be contaminated with the chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). This report discusses the results from aqueous desorption experiments on SRS aquifer sediments from two different locations at the SRS (A/M Area; P-Area) with the objective of providing technically defensible TCE/PCE distribution coefficient (Kd) data and data on TCE/PCE reversible and irreversible sorption behavior needed for further MNA evaluation.

Riley, Robert G.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Brown, Christopher F.

2006-06-21

141

Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1993-10-01

142

Operations Support of Phase 2 Integrated Demonstration In Situ Bioremediation. Volume 4, Final report: Averaged data in tabular form, Disks 3,4; Averaged data in graphical form, Disks 1,2,3,4  

SciTech Connect

This report contains experimental data collected during the demonstration of in situ bioremediation at the Savannah River Site. This project was designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of ground water and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated aquifer and adjacent vadose zone. The principle carbon/energy source nutrient used in this demonstration was methane. In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency, safety, and public and regulatory acceptability.

Hazen, T.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1993-09-01

143

Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1993  

SciTech Connect

During third quarter 1993, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Eight parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards; and aluminum, iron, lead, manganese, pH, and total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the wells. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water-table unit were similar to previous quarters.

Not Available

1993-12-01

144

A comparative study of the excretion of Fujiwara reaction-positive substances in urine of humans and rodents given trichloro- or tetrachloro-derivatives of ethane and ethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ikeda, M., and Ohtsuji, H. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 99-104. A comparative study or the excretion of Fujiwara reaction-positive substances in urine of humans and rodents given trichloro- or tetrachloro-derivatives of ethane and ethylene. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane, 1,1,2- trichloroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene were administered to rats and mice as vapours at 200 p.p.m. for 8 hours and urine was collected

Masayuki Ikeda; Hatsue Ohtsuji

1972-01-01

145

Chronic diarrhea in returing travelers: intestinal parasitic infection with the fluke Metagonimus yokogawai.  

PubMed

An unusual intestinal infection with the parasite Metagonimus yokogawai was acquired by an American traveling in the Orient. Diarrhea began abroad, and recurred at intervals until she was seen 1 1/2 years later. Stool examinations resulted in the recovery of small operculated ova characteristic of intestinal or biliary fluke infection. Treatment with hexylresorcinol failed to eradicate the infection, but subsequent use of tetrachloroethylene was successful and facilitated recovery of adult parasites, leading to the specific diagnosis of metagonimiasis. Metagonimiasis and related intestinal fluke infections should be considered as a possible cause of persistent diarrhea in travelers returning from endemic areas abroad. PMID:725630

Goldsmith, R S

1978-12-01

146

Optimized Ultrasound-Assisted Emulsification-Microextraction Followed by ICP-OES for Simultaneous Determination of Lanthanum and Cerium in Urine and Water Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, optimized ultrasound-assisted emulsification–microextraction (USAEME) combined with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was applied to simultaneous determination of trace levels of lanthanum (La) and cerium (Ce) in water and biological samples. 5,6,14,15-dibenzo-1,4-dioxa-8,12-diazacyclopentadecane (a dioxa-diazamacrocycle) was used as chelating agent.Tetrachloroethylene was selected as extraction solvent. The effective parameters of USAEME including pH, salt effect, ultrasonic time,temperature,volume of extraction

Hassan Sereshti; Ahmad RohaniFar; Soheila Samadi

2012-01-01

147

Operations Support of Phase 2 Integrated Demonstration In Situ Bioremediation. Volume 3, Final report: Data in graphical form, Disks 1,2,3,4; Averaged data in tabular form, Disks 1,2  

SciTech Connect

This document contains data collected during the demonstration of in situ bioremediation at Savannah River Site. This project was designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of ground water and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated aquifer and adjacent vadose zone. The principle carbon/energy source nutrient used in this demonstration was methane. In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency, safety, and public and regulatory acceptability.

Hazen, T.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1993-09-01

148

Short duration needle trap sampling with gas chromatography analysis to determine nearly instantaneous concentrations of selected organic vapor contaminants.  

PubMed

Needle trap device samplers were used for rapid (60 s) quantitative sampling of short-term exposure limit (STEL) and peak exposure standard concentrations using a manually operated pump to collect small volume (10 mL) gas phase samples containing methylene chloride, benzene, toluene, and tetrachloroethylene vapors. Solventless introduction of chemical samples for gas chromatography analysis with flame ionization detection yielded linear results (R(2) > 0.99) for vapor standard mixtures of the four target analytes ranging from 10% to 200% of their respective nominal STEL or peak exposure standard concentrations. Needle trap samplers showed ?86% recovery (as GC-FID peak area responses) following 14-day storage at room temperature compared to the same samplers analyzed immediately, with better recovery values observed with shorter storage (?95% at room temperature for seven days, except for methylene chloride) or with storage at 4°C. Calibration for quantitation of concentrations of benzene, toluene, and tetrachloroethylene was shown to be possible with the use of an internal standard to account for injector discrimination between the solventless NTD approach and injections of target analytes in carbon disulfide. Due to the simple sampling method (no field calibration and battery-free pumping) and the avoidance of solvent dilution, a needle trap sampling approach could simplify sample collection and analysis to chromatographically determine nearly instantaneous (1 min) exposure concentrations. PMID:24195534

Strating, Simon J; Juarez, Theodore J; Stevens, Michael E; White, Duvel W; Smith, Philip A

2013-01-01

149

A dechlorination pathway for synthesis of horn shaped carbon nanotubes and its adsorption properties for CO2, CH4, CO and N2.  

PubMed

Using metallic copper as reductant and tetrachloroethylene as carbon precursor, a simple, low temperature solvothermal method for the synthesis of horn shaped carbon nanotubes is reported. The detail study of reaction parameters such as temperature, time, carbon precursor amount, type and catalyst proportion has been carried out to optimize the conditions wherein that the copper metal (10 g) mediated reduction of tetrachloroethylene (25 mL) at 200°C for 5h resulted in the horn shaped carbon nanotubes with high yield and structural selectivity. The adsorption properties of horn shaped carbon nanotubes were investigated for carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide and nitrogen as adsorbate by volumetric measurements up to 850 mm Hg. The prepared horn shaped carbon nanotubes showed good adsorption capacity for CO(2) (45 cm(3)/g) and CO (17 cm(3)/g), at 303 K and 850 mm Hg pressure, with high equilibrium selectivity (73.3 for CO(2) and 110.7 for CO at 318 K) and capacity selectivity (9.1 for CO(2) and 3.1 for CO at 850 mm Hg and 318 K) over nitrogen which provides the tool for the separation of CO(2) from its mixture with nitrogen observed in flue gas of thermal power plants and boilers, as well as with CO such as syngas. PMID:22682801

Sawant, Sandesh Y; Somani, Rajesh S; Bajaj, Hari C; Sharma, Sangita S

2012-08-15

150

Solvent Vapour Detection with Cholesteric Liquid Crystals--Optical and Mass-Sensitive Evaluation of the Sensor Mechanism†  

PubMed Central

Cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) are used as sensitive coatings for the detection of organic solvent vapours for both polar and non-polar substances. The incorporation of different analyte vapours in the CLC layers disturbs the pitch length which changes the optical properties, i.e., shifting the absorption band. The engulfing of CLCs around non-polar solvent vapours such as tetrahedrofuran (THF), chloroform and tetrachloroethylene is favoured in comparison to polar ones, i.e., methanol and ethanol. Increasing solvent vapour concentrations shift the absorbance maximum to smaller wavelengths, e.g., as observed for THF. Additionally, CLCs have been coated on acoustic devices such as the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to measure the frequency shift of analyte samples at similar concentration levels. The mass effect for tetrachloroethylene was about six times higher than chloroform. Thus, optical response can be correlated with intercalation in accordance to mass detection. The mechanical stability was gained by combining CLCs with imprinted polymers. Therefore, pre-concentration of solvent vapours was performed leading to an additional selectivity.

Mujahid, Adnan; Stathopulos, Helen; Lieberzeit, Peter A.; Dickert, Franz L.

2010-01-01

151

Appraisal of ground-water quality in the Bunker Hill Basin of San Bernardino Valley, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples were collected from 47 wells and analyzed for concentration of major inorganic ions, nitrogen species, and volatile (purgeable) organic priority pollutants to assess groundwater quality in the Bunker Hill basin, California. Data were supplemented with additional analysis of nitrate, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene made by other agencies. The organic quality of groundwater in the basin generally is suitable for most uses, although fluoride concentration exceeded the California public drinking water standard of 1.4 mg/L in water from 5 of 47 wells. Nitrate (as nitrogen) concentration equaled or exceeded the public drinking water standard of 10 mg/L in water from 13 of 47 wells sampled for this study and in an additional 19 of 120 samples analyzed by other agencies. Concentration generally decreased with increasing depth below land surface. Twenty-four of the 33 volatile organic priority pollutants were detected in water from wells sampled during this study. When supplemental data from other agencies are included, tetrachloroethylene concentration exceeded the standard of 5 micrograms/L in water from 49 of 128 wells. No basinwide relation between contamination by these two chemicals and well depth or land use was discerned. A network of 11 observation wells that could be sampled twice a year would enhance the monitoring of changes groundwater quality in the Bunker Hill basin. (USGS)

Duell, L. F., Jr.; Schroeder, R. A.

1989-01-01

152

A natural gradient experiment on solute transport in a sand aquifer: 4. Sorption of organic solutes and its influence on mobility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory investigations were conducted to determine whether the observed field retardation of bromoform, carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and hexachloroethane at the Borden field site could be explained by the linear, reversible, equilibrium sorption model. The five halogenated organic solutes, which have octanol-water partition coefficients ranging from 200 to 4000, were the same as those used in the field study. The sorbent, a medium sand containing 0.02% organic carbon, was excavated 11.5 m from the experimental well field at the Borden site. Sorption isotherms were linear in the aqueous concentration range from 1 to 50 ?g/L and could be described by a single distribution coefficient Kd. The experimentally determined Kd exceed those predicted by the hydrophobic sorption model that accounts only for partitioning into organic matter, by factors ranging from 1.7 for hexachloroethane to 10 for tetrachloroethylene. Retardation factors inferred from the laboratory determined distribution coefficients fell within the range estimated from spatial sampling data in the field experiment.

Curtis, Gary P.; Roberts, Paul V.; Reihard, Martin

1986-12-01

153

The influence of personal activities on exposure to volatile organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

Seven persons volunteered to perform 25 common activities thought to increase personal exposure to volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) during a 3-day monitoring period. Personal, indoor, and outdoor air samples were collected on Tenax cartridges three times per day (evening, overnight, and daytime) and analyzed by GC-MS for 17 target VOCs. Samples of exhaled breath were also collected before and after each monitoring period. About 20 activities resulted in increasing exposure to one or more of the target VOCs, often by factors of 10, sometimes by factors of 100, compared to exposures during the sleep period. These concentrations were far above the highest observed outdoor concentrations during the length of the study. Breath levels were often significantly correlated with previous personal exposures. Major exposures were associated with use of deodorizers (p-dichlorobenzene); washing clothes and dishes (chloroform); visiting a dry cleaners (1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene); smoking (benzene, styrene); cleaning a car engine (xylenes, ethylbenzene, tetrachloroethylene); painting and using paint remover (n-decane, n-undecane); and working in a scientific laboratory (many VOCs). Continuously elevated indoor air levels of p-dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, decane, and undecane were noted in several homes and attributed to unknown indoor sources. Measurements of exhaled breath suggested biological residence times in tissue of 12-18 hr and 20-30 hr for 1,1,1-trichloroethane and p-dichlorobenzene, respectively.

Wallace, L.A.; Pellizzari, E.D.; Hartwell, T.D.; Davis, V.; Michael, L.C.; Whitmore, R.W. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-10-01

154

Ground-water levels and water-quality data for wells in the Spring Creek area near Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee, April and May 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB) occupies about 40,000 acres in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee. Numerous site-specific ground-water contamination investigations have been conducted at designated solid waste management units (SWMU?s) at AAFB. Several synthetic volatile organic compounds (VOC?s), primarily chlorinated solvents, have been identified in groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells near SWMU 8 in the Spring Creek area. During April and May 2000, a study of the groundwater resources in the Spring Creek area was conducted to determine if VOC?s from AAFB have affected local private water supplies and to advance understanding of the ground-water-flow system in this area. The study focused on sampling private wells located within the Spring Creek area that are used as a source of drinking water. Ground-water-flow directions were determined by measuring water levels in wells and constructing a potentiometric-surface map of the Manchester aquifer in the study area. Data were collected from a total of 35 private wells and 22 monitoring wells during the period of study. Depths to ground water were determined for 22 of the private wells and all 22 of the monitoring wells. The wells ranged in depth from 21 to 105 feet. Water-level altitudes ranged from 930 to 1,062 feet above sea level. Depths to water ranged from 8 to 83 feet below land surface. Water-quality samples were collected from 29 private wells which draw water from either gravel zones in the upper part of the Manchester aquifer, fractured bedrock in the lower part of the Manchester aquifer, or a combination of these two zones. Concentrations of 50 of the 55 VOC?s analyzed for were less than method detection limits. Chloroform, acetone, chloromethane, 2-butanone, and tetrachloroethylene were detected in concentrations exceeding the method detection limits. Only chloroform and acetone were detected in concentrations equal to or exceeding reporting limits. Chloroform was detected in a sample from one well at a concentration of 1.2 micrograms per liter (?g/L). Acetone was detected in a sample from another well at a concentration of 10 ?g/L. Acetone also was detected in a duplicate sample from the same well at an estimated concentration of 7.2 ?g/L, which is less than the reporting limit for acetone. The only contaminant of concern detected was tetrachloroethylene. Tetrachloroethylene was detected in only one sample, and this detection was at an estimated concentration below the reporting limit. None of the VOC concentrations exceeded drinking water maximum contaminant levels for public water systems.

Williams, Shannon D.; Aycock, Robert A.

2001-01-01

155

Competitive Sorption and Desorption of Chlorinated Organic Solvents (DNAPLs) in Engineered Natural Organic Matter  

SciTech Connect

The effects of artificially accelerated geochemical condensation and maturation of natural organic matter on the sorption and desorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were studied. The sorption and desorption of TCE in the presence and absence of the competing PCE and 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB) were also examined. A sphagnum peat comprising geologically young organic matter was artificially ''aged'' using superheated water, thus increasing the aromaticity and the degree of condensation of its associated organic matter. The sorption of all solutes tested were increased remarkably and their respective desorptions reduced, by the aged peat. The sorption capacities and isotherm nonlinearities of the peat for both TCE and PCE were found to increase as treatment temperature increased. In the competitive sorption studies, both PCE and DCB were found to depress TCE sorption, with PCE having greater effects than DCB, presumably because the molecular structure o f the former is more similar to that of TCE.

Tang, Jixin; Weber, Walter J., Jr.

2004-03-31

156

NIOSH current intelligence bulletins: summaries  

SciTech Connect

Summaries were offered of the current intelligence bulletins issued from January 20, 1975 to August of 1988. They include information on the following topics: chloroprene, trichloroethylene, ethylene dibromide, chrome pigment, asbestos, hexamethylphosphoric triamide, polychlorinated biphenyls, 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, chloroform, radon daughters, dimethylcarbamoyl chloride, diethylcarbamoyl-chloride, explosive azide hazard, inorganic arsenic, nitrosamines in cutting fluids, metabolic precursors of beta-naphthylamine, 2-nitropropane, acrylonitrile, 2,4-diaminoanisole, tetrachloroethylene, trimellitic anhydride, ethylene thiourea, disulfiram, direct-blue-6, direct-black-38, direct-brown-95, benzidine derived dyes, ethylene dichloride, NIAX catalyst ESN, chloroethanes, vinyl halides, glycidyl ethers, epichlorohydrin, smoking, arsine poisoning, radiofrequency sealers and heaters, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, silica flour, vibration syndrome, glycol ethers, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 1,3-butadiene, cadmium, monohalomethanes, dinitrotoluenes, methylene chloride, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, organic solvent neurotoxicity, mechanical power press injuries, and the carcinogenic effects of diesel exhaust.

Not Available

1988-09-01

157

Current Intelligence Bulletins: summaries, September 1987  

SciTech Connect

Brief summaries of 49 NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletins were provided in a cumulative listing. Permissible Exposure Limits were included where applicable, and notes were provided with some summaries indicating further action or data since original publication. Topics covered include chloroprene, trichloroethylene, ethylene-dibromide, chrome pigment, asbestos, hexamethylphosphoric-triamide, polychlorinated-biphenyls, 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, chloroform, radon daughters, dimethylcarbamoyl-chloride, diethylcarbamoyl-chloride, explosive azide hazard, arsenic, nitrosamines, metabolic precursors of beta-naphthylamine, 2-nitropropane, acrylonitrile, 2,4-diaminoanisole, tetrachloroethylene, trimellitic-anhydride, ethylene-thiourea, ethylene-dibromide, disulfiram, dyes, ethylene-dichloride, chloroethanes, vinyl halides, glycidyl ethers, epichlorohydrin, smoking, arsine, radiofrequency sealers, formaldehyde, ethylene-oxide, silica flour, vibration syndrome, glycol ethers, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 1,3-butadiene, cadmium, monohalomethanes, dinitrotoluenes, methylene-chloride, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, organic solvents, and injuries and amputations from working with power presses.

Not Available

1987-09-01

158

Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity.  

PubMed

Neurodevelopmental disabilities, including autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, and other cognitive impairments, affect millions of children worldwide, and some diagnoses seem to be increasing in frequency. Industrial chemicals that injure the developing brain are among the known causes for this rise in prevalence. In 2006, we did a systematic review and identified five industrial chemicals as developmental neurotoxicants: lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, arsenic, and toluene. Since 2006, epidemiological studies have documented six additional developmental neurotoxicants-manganese, fluoride, chlorpyrifos, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, and the polybrominated diphenyl ethers. We postulate that even more neurotoxicants remain undiscovered. To control the pandemic of developmental neurotoxicity, we propose a global prevention strategy. Untested chemicals should not be presumed to be safe to brain development, and chemicals in existing use and all new chemicals must therefore be tested for developmental neurotoxicity. To coordinate these efforts and to accelerate translation of science into prevention, we propose the urgent formation of a new international clearinghouse. PMID:24556010

Grandjean, Philippe; Landrigan, Philip J

2014-03-01

159

Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is an apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid (NF) is selected to simulated the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid (OF) is selected to create an aerobic environment with anaerobic pockets. NF is injected periodically while OF is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. NF stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is acceptable. NF can be methane and OF be air, for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially TCE and tetrachloroethylene.

Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

1994-01-01

160

Health assessment for Mystery Bridge Road/US Highway 20 Site, Brookhurst Subdivision, Evansville, Natrona County, Wyoming, Region 8. CERCLIS No. WYD981546005. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The Mystery Bridge Road, U.S. Highway 20 site, also known as the Brookhurst Subdivision (BSD), is located adjacent to industrial sites in Wyoming. The sites include a natural gas processing facility, an oil and gas well servicing company, and a railroad siding. Organic chemicals from the industrial sites have contaminated the underlying aquifer and resulted in contamination of downgradient drinking water wells in the BSD. The list of organic contaminants detected on-site include toluene, xylene, benzene, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), 1,1-dichloroethane, trichloroethylene (TCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. An estimated 414 persons in the subdivision rely on groundwater wells for potable water. An alternative supply of potable water has been provided for these residents.

Not Available

1990-04-04

161

Operations Support of Phase 2 Integrated Demonstration In Situ Bioremediation. Volume 1, Final report: Final report text data in tabular form, Disk 1  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of ground water and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade trichlorethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated aquifer and adjacent vadose zone. The principle carbon/energy source nutrient used in this demonstration was methane (natural gas). In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency, safety, and public and regulatory acceptability. This report describes the preliminary results of the demonstration and provides conclusions only for those measures that the Bioremediation Technical Support Group felt were so overwhelmingly convincing that they do not require further analyses. Though this report is necessarily superficial it does intend to provide a basis for further evaluating the technology and for practitioners to immediately apply some parts of the technology.

Hazen, T.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1993-09-01

162

Analysis and evaluation of VOC removal technologies demonstrated at Savannah River  

SciTech Connect

Volatile Organic Compounds, or VOCs, are ubiquitous subsurface contaminants at industrial as well as DOE sites. At the Savannah River Plant, the principles VOCs contaminating the subsurface below A-Area and M-Area are Trichloroethylene (C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3}, or TCE) and Tetrachloroethylene (C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}, or PCE). These compounds were used extensively as degreasing solvents from 1952 until 1979, and the waste solvent which did not evaporate (on the order of 2{times}10{sup 6} pounds) was discharged to a process sewer line leading to the M-Area Seepage Basin (Figure I.2). These compounds infiltrated into the soil and underlying sediments from leaks in the sewer line and elsewhere thereby contaminating the vadose zone between the surface and the water table as well as the aquifer.

Chesnut, D.A.; Wagoner, J.; Nitao, J.J.; Boyd, S.; Shaffer, R.J.; Kansa, E.J.; Buscheck, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Falta, R.W. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)] [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

1993-09-01

163

Survey of subsurface treatment technologies for environmental restoration sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a survey of remediation and treatment technologies for contaminants of concern at environmental restoration (ER) sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The sites that were evaluated include the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater, Technical Area V, and Canyons sites. The primary contaminants of concern at these sites include trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and nitrate in groundwater. Due to the low contaminant concentrations (close to regulatory limits) and significant depths to groundwater ({approx}500 feet) at these sites, few in-situ remediation technologies are applicable. The most applicable treatment technologies include monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation/denitrification to reduce the concentrations of TCE, PCE, and nitrate in the groundwater. Stripping technologies to remove chlorinated solvents and other volatile organic compounds from the vadose zone can also be implemented, if needed.

McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.

2003-08-01

164

Measurements of Al(NO 3) 3 activities in aqueous nitrate solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum nitrate activity coefficients obtained by vapor pressure osmometry are compared with activity coefficients derived from nitric acid extraction measurements and Bromley's correlation. This solvent extraction approach was possible because of the poor extraction of Al 3+ (distribution ratio ? 10 3) by the chosen solvents. The solvents compositions were 0.25M CMPO (octyl(phenyl)-N, N-diisobutylcarbamoyl methylphosphine oxide) in tetrachloroethylene (TCE) and 0.25M CMPO with 0.75M tributyl phosphate (TBP) in TCE. In both approaches, nitric acid was used to supress the hydrolysis of Al 3+. At high ionic strengths, the two techniques yielded very similar activity coefficients for Al(NO 3) 3. However, at intermediate and very low ionic strengths, the two procedures produced considerably different activity coefficients.

Chaiko, D. J.; Tasker, I. R.; Fredrickson, D. R.; Difilippo, A. A.; Smidt, S. M.; Vandegrift, G. F.

165

Actions of carbon tetrachloride, hexachlorotethane and the products of their metabolism in sheep on Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed Central

1 An invitro preparation of Fasciola hepatica is described which responded to electrical stimulation with tetanic spasms. Both carbon tetrachloride (20-500 nl/ml), and its metabolite chloroform (50-1000nl/ml), produced contractions in the preparation which extinguished the responses to electrical stimulation. It is suggested that the spasmogenic action of carbon tetrachloride and its metabolite may contribute to the fasciolifugal action of the drug. 2 Hexachloroethane, another fasiolifuge, had very little effect in the preparation. However, pentachloroethane and tetrachloroethylene, the main products of the metabolism of hexachloroethane in sheep, were potent spasmogens in preparations of Fasciola hepatica. Pentachloroethane was about twice as potent as carbon tetrachloride. 3 Tetrodotoxin (2mug/ml) did not antagonize the responses of the preparation to electrical stimulation of carbon tetrachloride.

Bartlet, A L

1976-01-01

166

Treatment of VOCs in high strength wastes using an anaerobic expanded-bed GAC reactor  

SciTech Connect

The potential of the expanded-bed granular activated carbon (GAC) anaerobic reactor in treating a high strength waste containing RCRA volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was studied. A total of six VOCs, methylene chloride, chlorobenzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, toluene and tetrachloroethylene, were fed to the reactor in a high strength matrix of background solvents. Performance was evaluated. The reactor was found to effect excellent removal of all VOCs (97%). Chloroform, while itself removed at levels in excess of 97%, was found to inhibit the degradation of acetate and acetone, two of the background solvents. Without any source of chloroform in the feed, excellent COD removals were obtained in addition to near-complete removal of all the VOCs.

Narayanian, B.; Suidan, M.T.; Gelderloos, A.B.; Brenner, R.C.

1993-01-01

167

Competitive adsorption of VOCcs and BOM: Oxic and anoxic environments  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the presence of molecular oxygen on the adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in distilled Milli-Q water and in water supplemented with background organic matter (BOM) is evaluated. Experiments are conducted under conditions where molecular oxygen is present in the test environment (oxic adsorption), and where oxygen is absent from the test environment (anoxic adsorption). Adsorption isotherms for tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in Milli-Q water showed no impact of the presence of oxygen on their adsorption behavior, while adsorption isotherms for cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE) showed higher capacities under toxic conditions. The Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST) successfully predicted the VOCs anoxic adsorption isotherms in BOM. However, the IAST model did not predict the VOCs oxic adsorption isotherms in BOM.

Sorial, G.A.; Papadimas, S.P.; Suidan, M.T.; Speth, T.F.

1994-01-01

168

Comparison of temporal trends in VOCs as measured with PDB samplers and low-flow sampling methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of temporal trends in tetrachloroethylene (PCE) concentration determined by two sample techniques showed that passive diffusion bag (pdb) samplers adequately sample the large variation in PCE concentrations at the site. The slopes of the temporal trends in concentrations were comparable between the two techniques, and the pdb sample concentration generally reflected the instantaneous concentration sampled by the low-flow technique. Thus, the pdb samplers provided an appropriate sampling technique for PCE at these wells. One or two wells did not make the case for widespread application of pdb samples at all sites. However, application of pdb samples in some circumstances was appropriate for evaluating temporal and spatial variations in VOC concentrations, thus, should be considered as a useful tool in hydrogeology.

Harte, P. T.

2002-01-01

169

Analysis of PBPK models for risk characterization.  

PubMed

Adoption of a Bayesian framework for risk characterization permits the seamless integration of different kinds of information available in order to choose and parameterize risk models. It also becomes easy to disentangle uncertainty from variability, through hierarchical statistical modeling. Appropriate numerical techniques can be found, for example, in the recently developed arsenal of Markov chain, Monte Carlo simulations. The developments in this area can actually be viewed as extensions of the traditional or standard Monte Carlo methods for uncertainty analysis. Following a brief review of the techniques, examples of Bayesian analyses of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models are presented for tetrachloroethylene and dichloromethane. The discussion touches on some open problems and perspectives for the proposed methods. PMID:10676425

Bois, F Y

1999-01-01

170

Transformations of 1- and 2-carbon halogenated aliphatic organic compounds under methanogenic conditions.  

PubMed Central

Several 1- and 2-carbon halogenated aliphatic organic compounds present at low concentrations (less than 100 micrograms/liter) were degraded under methanogenic conditions in batch bacterial cultures and in a continuous-flow methanogenic fixed-film laboratory-scale column. Greater than 90% degradation was observed within a 2-day detention time under continuous-flow methanogenic conditions with acetate as a primary substrate. Carbon-14 measurements indicated that chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and 1,2-dichloroethane were almost completely oxidized to carbon dioxide, confirming removal by biooxidation. The initial step in the transformations of tetrachloroethylene and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane to nonchlorinated end products appeared to be reductive dechlorination to trichloroethylene and 1,1,2-trichloroethane, respectively. Transformations of the brominated aliphatic compounds appear to be the result of both biological and chemical processes. The data suggest that transformations of halogenated aliphatic compounds can occur under methanogenic conditions in the environment.

Bouwer, E J; McCarty, P L

1983-01-01

171

Distribution of natural halocarbons in marine boundary air over the Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing environmental changes in the Arctic will affect the exchange of natural volatile organic compounds between the atmosphere and the Arctic Ocean. Among these compounds, natural halocarbons play an important role in atmospheric ozone chemistry. We measured the distribution of five major natural halocarbons (methyl iodide, bromoform, dibromomethane, methyl chloride, and methyl bromide) together with dimethyl sulfide and tetrachloroethylene in the atmosphere over the Arctic Ocean (from the Bering Strait to 79°N) and along the cruise path to and from Japan. Methyl iodide, bromoform, and dibromomethane were most abundant near perennial sea ice in air masses derived from coastal regions and least abundant in the northernmost Arctic, where the air masses had passed over the ice pack, whereas methyl chloride and methyl bromide showed the opposite distribution pattern. Factors controlling those distributions and future prospects for natural halocarbons in the Arctic are discussed.

Yokouchi, Yoko; Inoue, Jun; Toom-Sauntry, Desiree

2013-08-01

172

Health assessment for San Jose Facility of Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation Proposed NPL Site, San Jose, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CAD097012298. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The San Jose Facility of Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation, commonly referred to as Fairchild Camera, is a proposed National Priorities List site located in San Jose, California. Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including acetone, 1,1-dichloroethene, Isopropyl alcohol tetrachloroethylene, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and xylenes were detected in on-site and off-site ground water and in on-site subsurface soil. The Fairchild Corporation has performed several remedial activities at the site since 1981, and these have drastically reduced the vertical and horizontal extent of site-related contamination. Because of very high contaminant levels in on-site ground water and subsurface soil, the site is of potential public health importance.

Not Available

1989-01-31

173

Gas phase photocatalytic degradation on TiO{sub 2} pellets of volatile chlorinated organic compounds from a soil vapor extraction well  

SciTech Connect

The mineralization of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in gas stream from a soil vapor extraction (SVE) well was demonstrated with an annular photocatalytic reactor packed with porous TiO{sub 2} pellets in field trials at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. The TiO{sub 2} pellets were prepared using a sol-gel method. The experiments were performed at 55 to 60{degree}C using space times of 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 10} g s/mol for TCE and PCE. Chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) were detected as minor products from side reactions. On a molar basis, CCl{sub 4} and CHCl{sub 3} produced were about 2% and 0.2 % of the reactants.

Yamazaki-Nishida, S.; Read, H.W.; Nagano, J.K.; Anderson, M.A. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Water Chemistry Program; Cervera-March, S. [Barcelona Univ., (Spain). Department of Chemical Engineering; Jarosch, T.R.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1993-05-20

174

Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report  

SciTech Connect

During third quarter 1992, 12 constituents exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in one or more groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents: 57 (48%) and 23 (19%) of the 119 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium and trichloroethylene levels, respectively. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 2] (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 1] (Barnwell/McBean). Elevated constituents also occurred in five Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and 2D and HSB 85A, 85B, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Downgradient wells in the three hydrostratigraphic units contained elevated levels of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, nonvolatile beta, thallium, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), or cadmium.

Thompson, C.Y.

1992-12-01

175

Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

During third quarter 1992, 12 constituents exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in one or more groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents: 57 (48%) and 23 (19%) of the 119 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium and trichloroethylene levels, respectively. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1} (Barnwell/McBean). Elevated constituents also occurred in five Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and 2D and HSB 85A, 85B, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Downgradient wells in the three hydrostratigraphic units contained elevated levels of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, nonvolatile beta, thallium, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), or cadmium.

Thompson, C.Y.

1992-12-01

176

Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are described for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants. An oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth. Withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene. 3 figures.

Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

1995-01-24

177

Public health assessment for crossley farm/Hereford groundwater, Hereford township, Berks County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD981740061. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The report describes an illegal waste disposal site in east central Pennsylvania and its effect on groundwater in the area surrounding the site. The Crossley Farm (Hereford Groundwater) site is in the Huffs Church community of Hereford Township, Berks County. Illegal waste disposal activities reportedly occurred at the site from the mid-1960's to mid-1970's. About 250 residents live hydrogeological downgradient of the site (within two miles) and another 200 live within one-half mile upgradient of the site. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources has collected groundwater samples in 1983 and the EPA has collected samples in 1986. The estimated exposures are to substances (trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene in particular) in groundwater at concentrations that with long-term exposure can cause adverse health effects to the population.

Not Available

1993-02-01

178

Mutagenicity testing of condensates of smoke from titanium dioxide/hexachloroethane and zinc/hexachloroethane pyrotechnic mixtures.  

PubMed

Condensates of smoke from titanium dioxide/hexachloroethane and zinc/hexachloroethane pyrotechnic mixtures were investigated for their potential to produce genetic damage in the tester strains TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 of Salmonella typhimurium and in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. Both smoke condensates contained several chlorinated hydrocarbons among which tetrachloroethylene, hexachloroethane, hexachlorobutadiene and hexachlorobenzene were identified by GC/MS. Condensate of smoke from titanium dioxide/hexachloroethane showed a dose-related positive response in the Salmonella assay with strains TA98 and TA100 in the absence of metabolic activation from rat liver S9 fraction. Both smoke condensates were negative in the micronucleus assay but produced a small but significant depression of erythropoietic activity. The results indicate that smoke condensate from titanium dioxide/hexachloroethane mixtures contains unidentified compound(s) that may be considered mutagenic in the Salmonella assay. PMID:2027339

Karlsson, N; Fängmark, I; Häggqvist, I; Karlsson, B; Rittfeldt, L; Marchner, H

1991-05-01

179

Method for detecting toxic gases  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed which is capable of detecting low concentrations of a pollutant or other component in air or other gas. This method utilizes a combination of a heating filament having a catalytic surface of a noble metal for exposure to the gas and producing a derivative chemical product from the component. An electrochemical sensor responds to the derivative chemical product for providing a signal indicative of the product. At concentrations in the order of about 1-100 ppm of tetrachloroethylene, neither the heating filament nor the electrochemical sensor is individually capable of sensing the pollutant. In the combination, the heating filament converts the benzyl chloride to one or more derivative chemical products which may be detected by the electrochemical sensor. 6 figures.

Stetter, J.R.; Zaromb, S.; Findlay, M.W. Jr.

1991-10-08

180

Health assessment for Centre County Kepone, State College, Centre County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD000436261. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The Centre County Kepone site is an active chemical manufacturing plant that produced Kepone and Mirex from the 1950s until the 1970s. Wastes were stored in a lagoon and drum storage area. The lagoon waste was chemically stabilized and buried. However, the waste did not solidify properly, and hazardous materials presently are leaching into the groundwater and surface water. The environmental contamination on-site consists of toxaphene, trichloroethylene, benzene, chlorobenzene, carbon tetrachloride, and chrysene in groundwater; and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzo(a)pyrene in sediment. The environmental contamination off-site consists of benzene, chlorobenzene, dichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethane in surface water; chrysene in drainage ditch sediment; and tetrachloroethylene in groundwater. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via contaminated groundwater, surface water, sediment, soil, and fish.

Not Available

1988-12-02

181

A survey of household products for volatile organic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A total of 1159 common household products were analysed for 31 volatile organic compounds as potential sources of indoor air pollution. The products were distributed among 65 product categories within 8 category classes: automotive products (14.4% of the products); household cleaners/polishes (9.6%); paint-related products (39.9%); fabric and leather treatments (7.9%); cleaners for electronic equipment (6.0%); oils, greases and lubricants (9.6%); adhesive-related products (6.6%); and miscellaneous products (6.1%). The study was conducted in two parts. In the first part, or the original study, the products were reanalysed for methylene chloride and five other chlorocarbons using purge-and-trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and a data base containing the analytical results was developed. Because full mass spectra were taken, the original set of GC/MS data also contained information regarding other volatile chemicals in the products. However, this additional data was not reported at that time. In the second part of the study, the GC/MS data were reanalysed to determine the presence and concentrations of an additional 25 volatile chemicals. The 31 chemicals included in both parts of this study were: carbon tetrachloride; methylene chloride; tetrachloroethylene; 1,1,1-trichloroethane; trichlorethylene; 1,1,2-tricholorotrifluoroethane; acetone; benzene; 2-butanone; chlorobenzene; chloroform; cyclohexane; 1,2-dichloroethane; 1,4-dioxane; ethylbenzene; n-hexane; d-limonene; methylcyclohexane; methylcyclopentane; methyl isobutyl ketone; n-nonane; n-octane; ?-pinene; propylene oxide; styrene; 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane; tetrahydrofuran; toluene; m-mxylene; o-xylene; and p-xylene. Of the 31 chemicals, toluene, the xylenes and methylene chloride were found to occur most frequently—in over 40% of the products tested. Chemicals that were typically found in relatively high concentrations in the samples (i.e. greater than 20% w/w) included acetone, 2-butanone, hexane, methylene chloride, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane and the xylenes. Chlorobenzene, d-limonene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, n-nonane and styrene were not found in any of the products at or above the 0.1% level. In all, 935 of the products contained one or more of the target solvents at levels greater than 0.1%. The resulting data base contains information regarding the 1159 products, such as origin, cost, container type, lot number, etc., as well as quantitative information for each of the 31 chemicals. The frequency of occurrence and average concentrations for the target chemicals are summarized for each of the product classes.

Sack, Thomas M.; Steele, David H.; Hammerstrom, Karen; Remmers, Janet

182

Measurements of reactive chlorocarbons over the Surinam tropical rain forest: indications for strong biogenic emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrary to the understanding of the emissions and chemical behavior of halocarbons from anthropogenic sources (e.g. CFCs and HCFCs), the biogeochemistry of naturally emitted halocarbons is still poorly understood. We present measurements of chloromethane (methyl chloride, CH3Cl), trichloromethane (chloroform, CHCl3), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), and tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4) from air samples taken over the Surinam rainforest during the 1998 LBA/CLAIRE campaign. The samples were collected in stainless steel canisters on-board a Cessna Citation jet aircraft and analyzed in the laboratory using a gas chromatograph equipped with FID and ECD. The chlorocarbons we studied have atmospheric lifetimes of ~1 year or less, and appear to have significant emissions from natural sources including oceans, soils and vegetations, as well as biomass burning. These sources are primarily concentrated in the tropics (30º N-30º S). We detected an increase as a function of latitude of methyl chloride, chloroform, and tetrachloroethylene mixing ratios, in pristine air masses advected from the Atlantic Ocean toward the central Amazon. In the absence of significant biomass burning sources, we attribute this increase to biogenic emissions from the Surinam rainforest. From our measurements, we deduce fluxes from the Surinam rainforest of 7.6±1.8 ?g CH3Cl m-2 h-1, 1.11±0.08g CHCl3 ?m-2 h-1, and 0.36±0.07 ?g C2Cl4 m-2 h-1. Extrapolated to a global scale, our emission estimates suggest a large potential source of 2 Tg CH3Cl yr-1 from tropical forests, which could account for the net budget discrepancy (underestimation of sources), as indicated previously. In addition, our estimates suggest a potential emission of 57±17 Gg C2C4 yr-1 from tropical forest soils, equal to half of the currently missing C2Cl4 sources. We hypothesize that the extensive deforestation over the last two decades relates to the observed global downward trend of atmospheric methyl chloride.

Scheeren, H. A.; Lelieveld, J.; Williams, J.; Fischer, H.; Warneke, C.

2003-10-01

183

Adapting the Bruel and Kjaer Multi-gas Monitor Type 1302 to measure selected volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in soil  

SciTech Connect

The Bruel and Kjaer Multi-gas Monitor Type 1302 can simultaneously measure up to five different volatile organic chemicals (VOCS) in a single air sample by using optical filters combined with a photo acoustic detection method. The monitor has previously been validated to measure VOCs in water, by purging aqueous samples into Tedlar{trademark} bags. The method used to measure VOCs in water has been adapted for use with soil. Soil samples are diluted with water and VOCs are purged with air from the resulting slurry into a Tedlar{trademark} bag. The contents of the Tedlar{trademark} bag are then analyzed with the multi-gas monitor. Data have been generated for the measurement of chloroform, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, and acetone. The method is linear for these VOCs from approximately 1 to at least 128 {mu}g/g of soil (ppM). There is no measurable cross interference of these VOCs with each other when more than one is present in a single soil sample. Contaminants other than those being measured may interfere with detection of these VOCS, so some prior site characterization is required. The method is easy to perform, rapid, reproducible, and sensitive enough for field screening applications.

Palausky, M.A.; Waters, L.C.; Counts, R.W.; Jenkins, R.A.

1995-04-01

184

Current Intelligence Bulletins: summaries  

SciTech Connect

Summaries are provided for the 47 Current Intelligence Bulletins issued to date by NIOSH; any revisions in NIOSH policy made after a bulletin was issued are included. Subjects of the bulletins include the following: chloroprene; trichloroethylene; ethylene-dibromide; chrome pigment; asbestos exposure; hexamethylphosphoric-triamide; polychlorinated biphenyls; 4,4'-diaminodipheylmethane; chloroform; radon daughters; dimethylcarbamoyl-chloride; diethylcarbamoyl-chloride; explosive azide hazard; inorganic arsenic; nitrosamines; metabolic precursors of beta-naphtylamine; 2-nitropropane; acryonitrile; 2,4-diaminoanisole; tetrachloroethylene; trimellitic-anhydride; ethylene-thiourea; ethylene-dibromide and disulfiram, toxic interaction; direct blue 6, direct black 38, direct brown 95, benzidine derived dyes; ethylene-dichloride; NIAX catalyst ESN; chloroethanes, review of toxicity; vinyl halides, carcinogenicity; glycidyl ethers; epichlorohydrin; smoking and the occupational environment; arsine poisoning in the workplace; radiofrequency sealers and heaters; formaldehyde; ethylene-oxide; silica flour; ethylene-dibromide; vibration syndrome; glycol ethers; 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 1,3-butadiene; cadmium; monohalomethanes; dinitrotoluenes; polychlorinated biphenyls in electrical equipment fires or failures; methylene-chloride; and 4,4' methylenedianiline.

Not Available

1986-07-24

185

Influence of residual surfactants on DNAPL characterization using partitioning tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The partitioning tracer technique is among the DNAPL source-zone characterization methods being evaluated, while surfactant in-situ flushing is receiving attention as an innovative technology for enhanced source-zone cleanup. Here, we examine in batch and column experiments the magnitude of artifacts introduced in estimating DNAPL content when residual surfactants are present. The batch equilibrium tests, using residual surfactants ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 wt.%, showed that as the surfactant concentrations increased, the tracer partition coefficients decreased linearly for sodium hexadecyl diphenyl oxide disulfonate (DowFax 8390), increased linearly for polyoxyethylene (10) oleyl ether (Brij 97), and decreased slightly or exhibited no observable trend for sodium dihexyl sulfosuccinate (AMA 80). Results from column tests using clean sand with residual DowFax 8390 and Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were consistent with those of batch tests. In the presence of DowFax 8390 (less than 0.5 wt.%), the PCE saturations were underestimated by up to 20%. Adsorbed surfactants on a loamy sand with positively charged oxides showed false indications of PCE saturation based on partitioning tracers in the absence of PCE. Using no surfactant (background soil) gave a false PCE saturation of 0.0004, while soil contacted by AMA 80, Brij 97, and DowFax 8390 gave false PCE saturations of 0.0024, 0.043, and 0.23, respectively.

Cho, Jaehyun; Annable, Michael D.; Rao, P. Suresh C.

2004-08-01

186

Influence of residual surfactants on DNAPL characterization using partitioning tracers.  

PubMed

The partitioning tracer technique is among the DNAPL source-zone characterization methods being evaluated, while surfactant in-situ flushing is receiving attention as an innovative technology for enhanced source-zone cleanup. Here, we examine in batch and column experiments the magnitude of artifacts introduced in estimating DNAPL content when residual surfactants are present. The batch equilibrium tests, using residual surfactants ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 wt.%, showed that as the surfactant concentrations increased, the tracer partition coefficients decreased linearly for sodium hexadecyl diphenyl oxide disulfonate (DowFax 8390), increased linearly for polyoxyethylene (10) oleyl ether (Brij 97), and decreased slightly or exhibited no observable trend for sodium dihexyl sulfosuccinate (AMA 80). Results from column tests using clean sand with residual DowFax 8390 and Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were consistent with those of batch tests. In the presence of DowFax 8390 (less than 0.5 wt.%), the PCE saturations were underestimated by up to 20%. Adsorbed surfactants on a loamy sand with positively charged oxides showed false indications of PCE saturation based on partitioning tracers in the absence of PCE. Using no surfactant (background soil) gave a false PCE saturation of 0.0004, while soil contacted by AMA 80, Brij 97, and DowFax 8390 gave false PCE saturations of 0.0024, 0.043, and 0.23, respectively. PMID:15240167

Cho, Jaehyun; Annable, Michael D; Rao, P Suresh C

2004-08-01

187

D-area oil seepage basin bioventing optimization test plan  

SciTech Connect

The D Area Oil Seepage Basin (DOSB) was used from 1952 to 1975 for disposal of petroleum-based products (waste oils), general office and cafeteria waste, and apparently some solvents [trichloroethylene (TCE)/tetrachloroethylene (PCE)]. Numerous analytical results have indicated the presence of TCE and its degradation product vinyl chloride in groundwater in and around the unit, and of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils within the unit. The DOSB is slated for additional assessment and perhaps for environmental remediation. In situ bioremediation represents a technology of demonstrated effectiveness in the reclamation of sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents, and has been retained as an alternative for the cleanup of the DOSB. The Savannah River Site is therefore proposing to conduct a field treatability study designed to demonstrate and optimize the effectiveness of in situ microbiological biodegradative processes at the DOSB. The introduction of air and gaseous nutrients via two horizontal injection wells (bioventing) is expected to enhance biodegradation rates of petroleum components and stimulate microbial degradation of chlorinated solvents. The data gathered in this test will allow a determination of the biodegradation rates of contaminants of concern in the soil and groundwater, allow an evaluation of the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of soil and groundwater at the DOSB, and provide data necessary for the functional design criteria for the final remediation system.

Berry, C.J.; Radway, J.C.; Alman, D.; Hazen, T.C.

1998-12-31

188

Electron donor preference of a reductive dechlorinating consortium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A wetland sediment-derived microbial consortium was developed by the USGS and propagated in vitro to large quantities by SiREM Laboratory for use in bioaugmentation applications. The consortium had the capacity to completely dechlorinate 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethene, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, cis- and trans-1,2-dichoroethylene, 1.1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. A suite of electron donors with characteristics useful for bioaugmentation applications was tested. The electron donors included lactate (the donor used during WBC-2 development), ethanol, chitin (Chitorem???), hydrogen releasing compound (HRC???), emulsified vegetable oil (Newman Zone???), and hydrogen gas. Ethanol, lactate, and chitin were particularly effective with respect to stimulating, supporting, and sustaining reductive dechlorination of the broad suite of chemicals that WBC-2 biodegraded. Chitorem??? was the most effective "slow release" electron donor tested. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium (Baltimore, MD 6/6-9/2005).

Lorah, M. M.; Majcher, E.; Jones, E.; Driedger, G.; Dworatzek, S.; Graves, D.

2005-01-01

189

Volatile halocarbons as tracers of pulp mill effluent plumes  

SciTech Connect

This work describes the use of volatile halocarbons in a pulp mill effluent, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, and tri- and tetrachloroethylene, as tracers for the distribution and movements of effluent currents in a receiving water bay (Jackfish Bay) on the northern shore of Lake Superior. The results indicate the simplicity and usefulness of the technique and the significantly improved resolution of effluent plume delineation over the customary use of conductance profiles. Concentration patterns of the effluent volatiles suggest counterclockwise circulation of bay water that mixes with inflowing lake water at the eastern reach of the outer bay. The distribution of volatile contaminants is governed by the thermal regime of the receiving waters. During the summer months, the effluent plume wedges between the thermocline and epilimnion, mixing into the surface waters as the distance from the input source increases. In the fall, the colder effluent plume sinks into the hypolimnion and is confined by a bay/lake water-density gradient. In the specific case at hand, the distribution patterns of chloroform and a brominated analog, bromodichloromethane, also suggest the release of chloroform from sediments in the bay.

Comba, M.E.; Palabrica, V.S.; Kaiser, K.L.E. (National Water Research Inst., Burlington, Ontario (Canada). Lakes Research Branch)

1994-07-01

190

A procedure to design a Permeable Adsorptive Barrier (PAB) for contaminated groundwater remediation.  

PubMed

A procedure to optimize the design of a Permeable Adsorptive Barrier (PAB) for the remediation of a contaminated aquifer is presented in this paper. A computer code, including different routines that describe the groundwater contaminant transport and the pollutant capture by adsorption in unsteady conditions over the barrier solid surface, has been developed. The complete characterization of the chemical-physical interactions between adsorbing solids and the contaminated water, required by the computer code, has been obtained by experimental measurements. A case study in which the procedure developed has been applied to a tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated aquifer near a solid waste landfill, in the district of Napoli (Italy), is also presented and the main dimensions of the barrier (length and width) have been evaluated. Model results show that PAB is effective for the remediation of a PCE-contaminated aquifer, since the concentration of PCE flowing out of the barrier is everywhere always lower than the concentration limit provided for in the Italian regulations on groundwater quality. PMID:20846781

Erto, A; Lancia, A; Bortone, I; Di Nardo, A; Di Natale, M; Musmarra, D

2011-01-01

191

Use of Sonification for In-Well Softening of Semivolatile Organic Compounds  

SciTech Connect

This study examined an integrated sonication/vapor stripping system's ability to remove/destroy chlorinated organics from groundwater. Chlorinated solvents studied included carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, trichloroethane and tetrachloroethylene. Contaminant concentrations ranged from {approx}1 to {approx}100 mg/L. The sonicator had an ultrasonic frequency of 20 kHz; applied power intensities were 12.3-, 25.3- and 35.8-W/cm2. Batch reactions were operated for up to 10 minutes treatment time, with samples drawn for GC analysis every 2 minutes. Batch experimental results were obtained using sonication, vapor stripping and combined sonication/vapor stripping. For the chlorinated solvents, the first order rate constants were in the range of 0.02 to 0.06 min-1, 0.23 to 0.53 min-1 and 0.34 to 0.90 min-1 for sonication, vapor stripping and combined sonication/vapor stripping. For the chlorinated organics (treatment time {approx}10 min.), the fraction remaining after sonication and vapor stripping ranged from 62% to 82%, while less than 3% remained from the combined sonication/vapor stripping system.

Peters, Robert W.; Manning, John L.; Ayyiliz, Onder; Wilkey, Michael L.

2003-03-26

192

Occupational exposure to rubber vulcanization products during repair of rubber conveyor belts in a brown coal mine.  

PubMed

Several hundred chemical compounds were found in workroom environments in the rubber industry, but most of the published exposure data relate to the production of tyres; information from the "non-tyre" sections are very limited, if any. This study was carried out to identify chemical substances and measure their air concentrations in the repair shop of a brown coal mine in which damaged rubber conveyor belts were repaired. GC-MS and HPLC analysis of stationary air samples resulted in identification of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons to C12, PAHs, alcohols, phenols, ketones, heterocyclic nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Quantitative evaluation of occupational exposure included determination of organic compound vapours collected on charcoal (GC-MSD), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPLC), N-nitrosoamines and other amines (GC-NPD) and DNPH derivatives of aldehydes (HPLC) in the breathing zone of workers representing all job titles. The concentrations of investigated compounds were very low. Carcinogenic substances: N-nitrosoamines, benzene, PAHs were not present in workroom air in concentrations exceeding limits of detection of the analytical methods being applied; concentrations of methylisobutylketone, tetrachloroethylene, naphtha, aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and aldehydes were much lower than the respective occupational exposure limit values. The results indicate much lower exposure than that reported in the production of tyres and other fabricated rubber products. PMID:12509065

Gromiec, Jan P; Weso?owski, Wiktor; Brze?nicki, S?awomir; Wróblewska-Jakubowska, Krystyna; Kucharska, Ma?gorzata

2002-12-01

193

Occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products in selected water supplies, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, June 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In June 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Barnstable County Department of Health and Environment, sampled water from 14 wastewater sources and drinking-water supplies on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for the presence of organic wastewater contaminants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. The geographic distribution of sampling locations does not represent the distribution of drinking-water supplies on Cape Cod. The environmental presence of the analyte compounds is mostly unregulated; many of the compounds are suspected of having adverse ecological and human health effects. Of the 85 different organic analyte compounds, 43 were detected, with 13 detected in low concentrations (less than 1 microgram per liter) from drinking-water supplies thought to be affected by wastewater because of previously detected high nitrate concentrations. (Phenol and d-limonene, detected in equipment blanks at unacceptably high concentrations, are not included in counts of detections in this report.) Compounds detected in the drinking-water supplies included the solvent, tetrachloroethylene; the analgesic, acetaminophen; the antibiotic, sulfamethoxazole; and the antidepressant, carbamazapine. Nitrate nitrogen, an indicator of wastewater, was detected in water supplies in concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 8.8 milligrams per liter.

Zimmerman, Marc J.

2005-01-01

194

Microfluidic droplet-based liquid-liquid extraction and on-chip IR spectroscopy detection of cocaine in human saliva.  

PubMed

We present a portable microsystem to quantitatively detect cocaine in human saliva. In this system, we combine a microfluidic-based multiphase liquid-liquid extraction method to transfer cocaine continuously from IR-light-absorbing saliva to an IR-transparent solvent (tetrachloroethylene) with waveguide IR spectroscopy (QC-laser, waveguide, detector) to detect the cocaine on-chip. For the fabrication of the low-cost polymer microfluidic chips a simple rapid prototyping technique based on Scotch-tape masters was further developed and applied. To perform the droplet-based liquid-liquid extraction, we designed and integrated a simple and robust droplet generation method based on the capillary focusing effect within the device. Compared to well-characterized and commonly used microfluidic H-filters, our system showed at least two times higher extraction efficiencies with potential for further improvements. The current liquid-liquid extraction method alone can efficiently extract cocaine and pre-concentrate the analytes in a new solvent. Our fully integrated optofluidic system successfully detected cocaine in real saliva samples spiked with the drug (500 ?g/mL) and allowed real time measurements, which makes this approach suitable for point-of-care applications. PMID:23815182

Wägli, Philip; Chang, Yu-Chi; Hans, Kerstin; Homsy, Alexandra; Hvozdara, Lubos; Herzig, Hans Peter; Sigrist, Markus; de Rooij, Nico F

2013-08-01

195

The use of upward hydraulic gradients to arrest downward DNAPL migration in rock fractures  

SciTech Connect

Upward water flow can arrest the downward migration of dense, nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) through rough-walled fractures provided that a sufficient hydraulic gradient exists. An exact analytical solution to predict the arresting gradient demonstrates that there is little difference between the gradient required to arrest DNAPL migration near the top of the fracture, and the gradient required to arrest migration once DNAPL has extended to the bottom of the fracture. Laboratory experiments involving the migration of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) through two samples of fractured limestone demonstrate the ability of upward water flow to arrest downward DNAPL migration under both wetting and drainage conditions. It is suggested that upward gradients can be generated beneath contaminated regions of the subsurface to provide a hydraulic bottom. A hydraulic bottom at a site would protect against potential downward mobilization of DNAPL in response to the application of aggressive remediation technologies such as surfactant flooding, alcohol flooding, and steam flooding. Upward gradients applied during drilling may also protect against downward mobilization of DNAPL in the formation while drilling through source zones.

Chown, J.C.; Kueper, B.H. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; McWhorter, D.B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Chemical Engineering

1997-05-01

196

Site characterization program at the radioactive waste management complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Site Characterization Program is a continuation of the Subsurface Investigation Program (SIP). The scope of the SIP has broadened in response to the results of past work that identified hazardous as well as radionuclide contaminants in the subsurface environment and in response to the need to meet regulatory requirements. Two deep boreholes were cored at the RWMC during FY-1988. Selected sediment samples were submitted for Appendix IX of 40 CFR Part 264 and radionuclide analyses. Detailed geologic logging of archived core was initiated. Stratigraphic studies of the unsaturated zone were conducted. Studies to determine hydrologic properties of sediments and basalts were conducted. Geochemical studies and analyses were initiated to evaluate contaminant and radionuclide speciation and migration in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) geochemical environment. Analyses of interbed sediments in boreholes D15 and 8801D did not confirm the presence of radionuclide contamination in the 240-ft interbed. Analyses of subsurface air and groundwater samples identified five volatile organic compounds of concern: carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chloroform, and tetrachloroethylene. 33 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

McElroy, D.L.; Rawson, S.A.; Hubbell, J.M.; Minkin, S.C.; Baca, R.G.; Vigil, M.J.; Bonzon, C.J.; Landon, J.L.; Laney, P.T.

1989-07-01

197

Effects of Hydrogeologic Conditions on Groundwater Contamination of CVOCs in the North Coast Karst Aquifer of Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The karst system of northern Puerto Rico is the most productive aquifer of the island. It serves freshwater to industrial, domestic and agricultural purposes, and contributes to the ecological integrity of the region. The same characteristics that make this a highly productive aquifer, make it vulnerable to contamination of groundwater. Of particular importance is contamination with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), which have been related to preterm birth problems. A great extent of CVOC contamination has been seen in the North Coast of Puerto Rico since the 1970s. The main purposes of this study are (1) to relate the water quality of wells and springs with the hydrogeological conditions in the north coast limestone aquifer of Puerto Rico, and (2) to make a statistical analysis of the historical groundwater contamination in that area. To achieve these objectives, groundwater samples are collected from wells and springs during dry and wet seasons. Results show that trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and chloroform (TCM) are frequently detected in groundwater samples. A greater detection of CVOCs is detected during the wet season than the dry season. This is attributed to a greater capacity to flush stored contaminants during the wet season. Historical analysis of contamination in the north coast of Puerto Rico shows a high capacity of the aquifer to store and release contaminants. Future work will be focused the statistical analysis of the historical groundwater contamination data to understand the behavior of the contaminants in different hydrologic conditions.

Torres Torres, N. I.; Howard, J.; Padilla, I. Y.; Torres, P.; Cotto, I.; Irizarry, C.

2012-12-01

198

An evaluation of employee exposure to volatile organic compounds in three photocopy centers.  

PubMed

Personal and area samples from three copy centres were collected in thermal desorption tubes and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Real-time personal total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) were measured using a data-logging photoionization detector. Fifty-four different VOCs were detected in the area samples. The maximum concentration measured was 1132.0 ppb (toluene, copy center 3, day 1). Thirty-eight VOCs were detected in the personal samples and concentrations ranged from 0.1 ppb (1,1-biphenyl, p-dichlorobenzene, propylbenzene, styrene, and tetrachloroethylene) to 689.6 ppb (toluene). Real-time TVOC measurements indicated daily fluctuations in exposure, ranging from <71 to 21,300 ppb. The time-weighted average exposures for the photocopier operators on days 1 and 2 were 235 and 266 ppb and 6155 and 3683 ppb, in copy centers 2 and 3, respectively. Personal exposure measurements of individual VOCs were below accepted occupational standards and guidelines. For example, the maximum concentration was 0.3% of the permissible exposure limits (toluene, copy center 3). Exposures were highest in copy center 3; this is likely due to the presence of offset printing presses. It is concluded that photocopiers contribute a wide variety of VOCs to the indoor air of photocopy centers; however, exposures are at least 100 times below established standards. PMID:10856189

Stefaniak, A B; Breysse, P N; Murray, M P; Rooney, B C; Schaefer, J

2000-06-01

199

On-line analysis of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in air by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry Improvements in preconcentration and injection steps.  

PubMed

An analytical system composed of a cryofocusing trap injector device coupled to a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometric detection (CTI-GC-MS) specific for the on-line analysis in air of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHCs) (dichloromethane; chloroform; 1,1,1-trichloroethane; tetrachloromethane; 1,1,2-trichloroethylene; tetrachloroethylene) was developed. The cryofocusing trap injector was the result of appropriate low cost modifications to an original purge-and-trap device to make it suitable for direct air analysis even in the case of only slightly contaminated air samples, such as those from remote zones. The CTI device can rapidly and easily be rearranged into the purge-and-trap allowing water and air analysis with the same apparatus. Air samples, collected in stainless steel canisters, were introduced directly into the CTI-GC-MS system to realize cryo-concentration (at -120 degrees C), thermal desorption (at 200 degrees C) and for the subsequent analysis of volatiles. The operating phases and conditions were customised and optimized. Recovery efficiency was optimized in terms of moisture removal, cold trap temperature and sampling mass flow. The injection of entrapped volatiles was realized through a direct transfer with high chromatographic reliability (capillary column-capillary column). These improvements allowed obtaining limits of detection (LODs) at least one order of magnitude lower than current LODs for the investigated substances. The method was successfully employed on real samples: air from urban and rural areas and air from remote zones such as Antarctica. PMID:20444461

Zoccolillo, Lelio; Amendola, Luca; Insogna, Susanna; Pastorini, Elisabetta

2010-06-11

200

Field demonstration of pervaporation for the separation of volatile organic compounds from a surfactant-based soil remediation fluid.  

PubMed

As part of a Department of Defense project, the US Environmental Protection Agency was responsible for designing, building and field operating a pilot-scale pervaporation unit. The field site was an active dry cleaning facility on the grounds of Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune in Jacksonville, NC. The overall goal of the project was to remove tetrachloroethylene (PCE) from the soil beneath the dry cleaning shop using a surfactant-based soil remediation fluid and to recycle/reuse the surfactant. In order to reinject the recovered surfactant, the pervaporation unit was required to achieve an average 95% removal of contaminants from the extracted fluid over the duration of the test period. PCE removal averaged 95.8% during peak surfactant levels and exceeded 99.9% in the absence of surfactant, thereby meeting the reinjection requirement. Removal of a group of secondary contaminants at the site, termed Varsol compounds, was monitored via concentrations of three Varsol marker compounds: decane, undecane and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene. The pervaporation system processed 100,000 gal of groundwater and surfactant solution over a period of 70 days. In order to evaluate and validate process performance, a variety of process variables and properties were monitored over the course of the demonstration. Pervaporation costs are projected to be on the order of $20 per 1000 gal of surfactant solution treated for a moderate size system (10 gpm). PMID:11118689

Vane, L M; Hitchens, L; Alvarez, F R; Giroux, E L

2001-01-29

201

Vapor-phase exchange of perchloroethene between soil and plants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tree core concentrations of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethene, PCE) at the Riverfront Superfund Site in New Haven, MO, were found to mimic the profile of soil phase concentrations. The observed soil-tree core relationship was stronger than that of groundwater PCE to tree core concentrations at the same site. Earlier research has shown a direct, linear relationship between tree core and groundwater concentrations of chlorinated solvents and other organics. Laboratory-scale experiments were performed to elucidate this phenomenon, including determining partitioning coefficients of PCE between plant tissues and air and between plant tissues and water, measured to be 8.1 and 49 L/kg, respectively. The direct relationship of soil to tree core PCE concentrations was hypothesized to be caused by diffusion between tree roots and the soil vapor phase in the subsurface. The central findings of this research are discovering the importance of subsurface vapor-phase transfer for VOCs and uncovering a direct relationship between soil vapor-phase chlorinated solvents and uptake rates that impact contaminant translocation from the subsurface and transfer into the atmosphere. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

Struckhoff, G. C.; Burken, J. G.; Schumacher, J. G.

2005-01-01

202

Development of CFC-Free Cleaning Processes at the NASA White Sands Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) is developing cleaning and verification processes to replace currently used chlorofluorocarbon-113- (CFC-113-) based processes. The processes being evaluated include both aqueous- and solvent-based techniques. The presentation will include the findings of investigations of aqueous cleaning and verification processes that are based on a draft of a proposed NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) cleaning procedure. Verification testing with known contaminants, such as hydraulic fluid and commonly used oils, established correlations between nonvolatile residue and CFC-113. Recoveries ranged from 35 to 60 percent of theoretical. WSTF is also investigating enhancements to aqueous sampling for organics and particulates. Although aqueous alternatives have been identified for several processes, a need still exists for nonaqueous solvent cleaning, such as the cleaning and cleanliness verification of gauges used for oxygen service. The cleaning effectiveness of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225), tert-butylmethylether, and n-Hexane was evaluated using aerospace gauges and precision instruments and then compared to the cleaning effectiveness of CFC-113. Solvents considered for use in oxygen systems were also tested for oxygen compatibility using high-pressure oxygen autoignition and liquid oxygen mechanical impact testing.

Beeson, Harold; Kirsch, Mike; Hornung, Steven; Biesinger, Paul

1995-01-01

203

Complete degradation of polychlorinated hydrocarbons by a two-stage biofilm reactor.  

PubMed Central

A two-stage anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor successfully degraded a mixture of chlorinated organic compounds to water-soluble metabolic intermediates and carbon dioxide. Reductive dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and chloroform (CF) occurred on all tested primary carbon sources such as glucose, methanol, and acetate. However, the extent of dechlorination was maximum when the anaerobic biofilm column was fed acetate as a primary carbon source. HCB, PCE, and CF were dechlorinated to the levels of tri- and dichlorinated products (99, 80, and 32%, respectively) with acetate in the feed. This is important, since these less-chlorinated compounds can be metabolized by the aerobic biofilm. The effluent from the anaerobic biofilm column was fed directly into the aerobic column. After both columns, the total amount transformed into nonvolatile intermediates and carbon dioxide was 94, 96, and 83% for [14C]HCB, [14C]trichloroethylene, and [14C]CF, respectively. This research shows the potential application of this novel two-stage bioreactor system for treating groundwaters and industrial effluents composed of highly chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.

Fathepure, B Z; Vogel, T M

1991-01-01

204

Monitoring of electrochemically inactive compounds by amperometric toxic gas sensors  

SciTech Connect

A sample of 200 ppM benzene in air was circulated at rate of 10 mL/min past a heated 0.01-cm diameter platinum filament and then past a platinum-black sensing electrode potentiostated at 1.2 V versus RHE (reversible hydrogen electrode) in a 30 weight-% sulfuric acid electrolyte. The current through the electrode increased as the filament temperature was increased to about 600/sup 0/C. Sensing electrodes made of vapor-deposited platinum or platinum-gold alloy on porous polytetrafluorethylene yielded proportionately similar responses, whereas no significant response was obtained under the same conditions with a powdered gold sensing electrode. The room-temperature responses to various test compounds of the four sensing electrodes were measured at electrode potentials ranging from 0.9 V to 1.4 V versus RHE, with and without the heated platinum filament. The following ten compounds were tested: cyclohexane, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, acetic acid, benzene, nitrobenzene, pyridine, benzyl chloride, ethyl acrylate, and tetrahydrofuran. Only the last two compounds elicited significant responses without the filament. However, with the filament heated to about 600/sup 0/C, each of the tested compounds elicited significant responses under different conditions.

Stetter, J.R.; Zaromb, S.; Findlay, M.W. Jr.

1984-01-01

205

Ground-water-quality data for Picatinny arsenal, New Jersey, 1958-85  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The water resources of Picatinny Arsenal in northern New Jersey are described using the results of 1,129 analyses of groundwater , including 522 determinations of inorganic constituents and 607 determinations of organic constituents. Water samples were collected from 56 wells on the site from 1958 through 1985. Of these wells, 50 are screened in stratified drift aquifers and 6 are in bedrock. Samples were collected and analyzed by a total of four agencies: one State, one Federal, and two private. Of the 1,129 samples, 51 were collected and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The data on inorganic constituents exhibit much variability. Specific conductance ranges from 40 to 2,150 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees C, pH ranges from 2.9 units to 10 units, and dissolved solids ranges from 51 to 1,210 milligrams per liter. Trace elements that display wide variations in concentration ranges are iron (<2 to 540,000 micrograms/L), manganese (<1 to 55,000 micrograms/L), and zinc (<3 to 1,900 micrograms/L). The organic compounds with the widest variations in concentration are: 1 ,2-transdichloroethylene (<1 to 542 micrograms/L), tetrachloroethylene (<1 to 386 micrograms/L), 1,1 ,1-trichloroethane (<1 to 1,780 micrograms/L), and trichloroethylene (<1 to 25,000 micrograms/L). (USGS)

Sargent, B. P.; Green, J. W.; Harte, P. T.; Vowinkel, E. F.

1986-01-01

206

Evaluation of a passive sampler for volatile organic compounds at ppb concentrations, varying temperatures, and humidities with 24-h exposures. 2. Sampler performance  

SciTech Connect

The performance of the 3M 3520 organic vapor monitor (OVM) as a tool for monitoring inhalation exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in nonoccupational community environments was evaluated by using combined controlled test atmospheres of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, methylene chloride, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, and toluene. Eight OVMs were simultaneously exposed to concentrations of 10,20, and 200 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in combination with temperatures of 10, 25, and 40 C and relative humidities of 12, 50, and 90% for 24 H. The results of this study indicate that the performance of the 3520 OVM is compound-specific and depends on concentration, temperature, and humidity. With the exception of 1,3-butadiene under most conditions and styrene and methylene chloride at very high relative humidities, recoveries showed a negative bias as compared to calculated chamber concentrations but were generally within {+-}25% of theory, indicating that the 3520 OVM can be effectively used over the range of concentrations and environmental conditions tested with a 24-h sampling period. Increasing humidities resulted in increasing negative bias from full recovery. Reverse diffusion experiments conducted at 200 {micro}g/m{sup 3} and five temperature/humidity combinations indicated diffusion losses only for 1,3-butadiene, methylene chloride, and styrene under increased humidity conditions. The recovery rates reported in this study can be used for estimating measurement biases when using OVMs for indoor, outdoor, and personal air monitoring of VOCs in community environments.

Chung, C.W.; Morandi, M.T.; Stock, T.H.; Afshar, M.

1999-10-15

207

Photochemical pollution at two southern California smog receptor sites  

SciTech Connect

A one-year survey of air quality has been carried out at two southern California inland locations, Perris and Palm Springs to evaluate transport of photochemical smog from the Los Angeles area and to assess population exposure to toxic air pollutants in the Coachella Valley and eastern Riverside County. Air pollutants measured included formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, nitric acid, and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). Acetic acid was also measured as part of the time-integrated method employed to measure PAN. In addition, intensive studies were carried out at both locations and included measurements of aldehydes, nitric acid, PAN, peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN), methylchloroform and tetrachloroethylene. Maximum concentrations of HCHO, CH{sub 3}CHO, HNO{sub 3}, PAN, PPN, CH{sub 3}COOH and C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4} were 26, 21, 4.5, 7.6, 0.42, 6.6 and 0.29 ppb in Palm Springs and 15, 30, 6.3, 9.1, 0.73, 7.8 and 0.43 ppb in Perris. Pollutant concentrations measured in Palm Springs and Perris are compared to those measured in the Los Angeles area, and are discussed in terms of formation and removal during transport.

Grosjean, D.; Williams, E.L. II. (DGA, Inc., Ventura, CA (United States))

1992-06-01

208

Experimental upgrades of membrane introduction mass spectrometry for water and air analysis.  

PubMed

Some improvements to the membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) technique, resulting in low-ppt detection limits for volatile organohalogen compounds (CX) in water (namely, chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloromethane, chlorodibromomethane, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and carbon tetrachloride) and low-microgram per cubic meter detection limits for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in gaseous samples, are shown. A static MIMS configuration was compared to a dynamic one, the former requiring longer time to obtain the analytical response. A cryotrapping preconcentration step is introduced and linearity of response, mixture effects, and detection limits are presented. The instrumental setup consists of a hollow fiber silicone membrane, a water or air container, a cryofocusing trap based on Tenax adsorbent, a Peltier cell, and a Varian ion trap benchtop mass spectrometer is described. This instrumental setup, which we named membrane extraction trap focusing mass spectrometry, allowed the detection of CX in water at a concentration as low as 8 ppt and of benzene in air at 0.1 microg/m3. The whole assembly shows great potential for on-site routine monitoring of drinking water resources and urban and indoor air under current EU and Italian regulations. PMID:11534703

Bocchini, P; Pozzi, R; Andalò, C; Galletti, G C

2001-08-15

209

The structural and sorptive characteristics of high-surface-area carbonaceous material (HSACM) in soils.  

PubMed

The structural and sorptive characteristics of the high-surface-area carbonaceous material (HSACM) isolated from soils were investigated. The HSACM contents in soils were first identified by the organic petrology method. A novel isolation method using acid demineralization, base extraction, and ZnBr(2) floatation sequential steps was developed to extract the HSACM from soil. The differences in structural and sorptive characteristics with the HSACM and the intact soil were investigated using nitrogen adsorption isotherms and trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption isotherms at low concentrations (0 to about 2 mg/L) both with and without tetrachloroethylene (PCE) as the cosolute. It was found that HSACM possesses a much higher specific surface area and pore volume as well as a smaller pore size than the original soil. Moreover, the sorption of TCE to HSACM is noticeably more nonlinear and competitive than to the original soil. A small amount of highly adsorptive HSACM is largely responsible for the nonlinear soil sorption of a single solute at very low concentrations. PMID:16839670

Huang, Hui-Chen; Lee, Jiunn-Fwu; Lee, Chung-Kung; Chen, Jiunn-Chen

2006-12-01

210

Demonstration and evaluation of the pulsed ultraviolet-irradiation gas-treatment system, Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory was asked to demonstrate and evaluate a pulsed ultraviolet-irradiation system developed by Purus, Inc., at the Volatile Organic Compounds Non-Arid Integrated Demonstration at the Savannah River Site near aiken, South Carolina. The Purus system consists of four reactor chambers, each containing a xenon flash lamp. During the two weeks of testing, samples were taken and analyzed from the inlet and outlet sides of the Purus system. The contaminants of concern on the inlet were tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA); the contaminants of concern on the outlet were PCE, TCE, TCA, carbon tetrachloride (CT), and chloroform. The evaluation of the Purus system included an examination of the reduction of both TCE and PCE and a search for any change in the concentrations. (Operating conditions included flow rates, ranging from 25 to 100 standard cubic feet per minute; inlet concentration of PCE, ranging from 360 to 10,700 parts per million volume; and flash lamp rates, ranging from 1 to 30 hertz.) The Purus system was quite efficient at reducing the concentrations of both PCE and TCE. The potential by-products, TCA, CT, and chloroform, showed no significant increases throughout the range of the various operating parameters. Overall, the Purus system appears to be a cost-efficient means of reducing the concentrations of PCE and TCE, while the removal of the initial photo-oxidation products and TCA is slower and needs further evaluation.

Schneider, J.; Wilkey, M.; Peters, R.; Tomczyk, N.; Friedlund, J.; Farber, P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.; Mass, B.; Haag, W. [Purus, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

1994-10-01

211

Partitioning Tracer Test for Detection, Estimation, and Remediation Performance Assessment of Subsurface Nonaqueous Phase Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a partitioning interwell tracer test (PITT) technique for the detection, estimation, and remediation performance assessment of the subsurface contaminated by nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique by examples of experimental and simulation results. The experimental results are from partitioning tracer experiments in columns packed with Ottawa sand. Both the method of moments and inverse modeling techniques for estimating NAPL saturation in the sand packs are demonstrated. In the simulation examples we use UTCHEM, a comprehensive three-dimensional, chemical flood compositional simulator developed at the University of Texas, to simulate a hypothetical two-dimensional aquifer with properties similar to the Borden site contaminated by tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and we show how partitioning interwell tracer tests can be used to estimate the amount of PCE contaminant before remedial action and as the remediation process proceeds. Tracer tests results from different stages of remediation are compared to determine the quantity of PCE removed and the amount remaining. Both the experimental (small-scale) and simulation (large-scale) results demonstrate that PITT can be used as an innovative and effective technique to detect and estimate the amount of residual NAPL and for remediation performance assessment in subsurface formations.

Jin, Minquan; Delshad, Mojdeh; Dwarakanath, Varadarajan; McKinney, Daene C.; Pope, Gary A.; Sepehrnoori, Kamy; Tilburg, Charles E.; Jackson, Richard E.

1995-05-01

212

Simulation of solute transport across low-permeability barrier walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-permeability, non-reactive barrier walls are often used to contain contaminants in an aquifer. Rates of solute transport through such barriers are typically many orders of magnitude slower than rates through the aquifer. Nevertheless, the success of remedial actions may be sensitive to these low rates of transport. Two numerical simulation methods for representing low-permeability barriers in a finite-difference groundwater-flow and transport model were tested. In the first method, the hydraulic properties of the barrier were represented directly on grid cells and in the second method, the intercell hydraulic-conductance values were adjusted to approximate the reduction in horizontal flow, allowing use of a coarser and computationally efficient grid. The alternative methods were tested and evaluated on the basis of hypothetical test problems and a field case involving tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contamination at a Superfund site in New Hampshire. For all cases, advective transport across the barrier was negligible, but preexisting numerical approaches to calculate dispersion yielded dispersive fluxes that were greater than expected. A transport model (MODFLOW-GWT) was modified to (1) allow different dispersive and diffusive properties to be assigned to the barrier than the adjacent aquifer and (2) more accurately calculate dispersion from concentration gradients and solute fluxes near barriers. The new approach yields reasonable and accurate concentrations for the test cases.

Harte, Philip T.; Konikow, Leonard F.; Hornberger, George Z.

2006-05-01

213

Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA.  

PubMed

In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment. PMID:22459605

Harte, Philip T; Smith, Thor E; Williams, John H; Degnan, James R

2012-05-01

214

Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment.

Harte, Philip T.; Smith, Thor E.; Williams, John H.; Degnan, James R.

2012-05-01

215

Biooxidation studies of pollutants in effluent from the X-710 laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The effluent from the X-710 Laboratory Facility was processed through the original sewage treatment plant with no observable problems. It is now processed through the new treatment plant but this may not satisfy EPA requirements because of possible detrimental effects on the biomass resulting from the presence of toxic pollutants in the X-710 waste stream. As determined by extensive analytical characterization, nine heavy metals and five organics were present in possible environmentally unacceptable concentrations. These were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, nickel, lead, uranium, zinc, acetone, Freon-113, isopropyl alcohol, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene. The metals and organics were tested to determine their effect on the biomass by biooxidation studies that simulated the activated sludge treatment process in the laboratory. One study tested the metals for a two-month period, while another study tested the organics for a two-month period. In both cases, the maximum contaminant concentrations observed were used in the tests to ensure worst possible case conditions for study. Results of both studies indicated that no detrimental effect was seen on the biomass at the concentrations tested. Thus, no further testing or investigation of pretreatment technologies for the X-710 effluent was required since the laboratory studies show that effluents can be processed through the X-6619 Sewage Treatment Facility with no toxic effect on the biomass. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Greiner, M.J.; Deacon, L.E.

1983-09-30

216

Interpretation of Borehole Geophysical Logs at Area C, Former Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Navy at Area C of the former Naval Air Warfare Center in Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pa., in support of hydrogeological investigations conducted by the Navy to address ground-water contamination in the Stockton Formation. Borehole geophysical logs were collected, heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were made, and borehole television surveys were run in seven boreholes ranging from 31 to 75 feet deep. Caliper logs and borehole television surveys were used to identify fractures and the location of possible water-bearing zones. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to identify fractures that were water-bearing zones. Natural-gamma and single-point-resistance logs were used to correlate lithology across the area. Elevated concentrations of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were measured in water samples from wells with water-bearing zones in the interval of the aquifer where monitor well HN-23A is screened. Water samples from wells with water-bearing zones above or below this interval had substantially lower concentrations of PCE. Wells screened in this interval yielded less than 0.5 gallon per minute, indicating that the interval has low permeability; this may account for the small areal extent and slow migration of PCE.

Sloto, Ronald A.

2008-01-01

217

Degradation of trichloroethylene by toluene dioxygenase in whole-cell studies with Pseudomonas putida F1.  

PubMed Central

Toluene-induced cells of Pseudomonas putida F1 removed trichloroethylene from growth media at a significantly greater initial rate than the methanotroph Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. With toluene-induced P. putida F1, the initial degradation rate varied linearly with trichloroethylene concentration over the range of 8 to 80 microM (1.05 to 10.5 ppm). At 80 microM (10.5 ppm) trichloroethylene and 30 degrees C, the initial rate was 1.8 nmol/min per mg of total cell protein, but the rate decreased rapidly with time. A series of mutant strains derived from P. putida F1 that are defective in the todC gene, which encodes the oxygenase component of toluene dioxygenase, failed to degrade trichloroethylene and to oxidize indole to indigo. A spontaneous revertant selected from a todC culture regained simultaneously the abilities to oxidize toluene, to form indigo, and to degrade trichloroethylene. The three isomeric dichloroethylenes were degraded by P. putida F1, but tetrachloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and ethylene were not removed from incubation mixtures.

Wackett, L P; Gibson, D T

1988-01-01

218

Concentration-dependent behavioral changes in mice following short-term inhalation exposure to various industrial solvents  

SciTech Connect

Mice were exposed during a 4-hr period to various concentrations of 13 aliphatic or aromatic solvents which affect primarily the central nervous system (CNS). The test compounds were benzyl chloride, butyl alcohol, chlorobenzene, cyclohexanone, 1,2-dichloroethylene, diisobutyl ketone, isopropyl acetate, methyl ethyl ketone, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, toluene, and ortho-xylene. After exposure, measurements were made to see whether these neurotoxicants would decrease the immobility developed in a ''behavioral despair'' swimming test. Each chemical was shown to reduce the total duration of immobility measured over a 3-min period in a concentration-related manner. The systematic determination of the atmospheric concentrations responsible for a 50% decrease in immobility (ID50) permitted classification of the solvents in terms of their relative potencies. The possibility of using such experimental data as tentative guidelines for setting safe levels of work exposure to the neurotoxicants was suggested, considering the existence of quantitative relationships between the ID50 values and the current occupational standards.

De Ceaurriz, J.; Desiles, J.P.; Bonnet, P.; Marignac, B.; Muller, J.; Guenier, J.P.

1983-03-15

219

Evaluation of geophysical methods for the detection of subsurfacetetracgloroethyene in controlled spill experiments  

SciTech Connect

A controlled Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) spill experiment was conducted in a multi-layer formation consisting of sand and clayey-sandlayers. The purpose of the work was to determine the detection limits and capability of various geophysical methods. Measurements were made with ten different geophysical techniques before, during, and after the PCE injection. This experiment provided a clear identification of any geophysical anomalies associated with the presence of the PCE. During the injection period all the techniques indicated anomalies associated with the PCE. In order to quantify the results and provide an indication of the PCE detection limits of the various geophysical methods, the tank was subsequently excavated and samples of the various layers were analyzed for residual PCE concentration with gas chromatography (GC). This paper presents some of the results of five of the techniques: cross borehole complex resistivity (CR) also referred to as spectral induced polarization (SIP), cross borehole high resolution seismic (HRS), borehole self potential (SP), surface ground penetration radar (GPR), and borehole video (BV).

Mazzella, Aldo; Majer, Ernest L.

2006-04-10

220

Numerical Investigation of the Influence of Aquifer Heterogeneity, Reaction Kinetics, and Treatment Solution Strength on Permanganate Remediation Efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical models have been developed simulating the chemical oxidation of the chlorinated solvent tetrachloroethylene using potassium permanganate. The remediation methodology modeled is the passive injection method in which the oxidant is injected to targeted locations above accumulations of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) using a driven well point. Downward movement and spreading of the oxidant is caused by the initial injection pressure and by the density contrast with the groundwater. The coupled fluid flow, chemical transport, and chemical reaction equations are solved using a combination of the global implicit method and a Picard iterative scheme. The former is applied to the solution of the chemical transport and reaction equations, while the groundwater flow and chemical transport/reaction equations are solved sequentially until convergence is achieved. A partial equilibrium approach is used to model the geochemical reactions resulting from the oxidant injection. Reaction rate expressions for DNAPL dissolution and permanganate oxidation were developed based on the results of previously completed column experiments. Two and three-dimensional simulations were performed to assess the sensitivity of DNAPL destruction efficiency to oxidant concentration, reaction kinetics, and media heterogeneity. Random spatially correlated hydraulic conductivity fields were generated based on the statistical parameters of the Borden aquifer. Model results indicate that remediation efficiency was affected by solution strength, which controls the ability of the oxidant to reach the contaminant. The simulations also indicate that destruction efficiencies were insensitive to the reaction kinetics, suggesting that the DNAPL dissolution and oxidation reactions were transport controlled.

Henderson, T. H.; Mayer, K. U.; Parker, B. L.; Al, T. A.; Cherry, J. A.

2003-12-01

221

Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1996 and 1996 summary  

SciTech Connect

A maximum of eighty-nine wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane, a common laboratory contaminant, and chloroethene (vinyl chloride) were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1996. Benzene, trichloroethylene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead (total recoverable), gross alpha, mercury (total recoverable), tetrachloroethylene, fluoride, thallium, radium-226, radium-228, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 141 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 132 ft/year during fourth quarter 1996

NONE

1997-02-01

222

Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter, 1994  

SciTech Connect

During third quarter 1994, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (Met Lab HWMF) were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Eight parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exceeded final PDWS in one well. Aluminum, iron, manganese, tin, and total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the M-Area Aquifer Zone were similar to previous quarters. Conditions affecting determination of groundwater flow directions and rates in the Upper Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, and the Middle Sand Aquifer Zone of the Crouch Branch Confining Unit were also similar to previous quarters. During second quarter 1994, SRS received South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control approval for constructing five point-of-compliance wells and two plume definition wells near the Met Lab HWMF. This project began in July 1994 and is complete; however, analytical data from these wells is not available yet.

Not Available

1994-12-01

223

Preparation and characterization of high contrast electrophoretic display suspension containing charged black-and-white nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, TiO2 nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 300- 400nm were modified by two-step dispersion polymerization using poly (styrene-co-divinylbenzene)-methyl methacrylate [P (St-co-DVB)-MMA] as shell. And core, carbon black (CB) nanoparticles with size ranging from 30-50nm and polymer shell poly (methacrylic acid) [PMAA] were prepared by grafting polymerization, too. Modified nanoparticles were characterized on structure, mean particle size and size distribution, morphology with FT-IR, TEM, and image analyzer. Furthermore, modified TiO2 as negatively charged electrophoretic particles and CB nanoparticles as cationically charged electrophoretic particles were homodispersed in tetrachloroethylene (TCE) to make the electrophoretic display suspension with Span-80 as dispersant and OLOA 1200 as charge control agent. The zeta potential and mobility of white (TiO2) and black (CB) charged particles were measured to be -61.4 mV, 9.50×10-6 cm2 /V s and 12.8 mV, 1.98×10-6 cm2 /V s by using an electrophoresis test device, respectively. Final, the electric response behaviors of the electrophoretic display suspension were studied under electrostatic field. The black-and-white particles moved quickly and reversibly inside ITO electrodes while the electric field alternated.

Yao, Xiao-Nan; Wang, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Xing-Xiang; Wang, Xue-Chen

2009-07-01

224

Inspection and monitoring plan, contaminated groundwater seeps 317/319/ENE Area, Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

During the course of completing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) in the 317/319/East-Northeast (ENE) Area of Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E), groundwater was discovered moving to the surface through a series of groundwater seeps. The seeps are located in a ravine approximately 600 ft south of the ANL-E fence line in Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve. Samples of the seep water were collected and analyzed for selected parameters. Two of the five seeps sampled were found to contain detectable levels of organic contaminants. Three chemical species were identified: chloroform (14--25 {micro}g/L), carbon tetrachloride (56--340 {micro}g/L), and tetrachloroethylene (3--6 {micro}g/L). The other seeps did not contain detectable levels of volatile organics. The nature of the contaminants in the seeps will also be monitored on a regular basis. Samples of surface water flowing through the bottom of the ravine and groundwater emanating from the seeps will be collected and analyzed for chemical and radioactive constituents. The results of the routine sampling will be compared with the concentrations used in the risk assessment. If the concentrations exceed those used in the risk assessment, the risk calculations will be revised by using the higher numbers. This revised analysis will determine if additional actions are warranted.

NONE

1996-10-11

225

Preliminary Engineering Report contaminated groundwater seeps 317/319/ENE area  

SciTech Connect

When the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation (RFI) in the 317/319/ENE Area of Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) was being completed, groundwater was discovered moving to the surface through a series of seeps. The seeps are located approximately 600 ft south of the ANL fence line in Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve. Samples of this water were collected and analyzed for selected parameters. Two of five seeps sampled were found to contain detectable levels of organic contaminants. Three chemical species were identified: chloroform (14-25 {mu}g/L), carbon tetrachloride (56-340 {mu}g/L), and tetrachloroethylene (3-6 {mu}g/L). The other seeps did not contain detectable levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The water issuing from these two contaminated seeps flows into a narrow ravine, where it is visible as a trickle of water flowing through sand and gravel deposits on the floor of the ravine. Approximately 100-ft downstream of the seep area, the contaminated water is no longer visible, having drained back into the soil in the bed of the ravine. Figure 1 shows the location of the 317/319/ENE Area in relation to the ANL-E site and the Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve.

NONE

1996-10-01

226

Predicting Optimal Resolving Power for Ambient Pressure Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)  

PubMed Central

Although diffusion theory predicts that IMS resolving power increases with the square root of the voltage applied across the drift tube, in practice there exists an optimum voltage above which resolving power decreases. This optimum voltage was determined to be both compound and initial ion pulse width-dependent. A “conditional” resolving power equation is introduced that can be used to quickly approximate realistic resolving powers for specific instrumental operating parameters and compounds. Using four common environmental contaminants [trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and methyl iso-butyl ketone (MIBK)], diffusion-limited (theoretical), Rd, conditional, Rc, and actual (or measured), Rm, IMS resolving powers were determined and compared for a small IMS instrument designed for subsurface measurements. Detection limits determined at the optimal resolving power for the environmental contaminants ranged from 18 parts per trillion volume-to-volume (pptv) to 80 parts per billion volume-to-volume (ppbv). The maximal measured resolving power for our small, ambient-pressure stand-alone IMS ranged from 42 to 54, yielding an IMS resolving power efficiency, defined as Rm/Rc × 100%, of 56 to 74% of the maximal conditional resolving power possible.

Kanu, Abu B.; Gribb, Molly M.; Hill, Herbert H

2010-01-01

227

Analysis of BTEX and chlorinated solvents in meconium by headspace-solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Meconium is the earliest stool of newborns, and is a complex matrix that reflects the degree of exposure of the fetus to xenobiotics. To investigate fetal exposure to volatile organic compounds, an analytical method was developed to identify and quantify BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o,m,p-xylene) and two chlorinated solvents (trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene) in meconium. Headspace-solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was selected because it is simple, sensitive, can be automated, and requires no extensive sample preparation. Several extraction variables were optimized (fiber type, incubation time, temperature of fiber, and use of salt). Because meconium is a complex matrix, quantification by SPME was considered carefully because of potential interference, for example competitive adsorption. Calibration in water was compared with calibration in meconium using external and internal methods (with isotope-labeled compounds). In meconium, limits of quantification were determined to be in the range 0.064-0.096 ng g(-1) for the investigated compounds. All target compounds were determined in "real-case" meconium samples. PMID:24838489

Meyer-Monath, Marie; Beaumont, Jérôme; Morel, Isabelle; Rouget, Florence; Tack, Karine; Lestremau, Francois

2014-07-01

228

Anionic surfactant remediation of soil columns contaminated by nonaqueous phase liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of column experiments have been completed for the purpose of selecting and evaluating suitable surfactants for remediation of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). The various NAPLs tested in the laboratory experiments were tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), jet fuel (JP4) and a dense nonaqueous phase liquid from a site at Hill Air Force Base, UT. Both Ottawa sand and Hill field soil were used in these experiments. Surfactant candidates were first screened using phase behavior experiments and only the best ones were selected for the subsequent column experiments. Surfactants which showed high contaminant solubilization, fast coalescence times, and the absence of liquid crystal phases and gels during the phase behavior experiments were tested in soil column experiments. The primary objective of the soil column experiments was to identify surfactants that recovered at least 99% of the contaminant. The secondary objective was to identify surfactants that show low adsorption and little or no loss of hydraulic conductivity during the column experiments. Results demonstrated that up to 99.9% of the contaminants were removed as a result of surfactant flooding of the soil columns. The addition of xanthan gum polymer to the surfactant solution was shown to increase remediation efficiency as a lower volume of surfactant was required for recovering a given volume of NAPL. Based on these experimental results, guidelines for designing highly efficient and robust surfactant floods have been developed and applied to a field demonstration.

Dwarakanath, V.; Kostarelos, K.; Pope, Gary A.; Shotts, Doug; Wade, William H.

1999-06-01

229

Replacement Technologies for Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Hardware for Propellant Service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) is developing cleaning and verification processes to replace currently used chlorofluorocarbon-l13- (CFC-113-) based processes. The processes being evaluated include both aqueous- and solvent-based techniques. Replacement technologies are being investigated for aerospace hardware and for gauges and instrumentation. This paper includes the findings of investigations of aqueous cleaning and verification of aerospace hardware using known contaminants, such as hydraulic fluid and commonly used oils. The results correlate nonvolatile residue with CFC 113. The studies also include enhancements to aqueous sampling for organic and particulate contamination. Although aqueous alternatives have been identified for several processes, a need still exists for nonaqueous solvent cleaning, such as the cleaning and cleanliness verification of gauges used for oxygen service. The cleaning effectiveness of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, hydrochlorofluorocarbon 225 (HCFC 225), HCFC 141b, HFE 7100(R), and Vertrel MCA(R) was evaluated using aerospace gauges and precision instruments and then compared to the cleaning effectiveness of CFC 113. Solvents considered for use in oxygen systems were also tested for oxygen compatibility using high-pressure oxygen autogenous ignition and liquid oxygen mechanical impact testing.

Beeson, Harold; Kirsch, Mike; Hornung, Steven; Biesinger, Paul

1997-01-01

230

Sewer Gas: An Indoor Air Source of PCE to Consider During Vapor Intrusion Investigations  

PubMed Central

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is finalizing its vapor intrusion guidelines. One of the important issues related to vapor intrusion is background concentrations of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in indoor air, typically attributed to consumer products and building materials. Background concentrations can exist even in the absence of vapor intrusion and are an important consideration when conducting site assessments. In addition, the development of accurate conceptual models that depict pathways for vapor entry into buildings is important during vapor intrusion site assessments. Sewer gas, either as a contributor to background concentrations or as part of the site conceptual model, is not routinely evaluated during vapor intrusion site assessments. The research described herein identifies an instance where vapors emanating directly from a sanitary sewer pipe within a residence were determined to be a source of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) detected in indoor air. Concentrations of PCE in the bathroom range from 2.1 to 190 ug/m3 and exceed typical indoor air concentrations by orders of magnitude resulting in human health risk classified as an “Imminent Hazard” condition. The results suggest that infiltration of sewer gas resulted in PCE concentrations in indoor air that were nearly two-orders of magnitude higher as compared to when infiltration of sewer gas was not known to be occurring. This previously understudied pathway whereby sewers serve as sources of PCE (and potentially other VOC) vapors is highlighted. Implications for vapor intrusion investigations are also discussed.

Pennell, Kelly G.; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; McClean, Michael D.; Ames, Jennifer; Weldon, Brittany; Friguglietti, Leigh; Suuberg, Eric M.; Shen, Rui; Indeglia, Paul A.; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy J.

2013-01-01

231

In planta passive sampling devices for assessing subsurface chlorinated solvents.  

PubMed

Contaminant concentrations in trees have been used to delineate groundwater contaminant plumes (i.e., phytoscreening); however, variability in tree composition hinders accurate measurement of contaminant concentrations in planta, particularly for long-term monitoring. This study investigated in planta passive sampling devices (PSDs), termed solid phase samplers (SPSs) to be used as a surrogate tree core. Characteristics studied for five materials included material-air partitioning coefficients (Kma) for chlorinated solvents, sampler equilibration time and field suitability. The materials investigated were polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polyoxymethylene (POM) and plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Both PDMS and LLDPE samplers demonstrated high partitioning coefficients and diffusivities and were further tested in greenhouse experiments and field trials. While most of the materials could be used for passive sampling, the PDMS SPSs performed best as an in planta sampler. Such a sampler was able to accurately measure trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) concentrations while simultaneously incorporating simple operation and minimal impact to the surrounding property and environment. PMID:24268175

Shetty, Mikhil K; Limmer, Matt A; Waltermire, Kendra; Morrison, Glenn C; Burken, Joel G

2014-06-01

232

Permeable Adsorptive Barrier (PAB) for the remediation of groundwater simultaneously contaminated by some chlorinated organic compounds.  

PubMed

In this paper, a Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) made with activated carbon, namely a Permeable Adsorptive Barrier (PAB), is put forward as an effective technique for the remediation of aquifers simultaneously contaminated by some chlorinated organic compounds. A design procedure, based on a computer code and including different routines, is presented as a tool to accurately describe mass transport within the aquifer and adsorption/desorption phenomena occurring inside the barrier. The remediation of a contaminated aquifer near a solid waste landfill in the district of Napoli (Italy), where Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and Trichloroethylene (TCE) are simultaneously present, is considered as a case study. A complete hydrological and geotechnical site characterization, as well as a number of dedicated adsorption laboratory tests for the determination of activated carbon PCE/TCE adsorption capacity in binary systems, are carried out to support the barrier design. By means of a series of numerical simulations it is possible to determine the optimal barrier location, orientation and dimensions. PABs appear to be an effective remediation tool for the in-situ treatment of an aquifer contaminated by PCE and TCE simultaneously, as the concentration of both compounds flowing out of the barrier is everywhere lower than the regulatory limits on groundwater quality. PMID:24747934

Erto, A; Bortone, I; Di Nardo, A; Di Natale, M; Musmarra, D

2014-07-01

233

Sorption of vapors of some organic liquids on soil humic acid and its relation to partitioning of organic compounds in soil organic matter  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Vapor sorption of water, ethanol, benzene, hexane, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,2-dibromoethane on (Sanhedron) soil humic acid has been determined at room temperature. Isotherms for all organic liquids are highly linear over a wide range of relative pressure (P/P??), characteristic of the partitioning (dissolution) of the organic compounds in soil humic acid. Polar liquids exhibit markedly greater sorption capacities on soil humic acid than relatively nonpolar liquids, in keeping with the polar nature of the soil humic acid as a partition medium. The limiting sorption (partition) capacities of relatively non-polar liquids are remarkably similar when expressed in terms of volumes per unit weight of soil humic acid. The soil humic acid is found to be about half as effective as soil organic matter in sorption of relatively nonpolar organic compounds. The nearly constant limiting sorption capacity for nonpolar organic liquids with soil humic acid on a volume-to-weight basis and its efficiency in sorption relative to soil organic matter provide a basis for predicting the approximate sorption (partition) coefficients of similar compounds in uptake by soil in aqueous systems.

Chlou, G. T.; Kile, D. E.; Malcolm, R. L.

1988-01-01

234

L-Area Reactor - 1993 annual - groundwater monitoring report  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the water table at the following locations in L Area: the L-Area Acid/Caustic Basin (four LAC wells), L-Area Research Wells in the southern portion of the area (outside the fence; three LAW wells), the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (four LCO wells), the L-Area Disassembly Basin (two LDB wells), the L-Area Burning/Rubble Pit (four LRP wells), and the L-Area Seepage Basin (four LSB wells). During 1993, tetrachloroethylene was detected above its drinking water standard (DWS) in the LAC, LAW, LCO, and LDB well series. Lead exceeded its 50 {mu}g/L standard in the LAW, LDB, and LRP series, and tritium was above its DWS in the LAW, LCO, and LSB series. Apparently anomalous elevated levels of the common laboratory contaminant bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate were reported during first quarter in one well each in the LAC series and LCO series, and during third quarter in a different LCO well. Extensive radionuclide analyses were performed during 1993 in the LAC, LAW, and LCO well series. No radionuclides other than tritium were reported above DWS or Flag 2 criteria.

Chase, J.A.

1994-09-01

235

Visualization and Time-Series Analysis of Ground-Water Data for C-Area, Savannah River Site, South Carolina, 1984-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, initiated a study of historical ground-water data of C-Area on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The soils and ground water at C-Area are contaminated with high concentrations of trichloroethylene and lesser amounts of tetrachloroethylene. The objectives of the investigation were (1) to analyze the historical data to determine if data-mining techniques could be applied to the historical database to ascertain whether natural attenuation of recalcitrant contaminants, such as volatile organic compounds, is occurring and (2) to determine whether inferential (surrogate) analytes could be used for more cost-effective monitoring. Twenty-one years of data (1984-2004) were collected from 396 wells in the study area and converted from record data to time-series data for analysis. A Ground-Water Data Viewer was developed to allow users to spatially and temporally visualize the analyte data. Overall, because the data were temporally and spatially sparse, data analysis was limited to only qualitative descriptions.

Conrads, Paul A.; Roehl, Edwin A., Jr.; Daamen, Ruby C.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Lowery, Mark A.; Mundry, Uwe H.

2007-01-01

236

Biological and chemical assessment of M-Area process discharge to TIM's Branch, June 1985--December 1986  

SciTech Connect

The production facilities of M-Area process uranium, lithium, and aluminum into fuel and target components for nuclear reactors at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). These processes produce wastewaters that contain dissolved metals, solvents, and nitric acid. Beginning in July 1985, wastewater was diverted to the M-Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF), which treats the waste via precipitation, filtration, and neutralization. Major constituents of the LETF discharge include nitrate (as NaNO{sub 3}), phosphorus, total suspended solids, and trace amounts of aluminum, lead, nickel, iron, and uranium. In addition to the intermittent LETF discharge, the A-014 outfall also has received a continuous discharge of noncontact cooling water (700 to 2500 gpm) since 1982 and effluent from the M-Area Ground Water Recovery Action (MAGWRA) air stripper (375 gpm) since September 1985. These effluents consist of trace amounts of (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane) in the MAGWRA effluent. In June 1985, a chemical and biological monitoring program was initiated to determine if M-Area discharges are a significant environmental hazard to Tim's Branch. The main concerns are whether the discharge is toxic to aquatic life and whether high levels of nitrate in the discharge from the M-Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF) will cause eutrophication of the aquatic system.

Carlton, W.H. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Starkel, W.M.; Giffin, M.; Trapp, K.E. (Environmental and Chemical Sciences, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States))

1987-03-01

237

Biological and chemical assessment of M-Area process discharge to TIM`s Branch, June 1985--December 1986  

SciTech Connect

The production facilities of M-Area process uranium, lithium, and aluminum into fuel and target components for nuclear reactors at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). These processes produce wastewaters that contain dissolved metals, solvents, and nitric acid. Beginning in July 1985, wastewater was diverted to the M-Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF), which treats the waste via precipitation, filtration, and neutralization. Major constituents of the LETF discharge include nitrate (as NaNO{sub 3}), phosphorus, total suspended solids, and trace amounts of aluminum, lead, nickel, iron, and uranium. In addition to the intermittent LETF discharge, the A-014 outfall also has received a continuous discharge of noncontact cooling water (700 to 2500 gpm) since 1982 and effluent from the M-Area Ground Water Recovery Action (MAGWRA) air stripper (375 gpm) since September 1985. These effluents consist of trace amounts of (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane) in the MAGWRA effluent. In June 1985, a chemical and biological monitoring program was initiated to determine if M-Area discharges are a significant environmental hazard to Tim`s Branch. The main concerns are whether the discharge is toxic to aquatic life and whether high levels of nitrate in the discharge from the M-Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF) will cause eutrophication of the aquatic system.

Carlton, W.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Starkel, W.M.; Giffin, M.; Trapp, K.E. [Environmental and Chemical Sciences, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States)

1987-03-01

238

Serial reaction modeling using random walk particles tracking methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the middle of the previous century, DNAPL contamination is a clear identified problem for the management of urban and suburban groundwater resources quality. Random walk particles tracking methods showed their legitimacy and efficiency for modeling reactive transport especially thanks to the absence of numerical dispersion and computational efficiency. We present a new method to efficiently simulate a serial reaction, i.e., the natural degradation of chlorinated solvents, into a trustable 3D random walk particle-tracking model (RW3D). The chemical specie is defined as a particle property (state of the particle). Results of the zeroth spatial moment of the mass transfer equation derivation in the Fourier domain are used as particle state transition probabilities. We obtain thereby the state of a particle after a given time i.e. the mass evolution of the different species involved into the serial reaction. The particle tracking approach is successfully compared to the well- known finite difference code RT3D. We apply this approach to model the behavior of chlorinated compounds resulting from the sequential degradation of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in highly randomly heterogeneous porous media.

Henri, C.; Fernández-Garcia, D.

2012-04-01

239

Advanced oxidation processes. Test of a kinetic model for the oxidation of organic compounds with ozone and hydrogen peroxide in a semibatch reactor  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data are presented to test a kinetic model of the OE/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process in a semibatch reactor. The effect of bicarbonate and carbonate ions is measured and found to be in concurrence with model predictions. The effect of pH in the ozone mass-transfer-limited region was examined in bicarbonate-spiked distilled water. Since the reaction is mass transfer limited, the primary effect above pH 7 is the result of changes in the distribution of inorganic carbon species which are OH-radical scavengers. Below pH 7, there is a lag period during which ozone and peroxide increase until the chain reaction begins. The effects of chloride ion and the concentration of radical scavengers other than carbonate species in ground waters are also measured. The mass-transfer/reaction rate model has been used to estimate rate constants for the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with trichloroethylene, 1,2-dibromoethane, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, carbon tetrachloride, and two bicyclic alcohols, 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin. While the model developed for the distilled water system was successful in predicting the rate of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) oxidation and the concentration of residual ozone and peroxide in regions I and III, respectively, there are several features of the model that remain unresolved when the matrix is changed to a real surface or ground water. This and subsequent papers will investigate these effects.

Glaze, W.H.; Kang, J.W.

1989-01-01

240

Biodegradation of mixed-organic wastes by microbial consortia in continuous-recycle expanded-bed bioreactors  

SciTech Connect

Microbial consortia enriched from subsurface sediments contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons proved capable of degrading mixed-organic wastes. Methane and/or propane as foodstock enabled aerobic mineralization of greater than 20 mg/l trichloroethylene (TCE) plus 1 mg/l vinyl chloride, benzene, and toluene in cell suspension or bioreactor experiments. The microbial consortia degraded 80-95% of TCE at 20 mg/l within 5 days in continuous-recycle expanded-bed bioreactors requiring 50-100 mol of foodstock/mol of TCE degraded. When the bioreactors were challenged with groundwaters contaminated with mixed-organic wastes, the microbial consortia degraded greater than 99% of the benzene, toluene, xylene, vinyl chloride, and nine chlorinated hydrocarbons, 85% of the TCE, and 60% of the tetrachloroethylene within 21 days, while requiring 80 {mu}mol of methane plus propane per micromole of mixed-organic waste degraded. The potential for bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with mixed-organic wastes was demonstrated in laboratory reactors.

Phelps, T.J.; Niedzielski, J.J.; Malachowsky, K.J.; Schram, R.M. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)); Herbes, S.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); White, D.C. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States) Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-08-01

241

Health assessment for Wells G and H Site, Woburn, Massachusetts, Region 1. CERCLIS No. MAD980732168. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The National Priority List (NPL) site, Wells G and H, were used from 1964 to 1979 to supplement Woburn drinking water supplies. The ground water extracted from Wells G and H was found to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds in 1979. The predominant ground water contaminants are trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Ground water and both surface and subsurface soil contamination on-site is extensive and results from: liquid-waste spills on the ground, sludge disposal, buried and surface disposal of 55-gallon drums, and leaking tanks. A potential exists for human exposure to contaminants by: (1) inhalation of fugitive dusts and vapors from surface soils, industrial use of contaminated well water, and migration of vapors from contaminated shallow ground water to the inside of buildings; (2) dermal contact with contaminated surface soils and contaminated industrial well water; and (3) ingestion of fugitive dusts, surface soils, and, possibly, contaminated fish and contaminated industrial well water. Contaminated sediments also pose a potential exposure source should direct contact occur. The site is of public health concern.

Not Available

1989-04-25

242

Health assessment for Kimberton Site, Kimberton, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD980691703. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The Kimberton Site (KS) is located in Kimberton (Chester County), Pennsylvania. KS consists of unlined lagoons that were used for the disposal of trichloroethylene (TCE) and related process waste. Removal actions have consisted of excavation and removal of contaminated soil to an off-site area. In addition, 57 drums were removed. Preliminary on-site groundwater sampling results have identified various volatile organic compounds. They include: TCE, 1,2-dichloroethylene, dichloroethylene (DCE), vinyl chloride, and tetrachloroethylene. In addition, sediment, soil, and sludge samples on-site identified TCE, DCE, lead, and chromium. Preliminary off-site groundwater sampling results identified DCE and TCE. In addition, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified in sediment off-site. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of human exposure to hazardous substances via direct contact with contaminated soil and sludge from on-site lagoons by on-site employees and by persons who have unauthorized access to the site. In addition, direct contact with and ingestion of contaminated groundwater by area residents are other exposure pathways of potential health concern. Other possible pathways of exposure include ingestion of bioaccumulated contaminants in the food chain and inhalation of site-related contaminants by on-site workers and/or area residents.

Not Available

1989-04-10

243

Synthesis of nanoporous Al2O3 membranes from polybutyl methacrylate functionalized SiO2 particles as a sacrificial template.  

PubMed

SiO2 surface is first modified with 3-trimethoxysilyl propyl methacrylate (MPS) in order to graft with polymerized butyl methacrylate (BMA) to form SiO2@MPS-BMA core--shell hybrid particles. The polymeric BMA shell enables anchoring of aluminum ions in tetrachloroethylene solvent, results in SiO2 @Al2O3 composite particles upon subjected to calcination. Removal of the SiO2 core by acid etching forms nanoporous gamma-Al2O3 membrane with a Horvath-Kawazoe (HK) pore size of 1.4 nm and a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 78.6 m2 x g(-1). Transmission electron microscopy reveals formation of interconnected pore channels in the membrane. It is interesting to note that the Al2O3 membrane remains at a reasonably high surface area (53.9 m2 x g(-1)) after an isothermal holding at 1200 degrees C, when gamma-Al2O3 changed into predominately alpha-Al2O3. The process is indeed general and can be extended to the synthesis of other inorganic porous solids. PMID:23421155

Tseng, Wenjea J; Guo, Shiuan-Fu

2012-10-01

244

Analysis of nitrate and volatile organic compound data for ground water in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1980-98, National Water-Quality Assessment Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1995, ground water was the source of drinking water to about 52 percent of the population served by public drinking water systems in the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit, which includes parts of Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming. Existing nitrate and volatile organic compound data for ground water collected in the study unit were compiled and summarized as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program?s objective to describe water-quality conditions in the Nation?s aquifers. Prerequisites for the inclusion of nitrate and volatile organic compound data into this retrospective analysis are that the data set is available in electronic form, the data were collected during 1980-98, the data set is somewhat regional in coverage, and the locations of the sampled sites are known. Ground-water data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water Information Systemand the Idaho and Utah Public DrinkingWater Systems databases were reviewed. Only the most recent analysis was included in the data sets if more than one analysis was available for a site. The National Water Information System data set contained nitrate analyses for water from 480 wells. The median concentration of nitratewas 1.30 milligrams per liter for the 388 values above minimum reporting limits. The maximum contaminant level for nitrate as established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was exceeded in water from 10 of the 200 wells less than or equal to 150 feet deep and in water from3 of 280 wells greater than 150 feet deep. The Public Drinking Water Systems data set contained nitrate analyses for water from 587 wells. The median concentration of nitrate was 1.12 milligrams per liter for the 548 values above minimum reporting limits. The maximum contaminant level for nitrate was exceeded at 1 site and 22 sites had concentrations equal to or greater than 5 milligrams per liter. The types of land use surrounding a well and the well depth were related to measured nitrate concentrations in the sampled ground water. Overall, water sampled from wells in rangeland areas had a lowermedianmeasured nitrate concentration (0.76 milligrams per liter) than water from areas with an agricultural or urban/residential land use (1.41 and 1.20 milligrams per liter, respectively). In the NationalWater Information System data set, the median measured nitrate concentration in water from urban/residential areas varied from 1.00 milligrams per liter for wells greater than 150 feet deep to 1.84 milligrams per liter for wells less than or equal to 150 feet deep. The Public DrinkingWater Systems and the National Water Information System data sets contained analyses for most of the State and Federally regulated volatile organic compounds in water from about 368 and 74 wells, respectively. Fifteen different volatile organic compounds were detected at least once in ground water sampled from the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit. Water from 21 wells contained at least 1 volatile organiccompound at detectable concentrations. About 68 percent of the volatile organic compounds detected were in water sampled from wells in Salt Lake County, Utah. Tetrachloroethylene was the most commonly detected volatile organic compound in ground water sampled from the study unit, present in 8 out of 442 samples. Maximum contaminant levels for tetrachloroethylene and 1,1-dichloroethylene as established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were exceeded in water from one well each.

Thiros, Susan A.

2000-01-01

245

Occurrence of Selected Organic Compounds in Groundwater Used for Public Supply in the Plio-Pleistocene Deposits in East-Central Nebraska and the Dawson and Denver Aquifers near Denver, Colorado, 2002-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has an ongoing Source Water-Quality Assessment program designed to characterize the quality of water in aquifers used as a source of drinking-water supply for some of the largest metropolitan areas in the Nation. In addition to the sampling of the source waters, sampling of finished or treated waters was done in the second year of local studies to evaluate if the organic compounds detected in the source waters also were present in the water supplied to the public. An evaluation of source-water quality used in selected groundwater-supplied public water systems in east-central Nebraska and in the south Denver metropolitan area of Colorado was completed during 2002 through 2004. Fifteen wells in the Plio-Pleistocene alluvial and glacial deposits in east-central Nebraska (the High Plains study) and 12 wells in the Dawson and Denver aquifers, south of Denver (the South Platte study), were sampled during the first year to obtain information on the occurrence and distribution of selected organic chemicals in the source waters. During the second year of the study, two wells in east-central Nebraska were resampled, along with the associated finished water derived from these wells, to determine if organic compounds detected in the source water also were present in the finished water. Selection of the second-phase sampling sites was based on detections of the most-frequently occurring organic compounds from the first-year Source Water-Quality Assessment study results. The second-year sampling also required that finished waters had undergone water-quality treatment processes before being distributed to the public. Sample results from the first year of sampling groundwater wells in east-central Nebraska show that the most-frequently detected organic compounds were the pesticide atrazine and its degradate, deethylatrazine (DEA, otherwise known as 2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine or CIAT), which were detected in 9 of the 15 wells (60 percent of the samples). The second most frequently detected organic compound was tetrachloroethylene, detected in 4 of the 15 wells (27 percent of the samples), followed by chloroform, trichloroethylene, and 2-hydroxyatrazine (2-hydroxy-4-isopropylamino-6-ethylamino-s-triazine, or OIET), present in 3 of the 15 wells (20 percent of the samples). The pesticide compounds deisopropylatrazine (2-chloro-6-ethylamino-4-amino-s-triazine, or CEAT), metolachlor, and simazine and the volatile organic compound cis-1,2-dichloroethylene were detected in 2 of the 15 wells, and the compounds diuron and 1,2-dichloroethane were detected in only 1 of the 15 wells during the first-year sampling. Most detections of these compounds were at or near the minimum reporting levels, and none were greater than their regulatory maximum contaminant level. There were few detections of organic compounds during the first year of sampling groundwater wells in the South Platte study area. The compounds atrazine, deethylatrazine, picloram, tetrachloroethylene, methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE), tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, and bromoform were detected only once in all the samples from the 12 wells. Most detections of these compounds were at or near the minimum reporting levels, and none were greater than their regulatory maximum contaminant level. Second-year sampling, which included the addition of paired source- and finished-water samples, was completed at two sites in the High Plains study area. Source-water samples from the second-year sampling had detections of atrazine and deethylatrazine; at one site deisopropylatrazine and chloroform also were detected. The finished-water samples, which represent the source water after blending with water from other wells and treatment, indicated a decrease in the concentrations of the pesticides at one site, whereas concentrations remained nearly constant at a second site. The trihalomethanes (THMs or disinfec

Bails, Jeffrey B.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Landon, Matthew K.; Paschke, Suzanne S.

2009-01-01

246

Effects of land use on quality of water in stratified-drift aquifers in Connecticut  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human activities associated with agricultural, residential, commercial, and industrial land uses have affected the quality of water in the four stratified-drift aquifers examined in Connecticut. A study to evaluate quantitatively the effects of human activities, expressed as land use, on regional ground-water quality was initiated in 1984 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Toxic Waste-round-Water Contamination Program. Water-quality data were collected from 116 shallow stainless-steel wells installed beneath or immediately downgradient from seven types of land use areas within the Pootatuck, Pomperaug, Farmington, and Hockanum River valleys in Connecticut. Analysis of variance on the ranked concentrations of 21 largely uncensored or slightly censored constituents, and contingency-table analysis of the frequency of detection of 49 moderately to highly censored constituents indicate that 27 water-quality variables differ at the 0.05 level of significance for samples from at least one land use area. For most constituents, concentrations or detection frequencies are lowest in samples from the undeveloped areas, which characterize background water-quality conditions. The effect of agricultural land use on groundwater quality reflects tillage practices; tilled areas affect the water quality to a greater degree than do untilled areas. Twenty percent of the wells in the tilled agricultural areas yielded water with concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite-nitrogen exceeding 10 milligrams per liter. Atrazine detections in one-third of the wells in areas of tilled agricultural land use were significantly more common than in the undeveloped areas. Ground-water quality beneath sewered residential areas is more severely affected by inorganic and organic nonpoint-source contaminants than is water quality beneath unsewered residential areas. Median concentrations or detection frequencies of most physical properties and inorganic constituents of ground water are higher in sewered than in unsewered residential areas. Generally low concentrations (less than 1.0 microgram per liter) of one or more of 17 volatile organic compounds were detected in samples from 62 percent of the wells in the unsewered residential areas. Most of these compounds were detected in less than 10 percent of the ground-water samples from the unsewered residential areas, however, and consequently, their frequency of detections was not significantly different than in samples from other land use areas. The detection of chloroform in ground-water samples from 47 percent of the wells in the sewered residential areas is significantly higher than the frequency of detection of chloroform in samples from the undeveloped, tilled agricultural, and unsewered residential areas. The quality of ground water is adversely affected beneath commercial areas more so than beneath all other land use areas. Median concentrations of sodium (22.5 milligrams per liter), chloride (36 milligrams per liter), and dissolved solids (286 milligrams per liter) are highest in ground-water samples in commercial areas. Detections of tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,2-transdichloroethylene were significantly more common in ground-water samples from the commercial areas than in samples from one or more of the other land use areas. Tetrachloroethylene was detected in water samples from 50 percent of the observation wells in the commercial areas at concentrations of up to 1,300 micrograms per liter. Trichloroethylene and 1,2-transdichloroethylene were found at concentrations of up to 20 and 55 micrograms per liter, respectively, in samples from more than 40 percent of the wells in the commercial areas. Although industrial areas occupy only a small part of each of the study areas, they have a disproportionately large effect on ground-water quality. One or more of 12 volatile organic compounds were detected in water samples from 91 percent of the observation wells in the industrial areas

Grady, Stephen J.

1994-01-01

247

CROWTM PROCESS APPLICATION FOR SITES CONTAMINATED WITH LIGHT NON-AQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS AND CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI) has successfully applied the CROWTM (Contained Recovery of Oily Wastes) process at two former manufactured gas plants (MGPs), and a large wood treatment site. The three CROW process applications have all occurred at sites contaminated with coal tars or fuel oil and pentachlorophenol (PCP) mixtures, which are generally denser than water and are classified as dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). While these types of sites are abundant, there are also many sites contaminated with gasoline, diesel fuel, or fuel oil, which are lighter than water and lie on top of an aquifer. A third site type occurs where chlorinated hydrocarbons have contaminated the aquifer. Unlike the DNAPLs found at MGP and wood treatment sites, chlorinated hydrocarbons are approximately one and a half times more dense than water and have fairly low viscosities. These contaminants tend to accumulate very rapidly at the bottom of an aquifer. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene, or tetrachloroethylene (PCE), are the major industrial chlorinated solvents that have been found contaminating soils and aquifers. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the effectiveness of applying the CROW process to sites contaminated with light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Individual objectives were to determine a range of operating conditions necessary to optimize LNAPL and chlorinated hydrocarbon recovery, to conduct numerical simulations to match the laboratory experiments and determine field-scale recoveries, and determine if chemical addition will increase the process efficiency for LNAPLs. The testing consisted of twelve TCE tests; eight tests with PCE, diesel, and wood treatment waste; and four tests with a fuel oil-diesel blend. Testing was conducted with both vertical and horizontal orientations and with ambient to 211 F (99 C) water or steam. Residual saturations for the horizontal tests ranged from 23.6% PV to 0.3% PV. Also conducted was screening of 13 chemicals to determine their relative effectiveness and the selection of three chemicals for further testing.

L.A. Johnson, Jr.

2003-06-30

248

DNAPL Mobility in Heterogeneous Porous Media: Sensitivity of Migration Times to Source Characteristics and Release Location Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the factors the influence the time required for a release of dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) to cease migrating through heterogeneous porous media below the watertable. Using numerical simulation, the temporal and spatial sensitivity of DNAPL migration was evaluated for four DNAPL source characteristics - nonwetting fluid type (i.e., density and viscosity), interfacial tension (IFT), source strength, and volume released - and for three release location parameters - mean permeability, porosity, and hydraulic gradient. The study was conducted using the multiphase code DNAPL3D whose constitutive relationships were developed, and validated, for DNAPL migration in both space and time. All numerical simulations employed a single correlated random permeability field and identical boundary and source conditions to the base case, except for systematic variation of the parameter under investigation. It was found that all of the parameters examined had a significant spatial effect on the final DNAPL migration pattern, either on the overall volume of subsurface invaded (e.g., direct correlation to volume released) or on the amount of lateral spreading (e.g., direct correlation to IFT). However, only two of the parameters were found to have a significant effect on the time required to achieve the final, stable distribution of DNAPL pools and residual. Migration rates were very sensitive to DNAPL type, with predicted cessation times ranging from 30 days for the high mobility fluid tetrachloroethylene (PCE) to over 1000 years for the low mobility fluid coal tar. These simulations reveal that while density primarily influences the spatial extent of penetration and viscosity primarily influences penetration rate, the two effects are not independent due to interactions with site-specific heterogeneity. In addition, the mean permeability of the heterogeneous domain was found to be significant, with increases in mean k corresponding to decreases in both cessation time and degree of lateral spreading.

Pang, T.; Gerhard, J. I.; Kueper, B. H.

2004-12-01

249

Spectral Induced Polarization Response of Unconsolidated Saturated Sand and Surfactant Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL), such as chlorinated solvents, are common groundwater contaminants. Traditional pump-and-treat methods are often not effective at removing residual DNAPL from the subsurface. Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation is a promising remediation method that utilizes subsurface surfactant floods to decrease the interfacial tension between the non-aqueous phase and groundwater and increase the contaminant solubility and mobility in water. This remediation method is not widely used because of unknown subsurface distribution and effectiveness. The ability to effectively monitor and perhaps map the spatial distribution of surfactant floods used in remediation could reduce monitoring uncertainty and increase their use. Previous work has shown that surfactants in aqueous solutions significantly alter the solution conductivity, but this work has not investigated the surfactant response in aquifer type materials. In this project, spectral induced polarization measurements of four surfactant aqueous solutions in a sand matrix were evaluated. The frequency range assessed was 0.732 Hz to 187.5 Hz. The surfactants, which are typically used in the remediation of tetrachloroethylene, were Aerosol MA-80-I, Dowfax 8390, and Steol CS-330. These surfactant solutions were injected into a closed system of 20-30 Ottawa silica sand. Resistivity and phase responses were measured. The surfactant treatments altered both phase and resistivity in varying degrees, with Aerosol MA-80-I showing a marked decrease in both, and the Steol CS- 330 exhibiting little change relative to the control column. These results suggest geoelectrical property changes may be an applicable property to map and monitor surfactant floods in the subsurface. Future work will continue to investigate this application.

Magill, M. T.; Werkema, D.; Kreamer, D. K.

2008-12-01

250

Cometabolic degradation of chlorinated alkenes by alkene monooxygenase in a propylene-grown Xanthobacter strain.  

PubMed Central

Propylene-grown Xanthobacter cells (strain Py2) degraded several chlorinated alkenes of environmental concern, including trichloroethylene, 1-chloroethylene (vinyl chloride), cis- and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, 1,3-dichloropropylene, and 2,3-dichloropropylene. 1,1-Dichloroethylene was not degraded efficiently, while tetrachloroethylene was not degraded. The role of alkene monooxygenase in catalyzing chlorinated alkene degradations was established by demonstrating that glucose-grown cells which lack alkene monooxygenase and propylene-grown cells in which alkene monooxygenase was selectively inactivated by propyne were unable to degrade the compounds. C2 and C3 chlorinated alkanes were not oxidized by alkene monooxygenase, but a number of these compounds were inhibitors of propylene and ethylene oxidation, suggesting that they compete for binding to the enzyme. A number of metabolites enhanced the rate of degradation of chlorinated alkenes, including propylene oxide, propionaldehyde, and glucose. Propylene stimulated chlorinated alkene oxidation slightly when present at a low concentration but became inhibitory at higher concentrations. Toxic effects associated with chlorinated alkene oxidations were determined by measuring the propylene oxidation and propylene oxide-dependent O2 uptake rates of cells previously incubated with chlorinated alkenes. Compounds which were substrates for alkene monooxygenase exhibited various levels of toxicity, with 1,1-dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene being the most potent inactivators of propylene oxidation and 1,3- and 2,3-dichloropropylene being the most potent inactivators of propylene oxide-dependent O2 uptake. No toxic effects were seen when cells were incubated with chlorinated alkenes anaerobically, indicating that the product(s) of chlorinated alkene oxidation mediates toxicity.

Ensign, S A; Hyman, M R; Arp, D J

1992-01-01

251

Linker-based bio-compatible microemulsions.  

PubMed

In this work we have studied the formulation of biocompatible microemulsions using lecithin as the main surfactant and bio-compatible linker molecules (hexyl polyglucoside asthe hydrophilic linker and sorbitan monoleate as the lipophilic linker). These bio-compatible systems are discussed as potential substitutes for chlorinated solvents in dry-cleaning applications and as solvent delivery systems for pharmaceutical applications. Formulation parameters and conditions were evaluated using isopropyl myristate (IPM) as the model oil. It was found that the proposed linker-based formulations were able to form alcohol-free microemulsions while achieving higher solubilization capacity than similar systems reported in the literature. In addition, these lecithin/linker formulations were able to form microemulsions with a wide range of oils, from polar chlorinated hydrocarbons to hydrophobic oils such as squalene. These microemulsions were achieved under isotonic conditions (0.9% NaCl) by only varying the relative proportions of the linkers. The "solvency" power of these bio-compatible formulations was tested for the removal of hexadecane (used as model oil) from cotton fabrics and compared to the solvency power of a typical dry cleaning solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE). While PCE and the linker-based lecithin formulation removed the same amount of hexadecane at low loading ratios (less than 1% oil volume fraction), at higher loading ratios the linker-based lecithin formulation retained its oil removal capacity while the efficiency of the PCE system declined rapidly. These initial results thus demonstrate the remarkable oil solubilization capacity of these bio-compatible linker-based lecithin formulations and illustrate their potential as environmentally friendly replacements for organic solvents. PMID:15787367

Acosta, Edgar J; Nguyen, Thu; Witthayapanyanon, Anuradee; Harwell, Jeffrey H; Sabatini, David A

2005-03-01

252

Experimental Results on the Destruction of PCE using a Photo-Chemical Remediation Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vapor-phase tetrachloroethylene (PCE) destruction experiment using a newly constructed photo-chemical remediation (PCR) reactor is performed. One of the applications for the PCR reactor is subsurface remediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Ultraviolet (UV) light, when emitted at an effective absorption frequency (primary wavelengths of 185 and 254 nm), cleaves a VOC's carbon-chlorine bond thus reducing harmful contaminants to harmless products. The PCR reactor consists of a stainless steel tubular vessel with internal dimensions 0.32 m in diameter and 1.05 m in length. Sixteen Suprasil glass sleeves (Heraeus Inc.) with external dimensions of 25 mm in diameter and 1.1 m in length are inserted along the length of the reactor. The Suprasil sleeves are positioned in a geometrical pattern to provide maximum UV exposure. An amalgam UV lamp (Heraeus Inc. NIQ 200/110) is placed inside every Suprasil sleeve. Each UV lamp has its own igniter and ballast for versatile power control. The Suprasil sleeves provide barrier protection between the UV lamps and the vapor-phase contaminant, and at the same time allow transmission of UV light to the interior of the PCR reactor. A gas heater is installed to increase the influent vapor-phase temperature and the PCR reactor is insulated to minimize heat loss. However, the PCE destruction experiment is presently being performed without the aid of the gas heater. During the experiment, the PCR reactor temperature reached in excess of 200 degrees Celsius from heat generated from the UV lamps. Vapor-phase samples are collected at the influent and effluent reactor sampling ports prior and after UV lamp ignitions. Preliminary results show good PCE destruction efficiency for the range of influent PCE concentrations considered in this study.

Lee, J. J.; Lee, K. Y.; Stencel, J. R.; Khinast, J.

2001-12-01

253

[Organohalogen contamination of a dialysis-water treatment plant].  

PubMed

On March 2001 the regular quality control test of the water used for dialysis in an urban centre using a reverse osmosis system revealed a high level of organo-halogenated contamination. The compounds implicated were: trichloroethylene (trielene) [M.Wt. 131 D], tetrachloroethylene, trichloromethane (chloroform) [M.Wt. 121 D], chlorodibromomethane. The dialysis unit was closed. Water samples were analysed in duplicate. The table shows the values (in ppm or microgram/l) obtained for chloroform at the given times: March 8th, altered sample; March 12th, confirmation sample; March 16th, after osmosis membranes change; March 22nd, after carbon filtration replacement; March 26th, after softener resins substitution. The AAMI doesn't recommend any value for organo-halogenated compounds in dialysis water. In the past, the European Pharmacopoeia and the Italian Health Ministry released some reference values for tap water, values which were extended to water used for dialysis. The values are 1 ppm as reference value, 30 ppm as maximum accepted value for the sum of all organo-halogenated compounds, and 10 ppm as the recommended value. In conclusion, the problem was solved by progressive replacement of the components of the water treatment system, even though the real cause remained undetermined. No clinical symptom was recorded and no level of chloroform or trielene was detected in patients' sera despite the low molecular weight and low protein binding of the compounds. A strict control of the water quality and a more comprehensive and updated reference guide are needed for better and safer dialysis delivery. PMID:12369053

Formica, M; Vallero, A; Forneris, G; Cesano, G; Pozzato, M; Borca, M; Iadarola, G M; Quarello, F

2002-01-01

254

VOCs in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration: Technology summary  

SciTech Connect

The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (ID) was initiated in 1989. Objectives for the ID were to test the integrated demonstration concept, demonstrate and evaluate innovative technologies/systems for the remediation of VOC contamination in soils and groundwater, and to transfer technologies and systems to internal and external customers for use in fullscale remediation programs. The demonstration brought together technologies from DOE laboratories, other government agencies, and industry for demonstration at a single test bed. The Savannah River Site was chosen as the location for this ID as the result of having soil and groundwater contaminated with VOCS. The primary contaminants, trichlorethylene and tetrachloroethylene, originated from an underground process sewer line servicing a metal fabrication facility at the M-Area. Some of the major technical accomplishments for the ID include the successful demonstration of the following: In situ air stripping coupled with horizontal wells to remediate sites through air injection and vacuum extraction; Crosshole geophysical tomography for mapping moisture content and lithologic properties of the contaminated media; In situ radio frequency and ohmic heating to increase mobility, of the contaminants, thereby speeding recovery and the remedial process; High-energy corona destruction of VOCs in the off-gas of vapor recovery wells; Application of a Brayton cycle heat pump to regenerate carbon adsorption media used to trap VOCs from the offgas of recovery wells; In situ permeable flow sensors and the colloidal borescope to determine groundwater flow; Chemical sensors to rapidly quantify chlorinated solvent contamination in the subsurface; In situ bioremediation through methane/nutrient injection to enhance degradation of contaminants by methanotrophic bateria.

Not Available

1994-02-01

255

Mass and flux distributions from DNAPL zones in sandy aquifers.  

PubMed

At three industrial sites in Ontario, New Hampshire, and Florida, tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), released decades ago as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), now form persistent source zones for dissolved contaminant plumes. These zones are suspended below the water table and above the bottoms of their respective, moderately homogeneous, unconfined sandy aquifers. Exceptionally detailed, depth-discrete, ground water sampling was performed using a direct-push sampler along cross sections of the dissolved-phase plumes, immediately downgradient of these DNAPL source zones. The total plume PCE or TCE mass-discharge through each cross section ranged between 15 and 31 kg/year. Vertical ground water sample spacing as small as 15 cm and lateral spacing typically between 1 and 3 m revealed small zones where maximum concentrations were between 1% and 61% of solubility. These local maxima are surrounded by much lower concentration zones. A spacing no larger than 15 to 30 cm was needed at some locations to identify high concentration zones, and aqueous VOC concentrations varied as much as four orders of magnitude across 30 cm vertical intervals. High-resolution sampling at these sites showed that three-quarters of the mass-discharge occurs within 5% to 10% of the plume cross sectional areas. The extreme spatial variability of the mass-discharge occurs even though the sand aquifers are nearly hydraulically homogeneous. Depth-discrete field techniques such as those used in this study are essential for finding the small zones producing most of the mass-discharge, which is important for assessing natural attenuation and designing remedial options. PMID:15726926

Guilbeault, Martin A; Parker, Beth L; Cherry, John A

2005-01-01

256

The Behavior of an Industrial Chlorinated Solvent DNAPL in the Presence of an Alcohol Cosolvent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chlorinated dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), such as tetrachloroethylene (PCE), pose a significant challenge to groundwater cleanup. Many chlorinated solvents were used first in industrial and commercial cleaning processes prior to release into the environment. As a result, these DNAPLs can contain greases, oils, and even PCBs. These trace contaminants can have very different properties compared to the chlorinated solvents that make up the bulk of the DNAPL. The use of steam, surfactants, and cosolvents are promising techniques for accelerating the removal of DNAPLs from porous media. Many of these techniques are based on laboratory investigations that utilized reagent grade DNAPL chemicals. A major assumption in DNAPL remediation design and modeling is that minor constituents do not have an effect. However, the role of trace contaminants is not well understood. The presence of trace contaminants (absent from reagent grade chemicals) may reduce the ability of remediation techniques to effectively remove all of the contaminants that pose a risk to human health and the environment. This preliminary research investigates the role of trace contaminants on the behavior of an industrial PCE DNAPL in a porous media in the presence of cosolvents. The DNAPL used in this study was first used as part of an industrial degreasing process, then discharged into the subsurface environment, where it remained for more than 10 years. This study includes the determination of the equilibrium phase behavior and preliminary characterization of the trace contaminants. The ternary system of water/n-propanol/DNAPL was used to compare the behavior of the used industrial PCE DNAPL with a reagent grade PCE DNAPL. Behavior of the bulk DNAPL is similar for both the industrial and reagent grade PCE DNAPLs. The distribution of trace contaminants varies and even formed a third phase in some ternary phase mixtures. The isolation of the trace contaminants has important implications regarding the use of cosolvent flooding for the remediation of used industrial PCE DNAPLs.

Myers, J. L.; Lee, C. M.; Falta, R. W.

2001-12-01

257

Savannah River Site DNAPL technical program plan  

SciTech Connect

This document was developed by the environmental remediation and technology development organizations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and is the Site technical program plan to address the remediation of residual chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents in the groundwater and the soil. These solvents are often labeled dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). At SRS, the primary DNAPL constituents of concern are trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE); two commonly used industrial organic solvents. The goal of the technical program plan is to provide clear objectives for DNAPL characterization and remediation activities at SRS. Developed by a task team of researchers at SRS, the objectives and program description document a coordinated, programmatic approach to identify solutions to the complex problem of DNAPL contamination. The purposes of this program are to expedite the development and application of technologies for DNAPL characterization and remediation, to provide a well characterized {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} site to perform the work, and to facilitate DNAPL remediation at SRS. Given the appropriate resources, SRS will provide an intelligent application of technical skills and confidence toward the remediation of DNAPLS. We have completed an initial characterization of DNAPLs that provides unique data on the location, nature, and extent of DNAPL occurrences at a field site. Future activities will leverage the initial characterization data for DNAPLs at SRS to demonstrate efficient progression through the characterization phase leading to cleanup. The initial characterization data provides a tool to focus this program`s activities. As a result, solutions to the complex problem of DNAPL contamination will be tested and demonstrated in the most cost-effective manner. Where appropriate, the program will rely on identifying and utilizing innovative technologies developed by industry and universities.

Jordan, J.E.; Looney, B.B.; Rossabi, J.; Bergren, C.L.

1993-12-31

258

Volatile organic compounds in ground water west of LLNL  

SciTech Connect

Using a methodology developed to evaluate the vertical extent of VOCs in multiple water-bearing zones in a single borehole, saturated soil samples were collected and analyzed for VOCs. Ground water from the 46 monitor wells and 14 existing offsite wells was analyzed for VOCs, metals, major inorganics, and other constituents. Geologic sections, prepared for this study, indicate that the western portion of LLNL and the vicinity of Arroyo Seco to the west are underlain by gently dipping, complexly interfingering, alluvial sediments of highly variable permeability. These sediments were probably deposited by northwest-flowing, meandering and/or braided streams. Seven VOCs, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichlorethylene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DEC), trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (trans-1,2-DEC), 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA), 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl/sub 4/), were detected in ground water in the study area in concentrations exceeding action levels recommended by the California Department of Health Services. Of these, trans-1,2-DCE, 1,1-DCA, 1,2-DCA, and CCl/sub 4/ have been detected only sporadically and/or in fewer than 6 of the 60 regularly sampled wells. Geologic and chemical data from saturated soil and ground water samples indicate that VOCs have migrated westward and downward from the southwest part of LLNL in overlapping, northwest-dipping alluvial sediments. Buried meandering and/or braided stream channels may constitute preferred pathways for migration of ground water and VOCs. The VOC plume west of LLNL is presently about 3600 ft. long and 1700 ft. wide. Near the apparent source of the VOC plume in the southwest corner of LLNL, VOCs are not present below a depth of about 90 ft. Near the leading edge of the plume, VOCs are not present below a depth of about 200 ft.

Dresen, M.D.; Hoffman, F.

1986-07-01

259

Reconnaissance of volatile organic compounds in the subsurface at Rutgers University, Busch Campus, Piscataway Township, New Jersey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1991-92, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a hydrogeologic reconnaissance at a site near the Rutgers University, Busch Campus, Chemical Engineering building, C-Wing. Results of analyses of the soil-gas samples, which were collected at 43 locations, indicated the presence of volatile organic compounds, primarily carbon tetrachloride, near the C-Wing building and about 550 feet downgradient from and southwest of the C-Wing building. Concentrations of the compound in soil-gas samples were highest (2.1 ug/L (micrograms per liter)) along the southwestern wall of the C-Wing building. Ground-water samples were collected at depths as great as 55 feet from five wells and piezometers near the C-Wing building. Samples collected along the southwestern wall of the building also contained the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in the ground-water samples ranged from < 0.35 ug/L to 3,400 ug/L, and concentrations of tetrachloro- ethylene ranged from < 0.28 ug/L to 85 ug/L. Ground-water samples collected at depths of 55 feet or more from two wells located on the Rutgers University Golf Course about 2,400 feet down- gradient from the C-Wing building contained concentrations of tetrachloroethylene as great as 17.7 ug/L. Water levels measured in six wells and six piezometers indicated that the general flow direction in the shallow part of the aquifer is to the southwest of the C-Wing building. An electrical-resistivity survey was conducted by azimuthal resistivity techniques. The results of the survey were consistent with field measurements, and the dominant vertical fractures near the Busch Campus trend northeast. An electromagnetic survey was ineffective as a result of cultural interferences and could not be used to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics of the site.

dePaul, V. T.

1996-01-01

260

Respiratory exposure to components of water-miscible metalworking fluids.  

PubMed

Water-miscible metalworking fluids (MWFs) are capable of causing respiratory symptoms and diseases. Recently, much emphasis has been put on developing new methods for assessing respiratory exposure to MWF emulsions. The air concentrations of ingredients and contaminants of MWF and inhalable dust were measured in 10 metal workshops in southern Finland. Oil mist was determined by infra red spectroscopy analysis after tetrachloroethylene extraction from the filter. Aldehydes were collected on Sep-Pak chemosorbents and analysed by liquid chromatography. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected on Tenax adsorbents and analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection after thermal desorption. Endotoxins were collected on glass fibre filter and analysed by enzyme-based spectrophotometry, and viable microbes were collected on polycarbonate filter and cultured. Inhalable dust was collected on cellulose acetate filter and quantified gravimetrically. Associations between the different exposures were calculated with Spearman's correlations. The mean concentration of oil mist was 0.14 (range <0.010-0.60) mg m(-3). The mean total concentration of aldehydes was 0.095 (0.026-0.38) mg m(-3), with formaldehyde as the main aldehyde. The average total concentration of VOC was 1.9 (0.34-4.5) mg m(-3) consisting mainly of high-boiling aliphatic hydrocarbons. Several potential sensitizing chemicals such as terpenes were found in small quantities. The concentration of microbial contaminants was low. All the measured air concentrations were below the Finnish occupational exposure limits. The exposure in machine shops was quantitatively dominated by volatile compounds. Additional measurements of MWF components such as aldehydes, alkanolamines and VOCs are needed to get more information on the chemical composition of workshops' air. New air cleaning methods should be introduced, as oil mist separators are insufficient to clean the air of small molecular impurities. PMID:18678881

Suuronen, Katri; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Riala, Riitta; Tuomi, Timo

2008-10-01

261

Methodology for collecting, storing, and analyzing human milk for volatile organic compounds.  

PubMed

Biomonitoring, or the measurement of environmental chemicals in human tissues and fluids, is used to supplement-and in some cases replace-more traditional exposure assessments which measure chemicals in environmental media. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in physiological fluids are biomarkers of exposure that present numerous challenges for sample collection and analysis. To date, a thorough evaluation of methods for collection and analysis of breast milk samples for volatiles has not been conducted. In this paper, we describe the development and validation of methods for collecting, storing, and analyzing 36 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breast milk to assess VOC exposure of lactating women and nursing infants. Volatile analyte loss was minimized by collecting and storing samples in containers with small headspace volume resulting in recovery >or=70% for all 10 VOCs detected in most breast milk samples. Potential contamination by chloroform, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and methyl-tert-butyl ether was minimized by using specially treated sample collection materials. Method detection limits in the low parts per trillion range were achieved by using solid-phase microextraction headspace sampling, gas chromatography, and selective ion monitoring mass spectrometry. We used this method to analyze 3 mL aliquots of breast milk collected from 12 women and found that 10 of the 36 VOCs were detectable in most samples (median values follow): m/p-xylene, 0.539 ng mL(-1); toluene, 0.464 ng mL(-1); 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 0.170 ng mL(-1); tetrachloroethylene, 0.165 ng mL(-1); o-xylene, 0.159 ng mL(-1); ethylbenzene, 0.0149 ng mL(-1); styrene, 0.129 ng mL(-1); benzene, 0.080 ng mL(-1); chloroform, 0.030 ng mL(-1); and methyl-tert-butyl ether, 0.016 ng mL(-1). PMID:20358052

Blount, Benjamin C; McElprang, David O; Chambers, David M; Waterhouse, Michael G; Squibb, Katherine S; Lakind, Judy S

2010-06-01

262

Systematic selection of off-gas treatment at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

At the Savannah River Site (SRS), from 1958--1985, effluent waste from the reactor fuel and target rod fabrication area (M-Area) was discharged to a settling basin. In 1981, monitoring wells detected groundwater contamination, specifically trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, in the immediate vicinity of the basin. Under the auspices of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) the M-Area contamination must be addressed by a corrective action program until the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations reach Drinking Water Standards. This was initiated in 1985 with startup of a full-scale pump-and-treat air stripper system. Recently, remediation efforts have focused on vacuum extraction to treat vadose zone contamination not addressed by the original recovery wells, and additional pump-and-treat systems to achieve hydraulic control of the plume. Regulatory requirements allowed for discharge of VOCs to the atmosphere when the original remediation system was installed; however, 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act will eventually require treatment of VOC contaminated air prior to discharge. This has ramifications to systems currently being design, as well as the existing systems. In response to the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, SRS initiated a study to assess commercially available off-gas treatment technologies. These included carbon adsorption, thermal incineration, catalytic oxidation, absorption, condensation, and UV/peroxide destruction, and xenon flashlamp. Criteria used to evaluate the technologies were the thirty (30) year life cycle cost, permitting considerations, and manpower requirements. The study concluded that catalytic oxidation provided the most desirable combination of these elements.

McKillip, S.T.; Rehder, T.E.

1992-05-01

263

Bio-effect monitoring using a [(15)N]methacetin test as diagnostic tool to monitor remediation effects in an industrially polluted region.  

PubMed

The classical way to demonstrate the efficiency of remediation is measuring the reduction of toxic compounds in the environment. Nevertheless, more important is the risk reduction in human health. To determine changing health effects, exposure and bio-effects have to be monitored at time of and during remediation. Kindergarten children from a heavily polluted industrial (n=23) and a control area (n=12) were investigated. The region-specific outdoor and indoor exposure [27 volatile organic compounds (VOC), emphasis on tri- and tetrachloroethylene (TRI, TETRA)], the internal load [(trichloroacetic acid-TCA-as urine metabolites of TRI and TETRA and S-phenyl- and S-benzylmercapturic acid (SPMA and SBMA) as metabolites of benzene and toluene], and biological effect assessment ([(15)N]methacetin test-a non-invasive stable isotope test to determine the unspecific liver detoxification capacity of an individual) were measured twice a year during 2 years of remediation (1997/1998). It could be shown that in- and outdoor levels of TRI and TETRA decreased by 47% in the heavily polluted village, Greppin, while the levels remained much the same in the control village, Roitzsch. This trend was reflected in the decreasing elimination of TCA in the urine (41%) by the Greppin children, with no differences in the TCA elimination in Roitzsch probands. As the remediation efforts decreased the burden of exposure, the children's liver detoxification capacity improved as well. Combining different methods, such as exposure-effect (external and internal loads) and bio-effect monitoring, proved to be useful to assess remediation successes including the improvement in human health. PMID:16242870

Rolle-Kampczyk, Ulrike Elisabeth; Rehwagen, Martina; Franck, Ulrich; Weiss, Holger; Krumbiegel, Peter; Herbarth, Olf

2006-04-10

264

Concentrations, loads and yields of selected water-quality constituents during low flow and storm runoff from three watersheds at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, May 1994 through September 1996  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of the effects of storm runoff from urban areas on water quality at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, was conducted from May 1994 through September 1996. The purpose of this report is to present information to assess the current (1994-96) conditions and possible methods for anticipating future water-quality effects from storm runoff and changes in land use. Three sampling sites were established to monitor streamflow and water quality from three watersheds draining the study area. Streamflow was monitored continuously, and water-quality samples were collected during low-flow (12 samples) and storm-runoff (21 samples) conditions to determine mean annual constituent loads. Constituent concentrations for the most part were smallest during low flow with the exception of major ions, dissolved solids, and some nutrients. Concentrations of suspended solids and total recoverable metals at all three sites were much larger in storm-runoff samples than in low-flow samples--typically an order of magnitude larger than low-flow concentrations. Mean low-flow nutrient concentrations were either larger than or smaller than storm-runoff concentrations depending on the watershed. Total chloroform and total tetrachloroethylene were the only two volatile organic compounds detected, and acid-base/neutral organic compounds were not detected in any of the samples collected. Eight pesticides were detected in low-flow samples, and 15 pesticides were detected in storm-runoff samples. The only mean concentrations of the selected constituents in this study that exceeded either the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level or the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level were dissolved solids and total recoverable iron and manganese.

Rasmussen, P. P.

1998-01-01

265

Adhesion of Biodegradative Anaerobic Bacteria to Solid Surfaces  

PubMed Central

In order to exploit the ability of anaerobic bacteria to degrade certain contaminants for bioremediation of polluted subsurface environments, we need to understand the mechanisms by which such bacteria partition between aqueous and solid phases, as well as the environmental conditions that influence partitioning. We studied four strictly anaerobic bacteria, Desulfomonile tiedjei, Syntrophomonas wolfei, Syntrophobacter wolinii, and Desulfovibrio sp. strain G11, which theoretically together can constitute a tetrachloroethylene- and trichloroethylene-dechlorinating consortium. Adhesion of these organisms was evaluated by microscopic determination of the numbers of cells that attached to glass coverslips exposed to cell suspensions under anaerobic conditions. We studied the effects of the growth phase of the organisms on adhesion, as well as the influence of electrostatic and hydrophobic properties of the substratum. Results indicate that S. wolfei adheres in considerably higher numbers to glass surfaces than the other three organisms. Starvation greatly decreases adhesion of S. wolfei and Desulfovibrio sp. strain G11 but seems to have less of an effect on the adhesion of the other bacteria. The presence of Fe3+ on the substratum, which would be electropositive, significantly increased the adhesion of S. wolfei, whereas the presence of silicon hydrophobic groups decreased the numbers of attached cells of all species. Measurements of transport of cells through hydrophobic-interaction and electrostatic-interaction columns indicated that all four species had negatively charged cell surfaces and that D. tiedjei and Desulfovibrio sp. strain G11 possessed some hydrophobic cell surface properties. These findings are an early step toward understanding the dynamic attachment of anaerobic bacteria in anoxic environments.

van Schie, Paula M.; Fletcher, Madilyn

1999-01-01

266

A purge and trap integrated microGC platform for chemical identification in aqueous samples.  

PubMed

The majority of current micro-scale gas chromatography (?GC) systems focus on air sampling to detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, purging the VOCs from a water sample using microsystems is an unchartered territory. Various organic compounds used in everyday life find their way to water bodies. Some of these water organic compounds (WOCs) persist or degrade slowly, threatening not just human existence but also aquatic life. This article reports the first micro-purge extractor (?PE) chip and its integration with a micro-scale gas chromatography (?GC) system for the extraction and analysis of water organic compounds (WOCs) from aqueous samples. The 2 cm × 3 cm ?PE chip contains two inlet and outlet ports and an etched cavity sealed with a Pyrex cover. The aqueous sample is introduced from the top inlet port while a pure inert gas is supplied from the side inlet to purge WOCs from the ?PE chip. The outlets are assigned for draining water from the chip and for directing purged WOCs to the micro-thermal preconcentrator (?TPC). The trapped compounds are desorbed from the ?TPC by resistive heating using the on-chip heater and temperature sensor, are separated by a 2 m long, 80 ?m wide, and 250 ?m deep polydimethylsiloxane (OV-1) coated ?GC separation column, and are identified using a micro-thermal conductivity detector (?TCD) monolithically integrated with the column. Our experiments indicate that the combined system is capable of providing rapid chromatographic separation (<1.5 min) for quaternary WOCs namely toluene, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), chlorobenzene and ethylbenzene with a minimum detection concentration of 500 parts-per-billion (ppb) in aqueous samples. The proposed method is a promising development towards the future realization of a miniaturized system for sensitive, on-site and real-time field analysis of organic contaminants in water. PMID:24837988

Akbar, Muhammad; Narayanan, Shree; Restaino, Michael; Agah, Masoud

2014-06-01

267

Piezo-resistivity electric cone penetration technology investigation of the M-basin at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina. Progress report, May 1, 1992--October 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of a combined field and laboratory investigation program to: (1) delineate the geologic layering and (2) determine the location of a dense non-aqueous liquid-phase (DNAPL) contaminated plume beneath the M Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility at the Savannah River Plant. During April of 1991, DNAPLs were detected in monitoring well (MSB-3D), located adjacent to the capped M-Area Settling Basin. Solvents in the well consisted mainly of tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene, which are also the main solvents found in groundwater in the M Area. In permeable soils, DNAPLs move downward rapidly due to their high density and low viscosity as compared to water. Within the vadose zone, DNAPLs tend to be held by the less permeable clay and silts by capillary force. In the saturated zone, the downward movement is slowed by clays and silts and the DNAPL tends to pool on this layer, then spread laterally. The lateral movement continues until a permeable layer is encountered, which can be a sand lens, fracture or other high conductivity seam. The DNAPL then moves downward, until another low permeability layer is encountered. Applied Research Associates was contracted to conduct a program to: (1) field demonstrate the utility of Cone Penetration Technology to investigate DOE contaminant sites and, (2) conduct a laboratory and field program to evaluate the use of electric resistivity surveys to locate DNAPL contaminated soils. The field program was conducted in the M-Basin and laboratory tests were conducted on samples from the major stratigraphy units as identified in Eddy et. al. Cone Penetration Technology was selected to investigate the M-Basin as it: (1) is minimally invasive, (2) generates minimal waste, (3) is faster and less costly than drilling, (4) provides continuous, detailed in situ characterization data, (5) permits real-time data processing, and (6) can obtain soil, soil gas, and water samples without the need for a boring.

Bowers, B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Rossabi, J.; Shinn, J.D. II; Bratton, W.L. [Applied Research Associates, Inc., South Royalton, VT (United States)

1997-05-01

268

Systematic selection of off-gas treatment at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

At the Savannah River Site (SRS), from 1958--1985, effluent waste from the reactor fuel and target rod fabrication area (M-Area) was discharged to a settling basin. In 1981, monitoring wells detected groundwater contamination, specifically trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, in the immediate vicinity of the basin. Under the auspices of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) the M-Area contamination must be addressed by a corrective action program until the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations reach Drinking Water Standards. This was initiated in 1985 with startup of a full-scale pump-and-treat air stripper system. Recently, remediation efforts have focused on vacuum extraction to treat vadose zone contamination not addressed by the original recovery wells, and additional pump-and-treat systems to achieve hydraulic control of the plume. Regulatory requirements allowed for discharge of VOCs to the atmosphere when the original remediation system was installed; however, 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act will eventually require treatment of VOC contaminated air prior to discharge. This has ramifications to systems currently being design, as well as the existing systems. In response to the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, SRS initiated a study to assess commercially available off-gas treatment technologies. These included carbon adsorption, thermal incineration, catalytic oxidation, absorption, condensation, and UV/peroxide destruction, and xenon flashlamp. Criteria used to evaluate the technologies were the thirty (30) year life cycle cost, permitting considerations, and manpower requirements. The study concluded that catalytic oxidation provided the most desirable combination of these elements.

McKillip, S.T.; Rehder, T.E.

1992-01-01

269

Exposure to carcinogens for defined job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry, 1970 to 2005  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify and describe the exposure to selected known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for defined job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry from 1970 to 2005, in order to provide exposure information for a planned cohort study on cancer. Methods Background information on possible exposure was obtained through company visits, including interviewing key personnel (n?=?83) and collecting monitoring reports (n?=?118) and other relevant documents (n?=?329). On the basis of a previous questionnaire administered to present and former offshore employees in 1998, 27 job categories were defined. Results This study indicated possible exposure to 18 known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures or exposure circumstances. Monitoring reports were obtained on seven agents (benzene, mineral oil mist and vapour, respirable and total dust, asbestos fibres, refractory ceramic fibres, formaldehyde and tetrachloroethylene). The mean exposure level of 367 personal samples of benzene was 0.037?ppm (range: less than the limit of detection to 2.6?ppm). Asbestos fibres were detected (0.03?fibres/cm3) when asbestos?containing brake bands were used in drilling draw work in 1988. Personal samples of formaldehyde in the process area ranged from 0.06 to 0.29?mg/m3. Descriptions of products containing known and suspected carcinogens, exposure sources and processes were extracted from the collected documentation and the interviews of key personnel. Conclusions This study described exposure to 18 known and suspected carcinogenic agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for 27 job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry. For a planned cohort study on cancer, quantitative estimates of exposure to benzene, and mineral oil mist and vapour might be developed. For the other agents, information in the present study can be used for further assessment of exposure, for instance, by expert judgement. More systematic exposure surveillance is needed in this industry. For future studies, new monitoring programmes need to be implemented.

Steinsvag, Kjersti; Bratveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E

2007-01-01

270

Locally-calibrated light transmission visualization methods to quantify nonaqueous phase liquid mass in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five locally-calibrated light transmission visualization (LTV) methods were tested to quantify nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) mass and mass reduction in porous media. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was released into a two-dimensional laboratory flow chamber packed with water-saturated sand which was then flushed with a surfactant solution (2% Tween 80) until all of the PCE had been dissolved. In all the LTV methods employed here, the water phase was dyed, rather than the more common approach of dyeing the NAPL phase, such that the light adsorption characteristics of NAPL did not change as dissolution progressed. Also, none of the methods used here required the use of external calibration chambers. The five visualization approaches evaluated included three methods developed from previously published models, a binary method, and a novel multiple wavelength method that has the advantage of not requiring any assumptions about the intra-pore interface structure between the various phases (sand/water/NAPL). The new multiple wavelength method is also expected to be applicable to any translucent porous media containing two immiscible fluids (e.g., water-air, water-NAPL). Results from the sand-water-PCE system evaluated here showed that the model that assumes wetting media of uniform pore size (Model C of Niemet and Selker, 2001) and the multiple wavelength model with no interface structure assumptions were able to accurately quantify PCE mass reduction during surfactant flushing. The average mass recoveries from these two imaging methods were greater than 95% for domain-average NAPL saturations of approximately 2.6 × 10 - 2 , and were approximately 90% during seven cycles of surfactant flushing that sequentially reduced the average NAPL saturation to 7.5 × 10 - 4 .

Wang, Huaguo; Chen, Xiaosong; Jawitz, James W.

2008-11-01

271

Limited representation of drinking-water contaminants in pregnancy-birth cohorts.  

PubMed

Water contamination and noise have been consistently the least assessed environmental/lifestyle exposures in pregnancy-birth cohorts (PBC). Water quality surveillance data collected during the past decade within urban drinking-water distribution systems call for re-evaluation of water and health issues in the developed world. The objectives of this scientific commentary were to (i) highlight the extent of appraisal of water contamination in exposure assessment studies of PBC, worldwide, and (ii) propose recommendations to increase awareness of emerging water-related risks through their improved representation into PBC study designs in urban centers. Three scientific literature databases (Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science) were used for a systematic search on worldwide PBC and their publications that considered water contamination and health outcomes. Publicly-available e-databases (ENRIECO, BIRTHCOHORTS, and CHICOS) were also employed for detailed exploration of existing European Union (EU)-based PBC. Out of the 76 PBC identified in the EU territory, only 12 of them incorporated water contamination into their study designs. Among which only 6 PBC published scientific articles that either included data on water contamination and/or water intake estimates. Trihalomethanes but not other disinfection by-products were mostly studied in the PBC around the globe, while fluoride, atrazine, perfluorinated compounds, tetrachloroethylene, and lead were studied to a lesser extent as water contaminants. It appears that chemical-based water contamination and corresponding human exposures represent a largely underappreciated niche of exposure science pertaining to pregnant mother and children's health in PBC. Future PBC studies should grasp this opportunity to substantially reform elements of water contamination in their exposure assessment protocols and effectively combine them with their epidemiological study designs. PMID:24013514

Makris, Konstantinos C; Andra, Syam S

2014-01-15

272

Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

Elmore, B.B.

1993-08-01

273

The significance of heterogeneity on mass flux from DNAPL source zones: An experimental investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the process of mass transfer from source zones of aquifers contaminated with organic chemicals in the form of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) is of importance in site management and remediation. A series of intermediate-scale tank experiments was conducted to examine the influence of aquifer heterogeneity on DNAPL mass transfer contributing to dissolved mass emission from source zone into groundwater under natural flow before and after remediation. A Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) spill was performed into six source zone models of increasing heterogeneity, and both the spatial distribution of the dissolution behavior and the net effluent mass flux were examined. Experimentally created initial PCE entrapment architecture resulting from the PCE migration was largely influenced by the coarser sand lenses and the PCE occupied between 30 and 60% of the model aquifer depth. The presence of DNAPL had no apparent effect on the bulk hydraulic conductivity of the porous media. Up to 71% of PCE mass in each of the tested source zone was removed during a series of surfactant flushes, with associated induced PCE mobilization responsible for increasing vertical DNAPL distributions. Effluent mass flux due to water dissolution was also found to increase progressively due to the increase in NAPL-water contact area even though the PCE mass was reduced. Doubling of local groundwater flow velocities showed negligible rate-limited effects at the scale of these experiments. Thus, mass transfer behavior was directly controlled by the morphology of DNAPL within each source zone. Effluent mass flux values were normalized by the up-gradient DNAPL distributions. For the suite of aquifer heterogeneities and all remedial stages, normalized flux values fell within a narrow band with mean of 0.39 and showed insensitivity to average source zone saturations.

Page, John W. E.; Soga, Kenichi; Illangasekare, Tissa

2007-12-01

274

The significance of heterogeneity on mass flux from DNAPL source zones: an experimental investigation.  

PubMed

Understanding the process of mass transfer from source zones of aquifers contaminated with organic chemicals in the form of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) is of importance in site management and remediation. A series of intermediate-scale tank experiments was conducted to examine the influence of aquifer heterogeneity on DNAPL mass transfer contributing to dissolved mass emission from source zone into groundwater under natural flow before and after remediation. A Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) spill was performed into six source zone models of increasing heterogeneity, and both the spatial distribution of the dissolution behavior and the net effluent mass flux were examined. Experimentally created initial PCE entrapment architecture resulting from the PCE migration was largely influenced by the coarser sand lenses and the PCE occupied between 30 and 60% of the model aquifer depth. The presence of DNAPL had no apparent effect on the bulk hydraulic conductivity of the porous media. Up to 71% of PCE mass in each of the tested source zone was removed during a series of surfactant flushes, with associated induced PCE mobilization responsible for increasing vertical DNAPL distributions. Effluent mass flux due to water dissolution was also found to increase progressively due to the increase in NAPL-water contact area even though the PCE mass was reduced. Doubling of local groundwater flow velocities showed negligible rate-limited effects at the scale of these experiments. Thus, mass transfer behavior was directly controlled by the morphology of DNAPL within each source zone. Effluent mass flux values were normalized by the up-gradient DNAPL distributions. For the suite of aquifer heterogeneities and all remedial stages, normalized flux values fell within a narrow band with mean of 0.39 and showed insensitivity to average source zone saturations. PMID:17706832

Page, John W E; Soga, Kenichi; Illangasekare, Tissa

2007-12-01

275

Evaluating Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Dissolution and Chemical Oxidation in a three-dimensional, bench-scale fracture network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) present in fractured bedrock settings at residual saturation introduces remediation challenges that are dramatically different from porous media settings. Evaluating DNAPL distribution in a field-scale setting is generally impractical, yet DNAPL distribution plays a critical role in the DNAPL dissolution kinetics. This research uses a three-dimensional (3-D), bench-scale network comprised of low-porosity, fractured sandstone to evaluate the dissolution kinetics of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) DNAPL at residual saturation. DNAPL dissolution kinetics were evaluated during ambient groundwater conditions as well as during in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) in the 3-D fractured sandstone experiment. DNAPL dissolution in the fracture network was evaluated and described using an effective parameter, the bulk mass transfer coefficient (KL). Results from dissolution experiments revealed a positive, statistically significant correlation between KL with DNAPL-water interfacial area and KL with DNAPL saturation. Results of ISCO experiments with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) determined that the formation of reaction products (manganese dioxides and carbon dioxide) likely altered the primary flow paths and decreased effectiveness of the ISCO application in the fracture network. The formation of reaction products was believed to cause flow bypassing and reduce the DNAPL-oxidant contact, which reduced mass transfer rates. The effectiveness of ISCO was improved (over dissolution alone) if the ISCO application was discontinued after an initial period of effective mass removal. The findings of this research indicate that DNAPL dissolution and oxidation effectiveness in a fracture network setting are not directly correlated to aperture size, which was unexpected, but appear to be primarily impacted by flow path variability and heterogeneous DNAPL distribution.

Christensen, K.; McCray, J. E.; Schaefer, C.

2011-12-01

276

Enhanced reductive dechlorination of PCE DNAPL with TBOS as a slow-release electron donor.  

PubMed

Tetrabutoxysilane (TBOS), which yields 1-butanol upon abiotic hydrolysis, was evaluated as a slow-release substrate for the reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) as a dense non-aqueous-phase liquid (DNAPL). Dechlorination was achieved using an anaerobic binary mixed (BM) culture, which consisted of the Pt. Mugu (PM) and the Evanite (EV) mixed cultures. In batch reactor experiments, TBOS was mixed with PCE DNAPL to achieve different PCE mol fractions (PCEmol/(PCE mol+TBOSmol)), and different PCE aqueous concentrations based on Raoult's Law. The reductive dechlorination activity was determined based on the amount of chloride ions released and the mass balances of the transformation products formed. The mass balances of the total chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) between water, NAPL and gas phases were performed using independently measured NAPL/water partition coefficients. The amounts of chloride released (directly measured in aqueous samples) agreed with the total chloride produced based on the mass balances. The abiotic rates of TBOS hydrolysis were first-order with respect to TBOS NAPL concentration. A higher electron transfer efficiency to dechlorination was correlated with lower rates of TBOS hydrolysis. The total amounts of PCE DNAPL and TBOS were important factors for the reductive dechlorination of PCE. The dechlorination activity was suppressed at high NAPL concentrations. Direct contact of the PCE/TBOS NAPL mixture may have caused toxicity to the dechlorinating bacteria. Decreases in pH likely lowered the microbial activity for reductive dechlorination due to the accumulation of acetate and/or butyrate. These studies showed the potential of TBOS as a slow-release substrate for enhancing bioremediation of DNAPL contaminated sites. PMID:19179006

Yu, Seungho; Semprini, Lewis

2009-08-15

277

Influence of viscous, gravitational, and capillary forces on DNAPL saturation  

SciTech Connect

Four dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) -- bromoform, chlorobenzene, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene -- were used to investigate the influence of viscous, gravitational, and capillary forces on DNAPL saturation in a natural aquifer sand. The relative magnitudes of these forces are expressed in terms of two dimensionless groups, the Capillary Number (N{sub Ca}), defined as the ratio of the viscous force to capillary force, and the Bond Number (N{sub Bo}), defined as the ratio of the gravitational force to capillary force. Nondimensionalization of the equations governing two-phase flow suggests that DNAPL saturation should be a function of a linear combination of the Capillary and Bond Numbers (N{sub Ca}/k{sub rw} {minus} N{sub Bo}), provided the permeability to water (k{sub rw}) in the presence of discontinuous DNAPL is considered. Experimental studies in which DNAPL saturations were measured over a range of Capillary and Bond Numbers for upward, horizontal, and downward displacement of DNAPL by water corroborate the results of the nondimensionalization. DNAPL saturations generally decreased with increasing Capillary Number and with decreasing Bond Number until N{sub Ca}/k{sub rw} {minus} N{sub Bo} was greater than approximately 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}, at which point residual saturation was attained. For the DNAPLs used in this study, with adhesion tensions on the order of 26 dynes/cm and Bond Numbers ranging from 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} to 2.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}, residual saturation was attained at Capillary Numbers greater than approximately 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}. These results provide a means of estimating the system conditions under which the DNAPLs studied achieve residual saturation in aquifer material.

Dawson, H.E. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Div. of Environmental Science and Engineering; Roberts, P.V. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1997-03-01

278

Modeling field-scale cosolvent flooding for DNAPL source zone remediation.  

PubMed

A three-dimensional, compositional, multiphase flow simulator was used to model a field-scale test of DNAPL removal by cosolvent flooding. The DNAPL at this site was tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and the flooding solution was an ethanol/water mixture, with up to 95% ethanol. The numerical model, UTCHEM accounts for the equilibrium phase behavior and multiphase flow of a ternary ethanol-PCE-water system. Simulations of enhanced cosolvent flooding using a kinetic interphase mass transfer approach show that when a very high concentration of alcohol is injected, the DNAPL/water/alcohol mixture forms a single phase and local mass transfer limitations become irrelevant. The field simulations were carried out in three steps. At the first level, a simple uncalibrated layered model is developed. This model is capable of roughly reproducing the production well concentrations of alcohol, but not of PCE. A more refined (but uncalibrated) permeability model is able to accurately simulate the breakthrough concentrations of injected alcohol from the production wells, but is unable to accurately predict the PCE removal. The final model uses a calibration of the initial PCE distribution to get good matches with the PCE effluent curves from the extraction wells. It is evident that the effectiveness of DNAPL source zone remediation is mainly affected by characteristics of the spatial heterogeneity of porous media and the variable (and unknown) DNAPL distribution. The inherent uncertainty in the DNAPL distribution at real field sites means that some form of calibration of the initial contaminant distribution will almost always be required to match contaminant effluent breakthrough curves. PMID:17988760

Liang, Hailian; Falta, Ronald W

2008-02-19

279

Field-scale prediction of enhanced DNAPL dissolution based on partitioning tracers.  

PubMed

The equilibrium streamtube model (EST) has demonstrated the ability to accurately predict dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) dissolution in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. Here the model is applied to predict DNAPL dissolution at a tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated dry cleaner site, located in Jacksonville, Florida. The EST model is an analytical solution with field-measurable input parameters. Measured data from a field-scale partitioning tracer test were used to parameterize the EST model and the predicted PCE dissolution was compared to measured data from an in-situ ethanol flood. In addition, a simulated partitioning tracer test from a calibrated, three-dimensional, spatially explicit multiphase flow model (UTCHEM) was also used to parameterize the EST analytical solution. The EST ethanol prediction based on both the field partitioning tracer test and the simulation closely matched the total recovery well field ethanol data with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency E=0.96 and 0.90, respectively. The EST PCE predictions showed a peak shift to earlier arrival times for models based on either field-measured or simulated partitioning tracer tests, resulting in poorer matches to the field PCE data in both cases. The peak shifts were concluded to be caused by well screen interval differences between the field tracer test and ethanol flood. Both the EST model and UTCHEM were also used to predict PCE aqueous dissolution under natural gradient conditions, which has a much less complex flow pattern than the forced-gradient double five spot used for the ethanol flood. The natural gradient EST predictions based on parameters determined from tracer tests conducted with a complex flow pattern underestimated the UTCHEM-simulated natural gradient total mass removal by 12% after 170 pore volumes of water flushing indicating that some mass was not detected by the tracers likely due to stagnation zones in the flow field. These findings highlight the important influence of well configuration and the associated flow patterns on dissolution. PMID:23911784

Wang, Fang; Annable, Michael D; Jawitz, James W

2013-09-01

280

Field-scale prediction of enhanced DNAPL dissolution based on partitioning tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equilibrium streamtube model (EST) has demonstrated the ability to accurately predict dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) dissolution in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. Here the model is applied to predict DNAPL dissolution at a tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated dry cleaner site, located in Jacksonville, Florida. The EST model is an analytical solution with field-measurable input parameters. Measured data from a field-scale partitioning tracer test were used to parameterize the EST model and the predicted PCE dissolution was compared to measured data from an in-situ ethanol flood. In addition, a simulated partitioning tracer test from a calibrated, three-dimensional, spatially explicit multiphase flow model (UTCHEM) was also used to parameterize the EST analytical solution. The EST ethanol prediction based on both the field partitioning tracer test and the simulation closely matched the total recovery well field ethanol data with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency E = 0.96 and 0.90, respectively. The EST PCE predictions showed a peak shift to earlier arrival times for models based on either field-measured or simulated partitioning tracer tests, resulting in poorer matches to the field PCE data in both cases. The peak shifts were concluded to be caused by well screen interval differences between the field tracer test and ethanol flood. Both the EST model and UTCHEM were also used to predict PCE aqueous dissolution under natural gradient conditions, which has a much less complex flow pattern than the forced-gradient double five spot used for the ethanol flood. The natural gradient EST predictions based on parameters determined from tracer tests conducted with a complex flow pattern underestimated the UTCHEM-simulated natural gradient total mass removal by 12% after 170 pore volumes of water flushing indicating that some mass was not detected by the tracers likely due to stagnation zones in the flow field. These findings highlight the important influence of well configuration and the associated flow patterns on dissolution.

Wang, Fang; Annable, Michael D.; Jawitz, James W.

2013-09-01

281

A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States--II) untreated drinking water sources.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have shown that a variety of manufactured and natural organic compounds such as pharmaceuticals, steroids, surfactants, flame retardants, fragrances, plasticizers and other chemicals often associated with wastewaters have been detected in the vicinity of municipal wastewater discharges and livestock agricultural facilities. To provide new data and insights about the environmental presence of some of these chemicals in untreated sources of drinking water in the United States targeted sites were sampled and analyzed for 100 analytes with sub-parts per billion detection capabilities. The sites included 25 ground- and 49 surface-water sources of drinking water serving populations ranging from one family to over 8 million people. Sixty-three of the 100 targeted chemicals were detected in at least one water sample. Interestingly, in spite of the low detection levels 60% of the 36 pharmaceuticals (including prescription drugs and antibiotics) analyzed were not detected in any water sample. The five most frequently detected chemicals targeted in surface water were: cholesterol (59%, natural sterol), metolachlor (53%, herbicide), cotinine (51%, nicotine metabolite), beta-sitosterol (37%, natural plant sterol), and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (27%, caffeine metabolite); and in ground water: tetrachloroethylene (24%, solvent), carbamazepine (20%, pharmaceutical), bisphenol-A (20%, plasticizer), 1,7-dimethylxanthine (16%, caffeine metabolite), and tri (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (12%, fire retardant). A median of 4 compounds were detected per site indicating that the targeted chemicals generally occur in mixtures (commonly near detection levels) in the environment and likely originate from a variety of animal and human uses and waste sources. These data will help prioritize and determine the need, if any, for future occurrence, fate and transport, and health-effects research for subsets of these chemicals and their degradates most likely to be found in water resources used for drinking water in the United States. PMID:18433838

Focazio, Michael J; Kolpin, Dana W; Barnes, Kimberlee K; Furlong, Edward T; Meyer, Michael T; Zaugg, Steven D; Barber, Larry B; Thurman, Michael E

2008-09-01

282

Assessment of soil-gas contamination at three former fuel-dispensing sites, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2010—2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil gas was assessed for contaminants at three former fuel-dispensing sites at Fort Gordon, Georgia, from October 2010 to September 2011. The assessment included delineation of organic contaminants using soil-gas samplers collected from the former fuel-dispensing sites at 8th Street, Chamberlain Avenue, and 12th Street. This assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to Fort Gordon personnel pursuant to requirements for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Soil-gas samplers installed and retrieved during June and August 2011 at the 8th Street site had detections above the method detection level (MDL) for the mass of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), benzene, toluene, ortho-xylene, undecane, tridecane, pentadecane, and chloroform. Total petroleum hydrocarbons soil-gas mass exceeded the MDL of 0.02 microgram in 54 of the 55 soil-gas samplers. The highest detection of TPH soil-gas mass was 146.10 micrograms, located in the central part of the site. Benzene mass exceeded the MDL of 0.01 microgram in 23 soil-gas samplers, whereas toluene was detected in only 10 soil-gas samplers. Ortho-xylene was detected above the MDL in only one soil-gas sampler. The highest soil-gas mass detected for undecane, tridecane, and pentadecane was located in the northeastern corner of the 8th Street site. Chloroform mass greater than the MDL of 0.01 microgram was detected in less than one-third of the soil-gas samplers. Soil-gas masses above the MDL were identified for TPH, gasoline-related compounds, diesel-range alkanes, trimethylbenzenes, naphthalene, 2-methyl-napthalene, octane, and tetrachloroethylene for the July 2011 soil-gas survey at the Chamberlain Avenue site. All 30 of the soil-gas samplers contained TPH mass above the MDL. The highest detection of TPH mass, 426.36 micrograms, was for a soil-gas sampler located near the northern boundary of the site. Gasoline-related compounds and diesel-range alkanes were detected in multiple soil-gas samplers, and the highest detections of these compounds were located near the central part of the site near existing, nonoperational, fuel-dispensing pumps. Trimethylbenzenes were detected in less than half of the soil-gas samplers. Naphthalene soil-gas mass was detected above the MDL in 10 soil-gas samplers, whereas 2-methyl-napthalene was detected above the MDL in half of the soil-gas samplers. Octane mass was detected above the MDL in one soil-gas sampler located near the central part of the site. Tetrachloroethylene soil-gas mass was detected above the MDL in more than half of the soil-gas samplers, and the highest tetrachloroethylene soil-gas mass of 0.90 microgram was located in the northeastern part of the site. Soil-gas samplers collected at the 12th Street site during July 2011 contained soil-gas mass above the MDL for TPH, toluene, undecane, tridecane, and pentadecane (diesel-range alkanes), trichloroethylene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, chloroform, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. The highest detected TPH mass was 24.37 micrograms in a soil-gas sampler located in the northern part of the site. The highest detection of toluene soil-gas mass was from a soil-gas sampler located near the southern boundary of the site. The diesel-range alkanes were detected above the MDL in five soil-gas samplers; the highest detection of soil-gas diesel mass, 0.65 microgram, was located in the southern part of the site. Trichloroethylene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene were detected above the MDL in the northern part of the site in one soil-gas sampler that also had one of the highest detections of TPH. Chloroform was detected above the MDL in three soil-gas samplers, whereas 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene soil-gas mass was detected above the MDL in two soil-gas samplers.

Caldwell, Andral W.; Falls, W. Fred; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

2012-01-01

283

Constructing terbium co-ordination polymers of 4,4'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide by means of diffusion solvent mixtures.  

PubMed

Five different co-ordination polymers of terbium(III) and the bidentate ligand 4,4'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide (L), [Tb(L)(CH(3)OH)(NO(3))(3)](infinity) (1), ([Tb(L)(1.5)(NO(3))(3)].CH(2)Cl(2))(infinity) (2), ([Tb(L)(1.5)(NO(3))(3)].CH(3)OH.0.8H(2)O)(infinity) (3), ([Tb(L)(1.5)(NO(3))(3)].0.4C(2)Cl(4).0.8CH(3)OH)(infinity) (4), and [Tb(L)(2)(NO(3))(3)](infinity) (5) have been synthesised by the use of different "diffusion solvent mixtures", and structurally characterised by X-ray crystallography. Compound 1, with a Tb:L stoichiometry of 1:1, adopts a zig-zag chain structure, which forms three-fold interpenetrating diamondoid frameworks through interchain hydrogen bonding between co-ordinated methanol and a nitrate group on an adjacent chain. Polymers 2, 3, and 4 all have a Tb:L stoichiometry of 1:1.5, but adopt different topologies. For 2, a ladder arrangement is found and large channels which accommodate solvent CH(2)Cl(2) molecules are formed by superposition of the ladders. For 3 and 4 4.8(2) net structures are observed. The superposition of the 4.8(2) nets in 3 and 4, by disposing adjacent layers such that every octagon is positioned below a tetragon from the neighbouring layer, allows the formation of two kinds of channel, with that inside the tetragons accommodating methanol molecules. The other kind of channel, between tetragons, accommodates water molecules in the case of 3 and tetrachloroethylene molecules in the case of 4. Compound 5, with a Tb:L stoichiometry of 1:2, has a linear polymeric structure with one bridging and one terminal ligand, and forms (6,3) plane nets by means of intermolecular electrostatic interactions between N-oxide moieties. X-ray powder diffraction studies show that upon desolvation, compound 2 maintains its original ladder framework. PMID:11981887

Long, De-Liang; Blake, Alexander J; Champness, Neil R; Wilson, Claire; Schröder, Martin

2002-05-01

284

Inorganic and organic ground-water chemistry in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater chemical data were collected from November 1986 through April 1987 in the first phase of a 5-year study to assess the possibility of groundwater contamination in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Water samples were collected from 87 observation wells screened in Coastal Plain sediments; 59 samples were collected from the Canal Creek aquifer, 18 from the overlying surficial aquifer, and 10 from the lower confined aquifer. Dissolved solids, chloride, iron, manganese, fluoride, mercury, and chromium are present in concentrations that exceed the Federal maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Elevated chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations appear to be related from contaminant plumes but also could result from brackish-water intrusion. Excessive concentrations of iron and manganese were the most extensive water quality problems found among the inorganic constituents and are derived from natural dissolution of minerals and oxide coatings in the aquifer sediments. Volatile organic compounds are present in the Canal Creek and surficial aquifers, but samples from the lower confined aquifer do not show any evidence of contamination by inorganic or organic chemicals. The volatile organic contaminants detected in the groundwater and their maximum concentrations (in micrograms/L) include 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethane (9,000); carbon tetrachloride (480); chloroform (460); 1,1,2-trichloroethane (80); 1,2-dichloroethane (990); 1,1-dichloroethane (3.1); tetrachloroethylene (100); trichloroethylene (1,800); 1,2-trans- dichloroethylene (1,200); 1,1-dichloroethylene (4.4); vinyl chloride (140); benzene (70); and chlorobenzene (39). On the basis of information on past activities in the study area, some sources of the volatile organic compounds include: (1) decontaminants and degreasers; (2) clothing-impregnating operations; (3) the manufacture of impregnite material; (4) the manufacture of tear gas; and (5) fuels used in garages and at the air-field. The high density of most of the detected organic compounds in free-product form would have aided their movement into the aquifers by vertical sinking. The outcrop area of the upper confining unit and an area cut by a paleochannel are most susceptible to contamination because a near-surface impermeable layer is not present. (USGS)

Lorah, M. M.; Vroblesky, D. A.

1989-01-01

285

Remediation of PCE-contaminated aquifer by an in situ two-layer biobarrier: laboratory batch and column studies.  

PubMed

The industrial solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is among the most ubiquitous chlorinated compounds found in groundwater contamination. The objective of this study was to develop an in situ two-layer biobarrier system consisting of an organic-releasing material layer followed by an oxygen-releasing material layer. The organic-releasing material, which contained sludge cakes from a domestic wastewater treatment plant, is able to release biodegradable organics continuously. The oxygen-releasing material, which contained calcium peroxide, is able to release oxygen continuously upon contact with water. The first organic-releasing material layer was to supply organics (primary substrates) to reductively dechlorinate PCE in situ. The second oxygen-releasing material layer was to release oxygen to aerobic biodegrade or cometabolize PCE degradation byproducts from the first anaerobic layer. Batch experiments were conducted to design and identify the components of the organic and oxygen-releasing materials, and evaluate the organic substrate (presented as chemical oxygen demand (COD) equivalent) and oxygen release rates from the organic-releasing material and oxygen-releasing materials, respectively. The observed oxygen and COD release rates were approximately 0.0368 and 0.0416 mg/d/g of material, respectively. A laboratory-scale column experiment was then conducted to evaluate the feasibility of this proposed system for the bioremediation of PCE-contaminated groundwater. This system was performed using a series of continuous-flow glass columns including a soil column, an organic-releasing material column, two consecutive soil columns, and an oxygen-releasing material column, followed by two other consecutive soil columns. Anaerobic acclimated sludges were inoculated in the first four columns, and aerobic acclimated sludges were inoculated in the last three columns to provide microbial consortia for contaminant biodegradation. Simulated PCE-contaminated groundwater with a flow rate of 0.25 L/d was pumped into this system. Effluent samples from each column were analyzed for PCE and its degradation byproducts. Results show that up to 99% of PCE removal efficiency was obtained in this passive system. Thus, the biobarrier treatment scheme has the potential to be developed into an environmentally and economically acceptable remediation technology for the in situ treatment of PCE-contaminated aquifer. PMID:12465785

Kao, C M; Chen, S C; Wang, J Y; Chen, Y L; Lee, S Z

2003-01-01

286

Coupled geophysical-hydrological modeling of controlled NAPL spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past studies have shown reasonable sensitivity of geophysical data for detecting or monitoring the movement of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in the subsurface. However, heterogeneity in subsurface properties and in NAPL distribution commonly results in non-unique data interpretation. Combining multiple geophysical data types and incorporating constraints from hydrological models will potentially decrease the non-uniqueness in data interpretation and aid in site characterization. Large-scale laboratory experiments have been conducted over several years to evaluate the use of various geophysical methods, including ground-penetrating radar (GPR), seismic, and electrical methods, for monitoring controlled spills of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), a hazardous industrial solvent that is pervasive in the subsurface. In the current study, we consider an experiment in which PCE was introduced into a large tank containing a heterogeneous distribution of sand and clay mixtures, and allowed to migrate while time-lapse geophysical data were collected. We consider two approaches for interpreting the surface GPR and crosswell seismic data. The first approach involves (a) waveform inversion of the surface GPR data using a non-gradient based optimization algorithm to estimate the dielectric constant distributions and (b) conversion of crosswell seismic travel times to acoustic velocity distributions; the dielectric constant and acoustic velocity distributions are then related to NAPL saturation using appropriate petrophysical models. The second approach takes advantage of a recently developed framework for coupled hydrological-geophysical modeling, providing a hydrological constraint on interpretation of the geophysical data and additionally resulting in quantitative estimates of the most relevant hydrological parameters that determine NAPL behavior in the system. Specifically, we simulate NAPL migration using the multiphase multicomponent flow simulator TOUGH2 with a 2-D radial model that takes advantage of radial symmetry in the experimental setup. The flow model is coupled to forward models for simulating the GPR and seismic measurements, and joint inversion of the multiple data types results in images of time-varying NAPL saturation distributions. Comparison of the two approaches with results of the post-experiment excavation indicate that combining geophysical data types and incorporating hydrological constraints improves estimates of NAPL saturation relative to the conventional interpretation of the geophysical data sets. Notice: Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect the official Agency policy. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation by EPA for use. This work was supported, in part, by the U.S. Dept. of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02- 05CH11231.

Kowalsky, M. B.; Majer, E.; Peterson, J. E.; Finsterle, S.; Mazzella, A.

2006-12-01

287

Comparative study of the adsorption performance of a multi-sorbent bed (Carbotrap, Carbopack X, Carboxen 569) and a Tenax TA adsorbent tube for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs).  

PubMed

A comparison between two types of adsorbent tubes, the commonly used Tenax TA and a multi-sorbent bed (Carbotrap, Carbopack X, Carboxen 569) tube developed in our laboratory, has been done to evaluate their usefulness in the analysis of VOCs in ambient air. Duplicate indoor and outdoor samples of Tenax TA and multi-sorbent tubes of 10, 20, 40, 60 and 90l were taken in Barcelona city (Spain) on July and October of 2009. Breakthrough values (defined as %VOCs found in the back tube) were determined for all sampling volumes connecting two sampling tubes in series. The analysis was performed by automatic thermal desorption (ATD) coupled with capillary gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry detector (MSD). Significant differences between the concentrations obtained-from multi-sorbent bed and Tenax TA tubes are observed for the very volatile compounds (56 degrees Ctetrachloroethylene), being the concentrations found higher in multi-sorbent bed than in Tenax TA tubes. On the other hand, mainly all compounds with boiling points higher than 100 degrees C (except alpha-pinene, chlorinated and polar compounds) do not show significant differences between the obtained multi-sorbent bed and Tenax TA tube concentrations. For the concentrations obtained (5ppt to 100ppb), Tenax TA present high breakthrough values (from 0 to 77%) for mainly all compounds and sampling volumes studied. On the other hand, multi-sorbent bed tubes do not exhibit important breakthrough values for these compounds, except the VVOCs ethanol (for all sampled volumes), and acetone, dichloromethane and isopropanol (for sampling volumes over 40l). The concentration differences observed between Tenax TA and multi-sorbent bed tubes are directly related to the high breakthrough values determined for Tenax TA adsorbent. PMID:20298873

Gallego, E; Roca, F J; Perales, J F; Guardino, X

2010-05-15

288

Induced Polarization with Electromagnetic Coupling: 3D Spectral Imaging Theory, EMSP Project No. 73836  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed as a broad foundational study of spectral induced polarization (SIP) for characterization of contaminated sites. It encompassed laboratory studies of the effects of chemistry on induced polarization, development of 3D forward modeling and inversion codes, and investigations of inductive and capacitive coupling problems. In the laboratory part of the project a physico-chemical model developed in this project was used to invert laboratory IP spectra for the grain size and the effective grain size distribution of the sedimentary rocks as well as the formation factor, porosity, specific surface area, and the apparent fractal dimension. Furthermore, it was established that the IP response changed with the solution chemistry, the concentration of a given solution chemistry, valence of the constituent ions, and ionic radius. In the field part of the project, a 3D complex forward and inverse model was developed. It was used to process data acquired at two frequencies (1/16 Hz and 1/ 4Hz) in a cross-borehole configuration at the A-14 outfall area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) during March 2003 and June 2004. The chosen SRS site was contaminated with Tetrachloroethylene (TCE) and Trichloroethylene (PCE) that were disposed in this area for several decades till the 1980s. The imaginary conductivity produced from the inverted 2003 data correlated very well with the log10 (PCE) concentration derived from point sampling at 1 ft spacing in five ground-truth boreholes drilled after the data acquisition. The equivalent result for the 2004 data revealed that there were significant contaminant movements during the period March 2003 and June 2004, probably related to ground-truth activities and nearby remediation activities. Therefore SIP was successfully used to develop conceptual models of volume distributions of PCE/TCE contamination. In addition, the project developed non-polarizing electrodes that can be deployed in boreholes for years. A total of 28 of these electrodes were deployed at the SRS site in September of 2002. The project found that (1) currently available field instrumentation need to be faster by an order of magnitude for full SIP to be engaged for broadband characterization in the field, (2) some aspects of the capacitive coupling problem in borehole geometries can be solved by use of a high impedance receiver, (3) a careful investigation of ways to adequately compare inversion results to ground-truth data is warranted, (4) more laboratory studies should be directed to understand the influence of micro-organisms and long residence time of contaminants (aging) on spectral IP properties.

Morgan, F. Dale; Sogade, John

2004-12-14

289

Streambed-material characteristics and surface-water quality, Green Pond Brook and tributaries, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, 1983-90  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of a study designed to determine whether Green Pond Brook and its tributaries contain contaminated streambed sediments and to characterize the quaity of water in the brook. Results of previous investigations at Picatinny Arsenal, Morris County, New Jersey, indicate that significant contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil is present at the arsenal. Forty-five streambed-material samples were collected for analysis to determine whether contaminants have migrated to the brook from the surrounding area. Samples were analyzed for trace elements, base/neutral- and acid-etractable compounds, insecticides, and other constituents. Results of an electromagnetic-conductivity and natural-gamma-ray survey were used to describe the distribution of particle sizes in streambed and substreambed sediments. Historical results of analyses of streambed-material and surface-water samples also are presented. Samples of streambed material from three areas in Green Pond Brook and its tributaries contained organic and (or) inorganic constituents in concentrations greater than those typically found at the arsenal. These areas are Green Pond Brook, from the area near the outflow of Picatinny Lake downstream to Farley Avenue; Bear Swamp Brook, from the area near building 241 downstream to the confluence with Green Pond Brook; and Green Pond Brook, from the open burning area downstream to the dam near building 1178. Contaminants identified include trace elements, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine insecticides. Surface water in Green Pond Brook contained several volatile organic compounds, including trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,2-dichloroethylene, at maximum concen- trations of 3.8, 4.6, and 11 micrograms per liter, respectively. Volatilization is expected to remove volatile organic compounds in the steep, fast- flowing reaches of the brook. No organic or inorganic constituents were detected in surface- water samples in concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water regulations. Only two constituents, iron and manganese, were detected in concen- trations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary drinking-water regulations.

Storck, D. A.; Lacombe, Pierre

1996-01-01

290

Simultaneous determination of bisphenol A and bisphenol B in beverages and powdered infant formula by dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction and heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to establish a reliable, cost-effective, fast and simple method to quantify simultaneously both bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol B (BPB) in liquid food matrixes such as canned beverages (soft drinks and beers) and powdered infant formula using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME) with in-situ derivatisation coupled with heart-cutting gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For the optimisation of the DLLME procedure different amounts of various extractive and dispersive solvents as well as different amounts of the derivative reagent were compared for their effects on extraction efficiency and yields. The optimised procedure consisted of the injection of a mixture containing tetrachloroethylene (extractant), acetonitrile (dispersant) and acetic anhydride (derivatising reagent) directly into an aliquot of beverage samples or into an aqueous extract of powdered milk samples obtained after a pretreatment of the samples. Given the compatibility of the solvents used, and the low volumes involved, the procedure was easily associated with GC-MS end-point determination, which was accomplished by means of an accurate GC dual column (heart-cutting) technique. Careful optimisation of heart-cutting GC-MS conditions, namely pressure of front and auxiliary inlets, have resulted in a good analytical performance. The linearity of the matrix-matched calibration curves was acceptable, with coefficients of determination (r2) always higher than 0.99. Average recoveries of the BPA and BPB spiked at two concentration levels into beverages and powdered infant formula ranged from 68% to 114% and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was <15%. The limits of detection (LOD) in canned beverages were 5.0 and 2.0 ng l(-1) for BPA and BPB, respectively, whereas LOD in powdered infant formula were 60.0 and 30.0 ng l(-1), respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQ) in canned beverages were 10.0 and 7.0 ng l-1 for BPA and BPB, respectively, whereas LOQ in powdered infant formula were 200.0 and 100.0 ng l(-1), respectively. BPA was detected in 21 of 30 canned beverages (ranging from 0.03 to 4.70 µg l(-1)) and in two of seven powdered infant formula samples (0.23 and 0.40 µg l(-1)) collected in Portugal. BPB was only detected in canned beverages being positive in 15 of 30 samples analysed (ranging from 0.06 to 0.17 µg l(-1)). This is the first report about the presence of BPA and BPB in canned beverages and powdered infant formula in the Portuguese market. PMID:21240700

Cunha, S C; Almeida, C; Mendes, E; Fernandes, J O

2011-04-01

291

Assessing the vulnerability of public-supply wells to contamination—High Plains Aquifer near York, Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program found, in studies from 1991 to 2001, low levels of mixtures of contaminants in ground water near the water table in urban areas across the Nation. Although contaminants were detected less frequently in deeper ground water typically developed for public supply the proximity of contaminant mixtures to underlying public-water-supply sources prompted the NAWQA Program to begin, in 2001, an intensive study to assess the vulnerability of public-supply wells to contamination. As part of this study, the pathways and processes by which contaminants reach public-supply wells in nine aquifer systems across the country are being investigated. In addition to studying the processes that occur below land surface—whereby contaminants are mobilized or attenuated—scientists are also investigating how human activities can affect the vulnerability of public-supply wells to contamination. This fact sheet highlights findings from two reports on the vulnerability study of a single, representative public-supply well in York, Nebraska. The selected high-capacity well typically produces more than 720,000 gallons per day from the upper confined aquifer of the High Plains aquifer. A possible source of contamination to the well is intensive, irrigated agriculture, which can sometimes result in elevated concentrations of nitrate and pesticides in ground water. In addition, a sampling of the selected public-supply well by the USGS in 2002 found low concentrations of the solvents trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and their degradation products, which may be linked to historical chemical use in urban and residential areas of York. Uranium and arsenic (which occur naturally in the sediments that make up the aquifers in the area) also were detected in 2002 at concentrations less than drinking-water standards but still of concern. Overall, the current NAWQA study found that three primary factors affect the movement and fate of contaminants and the vulnerability of the public-supply well in York: (1) timing of water entry (recharge) to the aquifer, (2) short-circuiting of natural flow paths through inactive wells, and (3) natural geochemical conditions of the aquifer. Study findings are intended to help water managers, drinking-water suppliers, policymakers, and scientists to better understand how and why contamination of public-supply wells occurs and whether water quality may improve or degrade. Additionally, study findings may be used to evaluate various pumping, resource-development, and land-management scenarios.

Jagucki, Martha L.; Landon, Matthew K.; Clark, Brian R.; Eberts, Sandra M.

2008-01-01

292

Design and Operation of a Borehole Straddle Packer for Ground-Water Sampling and Hydraulic Testing of Discrete Intervals at U.S. Air Force Plant 6, Marietta, Georgia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A borehole straddle packer was developed and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey to characterize the vertical distribution of contaminants, head, and hydraulic properties in open-borehole wells as part of an ongoing investigation of ground-water contamination at U.S. Air Force Plant 6 (AFP6) in Marietta, Georgia. To better understand contaminant fate and transport in a crystalline bedrock setting and to support remedial activities at AFP6, numerous wells have been constructed that include long open-hole intervals in the crystalline bedrock. These wells can include several discontinuities that produce water, which may contain contaminants. Because of the complexity of ground-water flow and contaminant movement in the crystalline bedrock, it is important to characterize the hydraulic and water-quality characteristics of discrete intervals in these wells. The straddle packer facilitates ground-water sampling and hydraulic testing of discrete intervals, and delivery of fluids including tracer suites and remedial agents into these discontinuities. The straddle packer consists of two inflatable packers, a dual-pump system, a pressure-sensing system, and an aqueous injection system. Tests were conducted to assess the accuracy of the pressure-sensing systems, and water samples were collected for analysis of volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentrations. Pressure-transducer readings matched computed water-column height, with a coefficient of determination of greater than 0.99. The straddle packer incorporates both an air-driven piston pump and a variable-frequency, electronic, submersible pump. Only slight differences were observed between VOC concentrations in samples collected using the two different types of sampling pumps during two sampling events in July and August 2005. A test conducted to assess the effect of stagnation on VOC concentrations in water trapped in the system's pump-tubing reel showed that concentrations were not affected. A comparison was conducted to assess differences between three water-sampling methods - collecting samples from the well by pumping a packer-isolated zone using a submersible pump, by using a grab sampler, and by using a passive diffusion sampler. Concentrations of tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene and 1,2-dichloropropane were greatest for samples collected using the submersible pump in the packed-isolated interval, suggesting that the straddle packer yielded the least dilute sample.

Holloway, Owen G.; Waddell, Jonathan P.

2008-01-01

293

Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants.  

PubMed Central

Although acute adverse effects on asthma have been frequently found for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's principal criteria air pollutants, there is little epidemiologic information on specific hydrocarbons from toxic emission sources. We conducted a panel study of 22 Hispanic children with asthma who were 10-16 years old and living in a Los Angeles community with high traffic density. Subjects filled out symptom diaries daily for up to 3 months (November 1999 through January 2000). Pollutants included ambient hourly values of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide and 24-hr values of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm (PM10, and elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) PM10 fractions. Asthma symptom severity was regressed on pollutants using generalized estimating equations, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) was regressed on pollutants using mixed models. We found positive associations of symptoms with criteria air pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, PM10), EC-OC, and VOCs (benzene, ethylbenzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 1,3-butadiene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene). Selected adjusted odds ratios for bothersome or more severe asthma symptoms from interquartile range increases in pollutants were, for 1.4 ppb 8-hr NO2, 1.27 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.54]; 1.00 ppb benzene, 1.23 (95% CI, 1.02-1.48); 3.16 ppb formaldehyde, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.04-1.80); 37 microg/m3 PM10, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.11-1.90); 2.91 microg/m3 EC, 1.85 (95% CI, 1.11-3.08); and 4.64 microg/m3 OC, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.12-3.17). Two-pollutant models of EC or OC with PM10 showed little change in odds ratios for EC (to 1.83) or OC (to 1.89), but PM10 decreased from 1.45 to 1.0. There were no significant associations with PEF. Findings support the view that air toxins in the pollutant mix from traffic and industrial sources may have adverse effects on asthma in children.

Delfino, Ralph J; Gong, Henry; Linn, William S; Pellizzari, Edo D; Hu, Ye

2003-01-01

294

Bedrock geology and outcrop fracture trends in the vicinity of the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site, Milford, New Hampshire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Savage Municipal Well Superfund site consists of an eastward-directed plume of volatile organic compounds, principally tetrachloroethylene (PCE), in alluvium and glacial sand and gravel in the Souhegan River valley, just south of the river and about 4 kilometers west of the town of Milford, New Hampshire. Sampling of monitoring wells at the site has helped delineate the extent of the plume and has determined that some contaminant has migrated into the underlying crystalline bedrock, including bedrock north of the river within 200 meters of a nearby residential development that was constructed in 1999. Borehole geophysical logging has identified a northeast preferential trend for bedrock fractures, which may provide a pathway for the migration of contaminant under and north of the Souhegan River. The current study investigates the bedrock geologic setting for the site, including its position relative to known regional geologic structures, and compiles new strike and dip measurements of joints in exposed bedrock to determine if there are dominant trends in orientation similar to what was found in the boreholes. The site is located on the northwestern limb of a northeast-trending regional anticlinorium that is southeast of the Campbell Hill fault zone. The Campbell Hill fault zone defines the contact between granite and gneiss of the anticlinorium and granite and schist to the northwest and is locally marked by lenses of massive vein quartz, minor faults, and fracture zones that could potentially affect plume migration. The fault zone was apparently not intercepted by any of the boreholes that were drilled to delineate the contaminant plume and therefore passes to the north of the northernmost borehole in the vicinity of the new residential area. Joints measured in surface exposures indicate a strong preferred direction of strike to the north-northeast corroborating the borehole data and previous outcrop and geophysical studies. The north-northeast preferred direction matches the direction of elongation of the cone of depression formed during a pump test of the bedrock wells and could explain a potential pathway for the migration of contaminant north of the river.

Burton, William C.; Harte, Philip T.

2013-01-01

295

Slow desorption mechanisms of volatile organic chemical mixtures in soil and sediment micropores.  

PubMed

Desorption profiles of trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and a TCE-PCE mixture were measured for three natural solids and four zeolites. Initial sorbed mass (Mi) in slow desorbing sites of natural solids and in micropores of zeolites were obtained from desorption profiles. In natural solids, Mi increases with recalcitrant organic matter content. In zeolites, Mi generally increases with decreasing micropore width and increasing micropore hydrophobicity, but the effect of hydrophobicity is stronger. In both natural solids and zeolites, competition between TCE and PCE causes Mi for each sorbate in the mixture to be less than or similar to that for each sorbate alone. Zeolite results indicate that micropore width affects this competition more than micropore hydrophobicity for the solids examined. Desorption in all solids was simulated with the radial diffusion model, either alone or coupled with the advection-dispersion equation when necessary; diffusion rate constants (D/R2) were obtained. In natural solids, mean values of D/R2 increase with decreasing recalcitrant organic matter content. In zeolites, values of D/R2 generally increase with increasing micropore width, while they are a weak function of hydrophobicity. In both natural solids and zeolites, competition between TCE and PCE causes D/R2 for each sorbate in the mixture to generally be larger than that for each sorbate alone. Zeolite results indicate that the effects of competition on D/R2 generally decrease with decreasing micropore width for the solids examined; a trend with micropore hydrophobicity is not apparent. For the three natural solids and four zeolites examined in this study, the similar effects of competition between TCE and PCE on values of Mi and D/R2 and the overlapping range of D/R2 values support the hypothesis that diffusion through hydrophobic micropores affects and may control slow mass transfer processes in the recalcitrant organic matter of natural solids. These results contribute to the fundamental understanding of slow mass transfer processes in natural solids, and they indicate that characterization of micropore width and polarity may be necessary to predict organic chemical transport and fate. PMID:14750718

Li, Jun; Werth, Charles J

2004-01-15

296

In-Situ Anaerobic Biosurfactant Production Process For Remediation Of DNAPL Contamination In Subsurface Aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) and remediation of aquifers contaminated with hydrophobic contaminants require insitu production of biosurfactants for mobilization of entrapped hydrophobic liquids. Most of the biosurfactant producing microorganisms produce them under aerobic condition and hence surfactant production is limited in subsurface condition due to lack of oxygen. Currently bioremediation involves expensive air sparging or excavation followed by exsitu biodegradation. Use of microorganisms which can produce biosurfactants under anaerobic conditions can cost effectively expedite the process of insitu bioremediation or mobilization. In this work, the feasibility of anaerobic biosurfactant production in three mixed anaerobic cultures prepared from groundwater and soil contaminated with chlorinated compounds and municipal sewage sludge was investigated. The cultures were previously enriched under complete anaerobic conditions in the presence of Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) for more than a year before they were studied for biosurfactant production. Biosurfactant production under anaerobic conditions was simulated using two methods: i) induction of starvation in the microbial cultures and ii) addition of complex fermentable substrates. Positive result for biosurfactant production was not observed when the cultures were induced with starvation by adding PCE as blobs which served as the only terminal electron acceptor. However, slight reduction in interfacial tension was noticed which was caused by the adherence of microbes to water-PCE interface. Biosurfactant production was observed in all the three cultures when they were fed with complex fermentable substrates and surface tension of the liquid medium was lowered below 35 mN/m. Among the fermentable substrates tested, vegetable oil yielded highest amount of biosurfactant in all the cultures. Complete biodegradation of PCE to ethylene at a faster rate was also observed when vegetable oil was amended to the microbial cultures. The microorganisms responsible for biosurfactant production was isolated and identified as Pseudomonas Sp (designated as Pseudomonas Sp ANBIOSURF-1, Gene bank no: FJ930079), Pseudomonas stutzeri (MTCC 10033), Pseudomonas Sp (MTCC 10032) from groundwater, soil and municipal sewage sludge enrichments respectively. This study confirms that biosurfactants can be produced under anaerobic conditions and also in sufficient quantities. The cultures were also able to cometabolically degrade PCE to Ethylene. The isolated microorganisms can be used for remediation of DNAPL contaminated sites by in-situ biosurfactant production.

Albino, J. D.; Nambi, I. M.

2009-12-01

297

Dissolution Coupled Biodegradation of Pce by Inducing In-Situ Biosurfactant Production Under Anaerobic Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biosurfactants have proven to enhance the bioavailability and thereby elevate the rate of degradation of Light Non Aqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPLs) such as crude oil and petroleum derivatives. In spite of their superior characteristics, use of these biomolecules for remediation of Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) such as chlorinated solvents is still not clearly understood. In this present study, we have investigated the fate of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) by inducing in-situ biosurfactants production, a sustainable option which hypothesizes increase in bioavailability of LNAPLs. In order to understand the effect of biosurfactants on dissolution and biodegradation under the inducement of in-situ biosurfactant production, batch experiments were conducted in pure liquid media. The individual influence of each process such as biosurfactant production, dissolution of PCE and biodegradation of PCE were studied separately for getting insights on the synergistic effect of each process on the fate of PCE. Finally the dissolution coupled biodegradation of non aqueous phase PCE was studied in conditions where biosurfactant production was induced by nitrate limitation. The effect of biosurfactants was differentiated by repeating the same experiments were the biosurfactant production was retarded. The overall effect of in-situ biosurfactant production process was evaluated by use of a mathematical model. The process of microbial growth, biosurfactant production, dissolution and biodegradation of PCE were translated as ordinary differential equations. The modelling exercise was mainly performed to get insight on the combined effects of various processes that determine the concentration of PCE in its aqueous and non-aqueous phases. Model simulated profiles of PCE with the kinetic coefficients evaluated earlier from individual experiments were compared with parameters fitted for observations in experiments with dissolution coupled biodegradation process using optimization routines. Complete disappearance of PCE from DNAPL and aqueous phase was observed in a span of 14 days in systems triggered with biosurfactant production through enhanced dissolution and biodegradation. Synergistic effect of dissolution process towards biodegradation was observed as bioavailability of PCE was increased by 3.1 times in systems with biosurfactant production. Modelling studies illustrate that biodegradation on the other hand synergistically enhanced dissolution by elevating the dissolution rates by 1.4 times. This study also suggests a mass transfer phenomenon is greatly influenced not only by surface active molecules but by microbes as well.

Dominic, J.; Nambi, I. M.

2013-12-01

298

DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected VOC soil gas concentrations during ASVE. Five (5) SVE wells that were located closest to the air injection wells were used as monitoring points during the air sparging tests. The air sparging tests lasted 48 hours. Soil gas sample results indicate that sparging did not affect VOC concentrations in four of the five sparging wells, while results from one test did show an increase in soil gas concentrations.

Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

2012-09-20

299

Long-term ground penetrating radar monitoring of a small volume DNAPL release in a natural groundwater flow field.  

PubMed

An earlier field experiment at Canadian Forces Base Borden by Brewster and Annan [Geophysics 59 (1994) 1211] clearly demonstrated the capability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) reflection profiling to detect and monitor the formation of DNAPL layers in the subsurface. Their experiment involved a large volume release (770 L) of tetrachloroethylene into a portion of the sand aquifer that was hydraulically isolated from groundwater flow by sheet pile walls. In this study, we evaluated the ability of GPR profiling to detect and monitor much smaller volume releases (50 L). No subsurface confining structure was used in this experiment; hence, the DNAPL impacted zone was subjected to the natural groundwater flow regime. This condition allowed us to geophysically monitor the DNAPL mass loss over a 66 month period. Reflectivity variations on the GPR profiles were used to infer the presence and evolution of the solvent layers. GPR imaging found significant reflectivity increases due to solvent layer formation during the two week period immediately after the release. These results demonstrated the capacity of GPR profiling for the detection and monitoring of lesser volume DNAPL releases that are more representative of small-scale industrial spills. The GPR imaged solvent layers subsequently reduced in both areal extent and reflectivity after 29 months and almost completely disappeared by the end of the 66 month monitoring period. Total DNAPL mass estimates based on GPR profiling data indicated that the solvent mass was reduced to 34%-36% of its maximum value after 29 months; only 4%-9% of the solvent mass remained in the study area after 66 months. These results are consistent with independent hydrogeological estimates of remaining DNAPL mass based on the downgradient monitoring of the dissolved solvent phase. Hence, we have concluded that the long-term GPR reflectivity changes of the DNAPL layers are likely the result from the dissolution of chlorinated solvents residing in those layers. The long-term monitoring results demonstrated that GPR profiling is a promising non-invasive method for use at DNAPL contaminated sites in sandy aquifers where temporal information about immiscible contaminant mass depletion due to either natural flow or remediation is needed. However, our results also indicated that the GPR signature of older DNAPL impacted zones may not differ greatly from the uncontaminated background if significant mass reduction due to dissolution has occurred. PMID:18258330

Hwang, Yong Keun; Endres, Anthony L; Piggott, Scott D; Parker, Beth L

2008-04-01

300

Final report on CCM key comparison CCM.D-K2: Comparison of liquid density standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results are presented of the key comparison CCM.D-K2 that covered the density measurements of four liquids: the density of water at 20 °C, of pentadecane at 15 °C, 20 °C, 40 °C and 60°C, of tetrachloroethlyene at 5 °C and 20 °C and of a viscous oil at 20 °C. Seven national metrology institutes measured the densities at atmospheric pressure by hydrostatic weighing of solid density standards in the time interval from 27 April 2004 to 28 June 2004. Since the participants were asked not to include components for a possible drift or inhomogeneity of the liquid in their uncertainty budget, these uncertainty contributions are investigated for the final evaluation of the data. For this purpose, results of stability and homogeneity measurements of the pilot laboratory are used. The participants decided not to include a possible drift of the liquid's density since no significant drift could be detected, and the influence of the drift and its uncertainty are negligible. Similarly, the inhomogeneity of the water and pentadecane samples is not significant and has no influence on the evaluation. Thus, it was neglected. Only the inhomogeneities of tetrachloroethylene and of the viscous oil were significant. Consequently, they were included in the evaluation. With one or two exceptions, the results show good agreement among the participants. Only in the case of water are the results clearly discrepant. The key comparison reference values were calculated by the weighted mean (taking into account a small correlation between two participants) in the case of consistent results. Otherwise the Procedure B of Cox was used. The expanded uncertainties of all reference densities are below 1 × 10-5 in relative terms. This satisfies the needs of all customers who wish to calibrate or check liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. The comparison fully supports the calibration measurement capabilities table in the BIPM key comparison database. The results can be used to link regional comparisons to this CCM key comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

Bettin, Horst; Jacques, Claude; Zelenka, Zoltán; Fujii, Ken-ichi; Kuramoto, Naoki; Chang, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Yong Jae; Becerra, Luis Omar; Domostroeva, Natalia

2013-01-01

301

Cracking of Clay Due to Contact with Waste Chlorinated Solvents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clays are known to crack upon desiccation. Desiccation cracks of up to 3 cm wide have been reported in natural soils. This raises the question if a similar behavior is seen when a dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) waste is in contact with clay. The contact with organic liquids causes the clay structure to shrink, leading to the formation of cracks. Moreover, DNAPL waste not only contains the organic liquid solvent but also includes surface-active solutes or surfactants. Such solutes can enhance the interaction of the organic solvents with the clay. This research will assess whether or not contact with chlorinated organic waste causes cracking. In order to evaluate the possibility of cracking in the clay, microcosms have been constructed that mimic aquifer systems, consisting of a saturated layer of sand, a saturated layer of bentonite clay and a 2.5 cm layer of either pure chlorinated solvents or DNAPL waste. The onset of cracking for the microcosm with tetrachloroethylene (PCE) waste as the DNAPL layer occurred after ten days of contact. Similarly, at eight days, cracks were observed in a microcosm containing trichloroethylene (TCE) waste . Forty-four days later, the length and number of cracks have grown considerably; with a total crack length of 50 cm on a surface of 80 cm2 in the microcosm containing PCE waste. On the other hand it took approximately 161 days for the clay layer in the microcosm containing pure PCE to crack. To quantity the degree of cracking, crack maps were developed using the image software, Image J. Characteristics like crack length, crack aperture, and the percentage of total length for a range of apertures were calculated using this software. For example, for the PCE waste microcosm, it was calculated that 3.7% of the crack length had an aperture of 100-300 microns, 15.1% of the crack length had an aperture of 300-500 microns, 29.7% of the crack length had an aperture of 500-700 microns, 40.1% of the crack length had an aperture of 700-900 microns, 6.3% had an aperture of 900-1,100 microns and 5.1% had an aperture of over 1,100 microns. These data suggest that aquitards in the field might crack when in contact with the DNAPL waste. Moreover, it is apparent that the waste contains solutes that accelerate the cracking of the clay layer. Thus, models examining the impact of storage in low permeability layers need to consider the possible impact of cracking.

Otero, M.; Ayral, D.; Shipan, J.; Goltz, M. N.; Huang, J.; Demond, A. H.

2012-12-01

302

Polymer coated gold nanoparticles for tracing the mobility of engineered nanoparticles in the subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles (NPs) are manufactured for their specific properties providing possibilities for new and improved products and applications. The use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) has therefore brought significant innovation and advances to society, including benefits for human health and the environment. At the same time, little is known about the potential risk associated with the inevitable release of these new materials to the environment, and their new properties are poorly understood . Suspensions of ENPs are not very stable, as they tend to aggregate thereby losing their properties as single particles. Coatings, including a large variety of natural and synthetic polymers, are used to enhance the colloid stability in high concentrations . However, increasing the stability of these materials may lead to unintended effects, such as enhancing their mobility in surface water and groundwater leading to inadvertent impacts on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Detection of ENPs in natural water systems, however, has proved very challenging. Hence, there is a need for tracing of ENP behaviour in the environment. We suggest a possibility of introducing inert gold NPs with the same mobility as the reactive NPs, as tracer particles. Colloidal gold has been of great interest for centuries due to its vibrant colors produced by the interaction with visible light. The unusual optical-electronic properties, high chemical stability and relatively low toxicity have made them the model system of choice in this context. Also, the natural occurrence of these particles in the proposed environment is very rare. Laboratory based experiments conducted in sand columns show that stable aqueous suspensions of gold NPs coated with amphiphilic block co polymers (PVP-VA and PVA-COOH) are extremely mobile (retardation factors of 1.0-1.2) with high recovery values (50-95 %). The specific retardation and recovery depends on the coating type, concentration and grafting method. The NPs also show significant partitioning to organic phases such as tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), which are considered as potential ground water pollutants accumulated in the subsurface as DNAPLs (dense non-aqueous phase liquids). Being a noble metal, nanogold is to be detected by nondestructive optical methods at a concentration of at least 1000 fold lower than ENPs. Using conventional spectrophotometric technique equipped with liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC), nanogold is detected at very low concentration range (1 ppm - 62.5 ppb). Compared to uncoated particles, surface modified nanogold with polymers retains the plasmonic peaks at 520 nm when diluted with artificial ground water. Acknowledgement: The low level detection of nanogold using LWCC was done at the department of nuclear and quantum engineering, KAIST (Korea Advance Institute of Science and Technology), 291 Daehak-ro, (373-1, Guseong-dong), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of KOREA. We acknowledge Prof. Woojin Lee, Prof. Jong-Il Yun, Kim A Young and Tae Hyeong Kim for the same.

Uthuppu, Basil; Sidelmann Fjordbøge, Annika; Caspersen, Eva; Broholm, Mette Martina; Havsteen Jakobsen, Mogens

2014-05-01

303

Surface-water-quality assessment of the upper Illinois River Basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin; pesticides and other synthetic organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota, 1975-90  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The distribution of pesticides and other synthetic organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota in the upper Illinois River Basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin was examined from 1987 through 1990 as part of the pilot National Water-Quality Assesssment Program conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. Historical data for water and sediment collected from 1975 through 1986 were similar to data collected from 1987 through 1990. Some compounds were detected in concentrations that exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria. Results from pesticide sampling at four stations in 1988 and 1989 identified several agricultural pesticides that were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in urban areas than in agricultural areas. Results from herbicide sampling at 17 stations in the Kankakee and Iroquois River Basins in 1990 indicated that atrazine concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level for drinking water during runoff periods. Results from sampling for volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in water indicate that, with one exception, all stations at which more than one compound was detected were within 2 miles downstream from the nearest point source. Detections at two stations in the Chicago urban area accounted for 37 percent of the total number of detections. Concentrations of tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,2-dichlorethane from stations in the Des Plaines River Basin exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level for drinking water in one and two samples from the two stations in the Chicago area. Phenols and pentachlorophenols were detected most frequently in the Des Plaines River Basin where point-source discharges were common. Phenol concentrations were significantly different among the Des Plaines, Kankakee, and Fox River Basins. Phenols and pentachlorophenols never exceeded the general use and secondary contact standards. Results from a 1989 synoptic survey of semivolatile organic compounds in sediment indicate that these compounds were detected most frequently at sites in the Chicago urban area. Of the 17 stations at which 10 or more compounds were detected, 14 were located in the Des Plaines River subbasin, and 1 was on the Illinois River mainstem. As was the case with organic compounds in water, each of these sites was located within 2 miles downstream from point sources. Biota samples were collected and analyzed for organochlorines and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in 1989 and 1990. The most commonly detected compound in both years was p,p'-DDE. National Academy of Science recommendations for chlordane and dieldrin for protection of predators were exceeded in 19 and 10 samples, respectively, when the 1989 and 1990 data were combined. In the nine fish-fillet samples collected in 1989, concentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency fish-tissue criteria in nine fillets for p,p'-DDE and five fillets for dieldrin.

Sullivan, Daniel J.; Stinson, Troy W.; Crawford, J. Kent; Schmidt, Arthur R.; Colman, John A.

1998-01-01

304

Probabilistic performance-assessment modeling of the mixed waste landfill at Sandia National Laboratories.  

SciTech Connect

A probabilistic performance assessment has been conducted to evaluate the fate and transport of radionuclides (americium-241, cesium-137, cobalt-60, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, radium-226, radon-222, strontium-90, thorium-232, tritium, uranium-238), heavy metals (lead and cadmium), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL). Probabilistic analyses were performed to quantify uncertainties inherent in the system and models for a 1,000-year period, and sensitivity analyses were performed to identify parameters and processes that were most important to the simulated performance metrics. Comparisons between simulated results and measured values at the MWL were made to gain confidence in the models and perform calibrations when data were available. In addition, long-term monitoring requirements and triggers were recommended based on the results of the quantified uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. At least one-hundred realizations were simulated for each scenario defined in the performance assessment. Conservative values and assumptions were used to define values and distributions of uncertain input parameters when site data were not available. Results showed that exposure to tritium via the air pathway exceeded the regulatory metric of 10 mrem/year in about 2% of the simulated realizations when the receptor was located at the MWL (continuously exposed to the air directly above the MWL). Simulations showed that peak radon gas fluxes exceeded the design standard of 20 pCi/m{sup 2}/s in about 3% of the realizations if up to 1% of the containers of sealed radium-226 sources were assumed to completely degrade in the future. If up to 100% of the containers of radium-226 sources were assumed to completely degrade, 30% of the realizations yielded radon surface fluxes that exceeded the design standard. For the groundwater pathway, simulations showed that none of the radionuclides or heavy metals (lead and cadmium) reached the groundwater during the 1,000-year evaluation period. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was used as a proxy for other VOCs because of its mobility and potential to exceed maximum contaminant levels in the groundwater relative to other VOCs. Simulations showed that PCE reached the groundwater, but only 1% of the realizations yielded aquifer concentrations that exceeded the regulatory metric of 5 {micro}g/L. Based on these results, monitoring triggers have been proposed for the air, surface soil, vadose zone, and groundwater at the MWL. Specific triggers include numerical thresholds for radon concentrations in the air, tritium concentrations in surface soil, infiltration through the vadose zone, and uranium and select VOC concentrations in groundwater. The proposed triggers are based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Energy regulatory standards. If a trigger is exceeded, then a trigger evaluation process will be initiated which will allow sufficient data to be collected to assess trends and recommend corrective actions, if necessary.

Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc.); Miller, Mark Laverne; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

2005-11-01

305

Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 1998  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year (FY) 1998 on the Word Site, Washington. Soil-vapor extraction in the 200-West Area removed 777 kg of carbon tetrachloride in FY 1998, for a total of 75,490 kg removed since remediation began in 1992. Spectral gamma logging and evaluation of historical gross gamma logs near tank farms and liquid-disposal sites in the 200 Areas provided information on movement of contaminants in the vadose zone. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1997 and June 1998. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes in groundwater were tritium and iodine-129. Concentrations of technetium-99, uranium, strontium-90, and carbon-14 also exceeded drinking water standards in smaller plumes. Plutonium and cesium-137 exceeded standards only near the 216-B-5 injection well. Derived concentration guide levels specified in U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.5 were exceeded for tritium, uranium, strontium-90, and plutonium in small plumes or single wells. One well completed in the basalt-confined aquifer beneath the 200-East Area exceeded the drinking water standard for technetium-99. Nitrate is the most extensive chemical contaminant. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chromium, cis-l, Z-dichloroethylene, fluoride, and trichloroethylene also were present in smaller areas at levels above their maximum contaminant levels. Cyanide concentrations were elevated in one area but were below the maximum contaminant level. Tetrachloroethylene exceeded its maximum contaminant level in several wells in the 300 Area for the first time since the 1980s. Metals such as aluminum, cadmium, iron, manganese, and nickel exceeded their maximum contaminant levels in filtered samples from numerous wells; they are believed to represent natural components of groundwater. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 groundwater monitoring continued at 25 waste management areas during FY 1998: 17 under detection programs and data indicate that they are not adversely affecting groundwater, 6 under interim-status groundwater-quality-assessment programs to assess possible contamination, and 2 under final-status corrective-action programs. Groundwater remediation in the 100 Areas continued to reduce the amount of strontium-90 (100-N) and chromium (100-K, D, and H) reaching the Columbia River. Two systems in the 200-West Area operated to prevent the spread of carbon tetrachloride and technetide uranium plumes. Groundwater monitoring continued at these sites and at other sites where there is no active remediation. A three-dimensional, numerical groundwater model was applied to simulate radionuclide movement from sources in the 200 Areas following site closure in 2050. Contaminants will continue to move toward the southeast and north (through Gable Gap), but the areas with levels exceeding drinking water standards will diminish.

Hartman, M.J. [and others

1999-03-24

306

Injection of Emulsified Vegetable Oil for Long-Term Bioreduction of Uranium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ bioremediation of a uranium and nitrate-contaminated aquifer with the slow-release electron donor, emulsified vegetable oil (EVO), was tested at the US DOE Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Program (SBR) Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site, in Oak Ridge, TN. The EVO injection took place in Area 2 of the IFRC located about 300 m downgradient of the former S-3 disposal ponds. Liquid wastes, disposed in the ponds from 1951 to 1983, were primarily composed of nitric acid, plating wastes containing various metals (Cr, Ni) radionuclides (U, Tc), inorganics (nitrate, sulfate) and organic contaminants (tetrachloroethylene, acetone). Prior pond closure in 1987, large volumes of waste fluids migrated into the subsurface, down Bear Creek Valley and into Bear Creek. Contaminants detected at Area 2 were transported through a high permeability gravelly fill that is considered a preferred transport pathway for U to Bear Creek. Groundwater in the gravelly fill is contaminated with U (1-3 mg/L), sulfate (95-130 mg/L), and nitrate (20-40 mg/L) and 500 mg/kg or higher U has been detected on the solid phase of the fill material. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility and long-term sustainability of U(VI) reduction and immobilization, and nitrate degradation in the high permeability, high flow gravel fill using EVO as the electron donor. A one-time EVO injection was conducted over a 2 hour period in the highly permeable gravel (hydraulic conductivity 0.08 cm/sec) in the well instrumented IFRC Area 2 field plot. Extensive monitoring of geochemical parameters, dissolved gases and microbial populations were conducted during the test. A bromide tracer test was conducted prior to the injection of the EVO to assess transport pathways and rates. Geochemical analysis of site groundwater demonstrated the sequential bioreduction of oxygen, nitrate, Mn(IV), Fe(III) and sulfate. Transient accumulation of acetate was observed as an intermediate in the oil degradation. Reduction and removal of U and nitrate from groundwater was observed in all wells in hydraulic connection to the injection wells after 2-4 weeks. U concentrations in groundwater were reduced to below 30 ppb (US EPA drinking water standard) at some well locations and nitrate was reduced to below detectable levels. Rebound of U in groundwater was observed together with the rebound of sulfate concentrations as the EVO was consumed. The flux of U and nitrate contamination from groundwater to the surface water receptor (Bear Creek) was significantly reduced by the EVO injection over a one year period. Uranium (VI) reduction to U(IV) in the field tests was confirmed by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis. The reduced U(IV) was determined by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) to be in an Fe-U complex, not uraninite. The activities of major Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing bacteria with U(VI)-reducing capability as well as methanogens was stimulated after injection of the oil.

Brooks, S. C.; Watson, D. B.; Schadt, C. W.; Jardine, P. M.; Gihring, T. M.; Zhang, G.; Mehlhorn, T.; Lowe, K.; Phillips, J.; Earles, J.; Wu, W.; Criddle, C. S.; Kemner, K. M.; Boyanov, M.

2011-12-01

307

Development and evaluation of a harmonized physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for perchloroethylene toxicokinetics in mice, rats, and humans  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the development of a 'harmonized' PBPK model for the toxicokinetics of perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene or perc) in mice, rats, and humans that includes both oxidation and glutathione (GSH) conjugation of perc, the internal kinetics of the oxidative metabolite trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and the urinary excretion kinetics of the GSH conjugation metabolites N-Acetylated trichlorovinyl cysteine and dichloroacetic acid. The model utilizes a wider range of in vitro and in vivo data than any previous analysis alone, with in vitro data used for initial, or 'baseline,' parameter estimates, and in vivo datasets separated into those used for 'calibration' and those used for 'evaluation.' Parameter calibration utilizes a limited Bayesian analysis involving flat priors and making inferences only using posterior modes obtained via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). As expected, the major route of elimination of absorbed perc is predicted to be exhalation as parent compound, with metabolism accounting for less than 20% of intake except in the case of mice exposed orally, in which metabolism is predicted to be slightly over 50% at lower exposures. In all three species, the concentration of perc in blood, the extent of perc oxidation, and the amount of TCA production is well-estimated, with residual uncertainties of {approx} 2-fold. However, the resulting range of estimates for the amount of GSH conjugation is quite wide in humans ({approx} 3000-fold) and mice ({approx} 60-fold). While even high-end estimates of GSH conjugation in mice are lower than estimates of oxidation, in humans the estimated rates range from much lower to much higher than rates for perc oxidation. It is unclear to what extent this range reflects uncertainty, variability, or a combination. Importantly, by separating total perc metabolism into separate oxidative and conjugative pathways, an approach also recommended in a recent National Research Council review, this analysis reconciles the disparity between those previously published PBPK models that concluded low perc metabolism in humans and those that predicted high perc metabolism in humans. In essence, both conclusions are consistent with the data if augmented with some additional qualifications: in humans, oxidative metabolism is low, while GSH conjugation metabolism may be high or low, with uncertainty and/or interindividual variability spanning three orders of magnitude. More direct data on the internal kinetics of perc GSH conjugation, such as trichlorovinyl glutathione or tricholorvinyl cysteine in blood and/or tissues, would be needed to better characterize the uncertainty and variability in GSH conjugation in humans. - Research Highlights: >We analyze perchloroethylene (perc) toxicokinetics with a physiological model. >Results from previous analyses lumping metabolic pathways are inconsistent. >Separately tracking oxidation and conjugation pathways reconciles these results. >Available data are adequate for predicting perc blood levels and oxidation by P450. >High uncertainty remains for human conjugation of perc with glutathione.

Chiu, Weihsueh A., E-mail: chiu.weihsueh@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Ginsberg, Gary L., E-mail: gary.ginsberg@ct.gov [Connecticut Department of Public Health, Hartford, CT 06106 (United States)

2011-06-15

308

Hydrogeologic Investigation, Water Chemistry Analysis, and Model Delineation of contributing Areas for City of Tallahassee Public-Supply Wells, Tallahassee, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer is the sole source of water supply for Tallahassee, Florida, and the surrounding area. The City of Tallahassee (the City) currently operates 28 water-supply wells; 26 wells are distributed throughout the City and 2 are located in Woodville, Florida. Most of these wells yield an ample supply of potable water; however, water from several wells has low levels of tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The City removes the PCE from the water by passing it through granular-activated carbon units before distribution. To ensure that water-supply wells presently free of contamination remain clean, it is necessary to understand the ground-water flow system in sufficient detail to protect the contributing areas. Ground-water samples collected from four public-supply wells were analyzed for tritium (3H), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Using data for the CFC compounds, apparent ground-water ages ranged from 7 to 31 years. For SF6, the apparent ages tended to be about 5 to 10 years younger than those from CFCs. Apparent ages based on the tritium/tritiogenic helium-3 (3H/3Hetrit) method ranged from 26 to 33 years. The three dating methods indicate that the apparent age of ground water generally decreases from northern to southern Leon County. This southward trend of decreasing ages is consistent with increasing amounts of recharge that occur as ground water moves from north to south. The ground-water age data derived by geochemical and tracer analyses were used in combination with the flow model and particle tracking to determine an effective porosity for the Hawthorn clays and Upper Floridan aquifer. The effective porosities for the Upper Floridan aquifer that resulted in best model matches were averaged to produce an effective porosity of 7 percent, and the effective porosities for the Hawthorn clays that resulted in a match were averaged to produce an effective porosity of 22 percent. Probabilistic contributing areas were determined for 26 City wells using MODFLOW and MODPATH. For each probabilistic contributing area delineated, the model was run 100 times and the results were analyzed statistically. For each of the 100 runs, a different hydraulic conductivity for each of the zones was assigned to the Upper Floridan aquifer. The hydraulic conductivities were generated randomly assuming a lognormal probability distribution; the mean of the distribution was equal to the hydraulic conductivity from the calibrated model. The 5-year time-dependent capture zones (TDCZs), assuming effective porosities of 0.1, 1, and 7 percent for four representative wells, were delineated. The higher probabilities of capture (greater than 40, 60, and 80 percent) were similar for all effective porosities, and the TDCZ delineated using a 7-percent porosity was slightly smaller; the lower probabilities of capture (greater than 10 and 20 percent) showed a large range of variability.

Davis, J. Hal; Katz, Brian G.

2007-01-01

309

Quality of shallow ground water in areas of recent residential and commercial development, Wichita, Kansas, 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples from 30 randomly distributed monitoring wells in areas of recent residential and commercial development (1960-96), Wichita, Kansas, were collected in 2000 as part of the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The samples were analyzed for about 170 water-quality constituents that included chlorofluorocarbons, physical properties, dissolved solids and major ions, nutrients and dissolved organic carbon, trace elements, pesticide compounds, and volatile organic compounds. The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of water quality in recharge to shallow ground water underlying areas of recent residential and commercial development and to determine the relation of ground-water quality to overlying urban land use. Analyses of water from the 30 monitoring wells for chlorofluorocarbons were used to estimate apparent dates of recharge. Water from 18 wells with nondegraded and uncontaminated chlorofluorocarbon concentrations had calculated apparent recharge dates that ranged from 1979 to 1990 with an average date of 1986. Water from 14 monitoring wells (47 percent) exceeded the 500-milligrams-per-liter Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for dissolved solids in drinking water. The Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels of 250 milligrams per liter for chloride and sulfate were exceeded in water from one well. The source of the largest concentrations of dissolved solids and associated ions, such as chloride and sulfate, in shallow ground water in the study area probably is highly mineralized water moving out of the Arkansas River into the adjacent, unconsolidated deposits and mixing with the dominant calcium bicarbonate water in the deposits. Concentrations of most nutrients in water from the sampled wells were small, with the exception of nitrate. Although water from the sampled wells did not have nitrate concentrations larger than the 10-milligram-per-liter Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water, water from 50 percent of the sampled wells showed nitrate enrichment (concentrations greater than 2.0 milligrams per liter). Most trace elements in water from the sampled wells were detected only in small concentrations, and few exceeded respective water-quality standards. Twenty percent of iron concentrations, 40 percent of manganese concentrations, 3 percent of arsenic concentrations, and 13 percent of uranium concentrations exceeded respective Maximum Contaminant Levels or Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels. A total of 47 pesticide compounds were analyzed in ground-water samples during this study. Water from 73 percent of the wells sampled had detectable concentrations of one or more of 8 of these 47 compounds. The herbicide atrazine or its degradation product deethylatrazine were detected most frequently (in water from 70 percent of the sampled wells). Metolachlor was detected in water from 10 percent of the wells, and simazine was detected in water from 30 percent of the wells sampled. Other pesticides detected included dieldrin, pendimethalin, prometon, and tebuthiuron (each in water from 3 percent of the wells). All concentrations of these compounds were less than established Maximum Contaminant Levels. A total of 85 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed in ground-water samples during this study. Water from 43 percent of the wells had a detectable concentration of one or more VOCs. Chloroform was the most frequently detected VOC (23 percent of the wells sampled).Seven other VOCs were detected in water at frequencies of 13 percent or less in the wells sampled. Concentrations of VOCs were less than respective Maximum Contaminant Levels, except one sample with a concentration of 9.0 micrograms per liter for tetrachloroethylene (Maximum Contaminant Level of 5.0 micrograms per liter). An analysis of hydraulic gradient, flow velocity

Pope, Larry M.; Bruce, Breton W.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Milligan, Chad R.

2002-01-01

310

Ground-water system, estimation of aquifer hydraulic properties, and effects of pumping on ground-water flow in Triassic sedimentary rocks in and near Lansdale, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water in Triassic-age sedimentary fractured-rock aquifers in the area of Lansdale, Pa., is used as drinking water and for industrial supply. In 1979, ground water in the Lansdale area was found to be contaminated with trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and other man-made organic compounds, and in 1989, the area was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) National Priority List as the North Penn Area 6 site. To assist the USEPA in the hydrogeological assessment of the site, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1995 to describe the ground-water system and to determine the effects of changes in the well pumping patterns on the direction of ground-water flow in the Lansdale area. This determination is based on hydrologic and geophysical data collected from 1995-98 and on results of the simulation of the regional ground-water-flow system by use of a numerical model.Correlation of natural-gamma logs indicate that the sedimentary rock beds strike generally northeast and dip at angles less than 30 degrees to the northwest. The ground-water system is confined or semi-confined, even at shallow depths; depth to bedrock commonly is less than 20 feet (6 meters); and depth to water commonly is about 15 to 60 feet (5 to 18 meters) below land surface. Single-well, aquifer-interval-isolation (packer) tests indicate that vertical permeability of the sedimentary rocks is low. Multiple-well aquifer tests indicate that the system is heterogeneous and that flow appears primarily in discrete zones parallel to bedding. Preferred horizontal flow along strike was not observed in the aquifer tests for wells open to the pumped interval. Water levels in wells that are open to the pumped interval, as projected along the dipping stratigraphy, are drawn down more than water levels in wells that do not intersect the pumped interval. A regional potentiometric map based on measured water levels indicates that ground water flows from Lansdale towards discharge areas in three drainages, the Wissahickon, Towamencin, and Neshaminy Creeks.Ground-water flow was simulated for different pumping patterns representing past and current conditions. The three-dimensional numerical flow model (MODFLOW) was automatically calibrated by use of a parameter estimation program (MODFLOWP). Steady-state conditions were assumed for the calibration period of 1996. Model calibration indicates that estimated recharge is 8.2 inches (208 millimeters) and the regional anisotropy ratio for the sedimentary-rock aquifer is about 11 to 1, with permeability greatest along strike. The regional anisotropy is caused by up- and down-dip termination of high-permeability bed-oriented features, which were not explicitly simulated in the regional-scale model. The calibrated flow model was used to compare flow directions and capture zones in Lansdale for conditions corresponding to relatively high pumping rates in 1994 and to lower pumping rates in 1997. Comparison of the 1994 and 1997 simulations indicates that wells pumped at the lower 1997 rates captured less ground water from known sites of contamination than wells pumped at the 1994 rates. Ground-water flow rates away from Lansdale increased as pumpage decreased in 1997.A preliminary evaluation of the relation between ground-water chemistry and conditions favorable for the degradation of chlorinated solvents was based on measurements of dissolved-oxygen concentration and other chemical constituents in water samples from 92 wells. About 18 percent of the samples contained less than or equal to 5 milligrams per liter dissolved oxygen, a concentration that indicates reducing conditions favorable for degradation of chlorinated solvents.

Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

1999-01-01

311

Reactive hydro- end chlorocarbons in the troposphere and lower stratosphere : sources, distributions, and chemical impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presented in this thesis focuses on measurements of chemical reactive C2 C7 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and C1 C2 chlorocarbons with atmospheric lifetimes of a few hours up to about a year. The group of reactive chlorocarbons includes the most abundant atmospheric species with large natural sources, which are chloromethane (CH3Cl), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), and trichloromethane (CHCl3), and tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4) with mainly anthropogenic sources. The NMHC and chlorocarbons are present at relatively low quantities in our atmosphere (10-12 10-9 mol mol-1 of air). Nevertheless, they play a key role in atmospheric photochemistry. For example, the oxidation of NMHC plays a dominant role in the formation of ozone in the troposphere, while the photolysis of chlorocarbons contributes to enhanced ozone depletion in the stratosphere. In spite of their important role, however, their global source and sinks budgets are still poorly understood. Hence, this study aims at improving our understanding of the sources, distribution, and chemical role of reactive NMHC and chlorocarbons in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. To meet this aim, a comprehensive data set of selected C2 C7 NMHC and chlorocarbons has been analyzed, derived from six aircraft measurement campaigns with two different jet aircrafts (the Dutch TUD/NLR Cessna Citation PH-LAB, and the German DLR Falcon) conducted between 1995 and 2001 (STREAM 1995 and 1997 and 1998, LBA-CLAIRE 1998, INDOEX 1999, MINOS 2001). The NMHC and chlorocarbons have been detected by gas-chromatography (GC-FID/ECD) in pre-concentrated whole air samples collected in stainless steel canister on-board the measurement aircrafts. The measurement locations include tropical (Maldives/Indian Ocean and Surinam), midlatitude (Western Europe and Canada) and polar regions (Lapland/northern Sweden) between the equator to about 70ºN, covering different seasons and pollution levels in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Of special interest in this thesis are the tropical regions because they are becoming increasingly important in terms of global anthropogenic pollution and climate change. In addition, natural emissions of hydrocarbons (notably isoprene and terpenes from plants) and reactive chlorocarbons appear to be concentrated in the tropics, where the largest uncertainties exist with respect to source type and source strength. Whenever available, the reactive NMHC and chlorocarbon data have been analyzed with the help of concurrent measurements, which includes ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), total reactive oxidized nitrogen (NOy), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), acetone (CH3COCH3), methanol (CH3OH), acetonitrile (CH3CN), the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11 (CCl3F) and CFC-12 (CCl2F2), the hydrofluorocarbon HFC-134a (CH2FCF3), and the hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFC-141b (CH3CCl2F) and HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2). These additional measurements provided important information about the air mass origin, pollution sources, and chemical age of the encountered air masses. The STREAM-measurements contribute to the present understanding of the budgets of reactive organic trace species in the mid-latitude lower stratosphere at different seasonal conditions. It was found that during summer and fall, the mean concentrations of reactive NMHC and acetone in the lower stratosphere were a factor of two or more higher than during winter, as a result of more intense and frequent mixing across the tropopause. The role of tropical emissions in the global budget of hydrocarbons and the chlorocarbons CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, and C2Cl4 has been investigated during the LBA/CLAIRE 1998, INDOEX 1999 and MINOS 2001 campaigns. The INDOEX measurements over the Indian Ocean showed that strongly enhanced CH3Cl and related combustion tracers, such as CO, hydrocarbons and CH3CN in polluted air masses from India and Southeast Asia, relate to the extensive use of biofuels (notably the burning of agricultural waste and dung) in households and small industries. During the MINOS campaign

Scheeren, H. A.

2003-09-01

312

Application of health-based screening levels to ground-water quality data in a state-scale pilot effort  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A state-scale pilot effort was conducted to evaluate a Health-Based Screening Level (HBSL) approach developed for communicating findings from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program in a human-health context. Many aquifers sampled by USGS are used as drinking-water sources, and water-quality conditions historically have been assessed by comparing measured contaminant concentrations to established drinking-water standards and guidelines. Because drinking-water standards and guidelines do not exist for many analyzed contaminants, HBSL values were developed collaboratively by the USGS, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, and Oregon Health & Science University, using USEPA toxicity values and USEPA Office of Water methodologies. The main objective of this report is to demonstrate the use of HBSL approach as a tool for communicating water-quality data in a human-health context by conducting a retrospective analysis of ground-water quality data from New Jersey. Another important objective is to provide guidance on the use and interpretation of HBSL values and other human-health benchmarks in the analyses of water-quality data in a human-health context. Ground-water samples collected during 1996-98 from 30 public-supply, 82 domestic, and 108 monitoring wells were analyzed for 97 pesticides and 85 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The occurrence of individual pesticides and VOCs was evaluated in a human-health context by calculating Benchmark Quotients (BQs), defined as ratios of measured concentrations of regulated compounds (that is, compounds with Federal or state drinking-water standards) to Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) values and ratios of measured concentrations of unregulated compounds to HBSL values. Contaminants were identified as being of potential human-health concern if maximum detected concentrations were within a factor of 10 of the associated MCL or HBSL (that is, maximum BQ value (BQmax) greater than or equal to 0.1) in any well type (public supply, domestic, monitoring). Most (57 of 77) pesticides and VOCs with human-health benchmarks were detected at concentrations well below these levels (BQmax less than 0.1) for all three well types; however, BQmax values ranged from 0.1 to 3,000 for 6 pesticides and 14 VOCs. Of these 20 contaminants, one pesticide (dieldrin) and three VOCs (1,2-dibromoethane, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene) both (1) were measured at concentrations that met or exceeded MCL or HBSL values, and (2) were detected in more than 10 percent of samples collected from raw ground water used as sources of drinking water (public-supply and (or) domestic wells) and, therefore, are particularly relevant to human health. The occurrence of multiple pesticides and VOCs in individual wells also was evaluated in a human-health context because at least 53 different contaminants were detected in each of the three well types. To assess the relative human-health importance of the occurrence of multiple contaminants in different wells, the BQ values for all contaminants in a given well were summed. The median ratio of the maximum BQ to the sum of all BQ values for each well ranged from 0.83 to 0.93 for all well types, indicating that the maximum BQ makes up the majority of the sum for most wells. Maximum and summed BQ values were statistically greater for individual public-supply wells than for individual domestic and monitoring wells. The HBSL approach is an effective tool for placing water-quality data in a human-health context. For 79 of the 182 compounds analyzed in this study, no USEPA drinking-water standards or guidelines exist, but new HBSL values were calculated for 39 of these 79 compounds. The new HBSL values increased the number of detected pesticides and VOCs with human-health benchmarks from 65 to 77 (of 97 detected compounds), thereby expanding the basis for interpreting contaminant-occu

Toccalino, Patricia L.; Norman, Julia E.; Phillips, Robyn H.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Stackelberg, Paul E.; Nowell, Lisa H.; Krietzman, Sandra J.; Post, Gloria B.

2004-01-01

313

Final report on the safety assessment of Trichloroethane.  

PubMed

Trichloroethane functions in cosmetics as a solvent. Although Trichloroethane has been reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in cosmetic products, an industry survey found that it is not in current use in the cosmetic industry. Trichloroethane is considered a Class I ozone-depleting substance by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its use is prohibited in the United States, unless considered essential. The FDA has stated that Trichloroethane's use in cosmetics is considered nonessential. Trichloroethane is detected by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and gas-liquid chromatography. In rats, Trichloroethane, whether inhaled or injected, is mostly expelled intact from the body through exhalation. A very small percentage is excreted in the urine. In humans, Trichloroethane is rapidly absorbed through the skin and eliminated in exhaled air and a very small percentage is excreted in urine. Inhaled Trichloroethane is eliminated in exhaled air. Acute oral LD(50) values have been reported as follows: 12.3 g/kg in male rats; 10.3 g/kg in female rats; 11.24 g/kg in female mice; 5.66 g/kg in female rabbits; and 9.47 g/kg in male guinea pigs. Acute toxicity studies using other routes of exposure, including subcutaneous injection and inhalation, produced no evidence of significant toxicity, except at very high exposure levels. Continuous inhalation exposure of rabbits to 750 mg/m(3) for 90 days did not produce any signs of toxicity. Continuous exposure of rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, and monkeys to 500 ppm Trichloroethane for 6 months did not produce any signs of toxicity. Other short-term and subchronic inhalation exposures confirmed acute and short-term exposure findings that the toxic effects of inhalation were a function of both concentration and time. Rats receiving 750 or 1500 mg/kg day(- 1) Trichloroethane in corn oil by oral gavage 5 days per week for 78 weeks had reduced body weights and early mortality. Reduced body weights, decreased survival rates, and early mortality (in females) were found in mice dosed with 3000 or 6000 mg/kg day(- 1) (over the last 58 weeks; lower doses were administered for the first 20 weeks). Mice exposed to prolonged periods of Trichloroethane in an inhalation chamber had increased motor activity at levels up to 5000 ppm. Further increase of concentration of exposure resulted in less of an increase of motor activity until motor activity began to fall below normal at 10,000 ppm. Adverse effects on motor activity in rats were seen at exposures as low as 3000 ppm for 4 h. Rabbits had slight reddening and scaling after 10 24-h applications to abdominal skin of Trichloroethane mixed with 2.4% to 3.0% dioxane, and slight to moderate erythema, slight edema, and slight exfoliation was observed when 75% Trichloroethane and 25% tetrachloroethylene were applied to rabbit ears for 11 days. Undiluted Trichloroethane applied to the clipped backs of guinea pigs produced histopathologic damage in the epidermis. A primary irritation index of 5.22 (out of 8) was reported in rabbits. Trichloroethane applied to the eyes of rabbits resulted in transient irritation and apparent pain, but no corneal damage. There was no effect on gestation, pup survival, or growth in mice given Trichloroethane in drinking water at up to 5.83 mg/ml during mating and/or gestation. Rats exhibited no or minimal effects of ingestion of Trichloroethane up to 30 ppm in drinking water during mating and/or gestation. There was no effect on gestation, pup survival, or growth in mice or rats inhaling 875 ppm Trichloroethane. However, prenatal exposure of rodents to Trichloroethane can produce developmental toxicity in the form of delayed development in the offspring. Trichloroethane has been found to be mutagenic in the Ames assay in some studies and not mutagenic in others. Trichloroethane induced transformations in Fischer rat embryo cell system at 99 mu M, was not mutagenic using the mouse lymphoma assay at up to 0.51 mu g/ml, was equivocal in that assay when tested with S9, and was also

2008-01-01

314

Hydrogeologic investigation of the Malvern TCE Superfund Site, Chester County, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Malvern TCE Superfund Site, a former solvent recycling facility that now stores and sells solvents, consists of a plant and disposal area, which are approximately 1,900 ft (feet) apart. The site is underlain by an unconfined carbonate bedrock aquifer in which permeability has been enhanced in places by solution. Water levels respond quickly to precipitation and show a similar seasonal variation, response to precipitation, and range of fluctuation. The altitude of water levels in wells at the disposal area is nearly identical because of the small hydraulic gradient. A comparison of water-table maps for 1983, 1993, and 1994 shows that the general shape of the water table and hydraulic gradients in the area have remained the same through time and for different climatic conditions. The plant area is underlain by dolomite of the Elbrook Formation. The dolomite at the plant area does not yield as much water as the dolomite at the disposal area because it is less fractured, and wells penetrate few water-bearing fractures. Yields of nine wells at the plant area range from 1 to 200 gal/min (gallons per minute); the median yield is 6 gal/min. Specific capacities range from 0.08 to 2 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot). Aquifer tests were conducted in two wells; median transmissivities estimated from the aquifer-test data ranged from 528 to 839 feet squared per day. Maximum concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in ground water at the plant area in 1996 were 53,900 ug/L (micrograms per liter) for trichloroethylene (TCE), 7,110 ug/L for tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and 17,700 ug/L for 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA). A ground-water divide is located between the plant area and the disposal area. Ground-water withdrawal for dewatering the Catanach quarry has caused a cone of depression in the water-table surface that reaches to the plant area. From the plant area, ground water flows 1.2 miles to the northeast and discharges to the Catanach quarry. The regional hydraulic gradient between the plant and the Catanach quarry is 0.019. Concentrations of VOC's in water from wells drilled northeast and donwgradient of the plant property boundary are one to two orders of magnitude less than concentrations in water from wells less than 100 ft away at the plant. A capture-zone analysis was performed for two wells at the plant area. The analysis showed that pumping well CC-19 at 20 gal/min would be sufficient to capture all ground-water flow from the plant area. Although water from other wells at the plant site contains higher concentrations of VOC's than water from well CC-19, pumping well CC-19 would induce the flow of water with higher concentrations of VOC's; however, pumping well CC-19 might causes VOC's to move lower into the aquifer. The disposal area is underlain by the Ledger Dolomite. The dolomite at the disposal area is much more fractured than the dolomite at the plant area. Although many of the fractures are filled or partially filled with clay, the dolomite at the disposal area yields more water than the dolomite at the plant area. Yields of eight wells at the disposal area range from 15 to more than 200 gal/min; the median yield is greater than 100 gal/min. Specific capacities range from 2 to 280 (gal/min)/ft. Aquifer tests were conducted in two wells; estimated transimissivities were 34,900 and 56,300 feet squared per day. Concentrations of VOC's in ground water are lower at the disposal area than at the plant area. Water samples collected from wells at the disposal area in 1996 had maximum concentrations of TCE of 768 ug/L, PCE of 111 ug/L, and TCA of 108 ug/L. These concentrations are lower than concentrations in water samples collected before cleanup of drums in the disposal area was completed in 1984. Ground water from the disposal area flows south-southeast toward Valley Creek. The hydraulic gradient between the disposal area and Valley Creek is 0.001. A well-defined p

Sloto, Ronald A.

1997-01-01

315

Hydrogeologic framework, ground-water quality, and simulation of ground-water flow at the Fair Lawn Well Field Superfund site, Bergen County, New Jersey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Production wells in the Westmoreland well field, Fair Lawn, Bergen County, New Jersey (the 'Fair Lawn well field Superfund site'), are contaminated with volatile organic compounds, particularly trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. In 1983, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) placed the Westmoreland well field on its National Priority List of Superfund sites. In an effort to determine ground-water flow directions, contaminant-plume boundaries, and contributing areas to production wells in Fair Lawn, and to evaluate the effect of present pump-and-treat systems on flowpaths of contaminated ground water, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USEPA, developed a conceptual hydrogeologic framework and ground-water flow model of the study area. MODFLOW-2000, the USGS three-dimensional finite-difference model, was used to delineate contributing areas to production wells in Fair Lawn and to compute flowpaths of contaminated ground water from three potential contaminant sources to the Westmoreland well field. Straddle-packer tests were used to determine the hydrologic framework of, distribution of contaminants in, and hydrologic properties of water-bearing and confining units that make up the fractured-rock aquifer underlying the study area. The study area consists of about 15 square miles in and near Fair Lawn. The area is underlain by 6 to 100 feet of glacial deposits and alluvium that, in turn, are underlain by the Passaic Formation. In the study area, the Passaic Formation consists of brownish-red pebble conglomerate, medium- to coarse-grained feldspathic sandstone, and micaceous siltstone. The bedrock strata strike N. 9o E. and dip 6.5o to the northwest. The bedrock consists of alternating layers of densely fractured rocks and sparsely fractured rocks, forming a fractured-rock aquifer. Ground-water flow in the fractured-rock aquifer is anisotropic as a result of the interlayering of dipping water-bearing and confining units. Wells of similar depth aligned along the strike of the bedding intersect the same water-bearing units, but wells aligned along the dip of the bedding may intersect different water-bearing units. Consequently, wells aligned along strike are in greater hydraulic connection than wells aligned along dip. The Borough of Fair Lawn pumps approximately 770 million gallons per year from 13 production wells. Hydrographs from six observation wells ranging in depth from 162 to 505 feet in Fair Lawn show that water levels in much of the study area are affected by pumping. Straddle packers were used to isolate discrete intervals within six open-hole observation wells owned by the Fair Lawn Water Department. Transmissivity, water-quality, and static-water-level data were obtained from the isolated intervals. Measured transmissivity ranged from near 0 to 8,900 feet squared per day. The broad range in measured transmissivity is a result of the heterogeneity of the fractured-rock aquifer. Eight water-bearing units and eight confining units were identified in the study area on the basis of transmissivity. The water-bearing units range in thickness from 21 to 95 feet; the mean thickness is 50 feet. The confining units range in thickness from 22 to 248 feet; the mean thickness is 83 feet. Water-level and water-quality data indicate effective separation of water-bearing units by the confining units. Water-quality samples were collected from the six observation wells at 16 depth intervals isolated by the straddle packers in 2000 and 2001. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds generally were low in samples from four of the wells, but were higher in samples from a well in Fair Lawn Industrial Park and in a well in the Westmoreland well field. The digital ground-water flow model was used to simulate steady-state scenarios representing conditions in the study area in 1991 and 2000. These years were chosen because during the intervening period,

Lewis-Brown, Jean C.; Rice, Donald E.; Rosman, Robert; Smith, Nicholas P.

2005-01-01

316

Final Technical Report: Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability  

SciTech Connect

The main objectives of this project were to investigate the effect of a series of potential impurities on fuel cell operation and on the particular components of the fuel cell MEA, to propose (where possible) mechanism(s) by which these impurities affected fuel cell performance, and to suggest strategies for minimizing these impurity effects. The negative effect on Pt/C was to decrease hydrogen surface coverage and hydrogen activation at fuel cell conditions. The negative effect on Nafion components was to decrease proton conductivity, primarily by replacing/reacting with the protons on the Bronsted acid sites of the Nafion. Even though already well known as fuel cell poisons, the effects of CO and NH3 were studied in great detail early on in the project in order to develop methodology for evaluating poisoning effects in general, to help establish reproducibility of results among a number of laboratories in the U.S. investigating impurity effects, and to help establish lower limit standards for impurities during hydrogen production for fuel cell utilization. New methodologies developed included (1) a means to measure hydrogen surface concentration on the Pt catalyst (HDSAP) before and after exposure to impurities, (2) a way to predict conductivity of a Nafion membranes exposed to impurities using a characteristic acid catalyzed reaction (methanol esterification of acetic acid), and, more importantly, (3) application of the latter technique to predict conductivity on Nafion in the catalyst layer of the MEA. H2-D2 exchange was found to be suitable for predicting hydrogen activation of Pt catalysts. The Nafion (ca. 30 wt%) on the Pt/C catalyst resides primarily on the external surface of the C support where it blocks significant numbers of micropores, but only partially blocks the pore openings of the meso- and macro-pores wherein lie the small Pt particles (crystallites). For this reason, even with 30 wt% Nafion on the Pt/C, few Pt sites are blocked and, hence, are accessible for hydrogen activation. Of the impurities studied, CO, NH3, perchloroethylene (also known as tetrachloroethylene), tetrahydrofuran, diborane, and metal cations had significant negative effects on the components in a fuel cell. While CO has no effect on the Nafion, it significantly poisons the Pt catalyst by adsorbing and blocking hydrogen activation. The effect can be reversed with time once the flow of CO is stopped. NH3 has no effect on the Pt catalyst at fuel cell conditions; it poisons the proton sites on Nafion (by forming NH4+ cations), decreasing drastically the proton conductivity of Nafion. This poisoning can slowly be reversed once the flow of NH3 is stopped. Perchloroethylene has a major effect on fuel cell performance. Since it has little/no effect on Nafion conductivity, its poisoning effect is on the Pt catalyst. However, this effect takes place primarily for the Pt catalyst at the cathode, since the presence of oxygen is very important for this poisoning effect. Tetrahydrofuran was shown not to impact Nafion conductivity; however, it does affect fuel cell performance. Therefore, its primary effect is on the Pt catalyst. The effect of THF on fuel cell performance is reversible. Diborane also can significant affect fuel cell performance. This effect is reversible once diborane is removed from the inlet streams. H2O2 is not an impurity usually present in the hydrogen or oxygen streams to a fuel cell. However, it is generated during fuel cell operation. The presence of Fe cations in the Nafion due to system corrosion and/or arising from MEA production act to catalyze the severe degradation of the Nafion by H2O2. Finally, the presence of metal cation impurities (Na+, Ca 2+, Fe3+) in Nafion from MEA preparation or from corrosion significantly impacts its proton conductivity due to replacement of proton sites. This effect is not reversible. Hydrocarbons, such as ethylene, might be expected to affect Pt or Nafion but do not at a typical fuel cell temperature of 80oC. In the presence of large quantities of hydrogen on the anode side, ethylene i

James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Hector Colon-Mercado; Kitiya Hongsirikarn; and Jack Z. Zhang

2011-11-11