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1

Enriched-Air and Oxygen Gasification of Illinois No. 6 Coal in a Texaco Coal-Gasification Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four runs were made with Illinois No. 6 coal, from Peabody Coal Company River King Mine at Freeburg, Illinois, to demonstrate technology to integrate the Texaco Coal Gasification Process in an environmentally acceptable manner with gas turbines for combin...

W. B. Crouch G. N. Richter E. W. Dillingham

1982-01-01

2

Assessment of environmental control technologies for Koppers-Totzek, Winkler, and Texaco coal gasification systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy, Division of Environmental Control Technology, supports the Assistant Secretary for Environment in discharging responsibilities for environmental control aspects of technology in use and development. The coal gasification technologies employed by Winkler, Koppers-Totzek (K-T) and Texaco are described. Evaluation of the status of these technologies for control of major environmental pollutants indicates that a minimum risk

L. K. Mudge; L. J. Jr. Sealock

1979-01-01

3

Coal-to-methanol: an engineering evaluation of Texaco gasification and ICI methanol-synthesis route. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a technical and economic evaluation of producing methanol from bituminous coal using Texaco coal gasification and ICI methanol synthesis. The scope of work included the development of an overall configuration for a large plant comprising coal preparation, air separation, coal gasification, shift conversion, COS hydrolysis, acid gas removal, methanol synthesis, methanol refining, and all

P. A. Buckingham; D. D. Cobb; A. A. Leavitt; W. G. Snyder

1981-01-01

4

SEM microanalysis techniques in demonstration of sulfur capture by slag and sorbents during gasification of coal in a Texaco gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Texaco's Coal Gasification Process, a significant portion of desulfurization of the product gas (synthesis gas, syngas) may be achieved by slag capture in the gasification step when various sorbents are added to the coal slurry. For example, when iron oxide is added to the coal slurry, sulfur is captured primarily in a discrete iron oxysulfide phase and to a

T. A. Laurion; M. S. Najjar; R. J. McKeon

1990-01-01

5

The Ruhrchemie\\/Ruhrkohle demonstration plant of the Texaco coal gasification process; gasification of a western U. S. coal as a pretest for Cool Water. [Utah and Illinois coals tested  

Microsoft Academic Search

In late 1980 Ruhrchemie AG and Ruhrkohle AG performed test runs on two US coals - scheduled for the Cool Water project - in their 150 tpd Texaco coal gasification demonstration plant operating at Oberhausen. West Germany. Both runs - with Illinois No. 6 and a Utah coal - were highly successful and proved the excellent design and the commercial

R. Cornilis; R. Durrfeld; J. Langhoff; P. Ruprecht

1982-01-01

6

Coal Gasification and Coal Hydrogenation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present state of the development works on the coal gasification and coal hydrogenation processes carried out by the coal producing and engineering companies is presented. The coal gasification projects are the following: Texaco suspended dust gasifica...

1980-01-01

7

Coal-to-methanol: an engineering evaluation of Texaco gasification and ICI methanol-synthesis route. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a technical and economic evaluation of producing methanol from bituminous coal using Texaco coal gasification and ICI methanol synthesis. The scope of work included the development of an overall configuration for a large plant comprising coal preparation, air separation, coal gasification, shift conversion, COS hydrolysis, acid gas removal, methanol synthesis, methanol refining, and all required utility systems and off-site facilities. Design data were received from both Texaco and ICI while a design and cost estimate were received from Lotepro covering the Rectisol acid gas removal unit. The plant processes 14,448 tons per day (dry basis) of Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal and produces 10,927 tons per day of fuel-grade methanol. An overall thermal efficiency of 57.86 percent was calculated on an HHV basis and 52.64 percent based on LHV. Total plant investment at an Illinois plant site was estimated to be $1159 million dollars in terms of 1979 investment. Using EPRI's economic premises, the first-year product costs were calculated to $4.74 per million Btu (HHV) which is equivalent to $30.3 cents per gallon and $5.37 per million Btu (LHV).

Buckingham, P.A.; Cobb, D.D.; Leavitt, A.A.; Snyder, W.G.

1981-08-01

8

Assessment of Environmental Control Technologies for Koppers-Totzek, Winkler, and Texaco Coal Gasification Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Department of Energy, Division of Environmental Control Technology, supports the Assistant Secretary for Environment in discharging responsibilities for environmental control aspects of technology in use and development. The coal gasification techn...

L. K. Mudge L. J. Sealock

1979-01-01

9

Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, April--June 1976. [Change to Texaco gasification process from Koppers-Totzek  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overall progress on the Clean Boiler Fuel Demonstration Plant was maintained on schedule. A major new development involved the decision to change to the Texaco gasifier from Koppers-Totzek, which required new engineering effort in many sections and a rework of the overall plant heat and mass balances. Coalcon completed a total of nine calibration runs on the coal feed apparatus

P. C. White; G. A. Rial

1976-01-01

10

Texaco-based gasification-combined-cycle system performance studies. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of an investigation of the effects on system thermal efficiency of major design variables and configuration options in combined cycle power plants based on air or oxygen-blown Texaco gasifiers. The plants are sized to process 10,000 tons per day of Illinois No. 6 coal. Design parameters considered were: steam cycle steam conditions; gasification system pressure,

J. J. Oliva; S. D. Shemo

1980-01-01

11

Preliminary Design Study for an Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plant. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the preliminary design, implementation schedules, and cost data for a fully integrated coal gasification/combined cycle power plant using the oxygen-blown Texaco Coal Gasification Process. The plant will have a net electrical output o...

C. L. Black D. E. Barrett J. Bisserier J. R. Grisso L. N. Ferry

1978-01-01

12

Considerations on coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial processes for gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process of gasification of coal dust gasification, in which fine dust-like fuel particles are carried through the gasification chamber in the flow of the gasification medium, is described. The outlook for future application of coal gasification is discussed.

J. E. Franzen

1977-01-01

13

Considerations on coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title

J. E. Franzen

1978-01-01

14

Coal Gasification (chapter only)  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification is presented in terms of the chemistry of coal conversion and the product gas characteristics, the historical development of coal gasifiers, variations in the types and performance of coal gasifiers, the configuration of gasification systems, and the status and economics of coal gasification. In many ways, coal gasification processes have been tailored to adapt to the different types of coal feedstocks available. Gasification technology is presented from a historical perspective considering early uses of coal, the first practical demonstration and utilization of coal gasification, and the evolution of the various processes used for coal gasification. The development of the gasification industry is traced from its inception to its current status in the world economy. Each type of gasifier is considered focusing on the process innovations required to meet the changing market needs. Complete gasification systems are described including typical system configurations, required system attributes, and aspects of the industry's environmental and performance demands. The current status, economics of gasification technology, and future of gasification are also discussed.

Shadle, L.J.; Berry, D.A.; Syamlal, Madhava

2002-11-15

15

Plasma gasification of coals  

SciTech Connect

To avoid problems of transporting coal from Siberia to the European part of the Soviet Union, plasma gasification could be used to give methane and liquid methyl fuel which could be transported by pipeline. Plasma-assisted gasification is particularly effective in the case of brown coals. (11 refs.)

Kruzhilin, G.I.; Khudyakov, G.N.; Tselishchev, P.A.

1981-01-01

16

Kinetics of coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports on a kinetic study on the gasification of Brazilian mineral coal with steam using a thermobalance. The coal is a high ash content (>50 wt %) subbituminous, run of mine coal (Charqueadas). Isothermal runs were made at temperatures between 800 and 1000\\/degree\\/C and at atmospheric pressure, using -14 +20 mesh Tyler size particles. The coal was devolatilized

Martin Schmal; Jose Luiz Fontes Monteiro; Jorge Luiz Castellan

1982-01-01

17

Status of coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal gasification, while providing a route to coal combustion which facilitates the removal of ash and sulfur, has two major disadvantages: it consumes large quantities of water, especially significant in arid western states where some of the largest coal reserves are located, and it is less efficient than direct combustion. Some reactors provide limited optimization of either process efficiency or

D. A. Tillman

1976-01-01

18

Pulverized coal plasma gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of experiments on the plasma-vapor gasification of brown coals of three types have been carried out using an experimental plant with an electric-arc reactor of the combined type. On the basis of the material and heat balances, process parameters have been obtained: the degree of carbon gasification (?c), the level of sulfur conversion into the gas phase (?s),

R. A. Kalinenko; A. P. Kuznetsov; A. A. Levitsky; V. E. Messerle; Yu. A. Mirokhin; L. S. Polak; Z. B. Sakipov; A. B. Ustimenko

1993-01-01

19

Underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a method whereby the mining and conversion of coal are accomplished in a single step. Many field tests of UCG have been operated worldwide since the 1930's with varying degrees of success; based on this experience (especially in the USSR and US), a field design which is applicable to a wide range of geological conditions

T. F. Edgar; D. W. Gregg

1978-01-01

20

Program plan for development of hot dirty gas compressors/expanders for coal gasification systems. [Gasifiers of Texaco, Shell, Koppers-Babcock and Wilcox, Lurgi, Winkle, Westinghouse, U-Gas and Exxon catalytic processes  

SciTech Connect

This effort was conducted to provide supporting data for a proposed Department of Energy program for the development of components for hot dirty gas service in gasification systems. This report deals with compressor/expander applications, and its scope includes a broad range of gasification systems such as the generic models for entrained-flow, moving-bed, and fluidized-bed gasifiers. The normal isostatic operation of gasification systems indicated that there is little incentive to use hot dirty gas compressors/expanders in the primary gasification streams. Gasification systems that require auxiliary carbon combustion to either supply heat or to use char will require a combustion unit that can accept a wide range of fuels. Some of these units can be effectively coupled to a hot dirty gas expander. A state-of-the-art industrial capabilities survey indicated that cat-cracker expander operating conditions closely approached those of a PFBC. The estimated life of these units is in the 3- to 6-year range at an inlet temperature of 705/sup 0/C (1300/sup 0/F) and 1/3- to 1-year range at an inlet temperature of 900/sup 0/C (1650/sup 0/F). A present effort to increase the service life of expanders at inlet temperatures of up to 900/sup 0/C (1650/sup 0/F) is sponsored by DOE as part of the PFBC development program. The scope of the present program to advance the state of the art of hot dirty gas expanders, coupled with industry capability of supplying the presently envisioned gasification needs, appears to be sufficient to fulfill anticipated gasifier needs. Therefore, no expansion of the research and development efforts of the hot dirty gas expander program is justified. However, the general work performed as part of the PFBC program involves test areas that could have direct applications to gasification components. The PFBC program should be closely monitored for potential technology transfer to gasification applications. 15 references, 8 figures, 5 tables.

Lackey, M.E.

1983-11-01

21

Mild gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this initial year's mission-oriented multi-year program is to develop a process chemistry data base for the mild gasification of coal with emphasis on eastern bituminous coal. One important objective of this program was to obtain the trends in product formation from different coals as a function of several process variables which included temperature, pressure, coal particle residence time, coal flow rate, type of additives such as lime, limestone, silica flour and ash in a short period of time. This was achieved by a careful development of a test matrix using a fractional factorial statistical design. The equipment used was the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) combination stirred moving-bed, entrained-tubular reactor which is capable of processing 2 to 3 pounds of coal per hour. A Wellmore Kentucky No. 8 bituminous coal, a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal and a Mississippi lignite with particles having a size of 150 {mu}m or less were selected for this study. The mild gasification experiments were conducted at temperatures from 550{degree} to 650{degree}C at nitrogen sweep gas pressures of 15 to 50 psi and residence times of 0.1 to 2 min. The coal flow rate was 0. 4 to 1.0 lb/hr and the concentration of the lime additives was 0 to 10% by weight of the dry coal feed. All variables were tested at two different levels, low and high, corresponding to the above ranges of the variables. A rapid calculation of the main effects and interactions was made using Yate's algorithm and the significance of the effects was determined from the normal probability plots. 10 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs.

Sundaram, M.S.; Fallon, P.T.; Steinberg, M.

1989-01-01

22

Status of coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was made of economic and environmental trade-offs, in terms of land disturbance from mining, and water consumption, to be considered in choosing the Wellman-Galusha, Koppers-Totzek, or Lurgi coal gasification processes. Performance maximization, in terms of process efficiency or water consumption, was found to be application specific and site specific. Relatively small energy requirements appear to be best met

David A. Tillman

1976-01-01

23

The gasification of molten coal hydrogenation residues - experience with the Ruhrkohle/Ruhrchemie coal gasification plant at Oberhausen-Holten  

SciTech Connect

In the wake of the 1973 oil crisis, ongoing, large-scale development of coal upgrading processes was undertaken in West Germany and around the world. Two of the most successful processes are the coal-oil plant at Bottrop and the Texaco coal gasification plant at Oberhausen-Holten. The fact that developments ran in parallel made possible transfer of the vacuum residue in a molten state from the hydrogenation plant to the gasification plant. The gasification of the residue is in the interest of economical production of the make-up hydrogen required for hydrogenation or-where this hydrogen can be acquired from another source-for production of synthesis gas while at the same time disposing of the residue in an environmentally sound fashion.

Langhoff, J.; Schafer, W.; Cornils, B.; Konkol, W.

1985-01-01

24

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

2001-12-01

25

Chemistry of coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Coal is a complex solid material containing a mixture of substances that chemically consist mostly of carbon with lesser amounts of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and ash. Gasification is the conversion of solid coal to combustible gases by combining the carbon with additional oxygen and/or hydrogen. Although thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) can produce gaseous fuels, they are usually produced by reaction with oxygen, hydrogen, steam and carbon dioxide. The elemental composition range of coal and several combustible gases that may be derived from coal are given. At one extreme, the sole addition of oxygen provides carbon monoxide, the main component of a fuel gas called producer gas. At the other extreme, the addition of only hydrogen provides methane, the main constituent of substitute natural gas (SNG). In between these extremes, the addition of both oxygen and hydrogen provides a mixture of CO and H/sub 2/, which can be used either for fuel or for a chemical feedstock (synthesis gas or syngas). Coal gasification is carried out at high temperatures and chemical heat effects play an important part in controlling the process as well as providing for the process energy needs. The most important reactions for gasifying carbon are given in Table 2. Combinations with oxygen result in heat evolution (exothermic reactions). Conversely, the reaction of carbon with steam (H/sub 2/O(g)) to form H/sub 2/ and CO or to form H/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ requires the input of heat (an endothermic reaction). Also, carbon may be gasified by the direct addition of hydrogen (hydrogasification) to form methane (an exothermic reaction) or by CO/sub 2/ to form CO (an endothermic reaction). Most gasification processes are controlled by balancing the heat effects of the exothermic and endothermic reactions.

Vorres, K.S.

1982-01-01

26

Liquefaction technology assessment - Phase II: indirect liquefaction of coal to gasoline using Texaco and Koppers-Totzek gasifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a comparison of two entrained-flow gasifiers - the Koppers-Totzek and the Texaco - for use in a plant to convert coal to gasoline by an indirect method. The results of the current study are also compared with those from a previous study that employed a Lurgi gasifier for the same purpose. Koppers-Totzek- and Texaco gasifiers-equipped plants were

A. R. Irvine; R. M. Wham; J. F. Fisher; R. Salmon; W. C. Ulrich

1984-01-01

27

Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feasibility analyses and systems engineering studies for a 20,000 tons per day medium Btu (MBG) coal gasification plant to be built by TVA in Northern Alabama were conducted. Major objectives were as follows: (1) provide design and cost data to support the selection of a gasifier technology and other major plant design parameters, (2) provide design and cost data to support alternate product evaluation, (3) prepare a technology development plan to address areas of high technical risk, and (4) develop schedules, PERT charts, and a work breakdown structure to aid in preliminary project planning. Volume one contains a summary of gasification system characterizations. Five gasification technologies were selected for evaluation: Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Lurgi Dry Ash, Slagging Lurgi, and Babcock and Wilcox. A summary of the trade studies and cost sensitivity analysis is included.

1980-01-01

28

Coal gasification and occupational health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification and prevention of health effects due to occupational exposures in coal gasification processes requires a basic knowledge of the technological process by which gasification proceeds. This paper presents an overview of the technology and a rational approach to health hazard identification based upon the concept of the unit operation specific micro environment. A final section is devoted to summarizing

RONALD J. YOUNG; WILLIAM J. McKAY; JAMES M. EVANS

1978-01-01

29

Texaco-Based Gasification-Combined-Cycle System Performance Studies. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of an investigation of the effects on system thermal efficiency of major design variables and configuration options in combined cycle power plants based on air or oxygen-blown Texaco gasifiers. The plants are sized to proc...

J. J. Oliva S. D. Shemo

1980-01-01

30

Coal gasification vessel  

DOEpatents

A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

Loo, Billy W. (Oakland, CA)

1982-01-01

31

Angrenskaya Underground Coal Gasification Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report continues our survey of the Soviet effort in underground coal gasification (UCG) and summarizes production data and process improvements developed at the Angrenskaya Station. Of the six UCG stations operated in the Soviet Union, only the Angre...

D. Olness

1982-01-01

32

Outlook for Underground Coal Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Past experiments have shown underground coal gasification (UCG) to be technically feasible but not economically competitive. During these tests, stabilization of gas production rates and of gas heating value were not achieved for sustained periods. The Bu...

L. A. Schrider C. F. Brandenburg D. D. Fischer R. M. Boyd G. G. Campbell

1975-01-01

33

Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER  

SciTech Connect

ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

Steve Colt

2008-12-31

34

Liquefaction Technology Assessment - Phase II: Indirect Liquefaction of Coal to Gasoline Using Texaco and Koppers-Totzek Gasifiers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a comparison of two entrained-flow gasifiers - the Koppers-Totzek and the Texaco - for use in a plant to convert coal to gasoline by an indirect method. The results of the current study are also compared with those from a previous stu...

A. R. Irvine J. F. Fisher R. Salmon R. M. Wham W. C. Ulrich

1984-01-01

35

Fundamental Investigations of Underground Coal Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal deposits in the Appalachian and Midwest Coal Regions consist primarily of thin relatively deep seams of swelling bituminous coal, but little scientific effort in the United States has been directed toward underground coal gasification in these import...

R. D. Dunn

1983-01-01

36

Numerical simulation of coal gasification in entrained flow coal gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents modeling of a coal gasification reaction, and prediction of gasification performance for an entrained flow coal gasifier. The purposes of this study are to develop an evaluation technique for design and performance optimization of coal gasifiers using a numerical simulation technique, and to confirm the validity of the model. The coal gasification model suggested in this paper

H. Watanabe; M. Otaka

2006-01-01

37

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

Not Available

1992-02-01

38

Coal Gasification for Power Generation, 3. edition  

SciTech Connect

The report provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered include: an overview of Coal Generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; a description of gasification technology including processes and systems; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; a discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; an evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; a discussion of IGCC project development options; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and, a detailed description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

NONE

2007-11-15

39

Angrenskaya underground coal gasification station  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report continues our survey of the Soviet effort in underground coal gasification (UCG) and summarizes production data and process improvements developed at the Angrenskaya Station. Of the six UCG stations operated in the Soviet Union, only the Angrenskaya Station was established from the outset as a commercial venture rather than as a research facility. Development began in 1952. Industrial

Olness

1982-01-01

40

Hydrogen production from coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fixed bed, fluidized bed and entrained phase techniques for hydrogen production from coal gasification are considered. Process heat may be supplied by the addition of oxygen, solid, liquid or gaseous heat carriers or indirectly through heat-transferring walls. In particular, attention is given to the selection of the Lurgi pressure process, the Winkler process or the Koppers-Totzek process for treating various

H. Teggers; H. Huettner; L. Schrader

1977-01-01

41

Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.  

PubMed

Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward. PMID:12046301

Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

2002-04-01

42

Coal gasification for advanced power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a review of the development and deployment of coal based gasification technologies for power generation. The global status of gasification is described covering the various process and technology options. The use of gasification for power generation is then highlighted including the advantages and disadvantages of this means for coal utilisation. The R, D & D needs and

Andrew J. Minchener

2005-01-01

43

The potential for adding plastic waste fuel at a coal gasification power plant.  

PubMed

Plastics wastes from a municipal solid waste plant have a high energy content which make it an interesting option for co-processing with coal. The potential for adding plastic waste to a coal fired Texaco IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power station is examined. The resulting efficiency increases due to the improved gasification qualities of plastic over coal. For the overall economics to be the same as the coal only case, the maximum amount that the power station can afford to spend on preparing the plastic waste for use is similar to the assumed coal cost, plus the avoided landfill cost, minus the transport cost. The location of the power station plays a key role, since this has an effect on the transport costs as well as on the landfill charges. The sensitivity of the economics of co-processing plastic waste with coal for a variety of power station operational parameters is presented. PMID:12201682

Campbell, P E; Evans, R H; McMullan, J T; Williams, B C

2001-12-01

44

Coal gasification 2006: roadmap to commercialization  

SciTech Connect

Surging oil and gas prices, combined with supply security and environmental concerns, are prompting power generators and industrial firms to further develop coal gasification technologies. Coal gasification, the process of breaking down coal into its constituent chemical components prior to combustion, will permit the US to more effectively utilize its enormous, low cost coal reserves. The process facilitates lower environmental impact power generation and is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to traditional generation techniques. The study is designed to inform the reader as to this rapidly evolving technology, its market penetration prospects and likely development. Contents include: Clear explanations of different coal gasification technologies; Emissions and efficiency comparisons with other fuels and technologies; Examples of US and global gasification projects - successes and failures; Commercial development and forecast data; Gasification projects by syngas output; Recommendations for greater market penetration and commercialization; Current and projected gasification technology market shares; and Recent developments including proposals for underground gasification process. 1 app.

NONE

2006-05-15

45

Iron sulfide deposition during coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous analysis of ash generated during coal gasification using a high calcium coal (SUFCo) suggested that iron sulfide was the dominant sulfide species in the system. During a recent analysis of ash material removed from a gasification pilot unit using Pittsburgh No. 8, a high iron coal, sub-?m to 5 ?m euhedral iron sulfide crystals were identified on the outer

D. Duane Brooker; Myongsook S. Oh

1995-01-01

46

Coal gasification and liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a critical need to establish a coal conversion industry in the shortest possible time. Commercially proved processes are available to convert coal to pipeline-quality gas for use by the natural gas industry or to lower Btu gas for use by electric utilities and manufacturing industries. At least one second-generation process (HYGAS) is ready for demonstration at the commercial

Huebler

1975-01-01

47

Biooxidation of coal gasification wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies were carried out on the feasibility of using a fixed-film fluidised-bed bioreactor to treat coal gasification wastewaters. Dilute synthetic wastewaters were treated successfully by this process for over a year, and dilute actual wastewaters for 9 months. The bioreactors were stable, and no serious operating problems occurred. Effluent phenol concentration of <0.001 kg\\/mÂł was achieved with a synthetic

T. L. Donaldson; G. W. Strandberg; J. D. Hewitt; G. S. Shields

1984-01-01

48

Private sector involvement in underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable activity in the field of underground coal gasification: several projects are underway in addition to those sponsored by DOE. Basic Resources, Inc., a subsidiary of Texas Utilities Co., has licensed the Soviet technology and is developing underground gasification of lignites near Fairfield, Texas. The Atlantic Richfield Company has executed a successful field gasification test in a 100

Stephens

1979-01-01

49

Coal-gasification environmental data summary: low- and medium-Btu wastewaters. Final report, September 1984December 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report is a compilation of environmental characterization data for wastewaters from low- and medium-Btu coal-gasification facilities. Fixed-bed, entrained-bed, and ash-agglomerating fluidized-bed coal-gasification processes were examined. The fixed-bed gasifiers are the Chapman, Wellman-Galusha, Riley, Foster Wheeler\\/STOIC, and Lurgi-type processes. The entrained-bed gasifiers are the Koppers-Totzek and Texaco processes. The KRW-PDU was used as an example of an ash-agglomerating fludized-bed process.

F. J. Castaldi; F. D. Skinner

1986-01-01

50

Groundwater Pollution from Underground Coal Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ coal gasification poses a potential environmental risk to groundwater pollution although it depends mainly on local hydrogeological conditions. In our investigation, the possible processes of groundwater pollution originating from underground coal gasification (UCG) were analyzed. Typical pollutants were identified and pollution control measures are proposed. Groundwater pollution is caused by the diffusion and penetration of contaminants generated by

Shu-qin LIU; Jing-gang LI; Mei MEI; Dong-lin DONG

2007-01-01

51

Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

1984-05-25

52

Plasma Gasification of Coal in Different Oxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam\\/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam\\/air, steam\\/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power

Igor B. Matveev; Vladimir E. Messerle; Alexander B. Ustimenko

2008-01-01

53

Apparatus for solar coal gasification  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats through a window onto the surface of a moving bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam in one embodiment at the rear surface of a secondary mirror used to redirect the focused sunlight. Another novel feature of the invention is the location and arrangement of the array of mirrors on an inclined surface (e.g., a hillside) to provide for direct optical communication of said mirrors and the carbonaceous feed without a secondary redirecting mirror.

Gregg, D.W.

1980-08-04

54

Gasification of coal with solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focused solar energy can be used to drive the endothermic reactions that gasify coal. The economics are attractive. Coal resources are conserved. Coal reactors are adaptable to solar-energy facilities. Two advantages make solar coal gasification attractive economically. First, synthesis gas (a nitrogen-free product) can be produced without pure oxygen which is expensive. Second, for a given amount of product only

W. R. Aiman; D. W. Gregg

1980-01-01

55

Japan's Sunshine Project: Summary of Coal Gasification and Liquefaction. Volume 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Technology for high-calorific gasification of coal; Technology for plasma gasification of coal; Technology for low-calorific gasification of coal and power generation; Technology for liquefaction of coal; Development of coal gasification and liq...

1982-01-01

56

Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants  

SciTech Connect

Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

2008-12-15

57

Catalytic coal gasification: an emerging technology for SNG  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been known that salts of alkali metals catalyze the gasification of coal. In 1971, Exxon Research and Engineering Company discovered that potassium salts added to coal also promote the methanation of coal gasification products. This discovery led to Exxon's Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) process. In the CCG process, coal with added potassium salts is gasified in a

R. R. Lessard; R. A. Reitz

1981-01-01

58

Market opportunities for coal gasification in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal gasification is a technology that has been around for 200 yr. With the recent technology advances in the past 20 yr, it has become an option for the clean production of power and other energy forms. China will continue to be the largest user of coal in the world. Coal is the source of energy in almost every area

T. Attwood; V. Fung; W. W. Clark

2003-01-01

59

Coal gasification: the new energy source  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of coal gasification describes processes available today and ; in the future. Winkler, Koppers-Totzek, and Lurgi processes are briefly ; described. The Lurgi Process has been applied extensively for practically all of ; the first-generation projects. Some new processes include Bituminous Coal ; Research's BIGAS Process, Consolidation Coal's COâ Acceptor'' Process, ; and the Institute of Gas Technology's

J. E. Williams; J. H. Dressel

1973-01-01

60

EFFECT OF UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION ON GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential effect of underground coal gasification on groundwater has been examined in a laboratory study. The study was directed at Fruitland Formation subbituminous coal of the San Juan Basin and at the groundwater found in this coal seam. Two wells were drilled into the coa...

61

Trace element partitioning during coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of trace element pollutants in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems is closely tied to their volatilization in the gasifier and subsequent condensation or reaction with fine fly ash particles. The results of an experimental bench-scale programme to measure the partitioning of selected trace elements during atmospheric pressure entrained flow gasification of Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal are presented.

Joseph J. Helble; Wahab Mojtahedi; Jussi Lyyränen; Jorma Jokiniemi; Esko Kauppinen

1996-01-01

62

Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

1992-01-01

63

Underground Coal Gasification Program Plan, FY 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief program plan for In-situ coal gasification is described. The following areas are discussed: Background and program goal; Technology description; Technology status and research needs; Program strategy; Program management; and International activiti...

1989-01-01

64

Basic Principles of Underground Coal Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief overview of the basic principles of underground coal gasification is presented, with special emphasis given to the Soviet technology. However when applicable, information is drawn from other sources as well. This overview is divided into three sec...

D. W. Gregg D. U. Olness

1976-01-01

65

LLNL Capabilities in Underground Coal Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Underground coal gasification (UCG) has received renewed interest as a potential technology for producing hydrogen at a competitive price particularly in Europe and China. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) played a leading role in this fie...

E. Burton R. Upadhye S. J. Friedmann

2006-01-01

66

Catalysts for carbon and coal gasification  

DOEpatents

Catalyst for the production of methane from carbon and/or coal by means of catalytic gasification. The catalyst compostion containing at least two alkali metal salts. A particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used.

McKee, Douglas W. (Burnt Hills, NY); Spiro, Clifford L. (Scotia, NY); Kosky, Philip G. (Schenectady, NY)

1985-01-01

67

Coal gasification for electric power generation.  

PubMed

The electric utility industry is being severely affected by rapidly escalating gas and oil prices, restrictive environmental and licensing regulations, and an extremely tight money market. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have the potential to be economically competitive with present commercial coal-fired power plants while satisfying stringent emission control requirements. The current status of gasification technology is discussed and the critical importance of the 100-megawatt Cool Water IGCC demonstration program is emphasized. PMID:17788466

Spencer, D F; Gluckman, M J; Alpert, S B

1982-03-26

68

Coal gasification and the Phenosolvan process  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of commercial coal gasification projects under design in the USA. By 1976-77, two such projects may be coming onstream in New Mexico, each producing 250 million standard cubic feet per day of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG). The gasification of coal produces large amounts of by-product phenol. The New Mexico projects will each involve about 25,000 tons

Beychok

1974-01-01

69

Beluga coal gasification feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to determine the economic feasibility of developing and siting a coal-based integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant in the Cook Inlet region of Alaska for the co-production of electric power and marketable by-products. The by-products, which may include synthesis gas, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids, fertilizers such as ammonia and urea, alcohols, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, would be manufactured for local use or for sale in domestic and foreign markets. This report for Phase 1 summarizes the investigation of an IGCC system for a specific industrial setting on the Cook Inlet, the Agrium U.S. Inc. ('Agrium') fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska. Faced with an increase in natural gas price and a decrease in supply, the Agrium is investigating alternatives to gas as feed stock for their plant. This study considered all aspects of the installation and infrastructure, including: coal supply and cost, coal transport costs, delivery routes, feedstock production for fertilizer manufacture, plant steam and power, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) uses, markets for possible additional products, and environmental permit requirements. The Cook Inlet-specific Phase 1 results, reported here, provided insight and information that led to the conclusion that the second study should be for an F-T plant sited at the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, Alaska. This Phase 1 case study is for a very specific IGCC system tailored to fit the chemical and energy needs of the fertilizer manufacturing plant. It demonstrates the flexibility of IGCC for a variety of fuel feedstocks depending on plant location and fuel availability, as well as the available variety of gas separation, gas cleanup, and power and steam generation technologies to fit specific site needs. 18 figs., 37 tabs., 6 apps.

Robert Chaney; Lawrence Van Bibber [Research & Development Solutions (RDS), LLC (United States)

2006-07-15

70

Production of Hydrogen from Underground Coal Gasification  

DOEpatents

A system of obtaining hydrogen from a coal seam by providing a production well that extends into the coal seam; positioning a conduit in the production well leaving an annulus between the conduit and the coal gasification production well, the conduit having a wall; closing the annulus at the lower end to seal it from the coal gasification cavity and the syngas; providing at least a portion of the wall with a bifunctional membrane that serves the dual purpose of providing a catalyzing reaction and selectively allowing hydrogen to pass through the wall and into the annulus; and producing the hydrogen through the annulus.

Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

2008-10-07

71

Coal gasification using solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An economic evaluation of conventional and solar thermal coal gasification processes is presented, together with laboratory bench scale tests of a solar carbonization unit. The solar design consists of a heliostat field, a central tower receiver, a gasifier, and a recirculation loop. The synthetic gas is produced in the gasifier, with part of the gas upgraded to CH4 and another redirected through the receiver with steam to form CO and H2. Carbonaceous fuels are burned whenever sunlight is not available. Comparisons are made for costs of Lurgi, Bi-gas, Hygas, CO2 Acceptor, and Peat Gas processes and hybrid units for each. Solar thermal systems are projected to become economical with 350 MWt output and production of 1,420,000 cu m of gas per day. The laboratory bench scale unit was tested with Montana rosebud coal to derive a heat balance assessment and analyse the product gas. Successful heat transfer through a carrier gas was demonstrated, with most of the energy being stored in the product gas.

Mathur, V. K.; Breault, R. W.; Lakshmanan, S.

72

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2009-07-01

73

Evaluation of treatment technologies for water reuse in coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation assessed significant issues and conducted bench scale experiments pertinent to management and reuse of coal coking and coal gasification process wastewaters. For the case of high-BTU coal gasification processes, the cooling tower is the most likely target for reuse of process wastewater. Treatment studies were performed with high BTU pilot coal gasification process quench waters to evaluate enhanced

R. G. Luthy; J. R. Campbell; L. McLaughlin; R. W. Walters

1980-01-01

74

WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

Unknown

2000-09-01

75

Evaluation of coal-gasification - combustion-turbine power plants emphasizing low water consumption  

SciTech Connect

A cost and performance study was made of several integrated power plants using coal gasification technology now in advanced development and combustion turbines for power generation. The principal emphasis was placed on studying plants using air cooling and comparing costs and performance of those plants with water-cooled coal gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) and conventional coal-fired power plants. The major objective was to determine whether cost and performance penalties would be prohibitive for air-cooled plants that use yet-to-be-developed coal gasifiers and commercially available combustion turbines for topping cycle power. The results indicate the following: air-cooled GCC plants using conceptual designs of either the Texaco or the British Gas Corporation (BGC) slaging gasifier could have coal-to-net electric power efficiencies equivalent to that of a water-cooled conventional coal-fired plant; the air-cooled GCC plants could produce electricity at busbar cost 1 to 3 mills per kWh (1980 dollars) less than busbar cost in a water-cooled conventional plant and only up to 2 mills per kWh higher than busbar cost in a water-cooled Texaco GCC plant; and even a simple-cycle regenerative combustion turbine plant fueled with gas from the BGC gasifier could have a coal-to-net electric power efficiency of over 30% and a busbar cost competitive with that in a water cooled conventional plant. The principal reason that air-cooled power plants using combustion turbines could be competitive with conventional water-cooled, coal-fired steam plants is that a majority of net power is produced by the combustion turbines, which require no cooling water. This, in turn, leads to a reduced cost and performance penalty when bottoming steam-cycle condensers are air-cooled.

Cavazo, R.; Clemmer, A.B.; de la Mora, J.A.; Grisso, J.R.; Klumpe, H.W.; Meissner, R.E.; Musso, A.; Roszkowski, T.R.

1982-01-01

76

Belgium, FRG underground coal gasification project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plans for the underground coal gasification of one to five K deep coal reserves are described. The European energy market is surveyed. Retrocombustion with a mixture of pure oxygen and high pressure steam at a depth of 860 m is under investigation.

Willems, L.

1982-04-01

77

Predicting subsidence over coal-gasification sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which earth subsidence may be caused by in situ coal gasification is studied using the method of finite elements. This study takes into account rock failure modes and nonlinearity of rock stiffness. Two models were studied for the site at Hoe Creek, where a coal seam is overlain and underlain by interbedded clays and sandstones. These two

R. Langland; D. Fletcher

1976-01-01

78

Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

Yang, L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2008-07-01

79

Update on the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Plains Gasification Plant is the US's first commercial synthetic fuels project based on coal conversion. The ANG Coal Gasification Company is the administer of the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project for the United States Department of Energy. The Project is designed to convert 14 M TPD of North Dakota of lignite into 137.5 MM SCFD of pipeline quality

Imler

1985-01-01

80

Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process  

DOEpatents

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

Euker, Jr., Charles A. (15163 Dianna La., Houston, TX 77062); Wesselhoft, Robert D. (120 Caldwell, Baytown, TX 77520); Dunkleman, John J. (3704 Autumn La., Baytown, TX 77520); Aquino, Dolores C. (15142 McConn, Webster, TX 77598); Gouker, Toby R. (5413 Rocksprings Dr., LaPorte, TX 77571)

1984-01-01

81

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 14. Gasification of Kemmerer subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the fourteen volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Kemmerer subbituminous coal, from August 11, 1984 to August 15, 1984. 4 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

82

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 13. Gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the thirteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal, from July 31, 1984 to August 11, 1984. 6 refs., 22 figs., 20 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

83

Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

1981-01-01

84

Process for fixed bed coal gasification  

DOEpatents

The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

1992-01-01

85

Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process single stage high mass flux (HMF) process (CS/R) hydrogasification process and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

1981-06-01

86

Investigation of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air/steam and oxygen/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal. Numerical simulation showed that the plasma oxygen/steam gasification of coal is a more preferable process in comparison with the plasma air/steam coal gasification. On the numerical experiments, a plasma vortex fuel reformer is designed.

Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (United States)

2009-04-15

87

Clean coal technology—Study on the pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the gasification conditions, the gasifier structure, the measuring system and the gasification rationale of a pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification (UCG) in the Liuzhuang Colliery, Tangshan, are illustrated. The technique of two-phase underground coal gasification is proposed. The detection of the moving speed and the length of the gasification working face is made using radon

Lanhe Yang; Jie Liang; Li Yu

2003-01-01

88

Hydrogen production by coal plasma gasification for fuel cell technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal gasification in steam and air atmosphere under arc plasma conditions has been investigated with Podmoskovnyi brown coal, Kuuchekinski bituminous coal and Canadian petrocoke. It was found that for those coals the gasification degree to synthesis gas were 92.3%, 95.8 and 78.6% correspondingly. The amount of produced syngas was 30–40% higher in steam than in air gasification of the coal.The

V. Galvita; V. E. Messerle; A. B. Ustimenko

2007-01-01

89

Coal conversion solid waste disposal. [Cogas, British Gas\\/Lurgi, Grace\\/Texaco, U-Gas, SRC-I\\/Kopper-Totzek, SRC-II\\/Texaco, Foster Wheeler\\/Stoic, Combustion Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major solid waste produced at coal conversion facilities will be gasification slag or ash. To evaluate the impact of this waste on the environment, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted extensive characterization and leaching studies on ash\\/slags that had been generated in bench-scale operations, pilot plants, and\\/or process development units for eight different gasification processes. These studies, designed to

C. W. Francis; W. J. Jr. Boegly; R. R. Turner; E. C. Davis

1982-01-01

90

LLL Underground Coal Gasification Project: 1978 Status.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results from the recent LLL underground coal gasification experiment, Hoe Creek No. 2 are presented. It was a two process-well experiment, using both air and oxygen/steam injection: both low and medium-Btu gas were produced. The process wells were spaced ...

R. W. Hill C. B. Thorsness D. R. Stephens D. S. Thompson W. R. Aiman

1978-01-01

91

Biological treatment of Hygas coal gasification wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eight month experimental study was performed to assess biological treatability characteristics of Hygas coal gasification process pilot plant wastewater comprised of cyclone and quench condensates. The study evaluated treatability characteristics of ammonia stripped and unstripped wastewater at full strength and at 1:1 dilution. It was determined that minimum pretreatment required for biological oxidation consisted of reducing wastewater alkalinity, and

R. G. Luthy; J. T. Tallon

1978-01-01

92

Coal gasification for power plant fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion Engineering, Inc. is a major supplier of stack gas scrubbing systems in the United States, and has active development programs underway in gasification, solvent refining and fluid bed combustion. These development programs are in response to the growing need for economical and environmentally-acceptable methods to use coal to produce electric power. Although primary development in the United States has

1979-01-01

93

Small-scale coal-gasification plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents technical and economic analyses of coal-gasification processes to manufacture medium-heating-value gas and synthetic natural gas from two commercially available processes: Koppers-Totzek and Lurgi. The plants were designed for a capacity of 30 x 10 to the 9th Btu\\/day.

ARUN VERMA; P. J. Read

1979-01-01

94

COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the organics data from environmental assessments of several low- and medium-Btu coal gasification processes conducted between 1977 and 1981 under the sponsorship of the U.S. EPA. The data summary focuses on the concentration, composition, and mass flow of or...

95

Reactivity of coal gasification with steam and CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of the main parameters affecting char gasification, as well as an evaluation of the kinetic models used for describing the char gasification reaction, are presented. By reviewing literature on char gasification reactivity it is shown that of all the parameters involved in char gasification, the thermal history of the char, the pore structure and the coal chemical composition

Alejandro Molina; Fanor Mondragón

1998-01-01

96

Ground subsidence resulting from underground gasification of coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modes of subsidence (roof collapse) in underground in situ coal gasification operations caving, chimneying, bending, and plug failure are reviewed. USSR gasification operations are studied to determine causes and nature of subsidence problems. In gasification of coal seams 1-3 m thick, bending is the predominant form of subsidence. Thicker seams produce more severe subsidence problems; steeply dipping beds are the

Gregg

1979-01-01

97

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 4. Gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the fourth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal from Sweetwater County, Wyoming. The period of the gasification test was April 11-30, 1983. 4 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-03-31

98

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 7. Gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the seventh volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal. The period of the gasification test was July 18-24, 1983. 6 refs., 20 figs., 17 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

99

ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD RANKINGS OF POLLUTANTS GENERATED IN COAL GASIFICATION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation and ranking of environmental hazards associated with coal gasification. Applied chemical analytical data were provided by (1) research with an experimental gasifier, and (2) sampling of four commercial gasification processes. Gas, liquid,...

100

Coal Gasification. Quarterly Report, April--June 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for all high Btu gasification processes each of the processes under development has unique characteristics. There are, for example, important differences in reactor configurations and me...

1979-01-01

101

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Volume 1, Final report, September 1987--October 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A five-year Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) was awarded to Texaco on September 30, 1987 to develop and demonstrate hot gas clean-up for the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). The program targeted the development and demonst...

A. M. Robin L. A. Davis T. F. Leininger

1993-01-01

102

Investigation of Plasma-Aided Bituminous Coal Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air\\/steam and oxygen\\/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal.

Igor B. Matveev; Vladimir E. Messerle; Alexander B. Ustimenko

2009-01-01

103

Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

1981-01-01

104

Modelling coal gasification with a hybrid neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification of two coals was carried out in a batch feed fluidized bed reactor at atmospheric pressure using steam as fluidizing medium. A model of coal gasification was developed, incorporating a first-principles model with a neural network parameter estimator. The hybrid neural network was trained with experimental data for the two coals and gave good performance in process modelling. A

Bing Guo; Youting Shen; Dingkai Li; Fu Zhao

1997-01-01

105

Environmental investigations of in situ coal gasification experiments. [Hoe Creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although in situ coal gasification offers important environmental advantages when compared with more conventional methods of coal utilization, there are significant environmental concerns that need to be investigated. Groundwater sampling and subsidence measurements have been carried out at the sites of two in situ coal gasification experiments conducted in northeastern Wyoming by the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL). Changes in groundwater

S. W. Mead; F. T. Wang; H. C. Ganow

1978-01-01

106

Coal-gasification-process concepts. [Dependence on gasifier pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

First Generation coal gasification continues to grow with the expansion of Lurgi process to make gasoline in South Africa and SNG in the United States. This moving-bed gasifier is no doubt the leading commercial application of coal gasification. This can probably be attributed to its operation at the elevated pressure that simultaneously increases coal throughput and broadens the utility of

C. L. Miller; P. B. Tarman

1982-01-01

107

In situ gasification - Recovery of inaccessible coal reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 90% of United States coal resources are estimated to be economically inaccessible by present surface- and deep-mining techniques. Much of this resource - an estimated 1600 billion tonnes - could possibly be recovered by in situ coal gasification. In this technology, a gasification reaction front moving through the coal seam underground produces a combustible gas, which can be used

P. R. Westmoreland; R. C. Forrester III; A. P. Sikri

1978-01-01

108

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July--September 1993) and the 1993 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, has completed the construction of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). ENCOAL submitted an application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project was selected by DOE in December, 1989 and the Cooperative Agreement approved in September, 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL mild coal gasification facility was completed in June of 1992, and the project is currently in the operations phase. Some plant modifications have been required and are discussed in this report.

Not Available

1993-10-01

109

Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal  

DOEpatents

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

1984-07-06

110

Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal  

DOEpatents

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

Aquino, Dolores C. (Houston, TX); DaPrato, Philip L. (Westfield, NJ); Gouker, Toby R. (Baton Rouge, LA); Knoer, Peter (Houston, TX)

1986-01-01

111

Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification  

DOEpatents

A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA); Salvador, Louis A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1981-01-01

112

Environmental effects of in situ coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of avialable engineering, geological and operating data on underground coal gasification indicates that this process can cause significant air and water pollution and land subsidence. Of the possible impacts, groundwater pollution is the most serious. Modeling studies and large-scale field tests are needed to determine the long-term fate of pollutants and the degree of restoration required before UCG can become a commercial process.

Humenick, M.J.; Edgar, T.F.; Charbeneau, R.J.

1983-01-01

113

Purification of intermediate streams in coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desulfurization processes may account for approx. 20Vertical Bar3< of the cost of a high-Btu coal gasification facility; wastewater cleanup and recycle account for another significant portion of the cost. A comprehensive study covers the purification requirements for high-Btu pipeline quality gas as compared with low-Btu gas for combined-cycle power generation; proposed high-temperature desulfurization processes for low-Btu gas to avoid the

1975-01-01

114

Ground subsidence resulting from underground gasification of coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lawrence Livermore Labortory's review of the basic principles of ground subsidence - particularly in relation to the subsidence observed in in situ coal-gasification zones in the USSR - reveals some general trends in the characteristics of this phenomenon and its effects on the gasification reaction. Subsidence in gasification of thin seams 3 to 10 ft (1 to 3 m) thick

Gregg

1979-01-01

115

Numerical study on the coal gasification characteristics in an entrained flow coal gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coal gasification process of a slurry feed type, entrained-flow coal gasifier was numerically predicted in this paper. By dividing the complicated coal gasification process into several simplified stages such as slurry evaporation, coal devolatilization and two-phase reactions coupled with turbulent flow and two-phase heat transfer, a comprehensive numerical model was constructed to simulate the coal gasification process. The k–?

Y. C. Choi; X. Y. Li; T. J. Park; J. H. Kim; J. G. Lee

2001-01-01

116

Program for large-scale underground-coal-gasification tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuing development of underground coal gasification technology requires extended multi-module field programs in which the output gas is linked to surface usage. An effort was to appraise whether existing surface facilities in the utility, petroleum refinery, or natural gas industries could be used to reduce the cost of such an extended multi-module test and whether regional demand in areas having underground coal gasification coal resources could support the manufacture of transportation fuels from underground coal gasification gases. To limit the effort to a reasonable level but yet to permit a fair test of the concept, effort was focused on five states, Illinois, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming, which have good underground coal gasification reserves. Studies of plant distribution located 25 potential sites within 3 miles of the underground coal gasification amenable reserves in the five states. Distribution was 44% to utilities, 44% to refineries, and 12% to gas processing facilities.

Hammesfahr, F. W.; Winter, P. L.

1982-11-01

117

Clean fuels from coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quickest path to synthetic fuels requires reviewing technologies now ; in use and finding engineering firms competent to reproduce and adapt these ; technologies with maximum effect. By gasifying coal with air, the engineer can ; produce power gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen with nitrogen. By ; gasifying with oxygen and steam, one obtains blue water

A. M. Squires

1974-01-01

118

Coal gasification for industrial fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is presented of the characteristics of the various gaseous fuels which can be manufactured from coal, taking into account certain hazards involved in the presence of high concentrations of carbon monoxide. The process technology for manufacturing the gases is reviewed. The various types of gas producers that are available or under development are discussed, giving attention to the

E. J. Ferretti; K. C. Baczewski; A. C. Mengon

1975-01-01

119

Technical Underground-Coal-Gasification Summation: 1982 Status.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are three basic reasons for the recent emergence of underground coal gasification (UGC) as a leading synfuels candidate: (1) favorable projected economics, (2) ability to use coal seams that are unattractive for mining, and (3) modest environmental ...

C. B. Thorsness D. R. Stephens D. S. Thompson R. W. Hill

1982-01-01

120

Science and Technology Gaps in Underground Coal Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an appropriate technology to economically access the energy resources in deep and/or unmineable coal seams and potentially to extract these reserves through production of synthetic gas (syngas) for power generation, ...

E. Burton J. Friedmann R. Upadhye

2006-01-01

121

A model for moving-bed coal gasification reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steady state model of moving-bed coal gasification reactors has been developed. Model predictions are in agreement with published commercial plant data for Lurgi pressurized gasification reactors and a pilot plant slagging gasifier. The dependence of reactor performance on operating variables has been studied for Illinois and Wyoming coals. For a given coal, maximum efficiency is determined by the coal-to-oxygen

Heeyoung Yoon; James Wei; Morton M. Denn

1978-01-01

122

Coal gasification construction materials: an overview  

SciTech Connect

Materials performance test results are presented for two coal gasification processes, HYGAS SNG process, which converts any type of coal to substitute natural gas (SNG), and U-GAS fuel gas process, which converts coal to a low- or medium-heat value gas. A description of the pilot plant for each process and discussion of some experiences with materials and components used in plant construction is presented. Metals performance inside the gasifier reactors and in off-gas locations depended upon the character of the process. At moderate operating temperatures (427/sup 0/C), low-carbon steels are advisable. Very high-temperature environments may not only require use of exotic alloys, clads, and/or coatings but may also preclude extensive use of internal piping/valving in scale-up designs. Inconel 182, 600, and Monel 400 have all performed erratically in the plants; but in quench and purification sections, austenitic stainless steels performed well. 9 references. (BLM)

Arnold, J.M. (Inst. of Gas Tech., Chicago, IL); Laurens, R.M.; Danyluk, S.

1981-12-01

123

Wabash River coal gasification repowering project: Public design report  

SciTech Connect

The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (the Project), conceived in October of 1990 and selected by the US Department of Energy as a Clean Coal IV demonstration project in September 1991, is expected to begin commercial operations in August of 1995. The Participants, Destec Energy, Inc., (Destec) of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc., (PSI) of Plainfield, Indiana, formed the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (the JV) to participate in the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program by demonstrating the coal gasification repowering of an existing 1950`s vintage generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The Participants, acting through the JV, signed the Cooperative Agreement with the DOE in July 1992. The Participants jointly developed, and separately designed, constructed, own, and will operate an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (CGCC) power plant using Destec`s coal gasification technology to repower Unit {number_sign}1 at PSI`s Wabash River Generating Station located in Terre Haute, Indiana. PSI is responsible for the new power generation facilities and modification of the existing unit, while Destec is responsible for the coal gasification plant. The Project demonstrates integration of the pre-existing steam turbine generator, auxiliaries, and coal handling facilities with a new combustion turbine generator/heat recovery steam generator tandem and the coal gasification facilities.

NONE

1995-07-01

124

Present State of the US Underground Coal Gasification Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Underground Coal Gasification Program in the United States is reviewed briefly from its inception in 1946 to the present day. The current US program, the Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification test, is described in some detail. The US program ...

R. W. Hill

1987-01-01

125

Coal gasification for power generation. 2nd ed.  

SciTech Connect

The report gives an overview of the opportunities for coal gasification in the power generation industry. It provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; A description of gasification technology including processes and systems; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; An analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; A discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; An evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; A discussion of IGCC project development options; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; Profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and A description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

NONE

2006-10-15

126

Proceedings: Sixth annual EPRI contractors' conference on coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sixth Annual EPRI Contractors' Conference on Coal Gasification was held in Palo Alto on October 15 and 16, 1986. The 200 people in attendance (representing utilities, EPRI contractors, government laboratories and organizations, industry, and academia) reviewed the results of projects and other related topics. Nineteen papers were presented in five general areas: Utility Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC

Holt

1987-01-01

127

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the project are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal; evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods

1999-01-01

128

FUGITIVE EMISSION TESTING AT THE KOSOVO COAL GASIFICATION PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes results of a test program to characterize fugitive emissions from the Kosovo coal gasification plant in Yugoslavia, a test program implemented by the EPA in response to a need for representative data on the potential environmental impacts of Lurgi coal gasif...

129

Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process  

DOEpatents

The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

Wilson, M.W.

1987-03-23

130

Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process  

DOEpatents

The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

Wilson, Marvin W. (Fairview, WV)

1988-01-01

131

Control of subsidence during underground gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect

A method of modifying an underground coal seam located between a lower noncoal layer and an overburden layer to control subsidence resulting from gasification of coal in the underground coal seam, comprising: (a) drilling holes through the overburden layer and the underground coal seam and into the lower noncoal layer, (b) gasifying a portion of the coal adjacent each hole, thereby producing cavities of a predetermined shape; (c) placing fluid transportation devices within each cavity; (d) filling, through the holes, each cavity with a heat resistant material adapted to support the overburden upon gasification of the coal; (e) introducing a cooling fluid into the transportation devices; and (f) gasifying the coal.

Gash, B.W.; Buxton, T.S.

1988-05-31

132

Carbon dioxide sorption capacities of coal gasification residues.  

PubMed

Underground coal gasification is currently being considered as an economically and environmentally sustainable option for development and utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. This emerging technology in combination with carbon capture and sorptive CO2 storage on the residual coke as well as free-gas CO2 storage in the cavities generated in the coal seams after gasification could provide a relevant contribution to the development of Clean Coal Technologies. Three hard coals of different rank from German mining districts were gasified in a laboratory-scale reactor (200 g of coal at 800 °C subjected to 10 L/min air for 200 min). High-pressure CO2 excess sorption isotherms determined before and after gasification revealed an increase of sorption capacity by up to 42%. Thus, physical sorption represents a feasible option for CO2 storage in underground gasification cavities. PMID:21210659

Kempka, Thomas; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás; Li, Dong-Yong; Schulten, Marc; Schlüter, Ralph; Krooss, Bernhard M

2011-02-15

133

Subsidence modeling for underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Underground coal gasification can lead to significant environmental and structural damage due to subsidence. This ground motion can be enhanced or mitigated by thermal shrinkage, block caving, variations in elastic properties, plasticity and multiple seam burning. Underground openings which are located at relatively shallow depths may result in much greater subsidence than larger openings which are slightly deeper. New advances in computer codes allow investigations of rigid block behaviour and other non-linear mechanisms. Numerical techniques agree qualitatively with empirical data but, so far, underpredict ground surface displacement. Certain thermal and structural properties of Coal Measures rock must be established and additional calculations must be carried out over longer times in order that cooling influences can be modelled.

Trent, B.C.; Langland, R.T.

1983-01-01

134

Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study  

SciTech Connect

This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

2004-01-31

135

Comparison of Solid Wastes from Coal Combustion and Pilot Coal-Gasification Plants. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Comparisons of the physical and chemical properties of solid wastes from coal combustion and gasification processes should assist in deciding whether gasification solid wastes can be utilized or disposed of in the same manner as combustion solid wastes. I...

C. W. Gehrs

1983-01-01

136

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

Polk Power has decided that the Texaco gasification unit will not be sold to a third party. Therefore, including the ownership transfer of the Texaco gasification unit in the agreement is not an issue any more. The cooperative agreement between Texaco and Polk Power has been revised several times in this quarter. Polk power is making comments on the last draft that Texaco sent to them. The modification fieldwork and testing will start once the cooperative agreement is signed with Polk Power.

Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

2003-07-01

137

Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CSR process; and Exxon Gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service\\/Rockwell (CS\\/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the

J. McCarthy; J. Ferrall; T. Charng; J. Houseman

1981-01-01

138

Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix A: Coal gasification catalog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scope of work in preparing the Coal Gasification Data Catalog included the following subtasks: (1) candidate system subsystem definition, (2) raw materials analysis, (3) market analysis for by-products, (4) alternate products analysis, (5) preliminary integrated facility requirements. Definition of candidate systems/subsystems includes the identity of and alternates for each process unit, raw material requirements, and the cost and design drivers for each process design.

1980-01-01

139

POLLUTANTS FROM SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION: COAL GASIFICATION SCREENING TEST RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Coal gasification test runs have been conducted in a semibatch, fixed-bed laboratory gasifier in order to evaluate various coals and operating conditions for pollutant generation. Thirty-eight tests have been completed using char, coal, lignite, and peat. Extensive analyses were ...

140

Method for Gasification of Deep, Thin Coal Seams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face is given. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area f...

D. W. Gregg

1980-01-01

141

Economic evaluation of MHD-steam powerplants employing coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the efficacy and economics of producing power from coal, four ; open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processing schemes were selected for study. ; Each involved a different mode of coal combustion and level of gas cleanliness. ; The options considered were: (1) coal burned in a slagging combustor; (2) ; suspension gasification with slag removal prior to combustion; (3) parallel

P. D. Bergman; J. J. Demeter; D. Bienstock

1973-01-01

142

Coal gasification. Quarterly report, July-September 1979  

SciTech Connect

The status of 18 coal gasification pilot plants or supporting projects supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract number, funding, gasification process, history, process description, flowsheet and progress in the July-September 1979 quarter. (LTN)

None

1980-07-01

143

Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Project  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Test or Burn was conducted from approximately mid-November, 1987 through February, 1988. After the burn the project began proceeding with the following overall tasks: venting, flushing and cooling of the cavities; subsurface or groundwater cleanup; post-burn coring and drilling; groundwater monitoring, and site restoration/reclamation. By the beginning of 1991 field activities associated with venting, flushing and cooling of the cavities and post-burn coring and drilling had been completed. However, data analysis continued including the University of North Dakota analyzing drilling and coring data, and the US Department of Energy (DOE)/EG G developing a chronological listing of project events.

Not Available

1992-03-01

144

Simulation of coal gasification in a fluidized bed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this analysis of coal gasification, a fundamental approach is used where a set of multiphase (Eulerian) fluid dynamic equations, obtained either by a suitable averaging technique (Anderson and Jackson, 1976; Drew, 1971) or the formulations of continuum...

T. J. O'Brien

1996-01-01

145

Simple UCG (Underground Coal Gasification) Field Performance and Economics Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, over the past decade, has studied the technical feasibility of underground coal gasification through a combination of field tests, laboratory experiments and mathematical models. In 1979, Thorsness and Cena develope...

R. J. Cena

1987-01-01

146

Program for Large-Scale Underground-Coal-Gasification Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The continuing development of underground coal gasification technology requires extended multi-module field programs in which the output gas is linked to surface usage. This effort was to appraise whether existing surface facilities in the utility, petrol...

F. W. Hammesfahr P. L. Winter

1982-01-01

147

Potential Production of Photochemical Oxidants from Coal Gasification Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal gasification facilities are potential sources of both reactive hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides. It is thus conceivable that photochemical reactions may produce ozone in the plumes of these facilities. This possibility was examined by a three-step pr...

M. D. Williams

1976-01-01

148

INITIAL ENVIRONMENTAL TEST PLAN FOR SOURCE ASSESSMENT OF COAL GASIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes an initial source assessment environmental test plan, developed to investigate the fate of various constituents during coal gasification. The plan is an approach to the problems associated with sampling point selection, sample collection, and sample analysis ...

149

Experiments on Ultrasonic Thermometry for Wet-Ash Coal Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ultrasonic thermometry may be a solution for the problem of temperature monitoring of the reactor in a coal gasification plant. The technique offers fast determination of the temperature profile along a line by measurement of the propagation velocity of a...

K. Schoonderwoerd R. Hunik

1990-01-01

150

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Coal Gasification Power Generation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life cycle assessments (LCA) of coal gasification-based electricity generation technologies for emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), principally CO2, are computed. Two approaches for computing LCAs are compared for construction and operation of integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants: a traditional process-based approach, and one based on economic input-output analysis named Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA). It is shown

John A. Ruether; Massood Ramezan; Peter C. Balash

2004-01-01

151

Influence of pressure on coal pyrolysis and char gasification  

SciTech Connect

Coal char structure varied greatly with pyrolysis pressure, which has a significant influence on the gasification reactivity. In this study, the influence of pressure on the behavior of coal pyrolysis and physicochemical structure and gasification characteristics of the resultant coal char was investigated using a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer combined with an ambient thermogravimetric analyzer. First, the pyrolysis of Shenfu (SF) bituminous coal was performed in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at different pressures (0.1, 0.8, 1.5, 3, and 5 MPa). The volatile mainly evolved out at 400-800{sup o}C. The gas products are mainly CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, and light aliphatics with some water. It was observed that the pyrolysis of coal was shifted to lower temperature (50{sup o}C) with pressure increasing from ambient to 5 MPa, and the devolatilization rate of coal pyrolysis was decreased and the coal char yield was increased slightly. The structure of solid coal char was analyzed using FTIR, ASAP2020, and CNHS. In the solid char, the main organic functional groups are mainly CO, C-C (alkane), C-H ar, C-O-C, and C=C ar. The carbon content was increased while H content decreased. Finally, the gasification of the solid char was preformed at ambient pressure with CO{sub 2} as gasify agent. The gasification process of coal char can be divided into postpyrolysis and char gasification. Higher pressure accelerated the initial stage of char gasification, and higher gasification reactivity was observed for char derived at 5 MPa. 23 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Haiping Yang; Hanping Chen; Fudong Ju; Rong Yan; Shihong Zhang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

2007-12-15

152

Investigation of Aromatic Fractions from Coal Tar Produced by an Underground Coal Gasification Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analysis of an aromatic fraction from a coal tar produced from an underground coal gasification test shows mostly methylated naphthalenes, anthracenes, and phenanthrenes. The similarity between various aromatic fractions and the corresponding similarity o...

F. D. Guffey G. W. Gardner S. B. King

1977-01-01

153

Utilisation of Malaysian Coal: Merit Pila in the Gasification System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gasification is the most efficient Clean Coal Technology. Gasification of Merit Pila coal had been studied in a laboratory-scale, atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier using air and air-steam as fluidizing agent. Merit Pila coal was chosen for the gasification study because of its high reactivity in nitrogen. Determination of the producer gas compositions were conducted using Gas Chromatography. Gasification experiments were conducted at bed temperature of 650-800 °C, different equivalence ratios, ER and different bed heights. Low heating value, LHVpg of the producer gas were in the range of 2.0-5.5 MJ/Nm3. Introduction of steam as the gasifying agents had shown significant increased of CO, CH4 and H2 contents in producer gas. LHV also increased about 35% with the presence of steam.

Othman, Nor Fadzilah; Bosrooh, Mohd Hariffin; Majid, Kamsani Abdul

2011-06-01

154

Update on the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project  

SciTech Connect

The Great Plains Gasification Plant is the US's first commercial synthetic fuels project based on coal conversion. The ANG Coal Gasification Company is the administer of the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project for the United States Department of Energy. The Project is designed to convert 14 M TPD of North Dakota of lignite into 137.5 MM SCFD of pipeline quality synthetic natural gas (SNG). Located in Mercer County, North Dakota, the gasification plant, and an SNG pipeline. Some 12 years passed from the time the project was conceived unit it became a reality by producing SNG into the Northern Border pipeline in 1984 for use by millions of residential, commercial, and industrial consumers. In this paper, the basic processes utilized in the plant are presented. This is followed by a discussion of the start-up activities and schedule. Finally, some of the more interesting start-up problems are described.

Imler, D.L.

1985-12-01

155

Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle  

DOEpatents

Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

Aiman, William R. (Livermore, CA); Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

1983-01-01

156

Coal to Liquid Fuels by Gasification and the Associated Hot Gas Cleanup Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is the most important energy source in China. The utilization of coal should consider not only the efficiency but also the reduction of pollutants and CO2 emission. Compared with coal utilization by conventional combustion, the route to different products via coal gasification is recognized as the most advanced technological concept for clean coal use. The products from coal gasification

Jianguo WANG; Yongwang LI; Yizhuo HAN; Yuhan SUN; Yitian FANG; Jiantao ZHAO; Zhangfeng QIN

2009-01-01

157

Coal conversion solid waste disposal. [Cogas, British Gas/Lurgi, Grace/Texaco, U-Gas, SRC-I/Kopper-Totzek, SRC-II/Texaco, Foster Wheeler/Stoic, Combustion Engineering  

SciTech Connect

The major solid waste produced at coal conversion facilities will be gasification slag or ash. To evaluate the impact of this waste on the environment, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted extensive characterization and leaching studies on ash/slags that had been generated in bench-scale operations, pilot plants, and/or process development units for eight different gasification processes. These studies, designed to assess the consequences of disposal in landfills, showed that none of the leachates from these eight wastes exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's toxicity limits. Thus, these ash/slags would be classified as nonhazardous wastes. Quantities of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that were observed in the aqueous leachates of selected ash/slags were less than 1 ..mu..g/g and appear to be of no significant environmental concern. Column elution studies revealed effluents with pH values less than three and sulfate concentrations greater than 10,000 mg/L for wastes containing sulfur concentrations from 0.3 to 4%. As a result, the major environmental impact associated with disposal of these solid wastes appears to be the dissolution of sulfate and the potential acidification of ground water. 2 figures, 4 tables.

Francis, C.W.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Turner, R.R.; Davis, E.C.

1982-12-01

158

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 8. Gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the eighth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The period of gasification test was July 28 to August 19, 1983. 6 refs., 23 figs., 25 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

159

Public perceptions of underground coal gasification in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest internationally in the technology of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) as a means of accessing the energy contained within inaccessible coal reserves. One of the potential obstacles to UCG deployment is adverse public perceptions and reactions, either stopping or delaying proposed applications. This paper explores the public perceptions of UCG in the UK through a detailed case-study

Simon Shackley; Sarah Mander; Alexander Reiche

2006-01-01

160

Variation of the pore structure of coal chars during gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation of the pore structure of several coal chars during gasification in air and carbon dioxide was studied by argon adsorption at 87 K and CO2 adsorption at 273 K. It is found that the surface area and volume of the small pores (<10 Ĺ) do not change with carbon conversion when the coal char is gasified in air,

Bo Feng; Suresh K. Bhatia

2003-01-01

161

Coal gasification: An environmental, health, and safety overview. Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents an overview of the development of coal gasification technology and environmental, health, and safety issues associated with the technology that still remain to be resolved. The issues were identified as the result of a systematic analysis of the process units that may be present in a coal-to-substitute natural gas plant, their emission and discharge streams, and control

1989-01-01

162

Construction Labor Assessment for Coal Gasification Plant Murphy Hill, Alabama.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

TVA's planned construction of a coal gasification plant, capable of processing about 20,000 tons of coal per day into a clean-burning fuel, will be a large and complex construction project by any relevant measure. The plant site examined here is in northe...

1981-01-01

163

Shell coal gasification plant (SCGP-1) environmental performance results  

SciTech Connect

Environmental studies in slip-stream process development units at SCGP-1, Shell's advanced coal gasification demonstration plant, located near Houston, Texas, have demonstrated that the gas and water effluents from the Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) are environmentally benign on a broad slate of coals. This report presents the results of those environmental studies. It contains two major subjects, which describe, respectively, the experiments on gas treating and the experiments on water treating. Gas treatment focused on the performance of aqueous methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and sulfinol-M. 8 refs., 24 figs., 13 tabs.

Bush, W.V.; Baker, D.C.; Tijm, P.J.A. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1991-07-01

164

POLLUTANTS FROM SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION: SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS FOR COAL GASIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes sampling and analysis methods involving a laboratory-scale coal gasification facility used to study the generation, sampling, chemical analysis, process evaluation, and environmental assessment of pollutants from coal gasification. It describes methods for pa...

165

Investigations on Water Vapor-Coal Partial Gasification in a Helium Heated Vertical Gas Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Process engineering design and layout strategies for a gas generator in vertical construction (vs. horizontal construction in the past) of the process of water vapor-coal gasification to non-catalytical partial and complete gasification of bituminous coal...

H. Barnert J. Singh H. Hohn G. Romes H. Kalwitzki

1987-01-01

166

Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification of Chinese typical coal samples  

SciTech Connect

This paper aims to understand the pyrolysis and gasification behavior of different Chinese coal samples at different pressures. First, the pyrolysis of four typical Chinese coals samples (Xiaolongtan brown coal, Shenfu bituminous coal, Pingzhai anthracite coal, and Heshan lean coal) were carried out using a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer at ambient pressure and 3 MPa, respectively. The surface structure and elemental component of the resultant char were measured with an automated gas adsorption apparatus and element analyzer. It was observed that higher pressure suppressed the primary pyrolysis, while the secondary pyrolysis of coal particles was promoted. With respect to the resultant solid char, the carbon content increased while H content decreased; however, the pore structure varied greatly with increasing pressure for different coal samples. For Xiaolongtan brown coal (XLT) char, it decreased greatly, while it increased obviously for the other three char types. Then, the isothermal gasification behavior of solid char particles was investigated using an ambient thermal analyzer with CO{sub 2} as the gasifying agent at 1000{sup o}C. The gasification reactivity of solid char was decreased greatly with increasing pyrolysis pressure. However, the extent of change displayed a vital relation with the characteristics of the original coal sample. 26 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Hanping Chen; Zhiwu Luo; Haiping Yang; Fudong Ju; Shihong Zhang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

2008-03-15

167

Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification. Progress report, May 7August 6, 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this research program are (1) to determine the technical feasibility of and (2) to prepare preliminary process evaluations for each of two new approaches to coal gasification. The objective of Task 1, COâ-Coal Gasification Concept, is to obtain fundamental information on a novel coal gasification process concept that involves pressurized carbon dioxide-coal gasification followed by a high-temperature

Babu

1984-01-01

168

Pyrolysis and gasification of coal at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The macropore structure of chars is a major factor in determining their reactivity during the gasification stage. The major objectives of this contract were to (a) quantify by direct measurements the effect of pyrolysis conditions of the macropore structure, and (b) establish how the macropores affected the reactivity pattern, the ignition behavior and the fragmentation of the char particles during gasification in the regime of strong diffusional limitations. Results from this project provide much needed information on the factors that affect the quality of the solid products (chars) of coal utilization processes (for example, mild gasification processes). The reactivity data will also provide essential parameters for the optimal design of coal gasification processes. (VC)

Zygourakis, K.

1992-02-10

169

Membrane air separation for intensification of coal gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-ash and other low-quality coals are available in huge quantities in Russia and in other East European countries. Similar solid fuels can also be obtained as by-product of the enrichment process of coal. The aim of this work is the analysis of the possibility to use such low-quality coals as alternative energy sources in fluidised bed gasification process. In order

A. A Belyaev; Yu. P Yampolskii; L. E Starannikova; A. M Polyakov; G Clarizia; E Drioli; G Marigliano; G Barbieri

2003-01-01

170

Coal gasification - present state and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary methods for the gasification of solid fuel have a low efficiency. An exhaustive knowledge of both the mechanism and the kinetics of the gasification reaction is essential if fuel gases are to be produced at an acceptable cost. The main problem at the moment is the design of gasification plant capable of producing 500-600 thousand Nm\\/SUP\\/3\\/h and upwards, compared

Fedoseev

1982-01-01

171

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTNG OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

The cooperative agreement between Texaco and Polk Power has been revised by Polk Power and ChevronTexaco several times already. Lawyers from both Polk Power and ChevronTexaco are in the process to include the issues related to the ownership transfer of the Texaco gasification unit in the agreement and finalize the draft. The modification fieldwork and testing will start once the cooperative agreement is signed with Polk Power.

Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

2003-04-01

172

The effect of underground coal gasification on groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground water contamination as a result of underground coal gasification has been studied over a 15-month period at an experimental site in Wyoming by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The experiments have shown that except for the earliest measurement (two weeks after gasification), the principal groundwater contaminants are water-soluble, low-molecular-weight aromatic hydrocarbons. A conceptual model of contaminant-transport processes is suggested and the work is currently in progress on acidic and basic organic contaminants.

1980-09-01

173

Mathematical-modeling studies of in-situ coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Commercialization of the in-situ or underground coal gasification (UCG) process has been impeded because of uncertainties with respect to its reliability and predictability. Modeling studies when combined with a well-designed field test program are the only avenue to a proper understanding of this technology. This paper reviews the latest developments in four important facets of the UCG process: reverse-combustion linking; gasification and resource recovery; water influx; and subsidence.

Krantz, W.B.; Gunn, R.D.

1983-01-01

174

Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Institute of Gas Technology has conducted a fundamental research program to determine the technical feasibility of and to prepare preliminary process evaluations for two new approaches to coal gasification. These two concepts were assessed under two major project tasks: Task 1. COâ-Coal Gasification Process Concept; Task 2. Internal Recirculation Catalysts Coal Gasification Process Concept. The first process concept involves

A. H. Hill; R. A. Knight; G. L. Anderson; H. L. Feldkirchner; S. P. Babu

1986-01-01

175

Coal-gasification systems: a guide to status, applications, and economics. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal gasification has been the subject of a great deal of study and development worldwide over the past decade. The open literature currently contains bewildering and often inconsistent information concerning the development status and economic viability of coal gasification systems. The Advanced Power Systems Division of EPRI has devoted considerable resources to the development and demonstration of coal gasification technology

D. R. Simbeck; R. L. Dickenson; E. D. Oliver

1983-01-01

176

In-situ coal-gasification data look promising  

SciTech Connect

According to a report given at the 6th Underground Coal Conversion Symposium (Afton, Oklahoma 1980), the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal-gasification experiments Oil Gas J. 77 sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Gas Research Institute and directed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory demonstrated the feasibility of in-situ coal conversion and featured the use of a directionally drilled channel to connect the injection and production wells rather than the reverse-burn ordinarily used to produce the connecting channel. In the test, 2816 cu m of coal weighing (APPROX) 4200 tons was consumed, with (APPROX) 18% of the product gas escaping through the overburden or elsewhere. When air injection was used, the average heating value was 217 Btu/std cu ft. The average thermal efficiency of the burn was 65%, and the average gas composition was 35% hydrogen, 5% methane, 11% carbon monoxide, and 44% carbon dioxide. Subsidence occurred after completion of the test. The Uniwell gasification method, scheduled for use in the final experiment in the Deep-1 series of underground coal-gasification tests in Wyoming, seeks to prevent subsidence by use of concentric pipes which are inserted into the vertical well to control the combustion zone. Underground coal-gasification prospects and the mechanics of subsidence are discussed.

Not Available

1980-07-21

177

Development program to support industrial coal gasification. Quarterly report 1  

SciTech Connect

The Development Program to Support Industrial Coal Gasification is on schedule. The efforts have centered on collecting background information and data, planning, and getting the experimental program underway. The three principal objectives in Task I-A were accomplished. The technical literature was reviewed, the coals and binders to be employed were selected, and tests and testing equipment to be used in evaluating agglomerates were developed. The entire Erie Mining facility design was reviewed and a large portion of the fluidized-bed coal gasification plant design was completed. Much of the work in Task I will be experimental. Wafer-briquette and roll-briquette screening tests will be performed. In Task II, work on the fluidized-bed gasification plant design will be completed and work on a plant design involving entrained-flow gasifiers will be initiated.

None

1982-01-15

178

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3% KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

2000-04-01

179

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures,'' covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3%KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

1998-10-01

180

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

The project, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the project are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal; evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (e.g., temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. The eutectic catalysts increased gasification rate significantly. The methods of catalyst preparation and addition had significant effect on the catalytic activity and coal gasification. The incipient wetness method gave more uniform catalyst distribution than that of physical mixing for the soluble catalysts resulting in higher gasification rates for the incipient wetness samples. The catalytic activity increased by varying degrees with catalyst loading. The above results are especially important since the eutectic catalysts (with low melting points) yield significant gasification rates even at low temperatures. Among the ternary eutectic catalysts studied, the system 39% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-38.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-22.5% Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} showed the best activity and will be used for further bench scale fixed-bed gasification reactor in the next period. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies in the previous reporting period, the project team selected the 43.5% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed-bed studies at UTSI during this reporting period. Temperature was found to have a significant effect on the rate of gasification of coal. The rate of gasification increased up to 1400 F. Pressure did not have much effect on the gasification rates. The catalyst loading increased the gasification rate and approached complete conversion when 10 wt% of catalyst was added to the coal. Upon further increasing the catalyst amount to 20-wt% and above, there was no significant rise in gasification rate. The rate of gasification was lower for a 2:1 steam to char molar ratio (60%) compared to gasification rates at 3.4:1 molar ratio of steam-to-char where the conversion approached 100%. The characterization results of Georgia Tech are very preliminary and inconclusive and will be made available in the next report.

Unknown

1999-04-01

181

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 12. Gasification of Absaloka/Robinson subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial particpants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the twelfth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. this specific reports describes the gasification of Absaloka/Robinson subbituminous coal. This volume covers the test period June 18, 1984 to June 30, 1984. 4 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

182

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 17. Gasification and liquids recovery of four US coals  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and government agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the seventeenth in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This report describes the gasification and pyrolysis liquids recovery test for four different coals: Illinois No. 6, SUFCO, Indianhead lignite, and Hiawatha. This test series spanned from July 15, 1985, through July 28, 1985. 4 refs., 16 figs., 19 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-12-01

183

Dry coal feeder development program at Ingersoll-Rand Research, Incorporated. [for coal gasification systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dry coal screw feeder for feeding coal into coal gasification reactors operating at pressures up to 1500 psig is described. Results on the feeder under several different modes of operation are presented. In addition, three piston feeder concepts and their technical and economical merits are discussed.

Mistry, D. K.; Chen, T. N.

1977-01-01

184

Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary eutectic salt mixture consisting of Li- Na- and K- carbonates has the potential as gasification catalyst. To verify the literature reported, melting points for various compositions consisting of these three salts and the temperature range over which the mixture remained molten were determined in the lab. For mixtures with different concentrations of the three salts, the temperatures at which the mixtures were found to be in complete molten state were recorded. By increasing the amount of Li2CO3, the melting temperature range was reduced significantly. In the literature, the eutectic mixtures of Li- Na- and K-carbonates are claimed to have a lower activation energy than that of K2CO3 alone and they remain molten at a lower temperature than pure K2CO3. The slow increase in the gasification rates with eutectics reported in the literature is believed to be due to a gradual penetration of the coals and coal char particles by the molten and viscous catalyst phase. The even spreading of the salt phase seems to increase the overall carbon conversion rate. In the next reporting period, a number of eutectic salts and methods of their application on the coal will be identified and tested.

Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

1998-12-04

185

Production and Gasification Tests of Coal Fines/Coal Tar Extrudate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gasification is a fuels conversion technology that permits the production of clean synthetic gas from coal and other carbonaceous fuels. Of the various gasifier types, however, the fixed bed is the only system currently being offered on a commercial basis...

A. Furman D. Rib D. Smith D. Waslo

1984-01-01

186

Modeling a fluidized-bed coal gasification reactor  

SciTech Connect

A steady-state model has been developed to simulate the North Carolina State University pilot-scale fluidized bed coal gasification reactor. The model involves instantaneous devolatilization of coal in the free-board region and char combustion and gasification in the fluidized bed. A two-phase representation of the fluidized bed incorporates the phenomena of jetting, bubbling, slugging, and mass and heat transfer between phases. The model has the ability to predict both concentration and temperature profiles, the latter being useful in the prediction of possible clinker formation at hot spots within the bed. The model has been successfully used to simulate the gasification of a devoltailized Western Kentucky bituminous coal and a New Mexico subbituminous coal. Effects of the molar steam/carbon feed ratio, molar oxygen/carbon feed ratio, fluidized bed height, and pressure on gasifer performance have been studied parametrically with the two-phase model. The molar steam/carbon feed ratio has moderate negative effects on the reactor performance. The approach to water-gas shift equilibrium is favored by lowering the steam/carbon ratio and/or raising oxygen/carbon ratio. The effects of moderate change sin bed height and pressure on the gasifier performance are small, implying that the reactor can be operated at any bed height and pressure near the targeted operating conditions without significantly affecting the gasifier output. Organic sulfur distributions in a New Mexico subbituminous coal and a Texas lignite have been determined by a nonisothermal technique. A three-stage well-mixed bed model incorporating the hydrodesulfurization kinetics of Yergey et al. was used to correlate the evolution rate of H{sub 2}S from coal or char during gasification.

Ma, R.P.

1987-01-01

187

In-situ coal gasification: a bibliography. [2222 references  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2222 references in this bibliography on in-situ gasification of coal were selected from the Energy Data Base (EDB) produced by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI). New citations on this subject are announced semimonthly in the bulletin Coal-Based Synfuels and monthly in Fossil Energy Update, both published by OSTI. The Energy Data Base is available for on-line

Grissom

1984-01-01

188

Highly active catalysts from inexpensive raw materials for coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review article focuses on novel methods of converting inexpensive raw materials to active catalysts for low-temperature coal gasification, which can produce clean fuels and valuable feedstock with high thermal efficiency. Precipitation methods using NH3, urea, and Ca(OH)2 make it possible to prepare active, Cl-free iron catalysts on brown coals from an aqueous solution of FeCl3 as the major

Yasuo Ohtsuka; Kenji Asami

1997-01-01

189

An improved model for fixed bed coal combustion and gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved one-dimensional model for countercurrent oxidation and gasification of coal in fixed or slowly moving beds has been developed. The model incorporates an advanced devolatilization submodel that can predict the evolution rates and the yields of individual gas species and tar. A split, back-and-forth, shooting method is implemented to satisfy exactly the boundary conditions for both the feed coal

Predrag T. Radulovic; M. Usman Ghani; L. Douglas Smoot

1995-01-01

190

Thermophysical models of underground coal gasification and FEM analysis  

SciTech Connect

In this study, mathematical models of the coupled thermohydromechanical process of coal rock mass in an underground coal gasification panel are established. Combined with the calculation example, the influence of heating effects on the observed values and simulated values for pore water pressure, stress, and displacement in the gasification panel are fully discussed and analyzed. Calculation results indicate that 38, 62, and 96 days after the experiment, the average relative errors for the calculated values and measured values for the temperature and water pressure were between 8.51-11.14% and 3-10%, respectively; with the passage of gasification time, the calculated errors for the vertical stress and horizontal stress gradually declined, but the simulated errors for the horizontal and vertical displacements both showed a rising trend. On the basis of the research results, the calculated values and the measured values agree with each other very well.

Yang, L.H. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2007-11-15

191

Separating hydrogen from coal gasification gases with alumina membranes  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis gas produced in coal gasification processes contains hydrogen, along with carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, water, nitrogen, and other gases, depending on the particular gasification process. Development of membrane technology to separate the hydrogen from the raw gas at the high operating temperatures and pressures near exit gas conditions would improve the efficiency of the process. Tubular porous alumina membranes with mean pore radii ranging from about 9 to 22 {Angstrom} have been fabricated and characterized. Based on hydrostatic tests, the burst strength of the membranes ranged from 800 to 1600 psig, with a mean value of about 1300 psig. These membranes were evaluated for separating hydrogen and other gases. Tests of membrane permeabilities were made with helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. Measurements were made at room temperature in the pressure range of 15 to 589 psi. Selected membranes were tested further with mixed gases simulating a coal gasification product gas. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Egan, B.Z. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E.; White, D.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA))

1991-01-01

192

Results from the third LLL underground coal gasification experiment at Hoe Creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major objective of the US Energy Program is the development of processes to produce clean fuels from coal. Underground coal gasification is one of the most promising of these processes. If successful, underground coal gasification (UCG) would quadruple the proven reserves of the US coal. Cost for products produced from UCG are projected to be 65 to 75% of

R. W. Hill; C. B. Thorsness; R. J. Cena; W. R. Aiman; D. R. Stephens

1980-01-01

193

Preparation of low-sulfur fuel gas for gasification of Battelle treated coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battelle's Columbus Laboratories has developed a proprietary process for treating coal with calcium compounds, called the Battelle Treated Coal process, in which the incorporated calcium produces an improved gasification feedstock. From the results of batch and continuous fixed-bed gasification testing of BTC the following conclusions were drawn: 1) 80-95% of the coal's sulfur can be captured in the coal ash,

H. N. Conkle; H. F. Feldmann; O. J. Hahn

1983-01-01

194

Westinghouse Fluidized Bed Coal Gasification System: Experience and Plans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive program is underway to evaluate the Westinghouse fluidized bed coal gasification system for a combined cycle power plant. Such a plant is expected to be lower in capital costs, lower in pollutant emissions and have the potential for higher...

J. D. Holmgren L. A. Salvador

1978-01-01

195

Flow Simulation and Optimization of Plasma Reactors for Coal Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a 3-d numerical simulation system to analyze the complicated flow in plasma reactors for coal gasification, which involve complex chemical reaction, two-phase flow and plasma effect. On the basis of analytic results, the distribution of the density, temperature and components' concentration are obtained and a different plasma reactor configuration is proposed to optimize the flow parameters. The

Chunjun Ji; Yingzi Zhang; Tengcai Ma

2003-01-01

196

Corrosion performance of alumina scales in coal gasification environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Corrosion of metallic structural materials in complex gas environments of coal gasification is a potential problem. The corrosion process is dictated by concentrations of two key constituents: sulfur as H2S and Cl as HCl. This paper examines the corrosion...

K. Natesan

1997-01-01

197

Influence of Pressure on the Steam Gasification of Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This contribution is concerned with the thermodynamics and kinetics of gas - solid reactions. The influence of steam partial pressure in the range of 1 to 100 bar on the steam gasification process of coal and coke and on the composition of the gases obtai...

P. P. Feistel K. H. van Heek H. Juentgen

1977-01-01

198

Experiments on ultrasonic thermometry for wet-ash coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic thermometry may be a solution for the problem of temperature monitoring of the reactor in a coal gasification plant. The technique offers fast determination of the temperature profile along a line by measurement of the propagation velocity of an ultrasonic signal through a thin massive rod with a number of reflecting nodges. The thermometer rod in a wet ash

K. Schoonderwoerd; R. Hunik

1990-01-01

199

Operation of a Pressurized CFB Gasification for Bituminous Coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of furnace pressure on bituminous coal gasification was studied on laboratory-scale pressurized circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifying furnaces. Within the scope of this paper this test facility as well as its operation behavior is described. Furthermore the parameter pressure has been investigated regarding to its influence on the producer gas composition, carbon conversion, carbon content of fly ash,

Feng Duan; Baosheng Jin; Yaji Huang; Bin Li; Yu Sun; Mingyao Zhang

2010-01-01

200

Utilization of chemical looping strategy in coal gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three chemical looping gasification processes, i.e. Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process, Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process, and Calcium Looping process (CLP), are being developed at the Ohio State University (OSU). These processes utilize simple reaction schemes to convert carbonaceous fuels into products such as hydrogen, electricity, and synthetic fuels through the transformation of a highly reactive, highly recyclable chemical

Liangshih Fan; Fanxing Li; Shwetha Ramkumar

2008-01-01

201

Coal Gasification. Quarterly Report, April-June 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In DOE's program for the conversion of coal to gaseous fuels both high-and low-Btu gasification processes are being developed. High-Btu gas can be distributed economically to consumers in the same pipeline systems now used to carry natural gas. Low-Btu ga...

1980-01-01

202

Co-gasification of biomass and coal for methanol synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a growing interest has been observed in the application of methanol as an alternative liquid fuel, which can be used directly for powering Otto engines or fuel cells achieving high thermodynamic efficiencies and relatively low environmental impacts. Biomass and coal can be considered as a potential fuel for gasification and further syn-gas production and methanol synthesis. In

Tomasz Chmielniak; Marek Sciazko

2003-01-01

203

Coal research. II - Gasification faces an uncertain future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four coal gasification processes developed in the 1960s as alternatives to the Lurgi and Koppers-Totzek processes - Carbon Dioxide Acceptor, Hygas, Bi-gas and Synthane - have been or are being evaluated in pilot plants. These processes are outlined, and their technological and economic difficulties are identified. Two processes presently under consideration for demonstration plants, a slagging Lurgi process and the

A. L. Hammond

1976-01-01

204

Field-scale experiment in underground gasification of coal at Pricetown, West Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 1979, US Department of Energy successfully completed an underground coal gasification (UCG) field test in eastern bituminous coal near Pricetown, WV. The field test consisted of three major phases: (1) reverse combustion linkage, (2) link enhancement, and (3) gasification. During the gasification phase, gas with an average heating value of 121 BTU\\/scf was produced, which resulted in an

A. J. Liberatore; M. W. Wilson

1982-01-01

205

Results from the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe results from the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification test. The experiment employed a drilled channel between process wells spaced 130 ft apart. The drilled channel was enlarged by reverse combustion prior to forward gasification. The first week of forward gasification was carried out using air injection, during which 250 tons of coal were

C. B. Thorsness; R. W. Hill; R. J. Cena; W. R. Aiman; D. R. Stephens

1980-01-01

206

Plan for acquistion, handling and characterization of coal gasification solid wastes. Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term viability of the gas industry will depend increasingly on the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from the gasification of coal. Coal gasification produces a number of solid wastes, of which the major type is ash. The ash results directly from the gasification process and from the supporting combustion units that produce steam and electricity for the

G. J. McCarthy; G. H. Groenewold; D. J. Hassett; M. L. Jones; O. E. Manz

1983-01-01

207

Numerical study on the underground coal gasification for inclined seams  

SciTech Connect

According to the characteristics for combustion and gasification reactions occurring in the gasification gallery, the mathematical functional relationship between the chemical reaction rate and every influencing factor is studied. The dynamic nonlinear coupling mathematical models on underground coal gasification of inclined seams are established. The determination methods of major model parameters are introduced. Additionally, the control volume method is adopted to find the numerical solution to the mathematical models. The patterns of development and variation for temperature field, concentration field and pressure field in gasification panel are studied. On the basis of the model test, calculation results are analyzed. From the distribution of temperature field, its calculation value is a little higher than the experimental one, with the relative error of every measuring point virtually within 17%. Research shows that the experiment value of gas heat value and calculated value take on a good conformity; due to the influence of temperature, in the high temperature zone, the change gradient of the experiment value for concentration field of gas compositions is greater than that of the calculation value. The simulated results indicate that the relative error of the pressure field calculation is 4.13%-12.69% and 8.25%-17.47%, respectively, 7 h and 45 h after the ignition. The drop rate for the fluid pressure is 6 01 % and 10. 91 %, respectively. Research shows that the simulated values conform with experimental values comparatively well, which demonstrates that the numerical simulation on the 'three fields' in underground coal gasification is correct.

Yang, L.H. [China University of Mining & Technology, Jiangsu (China). College for Resources & Geoscience

2005-11-01

208

Coal gasification. Quarterly report, April-June 1979  

SciTech Connect

In DOE's program for the conversion of coal to gaseous fuels both high-and low-Btu gasification processes are being developed. High-Btu gas can be distributed economically to consumers in the same pipeline systems now used to carry natural gas. Low-Btu gas, the cheapest of the gaseous fuels produced from coal, can be used economically only on site, either for electric power generation or by industrial and petrochemical plants. High-Btu natural gas has a heating value of 950 to 1000 Btu per standard cubic foot, is composed essentially of methane, and contains virtually no sulfur, carbon monoxide, or free hydrogen. The conversion of coal to High-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. Coals have widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where they are mined, and are difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, DOE, together with the American Gas Association (AGA), is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, each of the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high-Btu gas have reached the pilot plant Low-Btu gas, with a heating value of up to 350 Btu per standard cubic foot, is an economical fuel for industrial use as well as for power generation in combined gas-steam turbine power cycles. Because different low-Btu gasification processes are optimum for converting different types of coal, and because of the need to provide commercially acceptable processes at the earliest possible date, DOE is sponsoring the concurrent development of several basic types of gasifiers (fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, and entrained-flow).

None

1980-04-01

209

Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process  

DOEpatents

Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ)

1980-01-01

210

Gasification of Low-Rank Coals: Technology Status and Recent Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technology for gasification of low-rank coals includes processes that are commercially available as well as some that are being developed. Commercial Lurgi technology is being utilized by the Great Plains Gasification Associates (GPGA) to convert North Da...

G. A. Wiltsee W. G. Willson

1985-01-01

211

Design considerations for a coal gasification electric power generation plant  

SciTech Connect

The low environmental emissions and high efficiency of a coal gasification process make it highly attractive for electric power generation. Such a plant will be highly integrated and interactive. It will have many thermal, chemical, mechanical and electrical components with widely varying operating characteristics and constraints. The nature of the electricity production and use requires the gasification combined cycle plant to operate in a dynamic, load varying mode. This requires that careful consideration should be given to the design and selection of the system, the components and the control system. 5 refs.

Patel, A.S.; Hamid, T.

1981-01-01

212

Hydrogen production by electrochemical gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect

Research is now being done to transform solid fuel coal into clean fluid fuels. One of these methods is the hydrogasification of coal which is carried out by a well-known steam carbon reaction. A novel method was reported by Coughlin and Farooque in which coal and water were converted into two separate gaseous products. The first one is pure hydrogen and the second is oxides of carbon. In this preliminary study, an Egyptian coal from Almaghara mine in Sinai was used. An alkaline medium was used as electrolyte. This is because the ability of this medium to dissolve iron impurities in coal is limited by the low solubility of ferrous hydroxide and ferric hydroxide in sodium hydroxide. It was found that for relatively small particles of coal, and contrary to the findings of Coughlin et al, that the presence of coal particles lead to an increase in the cell voltage for a given rate of hydrogen production.

Abdo, M.S.B.

1983-12-01

213

Proceedings of the third advanced coal gasification symposium, Beijing, China, 1985  

SciTech Connect

The Third Advanced Coal Gasification Symposium, held in Beijing, China in 1985, was sponsored by the Beijing Association for Science and Technology and the Beijing Energy Society. Introductory information on China's coal industry and on atmospheric pollution, opening and closing speeches, summaries of the technical sessions, and lists of delegates are included. Nine papers presented by the international delegation of specialists discuss current coal gasification processes and environmental aspects of coal gasification. Appendices include data on coal mine design and coal research institutes in China and on the facilities of the Ministry of Coal Industry. Papers have been indexed separately.

Flowers, A.; Holmgren, J.; Perhac, R.; Lam, E.; Menzies, W.

1985-01-01

214

Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program  

SciTech Connect

The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H[sub 2] mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO[sub x] (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

1992-01-01

215

Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program  

SciTech Connect

The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H{sub 2} mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO{sub x} (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

1992-11-01

216

Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams  

SciTech Connect

A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern united states and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

Gregg, D.W.

1982-06-15

217

Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT) is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering (WRCGR) Project, as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1992). Repowering consists of replacing an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies to achieve significantly improved environmental performance. The desire to demonstrate utility repowering with a two-stage, pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system prompted Destec Energy, Inc., and PSI Energy, Inc., to form a joint venture and submit a proposal for this project. In July 1992, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (WRCGRPJV, the Participant) entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. The project was sited at PSI Energy's Wabash River Generating Station, located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate IGCC repowering using a Destec gasifier and to assess long-term reliability, availability, and maintainability of the system at a fully commercial scale. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding (for capital and operating costs during the demonstration period) of $438 million.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2002-01-15

218

Study on the model experiment and numerical simulation for underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas production process in underground coal gasification is closely linked to the temperature distribution and seepage conditions of the gasifier. In this paper, mathematical models on the underground coal gasification in steep coal seams are established according to their storage conditions and features of gas production process. Additionally, the paper introduces ways to determine model parameters and the control

Lanhe Yang

2004-01-01

219

Retention of mercury in activated carbons in coal combustion and gasification flue gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

To avoid the emission of toxic mercury compounds from coal combustion and gasification, efficient gas cleaning systems need to be developed. In this work, the effectiveness of activated carbons for retaining mercury in gases from coal gasification was evaluated and contrasted with the results obtained in a coal combustion atmosphere. The performance of a sulphur-loaded carbon (RBHG3) was compared with

M. Antonia Lopez-Antón; Juan M. D Tascón; M. Rosa Mart??nez-Tarazona

2002-01-01

220

Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study  

SciTech Connect

The pre-baseline configuration for an Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) system has been developed. This case uses current gasification, clean-up, gas turbine, and bottoming cycle technologies together with projected large planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. This pre-baseline case will be used as a basis for identifying the critical factors impacting system performance and the major technical challenges in implementing such systems. Top-level system requirements were used as the criteria to evaluate and down select alternative sub-systems. The top choice subsystems were subsequently integrated to form the pre-baseline case. The down-selected pre-baseline case includes a British Gas Lurgi (BGL) gasification and cleanup sub-system integrated with a GE Power Systems 6FA+e gas turbine and the Hybrid Power Generation Systems planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) sub-system. The overall efficiency of this system is estimated to be 43.0%. The system efficiency of the pre-baseline system provides a benchmark level for further optimization efforts in this program.

Gregory Wotzak; Chellappa Balan; Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

2003-08-01

221

Oxy-co-gasification of coal and biomass in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxy-gasification, or oxygen-blown gasification, enables a clean and efficient use of coal and opens a promising way to CO2 capture. Moreover, oxy-co-gasification with biomass implies the use of a renewable resource and additional CO2 reduction. Proper gasifier operation is a key issue in both techniques. A model of an entrained flow gasifier, validated with nearby 3000 actual steady-state operation data

Antonio Valero; Sergio Usón

2006-01-01

222

Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification  

DOEpatents

A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

Liljedahl, Gregory N. (Tariffville, CT); Moffat, Bruce K. (Simsbury, CT)

1981-01-01

223

Oxygen supply for coal gasification power stations (combined cycle process)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptation of air separation processes to coal gasification plants was investigated. Main points are the start up and the load change behavior of the total process. Air separation processes which put at disposal oxygen most energetically to the combined cycle process are estimated. The technical feasibility of such a plant is checked. The load change behavior of the plant, the adaptation of the coal gasification and the start up of the total system are investigated. The influence of process parameters on the energy consumption is calculated. The most economical air separation processes are investigated. It is found that a low pressure plant with mixed heat exchangers and a medium pressure plant with molsieves are the most economical processes and that air separation processes and the order of magnitude can be constructed economically.

Rottmann, D.; Schoenpflug, E.

1982-02-01

224

Underground coal gasification field experiment in the high-dipping coal seams  

SciTech Connect

In this article the experimental conditions and process of the underground gasification in the Woniushan Mine, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province are introduced, and the experimental results are analyzed. By adopting the new method of long-channel, big-section, and two-stage underground coal gasification, the daily gas production reaches about 36,000 m{sup 3}, with the maximum output of 103,700 m{sup 3}. The daily average heating value of air gas is 5.04 MJ/m{sup 3}, with 13.57 MJ/m{sup 3} for water gas. In combustible compositions of water gas, H{sub 2} contents stand at over 50%, with both CO and CH{sub 4} contents over 6%. Experimental results show that the counter gasification can form new temperature conditions and increase the gasification efficiency of coal seams.

Yang, L.H.; Liu, S.Q.; Yu, L.; Zhang, W. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources & Geoscience

2009-07-01

225

Corrosion performance of alumina scales in coal gasification environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion of metallic structural materials in complex gas environments of coal gasification is a potential problem. The corrosion process is dictated by concentrations of two key constituents: sulfur as HâS and Cl as HCl. This paper examines the corrosion performance of alumina scales that are thermally grown on Fe-base alloys during exposure to O\\/S mixed-gas environments. The results are compared

Natesan

1997-01-01

226

Gasification of coal and PET in fluidized bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blended fuel comprising 23wt.% polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and 77wt.% brown coal was gasified in an atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier of laboratory-scale. The gasification agent was composed of 10vol.% O2 in bulk of nitrogen. Thermal and texture analyses were carried out to determine the basic properties of the fuel components. The influence of experimental conditions, such as the fluidized bed and freeboard

M. Poho?elý; M. Vosecký; P. Hejdová; M. Pun?ochá?; S. Skoblja; M. Staf; J. Vošta; B. Koutský; K. Svoboda

2006-01-01

227

Modeling the underground coal gasification process. Part 3. Subsidence  

SciTech Connect

Subsidence modeling studies attempt to predict vertical subsidence or settlement profiles, horizontal displacement, principal stress contours, horizontal strain profiles, overburden failure and collapse, and collapse zone shape above the cavity. The physical and geometrical factors to consider in subsidence modeling; the empirical, analytical, numerical, and phenomenological approaches used to model subsidence in underground coal gasification; and the results of applying these subsidence models to UCG field tests were reviewed.

Krantz, W.B.; Gunn, R.D.

1983-01-01

228

Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study: Volume 1, Summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the summary volume of a three-volume report of the Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study. The plant is of the Lurgi type and began commercial operation in 1971. The study was conducted under the auspices of the U.S.-Yugoslav Joint Board for Scientific and Technological Cooperation. It had five overall purposes: (1) Identify potential health risks in the

S. C. Morris; J. O. Jackson; M. A. Haxhiu

1987-01-01

229

Progress and development trends in coal gasification and liquefaction technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, methods of converting coal into combustible gases are reviewed with particular reference to the Lurgi process, the Winkler process, and the Koppers-Totzek process. Thermodynamic analysis of the reactions which occur in the reduction zone indicates that by conducting the process of CO2 and H2O reduction under equilibrium conditions, the gasification process can be considerably intensified and

A. A. Krichko

1979-01-01

230

Coal gasification characteristics in a downer reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subbituminous coal (Shenwha) was gasified at atmospheric pressure in a downer reactor (0.1m I.D.×5.0m high). The effects of reaction temperature (750–850°C), steam\\/coal mass ratio (0.23–0.86), O2\\/H2O mole ratio (0–1.81) and coal feeding rate (5.3–9.0kg h?1) on the composition of product gas, carbon conversion, cold gas efficiency, gas yield and calorific value have been determined. In the case of steam injection

Y. J Kim; S. H Lee; S. D Kim

2001-01-01

231

Mass balances for underground coal gasification in steeply dipping beds  

SciTech Connect

Two different mass balances were used during the recent underground coal gasification tests conducted in steeply dipping coal beds at Rawlins, Wyoming. The combination of both mass balances proved extremely useful in interpreting the test results. One mass balance which assumed char could be formed underground required the solution of 3 simultaneous equations. The assumption of no char decouples the 3 equations in the other mass balance. Both mass balance results are compared to the test data to provide an interpretation of the underground process.

Lindeman, R.; Ahner, P.; Davis, B.E.

1980-01-01

232

Effect of coal type on entrained gasification  

SciTech Connect

The effect of coal type for four coals of varying rank was studied in an entrained flow gasifier, which was modified to increase residence time, to reduce heat losses, and to provide for direct measurement of the exit gas flow rate. Space-resolved samples were collected at different axial and radial locations using water-quenched probes. Important variables were coal type, input reactant feed rates and feed location, and coal particle size. Generalized correlations of the collective effects of key variables on carbon conversion and gas composition were derived. The experimental data were compared to theoretical predictions using PCGC-2, a two-dimensional pulverized coal combustion model. Predictions for effects of variables often agreed with trends observed experimentally. Reliable values for devolatilization and kinetic parameters, particle size distribution, and heat loss factor are essential for meaningful predictions. Coal devolatilization was the most important carbon conversion process, accounting for up to 70% carbon conversion. Heterogeneous reactions were influenced by both diffusion and surface reaction.

Brown, B.W.

1985-01-01

233

Encoal mild coal gasification project: Final design modifications report  

SciTech Connect

The design, construction and operation Phases of the Encoal Mild Coal Gasification Project have been completed. The plant, designed to process 1,000 ton/day of subbituminous Power River Basin (PRB) low-sulfur coal feed and to produce two environmentally friendly products, a solid fuel and a liquid fuel, has been operational for nearly five years. The solid product, Process Derived Fuel (PDF), is a stable, low-sulfur, high-Btu fuel similar in composition and handling properties to bituminous coal. The liquid product, Coal Derived Liquid (CDL), is a heavy, low-sulfur, liquid fuel similar in properties to heavy industrial fuel oil. Opportunities for upgrading the CDL to higher value chemicals and fuels have been identified. Significant quantities of both PDF and CDL have been delivered and successfully burned in utility and industrial boilers. A summary of the Project is given.

NONE

1997-07-01

234

The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL{reg_sign} Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL{reg_sign} was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL{reg_sign} was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of $90,664,000. ENCOAL{reg_sign} operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL{trademark}). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall objective, the following goals were established for the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Project: Provide sufficient quantity of products for full-scale test burns; Develop data for the design of future commercial plants; Demonstrate plant and process performance; Provide capital and O&M cost data; and Support future LFC{trademark} technology licensing efforts. Each of these goals has been met and exceeded. The plant has been in operation for nearly 5 years, during which the LFC{trademark} process has been demonstrated and refined. Fuels were made, successfully burned, and a commercial-scale plant is now under contract for design and construction.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2002-03-15

235

Combined-cycle power stations using clean-coal technologies: Thermodynamic analysis of full gasification versus fluidized bed combustion with partial gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel class of power plants for clean conversion of coal into power has been recently proposed, based on the concept of partial coal gasification and fluidized-bed combustion of unconverted char from gasification. This paper focuses on the thermodynamic aspects of these plants, in comparison with full gasification cycles, assessing their performance on the basis of a common advanced power

G. Lozza; P. Chiesa; L. DeVita

1996-01-01

236

Gas core reactors for coal gasification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of using a gas core reactor to produce hydrogen directly from coal and water is presented. It is shown that the chemical equilibrium of the process is strongly in favor of the production of H2 and CO in the reactor cavity, indicating a 98% conversion of water and coal at only 1500 K. At lower temperatures in the moderator-reflector cooling channels the equilibrium strongly favors the conversion of CO and additional H2O to CO2 and H2. Furthermore, it is shown the H2 obtained per pound of carbon has 23% greater heating value than the carbon so that some nuclear energy is also fixed. Finally, a gas core reactor plant floating in the ocean is conceptualized which produces H2, fresh water and sea salts from coal.

Weinstein, H.

1976-01-01

237

Mineral associations in coal and their transformation during gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principle aim of this investigation was to determine the effect that minerals and mineral associations in dense medium coal fractions have on the ash fusion temperature (AFT) of coal, where the mineral matter associated with coal undergoes transformations during gasification. Samples from three coal sources used by Sasol for gasification were acquired and a comprehensive characterisation on all dense medium fractions was conducted, including proximate analyses, AFT, ash oxide analyses, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy. From the proximate analyses, the ash content was the highest for the higher density fractions, with an accompanying decrease in fixed carbon content, consistent with the XRD and Mössbauer analyses. From the ash oxide analyses, it was evident that at higher relative densities more Fe2O3 and SiO2 were present than in the lower density samples. From XRD analyses, the low density fractions contained calcite and dolomite. Pyrite and quartz were found in the higher density fractions whereas kaolinite occurred in all density separated fractions. From the different techniques it follows that with the Fe-content high in high density fractions, the AFT was low. When Ca and other basic oxide levels were abundant in low density fractions, the AFT was low and when the SiO2/Al2O3 ratio was high in high density fractions the AFT increased.

Waanders, F. B.; Govender, A.

2005-11-01

238

Pricetown I underground coal gasification field test: operations report  

SciTech Connect

An Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) field test in bituminous coal was successfully completed near Pricetown, West Virginia. The primary objective of this field test was to determine the viability of the linked vertical well (LVV) technology to recover the 900 foot deep, 6 foot thick coal seam. A methane rich product gas with an average heating value of approximately 250 Btu/SCF was produced at low air injection flow rates during the reverse combustion linkage phase. Heating value of the gas produced during the linkage enhancement phase was 221 Btu/SCF with air injection. The high methane formation has been attributed to the thermal and hydrocracking of tars and oils along with hydropyrolysis and hydrogasification of coal char. The high heating value of the gas was the combined effect of residence time, flow pattern, injection flow rate, injection pressure, and back pressure. During the gasification phase, a gas with an average heating value of 125 Btu/SCF was produced with only air injection, which resulted in an average energy production of 362 MMBtu/day.

Agarwal, A.K.; Seabaugh, P.W.; Zielinski, R.E.

1981-01-01

239

Sulfur Recovery in a Coal Gasification Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the western coal feed, the combination of a non-selective Selexol process for acid gas removal, FMC Double Alkali process for flue gas cleanup, and a Stretford process for sulfur recovery, was the most economical among the cases studied. For the easte...

W. S. Chia F. A. Todd

1978-01-01

240

Field-Scale Experiment in Underground Gasification of Coal at Pricetown, West Virginia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In October 1979, US Department of Energy successfully completed an underground coal gasification (UCG) field test in eastern bituminous coal near Pricetown, WV. The field test consisted of three major phases: (1) reverse combustion linkage, (2) link enhan...

A. J. Liberatore M. W. Wilson

1982-01-01

241

Method for using fast fluidized bed dry bottom coal gasification  

DOEpatents

Carbonaceous solid material such as coal is gasified in a fast fluidized bed gasification system utilizing dual fluidized beds of hot char. The coal in particulate form is introduced along with oxygen-containing gas and steam into the fast fluidized bed gasification zone of a gasifier assembly wherein the upward superficial gas velocity exceeds about 5.0 ft/sec and temperature is 1500.degree.-1850.degree. F. The resulting effluent gas and substantial char are passed through a primary cyclone separator, from which char solids are returned to the fluidized bed. Gas from the primary cyclone separator is passed to a secondary cyclone separator, from which remaining fine char solids are returned through an injection nozzle together with additional steam and oxygen-containing gas to an oxidation zone located at the bottom of the gasifier, wherein the upward gas velocity ranges from about 3-15 ft/sec and is maintained at 1600.degree.-200.degree. F. temperature. This gasification arrangement provides for increased utilization of the secondary char material to produce higher overall carbon conversion and product yields in the process.

Snell, George J. (Fords, NJ); Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1983-01-01

242

Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant public design report. Volume I  

SciTech Connect

This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design information for the Great Plains Gasification Project, the first commercial coal gasification facility in the United States. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the plant owners, and the role of the Department of Energy are briefly discussed. Plant capital and operating costs are also presented. An overview of the mine and plant operations is presented and is followed by detailed nonproprietary descriptions of the individual process units, plant systems, and products. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. The process units are described as they were planned by July 1984. Any modification or alteration that occurred after that date will be the subject of a followup work. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety considerations are also addressed for each operating unit. The report is published in two volumes. Volume I contains: (1) introduction; (2) overview of project (plant and mine, plant facilities, Basin Electric Antelope Valley Station); and (3) plant process data (coal, oxygen and steam, gasification and gas processing). 53 refs., 80 figs., 36 tabs.

Miller, W.R.; Belt, R.J.; Honea, F.I.; Ness, H.M.; Lang, R.A.; Berty, T.E.; Delany, R.C.; Mako, P.F.

1985-07-01

243

Plasma-enhanced gasification of low-grade coals for compact power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high temperature of a steam torch ensures an efficient gasification of low-grade coals, which is comparable to that of high-grade coals. Therefore, the coal gasification system energized by microwaves can serve as a moderately sized power plant due to its compact and lightweight design. This plasma power plant of low-grade coals would be useful in rural or sparsely populated

Han S. Uhm; Yong C. Hong; Dong H. Shin; Bong J. Lee

2011-01-01

244

Plasma-enhanced gasification of low-grade coals for compact power plants  

SciTech Connect

A high temperature of a steam torch ensures an efficient gasification of low-grade coals, which is comparable to that of high-grade coals. Therefore, the coal gasification system energized by microwaves can serve as a moderately sized power plant due to its compact and lightweight design. This plasma power plant of low-grade coals would be useful in rural or sparsely populated areas without access to a national power grid.

Uhm, Han S. [Department of Electrophysics, Kwangwoon University, 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Lee, Bong J. [Convergence Plasma Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-10-15

245

Experiments on ultrasonic thermometry for wet-ash coal gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic thermometry may be a solution for the problem of temperature monitoring of the reactor in a coal gasification plant. The technique offers fast determination of the temperature profile along a line by measurement of the propagation velocity of an ultrasonic signal through a thin massive rod with a number of reflecting nodges. The thermometer rod in a wet ash gasifier becomes covered with slag, which disturbs the calibration of the rod by hundreds of kelvins. This disturbance was modeled theoretically, and verified for coal slag in laboratory experiments at ambient temperature with simulation liquids. A correction mechanism for this disturbance is suggested that is based on the viscous and elastic properties of the coal slag. A method to measure these properties is demonstrated.

Schoonderwoerd, K.; Hunik, R.

1990-04-01

246

Encoal mild coal gasification project: Commercial plant feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

In order to determine the viability of any Liquids from Coal (LFC) commercial venture, TEK-KOL and its partner, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), have put together a technical and economic feasibility study for a commercial-size LFC Plant located at Zeigler Coal Holding Company`s North Rochelle Mine site. This resulting document, the ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Plant: Commercial Plant Feasibility Study, includes basic plant design, capital estimates, market assessment for coproducts, operating cost assessments, and overall financial evaluation for a generic Powder River Basin based plant. This document and format closely resembles a typical Phase II study as assembled by the TEK-KOL Partnership to evaluate potential sites for LFC commercial facilities around the world.

NONE

1997-07-01

247

Ash melting behavior under coal gasification conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of this study show that CaCO3 additives are an efficient fluxing element for the control of ash melting, more particularly Al2O3-rich ash melting. The minimum values of the hemispherical temperatures of the ash-additive mixtures were 50–500 K lower than those of parent coal ashes. Empirical equations have been derived to relate ash fusion temperatures to ash composition. X-ray

Y. Ninomiya; A. Sato

1997-01-01

248

High-yield hydrogen production by steam gasification of Hypercoal (ash-free coal extract) with potassium carbonate: comparison with raw coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steam gasification of the HyperCoals (ash-free coal extracts) with the physical addition of 5.8%-6.0% KâCOâ was conducted at 1023 K on a thermogravimetric apparatus that was equipped with an on-line quadrupole mass spectrometer. The catalytic gasification of the HyperCoals demonstrated a much higher gasification rate than the catalytic gasification of the raw coals. Interactions of KâCOâ with mineral matter in

Jie Wang; Kinya Sakanishi; Ikuo Saito; Takayuki Takarada; Kayoko Morishita

2005-01-01

249

NETL, USDA design coal-stabilized biomass gasification unit  

SciTech Connect

Coal, poultry litter, contaminated corn, rice hulls, moldly hay, manure sludge - these are representative materials that could be tested as fuel feedstocks in a hybrid gasification/combustion concept studied in a recent US Department of Energy (DOE) design project. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) collaborated to develop a design concept of a power system that incorporates Hybrid Biomass Gasification. This system would explore the use of a wide range of biomass and agricultural waste products as gasifier feedstocks. The plant, if built, would supply one-third of electrical and steam heating needs at the USDA's Beltsville (Maryland) Agricultural Research Center. 1 fig., 1 photo.

NONE

2008-09-30

250

COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: LOW- AND MEDIUM-BTU WASTEWATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a compilation of environmental characterization data for wastewaters from low- and medium-Btu coal gasification facilities. Fixed-bed, entrained-bed, and ash-agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification processes were examined. The fixed-bed gasifiers are the Chapm...

251

Theoretical and experimental studies of fixed-bed coal gasification reactors. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory fixed-bed gasification reactor was designed and built with the objective of collecting operational data for model validation and parameter estimation. The reactor consists of a 4 inch stainless steel tube filled with coal or char. Air and steam is fed at one end of the reactor and the dynamic progress of gasification in the coal or char bed

B. Joseph; A. Bhattacharya; L. Salam; M. P. Dudukovic

1983-01-01

252

Environmental control aspects of in situ coal gasification: ground-water quality changes and subsidence effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research progress for FY 1980 is reported. The effects of in situ coal gasification (now called Underground Coal Gasification - UCG) on ground water quality are being investigated. The subsurface ground movement and surface subsidence associated with UCG are also being studied. Measurements show that organic contaminants are concentrated in a shell just outside the burn boundary. (ACR)

Mead

1981-01-01

253

LLL environmental studies of in situ coal gasification. Annual report, fiscal year 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first annual report on a continuing investigation at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) into the environmental ramifications of in situ coal gasification. The investigation is focused on changes in ground-water quality and the effects of ground movement and subsidence, which represent important environmental concerns associated with the in situ coal gasification process. Our methods include laboratory measurements,

S. W. Mead; J. H. Campbell; H. C. Ganow; R. T. Langland; R. C. Greenlaw; F. T. Wang; R. V. Homsy

1978-01-01

254

Environmental control aspects of in situ coal gasification: ground-water quality changes and subsidence effects  

SciTech Connect

Research progress for FY 1980 is reported. The effects of in situ coal gasification (now called Underground Coal Gasification - UCG) on ground water quality are being investigated. The subsurface ground movement and surface subsidence associated with UCG are also being studied. Measurements show that organic contaminants are concentrated in a shell just outside the burn boundary. (ACR)

Mead, S.W.

1981-02-01

255

Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study: Volume 2, Industrial hygiene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occupational health study performed in Obilich, Kosova, Yugoslavia, evaluated the potential health impact of the operation of a commercial-scale coal gasification facility on the workers and on public health. The effect of exposures to various chemical agents in the working environment generated in the coal gasification process was studied in exposed and control worker populations. A detailed assessment of

M. T. Brandt; J. O. Jackson; C. R. Sutcliffe; O. Jr. White; E. T. Premuzic; S. C. Morris; M. A. Haxhiu; A. Abazi; M. Jockic; B. Jonuzi

1987-01-01

256

Differences in gasification behaviors and related properties between entrained gasifier fly ash and coal char  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study, two fly ash samples from Texaco gasifiers were compared to coal char and the physical and chemical properties and reactivity of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N and CO adsorption method, and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The main results were obtained. The carbon content of gasified fly ashes exhibited

Jing Gu; Shiyong Wu; Youqing Wu; Ye Li; Jinsheng Gao

2008-01-01

257

Process description of the SASOL 1 coal-gasification plant. Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SASOL I coal-gasification plant is part of a highly-integrated industrial complex which produces liquid and solid hydrocarbons, petrochemicals, LPG, and medium-Btu gas by Lurgi gasification followed by gas cleanup and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Many of the process units used in this plant are also found in the designs of a number of first-generation coal-gasification plants proposed for this country. Some

J. D. Quass; F. D. Skinner

1987-01-01

258

Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT) is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering (WRCGR) Project, as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1992). Repowering consists of replacing an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies to achieve significantly improved environmental performance. The desire to demonstrate utility repowering with a two-stage, pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system prompted Destec Energy, Inc., and PSI Energy, Inc., to form a joint venture and submit a proposal for this project. In July 1992, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (WRCGRPJV, the Participant) entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. The project was sited at PSI Energy's Wabash River Generating Station, located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate IGCC repowering using a Destec gasifier and to assess long-term reliability, availability, and maintainability of the system at a fully commercial scale. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding (for capital and operating costs during the demonstration period) of $438 million. Construction for the demonstration project was started in July 1993. Pre-operational tests were initiated in August 1995, and construction was completed in November 1995. Commercial operation began in November 1995, and the demonstration period was completed in December 1999. The independent evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information provided in Wabash's Final Report (Dowd 2000), as well as other references and bibliographic sources.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2002-01-15

259

Control Technology Assessment for Coal Gasification and Liquefaction Processes, Coal Gasification Facility, Caterpiller Tractor Company, York, Pennsylvania. Report for the Site Visit of May 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A control technology survey was conducted at the coal gasification facility of the Caterpillar Tractor Company (SIC-5161), in York, Pennsylvania on August 18, 1980 and May 7, 1981, in conjunction with an industrial hygiene characterization study. Potentia...

D. R. Telesca

1982-01-01

260

Coal Gasification Pilot Plant Support Studies. Subtask 1-3. Application of Availability Analysis in Assessing the Efficiency of Coal Gasification Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The methodology for availability analysis to assess thermodynamic efficiency in coal gasification processes has been established. The methodology includes the following: procedures for estimating chemical, thermal, and mechanical contributions to enthalpy...

1980-01-01

261

Feasibility Studies of In-Situ Coal Gasification in the Warrior Coal Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a research project designed to simulate in-situ coal gasification in order to measure its feasibility. The current two-year project is the first phase of a two-phase program. Primarily, Phase 1 is planned to conduct laboratory and an...

G. W. Douglas M. D. McKinley

1976-01-01

262

Management of coal waste by energy recovery: Mild gasification of coal preparation wastes: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This final technical report documents the technical effort completed over roughly two year period by UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) on the research program sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) to recover the energy value of coal preparation plant wastes by the Mild Gasification Process. The major tasks of the project included a literature survey to characterize current and potential

C. I. C. Chu; B. L. Gillespie

1986-01-01

263

Coal gasification process. [improvement by adding coal and clean recycle gas to the product gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improvement in the Koppers--Totzek coal gasification system comprises the step of adding cool and clean recycle gas to the product gas as it leaves the gasifier unit, thereby eliminating the use of water sprays to quench the product gas.

Hess

1976-01-01

264

Coal gasification. Two-stage coal combustion process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-stage coal combustion process is being developed by Applied Technology Corp. under the sponsorship of the Environmental Protection Agency. In the first stage, coal is dissolved in a mass of molten iron, where fixed carbon and sulphur are retained and the volatiles crack and come off as CO and Hâ. The dissolved carbon is gasified in the second stage

Karnavas

1973-01-01

265

Synthetic fuels: Status of the Great Plains coal gasification project  

SciTech Connect

Sponsors of the Great Plains coal gasification project in North Dakota defaulted on a federal loan in the amount of $1.54 billion. The Department of Energy has obtained title to the Great Plains project and is evaluating proposals from investment banking-type companies to assist it in selling the plant and its assets. This fact sheet highlights recent legal action concerning gas purchase agreements and mortgage foreclosure; the status of the project's sponsors' outstanding liability; DOE's progress in evaluating its options; revenue, expense, production, and plant employment data; capital improvement projects; and plant maintenance issues.

Not Available

1987-01-01

266

Geochemical Proxies for Enhanced Process Control of Underground Coal Gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underground coal gasification (UCG) represents a strategy targeting at syngas production for fuel or power generation from in-situ coal seams. It is a promising technique for exploiting coal deposits as an energy source at locations not allowing conventional mining under economic conditions. Although the underlying concept has already been suggested in 1868 and has been later on implemented in a number of field trials and even at a commercial scale, UCG is still facing technological barriers, impeding its widespread application. Field UCG operations rely on injection wells enabling the ignition of the target seam and the supply with oxidants (air, O2) inducing combustion (oxidative conditions). The combustion process delivers the enthalpy required for endothermic hydrogen production under reduction prone conditions in some distance to the injection point. The produced hydrogen - usually accompanied by organic and inorganic carbon species, e.g. CH4, CO, and CO2 - can then be retrieved through a production well. In contrast to gasification of mined coal in furnaces, it is difficult to measure the combustion temperature directly during UCG operations. It is already known that geochemical parameters such as the relative production gas composition as well as its stable isotope signature are related to the combustion temperature and, consequently, can be used as temperature proxies. However, so far the general applicability of such relations has not been proven. In order to get corresponding insights with respect to coals of significantly different rank and origin, four powdered coal samples covering maturities ranging from Ro= 0.43% (lignite) to Ro= 3.39% (anthracite) have been gasified in laboratory experiments. The combustion temperature has been varied between 350 and 900 Ë? C, respectively. During gasification, the generated gas has been captured in a cryo-trap, dried and the carbon containing gas components have been catalytically oxidized to CO2. Thereafter, the generated CO2 has been analyzed with respect to its stable carbon isotope composition by mass spectrometry. All samples exhibited a similar trend: The ^13C signatures of initially produced CO2 revealed to be relatively light and linearly increasing with temperature until approaching the bulk stable carbon isotope composition of the coal at a certain temperature, where the isotope signature kept virtually constant during further temperature increase. The temperature introducing the range of constant isotope compositions of the produced gas increased with coal rank. Additionally, all coal samples were treated by Rock Eval pyrolysis up to 550 Ë? C in order to investigate temperature dependent generation of CO and CO2. The results exhibited a linear decrease of the CO2/CO ratio at increasing temperature. Both experimental approaches demonstrated dependencies between the qualitative and the isotope composition of the generated syngas on the one hand and the applied combustion temperature on the other hand and, consequently, the principal applicability of the considered geochemical parameters as temperature proxies for coals of significantly different rank and origin. Although the investigated samples revealed similar trends, the absolute characteristics of the correlation functions (e.g. linear gradients) between geochemical parameters and combustion temperatures differed on an individual sample base, implying a significant additional dependence of the considered geochemical parameters on the coal composition. As a consequence, corresponding experimental approaches are currently continued and refined by involving multi component compound specific isotope analysis, high temperature Rock Eval pyrolysis as well as an enforced consideration of initial coal and oxidant compositions.

Kronimus, A.; Koenen, M.; David, P.; Veld, H.; van Dijk, A.; van Bergen, F.

2009-04-01

267

Study on CO2 gasification reactivity and physical characteristics of biomass, petroleum coke and coal chars.  

PubMed

Gasification reactivities of six different carbonaceous material chars with CO2 were determined by a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). Gasification reactivities of biomass chars are higher than those of coke and coal chars. In addition, physical structures and chemical components of these chars were systematically tested. It is found that the crystalline structure is an important factor to evaluate gasification reactivities of different chars and the crystalline structures of biomass chars are less order than those of coke and coal chars. Moreover, initial gasification rates of these chars were measured at high temperatures and with relatively large particle sizes. The method of calculating the effectiveness factor ? was used to quantify the effect of pore diffusion on gasification. The results show that differences in pore diffusion effects among gasification with various chars are prominent and can be attributed to different intrinsic gasification reactivities and physical characteristics of different chars. PMID:24642484

Huo, Wei; Zhou, Zhijie; Chen, Xueli; Dai, Zhenghua; Yu, Guangsuo

2014-05-01

268

Coal gasification. March 1972-January 1990 (A Bibliography from the US Patent data base). Report for March 1972-January 1990  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning devices and processes used in the gasification of coals. Coal-gasification processes, catalysts, and catalyst recovery; desulfurization during gasification; heating methods; pretreatment of coals; process variables; heat recovery; and peripheral equipment are cited. Examples of gasification processes include catalytic systems using alkali metals, stream decomposition, air or oxygen decomposition, thermal cracking, coal-water suspension systems, arc-discharge burning, and fluidized-bed gasification. Liquefaction of coal is examined in a related published bibliography. (Contains 214 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-03-01

269

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand demanding conditions of high temperatures and pressure differentials. Under the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas, the performance of components degrade significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. A review of the literature indicates that the corrosion reaction is the competition between oxidation and sulfidation reactions. The Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Angel Sanjurjo

2004-05-01

270

Texaco sets horizontal well marks  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Texaco Exploration and Production Inc. has completed the first dual lateral horizontal well in East Texas and claimed a horizontal oil well record in the Gulf of Mexico. The East Texas well, 1 Texaco Fee Brookeland, is the company's first dual lateral well. Site is in Newton County. The Brookeland well was drilled vertically to the top of Cretaceous Austin chalk at 9,138 ft. Texaco set casing, then drilled horizontally 3,242 ft to the southeast and 3,000 ft to the northwest for a total horizontal displacement of 6,242 ft. Texaco set an industry record offshore with its B19-ST well on its Teal prospect in Eugene Island Block 338, its first horizontal oil well in the gulf, by drilling a horizontal section of 1,414 ft. Measured depth (MD) is 7,500 ft and true vertical depth (TVD) 4,662 ft. Site is in 268 ft of water. Drilling horizontally through the Pleistocene prograding sand complex allowed Texaco to penetrate 50% more of the reservoir than would have been possible with a conventional well, Wallace the. In another industry first, Texaco isolated the Teal reservoir gas cap by setting intermediate casing 50 ft below the oil-gas contact with the 90{degrees} angle already established because of concern that the reservoir had an expanded gas cap. The dual lateral Brookeland well cost $500,000-700,000 less than two vertical wells capable of comparable production rates and recovery. Texaco expects the full cost of the well, production facilities, and gathering system to pay out in about 4 months. Texaco estimates the B19-ST well cost about 10% more than a Teal vertical well. A cross discipline team of Texaco geologists, geophysicists, engineers, and field technicians contributed to the success of both projects.

Not Available

1992-07-06

271

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 19. Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed, Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas Group (MIFGA). This report is the nineteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This volume briefly summarizes the results of eighteen different gasification tests in which fourteen different fuels were gasified from May 1982 to August 1985. The design gasification performance of all coals evaluated are summarized. In addition, summary design and economic data for industrial coal gasification systems are presented. 28 refs., 2 figs., 22 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Liu, B.Y.H.; Pui, D.; Kittelson, D.

1985-12-01

272

Computational fluid dynamics modeling of coal gasification in a pressurized spout-fluid bed  

SciTech Connect

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, which has recently proven to be an effective means of analysis and optimization of energy-conversion processes, has been extended to coal gasification in this paper. A 3D mathematical model has been developed to simulate the coal gasification process in a pressurized spout-fluid bed. This CFD model is composed of gas-solid hydrodynamics, coal pyrolysis, char gasification, and gas phase reaction submodels. The rates of heterogeneous reactions are determined by combining Arrhenius rate and diffusion rate. The homogeneous reactions of gas phase can be treated as secondary reactions. A comparison of the calculated and experimental data shows that most gasification performance parameters can be predicted accurately. This good agreement indicates that CFD modeling can be used for complex fluidized beds coal gasification processes. 37 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Zhongyi Deng; Rui Xiao; Baosheng Jin; He Huang; Laihong Shen; Qilei Song; Qianjun Li [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education

2008-05-15

273

Evaluation of coal-gasification - combustion-turbine power plants emphasizing low water consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cost and performance study was made of several integrated power plants using coal gasification technology now in advanced development and combustion turbines for power generation. The principal emphasis was placed on studying plants using air cooling and comparing costs and performance of those plants with water-cooled coal gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) and conventional coal-fired power plants. The major objective was to

R. Cavazo; A. B. Clemmer; J. A. de la Mora; J. R. Grisso; H. W. Klumpe; R. E. Meissner; A. Musso; T. R. Roszkowski

1982-01-01

274

Behavior of mineral matters in Chinese coal ash melting during charCO\\/HO gasification reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The typical Chinese coal ash melting behavior during char-CO\\/HO gasification reaction was studied by using TGA, XRD, and SEM-EDX analysis. It was found that ash melting behavior during char gasification reaction is quite different from that during coal combustion process. Far from the simultaneously ash melting behavior during coal combustion, the initial melting behavior of ash usually occurs at a

Xiaojiang Wu; Zhongxiao Zhang; Guilin Piao; Xiang He; Yushuang Chen; Nobusuke Kobayashi; Shigekatsu Mori; Yoshinori Itaya

2009-01-01

275

A model approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The lower cost and higher catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K[sub 2]CO[sub 3] required for high coal char reactivities. As was shown in previous reports, coal loading with potassium or calcium at different pHs produced CO[sub 2] gasification activities which increased in the order pH 6 > pH 10 >>pH 1. A similar trend was obtained when calcium and potassium were simultaneously loaded and char reaction times were less than about 75 min. In the last quarter, the potential application of ammonia as a reactive medium for coal gasification has been investigated. This gas has not been previously applied to coal gasification. However, related work suggests that the potential chemical feedstock base can be broadened by using ammonia to generate hydrogen cyanide and cyanogen from coal. The current report shows that the reactivity of a demineralized lignite in ammonia is significantly higher in the presence of calcium or potassium catalyst than that for the char without added catalyst and suggests that ammonia is a potentially reactive gas for catalyzed coal gasification.

Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

1992-01-01

276

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. A review of the literature indicated that the Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers. We selected diffusion coatings of Cr and Al, and surface coatings of Si and Ti for the preliminary testing. These coatings will be applied using the fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition technique developed at SRI which is rapid and relatively inexpensive. We have procured coupons of typical alloys used in a gasifier. These coupons will be coated with Cr, Al, Si, and Ti. The samples will be tested in a bench-scale reactor using simulated coal gas compositions. In addition, we will be sending coated samples for insertion in the gas stream of the coal gasifier.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Angel Sanjurjo

2004-05-01

277

Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process  

SciTech Connect

This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

1981-06-01

278

Engineering Support Services for the DOE/GRI Coal-Gasification Research Program. Technical and Economic Assessment of the Westinghouse Fluidized-Bed Coal Gasification Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kellogg was requested by DOE/GRI to perform a technical and economic assessment of the Westinghouse fluidized bed coal gasification process as applied to production of SNG equivalent to 250 billion BTU/day from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. Based on operating ex...

D. A. Hubbard L. E. Bostwick R. W. Laramore T. R. Ethridge

1981-01-01

279

Numerical simulation of entrained flow coal gasifiers. Part I: modeling of coal gasification in an entrained flow gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive three-dimensional simulation model was developed for entrained flow coal gasifiers. In the model, the numerical methods and the submodels conventionally used for the pulverized coal combustion modeling were used. An extended coal gas mixture fraction model with the Multi Solids Progress Variables (MSPV) method was applied to simulate the gasification reaction and reactant mixing process. Four mixture fractions

Caixia Chen; Masayuki Horio; Toshinori Kojima

2000-01-01

280

Alaska coal gasification feasibility studies - Healy coal-to-liquids plant  

SciTech Connect

The Alaska Coal Gasification Feasibility Study entailed a two-phase analysis of the prospects for greater use of Alaska's abundant coal resources in industrial applications. Phase 1, Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study (Report DOE/NETL 2006/1248) assessed the feasibility of using gasification technology to convert the Agrium fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska, from natural gas to coal feedstock. The Phase 1 analysis evaluated coals from the Beluga field near Anchorage and from the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, both of which are low in sulfur and high in moisture. This study expands the results of Phase 1 by evaluating a similar sized gasification facility at the Usibelli Coal mine to supply Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids to central Alaska. The plant considered in this study is small (14,640 barrels per day, bbl/d) compared to the recommended commercial size of 50,000 bbl/d for coal-to-liquid plants. The coal supply requirements for the Phase 1 analysis, four million tons per year, were assumed for the Phase 2 analysis to match the probable capacity of the Usibelli mining operations. Alaska refineries are of sufficient size to use all of the product, eliminating the need for F-T exports out of the state. The plant could produce marketable by-products such as sulfur as well as electric power. Slag would be used as backfill at the mine site and CO{sub 2} could be vented, captured or used for enhanced coalbed methane recovery. The unexpected curtailment of oil production from Prudhoe Bay in August 2006 highlighted the dependency of Alaskan refineries (with the exception of the Tesoro facility in Nikiski) on Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude. If the flow of oil from the North Slope declines, these refineries may not be able to meet the in-state needs for diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. Additional reliable sources of essential fuel products would be beneficial. 36 refs., 14 figs., 29 tabs., 3 apps.

Lawrence Van Bibber; Charles Thomas; Robert Chaney [Research & Development Solutions, LLC (United States)

2007-07-15

281

Pollution of water during underground coal gasification of hard coal and lignite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater pollution is considered the most serious potential environmental risk related to the underground coal gasification technology (UCG). A variety of hazardous water-born contaminants have been identified during different UCG operations conducted so far, and in some locations long-term groundwater contaminations were observed. Characteristic organic UCG-related pollutions are mostly the phenols, benzene with its derivatives, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heterocycles.

Krzysztof Kapusta; Krzysztof Sta?czyk

2011-01-01

282

Interaction of subsurface waters with the combustion site during underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

and important problem determining the expediency of using UCG when mining coal deposits. The main sources of subsurface water pollution during UCG are the combustion site in the coal bed and gasification products, representing a mixture of steam and gas products of complete and incomplete combustion of coal and its thermal decomposition, which can enter substtrface waters and be dissolved

E. V. Dvornikova; E. V. Kreinin

1993-01-01

283

Online compositional analysis in coal gasification environment using laser-induced plasma technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants have great potential for future clean-coal power generation. Today, the quality of coal is measured by sampling coal using various offline methods, and the syn-gas composition is determined by taking samples downstream of the gasifier and measured by gas chromatograph (GC). Laser induced plasma technology has demonstrated high sensitivity for elementary detection. The

Kung-Li Deng; Juntao Wu; Zhe Wang; Boon Lee; Renato Guida

2006-01-01

284

Coal Plasticity and the Physics of Swelling as Related to in Situ Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made of coal plasticity, particularly coal swelling as related to in situ coal gasification. A survey of the available literature indicated that swelling is caused by the escaping pyrolysis gases as they expand the pore structure in the soften...

R. L. Wong

1975-01-01

285

Reaction kinetics of pulverized coal-chars derived from inertinite-rich coal discards: Gasification with carbon dioxide and steam  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was undertaken to determine the kinetics of gasification of coal-chars (pulverized) derived from typical South African inertinite-rich (high-ash) coals involving char reactions with carbon dioxide and steam and the effects of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The chars used were characterized with respect to structural, chemical, mineralogical and petrographic (maceral content) properties and gasification experiments were conducted in a

Raymond C. Everson; Hein W. J. P. Neomagus; Henry Kasaini; Delani Njapha

2006-01-01

286

COAL GASIFICATION/GAS CLEANUP TEST FACILITY. VOLUME 5. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE GASIFICATION AND GAS CLEANING OF NORTH CAROLINA PEAT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results from test runs at a small pilot-scale coal gasification and gas purification facility using North Carolina peat. Results from the peat gasification are compared with those obtained previously with a New Mexico subbituminous coal. The peat gas produced had...

287

Simulation of coal gasification in a fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

In this analysis of coal gasification, a fundamental approach is used where a set of multiphase (Eulerian) fluid dynamic equations, obtained either by a suitable averaging technique (Anderson and Jackson, 1976; Drew, 1971) or the formulations of continuum mechanics (Drew, 1983), is used to describe the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for three interpenetrating phases. The particles, like the fluidizing gas, are described as interpenetrating continua. Different particle types are treated as distinct phases; in this study, the feed coal and the bed char are represented as separate phases in order to account for their different histories. Constitutive laws account for the exchange of momentum between phases (``drag``) and interphase energy transfer. The stresses within the granular phases are determined by a formulation based on the kinetic theory, characterized by a ``granular temperature``. A computer code, based on this multiphase hydrodynamic model, has been developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center for the detailed simulation of gas and particle dynamics in heavily loaded coal conversion processes (Syamlal, Rogers, O`Brien, 1994; Syamlal, 1995). The hydrodynamic simulation showed the reactor operated in a jetting/bubbling mode. A gas jet penetrated a considerable distance into the bed, and then detached as ``bubbles`` which rose to the top of the column. The reaction scheme indicated that the feed coal did not begin to devolatilize until it had traversed this region, because of the time required to heat up. Thus, volatiles were not released in the jetting region of the bed, but higher in the bed. The oxygen fed with the coal, however, reacted immediately with the recirculating hot char. The net effect of the char reaction scheme was to created. CO, which burned in the region where.the jet detached, creating a, fairly stable ``flame``. The tar reaction scheme indicated that none of the tar escaped the bed.

O`Brien, T.J.

1996-12-31

288

Coal conversion solid waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major solid waste produced at coal conversion facilities will be gasification slag or ash. To evaluate the impact of this waste on the environment, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted extensive characterization and leaching studies on ash\\/slags that had been generated in bench-scale operations, pilot plants, and\\/or process development units for the Cogas, British Gas\\/Lurgi, Grace\\/Texaco, U-Gas, Foster Wheeler\\/Stoic,

C. W. Francis; W. J. Jr. Boegly; R. R. Turner; E. C. Davis

1981-01-01

289

Corrosion and mechanical behavior of materials for coal gasification applications  

SciTech Connect

A state-of-the-art review is presented on the corrosion and mechanical behavior of materials at elevated temperatures in coal-gasification environments. The gas atmosphere in coal-conversion processes are, in general, complex mixtures which contain sulfur-bearing components (H/sub 2/S, SO/sub 2/, and COS) as well as oxidants (CO/sub 2//CO and H/sub 2/O/H/sub 2/). The information developed over the last five years clearly shows sulfidation to be the major mode of material degradation in these environments. The corrosion behavior of structural materials in complex gas environments is examined to evaluate the interrelationships between gas chemistry, alloy chemistry, temperature, and pressure. Thermodynamic aspects of high-temperature corrosion processes that pertain to coal conversion are discussed, and kinetic data are used to compare the behavior of different commercial materials of interest. The influence of complex gas environments on the mechanical properties such as tensile, stress-rupture, and impact on selected alloys is presented. The data have been analyzed, wherever possible, to examine the role of environment on the property variation. The results from ongoing programs on char effects on corrosion and on alloy protection via coatings, cladding, and weld overlay are presented. Areas of additional research with particular emphasis on the development of a better understanding of corrosion processes in complex environments and on alloy design for improved corrosion resistance are discussed. 54 references, 65 figures, 24 tables.

Natesan, K.

1980-05-01

290

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project public design and construction report  

SciTech Connect

This Public Design Report describes the 1000 ton per day ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration plant now in operation at the Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The objective of the project is to demonstrate that the proprietary Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology can reliably and economically convert low Btu PRB coal into a superior, high-Btu solid fuel (PDF), and an environmentally attractive low-sulfur liquid fuel (CDL). The Project`s plans also call for the production of sufficient quantities of PDF and CDL to permit utility companies to carry out full scale burn tests. While some process as well as mechanical design was done in 1988, the continuous design effort was started in July 1990. Civil construction was started in October 1990; mechanical erection began in May 1991. Virtually all of the planned design work was completed by July 1991. Most major construction was complete by April 1992 followed by plant testing and commissioning. Plant operation began in late May 1992. This report covers both the detailed design and initial construction aspects of the Project.

NONE

1994-12-01

291

Study of the Treatability of Wastewater from a Coal-Gasification Plant. Final Report, July 15, 1978-July 14, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study focused on the coal gasification facility serving the Holston Army Ammunition Plant in Kingsport, Tennessee. Objectives were to characterize the wastewater produced by the gasification facility, and to evaluate technology for treating the waste...

A. F. Iglar

1980-01-01

292

Experimental and Process Design Study of a High Rate Entrained Coal Gasification Process. Final Report, January 1974-November 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the project were to: demonstrate stable, reliable, long term, continuous operation of a pressurized, downflow, entrained, laboratory scale coal gasification pilot plant; develop a mathematical model of the gasification reactor which will...

M. J. McIntosh R. L. Coates

1978-01-01

293

Improving process performances in coal gasification for power and synfuel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is aimed at developing process alternatives of conventional coal gasification. A number of possibilities are presented, simulated, and discussed in order to improve the process performances, to avoid the use of pure oxygen, and to reduce the overall CO emissions. The different process configurations considered include both power production, by means of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)

M. Sudiro; A. Bertucco; F. Ruggeri; M. Fontana

2008-01-01

294

Theoretical Investigations of the Working Processes in a Plasma Coal Gasification System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical investigations of the working processes in a plasma coal pilot gasification system have been conducted. The obtained results and recommendations can be used for modeling the operational modes of plasma gasification system, as well as geometry optimization, and the engineering design of prospective power generation units.

Serhiy I. Serbin; Igor B. Matveev

2010-01-01

295

Coal gasification. Quarterly report, January-March 1979. [US DOE supported  

SciTech Connect

Progress in DOE-supported coal gasification pilot plant projects is reported: company, location, contract number, funding, process description, history and progress in the current quarter. Two support projects are discussed: preparation of a technical data book and mathematical modeling of gasification reactors. (LTN)

None

1980-01-01

296

HCN and NH3 formation during coal/char gasification in the presence of NO.  

PubMed

Understanding the conversion of coal-N during gasification is an important part of the development of gasification-based power generation technologies to reduce NO(x) emissions from coal utilization. This study investigated the conversion of coal-N in the presence of NO during the gasification of three rank-ordered coals and their chars in steam and low-concentration O(2). Our results show that NO can be incorporated into the char structure during gasification. The inherent char-N and the N incorporated into the char from NO-char reactions behave very similarly during gasification. During the gasification in steam, significant amounts of HCN and NH(3) can be formed from the incorporated N structure in char, especially for the relatively "aged" chars, mainly due to the availability of abundant H radicals on the char surface during the gasification in steam. During the gasification in 2000 ppm O(2), the formation of HCN or NH(3) from the N structures in char, including those incorporated into the char from the NO-char reactions, was not a favored route of reaction mainly due to the lack of H on char surface in the presence of O(2). PMID:20415414

Lin, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Lian; Min, Zhenhua; Tay, Huiling; Li, Chun-Zhu

2010-05-15

297

Innovative concepts for hydrogen production processes based on coal gasification with CO 2 capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the technical aspects of innovative hydrogen production concepts based on coal gasification with CO2 capture. More specifically, it focuses on the technical evaluation and the assessment of performance of a number of plant configurations based on standard entrained-flow gasification processes (dry feed and slurry feed types) producing hydrogen at pipeline pressure, which incorporate improvements for increasing hydrogen

Calin-Cristian Cormos; Fred Starr; Evangelos Tzimas; Stathis Peteves

2008-01-01

298

Houston Lighting and Power Company's evaluation of coal gasification coproduction energy facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to reduce the cost of electricity from Integral ed Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plants, the Electric Power Research Institute has embarked on a program to evaluate and potentially demonstrate a coal gasification-based coproduction energy facility. Houston Lighting Power Company (HL P) responded with a proposal in its ongoing effort to study emerging technologies for electricity production.

E. E. Kern; S. D. Havemann; R. G. Chmielewski; P. Baumann; A. R. Goelzer; R. Karayel; G. S. Keady; B. Chernoff

1992-01-01

299

Baseline discharge inventory and control technology review for coal-gasification systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental Research and Technology, Inc. is conducting investigations and research for the purpose of contributing to the comprehensive health and environmental data base currently being developed for surface coal gasification. One of the key elements of the work is concerned with the development of a fundamental understanding of pollutant formation and distribution with gasification process and assessment of environmental control

E. D. Maruhnich; R. C. Weber; D. V. Nakles; J. P. Fillo; R. W. Rittmeyer; J. E. Bratina

1982-01-01

300

Thermal expansion of slag and fly ash from coal gasification in IGCC power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated gasification in combined cycle (IGCC) is an electrical power generation system which is characterized to be a clean coal technology different than conventional process in combustible treatment. IGCC process gives rise to inorganic solid wastes in the form of vitreous slag and fly ashes with singular thermal properties. The gasification of the fuel takes place at high temperature and

M. Aineto; A. Acosta; J. Ma. Rincón; M. Romero

2006-01-01

301

Leaching Studies of Coal Gasification Solid Waste to Meet RCRA Requirements for Land Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to describe the research currently underway at ORNL related to the land disposal of coal gasification ash. Included are data on the chemical composition and properties of ash from five of six proposed gasification/liquefaction...

T. Tamura W. J. Boegly

1980-01-01

302

Pyrolysis and gasification of coal at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Coals of different ranks will be pyrolyzed in a microscope hot-stage reactor using inert and reacting atmospheres. The macropore structure of the produced chars will be characterized using video microscopy and digital image processing techniques to obtain pore size distributions. Comparative studies will quantify the effect of pyrolysis conditions (heating rates, final heat treatment temperatures, particle size and inert or reacting atmosphere) on the pore structure of the devolatilized chars. The devolatilized chars will be gasified in the regime of strong intraparticle diffusional limitations using O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2}2 mixtures. Constant temperature and programmed-temperature experiments in a TGA will be used for these studies. Additional gasification experiments performed in the hot-stage reactor will be videotaped and selected images will be analyzed to obtain quantitative data on particle shrinkage and fragmentation. Discrete mathematical models will be developed and validated using the experimental gasification data.

Zygourakis, K.

1988-01-01

303

Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant Public Design Report. Volume II  

SciTech Connect

This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design information for the Great Plains Gasification Project, the first commercial coal gasification facility in the United States. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the plant owners, and the role of the Department of Energy are briefly discussed. Plant capital and operating costs are also presented. An overview of the mine and plant operations is presented and is followed by detailed nonproprietary descriptions of the individual process units, plant systems, and products. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. The process units are described as they were planned by July 1984. Any modification or alteration that occurred after that date will be the subject of a followup work. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety considerations are also addressed for each operating unit. The report is published in two volumes. Volume II contains: (1) plant process data (sulfur recovery, main flare - area 8300, liquid processing, ash handling and solids disposal, other systems); (2) plant startup procedure and schedule; (3) plant and employee safety; (4) GPGP cost data; and (5) references. 53 refs., 46 figs., 38 tabs.

Miller, W.R.; Belt, R.J.; Honea, F.I.; Ness, H.M.; Lang, R.A.; Berty, T.E.; Delany, R.C.; Mako, P.F.

1985-07-01

304

Design and Economics of a Lignite-to-SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) Facility Using Lurgi Gasifiers for Lignite Gasification and the Texaco Partial Oxidation Process to Gasify Lurgi By-Product Liquids. Final Topical Report April 1985-November 1985,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A design and cost estimate was prepared for a 250 billion Btu/day lignite-to-SNG plant that uses Lurgi dry-bottom gasifiers to gasify lignite and the Texaco Partial Oxidation (POX) process to gasify the various hydrocarbon liquids produced by the Lurgi pr...

J. T. Smith S. C. Smelser

1985-01-01

305

Multizone ultrasonic thermometry with application to coal gasification systems  

SciTech Connect

The decrease of sound velocity with temperature in solid media is utilized in ultrasonic thermometry. A multizone sensor generally consists of a thin rod on which small notches are made to partition the sensor length into various zones. The change of acoustic impedance at the notches causes the sound waves to be partly reflected back, and the measurement of time intervals between the successive pairs of reflected signals provides an indication of the average temperatures in the corresponding zones. This paper addresses the application of ultrasonic senses to temperature profiling in the reactors of coal gasification systems. In particular, results on the sensor development, materials testing, and signal processing are presented. 14 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

Gopalsami, N.; Raptis, A.C.

1984-02-01

306

Pyrolysis and gasification of coal at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Coals of different ranks will be pyrolyzed in a microscope hot-stage reactor using inert and reacting atmospheres. The macropore structure oft he produced chars will be characterized using video microscopy and digital image processing techniques to obtain pore size distributions. Comparative studies will quantify the effect of pyrolysis conditions (heating rates, final heat treatment temperatures, particle size and inert or reacting atmosphere) on the pore structure of the devolatilized chars. The devolatilized chars will be gasified in the regime of strong intraparticle diffusional limitations using O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures. Constant temperature and programmed-temperature experiments in a TGA will be used for these studies. Additional gasification experiments performed in the hot-stage reactor will be videotaped and selected images will be analyzed to obtain quantitative data on particle shrinkage and fragmentation.

Zygourakis, K.

1989-01-01

307

Proceedings of the ninth annual underground coal gasification symposium  

SciTech Connect

The Ninth Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was held August 7 to 10, 1983 at the Indian Lakes Resort and Conference Center in Bloomingdale, Illinois. Over one-hundred attendees from industry, academia, National Laboratories, State Government, and the US Government participated in the exchange of ideas, results and future research plans. Representatives from six countries including France, Belgium, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, West Germany, and Brazil also participated by presenting papers. Fifty papers were presented and discussed in four formal sessions and two informal poster sessions. The presentations described current and future field testing plans, interpretation of field test data, environmental research, laboratory studies, modeling, and economics. All papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

Wieber, P.R.; Martin, J.W.; Byrer, C.W. (eds.)

1983-12-01

308

Chemical and Toxicological Studies of Coal Gasification Wastewater Circulated Through a Cooling Tower.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Argonne National Laboratory is studying health and environmental issues related to coal gasification, using data and samples from the oxygen-blown slagging fixed-bed gasifier at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC). The pilot stu...

J. R. Stetter V. C. Stamoudis R. D. Flotard C. A. Reilly K. E. Wilzbach

1984-01-01

309

In-Service Infrared Thermal Imaging of Coal-Gasification Plant Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preliminary field studies seem to demonstrate that thermal imaging by means of a passive infrared scanning camera system may provide a useful tool for gathering thermal data concerning coal gasification pilot plant component performance. The determination...

G. C. Stanton W. A. Ellingson

1976-01-01

310

Identification and Separation of the Organic Compounds in Coal-Gasification Condensate Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A substantial fraction of the organic solutes in condensate waters from low-temperature coal-gasification processes are not identified by commonly employed analytical techniques, have low distriution coefficients (K/sub C/) into diisopropyl ether (DIPE) o...

C. J. King D. H. Mohr

1983-01-01

311

Chemical and Biological Characterization of High-Btu Coal Gasification: (The HYGAS Process) I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have examined the relationships between mutagenic activity and chemical composition for fractions prepared from process stream materials obtained from a high-Btu coal-gasification pilot plant in which the HYGAS process is employed. Fractionation proced...

V. C. Stamoudis S. Bourne D. A. Haugen M. J. Peak C. A. Reilly

1980-01-01

312

Recent regulatory experience of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume III. Supporting case studies  

SciTech Connect

The MITRE Corporation conducted a five-month study for the Office of Resource Applications in the Department of Energy on the regulatory requirements of low-Btu coal gasification. During this study, MITRE interviewed representatives of five current low-Btu coal gasification projects and regulatory agencies in five states. From these interviews, MITRE has sought the experience of current low-Btu coal gasification users in order to recommend actions to improve the regulatory process. This report is the third of three volumes. It contains the results of interviews conducted for each of the case studies. Volume 1 of the report contains the analysis of the case studies and recommendations to potential industrial users of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume 2 contains recommendations to regulatory agencies.

Ackerman, E.; Hart, D.; Lethi, M.; Park, W.; Rifkin, S.

1980-02-01

313

Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

Wiser, W. H.

1980-09-01

314

Advanced Coal Gasification Symposium (2nd) Held in Shanghai, China on June 27-July 2, 1983,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Second Advanced Coal Gasification Symposium, held in Shanghai, China in 1983, was sponsored by the Shanghai Association for Science and Technology and the Shanghai Municipal Gas Company. Introductory information on energy science in China, opening spe...

A. Flowers D. Spencer E. Nitschke J. Holmgren M. van der Burgt

1983-01-01

315

Disposal of Soluble Coal-Gasification Wastes: Salts are encapsulated in a hard impermeable mass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. A method has been proposed for the disposal of soluble salts fround in the wastewater from coal-gasification plants. The new process combines several different proce...

1982-01-01

316

Evaluation of Coal-Gasification - Combustion-Turbine Power Plants Emphasizing Low Water Consumption.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cost and performance study was made of several integrated power plants using coal gasification technology now in advanced development and combustion turbines for power generation. The principal emphasis was placed on studying plants using air cooling an...

R. Cavazo A. B. Clemmer J. A. de la Mora J. R. Grisso H. W. Klumpe

1982-01-01

317

Coal Gasification Valves, Phase II. Quarterly Technical Progress Report, June 1977--August 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effort in the design of valves to operate at high temperature in coal gasification plants are detailed. A considerable part of the work involves determining the properties of materials, such as ceramics, which may be satisfactory at these temperatures. Th...

1977-01-01

318

Utilization of solid wastes from the gasification of coal-water slurries  

SciTech Connect

It was found that only fly and bottom ashes are the solid wastes of water-coal slurry gasification in a direct-flow gasifier. The yields and chemical compositions of fly and bottom ashes obtained after the gasification of water-coal slurries prepared using brown (B) and long-flame (D) coals from the Berezovskii and Mokhovskii strip mines (Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk Basins, respectively) were characterized. Based on an analysis of currently available information, the areas of utilization of fly and bottom ashes after water-coal slurry gasification with dry ash removal were summarized. The use of these wastes in the construction of high-ways and earthwork structures (for the parent coals of B and D grades) and in the manufacture of ash concrete (for the parent coal of D grade) is most promising.

M.Y. Shpirt; N.P. Goryunova [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01

319

Preburn versus postburn mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of overburden and coal at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification site  

SciTech Connect

Hundreds of mineralogic and geochemical tests were done under US Department of Energy contracts on core samples taken from the Hanna underground coal gasification site. These tests included x-ray diffraction studies of minerals in coal ash, overburden rocks, and heat-altered rocks; x-ray fluorescence analyses of oxides in coal ash and heat-altered rocks; semi-quantitative spectrographic analyses of elements in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks; chemical analyses of elements and compounds in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks and ASTM proximate and ultimate analyses of coal and heat-altered coal. These data sets were grouped, averaged, and analyzed to provide preburn and postburn mineralogic and geochemical characteristics of rock units at the site. Where possible, the changes in characteristics from the preburn to the postburn state are related to underground coal gasification processes. 11 references, 13 figures, 8 tables.

Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.

1983-12-01

320

Coal conversion submodels for design applications at elevated pressures. Part II. Char gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the database on char gasification at elevated pressures, first, to identify the tendencies that are essential to rational design of coal utilization technology, and second, to validate a gasification mechanism for quantitative design calculations. Four hundred and fifty-three independent tests with 28 different coals characterized pressures from 0.02 to 3.0MPa, CO2 and steam mole percentages from 0

Gui-Su Liu; Stephen Niksa

2004-01-01

321

Casestudy of a coal gasification-based energy supply system for China  

Microsoft Academic Search

''Syngas city'' (SC) is a concept for a coal gasification-based energy supply system that deploys gasification-based polygeneration technologies to meet energy needs of coal-rich areas. This paper summarizes an assessment of the projected environmental impacts of implementing a SC strategy for Zaozhuang, Shandong Province, China. A SC scenario and a ''business-as-usual'' (BAU) sce- nario are developed for the Zaozhuang area

Zheng Hongtao; Li Zheng; Ni Weidou; Eric D. Larson; Ren Tingjin

2003-01-01

322

Theoretical investigation of selected trace elements in coal gasification plants. Final report Mar 78-Nov 79  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of a theoretical investigation of the disposition of five volatile trace elements (arsenic, boron, lead, selenium, and mercury) in SNG-producing coal gasification plants. Three coal gasification processes (dry-bottom Lurgi, Koppers-Totzek, and HYGAS) were investigated to examine the possible effects of gasifier operation conditions on the speciation of the volatile trace elements. Results of this investigation suggest

A. H. Hill; G. L. Anderson; D. K. Fleming

1983-01-01

323

Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants  

SciTech Connect

This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

Not Available

1981-03-31

324

Devon station repowering study: Phase 2, Conceptual design of a coal gasification facility: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The 1985 conceptual design and economic analysis of a coal gasification facility producing medium-Btu fuel gas from a Pittsburgh bituminous coal is described in this report. The gasification facility is sited at Connecticut Light and Power Company's Devon Generating Station, Milford, Connecticut. The report was prepared by Lummus Crest, Inc., United Engineers and Constructors, and Northeast Utilities Service Company. Northeast Utilities Service Company and the Electric Power Research Institute co-sponsored the study. The facility design incorporates the proprietary Shell Coal Gasification Process. This process uses a pressurized, high temperature, entrained flow gasification reactor to perform the initial conversion of coal to gas. Dry pulverized coal, oxygen, and a small quantity of steam is fed into the process to produce a medium-Btu gas with a higher heating value of 301.0 Btu/SCF. The plant consumes 5688 tons of coal per day to produce 5083 MM Btu/hr of medium-Btu gas. The synthetic gas is supplied to a combined cycle plant adjacent to the proposed facility. Minimal integration of the gasification and combined cycle systems is included in the plant design. A description of the site and plant facilities, including overall material and energy balances, block flow diagrams, and site arrangement drawings, are presented. A description of the major systems, including an equipment summary, are also provided. An overall capital cost estimate and project execution schedule were prepared. An engineering and economic analysis of the impact of adding the coal gasification facility to the repowering project is presented. This analysis, prepared by Northeast Utilities Service Company, compares the gasified coal combined cycle plant with two options, a pulverized coal steam plant and the repowered plant without the gasification facility. 13 figs., 23 tabs.

Rorstrom, E.G.; Athas, J.G.; Wagner, G.A.; Cooperberg, D.; Bender, D.J.; Willson, E.J. Jr.

1988-12-01

325

Coal-gasification kinetics derived from pyrolysis in a fluidized-bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal pyrolysis and gasification reactions were carried out in a fluidized-bed reactor (0.1m i.d. by 1.6m height) over a temperature range from 1023 to 1173K at atmospheric pressure. The overall gasification kinetics for the steam–char and oxygen–char reactions were determined in a thermobalance reactor. The compositions of the product gases from the coal-gasification reactions are 30–40% H2, 23–28% CO, 27–35%

Jong Min Lee; Yong Jeon Kim; Woon Jae Lee; Sang Done Kim

1998-01-01

326

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we coated coupons of selected alloy steels with diffusion coatings of Cr and Al, as well as with titanium and tantalum nitrides. The coated samples were analyzed for their surface composition. In several instances, the samples were also cut to determine the depth profile of the coating. Several of the early runs did not yield uniform or deep enough coatings and hence a significant portion of the effort in this period was devoted fixing the problems with our fluidized bed reactor. Before the end of the quarter we had prepared a number of samples, many of them in duplicates, and sent one set to Wabash River Energy Laboratory for them to install in their gasifier. The gasifier was undergoing a scheduled maintenance and thus presented an opportunity to place some of our coupons in the stream of an operating gasifier. The samples submitted included coated and uncoated pairs of different alloys.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-01-01

327

Two-stage coal gasification and desulfurization apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a system which effectively integrates a two-stage, fixed-bed coal gasification arrangement with hot fuel gas desulfurization of a first stream of fuel gas from a lower stage of the two-stage gasifier and the removal of sulfur from the sulfur sorbent regeneration gas utilized in the fuel-gas desulfurization process by burning a second stream of fuel gas from the upper stage of the gasifier in a combustion device in the presence of calcium-containing material. The second stream of fuel gas is taken from above the fixed bed in the coal gasifier and is laden with ammonia, tar and sulfur values. This second stream of fuel gas is burned in the presence of excess air to provide heat energy sufficient to effect a calcium-sulfur compound forming reaction between the calcium-containing material and sulfur values carried by the regeneration gas and the second stream of fuel gas. Any ammonia values present in the fuel gas are decomposed during the combustion of the fuel gas in the combustion chamber. The substantially sulfur-free products of combustion may then be combined with the desulfurized fuel gas for providing a combustible fluid utilized for driving a prime mover.

Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV); Strickland, Larry D. (Morgantown, WV)

1991-01-01

328

Factors governing reactivity in low temperature coal gasification. Part II. An attempt to correlate conversions with inorganic and mineral constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Links between extents of coal gasification and the amounts and compositions of mineral components in coals have been investigated. The influence of demineralisation and impregnation with various inorganic components on the pyrolysis and CO2-gasification behaviour of two coals have been examined at 0.1 and 1MPa. The effect of mineral matter on pyrolysis and gasification behaviour has also been examined by

L Lemaignen; Y Zhuo; G. P Reed; D. R Dugwell; R Kandiyoti

2002-01-01

329

COAL GASIFICATION/GAS CLEANUP TEST FACILITY: VOLUME II. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF OPERATION WITH DEVOLATILIZED BITUMINOUS COAL AND CHILLED METHANOL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of initial runs of a pilot-scale coal gasification and gas cleaning plant at North Carolina State University. In these runs, a devolatilized Western Kentucky No. 11 bituminous coal was gasified with steam and oxygen, and chilled methanol was used as the a...

330

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we conducted two exposure tests with coated and uncoated coupons. The first one was aborted after a short period, because of a leak in the pressure regulator of a CO/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} gas mixture gas cylinder that was used to prepare the simulated coal gas stream. Nevertheless, this run was very instructive as it showed that during the brief exposure when the concentration of H{sub 2}S increased to 8.6%, even specialty alloys such as HR160 and I800 were badly corroded, yet the sample of a SS405-steel that was coated with Ti/Ta showed no signs of corrosion. After replacing the pressure regulator, a second run was conducted with a fresh set of coated and uncoated samples. The Ti/Ta-coated on to SS405 steel from the earlier runs was also exposed in this test. The run proceeded smoothly, and at the end of test the uncoated steels were badly damaged, some evidence of corrosion was found on coupons of HR160 and I800 alloys and the Cr-coated steels, but again, the Ti/Ta-coated sample appeared unaffected.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-03-01

331

Solar coal-gasification reactor with pyrolysis-gas recycle. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a product gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor, and solar energy is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front and a pyrolysis front. A gasification zone is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam, injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone, reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases flow from the gasification zone to the pyrolysis zone to generate hot char. Gases are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone. This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone and the pyrolysis zone. The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

Aiman, W.R.; Gregg, D.W.

1981-04-06

332

Great Plains Coal Gasification Project: Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1988 (Fourth fiscal quarter, 1987-1988)  

SciTech Connect

This progress report describes the operation of the Great Plains Gasification Plant, including lignite coal production, SNG production, gas quality, by-products, and certain problems encountered. (LTN)

Not Available

1988-07-29

333

Characterization and treatment of coal-gasification condensate waters  

SciTech Connect

This thesis presents work performed to identify the organic constituents in coal-gasification condensate water, along with consideration of the alternatives for condensate water treatment. The characterization experiments performed were primarily limited to a condensate water received from the Lurgi slagging fixed-bed gasifier at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center; however, the analyses of one condensate water sample from the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center and one sample from the Great Plains Gasification Associates gasifier are also included. The characterization results indicated almost complete identification of the compounds contributing to the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), organic sulfur, and organic nitrogen measurements in the METC condensate water. Thiocyanate was found to contribute significantly to the COD, organic nitrogen, and oganic sulfur measurements of the condensate sample. In addition, polysulfides were also found to contribute to the COD and the organic sulfur measurements. Low-molecular-weight solutes (acetonitrile, acetone, and methanol) were not found to be appreciable in the METC sample but were found to a much greater extent in the GPGA and GFETC samples. Equilibrium distribution coefficients from water into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) were determined for many of the condesnate water solutes. In addition, other extractants including benzophenone, tributyl phosphate (TBP), tributyrin, furan, and 4-methyl cyclohexanone were investigated. TBP was found to yield the highest distribution coefficients for the condensate solutes. Adsorption experiments revealed that both activated carbon and Amberlite XAD-7 were effective for removal of catechol and 5,5-dimethyl hydantoin from water. Both strong-base and weak-base anion-exchange resins were investigated for thiocyanate recovery. Use of weak-base resin was found to offer potential advantages over the strong-base resin. 23 figs., 36 tabs.

Senetar, J.J.; King, C.J.

1986-01-01

334

Design and economics of a lignite-to-SNG (substitute natural gas) facility using Lurgi gasifiers for lignite gasification and the Texaco Partial Oxidation Process to gasify Lurgi by-product liquids. Final topical report, April 1985November 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design and cost estimate was prepared for a 250 billion Btu\\/day lignite-to-SNG plant that uses Lurgi dry-bottom gasifiers to gasify lignite and the Texaco Partial Oxidation (POX) process to gasify the various hydrocarbon liquids produced by the Lurgi process. Also presented are plant performance and economic comparisons between this plant design and a Base Case design prepared previously in

J. T. Smith; S. C. Smelser

1985-01-01

335

From coal to biomass gasification: Comparison of thermodynamic efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fuel composition on the thermodynamic efficiency of gasifiers and gasification systems is studied. A chemical equilibrium model is used to describe the gasifier. It is shown that the equilibrium model presents the highest gasification efficiency that can be possibly attained for a given fuel. Gasification of fuels with varying composition of organic matter, in terms of O\\/C

Mark J. Prins; Krzysztof J. Ptasinski; Frans J. J. G. Janssen

2007-01-01

336

Texaco Canada completes unique horizontal drilling program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texaco Canada Resources Ltd. recently completed an innovative drilling program to tap shallow reserves in its Athabasca oil sands lease, south and east of Fort McMurray, Alberta. Texaco successfully drilled 3 wells using a drilling rig with a 45 degrees-slanted mast. Since 1972, Texaco has operated an in situ pilot project in their Athabasca field. In 1979, the company recognized

Loxam

1982-01-01

337

COAL GASIFICATION/GAS CLEANUP TEST FACILITY: VOLUME I. DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes an integrated fluidized-bed coal gasification reactor and acid gas removal system. The gasifier operates at 100 psig at up to 2000 F, and has a coal feed capacity of 50 lb/hr. The gas cleaning system contains a cyclone, a venturi scrubber, and an absorber/fla...

338

Gasification of coals and of hydrogenation sludge in a steam plasma  

SciTech Connect

The gasification process was investigated for various coals and a hydrogenation slurry of Irsha-Borodinsk coal using a water vapour plasma in different types of reactor. It was found that, in a suitable reactor, the reaction process between the hydrogen in the fuel and the water vapour takes place mainly in the external diffusion regions.

Kolobova, E.A.

1983-01-01

339

Thermal and Catalytic Cracking of Tars and Tar Constituents from Coal-Gasification Processes. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program is to screen catalysts and determine operating conditions for maximizing gas and char production from the pyrolysis of coal gasification tars. The product yields from cracking a bituminous coal tar in a fixed-bed reactor were...

W. Y. Wen

1983-01-01

340

Brazing as a means of sealing ceramic membranes for use in advanced coal gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen that will enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes

K. Scott Weil; John S. Hardy; Joseph P. Rice; Jin Yong Y. Kim

2006-01-01

341

Combination of thermochemical recuperative coal gasification cycle and fuel cell for power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated power generation cycle combining thermochemical recuperation, brown coal gasification and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was proposed based on the concept of thermochemical recuperative energy. Process simulation combining the coal gasifier, gas turbine cycle, and SOFC module was conducted using the ASPEN Plus process simulation tool. The simulation indicated that the cycle efficiency increases from 39.5% (HHV)

Prapan Kuchonthara; Sankar Bhattacharya; Atsushi Tsutsumi

2005-01-01

342

The relevance of thermal annealing to the evolution of coal char gasification reactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work is focused on the influence of the severity of heat treatment of coals during pyrolysis and\\/or early stages of carbon oxidation on the reactivity of the resulting char towards further gasification. Thermogravimetric analysis has been directed to characterize the reactivity of heat treated samples of a bituminous coal in atmospheres containing different carbon dioxide partial pressures. Carbonization

O. Senneca; P. Russo; P. Salatino; S. Masi

1997-01-01

343

Results of In-situ Desulfurization Tests in the U-GAS Coal Gasification Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A high-pressure coal gasification Process Development Unit (PDU) has been used by the Institute of Gas Technology to study in-situ desulfurization in an ash-agglomerating, fluidized-bed coal gasifier at elevated pressures. Previous work in this area has b...

B. G. Bryan A. Goyal J. G. Patel M. R. Ghate

1988-01-01

344

Advanced coal-gasification and - liquefaction process development at Rockwell International  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rockwell International, through its Energy Systems Group, is involved in the development of several advanced technology processes for the conversion of coal to gaseous and liquid products. These include the Rockgas molten salt gasification process and the CS\\/R Hydrogasification and Hydroliquefaction processes based upon flash hydropyrolysis (FHP) technology. In the Rockgas process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air

J. Silverman; J. Friedman; D. Kahn; A. Kohl

1981-01-01

345

Source test and evaluation program at the Glen-Gery coal gasification facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a Source Test and Evaluation Program conducted at a commercial coal gasification facility. The facility uses a Wellman-Galusha gasifier to produce low-Btu fuel gas from anthracite coal. The major objective of the test program was to perform an environmental assessment on the facility's waste streams and fugitive emissions. Results from the chemical analyses of

G. C. Page; W. J. Rhodes

1980-01-01

346

POLLUTANTS FROM SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION: ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION OF COAL GASIFICATION SCREENING TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an environmental evaluation of 38 screening test runs using a laboratory-scale, fixed-bed coal gasifier to study pollutants generated during the gasification of various coals. Pollutants were identified and quantitative analyses performed for tars, aqu...

347

Effect of limestone on ash behavior in fluidized-bed gasification of coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The behavior of coal mineral matter is of interest in fluidized-bed coal gasification and stage combustion because it governs the formation of ash agglomerates that facilitate ash removal from the reactor without excessive loss of carbon as well as deposi...

S. D. Kline D. M. Mason R. H. Carty S. P. Babu

1989-01-01

348

EFFECT OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ON SINTERING BEHAVIOR OF JINCHENG COAL ASH UNDER GASIFICATION ATMOSPHERE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obtain detailed understanding of coal ash sintering behavior, a series of experiments have been done on the effect of Jincheng coal ash composition on sintering temperature under gasification atmosphere by the pressure-drop technique. The mineral transformations within its sintering temperature range are simulated by the thermodynamic equilibrium calculation module of FactSage to better understand the experiment results.

Nijie Jing; Qinhui Wang; Zhongyang Luo; Kefa Cen

2012-01-01

349

Results of the groundwater restoration project, Hanna Underground Coal Gasification Test Site, Wyoming: Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments conducted during the 1970s at the Department of Energy (DOE) site near Hanna, Wyoming, formed six underground cavities in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam, an aquifer of low permeability. When the first Hanna UCG experiment began in March 1973, researchers had little information about what effects the geologic or hydrologic characteristics of the area

1988-01-01

350

Coal gasification. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods and processes for the gasification of coals. Included are patents for a variety of processes, including fluidized beds, alkali-metal catalytic systems, fixed beds, hot inert heat transfer; and in-situ, pressurized, and steam-iron processes. Topics also include catalyst recovery, desulfurization during gasification, heating methods, pretreatment of coals, heat recovery, electrical power generation, byproduct applications, and pollution control. Liquefaction of coal is examined in a related published bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

351

Coal gasification. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods and processes for the gasification of coals. Included are patents for a variety of processes, including fluidized beds, alkali-metal catalytic systems, fixed beds, hot inert heat transfer; and in-situ, pressurized, and steam-iron processes. Topics also include catalyst recovery, desulfurization during gasification, heating methods, pretreatment of coals, heat recovery, electrical power generation, byproduct applications, and pollution control. Liquefaction of coal is examined in a related published bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-06-01

352

Coal gasification. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods and processes for the gasification of coals. Included are patents for a variety of processes, including fluidized beds, alkali-metal catalytic systems, fixed beds, hot inert heat transfer; and in-situ, pressurized, and steam-iron processes. Topics also include catalyst recovery, desulfurization during gasification, heating methods, pretreatment of coals, heat recovery, electrical power generation, byproduct applications, and pollution control. Liquefaction of coal is examined in a related published bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-03-01

353

Feasibility study of coal gasification/fuel cell/cogeneration project, Washington, DC site. Project description  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to describe a coal gasification/fuel cell/cogeneration (GFC) project that is specific to the Georgetown University site in Washington, DC. The project at this site, as with those at the three other sites selected for this program, is intended to demonstrate the technical, economic, and financing viability of power generation by fuel cells using gas from coal. Mass and energy balances were prepared for the gasification, gas processing, fuel cell, and thermal-management systems using an eastern Kentucky bituminous coal, selected for its low tendency to cake in the gasifier bed.

Trapp, C.; Estreich, P.

1985-06-01

354

Early Entrance Co-Production Plant Decentralized Gasification Cogeneration Transportation Fuels and Steam From Available Feedstocks. Quarterly Technical Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (N...

2002-01-01

355

Control aspects of underground coal gasification: LLL investigations of ground-water and subsidence effects. [Hoe Creek I and II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our investigations are designed to evaluate some of the environmental implications of in situ coal gasification, and to identify appropriate environmental controls. Changes in ground-water quality and the possible effects of subsidence and ground movement induced by the underground gasification cavity represent significant environmental concerns associated with the in situ gasification process. We have measured these effects at the site

S. W. Mead; F. T. Wang; H. C. Ganow

1978-01-01

356

UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS  

SciTech Connect

The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ''as-generated'' slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ''as-generated'' slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase I, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and Phase II, which involves commercial evaluation of these aggregates in a number of applications.

None

1999-03-29

357

UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS  

SciTech Connect

The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ''as-generated'' slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ''as-generated'' slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for, various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases Phase I, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and Phase II, which involves commercial evaluation of these aggregates in a number of applications.

Unknown

2000-04-24

358

A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The lower cost and high catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} required for high coal char reactivities. The work is focused on the elucidation of coal-catalyst precursor interactions in solution and the variables which control the adsorption and dispersion of coal gasification metal catalysts. In order to optimize coal-metal ion interactions and hence maximize catalyst activity, the study examines the surface electrochemistry of a lignite, a subbituminous, and a bituminous coals and their demineralized and oxidized derivatives prior to loading with the catalytic materials. The surface electrical properties of the coals are investigated with the aid of electrophoresis, while the effects of the surface charge on the adsorption of K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} are studied by agitating the coals with aqueous solutions of potassium and calcium. A zeta meter, a tube furnace, and other equipment required for the investigation have been acquired and installed. Preliminary work shows that the lignite (Psoc 1482) is negatively charged between pH 1.8 and pH 11.0 and has an isoelectric point of pH 1.8.

Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

1989-01-01

359

Geochemistry of ultra-fine and nano-compounds in coal gasification ashes: a synoptic view.  

PubMed

The nano-mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of coal gasification products have not been studied as extensively as the products of the more widely used pulverized-coal combustion. The solid residues from the gasification of a low- to medium-sulfur, inertinite-rich, volatile A bituminous coal, and a high sulfur, vitrinite-rich, volatile C bituminous coal were investigated. Multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS provided an in-depth understanding of coal gasification ash-forming processes. The petrology of the residues generally reflected the rank and maceral composition of the feed coals, with the higher rank, high-inertinite coal having anisotropic carbons and inertinite in the residue, and the lower rank coal-derived residue containing isotropic carbons. The feed coal chemistry determines the mineralogy of the non-glass, non-carbon portions of the residues, with the proportions of CaCO? versus Al?O? determining the tendency towards the neoformation of anorthite versus mullite, respectively. Electron beam studies showed the presence of a number of potentially hazardous elements in nanoparticles. Some of the neoformed ultra-fine/nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of sulfides and sulfates. PMID:23584038

Kronbauer, Marcio A; Izquierdo, Maria; Dai, Shifeng; Waanders, Frans B; Wagner, Nicola J; Mastalerz, Maria; Hower, James C; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Taffarel, Silvio R; Bizani, Delmar; Silva, Luis F O

2013-07-01

360

Pyrolysis and gasification of coal at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

We made considerable progress towards developing a thermogravimetric reactor with in-situ video imaging capability (TGA/IVIM). Such a reactor will allow us to observe macroscopic changes in the morphology of pyrolyzing particles and thermal ignitions while monitoring at the time the weight of pyrolyzing or reacting samples. The systematic investigation on the effects of pyrolysis conditions and char macropore structure on char reactivity continued. Pyrolysis and gasification experiments were performed consecutively in our TGA reactor and the char reactivity patterns were measured for a wide range of temperatures (400 to 600[degrees]C). These conditions cover both the kinetic and the diffusion limited regimes. Our results show conclusively that chars produced at high pyrolysis heating rates (and, therefore, having a more open cellular macropore structure) are more reactive and ignite more easily than chars pyrolyzed at low heating rates. These results have been explained using available predictions from theoretical models. We also investigated for the first time the effect of coal particle size and external mass transfer limitations on the reactivity patterns and ignition behavior of char particles combusted in air. Finally, we used our hot stage reactor to monitor the structural transformations occurring during pyrolysis via a video microscopy system. Pyrolysis experiments were videotaped and particle swelling and the particle ignitions were determined and analyzed using digitized images from these experiments.

Zygourakis, K.

1990-01-01

361

Corrrosion of low-nickel weldments in coal gasification atmospheres  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification environments exhibit low oxygen and moderate-to-high sulfur partial pressures; under these conditions, structural alloys welded with high-nickel filler metals are susceptible to the sulfidation mode of attack even though the base metal itself has adequate resistance to sulfidation. To understand the role of nickel in the weldment on the corrosion process, a number of weldments of Incology 800H base metal welded with several commercially available low-nickel filler metals have been tested in mixed oxygen-sulfur atmospheres. Results on the compositional variations and morphological developments obtained from exposed specimens are presented. The results showed that high-nickel weld metal can accelerate the oxidation/sulfidation process. In addition, the weld interface region in all the alloys (irrespective of the nickel content of the filler metal) was susceptibel to accelerated attack in mixed-gas atmospheres; however, weldments with lower-nickel filler metals exhibited smaller scale thicknesses and showed significant promise for application in fossil fuel systems. 4 references, 15 figures, 3 tables.

Natesan, K

1984-12-01

362

Presence of an Unusual Methanogenic Bacterium in Coal Gasification Waste  

PubMed Central

Methanogenic bacteria growing on a pilot-scale, anaerobic filter processing coal gasification waste were enriched in a mineral salts medium containing hydrogen and acetate as potential energy sources. Transfer of the enrichments to methanol medium resulted in the initial growth of a strain of Methanosarcina barkeri, but eventually small cocci became dominant. The cocci growing on methanol produced methane and exhibited the typical fluorescence of methanogenic bacteria. They grew in the presence of the cell wall synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics d-cycloserine, fosfomycin, penicillin G, and vancomycin as well as in the presence of kanamycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis in eubacteria. The optimal growth temperature was 37°C, and the doubling time was 7.5 h. The strain lysed after reaching stationary phase. The bacterium grew poorly with hydrogen as the energy source and failed to grow on acetate. Morphologically, the coccus shared similarities with Methanosarcina sp. Cells were 1 ?m wide, exhibited the typical thick cell wall and cross-wall formation, and formed tetrads. Packets and cysts were not formed. Images

Tomei, Francisco A.; Rouse, Dwight; Maki, James S.; Mitchell, Ralph

1988-01-01

363

Proceedings of the Symposium: Advanced Coal Gasification (3rd) Held in Beijing, China on April 30-May 3, 1985,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Third Advanced Coal Gasification Symposium, held in Beijing, China in 1985, was sponsored by the Beijing Association for Science and Technology and the Beijing Energy Society. Introductory information on China's coal industry and on atmospheric pollut...

A. Flowers E. Lam J. Holmgren R. Perhac W. Menzies

1985-01-01

364

Characterization and disposal of coal-gasification waste products. Phase 2. Final report, April 1, 1984-December 31, 1989  

SciTech Connect

The GRI Coal Gasification Environmental, Health and Safety (EH S) Information System provides access to technical information relevant to advances in coal conversion and associated control technologies. An overview of the system and GRI's EH S R D program is presented. Appendixes include reports on tests conducted to determine system coverage on the health and safety aspects of coal tars, water contamination from coal gasification, and R D on the environmental impact of coal gasification on surface and groundwater. Literature searches on low volume wastes and fugitive emissions are summarized. A list of system users is included.

Meserole, N.P.

1989-06-30

365

Characteristics of entrained flow coal gasification in a drop tube reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of reaction temperature, oxygen\\/coal and steam\\/coal ratios and residence time on coal gasification performance in entrained flow were determined by means of a drop tube reactor (0.05 m.i.d. × 1.0 m high). The H2CO molar ratio decreases with increasing reaction temperature and the H2 + CO content of the product gas exhibit a maximum around the ash fusion

Jae Goo Lee; Jae Ho Kim; Hyo Jin Lee; Tae Jun Park; Sang Done Kim

1996-01-01

366

Startup and operation of the coal gasification section of a 1000 TE\\/day ammonia plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of 1974 a 1000 metric ton\\/day coal-based ammonia plant was brought on stream at the AE and CI Modderfontein Factory near Johannesburg, South Africa. The process is based on the Koppers-Totzek low pressure, high temperature, coal gasification process. The feedstock is a semi-butuminous coal containing about 14% ash, 36% volatiles and 1% sulphur. Oxygen for the gasifiers

Sharpe

1976-01-01

367

Evaluation of intermediate-Btu coal gasification systems for retrofitting power plants. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process and economic evaluations have been made of two different intermediate-Btu coal gasification systems retrofitted to an existing electric power unit. One of the systems uses fixed-bed, oxygen-blown Lurgi gasifiers for sized coal (coal fines are sold as a byproduct) with a tar and oil cleanup, hydrogen sulfide removal and sulfur recovery processes. The other system uses entrained-bed Koppers-Totzek gasifiers,

D. A. Waitzman; H. L. Faucett; D. E. Nichols; S. V. Tomlinson; W. J. Broadfoot

1977-01-01

368

UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS  

SciTech Connect

The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ''as-generated'' slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ''as-generated'' slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase I, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and Phase II, which involves commercial evaluation of these aggregates in a number of applications. Primary funding for the project is provided by DOE's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) at Morgantown, with significant cost sharing by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI).

None

1998-12-24

369

Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags  

SciTech Connect

The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ''as-generated'' slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ''as-generated'' slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase I, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and Phase II, which involves commercial evaluation of these aggregates in a number of applications. Primary funding for the project is provided by DOE's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) at Morgantown, with significant cost sharing by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI).

NONE

1998-09-30

370

Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags  

SciTech Connect

The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of as-generated slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, the authors found that it would be extremely difficult for as-generated slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1,400 and 1,700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase 1, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and Phase 2, which involves commercial evaluation of these aggregates in a number of applications. Primary funding for the project is provided by DOE's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) at Morgantown, with significant cost sharing by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI).

None

1999-12-30

371

COAL GASIFICATION/GAS CLEANUP TEST FACILITY. VOLUME 4. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE PACKED COLUMN ACID GAS ABSORBER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a mathematical model for adiabatic operation of a packed-column absorber designed to remove acid gases from coal gasification crude product gas. It also gives results of experiments with a small pilot-scale coal gasification/gas cleaning facility designed to ...

372

Numerical simulation of the bubbling fluidized bed coal gasification by the kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new numerical model based on the two-fluid model (TFM) including the kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF) and complicated reactions has been developed to simulate coal gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier (BFBG). The collision between particles is described by KTGF. The coal gasification rates are determined by combining Arrhenius rate and diffusion rate for heterogeneous reactions or

Liang Yu; Jing Lu; Xiangping Zhang; Suojiang Zhang

2007-01-01

373

Fluidized-bed catalytic coal-gasification process. [US patent; pretreatment to minimize agglomeration  

DOEpatents

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 vol % and 21 vol % oxygen at a temperature between 50 and 250/sup 0/C in an oxidation zone and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

Euker, C.A. Jr.; Wesselhoft, R.D.; Dunkleman, J.J.; Aquino, D.C.; Gouker, T.R.

1981-09-14

374

Photoassisted electrolysis applied to coal gasification. Final report, 2 July 1981-1 September 1983  

SciTech Connect

This project was carried out to test the technical feasibility of coal gasification employing semiconductor electrodes with solar energy. The project consisted of five tasks. In Task 1, a literature search was conducted on electrochemistry of coal and carbonaceous materials and conclusions are presented. Topics reviewed include: electrochemistry of various forms of carbon, chemical oxidation and reduction of coal, electrochemical oxidation and reduction of coal, photoelectrochemistry of coal, and direct power generation from coal burning fuel cells. In Task 2, the oxidation mechanisms of coal slurries in electrolysis cells were studied in detail. Results indicate that coal is catalytically oxidized by Fe(III) leached out in the acidic medium. The Fe(II) produced in the process is oxidized back to Fe(III) at the anode. Various other catalysts were studied and their reaction rate constants measured. In Task 3, studies of photoassisted coal gasification reactions at n-SnO/sub 2/, n-WO/sub 3/, n-CdS, and n-CdSe electrodes were carried out, and substantial photocurrents were generated. Methods of preparation of semiconductor thin film electrodes were studied, and successfully used. In Task 4, rotating ring-disk electrode techniques were developed and used to study various methods of stabilizing semiconductor electrodes. Electrodes were stabilized substantially by coating with conductive organic polymers, inert metal films, or heavily doped metal oxides such as heavily doped SnO/sub 2/. Electrodes thus stabilized last only a few days for photoassisted coal gasification reactions; much longer term stabilities would be needed for practical applications. The basic concept of using solar energy for gasification of coal was technically demonstrated. 57 figures, 3 tables.

Park, S.M.

1983-01-01

375

COAL GASIFICATION/GAS CLEANUP TEST FACILITY: VOLUME III. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF OPERATION WITH NEW MEXICO SUBBITUMINOUS COAL AND CHILLED METHANOL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report concerns the second major study carried out on a pilot-scale coal gasification/gas cleaning test facility, namely, the steam-oxygen gasification of a New Mexico subbituminous coal using refrigerated methanol as the acid gas removal solvent. The report briefly describes...

376

Management of coal waste by energy recovery: mild gasification\\/flash pyrolysis of coal preparation wastes. Quarterly report, October-December 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feedstock characterization is now complete. Two of the refuse feedstocks, the bituminous coal feedstock and the subbituminous coal feedstock, were obtained and prepared for use in the mild gasification unit (MGU). Construction continued on the mild gasification unit and is estimated to be 95% complete. Most of the major equipment for the MGU is in place and operational. The vacuum

Gillespie

1986-01-01

377

Engineering Study Hard Coal Gasification with Pressurized Water Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work has been concentrated on the design of the power plant and the interface between reactor and gasification unit. First of all, the combination of a PWR with a Lurgi pressure gasification was investigated. This first phase of the study has been complet...

F. Loeffel H. Baumgarten

1984-01-01

378

Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major design related features of each generic plant system were characterized in a catalog. Based on the catalog and requirements data, approximately 17 designs and cost estimates were developed for MBG and alternate products. A series of generic trade studies was conducted to support all of the design studies. A set of cost and programmatic analyses were conducted to supplement the designs. The cost methodology employed for the design and sensitivity studies was documented and implemented in a computer program. Plant design and construction schedules were developed for the K-T, Texaco, and B&W MBG plant designs. A generic work breakdown structure was prepared, based on the K-T design, to coincide with TVA's planned management approach. An extensive set of cost sensitivity analyses was completed for K-T, Texaco, and B&W design. Product price competitiveness was evaluated for MBG and the alternate products. A draft management policy and procedures manual was evaluated. A supporting technology development plan was developed to address high technology risk issues. The issues were identified and ranked in terms of importance and tractability, and a plan developed for obtaining data or developing technology required to mitigate the risk.

1980-01-01

379

Transformation of the Fe-mineral associations in coal during gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineral matter associated with coal undergoes various transformations during the coal gasification process. Optimisation of the gasification process is necessary in the coal to liquids technology. The principle aim of this investigation was to determine the changes that the Fe-containing minerals and mineral associations undergo during gasification of coal. Due to the complexity of the counter-current coal-gas process used, a gasifier dissection was undertaken on one of the Sasol gasifiers. Detailed characterisation profiles of various properties of the coal were undertaken after a commercial-scale gasifier was shutdown for routine maintenance of which the Mössbauer spectroscopy technique will be described here. Representative samples from the gasifier were extracted after sufficient cooling was done to allow the safe turn-out of the gasifier. In the coal samples that entered the gasifier, pyrite was the abundant Fe-containing mineral, whilst the pyrite changed gradually to form, in conjunction with the SiO2 and Al2O3 present in the coal, a Fe-containing glass and hematite at the bottom, or ash grate of the gasifier.

Waanders, F. B.; Bunt, J. R.

2006-07-01

380

Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

1997-02-01

381

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Demonstration Project. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SMC Mining Company (formerly Shell Mining Company, now owned by Zeigler Coal Holding Company), has completed the construction and start-up of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The LFC technology uses a mild pyrolysis or mild gasification process which involves heating the coal under carefully controlled conditions. The process causes chemical changes in the feed coal in contrast to conventional drying, which leads only to physical changes. Wet subbituminous coal contains considerable water, and conventional drying processes physically remove some of this moisture, causing the heating value to increase. The deeper the coal is physically dried, the higher the heating value and the more the pore structure permanently collapses, preventing resorption of moisture. However, deeply dried Powder River Basin coals exhibit significant stability problems when dried by conventional thermal processes. The LFC process overcomes these stability problems by thermally altering the solid to create PDF and CDL. Several of the major objectives of the ENCOAL Project have now been achieved. The LFC Technology has been essentially demonstrated. Significant quantities of specification CDL have been produced from Buckskin coal. Plant operation in a production mode with respectable availability (approaching 90%) has been demonstrated.

NONE

1995-03-01

382

Entrained-flow dry-bottom gasification of high-ash coals in coal-water slurries  

SciTech Connect

It was shown that the effective use of dry ash removal during entrained-flow gasification of coal-water slurries consists in simplification of the ash storage system and utilization of coal ash, a decrease in the coal demand, a reduction in the atmospheric emissions of noxious substances and particulate matter, and abandonment of the discharge of water used for ash slurry. According to the results of gasification of coal-water slurries (5-10 {mu}m) in a pilot oxygen-blow unit at a carbon conversion of >91%, synthesis gas containing 28.5% CO, 32.5% H{sub 2}, 8.2% CO{sub 2}, 1.5% CH{sub 4}, the rest being nitrogen, was obtained. The fly ash in its chemical composition, particle size, and density meets the requirements of the European standard EN 450 as a cement additive for concrete manufacture.

E.G. Gorlov; V.G. Andrienko; K.B. Nefedov; S.V. Lutsenko; B.K. Nefedov [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-04-15

383

Creating power, technology and products: the role of coal gasification in Ohio's economy and energy future  

SciTech Connect

The study examines how coal gasification (CG) combined with Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) technology could play a role in Ohio's economy and energy future - particularly in Northeast Ohio, a major center of manufacturing in the U.S. This working paper focuses primarily on opportunities for gasification projects to augment Ohio's economy. It examines economic activity factors related to coal gasification and how the location of a number of key support industries in Ohio could provide the state with a competitive advantage in this area. The study focuses on a polygeneration facility that would supply electricity and some other products as an example of the type of gasification facility that could, if a sufficient number of similar facilities were located in the area, serve as the stimulus for a new or expanded industry cluster. Although not further discussed in this paper, any Ohio gasification facility would be in close proximity to oil and gas fields that can serve as sites for sequestering the carbon dioxide separated out from the coal-gasification process. The potential economic impact of locating a polygeneration gasifier in Northeast Ohio is large. A significant portion of the inputs required for one $1.1+ billion facility can be supplied either within northeastern Ohio or from elsewhere in the state. Operation of the facility is estimated to increase annual statewide personal income by $39 million and Ohio output by $161 million. The Northeast Ohio region will account for 98 percent of the operational benefits. The report suggests several possible steps to convert this research to an action plan to build support for, and interest in, a coal-gasification industry cluster in Northeast Ohio. Outreach should focus on engaging industry leaders, foundations, and state and regional economic development leaders. 16 tabs., 3 apps.

NONE

2007-12-15

384

Assessing the catalytic effect of coal ash constituents on the CO 2 gasification rate of high ash, South African coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic effect of inorganic species, within the ash, on the CO2 gasification of three South African coals containing similar carbon-structural properties (elemental, structural and petrographical properties) was assessed. The reactivity of the coals with a particle size between 150 and 250?m was determined in a thermo gravimetric analyser. The reactivity was measured at temperatures between 900 and 1000°C, pressures

Burgert B. Hattingh; Raymond C. Everson; Hein W. J. P. Neomagus; John R. Bunt

2011-01-01

385

Coal conversion processes and analysis methodologies for synthetic fuels production. [technology assessment and economic analysis of reactor design for coal gasification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information to identify viable coal gasification and utilization technologies is presented. Analysis capabilities required to support design and implementation of coal based synthetic fuels complexes are identified. The potential market in the Southeast United States for coal based synthetic fuels is investigated. A requirements analysis to identify the types of modeling and analysis capabilities required to conduct and monitor coal gasification project designs is discussed. Models and methodologies to satisfy these requirements are identified and evaluated, and recommendations are developed. Requirements for development of technology and data needed to improve gasification feasibility and economies are examined.

1979-01-01

386

Structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of chars prepared from K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixed HyperCoals and coals  

SciTech Connect

HyperCoal is a clean coal with mineral matter content <0.05 wt %. Oaky Creek (C = 82%), and Pasir (C = 68%) coals were subjected to solvent extraction method to prepare Oaky Creek HyperCoal, and Pasir HyperCoal. Experiments were carried out to compare the gasification reactivity of HyperCoals and parent raw coals with 20, 40, 50 and 60% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a catalyst at 600, 650, 700, and 775{sup o}C with steam. Gasification rates of coals and HyperCoals were strongly influenced by the temperature and catalyst loading. Catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal chars was found to be chemical reaction controlled in the 600-700{sup o}C temperature range for all catalyst loadings. Gasification rates of HyperCoal chars were found to be always higher than parent coals at any given temperature for all catalyst loadings. However, X-ray diffraction results showed that the microstructures of chars prepared from coals and HyperCoals were similar. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy show no significant difference between the chemical compositions of the chars. Significant differences were observed from scanning electron microscopy images, which showed that the chars from HyperCoals had coral-reef like structures whereas dense chars were observed for coals. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Atul Sharma; Hiroyuki Kawashima; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

2009-04-15

387

Philadelphia gas works medium-Btu coal gasification project: plant design  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of a central coal gasification plant was initiated in November 1979 by PGW under a grant provided by the Department of Energy through NPI-RA-21. The objective of that study was to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing, distributing, selling, and using coal gas for industrial applications in Philadelphia. The study was completed in October 1980 and served as the basis for the PGW Coal Gasification Project. It resulted in the identification of (1) users for the gas, (2) selection of a commercially proven gasification process, (3) a conceptual system design and cost estimate, and (4) a financial analysis. The specific tasks and their results are summarized. As a result of the Conceptual Design and Feasibility Study (or Phase I), PGW determined that the Coal Gasification Project can serve as a point of industrial growth and stability in Philadelphia. PGW looks upon this project as making a significant contribution to the energy supply of Philadelphia and has entered into Phase II of the project which is the definitive design stage. The objective of this work is to develop a definitive design and cost estimate for the gasification system selected for conceptual design. The objectives are accomplished by establishing process criteria for the design. In transition from conceptual to definitive design, process suppliers in areas such as gasification and desulfurization were requested to supply coal- and product gas-specific heat and material balances. The net result is a process description with process flow drawings to be used as the basis for design.

Not Available

1981-12-01

388

Mild gasification of Usibelli coal in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor  

SciTech Connect

Results of mild gasification tests of minus 16-mesh Usibelli coal in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor are described in this report. The minus 16-mesh fraction was separated from the coal by screening. The coal was dried to zero moisture content, and about 2 wt % of the volatiles was removed as gas by partial decarboxylation using a 100-lb/hr inclined fluidized-bed dryer. The dried coal was subjected to mild gasification at maximum temperatures of 1050 to 1250{degrees}F (566 to 677{degrees}C) and feed rates of 7.5 lb/hr while using a once-through flow of carbon dioxide as fluidizing gas in a 1-inch-wide, inclined fluidized-bed reactor. Mild gasification of the dried coal resulted in production of 44 to 56 wt % of the dried coal as char, 10 to 13 wt % as liquids, 17 to 28 wt % as gas, and 8 to 21 wt % as fines. The yield of moisture- and ash-free (MAF) liquids varied from 11.4 to 14.2 wt % of the dried coal feed. Chemical analysis was carried out on these products.

Merriam, N.W.; Thomas, K.P.; Cha, C.Y.

1991-02-01

389

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

Not Available

1992-02-01

390

Interaction and kinetic analysis for coal and biomass co-gasification by TG-FTIR.  

PubMed

This study aims to investigate the interaction and kinetic behavior of CO2 gasification of coal, biomass and their blends by thermogravimetry analysis (TG). The gas products evolved from gasification were measured online with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled with TG. Firstly, TG experiments indicated that interaction between the coals and biomasses mainly occurred during co-gasification process. The most significant synergistic interaction occurred for LN with SD at the blending mass ratio 4:1. Furthermore, thermal kinetic analysis indicated that the activation energy involved in co-gasification decreased as the SD content increased until the blending ratio of SD with coal reached 4:1. The rise of the frequency factor indicated that the increase of SD content favored their synergistic interaction. Finally, FTIR analysis of co-gasification of SD with LN indicated that except for CO, most gases including CH3COOH, C6H5OH, H2O, etc., were detected at around 50-700°C. PMID:24412857

Xu, Chaofen; Hu, Song; Xiang, Jun; Zhang, Liqi; Sun, Lushi; Shuai, Chao; Chen, Qindong; He, Limo; Edreis, Elbager M A

2014-02-01

391

Advanced coal gasification system for electric power generation. Third quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The operation, maintenance and modifications to the Westinghouse gasification process development unit during the quarter are reviewed. The tests of the gasifier-agglomerator included direct coal feed as well as oxygen-blown gasification of a char or coal bed. Then the whole system was tested in single and double stage operation. Laboratory support involved fluidized bed test facilities at ambient temperature and at design temperature for devolatilization and gasification studies. Other laboratory systems were related to thermal analysis and pressurized high temperature studies of gasification and gas cleaning. (LTN)

None

1980-07-25

392

Steady-state model for estimating gas production from underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

A pseudo-one-dimensional channel model has been developed to estimate gas production from underground coal gasification. The model incorporates a zero-dimensional steady-state cavity growth submodel and models mass transfer from the bulk gas to the coal wall using a correlation for natural convection. Simulations with the model reveal that the gas calorific value is sensitive to coal reactivity and the exposed reactive surface area per unit volume in the channel. A comparison of model results with several small-scale field trials conducted at Centralia in the U.S.A. show that the model can make good predictions of the gas production and composition under a range of different operating conditions, including operation with air and steam/oxygen mixtures. Further work is required to determine whether the model formulation is also suitable for simulating large-scale underground coal gasification field trials.

Greg Perkins; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

2008-11-15

393

Subtask 4.2 - Coal Gasification Short Course  

SciTech Connect

Major utilities, independent power producers, and petroleum and chemical companies are intent on developing a fleet of gasification plants primarily because of high natural gas prices and the implementation of state carbon standards, with federal standards looming. Currently, many projects are being proposed to utilize gasification technologies to produce a synthesis gas or fuel gas stream for the production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity. Financing these projects is challenging because of the complexity, diverse nature of gasification technologies, and the risk associated with certain applications of the technology. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has developed a gasification short course that is designed to provide technical personnel with a broad understanding of gasification technologies and issues, thus mitigating the real or perceived risk associated with the technology. Based on a review of research literature, tutorial presentations, and Web sites on gasification, a short course presentation was prepared. The presentation, consisting of about 500 PowerPoint slides, provides at least 7 hours of instruction tailored to an audience's interests and needs. The initial short course is scheduled to be presented September 9 and 10, 2009, in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

Kevin Galbreath

2009-06-30

394

Phototype plant for Nuclear Process Heat (NPH), reference phase. R and D work on Hydrogenated Coal Gasification (HCG). Further operation of semi-industrial plant for hydrogenated coal gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of a scale up, leading to a commercial HCG, futher R and D work was performed on the 100 kg C/hr prototype plant. The inclined tube for feeding coal into the fluidized bed, the raw gas/hydrogenation gas heat exchanger, and the modified hydrogen source were tested. Influence on carbon gasification efficiency of dimension of coal particles, humidity of coal, hydrogen content of gasification gas, introduction place of coal in gasifier, height of fluidized bed, and ash content of coal were studied. The plant was operated for 19,400 hr, of which more than 7400 hr under gasification conditions. Carbon gasification rates up to 82% with methane content up to 48% were obtained.

Fladerer, R.; Schrader, L.

1982-07-01

395

Shaped-charge tests in support of the coal-gasification program  

SciTech Connect

The LLNL concept for in-situ coal gasification requires forming horizontal holes in deep coal beds to connect vertical bore shafts. These lateral holes are required to provide a passage for the gases between the vertical shafts. Shaped charges are being considered for producing these horizontal bore holes. This report describes a test method for evaluating new shaped charge designs and presents the results for three designs.

Scheloske, R.F.

1981-12-01

396

Highly active iron catalysts from ferric chloride for the steam gasification of brown coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for preparing active iron catalysts for coal gasification at low temperatures has been studied by using FeCl[sub 3] as a raw material. Iron catalysts are precipitated onto brown coal probably in the form of FeOOH from an aqueous solution of FeCl[sub 3] by using three additives (urea, Ca(OH)[sub 2], and ammonia) and by hydrolysis. The use of

Kenji Asami; Yasuo Ohtsuka

1993-01-01

397

Transformation of alkali and alkaline earth metals in low rank coal during gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation of alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in low rank coals during gasification was examined by combining computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Two sub-bituminous coals were pyrolyzed at 1500°C using a drop tube furnace, and the resultant chars were then gasified in CO2 atmosphere at the same temperature. Total amounts of AAEM

Koichi Matsuoka; Toru Yamashita; Koji Kuramoto; Yoshizo Suzuki; Akira Takaya; Akira Tomita

2008-01-01

398

Enhanced coal gasification heated by unmixed combustion integrated with an hybrid system of SOFC\\/GT  

Microsoft Academic Search

For clean utilization of coal, enhanced gasification by in situ CO2 capture has the advantage that hydrogen production efficiency is increased while no energy is required for CO2 separation. The unmixed fuel process uses a sorbent material as CO2 carrier and consists of three coupled reactors: a coal gasifier where CO2 is captured generating a H2-rich gas that can be

Pilar Lisbona; Luis M. Romeo

2008-01-01

399

Concept for a competitive coal fired integrated gasification combined cycle power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design efficiency for a state-of-the-art supercritical coal fired pulverised fuel (p.f.) power plant (e.g. Nordjyllandsvaerket) is quoted at 47%, compared to 43% for the most advanced existing coal-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants (e.g. Buggenum and Puertollano). Of course, power plant design engineers have the experience of thousands of p.f. plants to guide them, compared with a mere

P. E Campbell; J. T McMullan; B. C Williams

2000-01-01

400

Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, September 15--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification technologies are finding increasing commercial applications for power generation or production of chemical feedstocks. The integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) coal conversion process has been demonstrated to be a clean, efficient, and environmentally acceptable method of generating power. However, the gasification process produces relatively large quantities of a solid waste termed slag. Regulatory trends with respect to solid waste disposal, landfill development costs, and public concern make utilization of slag a high-priority issue. Therefore, it is imperative that slag utilization methods be developed, tested, and commercialized in order to offset disposal costs. This project aims to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of the slag utilization technologies developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates (LWA) and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag in a large-scale pilot operation, followed by total utilization of these aggregates in a number of applications.

NONE

1997-07-01

401

Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

1981-01-01

402

Synthesis gas production with an adjustable H{sub 2}/CO ratio through the coal gasification process: effects of coal ranks and methane addition  

SciTech Connect

Direct production of synthesis gas using coal as a cheap feedstock is attractive but challenging due to its low H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas. Three typical U.S. coals of different ranks were tested in a 2.5 in. coal gasifier to investigate their gasification reactivity and adjustability on H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas with or without the addition of methane. Tests indicated that lower-rank coals (lignite and sub-bituminous) have higher gasification reactivity than bituminous coals. The coal gasification reactivity is correlated to its synthesis-gas yield and the total percentage of H{sub 2} and CO in the synthesis gas, but not to the H{sub 2}/CO ratio. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio of coal gasification was found to be correlated to the rank of coals, especially the H/C ratio of coals. Methane addition into the dense phase of the pyrolysis and gasification zone of the cogasification reactor could make the best use of methane in adjusting the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the generated synthesis gas. The maximum methane conversion efficiency, which was likely correlated to its gasification reactivity, could be achieved by 70% on average for all tested coals. The actual catalytic effect of generated coal chars on methane conversion seemed coal-dependent. The coal-gasification process benefits from methane addition and subsequent conversion on the adjustment of the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of synthesis gas. The methane conversion process benefits from the use of coal chars due to their catalytic effects. This implies that there were likely synergistic effects on both. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3

Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jing Jin; Hongchang Zhou; Marten Cohron; Houying Zhao; Hongying Liu; Weiping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

2008-05-15

403

VAPOR-PHASE CRACKING AND WET OXIDATION AS POTENTIAL POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR COAL GASIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an investigation of two techniques (hydrocracking of heavy organics in the raw gas prior to quency, and wet oxidation of the gasifier condensate) for pollutant control in coal gasification processes. Bench-scale experiments were used to determine rates...

404

Feasibility study of coal gasification\\/fuel cell cogeneration. Preliminary site survey - Scranton, Pennsylvania. Survey report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of the preliminary survey of the Scranton, Pennsylvania site proposed for a coal gasification\\/fuel cell\\/cogeneration (GFC) system. The site characteristics that could affect the feasibility of a GFC installation are discussed as well as existing methods for generating and distributing thermal and electric energy.

C. Trapp; P. Estreich

1985-01-01

405

Feasibility study of coal gasification\\/fuel cell\\/cogeneration project, Scranton, Pennsylvania site. Project description  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is to describe a coal gasification\\/fuel cell\\/cogeneration (GFC) project that is specific to the Scranton Army Ammunition Plant (AAP) in Scranton, Pennsylvania. The project at this site, as with those at the three other sites selected for this program, is intended to demonstrate the technical, economic, and financing viability of power generation by fuel cells using gas from

B. Rossi; P. Estreich

1985-01-01

406

Feasibility study of coal gasification\\/fuel cell\\/cogeneration project, Washington, DC site. Project description  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to describe a coal gasification\\/fuel cell\\/cogeneration (GFC) project that is specific to the Georgetown University site in Washington, DC. The project at this site, as with those at the three other sites selected for this program, is intended to demonstrate the technical, economic, and financing viability of power generation by fuel cells using gas

C. Trapp; P. Estreich

1985-01-01

407

Feasibility study of coal gasification\\/fuel cell\\/cogeneration project, Washington, DC site. Preliminary survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of the preliminary survey of the Washington D.C. site proposed for a coal gasification\\/fuel cell\\/cogeneration (GFC) system. The site characteristics that could affect the feasibility of a GFC installation are discussed as well as existing methods for generating and distributing thermal and electric energy.

C. Trapp; P. Estreich

1985-01-01

408

ASSESSMENT OF DISCHARGES FROM SASOL I LURGI-BASED COAL GASIFICATION PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses analytical information, obtained from Sasol I, on the emission and effluent streams analyzed in the normal course of operation and testing. The purpose was to provide EPA with representative information on a commercial-size Lurgi-based coal gasification proje...

409

Purification of coal gasification combined with brewery waste waters in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket digesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) digesters containing granular sludge adapted to brewery effluent were fed increasing concentrations of artificial coal gasification (CG) waste water in brewery effluent and were effective at purifying this combined waste water up to a CG effluent concentration of 15%. At higher CG waste water concentrations and flow rates, performance declined rapidly.

Alan R. Howgrave-Graham; Mike B. Nicholls

1997-01-01

410

Coal gasification in steam and air medium under plasma conditions: a preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gasification of coal under steam and air plasma conditions at atmospheric pressure was investigated in a tube-type setup with an aim of producing synthesis gas. The plasma was diagnosed by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and the synthesis gas was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). It has been found that the content of H2 and CO in gas increases with

Jieshan Qiu; Xiaojun He; Tianjun Sun; Zongbin Zhao; Ying Zhou; Shuhong Guo; Jialiang Zhang; Tengcai Ma

2004-01-01

411

Mechanism of coal gasification in a steam medium under arc plasma conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coal gasification mechanism in a steam medium under arc plasma conditions was investigated at atmospheric pressure in a tube-type setup. The gases obtained were analysed by gas chromatography. The active species in the plasma were monitored and analysed in situ by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The effects of operating parameters such as the current in the electromagnetic coil and

Xiaojun He; Tengcai Ma; Jieshan Qiu; Tianjun Sun; Zongbin Zhao; Ying Zhou; Jialiang Zhang

2004-01-01

412

Preliminary Market Evaluation for Gas Produced by Underground Gasification of Western Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a preliminary market evaluation for gas produced from underground coal gasification in the western United States. The most important market for LBG or IBG from UCG is the electric utility industry. Moreover, there is likely to be an u...

D. L. Olsen A. J. Moll R. L. Dickenson C. A. Trexel G. Crooks

1978-01-01

413

A simple UCG (underground coal gasification) field performance and economics model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, over the past decade, has studied the technical feasibility of underground coal gasification through a combination of field tests, laboratory experiments and mathematical models. In 1979, Thorsness and Cena developed EQSC, a simple equilibrium model to correlate field results. In the model, water influx into the reaction zone and heat loss to the surroundings, coupled with

1987-01-01

414

The Role of Diatomite Particles in the Activated Sludge System for Treating Coal Gasification Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diatomite is a kind of natural low-cost mineral material. It has a number of unique physical properties and has been widely used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment. This study was conducted to investigate the aerobic biodegradation of coal gasification wastewater with and without diatomite addition. Experimental resultsindicated that diatomite added in the activated sludge system could promote the biomass

Wenqi ZHANG; Pinhua RAO; Hui ZHANG; Jingli XU

2009-01-01

415

Markets for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification: an analysis of 13 site specific studies  

SciTech Connect

In 1978 the US Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Resource Applications, developed a commercialization plan for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification. Several initial steps have been taken in that process, including a comprehensive study of industrial markets, issuance of a Notice of Program Interest, and funding of proposals under the Alternate Fuels Legislation (P.L. 96-126). To assist it in the further development and administration of the commercialization plan, the Office of Resource Applications has asked Booz, Allen and Hamilton to assess the market prospects for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification. This report covers the detailed findings of the study. Following the introduction which discusses the purpose of the study, approach used for the assignment and current market attitudes on coal gasification, there are three chapters on: systems configurations and applications; economic and finanical attractiveness; and summary of management decisions based on feasibility study results. The final chapter briefly assesses the management decisions. The general consensus seems to be that coal gasification is a technology that will be attractive in the future but is marginal now. 6 figures, 5 tables.

Not Available

1981-09-01

416

Solar gasification of biomass using oil shale and coal as candidate materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification of German oil shale and coal using concentrated solar energy as a heat source is studied in a fixed bed reactor under an argon atmosphere. The reactor allows direct absorption of irradiation resulting in high rates of temperature increase and hence in simultaneous decomposition of organic matter and carbonates present in the shale. Synthesis gases are produced consisting of

Martin Flechsenhar; Christian Sasse

1995-01-01

417

Differential optical absorption techniques for diagnostics of coal gasification. Technical progress report, April-June 1983  

SciTech Connect

The application of differential optical absorption (DOA) techniques for the in-situ determination of the chemical composition of coal gasification process streams is investigated. Absorption spectra of relevant molecular species and the temperature and pressure effects on DOA-determined spectral characteristics of these species will be determined and cataloged. A system will be configured, assembled, and tested. 10 references, 1 figure.

Not Available

1983-08-01

418

Dry gas cleaning in coal gasification systems for fuel cells using composite sorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite sorbents, for the simultaneous removal of sulfur compounds and alkali and heavy metals from coal gasifier products in an integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) system, were prepared. Iron oxide and zinc ferrite were selected as desulfurization sorbents and they were synthesized by precipitation from either ferric chloride, ferric nitride, or ferric and zinc nitride solution. In these solutions, fine

Mayumi Tsukada; Kouetsu Abe; Yuichi Yonemochi; Ayu Ameyama; Hidehiro Kamiya; Shinji Kambara; Hiroshi Moritomi; Takashi Uehara

2008-01-01

419

Trace element evaporation during coal gasification based on a thermodynamic equilibrium calculation approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations using the HSC-Chemistry program were performed to determine the distribution and mode of occurrence of potentially toxic and corrosive trace elements in gases from coal gasification processes. The influence of temperature, pressure and gas atmospheres on equilibrium composition was evaluated. In these reducing conditions, the behaviour of the trace elements is complex, but some form of organization

M. D??az-Somoano; M. R. Mart??nez-Tarazona

2003-01-01

420

Enhanced anaerobic biodegradability of real coal gasification wastewater with methanol addition.  

PubMed

Coal gasification effluent is a typical refractory industrial wastewater with a very poor anaerobic biodegradability due to its toxicity. Methanol was introduced to improve anaerobic biodegradability of real coal gasification wastewater, and the effect of methanol addition on the performance was investigated in a mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor with a hydraulic retention time of 24 hr. Experimental results indicated that anaerobic treatment of coal gasification wastewater was feasible with the addition of methanol. The corresponding maximum COD and phenol removal rates were 71% and 75%, respectively, with methanol concentration of 500 mg COD/L for a total organic loading rate of 3.5 kg COD/(m3 x day) and a phenol loading rate of 0.6 kg/(m3 x day). The phenol removal rate was not improved with a higher methanol concentration of 1000 mg COD/L. Substrate utilization rate (SUR) tests indicated that the SURs of phenol were 106, 132, and 83 mg phenol/(g VSS x day) at methanol concentrations of 250, 500, and 1000 mg COD/L, respectively, and only 45 mg phenol/(g VSS x day) in the control reactor. The presence of methanol could reduce the toxicity of coal gasification wastewater and increase the biodegradation of phenolic compounds. PMID:21462703

Wang, Wei; Han, Hongjun; Yuan, Min; Li, Huiqiang

2010-01-01

421

Energy analysis of a cogeneration plant using coal gasification and solid oxide fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a conceptualized combined heat and power (CHP) scheme based on coal gasification and with a high temperature, pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in the topping cycle and a bottoming steam cogeneration cycle. An energy analysis is done for this CHP plant. The study reveals that such a plant offers a substantial saving in fuel with respect

S. Ghosh; S. De

2006-01-01

422

Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis sp. nov., isolated from soil at a coal gasification site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization indicated that a group of 29 closely related phenanthrene-degrading bacteria from a coal gasification site in Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark, belonged to the genus Pseudomonas. The strains were isolated at two sampling occasions 2 years apart. The isolates were phenotypically different from any known species of the genus Pseudomonas and were therefore subject to further identification. Colonies

Sřren M. Andersen; Kaare Johnsen; Jan Sřrensen; Preben Nielsen; Carsten S. Jacobsen

2000-01-01

423

IN-SITU COAL GASIFICATION: STATUS OF TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a literature review and personal contacts to ascertain what is being done in in-situ coal gasification and to collect existing environmental data. It presents a general description of the chemistry, technology, and technological problems, along with de...

424

The mobilisation of sodium and potassium during coal combustion and gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mobilisation of sodium and potassium during coal combustion and gasification has been modelled using the FACT thermodynamic databases and computation package. Account has been taken of the formation of silicate and fused salt melts and consideration given to deposition taking place during the subsequent cooling of the gases formed. Under combustion conditions, sodium and potassium are predicted to be

D Thompson; B. B Argent

1999-01-01

425

The role of a coal gasification fly ash as clay additive in building ceramic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clean coal integrated gasification in combined cycle (IGCC) technology of electrical power generation is different than conventional process in combustible treatment which generates inorganic wastes in the form of glassy slag and fly ash with singular properties. We have studied the fly ash coming from ELCOGAS IGCC power plant as additive to clays for building ceramic fabrication.The addition of

Mónica Aineto; Anselmo Acosta; Isabel Iglesias

2006-01-01

426

Elimination of ammonia from coal gasification streams by using a catalytic membrane reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of a catalytic membrane process for the removal of dilute concentrations of ammonia resulting from the gasification of coal has been investigated. Mathematical simulations have been conducted for an experimental reactor comprising a thin but continuous layer of a Pd-Ag alloy deposited on a porous substrate. Data for the permeation of hydrogen through the composite membrane were determined

Edward N. Gobina; Jaafar S. Oklany; Ronald Hughes

1995-01-01

427

The solar thermal gasification of coal — energy conversion efficiency and CO 2 mitigation potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steam-gasification of coal (peat, lignite, bituminous, and anthracite) into syngas is investigated using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat. The advantages of the solar- driven process are threefold: (1) the discharge of pollutants is avoided; (2) the gaseous products are not contaminated by combustion byproducts; and (3) the calorific value of the fuel is upgraded.

A. Steinfeld

2003-01-01

428

Geotechnical instrumentation applied to in situ coal gasification induced subsidence. [Hoe Creek No. 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive geotechnical instrumentation program has been conducted in conjunction with the second Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in situ coal gasification experiment. Instrumentation systems selected for use include multiple position borehole extensometers, borehole deflectometers, piezometers, electrical shear strips, and surface bench marks. The instruments have been arrayed about the experimental site based on the writers' experience and intuition, the results of

H. C. Ganow; R. C. Greenlaw; R. T. Langland

1978-01-01

429

Underground Gasification for Steeply Dipping Coal Beds. Rawlins Test No. 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first US field test of gasification for a steeply dipping coal seam was recently completed under a cost-shared agreement with DOE with TRW as a major subcontractor. The project was developed utilizing the technology base provided by DOE in its other f...

1980-01-01

430

Technology Status Review of Waste\\/Biomass Co-Gasification with Coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal might be co-gasified with waste or biomass for environmental, technical or commercial reasons. It allows larger, more efficient plants than those sized for the biomass grown or waste arisings within a reasonable transport distance; specific operating costs are likely to be lower; and, fuel supply security is assured. This review paper assesses the current status of co-gasification technologies and

Brian Ricketts; Richard Hotchkiss; Bill Livingston; Martin Hall

431

TREATMENT OF AQUEOUS WASTE STREAMS FROM KRW ENERGY SYSTEMS COAL GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a bench-scale evaluation to determine the extent to which process wastewaters from the KRW Energy Systems coal gasification process are treatable using commercially proven wastewater treatment technology. (NOTE: The process--formerly called the Westingh...

432

Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study: Volume 3, Retrospective epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disease incidence in coal gasification plant workers in Kosova, Yugoslavia, was compared to that in lignite surface miners who received medical care in the same clinic. No statistically significant difference in incidence rate was found for any of twelve disease categories examined. Early development of a high skin cancer rate, as reported within five years of first exposure at a

S. C. Morris; M. A. Haxhiu; B. Canhasi; M. Begraca; H. Ukmata

1987-01-01

433

User's manual for the Gas Research Institute coal-gasification environmental, health, and safety information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

GRI has developed an information system to provide member companies and other participating researchers access to a carefully screened collection of technical information relevant to controlling potential environmental, health, and safety (EHandS) impacts of coal gasification. The information system does not contain data, but rather a short review of that data or other information, and a rating of its pertinent

G. E. Brown; N. P. Meserole; J. Esh-Sheikh

1985-01-01

434

Synfuels environmental research program for high-Btu coal gasification: health effects summary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process materials from two coal gasification pilot plants were evaluated for their toxicologic potential by investigators in the Synfuels Environmental Research Program at Argonne National Laboratory. The process samples were collected at the HYGAS fluidized-bed gasifier operated by the Institute of Gas Technology (Chicago, IL) and at a slagging fixed-bed gasifier at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center

C. A. Jr. Reilly; K. E. Wilzbach; J. R. Stetter; D. A. Haugen; F. R. Kirchner; V. C. Stamoudis; M. J. Peak; T. Matsushita; A. S. Boparai; R. E. Jones

1986-01-01

435

Analysis of pipe failure for the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rupture of a carbon steel elbow in the methanation area of the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant resulted in a fire and plant shutdown. The failure was investigated by personnel from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ANG Associates, the plant opera...

J. R. Keiser J. R. Mayotte O. C. Dias

1990-01-01

436

BI-GAS Illinois Coal Gasification Program. Final Technical Report, September 1982-September 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary purpose of this report is to cover in detail activities at the BI-GAS Coal Gasification Pilot Plant from September 1982 through September 1983. Due to lack of funds for further testing, the facility underwent deactivation, or mothballing, proc...

1983-01-01

437

Conceptual Designs and Assessments of a Coal Gasification Demonstration Plant. Volume II. Koppers-Totzek Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume of the report contains detailed information on the conceptual design and assessment of the facility required to process approximately 20,000 tons per day of coal to produce medium Btu gas using the Koppers-Totzek gasification process. The repo...

1980-01-01

438

Review of Toxicity Studies Performed on an Underground Coal Gasification Condensate Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three studies related to the toxicity of underground coal gasification (UCG) waters have bee conducted: (1) toxicity study of UCG water and its fractions as determined by the Microtox test, (2) toxicity study of biotreated UCG water as determined by the M...

F. P. Barker

1987-01-01

439

Feasibility study of coal gasification/fuel cell cogeneration. Preliminary site survey - Scranton, Pennsylvania. Survey report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary survey of the Scranton, Pennsylvania site proposed for a coal gasification/fuel cell/cogeneration (GFC) system. The site characteristics that could affect the feasibility of a GFC installation are discussed as well as existing methods for generating and distributing thermal and electric energy.

Trapp, C.; Estreich, P.

1985-03-11

440

Feasibility study of coal gasification/fuel cell/cogeneration project, Washington, DC site. Preliminary survey  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary survey of the Washington D.C. site proposed for a coal gasification/fuel cell/cogeneration (GFC) system. The site characteristics that could affect the feasibility of a GFC installation are discussed as well as existing methods for generating and distributing thermal and electric energy.

Trapp, C.; Estreich, P.

1985-06-01

441

Steam gasification of coal, project prototype plant nuclear process heat: Report at the end of the reference phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work carried out in the field of steam gasification of coal is described. On the basis of the status achieved to date, it can be stated that the mode of operation of the gas generator developed, including the direct feeding of caking high volatile coal, is technically feasible. Moreover, throughput can be improved by 65% at minimum by using catalysts. On the whole, industrial application of steam gasification, using nuclear process heat, stays attractive compared with other gasification processes. Not only coal is conserved, but also the costs of the gas manufactured are favorable. As confirmed by recent economic calculations, these are 20 to 25% lower.

Vanheek, K. H.

1982-05-01

442

Results of the characterization of an in situ coal gasification site in the state of Washington  

SciTech Connect

Sandia Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and the Laramie Energy Technology Center participated in a Department of Energy funded program to select and characterize a potential underground coal gasification test site in the State of Washington. A site in the Centralia-Chehalis coal district, satisfying certain criteria, was selected for characterization. The characterization procedures included surface and borehole techniques and hydrology tests. Geologic structure and coal seam structure and continuity were determined using surface geophysical prospecting (seismic and electromagnetic surveys) and borehole geophysical (logging and cross-borehole, inseam seismic) techniques. A complete suite of geophysical logs was taken in eight exploratory boreholes to determine lithology and properties of the coal and surrounding strata. Coal cores taken from four different exploratory boreholes were analyzed to determine coal quality. Results of the characterization show that the coal seam of interest is approximately 47 ft thick at a depth of 570 to 600 ft at the site. The seam is characterized by high ash content, relatively low overall heating value, and a low permeability. The site appears suitable for conducting an underground coal gasification test.

Bartel, L. C.; Dobecki, T. L.; Stone, R.

1980-01-01

443

Characterization of a potential underground coal gasification site in the state of Washington  

SciTech Connect

Sandia Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and the Laramie Energy Technology Center participated in a Department of Energy funded program to select and characterize a potential underground coal gasification test site in the State of Washington. A site in the Centralia-Chehalis coal district, satisfying certain criteria, was selected for characterization. The characterization procedures included surface and borehole techniques and hydrology tests. Geologic structure and coal seam structure and continuity were determined using surface geophysical prospecting (seismic and electromagnetic surveys) and borehole geophysical (logging and cross-borehole, in-seam seismic) techniques. A complete suite of geophysical logs was taken in eight exploratory boreholes to determine lithology and properties of the coal and surrounding strata. Coal cores taken from four different exploratory boreholes were analyzed to determine coal quality. Results of the characterization show that the coal seam of interest is approximately 47 ft thick at a depth of 570 to 600 ft at the site. The seam is characterized by high ash content, relatively low overall heating value, and a low permeability. The site appears suitable for conducting an underground coal gasification test.

Bartel, L. C.; Dobecki, T. L.; Stone, R.

1980-01-01

444

Hydrogen production by high-temperature steam gasification of biomass and coal  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature steam gasification of paper, yellow pine woodchips, and Pittsburgh bituminous coal was investigated in a batch-type flow reactor at temperatures in the range of 700 to 1,200{sup o}C at two different ratios of steam to feedstock molar ratios. Hydrogen yield of 54.7% for paper, 60.2% for woodchips, and 57.8% for coal was achieved on a dry basis, with a steam flow rate of 6.3 g/min at steam temperature of 1,200{sup o}C. Yield of both the hydrogen and carbon monoxide increased while carbon dioxide and methane decreased with the increase in gasification temperature. A 10-fold reduction in tar residue was obtained at high-temperature steam gasification, compared to low temperatures. Steam and gasification temperature affects the composition of the syngas produced. Higher steam-to-feedstock molar ratio had negligible effect on the amount of hydrogen produced in the syngas in the fixed-batch type of reactor. Gasification temperature can be used to control the amounts of hydrogen or methane produced from the gasification process. This also provides mean to control the ratio of hydrogen to CO in the syngas, which can then be processed to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel since the liquid fuel production requires an optimum ratio between hydrogen and CO. The syngas produced can be further processed to produce pure hydrogen. Biomass fuels are good source of renewable fuels to produce hydrogen or liquid fuels using controlled steam gasification.

Kriengsak, S.N.; Buczynski, R.; Gmurczyk, J.; Gupta, A.K. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2009-04-15

445

Economic Evaluation of MHD-Steam Powerplants Employing Coal Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To assess the efficacy and economics of producing power from coal, four open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processing schemes were selected for study. Each involved a different mode of coal combustion and level of gas cleanliness. The options considered...

D. Bienstock J. J. Demeter K. D. Plants P. D. Bergman

1973-01-01

446

Control Technology Assessment for Coal Gasification and Liquefaction Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The control technology available to prevent exposure to harmful substances during coal conversion operations is evaluated for the TOSCOAL Coal Pyrolysis Process which is being developed at the Tosco Rocky Flats Research Center, located in Golden, Colorado...

D. R. Telesca

1982-01-01

447

Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems  

SciTech Connect

The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

Not Available

1990-12-01

448

One-Dimensional Model for Pulverized Coal Combustion and Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-dimensional model has been developed for pulverized coal combustors and gasifiers. The model describes the response of a coal particle system to its thermal, chemical and physical environment. Moisture vaporization, coal devolatilization, heterogeneous char oxidation, gas particle interchange, radiation, gas phase oxidation, primary and secondary stream mixing, and heat losses are considered. A predictor-corrector solution technique was used to

PHILIP J. SMITH; L. DOUGLAS SMOOT

1980-01-01

449

Kinetics of coal gasification reactions at process conditions. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

An entire fixed bed coal gasification reactor is suspended from a large analytical balance for thermogravimetric measurement of the reaction rate. This thermobalance has advantages over the hanging basket types in that sample size can be larger, thermocouples can be embedded directly in the reacting bed, and there is more control over extraparticle mass transfer resistance. Steam gasification of a North Dakota lignitic coal was studied at pressures from 20 to 33 atmospheres and temperatures from 720 to 900/sup 0/C. The observed reaction order was close to one. The gasification rates were essentially independent of the measured temperature. The suggested explanation for this behavior was that the particles act collectively, giving a large resistance to mass and heat transport. The reaction took place under a strong diffusional control. Gas chromatographic analysis of the products indicated that the carbon-steam reaction is the principal gasification mechanism. Steam was in excess, and the products underwent the water-gas shift reaction. Hydrogasification studies were complicated by the observation of an ignition phenomena in the coal bed when the exothermic heat of reaction could not be removed fast enough. An expression for the temperature dependence of the reaction rate was determined. 6 references, 28 figures, 9 tables.

Gardner, N.C.; Zheng, C.; Pehmoeller, D.; Gorecka, B.

1984-01-01

450

Kinetics of coal pyrolysis and gasification. Final technical report for the period October 1979-September 1982  

SciTech Connect

This research was divided into three main tasks. The major objective of each task was as follows: (1) to study pyrolysis and gasification of as-received and pretreated coals following their rapid heating to and short contact times at maximum temperature in N/sub 2/, steam, and syngas atmospheres by following weight loss and change in physical properties of the chars; (2) to measure continuously the major gases produced during the isothermal pyrolysis and gasification of as-received and pretreated coals in high pressure steam following their rapid heating to maximum temperature; and (3) to measure the catalytic activity of inorganic constituents in chars derived from as-received and pretreated coals for the concurrent methanation and hydrogasification reactions. Pyrolysis and gasification under Task 1 were followed in vertical isothermal, laminar flow furnaces at temperatures up to 1173 K and at pressures between 0.1 and 3.4 MPa. An extensive mathematical model was developed and tested, describing the time/temperature history of coal particles as they passed through the furnaces. Pyrolysis and gasification under Task 2 was achieved by injecting coal particles into a micro isothermal horizontal flow reactor. With the particles remaining stationary in the reactor, reactions were followed by monitoring products CO, CO/sub 2/, and CH/sub 4/ using nondispersive infrared (ir) gas analyzers. In Task 3, reactivities of coal chars in 0.1 MPa of various flowing atmospheres were measured in a vertical thermogravimetric system. Product CH/sub 4/ was measured by a nondispersive ir gas anlyzer. Results, in particular, show that the presence of exchangeable cations in lignites greatly affects weight loss and composition of volatile products during pyrolysis and subsequent reactivity of the chars produced.

Walker, P.L. Jr.; Jenkins, R.G.; Vastola, F.J.; Spackman, W.

1983-01-01

451

Engineering Support Services for the DOE/GRI Coal Gasification Research Program. Quarterly Technical Progress Report, January--March 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this contract is to provide engineering support services to the Department of Energy/Gas Research Institute in the high Btu coal gasification research program. The gasification research program is to determine the specific process and/or ...

A. E. Cover L. E. Bostwick J. M. Gunderson B. P. Castiglioni D. A. Hubbard

1979-01-01

452

Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix D: Cost and economic studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detailed cost estimate documentation for the designs prepared in this study are presented. The include: (1) Koppers-Totzek, (2) Texaco (3) Babcock and Wilcox, (4) BGC-Lurgi, and (5) Lurgi. The alternate product cost estimates include: (1) Koppers-Totzek and Texaco single product facilities (methane, methanol, gasoline, hydrogen), (2) Kopers-Totzek SNG and MBG, (3) Kopers-Totzek and Texaco SNG and MBG, and (4) Lurgi-methane and Lurgi-methane and methanol.

1980-01-01

453

Effect of steam partial pressure on gasification rate and gas composition of product gas from catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal  

SciTech Connect

HyperCoal was produced from coal by a solvent extraction method. The effect of the partial pressure of steam on the gasification rate and gas composition at temperatures of 600, 650, 700, and 750{sup o}C was examined. The gasification rate decreased with decreasing steam partial pressure. The reaction order with respect to steam partial pressure was between 0.2 and 0.5. The activation energy for the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-catalyzed HyperCoal gasification was independent of the steam partial pressure and was about 108 kJ/mol. The gas composition changed with steam partial pressure and H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} decreased and CO increased with decreasing steam partial pressure. By changing the partial pressure of the steam, the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the synthesis gas can be controlled. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

2009-09-15

454

Mathematical Modeling of Emissions from Cooling Towers Using Coal Gasification Wastewater. Final Report November 1982-April 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computer program was developed which predicts the fate of contaminants which may be present in cooling water at coal gasification plants. Species of high volatility relative to water, such as acetone, methanol, and acetonitrile are predicted to be essen...

D. A. Green K. E. Leese W. J. McMichael

1985-01-01

455

Proceedings of the Separations Technology Workshop for Coal Gasification Held in Morgantown, West Virginia on December 8, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On December 8, 1988, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center sponsored the workshop ''Separation Technology Workshop for Coal Gasification.'' The purpose was to bring together experts in various separation and fossil fuel conversion areas to discuss commo...

M. J. Baird L. A. Jarr J. R. Longanbach M. C. Williams

1988-01-01

456

Assessment of the CRIP (Controlled Retracting Injection Point) Process for Underground Coal Gasification: The Rocky Mountain I Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of the recently completed Rocky Mountain I (RMI) underground coal gasification (UCG) field test have shown that the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) process for UCG is capable of producing consistently high quality gas from a single in...

R. J. Cena C. B. Thorsness J. A. Britten

1988-01-01

457

Untersuchungen zur Untertagevergasung in grosser Teufe. Abschlussbericht. (Investigations on underground coal gasification in great depth. Final report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objectives: Gasification of deep-lying coal. Results: Corrosion behaviour of well-equipment: Analysis of corrosion defects; simulation of corrosion behaviour; determination of the temperature of product gas; optimal process conditions. Self ignition behav...

K. Guntermann F. Fuhrmann H. Knappstein R. Zechner

1990-01-01

458

Coal Conversion (Liquefaction/Gasification): Engineering Considerations and Relationships among Physical, Chemical and Toxicological Properties of Resulting Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the last decade, a substantial data base has been developed concerning the physical, chemical and toxicological properties of coal conversion (liquefaction and gasification) materials. This work has evaluated products and byproducts obtained from pro...

R. H. Gray H. Drucker M. J. Massey J. C. Craun J. P. Fillo

1985-01-01

459

Coal Gasification and Tar-Conversion Reactions over Calcium Oxide. Quarterly Progress Report, August 1, 1981-October 31, 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present research was undertaken to investigate the role and potential application of calcium oxide chemistry in gasification and pyrolysis of coal. Specific objectives are to study: (1) the relative selectivity of thermal reactions over calcium oxide,...

J. P. Longwell C. S. Chang W. A. Peters

1982-01-01

460

Evaluation of Slag and Refractory Compatibility for Low-Btu Gasification of Coal for Electric Power Generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bench scale evaluation tests were made on candidate refractory materials considered for use within Combustion Engineering's atmospheric pressure, entrained bed, 5-ton-per-hour coal gasification Process Development Unit (PDU). Bench-scale dynamic slag test...

B. Klaudinyi D. S. Yang E. A. Snajdr J. A. Middleton

1977-01-01

461

Catalytic gasification of coal using eutectic salt mixtures. Report for the Period September 1, 1998-March 31, 1999.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project, 'Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the proj...

1999-01-01

462

TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

Not Available

1980-11-01

463

Solvent extraction process development and on-site trial-plant for phenol removal from industrial coal-gasification wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phenol removal process was developed for the coal-gasification wastewater. Based on extraction principles and experimental results, an extracting solvent was selected in consideration of phenol removal, solvent recovery and COD removal for the coal-gasification wastewater. The extraction process conditions were studied, and a flowsheet for phenol removal was proposed. An on-site trial-plant of 2t\\/h wastewater was set up for

Chufen Yang; Yu Qian; Lijuan Zhang; Jianzhong Feng

2006-01-01

464

High-temperature air\\/steam-blown gasification of coal in a pressurized spout-fluid bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of high-temperature air\\/steam-blown gasification technology for converting coal into low-caloric-value gas for power generation is proposed and evaluated experimentally. Preliminary experiments are performed in a 0.1 MW thermal input pressurized spout-fluid bed gasifier. The influences of the gasifying agent preheat temperature, the gasification temperature and pressure, the equivalence ratio, the ratio of steam-to-coal on gas composition, gas higher

Rui Xiao; Mingyao Zhang; Baosheng Jin; Yaji Huang; Hongcang Zhou

2006-01-01

465

Subcontracted R and D final report: analysis of samples obtained from GKT gasification test of Kentucky coal. Nonproprietary version  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory test program was performed to obtain detailed compositional data on the Gesellshaft fuer Kohle-Technologie (GKT) gasifier feed and effluent streams. GKT performed pilot gasification tests with Kentucky No. 9 coal and collected various samples which were analyzed by GKT and the Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas. The coal chosen had good liquefaction characteristics and a high gasification reactivity. No organic priority pollutants or PAH compounds were detected in the wash water, and solid waste leachates were within RCRA metals limits.

Raman, S.V.

1983-09-01

466

Biomass gasification chars for mercury capture from a simulated flue gas of coal combustion.  

PubMed

The combustion of coal can result in trace elements, such as mercury, being released from power stations with potentially harmful effects for both human health and the environment. Research is ongoing to develop cost-effective and efficient control technologies for mercury removal from coal-fired power plants, the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. A number of activated carbon sorbents have been demonstrated to be effective for mercury retention in coal combustion power plants. However, more economic alternatives need to be developed. Raw biomass gasification chars could serve as low-cost sorbents for capturing mercury since they are sub-products generated during a thermal conversion process. The aim of this study was to evaluate different biomass gasification chars as mercury sorbents in a simulated coal combustion flue gas. The results were compared with those obtained using a commercial activated carbon. Chars from a mixture of paper and plastic waste showed the highest retention capacity. It was found that not only a high carbon content and a well developed microporosity but also a high chlorine content and a high aluminium content improved the mercury retention capacity of biomass gasification chars. No relationship could be inferred between the surface oxygen functional groups and mercury retention in the char samples evaluated. PMID:22325640

Fuente-Cuesta, A; Diaz-Somoano, M; Lopez-Anton, M A; Cieplik, M; Fierro, J L G; Martínez-Tarazona, M R

2012-05-15

467

Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part I: Influence of Coal Properties and Gasification Conditions  

SciTech Connect

In the entrained-flow gasifiers used in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants, the majority of mineral matter transforms to liquid slag on the wall of the gasifier and flows out the bottom. However, a small fraction of the mineral matter is entrained (as fly ash) with the raw syngas out of the gasifier to downstream processing. This molten/sticky fly ash could cause fouling of the syngas cooler. To improve gasification availability through better design and operation of the gasification process, a better understanding of slag behavior and the characteristics of the slagging process is needed. Char/ash properties, gas compositions in the gasifier, the gasifier wall structure, fluid dynamics, and plant operating conditions (mainly temperature and oxygen/carbon ratio) all affect slagging behavior. Because coal has varying ash content and composition, different operating conditions are required to maintain the slag flow and limit problems downstream. In Part I, we review the main types and the operating conditions of entrained-flow gasifiers and coal properties used in IGCC plants; we identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior; finally, we summarize the coal quality criteria and the operating conditions in entrained-flow gasifiers. In Part II, we discuss the constitutive modeling related to the rheological studies of slag flow.

Wang, Ping; Massoudi, Mehrdad

2013-01-01

468

Theoretical and experimental studies of fixed-bed coal gasification reactors. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory fixed-bed gasification reactor was designed and built with the objective of collecting operational data for model validation and parameter estimation. The reactor consists of a 4 inch stainless steel tube filled with coal or char. Air and steam is fed at one end of the reactor and the dynamic progress of gasification in the coal or char bed is observed through thermocouples mounted at various radial and axial locations. Product gas compositions are also monitored as a function of time. Results of gasification runs using Wyoming coal are included in this report. In parallel with the experimental study, a two-dimensional model of moving bed gasifiers was developed, coded into a computer program and tested. This model was used to study the laboratory gasifier by setting the coal feed rate equal to zero. The model is based on prior work on steady state and dynamic modeling done at Washington University and published elsewhere in the literature. Comparisons are made between model predictions and experimental results. These are also included in this report. 23 references, 18 figures, 6 tables.

Joseph, B.; Bhattacharya, A.; Salam, L.; Dudukovic, M.P.

1983-09-01

469

Catalytic effects in coal gasification. Quarterly report, October-December 1980  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report summarizes the activities of Sandia National Laboratories' program on mineral matter effects in coal gasification. The objective of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of the catalytic effects of mineral matter on coal gasification, and to use this knowledge as the impetus for future process improvements. We have identified reduced iron as the catalytic form of pyrite in the hydrogasification of a Pittsburgh Seam coal. We have observed catalytic activity of reduced iron that depends on precursor species in the following order Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ > Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ > FeS/sub 2/ > Fe. We have also found that, for a given iron compound, the catalytic activity is strongly dependent on particle size, with increasing activity for smaller average particle size. Using 5% by weight Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (approx. 5 ..mu..), we measured a factor of 15 increase in the hydrogasification rate for a Pittsburgh Seam coal at 1000/sup 0/C and one atmosphere H/sub 2/. Determination of the product gas composition indicates that the increase in gasification rate results primarily in methane production with reduced iron catalyst.

Padrick, T.D.; Dees, D.D.

1981-05-01

470

Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions.  

PubMed

Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems. PMID:23301852

Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

2013-02-01

471

Characterization of Filter Elements for Service in a Coal Gasification Environment  

SciTech Connect

The Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is a joint Department of Energy/Industry sponsored engineering-scale facility for testing advanced coal-based power generation technologies. High temperature, high pressure gas cleaning is critical to many of these advanced technologies. Barrier filter elements that can operate continuously for nearly 9000 hours are required for a successful gas cleaning system for use in commercial power generation. Since late 1999, the Kellogg Brown & Root Transport reactor at the PSDF has been operated in gasification mode. This paper describes the test results for filter elements operating in the Siemens-Westinghouse particle collection device (PCD) with the Transport reactor in gasification mode. Operating conditions in the PCD have varied during gasification operation as described elsewhere in these proceedings (Martin et al, 2002).

Spain, J.D.

2002-09-19

472

Coal gasification\\/combined cycle (electric power generating pilot plant)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foster Wheeler Energy Corp. will develop for the U.S. Office of Coal Research a two-stage air-blown, pressurized, entrained flow, slagging coal gasifier to produce clean, 125 to 150 Btu\\/cu ft gas for use in a 34 Mw combined-cycle powerplant. In the gasifier, pulverized coal is fed into the upper stage and hot gases from the lower stage entrain and partially

R. J. Broeker; R. A. McCallister

1975-01-01

473

CoalFleet RD&D augmentation plan for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants  

SciTech Connect

To help accelerate the development, demonstration, and market introduction of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and other clean coal technologies, EPRI formed the CoalFleet for Tomorrow initiative, which facilitates collaborative research by more than 50 organizations from around the world representing power generators, equipment suppliers and engineering design and construction firms, the U.S. Department of Energy, and others. This group advised EPRI as it evaluated more than 120 coal-gasification-related research projects worldwide to identify gaps or critical-path activities where additional resources and expertise could hasten the market introduction of IGCC advances. The resulting 'IGCC RD&D Augmentation Plan' describes such opportunities and how they could be addressed, for both IGCC plants to be built in the near term (by 2012-15) and over the longer term (2015-25), when demand for new electric generating capacity is expected to soar. For the near term, EPRI recommends 19 projects that could reduce the levelized cost-of-electricity for IGCC to the level of today's conventional pulverized-coal power plants with supercritical steam conditions and state-of-the-art environmental controls. For the long term, EPRI's recommended projects could reduce the levelized cost of an IGCC plant capturing 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced from the carbon in coal (for safe storage away from the atmosphere) to the level of today's IGCC plants without CO{sub 2} capture. EPRI's CoalFleet for Tomorrow program is also preparing a companion RD&D augmentation plan for advanced-combustion-based (i.e., non-gasification) clean coal technologies (Report 1013221). 7 refs., 30 figs., 29 tabs., 4 apps.

NONE

2007-01-15

474

Encoal mild coal gasification project: Encoal project final report, July 1, 1997--July 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This document is the summative report on the ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project. It covers the time period from September 17, 1990, the approval date of the Cooperative Agreement between ENCOAL and the US Department of Energy (DOE), to July 17, 1997, the formal end of DOE participation in the Project. The Cooperative Agreement was the result of an application by ENCOAL to the DOE soliciting joint funding under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology Program. By June 1992, the ENCOAL Plant had been built, commissioned and started up, and in October 1994, ENCOAL was granted a two-year extension, carrying the project through to September 17, 1996. No-cost extensions have moved the Cooperative Agreement end date to July 17, 1997 to allow for completion of final reporting requirements. At its inception, ENCOAL was a subsidiary of Shell Mining Company. In November 1992, Shell Mining Company changed ownership, becoming a subsidiary of Zeigler Coal Holding Company (Zeigler) of Fairview Heights, Illinois. Renamed successively as SMC Mining Company and then Bluegrass Coal Development Company, it remained the parent entity for ENCOAL, which has operated a 1,000-ton/day mild coal gasification demonstration plant near Gillette, Wyoming for nearly 5 years. ENCOAL operates at the Buckskin Mine owned by Triton Coal Company (Triton), another Zeigler subsidiary.

NONE

1997-07-01

475

Improving process performances in coal gasification for power and synfuel production  

SciTech Connect

This paper is aimed at developing process alternatives of conventional coal gasification. A number of possibilities are presented, simulated, and discussed in order to improve the process performances, to avoid the use of pure oxygen, and to reduce the overall CO{sub 2} emissions. The different process configurations considered include both power production, by means of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant, and synfuel production, by means of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The basic idea is to thermally couple a gasifier, fed with coal and steam, and a combustor where coal is burnt with air, thus overcoming the need of expensive pure oxygen as a feedstock. As a result, no or little nitrogen is present in the syngas produced by the gasifier; the required heat is transferred by using an inert solid as the carrier, which is circulated between the two modules. First, a thermodynamic study of the dual-bed gasification is carried out. Then a dual-bed gasification process is simulated by Aspen Plus, and the efficiency and overall CO{sub 2} emissions of the process are calculated and compared with a conventional gasification with oxygen. Eventually, the scheme with two reactors (gasifier-combustor) is coupled with an IGCC process. The simulation of this plant is compared with that of a conventional IGCC, where the gasifier is fed by high purity oxygen. According to the newly proposed configuration, the global plant efficiency increases by 27.9% and the CO{sub 2} emissions decrease by 21.8%, with respect to the performances of a conventional IGCC process. 29 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

M. Sudiro; A. Bertucco; F. Ruggeri; M. Fontana [University of Padova, Milan (Italy). Italy and Foster Wheeler Italiana Spa

2008-11-15

476

Novel approach to coal gasification using chemically incorporated catalysts (Phase II). Final report, May 1978-June 1981  

SciTech Connect

Since 1974, Battelle has been developing a catalytic treatment process that would allow more economic, efficient and reliable utilization of the vast deposits of eastern coals in gasification systems. In order to keep the process simple and economic, a disposable catalyst lime (CaO), was employed. It was found that the effectiveness of low concentrations of CaO was greatly increased by thorough incorporation into the coal. As a result of these efforts, a catalytic treatment system has been developed that promises to allow simplifications and improvements in existing commercial gasification processes as well as advanced gasification systems. One gasification system that appears exceptionally attractive utilizing the treatment system is direct fluid-bed hydrogasification or hydropyrolysis. A simple pressurized fluid-bed steam/oxygen gasification system is also an attractive option which could be commercialized quickly. Data generated under this program demonstrated the technical and economic advantages of these approaches.

Feldmann, H.F.; Conkle, H.N.; Appelbaum, H.R.; Chauhan, S.P.

1981-01-01

477

Highly active iron catalysts from ferric chloride for the steam gasification of brown coal  

SciTech Connect

A new method for preparing active iron catalysts for coal gasification at low temperatures has been studied by using FeCl[sub 3] as a raw material. Iron catalysts are precipitated onto brown coal probably in the form of FeOOH from an aqueous solution of FeCl[sub 3] by using three additives (urea, Ca(OH)[sub 2], and ammonia) and by hydrolysis. The use of Ca(OH)[sub 2] gives the highly dispersed, most active iron catalyst, which achieves complete gasification in steam within 60 min at 973 K and at 5 wt % Fe. The specific gasification rate with the most active catalyst is about 20 times that without catalyst, and it increases as the reaction proceeds. The X-ray diffraction measurements show that Fe[sub 3]O[sub 4] is the stable species throughout the gasification regardless of the catalyst preparation method. The sequence of catalyst effectiveness and the difference in the rate profiles among these catalysts can be elucidated on the basis of the degree of Fe[sub 3]O[sub 4] dispersion.

Asami, Kenji; Ohtsuka, Yasuo (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Center for Carbonaceous Resources)

1993-08-01

478

Taguchi approach for co-gasification optimization of torrefied biomass and coal.  

PubMed

This study employs the Taguchi method to approach the optimum co-gasification operation of torrefied biomass (eucalyptus) and coal in an entrained flow gasifier. The cold gas efficiency is adopted as the performance index of co-gasification. The influences of six parameters, namely, the biomass blending ratio, oxygen-to-fuel mass ratio (O/F ratio), biomass torrefaction temperature, gasification pressure, steam-to-fuel mass ratio (S/F ratio), and inlet temperature of the carrier gas, on the performance of co-gasification are considered. The analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio suggests that the O/F ratio is the most important factor in determining the performance and the appropriate O/F ratio is 0.7. The performance is also significantly affected by biomass along with torrefaction, where a torrefaction temperature of 300°C is sufficient to upgrade eucalyptus. According to the recommended operating conditions, the values of cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion at the optimum co-gasification are 80.99% and 94.51%, respectively. PMID:23907063

Chen, Wei-Hsin; Chen, Chih-Jung; Hung, Chen-I

2013-09-01

479

COAL CHAR GASIFICATION KINETICS IN A JET-FLUIDIZED BED (COMBUSTION, REACTION, RATE PHENOMENA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of gasification of -10 + 65 mesh coke and coal char with O(,2) and O(,2)-CO(,2) mixtures was studied in a continuous, bench scale, jet-fluidized reactor over a wide range of temperatures (900(DEGREES)C to > 1400(DEGREES)C) and bed depths under atmospheric pressure. The measured specific reaction rates of carbon ranged from 0.01 to 0.1 gram carbon reacting per gram

MING-YUAN KAO

1984-01-01

480