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1

Texaco Coal Gasification Wastewater Handling and Treatment Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radian was contracted by the Electric Power Research Institute to collect and analyze water, sludge, and vapor samples associated with the pilot study of the Texaco coal gasification wastewater process. The pilot plant tests, processing grey water produced from the gasification of SUFCO coal, were conducted at the Cool Water Coal Gasification Program (CWCGP) facility during the first four months

Dille

1990-01-01

2

Enriched-Air and Oxygen Gasification of Illinois No. 6 Coal in a Texaco Coal-Gasification Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four runs were made with Illinois No. 6 coal, from Peabody Coal Company River King Mine at Freeburg, Illinois, to demonstrate technology to integrate the Texaco Coal Gasification Process in an environmentally acceptable manner with gas turbines for combin...

W. B. Crouch G. N. Richter E. W. Dillingham

1982-01-01

3

Ammonia production from coal by utilization of Texaco coal gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operating data will be presented for the coal gasification and gas purification unit which has been retrofitted to the front end of an existing ammonia plant. The plant uses 200 tons per day of coal and produces 135 tons per day of ammonia. The plant uses the Texaco coal gasification process, Haldor-Topsoe catalyst systems, Selexol acid gas removal process, and

J. R. Watson; T. S. McClanhan; R. W. Weatherington

1983-01-01

4

Ammonia production from coal by utilization of Texaco coal gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Operating data will be presented for the coal gasification and gas purification unit which has been retrofitted to the front end of an existing ammonia plant. The plant uses 200 tons per day of coal and produces 135 tons per day of ammonia. The plant uses the Texaco coal gasification process, Haldor-Topsoe catalyst systems, Selexol acid gas removal process, and the Holmes-Stretford sulfur recovery process.

Watson, J.R.; McClanhan, T.S.; Weatherington, R.W.

1983-12-01

5

Enriched-air and oxygen gasification of Illinois No. 6 coal in a Texaco coal-gasification unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four runs were made with Illinois No. 6 coal, from Peabody Coal Company River King Mine at Freeburg, Illinois, to demonstrate technology to integrate the Texaco Coal Gasification Process in an environmentally acceptable manner with gas turbines for combined cycle electric power generation. Operability and response of the gasifier and a Selexol acid gas removal unit were demonstrated during load

W. B. Crouch; G. N. Richter; E. W. Dillingham

1982-01-01

6

Coal-to-Methanol: An Engineering Evaluation of Texaco Gasification and ICI Methanol-Synthesis Route. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a technical and economic evaluation of producing methanol from bituminous coal using Texaco coal gasification and ICI methanol synthesis. The scope of work included the development of an overall configuration for a larg...

P. A. Buckingham D. D. Cobb A. A. Leavitt W. G. Snyder

1981-01-01

7

Enriched-air and oxygen gasification of Illinois No. 6 coal in a Texaco coal-gasification unit  

SciTech Connect

Four runs were made with Illinois No. 6 coal, from Peabody Coal Company River King Mine at Freeburg, Illinois, to demonstrate technology to integrate the Texaco Coal Gasification Process in an environmentally acceptable manner with gas turbines for combined cycle electric power generation. Operability and response of the gasifier and a Selexol acid gas removal unit were demonstrated during load changes utilizing both oxygen and enriched air as oxidants (transient runs). Steady state performance data on the gasifier, Selexol unit and gas turbine combustor were obtained at a variety of oxygen to coal ratios at different production rates utilizing each oxidant (steady state runs). Essentially no effect of charge rate on the syngas quality was noted. Environmental base line data were gathered for both oxidants. Results of the environmental tests and the turbine combustor tests are reported separately.

Crouch, W.B.; Richter, G.N.; Dillingham, E.W.

1982-02-01

8

Conceptual designs and assessments of a coal gasification demonstration plant. Volume III. Texaco process  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains detailed information on the conceptual design and assessment of the facility required to process approximately 20,000 tons per day of coal to produce medium Btu gas using the Texaco gasification process. The report includes process descriptions, flow diagrams and equipment lists for the various subsystems associated with the gasifiers along with descriptions of the overall facility. The facility is analyzed from both an economic and environmental standpoint. Problems of construction are addressed together with an overall design and construction schedule for the total facility. Resource requirements are summarized along with suggested development areas, both process and environmental.

Not Available

1980-10-01

9

Treatability testing of KILnGAS and Texaco coal gasification wastewaters: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of treatability testing of wastewater from two coal gasification plants: the 600-tpd KILnGAS rotary-kiln gasifier in East Alton, Illinois, and the 1000-tyd Texaco entrained-flow gasifier at the Cool Water facility in Daggett, California. The wastewater was collected during steady-state operation of the gasifiers and shipped in barrels to the testing laboratory for characterization and treatment. Solvent extraction, steam stripping, biological treatment, granular activated carbon adsorption, ozonation, ion exchange, chemical precipitation, cooling tower evaporation, and wet air oxidation were evaluated in terms of their ability to meet the project's effluent quality targets. Preliminary process design criteria were also developed. Two sets of effluent discharge targets as well as a zero effluent discharge condition were established as goals for the testing. All of the effluent targets were met by the combination of processes used in the treatability testing program, with the exception of cyanide and COD for the KILnGAS wastewater and cyanide under one of the discharge conditions for the Texaco wastewater. These targets could likely be met by additional process steps or by further treatment with the processes tested. This test program confirmed that the principal containmants in these coal gasification wastewaters can be reduced to low concentrations by use of commercially proven treatment processes. 15 refs., 50 figs., 93 tabs.

Peterson, D.L.; Eis, B.J.; Zeien, C.T.; Moe, T.A.; Turner, C.D.; Mayer, G.G.; Stephan, D.J.

1988-07-01

10

Conceptual design and assessment of a coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant. Volume 3. Summary. [Texaco; Koppers-Totzek  

SciTech Connect

Objective is a commercial-scale coal gasification facility producing clean medium-Btu gas (300 billion Btu/day) from 20,000 tons/day of bituminous coal. The process was narrowed down to either the Texaco process, the Koppers-Totzek process, or a combination of those two. This document is a summary description of the plants for both processes. Brief summary tables are presented for comparison. (DLC)

Not Available

1980-09-01

11

TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 6. Plant based on Texaco gasifier. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The baseline of a coal gasification plant producing medium Btu gas, based upon the Texaco gasification process is documented in this report. The coal gasification plant consists of four identical modules, each with a capacity of approximately 4800 tons of coal per day dry basis as delivered to the gasifiers. The entire plant (four modules) produces 1195.0 million standard cubic feet per day of gas with a GHV value of approximately 285 Btu/scf for a total heating value of about 341 billion Btu/day. The plant will be designed to meet all federal, state, and local standards and guidelines. A description of the plant by major sections is included as well as flow diagrams, stream balances and lists of major equipment.

Not Available

1980-11-01

12

Gasification of residual materials from coal liquefaction. Evaluation of SRC II Vacuum Flash Drum Bottoms from Powhatan coal as a feedstock for the Texaco gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory evaluation of a 20-pound sample of Vacuum Flash Drum Bottoms from the SRC II Plant at Ft. Lewis, Washington was completed. The sample, which was obtained from the liquefaction of Powhatan coal, was judged to be a suitable feedstock for the Texaco Synthesis Gas Generation Process. It can be charged directly to the gasifier at a temperature of

1979-01-01

13

Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, April--June 1976. [Change to Texaco gasification process from Koppers-Totzek  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overall progress on the Clean Boiler Fuel Demonstration Plant was maintained on schedule. A major new development involved the decision to change to the Texaco gasifier from Koppers-Totzek, which required new engineering effort in many sections and a rework of the overall plant heat and mass balances. Coalcon completed a total of nine calibration runs on the coal feed apparatus

P. C. White; G. A. Rial

1976-01-01

14

Coal Gasification Environmental Baseline Studies. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In conjunction with the commercial development of the Texaco Coal Gasification Process, environmental baseline studies were considered necessary. Accordingly, tests on oxygen and enriched air gasification of a water slurry of Illinois No. 6 coal were cond...

J. R. Denchfield R. M. Dille H. A. Rhodes W. V. Taylor S. B. Wallon

1982-01-01

15

Design of advanced fossil-fuel systems (DAFFS): a study of three developing technologies for coal-fired, base-load electric power generation. Integrated coal gasification/combined cycle power plant with Texaco gasification process  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to present the facility description, plant layouts and additional information which define the conceptual engineering design, and performance and cost estimates for the Texaco Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant. Following the introductory comments, the results of the Texaco IGCC power plant study are summarized in Section 2. In Section 3, a description of plant systems and facilities is provided. Section 4 includes pertinent performance information and assessments of availability, natural resource requirements and environmental impact. Estimates of capital costs, operation and maintenance costs and cost of electricity are presented in Section 5. A Bechtel Group, Inc. assessment and comments on the designs provided by Burns and Roe-Humphreys and Glasgow Synthetic Fuel, Inc. are included in Section 6. The design and cost estimate reports which were prepared by BRHG for those items within their scope of responsibility are included as Appendices A and B, respectively. Appendix C is an equipment list for items within the BGI scope. The design and cost estimate classifications chart referenced in Section 5 is included as Appendix D. 8 references, 17 figures, 15 tables.

Not Available

1983-06-01

16

Performance of coal-gasification-reheat combustion-turbine power cycles using dry cooling. Final report. [Texaco oxygen-blown gasifier and British Gas Corporation slagging gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to explore the near-term performance potential of coal-gasification combined cycles that use reheat combustion turbines and dry cooling. The major finding is that these cycles can have coal-to-bus-bar efficiencies close to 40% if the components are properly matched. The study assumes that reheat gas turbines with inlet temperatures of about 2370°F could be developed. The addition

Horazak

1983-01-01

17

Combining the H-oil and Texaco gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projected market conditions will result in the need for process combinations to upgrade high-sulfur residual fractions and concurrently to produce additional quantities of refinery hydrogen. Simultaneously, the use of natural gas or petroleum fractions for refinery fuel should be minimized, while meeting increasingly stringent environmental standards. Extensive studies by Texaco have resulted in the conclusion that the combination of H-Oil

E. T. Child; A. M. Gray

1981-01-01

18

Coal gasification tests at TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority): Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results obtained from the EPRI cofunded tests conducted at TVA's 200 tpd Texaco coal gasification facility equipped with a water quench gasifier. Four US coals were tested at TVA: (1) Utah coal from the SUFCO mine, (2) Illinois No. 6 coal from the Amax Delta mine, (3) Pittsburgh No. 8 coal from the Blacksville No. 2 mine and (4) a high ash-fusion Maryland coal. The TVA tests were of short term duration totaling approximately 10 to 20 days of cumulative operation on each coal. The gasification behavior of each coal was tested under a wide range of process conditions and feed characteristics. All four coals produced carbon conversion of 92% or higher. Utah and Illinois No. 6 coals achieved carbon conversions of 95 to 97%. The high heating value Pittsburgh No. 8 coal had lower carbon conversion because the maximum allowable gasifier temperature was reached at relatively low O/C ratios. The high-ash fusion Maryland coal was gasified with a fluxing agent at temperatures within the design limit of the TVA gasifier. The gasification behavior of the coals was similar to that observed from tests at other Texaco gasifiers. However, earlier experiments at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratories showed higher values for both carbon conversion and coal gas efficiency. 27 figs., 35 tabs.

Crim, M.C.; Williamson, P.C.

1987-02-01

19

Texaco environmental tests on a 165-tpd Texaco gasifier. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the commercial development of the Texaco Coal Gasification Process, the Electric Power Research Institute has sponsored studies to evaluate environmental characteristics of the process. The first tests were conducted at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory Pilot Plant (15 tons per day). To verify the favorable data from these tests, EPRI made arrangements for a run on Illinois No.

W. V. Taylor

1983-01-01

20

Incentives boost coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Higher energy prices are making technologies to gasify the USA's vast coal reserves attractive again. The article traces the development of coal gasification technology in the USA. IGCC and industrial gasification projects are now both eligible for a 20% investment tax credit and federal loan guarantees can cover up to 80% of construction costs. 4 photos.

Hess, G.

2006-01-16

21

Preliminary environmental monitoring results for the Cool Water Coal Gasification Program  

SciTech Connect

The electric utility industry's search for an economic and environmentally sound solution to coal combustion to meet future fuel needs and the nation's decision to reduce its dependence on foreign oil and natural gas have led to the development of new coal-based technologies. In 1979, Texaco Inc. and Southern California Edison Co. (SCE) joined to design, construct, and operate an integrated coal gasification/combined cycle (IGCC) facility that would use Texaco's proprietary coal gasification technology. A major goal of CWCGP is to provide comprehensive data on the environmental acceptability of IGCC technology. Monitoring objectives and preliminary results of the CWCGP Environmental Monitoring Program are presented.

Grover, R.W.; Page, G.C.; Wetherold, R.G.; Wevill, S.L.

1986-01-01

22

Coal gasification by pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Garrett Research and Development Co. Inc. process and its development are described; and process economics for a 250 million cu ft\\/day pipeline gas plant are presented and compared with those for the Lurgi coal-gasification process.

D. E. Adam; S. Sack; A. Sass

1974-01-01

23

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained flow gasification for power generation systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To help achieve the goal of clean, low cost power generation from coal, Texaco submitted an unsolicited proposal in July 1986 to develop and demonstrate the integration of high temperature desulfurization with the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). ...

T. F. Leininger A. Robin D. Y. Jung J. S. Kassman J. K. Wolfenbarger

1992-01-01

24

Chemistry of coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is a complex solid material containing a mixture of substances that chemically consist mostly of carbon with lesser amounts of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and ash. Gasification is the conversion of solid coal to combustible gases by combining the carbon with additional oxygen and\\/or hydrogen. Although thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) can produce gaseous fuels, they are usually produced by reaction

Vorres

1982-01-01

25

Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Features of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants are described against the backdrop of the development and first commercial application of the shell coal gasification process. Focus is on the efficiency and excellent environmental ...

P. C. Richards J. Wijffels P. L. Zuideveld

1993-01-01

26

Conceptual design and assessment of a coal-asification commercial demonstration plant. Volume 2: Texaco gasifier. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of Bechtel's conceptual design and techno-economic assessment of a plant producing medium-Btu gas utilizing the Texaco coal gasification process. A large number of alternatives were investigated to determine which combination of technically or commercially proven processes will produce medium-Btu gas at the lowest cost. Comparison of different technologies for the various process steps resulted in a tentative selection of process equipment. These selections were then examined from the standpoint of operational reliability, capital and operating costs, compatibility with the Texaco process, technical suitability, and commercial availability. Once the baseline combination of processes was established, a coal receiving and handling system was devised, and a preliminary plot plan was established for the overall facility, including a suggested layout of the process area. Tradeoff studies were performed to determine the capital and operating cost differences associated with upgrading the coal feed to the plant, utilization of different oxygen purities, changes in the sulfur content of the product gas, changes in the delivery pressure of the product gas, production of sulfur or sulfuric acid as a byproduct, and lowering of the CO/sub 2/ level in the product gas. Other studies examined the sensitivity of the baseline case to variations in coal costs, capital and operating costs, operating stream factor, construction period, and operating life of the plant. Capital and operating cost estimates and corresponding product gas costs were completed for selected process combinations.

Not Available

1980-09-01

27

Underground coal gasification review  

SciTech Connect

Underground coal gasification appears to be one of the most attractive sources of feedstock to produce synfuels from coal because the process can produce methanol and substitute natural gas at prices competitive with existing energy sources. Savings in the form of reduced oil and gas imports from the first year of commercial operations would pay for the entire R and D budget necessary to perfect the underground coal gasification process. The technical feasibility of underground coal gasification has been well established by 21 small scale field tests carried out in the US since 1973. Cost estimates based on the resultant data are encouraging. Methanol is estimated to cost $0.52/gal (without tax) and SNG is estimated to cost $5.19/10/sup 6/ Btu, all in 1982 dollars. The environmental effects associated with the technology appear to be acceptable. Successful commercialization of the process would probably triple the proven reserves of US coal, which would be sufficient to last for hundreds of years. At this stage of development, underground coal gasification is a high risk technology and will remain so until large scale field tests are successfully carried out. These tests are recommended by the Gas Research Institute and by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. A seven year program costing about $200 million would permit initial commercial production in ten years. A recent small scale field test, the Centralia Partial Seam CRIP test, was very successful. Steam and oxygen was employed to gasify 2000 tons of coal over a 30 day period, producing 250 Btu/scf gas. A larger scale test is presently being planned for Centralia, Washington, involving the US DOE and an industrial consortium led by the Gas Research Institute. 28 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Stephens, D.R.; Hill, R.W.; Borg, I.Y.

1985-01-01

28

Program plan for development of hot dirty gas compressors\\/expanders for coal gasification systems. [Gasifiers of Texaco, Shell, Koppers-Babcock and Wilcox, Lurgi, Winkle, Westinghouse, U-Gas and Exxon catalytic processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This effort was conducted to provide supporting data for a proposed Department of Energy program for the development of components for hot dirty gas service in gasification systems. This report deals with compressor\\/expander applications, and its scope includes a broad range of gasification systems such as the generic models for entrained-flow, moving-bed, and fluidized-bed gasifiers. The normal isostatic operation of

Lackey

1983-01-01

29

TVA coal-gasification plant conceptual design. Volume 1. Plant based on Executive overview (Summary). Final report  

SciTech Connect

TVA plans to build a coal gasification plant to demonstrate the operation of a commercial scale coal gasification facility producing a clean medium Btu gas (MBG) for use in various industrial applications in the TVA region. In the Phase I efforts, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation prepared conceptual designs, cost estimates, and trade-off studies of the following gasification systems: Lurgi Dry Bottom, Koppers-Totzek, Babcock and Wilcox, British Gas Slagger, and Texaco.

Not Available

1980-11-01

30

Mild gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this initial year's mission-oriented multi-year program is to develop a process chemistry data base for the mild gasification of coal with emphasis on eastern bituminous coal. One important objective of this program was to obtain the trends in product formation from different coals as a function of several process variables which included temperature, pressure, coal particle residence time, coal flow rate, type of additives such as lime, limestone, silica flour and ash in a short period of time. This was achieved by a careful development of a test matrix using a fractional factorial statistical design. The equipment used was the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) combination stirred moving-bed, entrained-tubular reactor which is capable of processing 2 to 3 pounds of coal per hour. A Wellmore Kentucky No. 8 bituminous coal, a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal and a Mississippi lignite with particles having a size of 150 {mu}m or less were selected for this study. The mild gasification experiments were conducted at temperatures from 550{degree} to 650{degree}C at nitrogen sweep gas pressures of 15 to 50 psi and residence times of 0.1 to 2 min. The coal flow rate was 0. 4 to 1.0 lb/hr and the concentration of the lime additives was 0 to 10% by weight of the dry coal feed. All variables were tested at two different levels, low and high, corresponding to the above ranges of the variables. A rapid calculation of the main effects and interactions was made using Yate's algorithm and the significance of the effects was determined from the normal probability plots. 10 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs.

Sundaram, M.S.; Fallon, P.T.; Steinberg, M.

1989-01-01

31

Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG)...

J. Mccarthy J. Ferrall T. Charng J. Houseman

1981-01-01

32

Texaco environmental tests on a 165-tpd Texaco gasifier. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In support of the commercial development of the Texaco Coal Gasification Process, the Electric Power Research Institute has sponsored studies to evaluate environmental characteristics of the process. The first tests were conducted at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory Pilot Plant (15 tons per day). To verify the favorable data from these tests, EPRI made arrangements for a run on Illinois No. 6 coal at the semi-works (165 tons per day) coal gasification plant of Ruhrchemie in Oberhausen, West Germany. Texaco obtained samples, arranged for analyses, and prepared this report covering the environmental aspects of that run. The test run at Ruhrchemie has confirmed that the Texaco Coal Gasification Process is an environmentally sound method of utilizing coal. Most of the sulfur compounds in the coal are converted to hydrogen sulfide, which can be removed from the gas by an acid gas scrubbing process, such as Selexol. This eliminates the need for stack gas scrubbing to meet SO/sub 2/ emission regulations when the treated gas is used as a boiler or turbine fuel. Volatile metals, particulate matter, and organic compounds other than methane and formate are present at very low levels in the gas. However, the mass balance for some volatile elements has not been closed. The process effluent water composition is such that available water treatment technology will significantly reduce contaminant levels. The slag would be classified as a nonhazardous waste on the basis of EPA RCRA regulations. 1 figure, 47 tables.

W.V. Taylor

1983-10-01

33

Economic Assessment of the Impact of Plant Size on Coal-Gasification/Combined-Cycle Plants. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This screening study evaluates the impacts on plant performance, capital cost, and cost of electricity of varying the capacity of coal gasification-combined cycle power plants from 1000 MW to 50 MW. Five cases are evaluated using the Texaco coal gasificat...

T. A. Matchak C. H. Lawrence

1983-01-01

34

Underground Coal Gasification Data Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a data base containing results from fourteen DOE-sponsored underground coal gasification (UCG) field tests. These tests include three performed by LLNL near Gillette, Wyoming at the Hoe Creek site, ...

R. J. Cena C. B. Thorsness L. L. Ott

1982-01-01

35

Research needs for coal gasification and coal liquefaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of coal-gasification and coal-liquefaction technologies is discussed. Consideration is given to applications of coal-gasification technologies, the principal coal-gasification systems, and process-research recommendations. Processing steps in direct and indirect coal liquefaction are outlined, with emphasis placed on past, current, and projected unit sizes of direct coal-liquefaction plants.

Penner, S. S.; Alpert, S. B.; Bendanillo, V.; Clardy, J.; Furlong, L. E.; Leder, F.; Lees, L.; Reichl, E.; Ross, J.; Sieg, R. P.

1980-11-01

36

Texaco-Based Gasification-Combined-Cycle System Performance Studies. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of an investigation of the effects on system thermal efficiency of major design variables and configuration options in combined cycle power plants based on air or oxygen-blown Texaco gasifiers. The plants are sized to proc...

J. J. Oliva S. D. Shemo

1980-01-01

37

Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER  

SciTech Connect

ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

Steve Colt

2008-12-31

38

Geosphere in underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG), the in-situ conversion of coal to natural gas, has been demonstrated through 28 tests in the US alone, mainly in low-rank coals, since the early 1970s. Further, UCG is currently entering the commercial phase in the US with a planned facility in Wyoming for the production of ammonia-urea from UCG-generated natural gas. Although

D. J. Daly; G. H. Groenewold; C. R. Schmit; J. M. Evans

1988-01-01

39

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

Not Available

1992-02-01

40

Mild coal gasification: Product separation  

SciTech Connect

Our general objective is to further the development of efficient continuous mild coal gasification processes. The research this year has been focused on product separation problems and particularly the problem of separating entrained ultra-fine particles from the chemically reactive environment of the product gas stream. Specifically, the objective of the present work has been to study candidate barrier filters for application to mild coal gasification processes. Our approach has been to select the most promising existing designs, to develop a design of our own and to test the designs in our bench-scale gasification apparatus. As a first step towards selection of the most promising barrier filter we have determined coking rates on several candidate filter media.

Wallman, P.H.; Singleton, M.F.

1992-08-04

41

Coal gasification using solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic evaluation of conventional and solar thermal coal gasification processes is presented, together with laboratory bench scale tests of a solar carbonization unit. The solar design consists of a heliostat field, a central tower receiver, a gasifier, and a recirculation loop. The synthetic gas is produced in the gasifier, with part of the gas upgraded to CH4 and another

V. K. Mathur; R. W. Breault; S. Lakshmanan

1983-01-01

42

Underground coal gasification: environmental update  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the potential for ground water contamination by underground coal gasification, extensive postburn groundwater monitoring programs are being continued at two test sites in Wyoming. An overview of the environmental concerns related to UCG and some results to date on the two field sites are presented in this report.

Dockter, L.; Mcternan, E.M.

1985-01-01

43

Two stage coal gasification plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to a two stage coal gasification plant which comprises a gasifier 1 and a predistillation retort 2. The gasifier has a plurality of gas extraction outlets 4 located in the periphery thereof which feed into a manifold 5 from where a percentage of the gas from the gasifier is extracted. Gas from the predistillation retort is extracted

Shoebotham

1984-01-01

44

Assessment of Advanced Coal-Gasification Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Proces...

J. Ferrall J. Houseman J. McCarthy T. Charng

1981-01-01

45

Potential of underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The results of underground coal gasification tests carried out in the US and sponsored by the Federal Government during the past 10 years are shown. The author considers that the technology shows great promise. Small-scale UCG plants would allow close matching of plant size to local market need, with lower economic risks. The use of otherwise unusable coals could quadruple US coal reserves. Due to the modular nature of UCG, only the 10 - 20 million dollars necessary for the first module of the UCG portion of a plant is at high risk, making it a viable option where development capital is limited.

Burwell, E.L.

1984-02-01

46

Coal gasification 2006: roadmap to commercialization  

SciTech Connect

Surging oil and gas prices, combined with supply security and environmental concerns, are prompting power generators and industrial firms to further develop coal gasification technologies. Coal gasification, the process of breaking down coal into its constituent chemical components prior to combustion, will permit the US to more effectively utilize its enormous, low cost coal reserves. The process facilitates lower environmental impact power generation and is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to traditional generation techniques. The study is designed to inform the reader as to this rapidly evolving technology, its market penetration prospects and likely development. Contents include: Clear explanations of different coal gasification technologies; Emissions and efficiency comparisons with other fuels and technologies; Examples of US and global gasification projects - successes and failures; Commercial development and forecast data; Gasification projects by syngas output; Recommendations for greater market penetration and commercialization; Current and projected gasification technology market shares; and Recent developments including proposals for underground gasification process. 1 app.

NONE

2006-05-15

47

Conceptual design and assessment of a coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant. Volume 1. Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Objective is to demonstrate the operation of a commercial-scale coal gasification facility producing clean medium-Btu gas (MPB). The facility will convert approx. 20,000 tons/d of bituminous coal into approx. 300 billion Btu/d of MBG. The process choice was narrowed down to the Texaco and Koppers-Totzek processes. This report presents the results of Bechtel's conceptual design and techno-economic assessment of the Koppers-Totzek process. (DLC)

Not Available

1980-09-01

48

Sulfur recovery in a coal gasification plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the most economical combination of processes for removing sulfur compounds from a coal gasification plant's gasifier raw gas and boiler flue gas, C. F. Braun and Co. examined alternatives for a 250 million cu ft\\/day plant using the Bituminous Coal Research Inc. Bi-Gas gasification process. For a western coal feed, the combination of a nonselective Selexol process for

W. S. Chia; F. A. Todd; W. J. Stupin

1978-01-01

49

Private sector involvement in underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable activity in the field of underground coal gasification: several projects are underway in addition to those sponsored by DOE. Basic Resources, Inc., a subsidiary of Texas Utilities Co., has licensed the Soviet technology and is developing underground gasification of lignites near Fairfield, Texas. The Atlantic Richfield Company has executed a successful field gasification test in a 100

Stephens

1979-01-01

50

Low temperature steam-coal gasification catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Shrinking domestic supplies and larger dependence on foreign sources have made an assortment of fossil fuels attractive as possible energy sources. The high sulfur and mineral coals of Illinois would be an ideal candidate as possible gasification feedstock. Large reserves of coal as fossil fuel source and a projected shortage of natural gas (methane) in the US, have made development of technology for commercial production of high Btu pipeline gases from coal of interest. Several coal gasification processes exist, but incentives remain for the development of processes that would significantly increase efficiency and lower cost. A major problem in coal/char gasification is the heat required which make the process energy intensive. Hence, there is a need for an efficient and thermally neutral gasification process. Results are described for the gasification of an Illinois No. 6 coal with transition metal catalysts and added potassium hydroxide.

Hippo, E.J.; Tandon, D. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

51

Potential of underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

A rapidly growing interest in underground coal gasification (UCG), in the U.S. and several other countries, has developed in the past few years. This has been accompanied by in-depth evaluations of the potential of UCG, its technology, economics, risks, and rewards by a number of highly qualified engineering groups. Several common findings seem to emerge from each study as: sufficient technological feasibility has been proved to warrant further study; if long-term operation can be made to bear out the promise shown in field tests, the process will be economically competitive; actual development could greatly expand existing coal reserves; and significant potential advantages exist which made UCG a leading candidate for synfuels development.

Burwell, E.L.

1984-02-01

52

Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants  

SciTech Connect

Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

2008-12-15

53

10 things to know about coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Eastman Gasification Services Company was the first company to commercialise a coal gasification facility in the United States in 1983. Based on many years experience, David Denton, its business development director, lists ten features he believes everyone should know about coal gasification. These include its usefulness as a technology for increasing the US's energy security, being the cleanest coal-based technology, using less water than other coal-based technology, being able to remove high levels of volatile mercury from its production gas, providing a low-cost approach for carbon dioxide capture, and having potential to produce many chemicals and hydrogen. Costs of electricity production from integrated gasification combined cycle technology are now approaching those of other coal-based technologies. 1 fig.

NONE

2005-07-01

54

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one field Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) tests have been carried out in the USA since 1973, along with related theoretical, laboratory and environmental programs. The product gas quality obtained from these field tests is comparable to that of surface gasification, using either air or steam and oxygen. Cost estimates are very favorable. The UCG process is found to be quite

D. R. Stephens; C. B. Thorsness; R. W. Hill

1984-01-01

55

Large block experiments in underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of in-situ coal gasification, while extremely simple in concept, is complicated in practice because, as the burn proceeds, the reacting volume is constantly changing geometry. In addition, the process takes place underground where it is extremely difficult to observe in detail. The five large block experiments described here were planned as a series of gasification experiments each of

R. W. Mill; C. B. Thorsness

1983-01-01

56

Large block experiments in underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of in-situ coal gasification, while extremely simple in concept, is complicated in practice because, as the burn proceeds, the reacting volume is constantly changing geometry. In addition, the process takes place underground where it is extremely difficult to observe in detail. The five large block experiments described here were planned as a series of gasification experiments, each of

R. W. Hill; C. B. Thorsness

1983-01-01

57

Underground Coal Gasification Technology in the USSR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over forty years of available, translated Soviet literature on the technology of underground gasification of coal has been reviewed. During that period a large program was undertaken estimated cumulatively at over $2 billion U.S. dollars equivalent. Many ...

J. L. Dossey

1976-01-01

58

Coal gasification for electric power generation.  

PubMed

The electric utility industry is being severely affected by rapidly escalating gas and oil prices, restrictive environmental and licensing regulations, and an extremely tight money market. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have the potential to be economically competitive with present commercial coal-fired power plants while satisfying stringent emission control requirements. The current status of gasification technology is discussed and the critical importance of the 100-megawatt Cool Water IGCC demonstration program is emphasized. PMID:17788466

Spencer, D F; Gluckman, M J; Alpert, S B

1982-03-26

59

Coal gasification and the Phenosolvan process  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of commercial coal gasification projects under design in the USA. By 1976-77, two such projects may be coming onstream in New Mexico, each producing 250 million standard cubic feet per day of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG). The gasification of coal produces large amounts of by-product phenol. The New Mexico projects will each involve about 25,000 tons

Beychok

1974-01-01

60

Differences in gasification behaviors and related properties between entrained gasifier fly ash and coal char  

SciTech Connect

In the study, two fly ash samples from Texaco gasifiers were compared to coal char and the physical and chemical properties and reactivity of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption method, and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The main results were obtained. The carbon content of gasified fly ashes exhibited 31-37%, which was less than the carbon content of 58-59% in the feed coal. The fly ashes exhibited higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, richer meso- and micropores, more disordered carbon crystalline structure, and better CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity than coal char. Ashes in fly ashes occurred to agglomerate into larger spherical grains, while those in coal char do not agglomerate. The minerals in fly ashes, especial alkali and alkaline-earth metals, had a catalytic effect on gasification reactivity of fly ash carbon. In the low-temperature range, the gasification process of fly ashes is mainly in chemical control, while in the high-temperature range, it is mainly in gas diffusion control, which was similar to coal char. In addition, the carbon in fly ashes was partially gasified and activated by water vapor and exhibited higher BET surface area and better gasification activity. Consequently, the fact that these carbons in fly ashes from entrained flow gasifiers are reclaimed and reused will be considered to be feasible. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Jing Gu; Shiyong Wu; Youqing Wu; Ye Li; Jinsheng Gao [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources and Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education

2008-11-15

61

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2009-07-01

62

Coal gasification using solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An economic evaluation of conventional and solar thermal coal gasification processes is presented, together with laboratory bench scale tests of a solar carbonization unit. The solar design consists of a heliostat field, a central tower receiver, a gasifier, and a recirculation loop. The synthetic gas is produced in the gasifier, with part of the gas upgraded to CH4 and another redirected through the receiver with steam to form CO and H2. Carbonaceous fuels are burned whenever sunlight is not available. Comparisons are made for costs of Lurgi, Bi-gas, Hygas, CO2 Acceptor, and Peat Gas processes and hybrid units for each. Solar thermal systems are projected to become economical with 350 MWt output and production of 1,420,000 cu m of gas per day. The laboratory bench scale unit was tested with Montana rosebud coal to derive a heat balance assessment and analyse the product gas. Successful heat transfer through a carrier gas was demonstrated, with most of the energy being stored in the product gas.

Mathur, V. K.; Breault, R. W.; Lakshmanan, S.

63

Underground Coal Gasification Program plan  

SciTech Connect

The Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Program is directed toward the development of advanced technologies for recovering gas from large, currently unrecoverable coal resources. The overall goal of the UCG Program is to foster development within the private sector of an environmentally acceptable UCG industry whose products can compete with other electric utility fuels and as a chemical feedstock for liquid fuel production by the late 1990s. This goal includes appropriate environmental research to establish the information base required to identify and cost effectively mitigate potential problems. The objective of this environmental research is to characterize potential impacts and the performance of new and developmental systems in controlling these impacts so that more efficient solutions to environmental concerns are available on a schedule consistent with the development of advanced technology. To achieve this goal, a series of interrelated technology development steps must take place, some sponsored by DOE, some by other government agencies, and some by other governments and/or the private sector. These include basic and applied research and development, proof-of-concept activities, first-of-a-kind field tests, and associated commercial scale activity. This publication presents: (1) background and program goal; (2) technology description; (3) technology status and research needs; (4) program strategy; and (5) program management. 3 figs.

Not Available

1986-03-01

64

Shell coal gasification project: Gasification of eleven diverse feeds  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the gasification of the following feedstocks in the Shell Coal Gasification Process at SCGP-1: Texas Lignite, Pile County-washed, Pike County-run-of-mine, Dotiki, Newlands, El Cerrejon, Skyline, Robinson Creek, R F, Pocahontas No. 3, and Petroleum Coke. These results demonstrate the unique flexibility of the Shell Coal Gasification Process in handling a wide range of feedstocks with significant differences in moisture content, reactivity, ash content, as viscosity, and calcium, chlorine, and sulfur levels. Process results are presented for each feedstock, including gasifier performance and efficiency calculations. Analytical data, including trace element analyses, are provided for the feedstock, the slag and flyslag solids, and the major gas and liquid streams in the plant.

Phillips, J.N.; Mahagaokar, U.; Krewinghaus, A.B. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1992-05-01

65

Underground Gasification of Hard Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large-scale underground gasification is at present impracticable, particularly for European conditions. This statement is based on considerations concerning technology, environmental protection, and economy. Control of the gasification process, control of...

J. Stuffken F. J. Wetzels

1974-01-01

66

Geosphere in underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG), the in-situ conversion of coal to natural gas, has been demonstrated through 28 tests in the US alone, mainly in low-rank coals, since the early 1970s. Further, UCG is currently entering the commercial phase in the US with a planned facility in Wyoming for the production of ammonia-urea from UCG-generated natural gas. Although the UCG process both affects and is affected by the natural setting, the majority of the test efforts have historically been focused on characterizing those aspects of the natural setting with the potential to affect the burn. With the advent of environmental legislation, this focus broadened to include the potential impacts of the process on the environment (e.g., subsidence, degradation of ground water quality). Experience to date has resulted in the growing recognition that consideration of the geosphere is fundamental to the design of efficient, economical, and environmentally acceptable UCG facilities. The ongoing RM-1 test program near Hanna, Wyoming, sponsored by the US Department of Energy and an industry consortium led by the Gas Research Institute, reflects this growing awareness through a multidisciplinary research effort, involving geoscientists and engineers, which includes (1) detailed geological site characterization, (2) geotechnical, hydrogeological, and geochemical characterization and predictive modeling, and (3) a strategy for ground water protection. Continued progress toward commercialization of the UCG process requires the integration of geological and process-test information in order to identify and address the potentially adverse environmental ramifications of the process, while identifying and using site characteristics that have the potential to benefit the process and minimize adverse impacts.

Daly, D.J.; Groenewold, G.H.; Schmit, C.R.; Evans, J.M.

1988-07-01

67

Field performance of underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the state of art in underground coal gasification (UCG), with emphasis on the U.S. DOE program. UCG offers potential advantages as a source of pipeline quality gas cost competitive with other synfuels, the use of 1.2 trillion tons of coal that would not be economical to strip or deep mine, and possible environmental advantages. The environmental issues,

D. R. Stephens; C. F. Brandenburg; E. L. Burwell

1979-01-01

68

Key tests set for underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground coal gasification (UCG) is about to undergo some tests. The tests will be conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in a coal seam owned by Washington Irrigation and Development Co. A much-improved UCG system has been developed by Stephens and his associates at LLNL - the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) method. Pritchard Corp., Kansas City, has done

Haggin

1983-01-01

69

Underground coal gasification test successful  

SciTech Connect

A recently completed underground coal gasification (UCG) test at Tennessee Colony, Texas, has been a success. Using technology licensed from the Soviet Union, the Texas Utilities Co. is exploring the potential of using the vast Texas lignite deposits for power generation. The research has included demonstration of the ability to make sequential well linkings while producing gas in 2 parallel channels, to determine the operational effects of local groundwater infiltration, and to assess environmental effects, particularly in the groundwater conducted in a lignite seam varying between 7.5 and 9 ft thick, at a nominal depth of 270 ft. Ten wells were linked by a reverse burn. The burn was initially air-blown, then centered on steam/oxygen oxidizing gas blown into the burn. The basic finding is that it is possible to conduct a reverse burn in a thin, wet lignite seam, and that water infiltration plays an important role. Researchers estimate that a low-Btu gas (85 to 100 Btu/SCF) can be produced from Texas lignite at a cost less than the current deregulated market price for heat from natural gas.

Not Available

1980-04-21

70

Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

Yang, L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2008-07-01

71

ASPEN simulations of fluidized-bed and entrained-flow integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants. [KRW and Texaco  

SciTech Connect

A fluidized-bed, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant simulation was developed by METC using the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) process simulator. The ASPEN simulation is based on a conceptual design of a 570 megawatt (MW) IGCC plant using Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) ash agglomerating pressurized fluid-bed gasifiers and conventional cold gas cleanup processes. The conceptual design was completed by Bechtel as part of the Design of Advanced Fossil Fuel Systems (DAFFS) study (Bechtel 1983). In this process, Illinois No. 6 coal is converted into a medium-Btu gas to fuel a combined-cycle power generation system. The system employs advanced gas turbines having a firing temperature of 2150/sup 0/F. Heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) produce high pressure steam for expansion through steam turbines. ASPEN performs a steady-state computer simulation of this process. The simulation flowsheet contains 83 unit operation blocks (models of unit operations, such as pumps, reactors, and compressors), plus user routines to calculate ash enthalpy and to decompose coal. The KRW-IGCC simulation was developed to provide accurate mass and energy balances and to track major environmental species (SOx, NOx, and particulates). This level of detail is appropriate for scoping, sensitivity, and trade-off studies. Operating conditions for any of the unit operation blocks can be modified to conduct sensitivity studies. Simulation results agree well with the Bechtel study. A study was carried out to determine how the overall plant efficiency would be affected by changes in the gas turbine firing temperature. 6 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

Stone, K.R.

1985-07-01

72

Use of coal gasification in compressed-air energy storage systems  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a study conducted by Energy Storage and Power Consultants (ESPC) whose objective was to try to develop a cost effective Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) power plant concept integrated with the Texaco Coal Gasification System (TCGS). The capital cost of a coal gasification system is significantly higher than some other power plant systems and if operated at low capacity factors, the total cost of electricity would not be competitive. One of the main objectives of this study was to try to develop a concept which would provide continuous operation of the gasification system and, as a result, improve the plant economics through better utilization of its expensive components. Five CAES/TCGS concepts have been identified as the most promising, and were optimized using specifically developed computerized procedures. These concepts utilized various configurations of conventional reheat turbomachinery trains specifically developed for CAES application, the GE Frame 7F, Frame 7E and LM5000 gas turbine units as parts of the integrated CAES/TCGS plant concepts. The project resulted in development of integrated CAES/TCGS plant concepts which were optimized to provide TCGS capacity factors up to over 90%. Cursory economics for some of the integrated CAES/TCGS concepts are slightly better than those of a conventional integrated coal gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) plant. 25 figs., 8 tabs.

Nakhamkin, M. (Energy Storage and Power Consultants, Mountainside, NJ (USA))

1989-09-01

73

Investigation of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air/steam and oxygen/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal. Numerical simulation showed that the plasma oxygen/steam gasification of coal is a more preferable process in comparison with the plasma air/steam coal gasification. On the numerical experiments, a plasma vortex fuel reformer is designed.

Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (United States)

2009-04-15

74

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 14. Gasification of Kemmerer subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the fourteen volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Kemmerer subbituminous coal, from August 11, 1984 to August 15, 1984. 4 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

75

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 13. Gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the thirteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal, from July 31, 1984 to August 11, 1984. 6 refs., 22 figs., 20 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

76

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 15. Gasification of ''fresh'' Rosebud subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and government agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the fifteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Rosebud subbituminous coal, from June 17, 1985 to June 24, 1985. 4 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-09-01

77

Large block experiments in underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The process of in-situ coal gasification, while extremely simple in concept, is complicated in practice because, as the burn proceeds, the reacting volume is constantly changing geometry. In addition, the process takes place underground where it is extremely difficult to observe in detail. The five large block experiments described here were planned as a series of gasification experiments each of which was to be terminated at a fairly early stage of cavity development and examined by postburn excavation. The experiments included 1:1 and 3:1 steam:oxygen injection at two different flow-rate schedules, an air-injection burn, and a test of the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) system. The results indicate that the underground coal gasification process at this location is insensitive to changes in steam:oxygen ratios or flow rate over the range used. The burn cavities were all mostly filled with rubble and thermally altered coal.

Mill, R.W.; Thorsness, C.B.

1983-01-01

78

Large block experiments in underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The process of in-situ coal gasification, while extremely simple in concept, is complicated in practice because, as the burn proceeds, the reacting volume is constantly changing geometry. In addition, the process takes place underground where it is extremely difficult to observe in detail. The five large block experiments described here were planned as a series of gasification experiments, each of which was to be terminated at a fairly early stage of cavity development and examined by postburn excavation. The experiments included 1:1 and 3:1 steam:oxygen injection at two different flow-rate schedules, an air-injection burn, and a test of the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) system. The results indicate that the underground coal gasification process at this location is insensitive to changes in steam:oxygen ratios or flow rate over the range used. The burn cavities were all mostly filled with rubble and thermally altered coal.

Hill, R.W.; Thorsness, C.B.

1983-01-01

79

Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project  

SciTech Connect

The Destec gasification process features an oxygen-blown, two stage entrained flow gasifier. PSI will procure coal for the Project consistent with the design specification ranges of Destec's coal gasification facility. Destec's plant will be designed to accept coal with a maximum sulfur content of 5.9% (dry basis) and a minimum energy content of 13,5000 BTU/pound (moisture and ash free basis). PSI and Destec will test at least two other coals for significant periods during the demonstration period. In the Destec process, coal is ground with water to form a slurry. It is then pumped into a gasification vessel where oxygen is added to form a hot raw gas through partial combustion. Most of the noncarbon material in the coal melts and flows out the bottom of the vessel forming slag -- a black, glassy, non-leaching, sand-like material. Particulates, sulfur and other impurities are removed from the gas before combustion to make it acceptable fuel for the gas turbine. The synthetic fuel gas (syngas) is piped to a General Electric MS 7001F high temperature combustion turbine generator. A heat recovery steam generator recovers gas turbine exhaust heat to produce high pressure steam. This steam and the steam generated in the gasification process supply an existing steam turbine-generator. The plant will be designed to outperform air emission standards established by the Clean Air Act Amendments for the year 2000.

Amick, P.; Mann, G.J.; Cook, J.J.; Fisackerly, R.; Spears, R.C.

1992-01-01

80

Characteristics of Temperature Field during the Oxygen-enriched Underground Coal Gasification in Steep Seams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the underground coal gasification model test in steep coal seams, the changing characteristics and effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, moving-point gasification, backward gasification methods on the underground gasification process, and gas quality were discussed. Experiments showed that, under the pure oxygen gasification, the rising rate for the roof temperature of the coal seams to be gasified is

L. H. Yang; X. Zhang; S. Liu

2009-01-01

81

Coal gasification with internal recirculation catalysts  

SciTech Connect

One of the primary economic penalties of many catalytic coal gasification processes is recovery of the added catalysts from the spent char. For example, the EXXON catalytic coal gasification process as presently conceived, requires several stages of digestion with calcium hydroxide to recover potassium from the converted char and then the digestion only recovers between 65 and 85% of the potassium. Recently, IGT has been exploring a process concept that might avoid this complex and costly situation. In the IGT process concept, a coal gasification process with an inherent thermal gradient (e.g., Lurgi, staged fluidized-bed processes, etc.) and a catalyst that is semivolatile under gasification conditions are used. The semivolatile catalyst is sufficiently volatile at the highest temperature encountered in the lower section of the gasifier, that it is completely vaporized from the char before the char is discharged. The catalyst, however, is nonvolatile at the lowest temperature encountered in the upper section of the gasifier so that it precipitates on the cold, feed coal. The catalyst, therefore, is automatically recycled from the product char to the fresh coal and the need for catalyst recovery is eliminated. Three different materials have been undergoing testing by IGT as semivolatile catalysts. These materials were selected based on an examination of their vapor pressures and some process assumptions.

Hill, A.H.; Anderson, G.L.; Ghate, M.R.; Liou, W.

1986-01-01

82

In-Situ Coal Gasification of Bituminous Coals - Development Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are in excess of one trillion tons of bituminous coal resources in the United States mostly concentrated in the Appalachian, Illinois and Western Interior Basins. Approximately 220 billion tons of this bituminous resource, which is comparable to the estimated mineable reserves, can be recovered by Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). A technology that would provide for the economic production of

R. E. Zielinski; A. K. Agarwal

1981-01-01

83

Biological treatment of Hygas coal gasification wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eight month experimental study was performed to assess biological treatability characteristics of Hygas coal gasification process pilot plant wastewater comprised of cyclone and quench condensates. The study evaluated treatability characteristics of ammonia stripped and unstripped wastewater at full strength and at 1:1 dilution. It was determined that minimum pretreatment required for biological oxidation consisted of reducing wastewater alkalinity, and

R. G. Luthy; J. T. Tallon

1978-01-01

84

Coal gasification - flexibility for an uncertain future  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade, the electric utility industry has experienced an unprecedented period of dramatic change and uncertainty that has changed the industry and its needs. There is now a need for small, low-cost, fuel-flexible, clean, and reliable plants for both new capacity and emissions retrofit situations. Coal gasification has demonstrated its flexibility to meet this challenge. Reduced economies of

L. A. Schmoe; J. Pietruszkiewicz

1987-01-01

85

Environmental research for underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the environmental impact of underground coal gasification (UCG), conducted at the four UCG test sites at Hanna, Wyo., by the Department of Energy, Laramie Energy Technology Center, included the effects of the process gas cleanup system, the effects of migrating water on the process and the surrounding ground water, and the effects of subsidence. In phase 2 of

Virgona

1978-01-01

86

Environmental research for underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the environmental impact of underground coal gasification (UCG), conducted at the four UCG test sites at Hanna, WY, by the Department of Energy, Laramie Energy Technology Center, included the effects of the process gas cleanup system, the effects of migrating water on the process and the surrounding ground water, and the effects of subsidence. In phase 2 of

Virgona

1978-01-01

87

Natural pyrometamorphism: relevance to underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although 28 underground coal gasification (UCG) tests have been conducted since the early 1970s in the US, only limited information is available concerning the nature and formation of high-temperature, low-pressure alteration products in adjacent noncoal geologic materials - information basic to the evaluation of key process and environmental questions. A comprehensive literature search, conducted as part of the Gas Research

D. J. Daly; R. F. Stevenson; G. J. McCarthy

1988-01-01

88

Underground gasification for steeply dipping coal beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two field tests were conducted in the G seam of the Fort Union Formation on the North Knobs track near the eastern rim of the Continental Divide Basin near Rawlins, Wyoming. The test site was selected in 1978. An environmental assessment and a general test plan were prepared. The first US test of underground coal gasification for steeply dipping beds

Bartke

1985-01-01

89

LLNL Capabilities in Underground Coal Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground coal gasification (UCG) has received renewed interest as a potential technology for producing hydrogen at a competitive price particularly in Europe and China. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) played a leading role in this field and continues to do so. It conducted UCG field tests in the nineteen-seventies and -eighties resulting in a number of publications culminating in

S J Friedmann; E Burton; R Upadhye

2006-01-01

90

Two-stage coal gasification and desulfurization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention is directed to a system which effectively integrates a two-stage, fixed-bed coal gasification arrangement with hot fuel gas desulfurization of a first stream of fuel gas from a lower stage of the two-stage gasifier and the removal of...

L. A. Bissett L. D. Strickland

1990-01-01

91

Coal Gasification for Future Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ecause of deregulation, rapidly changing market demands, fluctuations in natural-gas prices, and increased environmental concerns, gasifica- tion will become the centerpiece of tomorrow's advanced power plants. Large improvements in the efficiency, reliability, and feed- stock flexibility of gasification sys- tems are necessary for the success blown, entrained-flow, coal slurry gasifier, a key component in the configuration, has been devel- oped.

Shaoping Shi; Mehrdad Shahnam; Madhava Syamlal

2004-01-01

92

Heat recovery process in coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overall process of cooling, dust removal, tar removal and heat recovery of high temperature gas generated in coal gasification furnaces, and apparatuses employed therefor are provided. In this process, specific apparatuses such as fluidized bed-cooler, fluidized bed-combustion furnace for regenerating granules, granular bed filter, gas cooler and, tar scrubber are successively and effectively employed. During the process, high, medium

Arisaki

1984-01-01

93

Heat recovery process in coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overall process of cooling, dust removal, tar removal and heat recovery of high temperature gas generated in coal gasification furnaces, and apparatuses employed therefor are provided. In this process, specific apparatuses such as fluidized bed-cooler, fluidized bed-combustion furnace for regenerating granules, granular bed filter, gas cooler, and tar scrubber are successively and effectively employed. During the process, high, medium

Arisaki

1984-01-01

94

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 7. Gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the seventh volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal. The period of the gasification test was July 18-24, 1983. 6 refs., 20 figs., 17 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

95

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 5. Gasification of Stahlman Stoker bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the fifth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Stahlman Stoker bituminous coal from Clarion County, PA. The period of the gasification test was April 30 to May 4, 1983. 4 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-03-31

96

Underground-coal-gasification technical summary  

SciTech Connect

There are three basic reasons for the recent emergence of underground coal gasification (UCG) as a leading synfuels candidate: (1) favorable projected economics, (2) ability to use coal seams that are unattractive for mining, and (3) modest environmental impact. The objective of this paper is to list major underground coal gasification results and conclusions, particularly field-oriented results. The twenty field tests and ten years' experience have demonstrated technical feasibility and allow us to make several generalizations concerning underground coal gasification. For example, burns tend to be bowl-shaped after roof collapse, since ash and slag (and high water content in coal) impede downward burning. Burns appear to be symmetrical in plan view, but not in elevation view. Injection and linking at the bottom of the seam can improve performance. Heat losses begin, and heating value of the product gas declines, when the burn reaches the roof and the roof rock begins to collapse. In general, heating value and chemistry appear to be insensitive to operational parameters but are sensitive to process-well geometry and overburden.

Stephens, D.R.; Thorsness, C.B.; Hill, R.W.; Thompson, D.S.

1983-03-14

97

Coal to electricity - Integrated gasification combined cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An advanced energy conversion system - the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) - has been identified as an efficient and economical means of converting coal to electricity for utility application. Several demonstration projects on a near-commercial scale are approaching the construction stage. A coal conversion facility has been constructed to simulate the operational features of an IGCC. This process evaluation facility (PEF-scale) performs a dual function: (1) acquiring and processing data on the performance of the individual components - coal gasifier, gas clean up, and turbine simulator - that comprise the IGCC concept and (2) simulating the total system in an operational control mode that permits evaluation of system response to imposed load variations characteristic of utility operation. The results to date indicate that an efficient, economical IGCC can be designed so that the gasification/gas clean up plant and the power generation system operate compatibly to meet utility requirements in an environmentally acceptable manner.

Corman, J. C.

1982-04-01

98

Char Consumption in the Underground Gasification of Eastern Bituminous Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of small-scale laboratory gasification experiments has been conducted to better understand the gasification process of Eastern bituminous coal constrained in an axisymmetric borehole geometry. It is clear that conditions and char consumption rate...

R. D. Skocypec D. W. Cook B. P. Engler

1986-01-01

99

ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD RANKINGS OF POLLUTANTS GENERATED IN COAL GASIFICATION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation and ranking of environmental hazards associated with coal gasification. Applied chemical analytical data were provided by (1) research with an experimental gasifier, and (2) sampling of four commercial gasification processes. Gas, liquid,...

100

Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant Public Design Report. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design information for the Great Plains Gasification Project, the first commercial coal gasification facility in the United States. In addition to the design aspects, the h...

F. I. Honea H. M. Ness R. A. Lang R. J. Belt W. R. Miller

1985-01-01

101

Gasification of residual materials from coal liquefaction: Type II preliminary pilot plant evaluation of SRC-I extruded Kerr McGee mineral ash residue-water slurry  

SciTech Connect

A Type II preliminary pilot plant evaluation of SRC-I Kerr McGee mineral ash residue as a water slurry feed to the Texaco Coal Gasification Process was conducted at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory (MRL). The residue was obtained in the extrudate form directly from the Critical Solvent Deashing process at Wilsonville, Alabama. Approximately 16 tons of residue were gasified during three test runs which were carried out at 950 psig in MRL's High Pressure Solids Gasification Unit I. The runs lasted from 4.8 hours to 7.2 hours, and a total of 19.1 hours of on-stream time was accumulated. This work was authorized by DOE Delivery Order Number 10 under DOE contract EX-76-C-01-2247 and amendment DEAC-01-76ET-10137. It is part of a continuing effort to evaluate residual materials from various DOE sponsored coal liquefaction projects to determine their suitability for conversion to hydrogen using one of the Texaco gasification processes.

Wu, C.M.; Robin, A.M.

1984-05-01

102

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-one field Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) tests have been carried out in the USA since 1973, along with related theoretical, laboratory and environmental programs. The product gas quality obtained from these field tests is comparable to that of surface gasification, using either air or steam and oxygen. Cost estimates are very favorable. The UCG process is found to be quite stable: experiments run continuously. Key features of the successful US program include: careful site selection, steam-oxygen gasification, extensive use of in-situ instrumentation, and theoretical modeling. Plans for commercial implementation of the technology are under development by four groups in the USA, all using steam/oxygen injections. 19 references, 13 figures, 6 tables.

Stephens, D.R.; Thorsness, C.B.; Hill, R.W.

1984-01-19

103

Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an

Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

1998-01-01

104

Technical underground-coal-gasification summation: 1982 status. [77 references  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are three basic reasons for the recent emergence of underground coal gasification (UGC) as a leading synfuels candidate: (1) favorable projected economics, (2) ability to use coal seams that are unattractive for mining, and (3) modest environmental impact. The objectives of this summation are to list major underground coal gasification results and conclusions (particularly field-oriented results) and to briefly

D. R. Stephens; C. B. Thorsness; R. W. Hill; D. S. Thompson

1982-01-01

105

Application Study of a Nuclear Coal Solution Gasification Process for Oklahoma Coal. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is presented in two parts, both included in one publication. Volume I contains the results of the Nuclear Coal Solution Gasification Study, descriptions of the coal gasification process and the nuclear reactor heat source, and the conclusions ...

1974-01-01

106

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July--September 1993) and the 1993 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, has completed the construction of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). ENCOAL submitted an application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project was selected by DOE in December, 1989 and the Cooperative Agreement approved in September, 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL mild coal gasification facility was completed in June of 1992, and the project is currently in the operations phase. Some plant modifications have been required and are discussed in this report.

Not Available

1993-10-01

107

Process for a coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for producing water gas containing a large ; quantity of hydrogen and involving the formation of a moving quiescent gas-; permeable bed composed of both particles of coal and particles of spent coal or ; ash. The bed is passed through a series of zones in which, in a succession of ; cycles, the bed is

Ban

1974-01-01

108

Environmental effects of in situ coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of avialable engineering, geological and operating data on underground coal gasification indicates that this process can cause significant air and water pollution and land subsidence. Of the possible impacts, groundwater pollution is the most serious. Modeling studies and large-scale field tests are needed to determine the long-term fate of pollutants and the degree of restoration required before UCG can become a commercial process.

Humenick, M.J.; Edgar, T.F.; Charbeneau, R.J.

1983-01-01

109

Heat recovery process in coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

An overall process of cooling, dust removal, tar removal and heat recovery of high temperature gas generated in coal gasification furnaces, and apparatuses employed therefor are provided. In this process, specific apparatuses such as fluidized bed-cooler, fluidized bed-combustion furnace for regenerating granules, granular bed filter, gas cooler, and tar scrubber are successively and effectively employed. During the process, high, medium and low pressure steam, for example, are recovered by heat exchange in these apparatuses.

Arisaki, K.

1984-07-24

110

Heat recovery process in coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

An overall process of cooling, dust removal, tar removal and heat recovery of high temperature gas generated in coal gasification furnaces, and apparatuses employed therefor are provided. In this process, specific apparatuses such as fluidized bed-cooler, fluidized bed-combustion furnace for regenerating granules, granular bed filter, gas cooler and, tar scrubber are successively and effectively employed. During the process, high, medium and low pressure steam, for example, are recovered by heat exchange in these apparatuses.

Arisaki, K.

1984-08-07

111

Key tests set for underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Underground coal gasification (UCG) is about to undergo some tests. The tests will be conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in a coal seam owned by Washington Irrigation and Development Co. A much-improved UCG system has been developed by Stephens and his associates at LLNL - the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) method. Pritchard Corp., Kansas City, has done some conceptual process design and has further studied the feasibility of using the raw gas from a UCG burn as a feedstock for methanol synthesis and/or MTG gasoline. Each method was described. (DP)

Haggin, J.

1983-07-18

112

Enhancing the Steam Gasification Reactivity of Coal by Boosting the Factors Affecting the Gasification Reactions in the Stepwise Coal Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting the steam gasification reactivity of coal have been reviewed. Studies have been performed on investigating the effects of organo-refining (solvent extraction) using coal-derived solvents, such as anthracene oil and liquid paraffin. The residual coals obtained from the organo-refining of coal were subjected to steam pyrolysis at 650C to generate active chars. The steam gasification reactivity of original coal,

D. K. Sharma

2010-01-01

113

Underground coal gasification: Technology status report  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center is conducting a program in underground coal gasification (UCG). The purpose of this program is to develop the technology for converting coal seams, in place, to a combustible gas that can be cleaned, treated, and upgraded for a variety of end uses, such as the production of chemicals, substitute natural gas, liquid fuels, and electrical power. Coal resources targeted for UCG processing are those coal seams that are unsuitable for recovery using current mining technology because of technical, environmental, health and safety, or economic factors. Conceptually, UCG processing is relatively simple and straightforward. Wells are drilled from the surface to provide access to the target coal seam. One well serves for injection of an oxidant, such as air or a mixture of oxygen and steam, into the seam, while another well serves as a production well for the gasification process gases. These two process wells are connected within the seam using one of several linking techniques to provide an open pathway for the flow of large quantities of gaseous products. Surface treatment of the product gas stream is similar to that for surface gasification processes. The Program is divided into two main technical areas or subprograms: (1) Process Technology, and (2) Process Monitoring, Control, and Environmental Impact Mitigation. The intent of this report is to present the research and accomplishments since 1983 by discussing the elements in these two subprograms that are inhibiting the commercialization of UCG: (1) site suitability, (2) process well linkage, (3) process control, and (4) environmental risks. 60 refs., 12 figs.

Not Available

1986-10-01

114

Environmental Investigations of In Situ Coal Gasification Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although in situ coal gasification offers important environmental advantages when compared with more conventional methods of coal utilization, there are significant environmental concerns that need to be investigated. Groundwater sampling and subsidence m...

F. T. Wang H. C. Ganow S. W. Mead

1978-01-01

115

Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; eva...

Atul Sheth Pradeep Agrawal Yaw D. Yeboah

1998-01-01

116

Technical Underground-Coal-Gasification Summation: 1982 Status.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are three basic reasons for the recent emergence of underground coal gasification (UGC) as a leading synfuels candidate: (1) favorable projected economics, (2) ability to use coal seams that are unattractive for mining, and (3) modest environmental ...

C. B. Thorsness D. R. Stephens D. S. Thompson R. W. Hill

1982-01-01

117

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project public design and construction report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Public Design Report describes the 1000 ton per day ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration plant now in operation at the Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The objective of the project is to demonstrate that the proprietary Liquids From Coal ...

1994-01-01

118

Coal gasification combustion chamber structure  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A combustion chamber for powdered coal and the like having a refractory lined floor with an exit throat at the bottom. The throat is shaped approximately in accordance with the ratios employed in a contraction cone of a wind tunnel to produce a monotonic increase in flow therethrough in order to avoid any clogging by liquid slag and fly ash.

Barot; Devendra T. (W. Covina, CA)

1986-03-04

119

Catalytic coal gasification: an emerging technology.  

PubMed

Catalytic coal gasification is being developed as a more efficient and less costly approach to producing methane from coal. With a potassium catalyst all the reactions can take place at one temperature, so that endothermic and exothermic reactions can be integrated in a single reactor. A key aspect of the concept involves continuous recycling of product carbon monoxide and hydrogen to the gasifier following separation of methane. Development of the process has advanced steadily since the basic concept was proposed in 1971. A 23-day demonstration run was recently completed in a process development unit with a coal feed rate of 1 ton per day. The next major step in the program will be to design and construct a large pilot plant to bring the technology to commercial readiness in the late 1980's. PMID:17839527

Hirsch, R L; Gallagher, J E; Lessard, R R; Wesslhoft, R D

1982-01-01

120

Wabash River coal gasification repowering project: Public design report  

SciTech Connect

The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (the Project), conceived in October of 1990 and selected by the US Department of Energy as a Clean Coal IV demonstration project in September 1991, is expected to begin commercial operations in August of 1995. The Participants, Destec Energy, Inc., (Destec) of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc., (PSI) of Plainfield, Indiana, formed the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (the JV) to participate in the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program by demonstrating the coal gasification repowering of an existing 1950`s vintage generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The Participants, acting through the JV, signed the Cooperative Agreement with the DOE in July 1992. The Participants jointly developed, and separately designed, constructed, own, and will operate an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (CGCC) power plant using Destec`s coal gasification technology to repower Unit {number_sign}1 at PSI`s Wabash River Generating Station located in Terre Haute, Indiana. PSI is responsible for the new power generation facilities and modification of the existing unit, while Destec is responsible for the coal gasification plant. The Project demonstrates integration of the pre-existing steam turbine generator, auxiliaries, and coal handling facilities with a new combustion turbine generator/heat recovery steam generator tandem and the coal gasification facilities.

NONE

1995-07-01

121

Separation of products from mild coal gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary mild coal gasification product mixture containing noncondensible gas, high-boiling hydrocarbon vapors and entrained fines is difficult to process into the desired pure products: gas, liquids, and dry solids. This challenge for mild coal gasification process development has been studied by surveying the technical literature for suitable separations processes and for similar issues in related processes. The choice for

Wallman

1991-01-01

122

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the project are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal; evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods

1999-01-01

123

Coal gasification for power generation. 2nd ed.  

SciTech Connect

The report gives an overview of the opportunities for coal gasification in the power generation industry. It provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; A description of gasification technology including processes and systems; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; An analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; A discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; An evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; A discussion of IGCC project development options; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; Profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and A description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

NONE

2006-10-15

124

Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process  

DOEpatents

The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

Wilson, Marvin W. (Fairview, WV)

1988-01-01

125

Fixed-Bed Gasification Research Using US Coals. Volume 15. Gasification of ''Fresh'' Rosebud Subbituminous Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by ...

D. Thimsen R. E. Maurer A. R. Pooler D. Pui B. Liu

1985-01-01

126

Fixed-Bed Gasification Research Using US Coals. Volume 2. Gasification of Jetson Bituminous Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by ...

A. R. Pooler B. Liu D. Pui D. Thimsen R. E. Maurer

1985-01-01

127

Fixed-Bed Gasification Research Using US Coals. Volume 13. Gasification of Blind Canyon Bituminous Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by ...

D. Thimsen R. E. Maurer A. R. Pooler D. Pui B. Liu

1985-01-01

128

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 2. Gasification of Jetson bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report describes the gasification testing of Jetson bituminous coal. This Western Kentucky coal was gasified during an initial 8-day and subsequent 5-day period. Material flows and compositions are reported along with material and energy balances. Operational experience is also described. 4 refs., 24 figs., 17 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-03-31

129

Effect of underground coal gasification on groundwater. Summary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential effect of underground coal gasification on groundwater has been examined in a laboratory study. The study was directed at Fruitland Formation subbituminous coal of the San Juan Basin and at the groundwater found in this coal seam. Two wells were drilled into the coal seam at a potential UCG test site. Groundwater samples and core samples of overburden,

E. A. Walters; T. M. Niemczyk

1984-01-01

130

Two-stage coal gasification to high-BTU gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal gasification process to produce a substitute for natural gas from coal without changing the form of carbon from coal to methane was developed. The catalyzed process is a two step operation. In the hydrosolvation stage, Hiawatha coal and the catalyst were slurred in tetralin under hydrogen pressure in a batch stirred tank reactor. A conversion of 85 percent

Y. H. Li

1977-01-01

131

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 10. Gasification of Benton lignite  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the tenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Benton lignite. The period of gasification test was November 1-8, 1983. 16 refs., 22 figs., 19 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

132

Advanced coal-gasification technical analyses. Appendix 1: technology reviews. Final report, December 1982-September 1985  

SciTech Connect

This document is a result of KRSI's activities to support the GRI/Advisors Committee thru the duration of the contract. It provides an overview of the gasification, shift/methanation, acid-gas removal, and sulfur-recovery technologies for use in coal-to SNG plant design. For selected processes in each technology area, Status Summary reports are presented. The non-proprietary information contained in these reports was utilized to assess the characteristics, efficiencies, and other performance variables of each process relative to criteria developed for each ssess the characteristics, efficiencies and other performance variables of each process relative to criteria developed for each technology area. The results of the assessment are presented in tables that can be utilized for selection of a process best suited for a given application. In the coal-gasification area, status summaries were prepared for Lurgi, GKT, Texaco, BGC/Lurgi, Westinghouse (now KRW), Exxon CCG, Shell and U-Gas processes. The Conventional Shift/Methanation, Combined Shift/Methanation, Direct Methanation and Comflux Methanation processes were selected for review of shift/methanation technology. In the acid-gas-removal technology area, evaluation of Selexol, Rectisol, Benfield and CNG processes is presented. For the sulfur-recovery technology area, Claus, Amoco Direct Oxidation, LO-CAT, Selectox, Stretford and Unisulf processes, were selected for assessment.

Cover, A.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Jain, S.K.; Shah, K.V.

1986-01-01

133

Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study  

SciTech Connect

This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

2004-01-31

134

Underground coal gasification site selection and characterization in Washington State and gasification test designs  

SciTech Connect

A program of investigation has been carried out to identify and characterize a site in Washington state suitable for underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments and possible commercial development. A site in the Tono Basin of the Centralia-Chehalis district containing an estimated 5 x 10/sup 10/ kg of subbituminous coal in two deeply buried seams (the Lower Thompson and the Big Dirty) was found that may be suitable for underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments and possible commercial development. Eight exploratory boreholes and two test wells were drilled to provide the primary subsurface geologic and hydrologic information about the site. A series of surface gasification tests using large blocks of coal cut free of the Big Dirty seam in mine exposures will be conducted to establish a preliminary set of in situ operational parameters-air injection pressures, flow rates, and coal consumption rates. If the site is found suitable, the surface gasification tests will be followed by two deep underground gasification experiments - one employing borehole linking and the other reverse combustion-linking. The proposed large coal block surface gasification tests and the UCG experiments will provide a basis for decisions concerning the nature of future gasification efforts in the Tono Basin.

Stone, R.; Hill, R.W.

1980-09-10

135

Coal gasification with water under supercritical conditions  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of an array of coal particles in supercritical water (SCW) was studied in a semibatch reactor at a pressure of 30 MPa, 500-750{sup o}C, and a reaction time of 1-12 min. The bulk conversion, surface conversion, and random pore models were used to describe the conversion. The quantitative composition of reaction products was determined, and the dependence of the rate of reaction on the degree of coal conversion, reaction time, and reaction temperature was obtained on the assumption of a first-order reaction and the Arrhenius function. It was found that the gasification of coal under SCW conditions without the addition of oxidizing agents is a weakly endothermic process. The addition of CO{sub 2} to SCW decreased the rate of conversion and increased the yield of CO. It was found that, at a 90% conversion of the organic matter of coal (OMC) in a flow of SCW in a time of 2 min, the process power was 26 W/g per gram of OMC.

A.A. Vostrikov; S.A. Psarov; D.Yu. Dubov; O.N. Fedyaeva; M.Ya. Sokol [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federastion). Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Division

2007-08-15

136

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

Polk Power has decided that the Texaco gasification unit will not be sold to a third party. Therefore, including the ownership transfer of the Texaco gasification unit in the agreement is not an issue any more. The cooperative agreement between Texaco and Polk Power has been revised several times in this quarter. Polk power is making comments on the last draft that Texaco sent to them. The modification fieldwork and testing will start once the cooperative agreement is signed with Polk Power.

Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

2003-07-01

137

Results from the Third LLL Underground Coal Gasification Experiment at Hoe Creek.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major objective of the US Energy Program is the development of processes to produce clean fuels from coal. Underground coal gasification is one of the most promising of these processes. If successful, underground coal gasification (UCG) would quadruple ...

C. B. Thorsness D. R. Stephens R. J. Cena R. W. Hill W. R. Aiman

1980-01-01

138

High-pressure gasification of Montana subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A data base for the fluidized-bed gasification of different coals at elevated pressures has been developed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with different ranks of coal at pressures up to 450 psig and at temperatures dictated by the individual coals. Adequate data have been obtained to characterize the effect of pressure on the gasification of Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal and North Dakota lignite. The results obtained with Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal are presented here. This program was funded by the Gas Research Institute. 9 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Goyal, A.; Bryan, B.; Rehmat, A.

1991-01-01

139

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 2. Gasification of Jetson bituminous coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This

D. Thimsen; R. E. Maurer; A. R. Pooler; D. Pui; B. Liu; D. Kittelson

1985-01-01

140

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 5. Gasification of Stahlman Stoker bituminous coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This

D. Thimsen; R. E. Maurer; A. R. Pooler; D. Pui; B. Liu; D. Kittelson

1985-01-01

141

The effects of gas-turbine characteristics on integrated gasification combined-cycle power-plant performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how gas turbine specifications affect the performance of Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power plants. Three gas turbines characterized as current, advanced, and future technology machines (with turbine firing temperatures of 1985 F, 2300 F, and 2500 F, respectively) were simulated in computer models of IGCC plants based on Texaco coal gasification technology. A gas turbine modeling procedure

Johnson

1990-01-01

142

Pricetown I underground coal gasification field test: operations report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) field test in bituminous coal was successfully completed near Pricetown, West Virginia. The primary objective of this field test was to determine the viability of the linked vertical well (LVV) technology to recover the 900 foot deep, 6 foot thick coal seam. A methane rich product gas with an average heating value of approximately 250

A. K. Agarwal; P. W. Seabaugh; R. E. Zielinski

1981-01-01

143

Large-block experiments in underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of in situ coal gasification, while extremely simple in concept, is complicated in practice because, as the burn proceeds, the reacting volume is constantly changing geometry. In addition, the process takes place underground where it is extremely difficult to observe in detail. The five large block experiments described here were planned as a series of gasification experiments each

R. W. Hill; C. B. Thorsness

1983-01-01

144

Thermodynamic analysis and conceptual design for partial coal gasification air preheating coal-fired combined cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partial coal gasification air pre-heating coal-fired combined cycle (PGACC) is a cleaning coal power system, which integrates\\u000a the coal gasification technology, circulating fluidized bed technology, and combined cycle technology. It has high efficiency\\u000a and simple construction, and is a new selection of the cleaning coal power systems. A thermodynamic analysis of the PGACC\\u000a is carried out. The effects of

Yue Xu; Yining Wu; Shimin Deng; Shirang Wei

2004-01-01

145

Underground coal gasification: status and proposed program  

SciTech Connect

Technical uncertainties remaining in the UCG technology include specific criteria for site selection, large-scale burn interactions, details of process control, multiple well operation, overall system reliability, subsidence, and water quality effects. Considerable effort has been expended on understanding and controlling the process, on predicting and mitigating subsidence, and on maintaining water quality. Some data are available on site acceptability, but as yet information from large-scale field tests are not in the public domain. Commercialization of UCG will not be possible until such data become available. A program plan to commercialize UCG in an orderly, paced manner has been developed. The program would cost $200 million over seven years, some of which could be cost-shared with industry. The proposed program includes development of a more detailed program plan. The laboratory component of the program, although only a small fraction of the budget, is crucial. It contains environmental research, modeling, experimental studies, economic and system studies, instrumentation development, and materials studies. The field component includes UCG of both flat and steeply dipping coal beds as well as of less tractable bituminous coal. The field projects involve development of criteria for site selection and characterization, large block tests in bituminous coal, simple, small-scale field tests, subsequent more complex and longer-running tests, and finally large scale, or pilot tests. Steam-oxygen gasification would probably be used. 48 references, 11 figures, 6 tables.

Stephens, D.R.; Hill, R.W.; Borg, I.Y.

1984-08-13

146

LLNL Capabilities in Underground Coal Gasification  

SciTech Connect

Underground coal gasification (UCG) has received renewed interest as a potential technology for producing hydrogen at a competitive price particularly in Europe and China. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) played a leading role in this field and continues to do so. It conducted UCG field tests in the nineteen-seventies and -eighties resulting in a number of publications culminating in a UCG model published in 1989. LLNL successfully employed the ''Controlled Retraction Injection Point'' (CRIP) method in some of the Rocky Mountain field tests near Hanna, Wyoming. This method, shown schematically in Fig.1, uses a horizontally-drilled lined injection well where the lining can be penetrated at different locations for injection of the O{sub 2}/steam mixture. The cavity in the coal seam therefore gets longer as the injection point is retracted as well as wider due to reaction of the coal wall with the hot gases. Rubble generated from the collapsing wall is an important mechanism studied by Britten and Thorsness.

Friedmann, S J; Burton, E; Upadhye, R

2006-06-07

147

Coal gasification. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and assessment of coal gasification technology. Combined-cycle gas turbine power plants are reviewed. References also discuss dry-feed gasification, gas turbine interface, coal gasification pilot plants, underground coal gasification, gasification with nuclear heat, and molten bath processes. Clean-coal based electric power generation and environmental issues are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1998-03-01

148

Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Project  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Test or Burn was conducted from approximately mid-November, 1987 through February, 1988. After the burn the project began proceeding with the following overall tasks: venting, flushing and cooling of the cavities; subsurface or groundwater cleanup; post-burn coring and drilling; groundwater monitoring, and site restoration/reclamation. By the beginning of 1991 field activities associated with venting, flushing and cooling of the cavities and post-burn coring and drilling had been completed. However, data analysis continued including the University of North Dakota analyzing drilling and coring data, and the US Department of Energy (DOE)/EG G developing a chronological listing of project events.

Not Available

1992-03-01

149

Recommended Health and Safety Guidelines for Coal Gasification Pilot Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These guidelines are deemed appropriate for the pilot plant stage of development of advanced coal gasification technology. They are based on pilot plant experience thus far inthe United States, and on known hazards and control procedures in analogous indu...

1978-01-01

150

LLNL Underground Coal Gasification Project Annual Report - Fiscal Year 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Laboratory has been conducting an interdisciplinary underground coal gasification program since 1974 under the sponsorship of DOE and its predecessors. We completed three UCG tests at the Hoe Creek site near Gillette, Wyoming, during the period 1975 t...

D. R. Stephens E. M. O'Neal

1985-01-01

151

Environmental Hazard Rankings of Pollutants Generated in Coal Gasification Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of an evaluation and ranking of environmental hazards associated with coal gasification. Applied chemical analytical data were provided by (1) research with an experimental gasifier, and (2) sampling of four commercial gasificatio...

J. G. Cleland

1981-01-01

152

Experience with high temperature dust filtration in coal gasification systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper tabulates the major experience and future plans worldwide for high temperature filtration of dust-laden gases from coal gasification systems. Past and current experience tabulated includes the hot filtration of gases from entrained-flow and flu...

M. Epstein L. K. Rath

1992-01-01

153

Oxygen Supply for Coal Gasification Power Stations (Combined Cycle Process).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Adaptation of air separation processes to coal gasification plants was investigated. Main points are the start up and the load change behavior of the total process. Air separation processes which put at disposal oxygen most energetically to the combined c...

D. Rottmann E. Schoenpflug

1982-01-01

154

Biochemical Oxidation of Solvent Extracted Coal Gasification Process Wastewater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biochemical oxidation kinetic parameters have been determined for several contaminants in dissolved-gas-stripped, solvent-extracted coal gasification wastewaters. A comparison of these parameters with those for wastewaters pretreated only by dissolved-gas...

J. A. Cook C. J. Drummond R. P. Noceti J. G. Diskin

1984-01-01

155

Analysis of coal gasification/combined cycle cogeneration power plants  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of coal gasification combined cycle power plants configured for cogeneration operation is presented. Using standard performance data for the various system components, the operations and outputs of the plant are assessed. 17 refs.

Fox, H.; Hoch, J.; Katsidhe, V.; Wolf, A.B.; Gorges, H.

1981-08-01

156

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the

Yaw D. Yeboah; Yong Xu; Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal

2001-01-01

157

Westinghouse coal gasification combined cycle system for electric utility application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Westinghouse coal gasification process and its application to combined cycle plants for electric utility use is presented. The process permits the conversion of coal in an efficient, economical and environmentally acceptable manner, to low-or medium-Btu gas for utility and industrial use. Basically, the combined cycle plant design incorporates an air-blown, fluidized bed gasification system, a combustion turbine system and

F. Gigliotti; R. M. Stavsky; M. Carrington

1981-01-01

158

Assessment of modular IGCC plants based on entrained flow coal gasification supplemental studies  

SciTech Connect

In a previous study (1), Foster Wheeler made an assessment of modular IGCC power systems employing Texaco entrained flow gasification of Illinois No. 6 coal. In that study, five case studies were developed in order to compare the relative performance and economics of air vs. oxygen blown gasification and high temperature vs. low temperature gas cleanup. As a supplemental study, two additional IGCC design cases were developed as alternate to the original Case 2 and Case 3 configurations. The objective of the Case 2 alternate study was to assess the potential of zinc titanate in place of zinc ferrite. Compared to zinc ferrite, the zinc titanate system offered the following potential advantages: Does not require steam conditioning of the feed gas to avoid carbon formation; does not require reductive regeneration and the corresponding use of fuel gas; operates at higher temperature, about 1350{degree}F; and has a longer projected sorbent life. The objective of the alternate Case 3 study was to determine the economic impact of producing sulfuric acid, instead of elemental sulfur, as the by-product from high temperature desulfurization using zinc ferrite. Sulfur recovery as by-product sulfuric acid therefore offered the potential for reducing both the capital and operating costs. 6 refs., 5 figs., 15 tabs.

Fu, R.K.

1989-10-01

159

Conceptual designs and assessments of a coal gasification demonstration plant. Volume I. Summary  

SciTech Connect

This is C. F. Braun and Co's final report concerning conceptual designs and assessments in support of Phase I of TVA's Coal Gasification commercial demonstration plant. The report is organized into five volumes. Volume I is a nonproprietary document and provides a summary of the major technical and financial aspects of all three of the gasification processes assigned to us on this project. It is intended to provide an overview of the work accomplished without reference to the specific gasifier reports. Volumes II, III and IV provide detailed data on the Koppers-Totzek, Texaco and Babcock and Wilcox gasification processes respectively. Each volume contains nonproprietary information pertaining to the specific process documented. Volume V contains the task reports prepared concerning process selection studies and plant studies along with TVA's Design Criteria document that provided the basis for our work. Also included is the Gas Cost Guidelines writing and the Building sketches, that are common to all three processes. We believe that the three conceptual designs developed for this project and detailed in accompanying volumes have several unique features. Examples are the zero liquid effluent and the fact that a coal-fired boiler is not required. Because of the configuration of the site and its limited access, special designs will be required to impound the ash and slag, and special procedures will be needed to circumvent the problems imposed by the site during construction. Such items are addressed. From the Phase II design procurement and construction schedule standpoint, on a fast track basis, it appears possible that all three processes could come close to meeting TVA's target completion date.

Not Available

1980-10-01

160

Laboratory simulation of underground gasification of Eastern bituminous coals  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Department of Energy's Eastern Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) program, we are conducting a series of small-scale laboratory gasification experiments. The purpose of these experiments is to develop a better understanding of the gasification process in Eastern bituminous coals, particularly as it differs from that previously observed in Western sub-bituminous coals. The results of this work will be used as input to both our modeling efforts and to upcoming field tests. We have to date conducted gasification experiments using both a Western subbituminous coal (for reference) and an Eastern bituminous coal (Illinois Herrin No. 6, from the site of the proposed field tests). The sub-bituminous coal exhibited the same phenomena observed in field tests, including high char reactivity, low structural strength, and cavity growth dominated by thermal-mechanical mechanisms. The bituminous coal experiments, on the other hand, were difficult to ignite and showed much lower char reactivity and much higher mechanical strength. Initial cavity growth was controlled by char reaction mechanisms rather than coal roof spalling. These results suggest that achieving enhanced char combustion and gasification rates is critical to the success of bituminous UCG. 8 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

Tyner, C.E.; Skocypec, R.D.; Cook, D.W.; Engler, B.P.

1985-01-01

161

Current experiences in applied underground coal gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is experiencing greater stress on its ability to mine and exploit energy resources such as coal, through traditional mining methods. The resources available by extraction from traditional mining methods will have a finite time and quantity. In addition, the high quality coals available are becoming more difficult to find substantially increasing exploration costs. Subsequently, new methods of extraction are being considered to improve the ability to unlock the energy from deep coals and improve the efficiency of the exploitation of the resources while also considering the mitigation of global warming. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a leading commercial technology that is able to maximize the exploitation of the deep coal through extraction of the coal as a syngas (CO and H2) in situ. The syngas is then brought to the surface and efficiently utilized in any of combined cycle power generation, liquid hydrocarbon transport fuel production, fertilizer production or polymer production. Commercial UCG has been successfully operating for more than 50 years at the Yerostigaz facility in Angren, Uzbekistan. Yerostigaz is the only remaining UCG site in the former Soviet Union. Linc Energy currently owns 91.6% of this facility. UCG produces a high quality synthetic gas (syngas), containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. UCG produced syngas can be economically used for a variety of purposes, including: the production of liquid fuels when combined with Gas to Liquids (GTL) technology power generation in gas turbine combined cycle power stations a feedstock for different petrochemical processes, for example producing chemicals or other gases such as hydrogen, methane, ammonia, methanol and dimethyl ether Linc Energy has proven the combined use of UCG to Gas to Liquids (GTL) technologies. UCG to GTL technologies have the ability to provide energy alternatives to address increasing global demand for energy products. With these technologies, Linc Energy is set to become the leading producer of cleaner liquid fuels and other associated products. UCG has now been developed to a point where the commercialisation of the process is no longer questioned, the economics of the process are compelling, and is now seen as a method that resolves energy security for countries that have access to deep coal previously thought to have no economic value.

Peters, Justyn

2010-05-01

162

Combustion front propagation in underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Reverse Combustion (RC) enhances coal seam permeability prior to Underground Coal Gasification. Understanding RC is necessary to improve its reliability and economics. A curved RC front propagation model is developed, then solved by high activation energy asymptotics. It explicitly incorporates extinction (stoichiometric and thermal) and tangential heat transport (THT) (convection and conduction). THT arises from variation in combustion front temperature caused by tangential variation in the oxidant gas flux to the channel surface. Front temperature depends only weakly on THT; front velocity is strongly affected, with heat loss slowing propagation. The front propagation speed displays a maximum with respect to gas flux. Combustion promoters speed front propagation; inhibitors slow front propagation. The propagation model is incorporated into 2-D simulations of RC channel evolution utilizing the boundary element method with cubic hermetian elements to solve the flow from gas injection wells through the coal to the convoluted, temporally evolving, channel surface, and through the channel to a gas production well. RC channel propagation is studied using 17 cm diameter subbituminous horizontally drilled coal cores. Sixteen experiments at pressures between 2000 and 3600 kPa, injected gas oxygen contents between 21% and 75%, and flows between 1 and 4 standard liters per minute are described. Similarity analysis led to scaling-down of large RC ({approx}1 m) to laboratory scale ({approx}5 cm). Propagation velocity shows a strong synergistic increase at high levels of oxygen, pressure, and gas flow. Char combustion is observed, leaving ash-filled, irregularly shaped channels. Cracks are observed to penetrate the char zone surrounding the channel cores. 69 refs., 54 figs., 4 tabs.

Dobbs, R.L. II; Krantz, W.B.

1990-10-01

163

Influence of pressure on coal pyrolysis and char gasification  

SciTech Connect

Coal char structure varied greatly with pyrolysis pressure, which has a significant influence on the gasification reactivity. In this study, the influence of pressure on the behavior of coal pyrolysis and physicochemical structure and gasification characteristics of the resultant coal char was investigated using a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer combined with an ambient thermogravimetric analyzer. First, the pyrolysis of Shenfu (SF) bituminous coal was performed in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at different pressures (0.1, 0.8, 1.5, 3, and 5 MPa). The volatile mainly evolved out at 400-800{sup o}C. The gas products are mainly CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, and light aliphatics with some water. It was observed that the pyrolysis of coal was shifted to lower temperature (50{sup o}C) with pressure increasing from ambient to 5 MPa, and the devolatilization rate of coal pyrolysis was decreased and the coal char yield was increased slightly. The structure of solid coal char was analyzed using FTIR, ASAP2020, and CNHS. In the solid char, the main organic functional groups are mainly CO, C-C (alkane), C-H ar, C-O-C, and C=C ar. The carbon content was increased while H content decreased. Finally, the gasification of the solid char was preformed at ambient pressure with CO{sub 2} as gasify agent. The gasification process of coal char can be divided into postpyrolysis and char gasification. Higher pressure accelerated the initial stage of char gasification, and higher gasification reactivity was observed for char derived at 5 MPa. 23 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Haiping Yang; Hanping Chen; Fudong Ju; Rong Yan; Shihong Zhang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

2007-12-15

164

Environmental impacts of underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of underground coal gasification (UCG) have been actively pursued by the U.S. Department of Energy since the early 1970s; the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted its first field experiment in 1976. In conjunction with field and laboratory studies of the process of recovering energy in the form of combustible gases from the burning of coal deposits in situ, an extensive environmental program has been conducted at LLNL under the auspices of both the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This program has focused on groundwater contamination and ground surface subsidence caused by UCG. The material presented in this paper is a summary of results from the environmental studies of UCG activities conducted by LLNL as described by Mead, et al. (1981) and supplemented by the author's experience with this program in 1980 and 1981. The following sections describe specific groundwater contamination and surface subsidence problems encountered during field experiments in northeastern Wyoming, and will discuss implications of preliminary findings from geohydrological investigations of a site in southwestern Washington. Finally, possible environmental control technologies that are most likely to be effective in mitigating environmental impacts are discussed.

Murray, W.A.

1982-09-01

165

The PSI Energy Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project which will develop, design, construct, own, and operate a coal gasification combined cycle (CGCC) power plant. Coal gasification technology will be used to repower one of six units at PSI's Wabash River Generating Station in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The CGCC power plant will produce a nominal 270 net MW of clean, energy efficient, capacity for PSI's customers. In the repowered configuration, PSI and its customers may additionally benefit because of the role this Project could play in PSI's compliance pan under the CAAA regulations. The Project will use locally mined, high sulfur coal. Upon completion, the Project will not only represent the largest CGCC power plant (in operation in the United States), but will also emit lower emissions than most other high sulfur coal-fired power plants.

Bott, J.U. (PSI Energy, Inc., Plainfield, IN (US)); Sundstrom, D.G. (Destec Energy, Inc., Houston, TX (US))

1992-01-01

166

Integration of carbonate fuel cells with advanced coal gasification systems  

SciTech Connect

Carbonate fuel cells have attributes which make them ideally suited to operate on coal-derived fuel gas; they can convert the methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide present in coal derived fuel gas directly to electricity, are not subject to thermodynamic cycle limits as are heat engines, and operate at temperatures compatible with coal gasifiers. Some new opportunities for improved efficiency have been identified in integrated coal gasification/carbonate fuel cells which take advantage of low temperature catalytic coal gasification producing a methane-rich fuel gas, and the internal methane reforming capabilities of Energy Research Corporation`s carbonate fuel cells. By selecting the appropriate operating conditions and catalyst in the gasifier, methane formation is maximized to improve gasification efficiency and to take advantage of the heat management aspects of the internal reforming carbonate fuel cell. These advanced integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell systems are projected to have better efficiencies than gasification/carbonate fuel cell systems employing conventional gasification, and also competing non-fuel cell systems. These improved efficiencies would be accompanied by a corresponding reduction in impact on the environment as well.

Steinfeld, G. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Meyers, S.J. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Hauserman, W.B. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

1992-12-01

167

Integration of carbonate fuel cells with advanced coal gasification systems  

SciTech Connect

Carbonate fuel cells have attributes which make them ideally suited to operate on coal-derived fuel gas; they can convert the methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide present in coal derived fuel gas directly to electricity, are not subject to thermodynamic cycle limits as are heat engines, and operate at temperatures compatible with coal gasifiers. Some new opportunities for improved efficiency have been identified in integrated coal gasification/carbonate fuel cells which take advantage of low temperature catalytic coal gasification producing a methane-rich fuel gas, and the internal methane reforming capabilities of Energy Research Corporation's carbonate fuel cells. By selecting the appropriate operating conditions and catalyst in the gasifier, methane formation is maximized to improve gasification efficiency and to take advantage of the heat management aspects of the internal reforming carbonate fuel cell. These advanced integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell systems are projected to have better efficiencies than gasification/carbonate fuel cell systems employing conventional gasification, and also competing non-fuel cell systems. These improved efficiencies would be accompanied by a corresponding reduction in impact on the environment as well.

Steinfeld, G. (Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)); Meyers, S.J. (Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)); Hauserman, W.B. (North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center)

1992-01-01

168

Underground coal gasification in the bituminous coal resource  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Coal Conversion Program is to develop technology to produce clean fuels from coal deposits that are unsuitable for commercial mining. DOE's strategy is to remove the high-risk elements of UCG by resolving technical, environmental, and economic uncertainties. This will enable industry to assume responsibility for commercialization of the technology. Thus, the elements of the program have been designed to: provide detailed design and operational data that industry can use to scale-up with confidence; provide accurate and complete cost estimates that will allow comparison between alternative processes; provide detailed environmental impact and control data to allow industry to implement projects that will meet applicable standards; verify the reliability of continuous operation of UCG processes; and show that UCG processes have the flexibility to meet a variety of commercial needs. The Underground Coal Conversion Program has successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of UCG for subbituminous coals through a series of 13 federally sponsored UCG field tests. These tests have demonstrated both air and steam-oxygen injection, reverse combustion and directional borehole drilling to link process wells, and continuous operation for sufficiently long time periods (30 to 60 days) at high enough gasification rates (30 to 100 tons per day) to provide a good technical data base. A number of mathematical models have been developed and compared with field results to provide predictive capability. The need for extensive pre-operational site characterization has been demonstrated. 72 references, 5 figures.

Not Available

1984-03-01

169

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 8. Gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the eighth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The period of gasification test was July 28 to August 19, 1983. 6 refs., 23 figs., 25 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

170

Coal gasification combined-cycle system analysis. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a study involving combustion turbine power plants using coal gasification. The study concentrated on systems integration and the optimization of power plant conceptual designs. In order of importance, the objectives of the study were to: (1) determine potential levels of thermal efficiency for well integrated gasified coal combined cycle (GCC)

J. Garow; S. J. Lehman

1980-01-01

171

Role of site characteristics in coal gasification. [Hanna, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field test data for a series of four underground coal gasification tests (UCG) at a site near Hanna, Wyoming are presented. Results of these field tests were combined with modeling efforts to identify site selective parameters broadly identified as the flow and mechanical properties of a coal seam that can help determine the degree to which any UCG test would

B. E. Bader; R. E. Glass

1981-01-01

172

LLNL Underground Coal Gasification Project annual report - fiscal year 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Laboratory has been conducting an interdisciplinary underground coal gasification program since 1974 under the sponsorship of DOE and its predecessors. We completed three UCG tests at the Hoe Creek site near Gillette, Wyoming, during the period 1975 to 1979. Five small field experiments, the large-block tests, were completed from 1981 to 1982 at the exposed coal face in the

D. R. Stephens; E. M. ONeal

1985-01-01

173

Coal gasification: An environmental, health, and safety overview. Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents an overview of the development of coal gasification technology and environmental, health, and safety issues associated with the technology that still remain to be resolved. The issues were identified as the result of a systematic analysis of the process units that may be present in a coal-to-substitute natural gas plant, their emission and discharge streams, and control

1989-01-01

174

Construction Labor Assessment for Coal Gasification Plant Murphy Hill, Alabama.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

TVA's planned construction of a coal gasification plant, capable of processing about 20,000 tons of coal per day into a clean-burning fuel, will be a large and complex construction project by any relevant measure. The plant site examined here is in northe...

1980-01-01

175

Coal gasification; An alternative energy source is coming of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on concerns over continued U.S. dependence on imported oil, and more importantly, increasing environmental restrictions on conventional power plants that are driving research and development of alternative energy sources. One alternative energy process being developed is coal gasification, which involves converting coal to a synthetic gas by heating it under pressure and burning that gas as a

Valenti

1992-01-01

176

A sweep efficiency model for underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

A new model to predict sweep efficiency for underground coal gasification (UCG) has been developed. The model is based on flow through rubble in the cavity as well as through the open channel and uses a tanks-in-series model for the flow characteristics. The model can predict cavity growth and product gas composition given the rate of water influx, roof collapse, and spalling. Self-gasification of coal is taken into account in the model, and the coal consumption rate and the location of the flame front are determined by material and energy balances at the char surface. The model has been used to predict the results of the Hoe Creek III field tests (for the air gasification period). Predictions made by the model such as cavity shape, product gas composition, temperature profile, and overall reaction stoichiometry between the injected oxygen and the coal show reasonable agreement with the field test results.

Chang, H.L.; Edgar, T.F.; Himmelblau, D.M.

1985-01-01

177

Modelling coal gasification with CFD and discrete phase method  

SciTech Connect

In the present paper the authors describe a computational fluid dynamics model of a two-stage, oxygen blown, entrained flow, coal slurry gasifier for use in advanced power plant simulations. The discrete phase method is used to simulate the coal slurry flow. The physical and chemical processing of coal slurry gasification is implemented by calculating the discrete phase trajectory using a Lagrangian formulation. The particle tracking is coupled with specific physical processes, in which the coal particles sequentially undergo moisture release, vaporisation, devolatilisation, char oxidation and char gasification. Using specified plant boundary conditions, the gasification model predicts a synthesis gas composition that is very close to the values calculated by a restricted equilibrium reactor model tuned to represent typical experimental data. The char conversions are 100 and 86% for the first stage and second stage respectively.

Shi, S.P.; Zitney, S.E.; Shahnam, M.; Syamlal, M; Rogers, W.A.

2006-12-01

178

POLLUTANTS FROM SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION: SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS FOR COAL GASIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes sampling and analysis methods involving a laboratory-scale coal gasification facility used to study the generation, sampling, chemical analysis, process evaluation, and environmental assessment of pollutants from coal gasification. It describes methods for pa...

179

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 6. Gasification of delayed petroleum coke  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the sixth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of delayed petroleum coke from Pine Bend, MN. The period of the gasification test was June 1-17, 1983. 2 refs., 15 figs., 22 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

180

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This is the progress report for the DOE grant DE-FG26-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'' for the period April 1999 to October 1999. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University, the University of Tennessee Space Institute and Georgia Institute of Technology. The overall objectives of the project are to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature and system pressure) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. During this reporting period, free swelling index measurements of the coal, fixed-bed gasification experiments, kinetic modeling of the catalyzed gasification, and X-ray diffraction analysis of catalyst and gasified char samples were undertaken. The gasification experiments were carried out using two different eutectic salt mixtures of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (LNK) system and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (NK) system. The gasification process followed a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type model. At 10 wt% of catalyst loading, the activation energy of the ternary catalyst system (LNK) was about half (98kJ/mol) the activation energy of the single catalyst system (K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), which is about 170 kJ/ mole. The binary catalyst system (NK) showed activation energy of about 201 kJ/mol, which is slightly higher, compared to the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} catalyst system. The ternary catalyst system was a much better eutectic catalyst system compared to the binary or single catalyst system. In general, a eutectic with a melting point less than the gasification temperature is a better substitute to the single alkali metal salts because they have good catalyst distribution and dispersion in the carbon matrix. The free selling index of the coal was about 1.5 (1 to 2) in comparison to 2.5 (2 to 3) for the coal samples with ternary eutectic. The results for the raw coal were consistent with those from the Penn State Coal Bank. The XRD characterization showed unidentified peaks in the spectra of some of the samples and require further studies to draw any conclusions at the point.

NONE

1999-10-01

181

Mathematical-modeling studies of in-situ coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Commercialization of the in-situ or underground coal gasification (UCG) process has been impeded because of uncertainties with respect to its reliability and predictability. Modeling studies when combined with a well-designed field test program are the only avenue to a proper understanding of this technology. This paper reviews the latest developments in four important facets of the UCG process: reverse-combustion linking; gasification and resource recovery; water influx; and subsidence.

Krantz, W.B.; Gunn, R.D.

1983-01-01

182

Development program to support industrial coal gasification. Quarterly report 1  

SciTech Connect

The Development Program to Support Industrial Coal Gasification is on schedule. The efforts have centered on collecting background information and data, planning, and getting the experimental program underway. The three principal objectives in Task I-A were accomplished. The technical literature was reviewed, the coals and binders to be employed were selected, and tests and testing equipment to be used in evaluating agglomerates were developed. The entire Erie Mining facility design was reviewed and a large portion of the fluidized-bed coal gasification plant design was completed. Much of the work in Task I will be experimental. Wafer-briquette and roll-briquette screening tests will be performed. In Task II, work on the fluidized-bed gasification plant design will be completed and work on a plant design involving entrained-flow gasifiers will be initiated.

None

1982-01-15

183

Large-block experiments in underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The process of in situ coal gasification, while extremely simple in concept, is complicated in practice because, as the burn proceeds, the reacting volume is constantly changing geometry. In addition, the process takes place underground where it is extremely difficult to observe in detail. The five large block experiments described here were planned as a series of gasification experiments each of which was to be terminated at a fairly early stage of cavity development and examined by postburn excavation. The experiments included 1:1 and 3:1 steam:oxygen injection at two different flow-rate schedules, an air-injection burn, and a test of the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) system. The results indicate that the underground coal gasification process at this location is insensitive to changes in steam:oxygen ratios or flow rate over the range used. The burn cavities were all mostly filled with rubble and thermally altered coal. 5 figures, 2 tables.

Hill, R.W.; Thorsness, C.B.

1983-03-30

184

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3% KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

2000-04-01

185

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures,'' covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3%KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

1998-10-01

186

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

The project, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the project are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal; evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (e.g., temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. The eutectic catalysts increased gasification rate significantly. The methods of catalyst preparation and addition had significant effect on the catalytic activity and coal gasification. The incipient wetness method gave more uniform catalyst distribution than that of physical mixing for the soluble catalysts resulting in higher gasification rates for the incipient wetness samples. The catalytic activity increased by varying degrees with catalyst loading. The above results are especially important since the eutectic catalysts (with low melting points) yield significant gasification rates even at low temperatures. Among the ternary eutectic catalysts studied, the system 39% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-38.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-22.5% Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} showed the best activity and will be used for further bench scale fixed-bed gasification reactor in the next period. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies in the previous reporting period, the project team selected the 43.5% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed-bed studies at UTSI during this reporting period. Temperature was found to have a significant effect on the rate of gasification of coal. The rate of gasification increased up to 1400 F. Pressure did not have much effect on the gasification rates. The catalyst loading increased the gasification rate and approached complete conversion when 10 wt% of catalyst was added to the coal. Upon further increasing the catalyst amount to 20-wt% and above, there was no significant rise in gasification rate. The rate of gasification was lower for a 2:1 steam to char molar ratio (60%) compared to gasification rates at 3.4:1 molar ratio of steam-to-char where the conversion approached 100%. The characterization results of Georgia Tech are very preliminary and inconclusive and will be made available in the next report.

Unknown

1999-04-01

187

Natural pyrometamorphism: relevance to underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Although 28 underground coal gasification (UCG) tests have been conducted since the early 1970s in the US, only limited information is available concerning the nature and formation of high-temperature, low-pressure alteration products in adjacent noncoal geologic materials - information basic to the evaluation of key process and environmental questions. A comprehensive literature search, conducted as part of the Gas Research Institute's program to develop an understanding of UCG-related thermal effects, was initiated to determine the relevance of natural fuel-combustion products and events to UCG. Natural fuel-combustion events, typically associated with high-volatile fuel deposits, are confined to the unsaturated zone and require oxygen, typically supplied from the surface through fractures, for combustion. Noncoal materials overlying the burn undergo physical and mineralogical alteration through pyrometamorphism, a type of metamorphism characterized by elevated temperatures, low pressures (up to a few atmospheres), and essentially anhydrous conditions. With increasing temperatures, materials undergo calcination (decarbonation, oxidation, and dehydration), sintering, and fusion. Although differences in setting and reaction dynamics exist between UCG and natural fuel-combustion pyrometamorphism (e.g., UCG is typically conducted under saturated conditions at depths of a few hundred feet and combustion rates are generally higher and more uniform), the character of the UCG alteration products is similar to that found in nature. Such deposits, therefore, represent an important source of data for the development of predictive models for cavity growth, development, and stability; geothermometry of the process; and the potential for adverse impacts on ground water flow and quality.

Daly, D.J.; Stevenson, R.F.; McCarthy, G.J.

1988-07-01

188

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTNG OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

The cooperative agreement between Texaco and Polk Power has been revised by Polk Power and ChevronTexaco several times already. Lawyers from both Polk Power and ChevronTexaco are in the process to include the issues related to the ownership transfer of the Texaco gasification unit in the agreement and finalize the draft. The modification fieldwork and testing will start once the cooperative agreement is signed with Polk Power.

Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

2003-04-01

189

Underground gasification for steeply dipping coal beds  

SciTech Connect

Two field tests were conducted in the G seam of the Fort Union Formation on the North Knobs track near the eastern rim of the Continental Divide Basin near Rawlins, Wyoming. The test site was selected in 1978. An environmental assessment and a general test plan were prepared. The first US test of underground coal gasification for steeply dipping beds (UCG/SDB) was conducted from October to December 1979. Test 1 was considered to be successful, as essentially all test objectives were met or exceeded. The thick middle member (7.0 m) of the G seam was gasified. The burn was accomplished using both air injection and steam/oxygen injection. Product gas quality varied from 4.7 to 7.1 MJ/m/sup 3/ with air injection, and from 8.3 to 11.4 MJ/m/sup 3/ with steam/oxygen injection. The post-burn cavity definition study showed that the burn zone was partly filled with thermally altered rubble, with a water-filled void space at the top of the burn zone. Test 2 was conducted from August to November 1981. The burn was made in a longer and deeper module than that used in the first test; the base of the Test 2 module was at approximately 188 m true vertical depth. The total energy produced was approximately 1.6 x 10/sup 14/ J, from gas of an average heating value of 13.2 MJ/m/sup 3/. Data from the post-burn study, as well as data from the test, indicated that the ''firepit'' mechanism, or coal falling from the upper face and walls of the burn zone into a firepit area near the injection well, occurred in the test. The test site was deactivated in 1982. By the end of Phase IV on September 30, 1982, no measurable subsidence over either burn site had been observed. Tests of groundwater quality showed only minor changes in composition. Monitoring of the groundwater and overburden were scheduled to continue for 4 to 5 years. Appendices A and B containing test data are available on microfiche only. 17 refs., 18 figs., 12 tabs.

Bartke, T.C.

1985-04-01

190

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 12. Gasification of Absaloka/Robinson subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial particpants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the twelfth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. this specific reports describes the gasification of Absaloka/Robinson subbituminous coal. This volume covers the test period June 18, 1984 to June 30, 1984. 4 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

191

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 3. Gasification of Rosebud sub-bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the third volume in a series of documents prepared by Black, Sivalls and Bryson, Incorporated and describes the gasification of Rosebud subbituminous coal during the time period November 2-20, 1982. Test results and data are presented for the gasification of the coal and the operation of a slipstream tar scrubber to cool the gas and remove condensed tar. 5 refs., 29 figs., 18 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-03-31

192

Technical underground-coal-gasification summation: 1982 status. [77 references  

SciTech Connect

There are three basic reasons for the recent emergence of underground coal gasification (UGC) as a leading synfuels candidate: (1) favorable projected economics, (2) ability to use coal seams that are unattractive for mining, and (3) modest environmental impact. The objectives of this summation are to list major underground coal gasification results and conclusions (particularly field-oriented results) and to briefly mention possible future UCG research and development. The eighteen field tests and ten years' experience have demonstrated technical feasibility and allow several generalizations concerning underground coal gasification. For example, burns tend to be bowl shaped after roof collapse, since ash and slag (and high water content in coal) impede downward burning. Burns appear to be symmetrical in plan view, but not in elevation view. Injection and linking at the bottom of the seam can improve performance. Heat losses begin, and heating value declines, when burns reach the roof rock. In general, heating value and chemistry appear to be insensitive to operational parameters but are sensitive to process-well geometry and overburden. Underground coal gasification produces hot (up to 600/sup 0/C) gas containing particulate, tar, and steam which must be dealt with. Most UCG process experience has been in flat or gently dipping seams using the linked vertical well (LVW) method. However, the two Rawlins tests have shown that the steeply dipping bed (SDB) geometry is favorable for UCG. The controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) method may alleviate many underground coal gasification problems. With R and D money tight, we recommend that the DOE program continue to emphasize fundamental understanding. Small scale tests are valuable and cost $2 million to $4 million; industry and state government could provide cost sharing of up to 50%, thus leveraging the federal program.

Stephens, D.R.; Thorsness, C.B.; Hill, R.W.; Thompson, D.S.

1982-07-01

193

Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary eutectic salt mixture consisting of Li- Na- and K- carbonates has the potential as gasification catalyst. To verify the literature reported, melting points for various compositions consisting of these three salts and the temperature range over which the mixture remained molten were determined in the lab. For mixtures with different concentrations of the three salts, the temperatures at which the mixtures were found to be in complete molten state were recorded. By increasing the amount of Li2CO3, the melting temperature range was reduced significantly. In the literature, the eutectic mixtures of Li- Na- and K-carbonates are claimed to have a lower activation energy than that of K2CO3 alone and they remain molten at a lower temperature than pure K2CO3. The slow increase in the gasification rates with eutectics reported in the literature is believed to be due to a gradual penetration of the coals and coal char particles by the molten and viscous catalyst phase. The even spreading of the salt phase seems to increase the overall carbon conversion rate. In the next reporting period, a number of eutectic salts and methods of their application on the coal will be identified and tested.

Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

1998-12-04

194

Underground coal gasification site selection and characterization in Washington State and gasification test designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program of investigation has been carried out to identify and characterize a site in Washington state suitable for underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments and possible commercial development. A site in the Tono Basin of the Centralia-Chehalis district containing an estimated 5 x 10¹° kg of subbituminous coal in two deeply buried seams (the Lower Thompson and the Big Dirty)

R. Stone; R. W. Hill

1980-01-01

195

Fixed-Bed Gasification Research Using US Coals. Volume 10. Gasification of Benton Lignite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by ...

D. Thimsen R. E. Maurer A. R. Pooler D. Pui B. Liu

1985-01-01

196

Coal preparation for gasification. [Gasification for an industrial plant (7 Wellman-Galusha gasifiers)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glen Gery Corp., Reading, Pa., has initiated an energy-independence program of coal gasification to provide an uninterrupted supply of basic fuel for the company's face brick plants in Pennsylvania. Glen Gery now substitutes gas made from locally mined low-sulfur anthracite for natural gas as primary fuel for its brick kilns. By the end of the year all Pennsylvania plants run

1977-01-01

197

Large-block experiments in underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

A major objective of the nation's energy program is to develop processes for cleanly producing fuels from coal. One of the more promising of these is underground coal gasification (UCG). If successful, UCG would quadruple recoverable U.S. coal reserves. Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) performed an early series of UCG field experiments from 1976 through 1979. The Hoe Creek series of tests were designed to develop the basic technology of UCG at low cost. The experiments were conducted in a 7.6-m thick subbituminous coal seam at a relatively shallow depth of 48 m at a site near Gillette, Wyoming. On the basis of the Hoe Creek results, more extensive field experiments were designed to establish the feasibility of UCG for commercial gas production under a variety of gasification conditions. Concepts and practices in UCG are described, and results of the field tests are summarized.

Not Available

1982-11-01

198

Thermophysical models of underground coal gasification and FEM analysis  

SciTech Connect

In this study, mathematical models of the coupled thermohydromechanical process of coal rock mass in an underground coal gasification panel are established. Combined with the calculation example, the influence of heating effects on the observed values and simulated values for pore water pressure, stress, and displacement in the gasification panel are fully discussed and analyzed. Calculation results indicate that 38, 62, and 96 days after the experiment, the average relative errors for the calculated values and measured values for the temperature and water pressure were between 8.51-11.14% and 3-10%, respectively; with the passage of gasification time, the calculated errors for the vertical stress and horizontal stress gradually declined, but the simulated errors for the horizontal and vertical displacements both showed a rising trend. On the basis of the research results, the calculated values and the measured values agree with each other very well.

Yang, L.H. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2007-11-15

199

Separating hydrogen from coal gasification gases with alumina membranes  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis gas produced in coal gasification processes contains hydrogen, along with carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, water, nitrogen, and other gases, depending on the particular gasification process. Development of membrane technology to separate the hydrogen from the raw gas at the high operating temperatures and pressures near exit gas conditions would improve the efficiency of the process. Tubular porous alumina membranes with mean pore radii ranging from about 9 to 22 {Angstrom} have been fabricated and characterized. Based on hydrostatic tests, the burst strength of the membranes ranged from 800 to 1600 psig, with a mean value of about 1300 psig. These membranes were evaluated for separating hydrogen and other gases. Tests of membrane permeabilities were made with helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. Measurements were made at room temperature in the pressure range of 15 to 589 psi. Selected membranes were tested further with mixed gases simulating a coal gasification product gas. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Egan, B.Z. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E.; White, D.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA))

1991-01-01

200

In-situ coal gasification: a bibliography. [2222 references  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2222 references in this bibliography on in-situ gasification of coal were selected from the Energy Data Base (EDB) produced by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI). New citations on this subject are announced semimonthly in the bulletin Coal-Based Synfuels and monthly in Fossil Energy Update, both published by OSTI. The Energy Data Base is available for on-line

Grissom

1984-01-01

201

Catalytic gasification of coal using eutectic salts: identification of eutectics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No. 6 coal were identified and various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion were evaluated in this study. In addition, the effects of major process variables such as temperature, pressure, and steam\\/carbon ratio were investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and fixed-bed bench scale reactor systems. The

Yaw D Yeboah; Yong Xu; Atul Sheth; Anuradha Godavarty; Pradeep K Agrawal

2003-01-01

202

A sweep efficiency model for underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new model to predict sweep efficiency for underground coal gasification (UCG) has been developed. The model is based on flow through rubble in the cavity as well as through the open channel and uses a tanks-in-series model for the flow characteristics. The model can predict cavity growth and product gas composition given the rate of water influx, roof collapse,

H. L. Chang; T. F. Edgar; D. M. Himmelblau

1985-01-01

203

Modeling the underground coal gasification process: part III-subsidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cavity created by underground coal gasification (UCG) will be associated with some degree of subsidence in the overburden above the cavity. Subsidence refers to the adjustment in the earth which is made in response to the creation of a subsurface cavity. This subsidence can take a variety of forms, some of which can cause considerable damage both to the

W. B. Krantz; R. D. Gunn

1983-01-01

204

Modeling the underground coal gasification process. Part 3. Subsidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsidence modeling studies attempt to predict vertical subsidence or settlement profiles, horizontal displacement, principal stress contours, horizontal strain profiles, overburden failure and collapse, and collapse zone shape above the cavity. The physical and geometrical factors to consider in subsidence modeling; the empirical, analytical, numerical, and phenomenological approaches used to model subsidence in underground coal gasification; and the results of applying

W. B. Krantz; R. D. Gunn

1983-01-01

205

Analysis of mathematical models of underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported of a survey and comparison of forward combustion underground coal gasification (UCG) models that are available in the public domain. The six models obtained for study were mathematically analyzed to determine their conceptual completeness and computational complexity. The computer code for each model was implemented on the University of Wyoming CDC CYBER 730\\/760 computer system. Computed analyses

Fausett

1984-01-01

206

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Underground Coal Gasification project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been actively developing Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) technology for 15 years. The goal of the project has been to develop a fundamental technological understanding of UCG and foster the commercialization of the process. In striving to achieve this goal the LLNL project has carried out laboratory experiments, developed mathematical models, actively participated in

C. B. Thorsness; J. A. Britten

1989-01-01

207

Centralia partial seam CRIP underground coal gasification experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the result of the partial seam controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) underground coal gasification (UCG) field experiment carried out at the Washington Irrigation and Development Company (WIDCO) Mine near Centralia, Washington, in the fall of 1983. The test was designed to take advantage of the high-wall geometry at the mine and was carried out near the site

R. J. Cena; R. W. Hill; D. R. Stephens; C. B. Thorsness

1984-01-01

208

Oxygen Supply for Coal Gasification Power Stations (Combined Cycle Process).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

1. Present status: Final investigation to the problem of adaption of air separation processes to coal gasification plants. Main points are the start up and the load change behaviour of the total process. 2. Aim of the study is the estimation of air separa...

D. Rottmann E. Schoenpflug

1982-01-01

209

Natural restoration of ground water in UCG. [Underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data collected after underground coal-gasification field tests indicated that the concentrations of organic contaminants in the ground water decrease with time, apparently due to two natural processes - adsorption and biological degradation. Batch isotherm tests of the adsorption mechanism showed that 1) low-molecular-weight phenolic materials (the most prevalent contaminants) are the least likely to be adsorbed from the ground water,

M. J. Humenick; L. N. Britton; C. F. Mattox

1982-01-01

210

Experimental Investigation of High Temperature and High Pressure Coal Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis and gasification behavior is analyzed at operation conditions relevant to industrial scale entrained flow gasifiers. A wire mesh reactor and the Pressurized High Temperature Entrained Flow Reactor (PiTER) are used to measure volatile yield of Rhenish lignite, a bituminous coal and German anthracite at high temperature and high pressure. In the wire mesh reactor at 1000C a significant influence

Alexander Tremel; Thomas Haselsteiner; Christian Kunze; Hartmut Spliethoff

2012-01-01

211

Centralia double module in situ coal gasification test conceptual design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The encouraging results of the Centralia Partial Seam CRIP Test have led to this proposal for a second test to further develop a method for the economic recovery of unminable coal reserves by in-situ gasification. This test will build on the results of the previous experiment and will have several important features of its own. This test was designed to

Hill

1984-01-01

212

Field-scale experiment in underground gasification of coal at Pricetown, West Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 1979, US Department of Energy successfully completed an underground coal gasification (UCG) field test in eastern bituminous coal near Pricetown, WV. The field test consisted of three major phases: (1) reverse combustion linkage, (2) link enhancement, and (3) gasification. During the gasification phase, gas with an average heating value of 121 BTU\\/scf was produced, which resulted in an

A. J. Liberatore; M. W. Wilson

1982-01-01

213

Numerical study on the underground coal gasification for inclined seams  

SciTech Connect

According to the characteristics for combustion and gasification reactions occurring in the gasification gallery, the mathematical functional relationship between the chemical reaction rate and every influencing factor is studied. The dynamic nonlinear coupling mathematical models on underground coal gasification of inclined seams are established. The determination methods of major model parameters are introduced. Additionally, the control volume method is adopted to find the numerical solution to the mathematical models. The patterns of development and variation for temperature field, concentration field and pressure field in gasification panel are studied. On the basis of the model test, calculation results are analyzed. From the distribution of temperature field, its calculation value is a little higher than the experimental one, with the relative error of every measuring point virtually within 17%. Research shows that the experiment value of gas heat value and calculated value take on a good conformity; due to the influence of temperature, in the high temperature zone, the change gradient of the experiment value for concentration field of gas compositions is greater than that of the calculation value. The simulated results indicate that the relative error of the pressure field calculation is 4.13%-12.69% and 8.25%-17.47%, respectively, 7 h and 45 h after the ignition. The drop rate for the fluid pressure is 6 01 % and 10. 91 %, respectively. Research shows that the simulated values conform with experimental values comparatively well, which demonstrates that the numerical simulation on the 'three fields' in underground coal gasification is correct.

Yang, L.H. [China University of Mining & Technology, Jiangsu (China). College for Resources & Geoscience

2005-11-01

214

Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study: Volume 1, Summary  

SciTech Connect

This is the summary volume of a three-volume report of the Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study. The plant is of the Lurgi type and began commercial operation in 1971. The study was conducted under the auspices of the U.S.-Yugoslav Joint Board for Scientific and Technological Cooperation. It had five overall purposes: (1) Identify potential health risks in the gasification plant and provide information on possible control measures. (2) Use the experience in Kosova as a basis of judging potential health risks and avoiding potential problems at future commercial scale gasification plants in the United States and Yuogoslavia. (3) Acquire information on industrial hygiene practices at an operating commercial scale coal gasification plant. (4) Use the experience in Kosova to contribute to understanding dose-response relationships of exposure to complex organic mixtures. (5) Increase the scientific capabilities of scientists in Kosova in the areas of epidemiology and industrial hygiene. This report introduced the Kosova gasification plant and the study design and summarizes the preliminary studies of 1981 to 1983, the detailed characterization campaign of 1984, the retrospective epidemiology study, ongoing clinical studies, and the successful technology transfer. It presents conclusions and recommendations from the industrial hygiene and epidemiology studies. 18 refs.

Morris, S.C.; Jackson, J.O.; Haxhiu, M.A.

1987-03-01

215

Coal-Gasification Modeling Workshop Proceedings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stage of development and availability of models and computer codes of gasifier and downstream process modeling efforts in surface gasification were summarized. Experimental efforts in gasification were reviewed. The applicability and availability of data for model testing and validation was determined. A responsive dialogue and feedback loop between modelers and experimentalists to improve the synergism between these complementary efforts was established and information concerning requirements to obtain gasifier and downstream process models and computer codes which are verified and validated over known operating ranges are provided.

Ghate, M.; Martin, J. W.

216

Underground Coal Gasification Program: FY85 annual report  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Department of Energy's Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) research program, activities at Sandia National Laboratories during FY85 have included laboratory and modeling studies of UCG in Eastern bituminous coals, planning and subsidence studies in support of upcoming Eastern field tests, and post-burn roof stability analyses of the Tono CRIP test. Accomplishments for the year include completion of a preliminary series of laboratory gasification experiments in an Eastern bituminous coal demonstrating that high mechanical strength and low char consumption effects dominate the gasification process in these coals; designing a series of small-scale field tests intended to determine the feasibility of UCG in Eastern coals; evaluating the suitability of proposed field test sites in terms of roof stability/cavity size relationships as a function of overburden strength and thickness; and roof stability calculations (using field measurements as input) for the Tono CRIP test, results of which bracket the observed roof fall. 20 refs., 33 figs., 8 tabs.

Tyner, C.E. (ed.)

1986-02-01

217

Proceedings of the eleventh annual underground coal gasification symposium  

SciTech Connect

The Eleventh Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was sponsored by the Laramie Project Office of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, US Department of Energy, and hosted by the Western Research Institute, University of Wyoming research Corporation, in Denver, Colorado, on August 11 to 14, 1985. The five-session symposium included 37 presentations describing research on underground coal gasification (UCG) being performed throughout the world. Eleven of the presentations were from foreign countries developing UCG technology for their coal resources. The papers printed in the proceedings have been reproduced from camera-ready manuscripts furnished by the authors. The papers have not been refereed, nor have they been edited extensively. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

Not Available

1985-12-01

218

Modelling coal gasification in an entrained flow gasifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal gasification processes in a slurry-feed-type entrained-flow gasifier are studied. Novel simulation methods as well as numerical results are presented. We use the vorticity-stream function method to study the characteristics of gas flow and a scalar potential function is introduced to model the mass source terms. The random trajectory model is employed to describe the behaviour of slurry-coal droplets. Very detailed results regarding the impact of the O2/coal ratio on the distribution of velocity, temperature and concentration are obtained. Simulation results show that the methods are feasible and can be used to study a two-phase reacting flow efficiently.

Liu, Xiang Jun; Zhang, Wu Rong; Park, Tae Jun

2001-12-01

219

Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process  

DOEpatents

Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ)

1980-01-01

220

Thermodynamic analysis and conceptual design for partial coal gasification air preheating coal-fired combined cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The partial coal gasification air pre-heating coal-fired combined cycle (PGACC) is a cleaning coal power system, which integrates the coal gasification technology, circulating fluidized bed technology, and combined cycle technology. It has high efficiency and simple construction, and is a new selection of the cleaning coal power systems. A thermodynamic analysis of the PGACC is carried out. The effects of coal gasifying rate, pre-heating air temperature, and coal gas temperature on the performances of the power system are studied. In order to repower the power plant rated 100 MW by using the PGACC, a conceptual design is suggested. The computational results show that the PGACC is feasible for modernizing the old steam power plants and building the new cleaning power plants.

Xu, Yue; Wu, Yining; Deng, Shimin; Wei, Shirang

2004-02-01

221

Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program  

SciTech Connect

The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H[sub 2] mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO[sub x] (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

1992-01-01

222

Solar Coal Gasification: Reaction generates a versatile product containing more energy than the original coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Solar coal gasification is potentially an attractive commercial process. Coal can be gasified by reacting it with steam or carob dioxide in the focal zone of a solar...

1983-01-01

223

The effects of pressure on coal reactions during pulverised coal combustion and gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced clean coal technologies, e.g. power generation from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurised fluidised bed combustor, have attracted increased interest from the scientific and technological communities over the last few decades. Pressures up to 40atm have been applied to these technologies, which inherently result in an increase in coal throughput, a reduction in pollutant emissions and an enhancement

Terry F. Wall; Gui-su Liu; Hong-wei Wu; Daniel G. Roberts; Kathy E. Benfell; Sushil Gupta; John A. Lucas; David J. Harris

2002-01-01

224

Oxy-co-gasification of coal and biomass in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxy-gasification, or oxygen-blown gasification, enables a clean and efficient use of coal and opens a promising way to CO2 capture. Moreover, oxy-co-gasification with biomass implies the use of a renewable resource and additional CO2 reduction. Proper gasifier operation is a key issue in both techniques. A model of an entrained flow gasifier, validated with nearby 3000 actual steady-state operation data

Antonio Valero; Sergio Usn

2006-01-01

225

Unconfined flow as a mechanism of water influx to a UCG (underground coal gasification) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water influx to an operating underground coal gasification (UCG) cavity plays a major role in determining the success of the process. Often coal seams are aquifers, and as a result water influx estimates for a UCG cavity need to consider the flow of water from the coal to the cavity. Since the gasification cavity is gas filled, the flow takes

C. B. Thorsness; E. A. II Grens

1987-01-01

226

Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT) is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering (WRCGR) Project, as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1992). Repowering consists of replacing an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies to achieve significantly improved environmental performance. The desire to demonstrate utility repowering with a two-stage, pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system prompted Destec Energy, Inc., and PSI Energy, Inc., to form a joint venture and submit a proposal for this project. In July 1992, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (WRCGRPJV, the Participant) entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. The project was sited at PSI Energy's Wabash River Generating Station, located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate IGCC repowering using a Destec gasifier and to assess long-term reliability, availability, and maintainability of the system at a fully commercial scale. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding (for capital and operating costs during the demonstration period) of $438 million.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2002-01-15

227

Control system for a coal gasification plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control system maintains a predetermined volumetric ratio between fine-particle fuel and a gasification agent which are fed separately into a reactor wherein the fuel is gasified under pressure. The control system includes a first measuring means responsive to the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by the fine-particle fuel in a fuel-feed line for producing a fuel-feed signal corresponding to the

P. Gernhardt; W. Grams; W. Danguillier; S. Pohl

1977-01-01

228

Coal gasification\\/pros and cons  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 80% of total remaining U.S. fossil fuel resource is in the form of coal. World oil production is expected to peak not later than 2000; a precipitous rise in world oil prices can be expected. Currently SNG from coal at a cost of $3.50 to $4.50\\/million Btu, is equivalent to oil at $15 to $25\\/bbl. Low-Btu gas from coal

1977-01-01

229

Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study  

SciTech Connect

The pre-baseline configuration for an Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) system has been developed. This case uses current gasification, clean-up, gas turbine, and bottoming cycle technologies together with projected large planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. This pre-baseline case will be used as a basis for identifying the critical factors impacting system performance and the major technical challenges in implementing such systems. Top-level system requirements were used as the criteria to evaluate and down select alternative sub-systems. The top choice subsystems were subsequently integrated to form the pre-baseline case. The down-selected pre-baseline case includes a British Gas Lurgi (BGL) gasification and cleanup sub-system integrated with a GE Power Systems 6FA+e gas turbine and the Hybrid Power Generation Systems planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) sub-system. The overall efficiency of this system is estimated to be 43.0%. The system efficiency of the pre-baseline system provides a benchmark level for further optimization efforts in this program.

Gregory Wotzak; Chellappa Balan; Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

2003-08-01

230

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 6. Gasification of delayed petroleum coke  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This

D. Thimsen; R. E. Maurer; A. R. Pooler; D. Pui; B. Liu; D. Kittelson

1985-01-01

231

Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification  

DOEpatents

A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

Liljedahl, Gregory N. (Tariffville, CT); Moffat, Bruce K. (Simsbury, CT)

1981-01-01

232

Industrial coal gasification: technology, applications and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversion of coal into low Btu gas is a viable alternative to fuel oil and natural gas. The conversion of coal into a low BTU gas is becoming a more attractive alternative to natural gas and fuel oil in the industrial community. With the time proven technology of fixed bed gasifiers, the wide range of applications and the large fuel

1984-01-01

233

Oxygen supply for coal gasification power stations (combined cycle process)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptation of air separation processes to coal gasification plants was investigated. Main points are the start up and the load change behavior of the total process. Air separation processes which put at disposal oxygen most energetically to the combined cycle process are estimated. The technical feasibility of such a plant is checked. The load change behavior of the plant, the adaptation of the coal gasification and the start up of the total system are investigated. The influence of process parameters on the energy consumption is calculated. The most economical air separation processes are investigated. It is found that a low pressure plant with mixed heat exchangers and a medium pressure plant with molsieves are the most economical processes and that air separation processes and the order of magnitude can be constructed economically.

Rottmann, D.; Schoenpflug, E.

1982-02-01

234

Underground coal gasification field experiment in the high-dipping coal seams  

SciTech Connect

In this article the experimental conditions and process of the underground gasification in the Woniushan Mine, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province are introduced, and the experimental results are analyzed. By adopting the new method of long-channel, big-section, and two-stage underground coal gasification, the daily gas production reaches about 36,000 m{sup 3}, with the maximum output of 103,700 m{sup 3}. The daily average heating value of air gas is 5.04 MJ/m{sup 3}, with 13.57 MJ/m{sup 3} for water gas. In combustible compositions of water gas, H{sub 2} contents stand at over 50%, with both CO and CH{sub 4} contents over 6%. Experimental results show that the counter gasification can form new temperature conditions and increase the gasification efficiency of coal seams.

Yang, L.H.; Liu, S.Q.; Yu, L.; Zhang, W. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources & Geoscience

2009-07-01

235

Underground coal gasification: the state-of-the-art  

SciTech Connect

This paper serves to introduce the subject of this symposium volume, underground coal gasification (UCG), to the reader. In addition, it places the papers to this symposium volume in persepective with respect to their contributions to our understanding of large scale testing of the UCG process, instrumentation for these tests as well as commercial scale operations, modeling studies of various aspects of the process technology, environmental effect of UCG operations, and possible uses of the UCG product gas.

Krantz, W.B.; Gunn, R.D.

1983-01-01

236

Modeling the underground coal gasification process. Part 3. Subsidence  

SciTech Connect

Subsidence modeling studies attempt to predict vertical subsidence or settlement profiles, horizontal displacement, principal stress contours, horizontal strain profiles, overburden failure and collapse, and collapse zone shape above the cavity. The physical and geometrical factors to consider in subsidence modeling; the empirical, analytical, numerical, and phenomenological approaches used to model subsidence in underground coal gasification; and the results of applying these subsidence models to UCG field tests were reviewed.

Krantz, W.B.; Gunn, R.D.

1983-01-01

237

Erosion-corrosion of metals in coal gasification atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature erosion-corrosion (EC) in coal gasification atmospheres (CGA) presents unique demands on material performance.\\u000a Extensive screening of many engineering alloys in unique EC test apparatus at IITRI has generated a broad data base. These\\u000a data were analyzed to provide a cogent summary for applications and future research. The dependence of erosion-corrosion on\\u000a alloy chemistry, environmental parameters including temperature, pressure,

G. L. Wire; E. J. Vesely; S. Agarwal

1986-01-01

238

Weld overlaying for corrosion resistance in coal gasification atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardness and tensile testing of weldments which were exposed to a 1% HS coal gasification atmosphere for 1000 hours at 982°C (1800°F) was completed. Corrosion evaluation of unwelded specimens of 304L, 310 SS and INCOLOY alloy 800H was completed also. The INCONEL Filler Metal 72 and R139 overlays increased and the AWS-ER309 overlays decreased in hardness after exposure. The welding

Sadowski

1979-01-01

239

Preparation of low-sulfur fuel gas by gasification of Battelle Treated Coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battelle has developed a proprietary process for treating coal with calcium compounds, called the Battelle Treated Coal Process. The action of the calcium is to convert agglomerating, low-reactivity, high-sulphur coals into the chemical equivalent of low-sulphur lignite. The coal then becomes an attractive feedstock for gasification systems. This paper reports on gasification tests carried out on Battelle Treated Coal. It

Conkle

1983-01-01

240

Encoal mild coal gasification project: Final design modifications report  

SciTech Connect

The design, construction and operation Phases of the Encoal Mild Coal Gasification Project have been completed. The plant, designed to process 1,000 ton/day of subbituminous Power River Basin (PRB) low-sulfur coal feed and to produce two environmentally friendly products, a solid fuel and a liquid fuel, has been operational for nearly five years. The solid product, Process Derived Fuel (PDF), is a stable, low-sulfur, high-Btu fuel similar in composition and handling properties to bituminous coal. The liquid product, Coal Derived Liquid (CDL), is a heavy, low-sulfur, liquid fuel similar in properties to heavy industrial fuel oil. Opportunities for upgrading the CDL to higher value chemicals and fuels have been identified. Significant quantities of both PDF and CDL have been delivered and successfully burned in utility and industrial boilers. A summary of the Project is given.

NONE

1997-07-01

241

Coal gasification: Direct applications and syntheses of chemicals and fuels: A research needs assessment  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Working Group for an Assessment of Coal-Gasification Research Needs (COGARN - coal gasification advanced research needs) has reviewed and evaluated US programs dealing with coal gasification for a variety of applications. Cost evaluations and environmental-impact assessments formed important components of the deliberations. We have examined in some depth each of the following technologies: coal gasification for electricity generation in combined-cycle systems, coal gasification for the production of synthetic natural gas, coal gasifiers for direct electricity generation in fuel cells, and coal gasification for the production of synthesis gas as a first step in the manufacture of a wide variety of chemicals and fuels. Both catalytic and non-catalytic conversion processes were considered. In addition, we have constructed an orderly, long-range research agenda on coal science, pyrolysis, and partial combustion in order to support applied research and development relating to coal gasification over the long term. The COGARN studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research needs in fuel utilization that involves coal gasification as the dominant or an important component. The findings and research recommendations of COGARN are summarized in this publication.

Penner, S.S.; Alpert, S.B.; Beer, J.M.; Denn, M.; Haag, W.; Magee, R.; Reichl, E.; Rubin, E.S.; Solomon, P.R.; Wender, I.

1987-06-01

242

The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL{reg_sign} Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL{reg_sign} was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL{reg_sign} was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of $90,664,000. ENCOAL{reg_sign} operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL{trademark}). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall objective, the following goals were established for the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Project: Provide sufficient quantity of products for full-scale test burns; Develop data for the design of future commercial plants; Demonstrate plant and process performance; Provide capital and O&M cost data; and Support future LFC{trademark} technology licensing efforts. Each of these goals has been met and exceeded. The plant has been in operation for nearly 5 years, during which the LFC{trademark} process has been demonstrated and refined. Fuels were made, successfully burned, and a commercial-scale plant is now under contract for design and construction.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2002-03-15

243

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 3. Gasification of Rosebud sub-bituminous coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This

D. Thimsen; R. E. Maurer; A. R. Pooler; D. Pui; B. Liu; D. Kittelson

1985-01-01

244

Role of site characteristics in coal gasification. [Hanna, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Field test data for a series of four underground coal gasification tests (UCG) at a site near Hanna, Wyoming are presented. Results of these field tests were combined with modeling efforts to identify site selective parameters broadly identified as the flow and mechanical properties of a coal seam that can help determine the degree to which any UCG test would be successful. Specifically, the characteristics shown to be important are concluded to be: (1) permeability structure and mobile water, which play a crucial role in determining air flow paths; (2) high permeability zones at midstream and above to act as the primary air flow path; (3) spacing of injection and production wells can be varied to enhance the chance of keeping the air flow paths low in the coal seam; (4) completion of the process wells in a manner that minimizes neighboring permeability inhibits the chance of override; (5) the orthotropic permeability of coal improve UCG results; (6) thermochemical properties of coal are important with respect to the manner of combustion front propogation; and (7) heating will result in stress dependent anisotropic strength characteristics of the coal. Other properties characteristic of a given coal, petrographic constitutents of a coal, chemistry of combustion and the in situ stress distribution are also pointed out as significant factors to be considered in the most efficient use of UCG technique. 14 references, (BLM)

Bader, B.E.; Glass, R.E.

1981-12-01

245

Dynamic simulation models for selective sulfur removal in coal gasification systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted, under EPRI Agreement RP1038-6, to investigate the feasibility of using computer simulation models to predict the steady-state and transient behavior of selective acid gas treating units. One of the prime objectives was to determine whether these models could be used to simulate the acid gas absorption units in coal gasification-combined cycle (GCC) power plants. Two dynamic simulation models were investigated; one model was developed by S-Cubed (formerly Systems, Science and Software) and the other was an in-house program developed by Hyprotech Ltd. These models were tailored specifically for the Norton Co. SELEXOL process for this study and incorporated an empirically fitted property package to represent the solvent. Both models used the same property package and were tested against SELEXOL plant data provided from the Bi-Gas pilot plant in Homer City, Pennsylvania, the Texaco pilot plant in Montebello, California and the TVA pilot plant in Muscle Shoals, Alabama. The results of this study are presented in this report. Although there were inconsistencies in some of the plant data, the models appeared to compare favorably with the plant data. The S-Cubed and Hyprotech model yielded nearly identical results when tested against the Bi-Gas plant data. Overall, the Hyprotech model proved to be faster than the S-Cubed version by about an order of magnitude and therefore offered the more attractive option for general simulation applications. However, further work is still needed to improve the solvent property predictions in the model. 7 refs.

Vysniauskas, T.; Sim, W.D.

1985-07-01

246

Heat exchanger for coal gasification process  

DOEpatents

This invention provides a heat exchanger, particularly useful for systems requiring cooling of hot particulate solids, such as the separated fines from the product gas of a carbonaceous material gasification system. The invention allows effective cooling of a hot particulate in a particle stream (made up of hot particulate and a gas), using gravity as the motive source of the hot particulate. In a preferred form, the invention substitutes a tube structure for the single wall tube of a heat exchanger. The tube structure comprises a tube with a core disposed within, forming a cavity between the tube and the core, and vanes in the cavity which form a flow path through which the hot particulate falls. The outside of the tube is in contact with the cooling fluid of the heat exchanger.

Blasiole, George A. (Greensburg, PA)

1984-06-19

247

Pricetown I underground coal gasification field test: operations report  

SciTech Connect

An Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) field test in bituminous coal was successfully completed near Pricetown, West Virginia. The primary objective of this field test was to determine the viability of the linked vertical well (LVV) technology to recover the 900 foot deep, 6 foot thick coal seam. A methane rich product gas with an average heating value of approximately 250 Btu/SCF was produced at low air injection flow rates during the reverse combustion linkage phase. Heating value of the gas produced during the linkage enhancement phase was 221 Btu/SCF with air injection. The high methane formation has been attributed to the thermal and hydrocracking of tars and oils along with hydropyrolysis and hydrogasification of coal char. The high heating value of the gas was the combined effect of residence time, flow pattern, injection flow rate, injection pressure, and back pressure. During the gasification phase, a gas with an average heating value of 125 Btu/SCF was produced with only air injection, which resulted in an average energy production of 362 MMBtu/day.

Agarwal, A.K.; Seabaugh, P.W.; Zielinski, R.E.

1981-01-01

248

Mineral associations in coal and their transformation during gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principle aim of this investigation was to determine the effect that minerals and mineral associations in dense medium coal fractions have on the ash fusion temperature (AFT) of coal, where the mineral matter associated with coal undergoes transformations during gasification. Samples from three coal sources used by Sasol for gasification were acquired and a comprehensive characterisation on all dense medium fractions was conducted, including proximate analyses, AFT, ash oxide analyses, XRD and Mssbauer spectroscopy. From the proximate analyses, the ash content was the highest for the higher density fractions, with an accompanying decrease in fixed carbon content, consistent with the XRD and Mssbauer analyses. From the ash oxide analyses, it was evident that at higher relative densities more Fe2O3 and SiO2 were present than in the lower density samples. From XRD analyses, the low density fractions contained calcite and dolomite. Pyrite and quartz were found in the higher density fractions whereas kaolinite occurred in all density separated fractions. From the different techniques it follows that with the Fe-content high in high density fractions, the AFT was low. When Ca and other basic oxide levels were abundant in low density fractions, the AFT was low and when the SiO2/Al2O3 ratio was high in high density fractions the AFT increased.

Waanders, F. B.; Govender, A.

2005-11-01

249

LLNL In Situ Coal Gasification Project. Quarterly Progress Report, April-June 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have continued our laboratory work on forward gasification through drilled holes in blocks of coal. These tests have produced some insight into cavity growth mechanisms and particulate production in Wyodak coal. The results will be presented at the Six...

D. U. Olness

1980-01-01

250

Some Observations from Temperature Measurements on Recent Underground Coal Gasification Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent underground coal gasification experiments at the Laramie Energy Research Center (LERC) field site at Hanna, Wyoming have been monitored with an array of subsurface thermocouples located in and near the coal seam. These temperature measurements are ...

S. G. Beard R. P. Reed

1976-01-01

251

Sulfur Recovery in a Coal Gasification Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the western coal feed, the combination of a non-selective Selexol process for acid gas removal, FMC Double Alkali process for flue gas cleanup, and a Stretford process for sulfur recovery, was the most economical among the cases studied. For the easte...

W. S. Chia F. A. Todd

1978-01-01

252

UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project entitled ''Utilization of Lightweight Materials Made from Coal Gasification Slags'' was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of manufacturing low-unit-weight products from coal gasification slags which can be used as substitutes for conventional lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates. In Phase I, the technology developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates from slag (termed SLA) was applied to produce a large batch (10 tons) of expanded slag using pilot direct-fired rotary kilns and a fluidized bed calciner. The expanded products were characterized using basic characterization and application-oriented tests. Phase II involved the demonstration and evaluation of the use of expanded slag aggregates to produce a number of end-use applications including lightweight roof tiles, lightweight precast products (e.g., masonry blocks), structural concrete, insulating concrete, loose fill insulation, and as a substitute for expanded perlite and vermiculite in horticultural applications. Prototypes of these end-use applications were made and tested with the assistance of commercial manufacturers. Finally, the economics of expanded slag production was determined and compared with the alternative of slag disposal. Production of value-added products from SLA has a significant potential to enhance the overall gasification process economics, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are considered.

Vas Choudhry; Stephen Kwan; Steven R. Hadley

2001-07-01

253

Underground Coal Gasification Program: FY84 annual report  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Department of Energy's Underground Coal Gasification research program, activities at Sandia National Laboratories during FY84 have included cornering water jet drill development, subsidence and cavity growth modeling in support of the Tono PSC field experiments, field testing of the CSAMT remote monitoring technique, and laboratory experimentation and site characterization planning in support of the Eastern bituminous UCG program. Accomplishments for the year include completion of the cornering water jet drill program, including a field proof-of-concept demonstration; comparisons of cavity growth and subsidence model calculations with results of the Tono field experiments, demonstrating the ability of these models to predict cavity/overburden interactions affecting the gasification process; remote CSAMT monitoring of the Tono field experiment and demonstration of the ability of the technique to detect process effects remotely and in real time; development and testing of a laboratory gasification system to investigate early cavity growth and other phenomena in swelling Eastern bituminous coals; and detailed site characterization planning for the upcoming Eastern UCG field program. 40 references.

Tyner, C.E. (ed.)

1985-03-01

254

Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant public design report. Volume I  

SciTech Connect

This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design information for the Great Plains Gasification Project, the first commercial coal gasification facility in the United States. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the plant owners, and the role of the Department of Energy are briefly discussed. Plant capital and operating costs are also presented. An overview of the mine and plant operations is presented and is followed by detailed nonproprietary descriptions of the individual process units, plant systems, and products. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. The process units are described as they were planned by July 1984. Any modification or alteration that occurred after that date will be the subject of a followup work. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety considerations are also addressed for each operating unit. The report is published in two volumes. Volume I contains: (1) introduction; (2) overview of project (plant and mine, plant facilities, Basin Electric Antelope Valley Station); and (3) plant process data (coal, oxygen and steam, gasification and gas processing). 53 refs., 80 figs., 36 tabs.

Miller, W.R.; Belt, R.J.; Honea, F.I.; Ness, H.M.; Lang, R.A.; Berty, T.E.; Delany, R.C.; Mako, P.F.

1985-07-01

255

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Volume 1, Final report, September 1987--October 1993  

SciTech Connect

A five-year Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) was awarded to Texaco on September 30, 1987 to develop and demonstrate hot gas clean-up for the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). The program targeted the development and demonstration of a high efficiency integrated power generating system on a pilot plant scale that includes coal-sorbent slurry preparation, Texaco coal gasification, high temperature in-situ and external sulfur removal, particulate removal, advanced instruction, and if available, a gas turbine. To accomplish these goals, a comprehensive research and demonstration program that included theoretical and bench scale experimental studies, pilot scale demonstration runs, and detailed process economic evaluations was coordinated. The pilot scale studies, which were performed in the 20 tpd gasifiers at Texaco`s Montebello Research Laboratory, integrated in-situ desulfurization, external desulfurization, high temperature filtration and advanced instrumentation. Using data from the bench scale experiments and pilot scale demonstrations, the process economics studies compared the overall Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power plant efficiencies and costs for eighteen hot gas cleanup configurations to the efficiencies and costs for two ``base cases`` using commercially available cold gas cleanup technology. Several promising configurations using hot gas cleanup were identified.

Robin, A.M.; Davis, L.A.; Leininger, T.F. [and others

1993-10-01

256

A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The lower cost and higher catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} required for high coal char reactivities.

Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

1992-01-01

257

In-situ coal gasification: a new technology  

SciTech Connect

While the technology for underground gasification of Western US subbituminous coals is advancing through efforts at the Hanna and Hoe Creek test sites, the development of an Eastern bituminous coal technology has only begun. The Pricetown 1 field test proved the feasibility of gasifying the thin-seam, swelling bituminous coal resources. Key issues remaining to be demonstrated include an effective linkage method, means of controlling gas production and composition, and scale-up. A major field-test program could entail three phases: (1) resolving the linkage and process control problems in the Appalachian basin, (2) assessing the technology in the untested Illinois basin, and (3) testing a multimodule commercial-scale prototype.

Agarwal, A.K.; Zielinski, R.E.; Seabaugh, P.W.; Liberatore, A.J.; Martin, J.W.

1982-01-01

258

NETL, USDA design coal-stabilized biomass gasification unit  

SciTech Connect

Coal, poultry litter, contaminated corn, rice hulls, moldly hay, manure sludge - these are representative materials that could be tested as fuel feedstocks in a hybrid gasification/combustion concept studied in a recent US Department of Energy (DOE) design project. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) collaborated to develop a design concept of a power system that incorporates Hybrid Biomass Gasification. This system would explore the use of a wide range of biomass and agricultural waste products as gasifier feedstocks. The plant, if built, would supply one-third of electrical and steam heating needs at the USDA's Beltsville (Maryland) Agricultural Research Center. 1 fig., 1 photo.

NONE

2008-09-30

259

Process and technology development activities for in situ coal gasification, FY83  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of DOE's Underground Coal Gasification Program, activities at Sandia National Laboratories have been directed at Process and Technology Development. The project areas include (1) the development of a cornering water jet drill for use in linking vertical wells in Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) tests; (2) the development of a controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) surface geophysical technique for

1983-01-01

260

Summary results of the Centralia partial seam CRIP underground coal gasification field test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field test of the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) concept of underground coal gasification is described. The test utilized the high wall geometry of the Centralia open pit mine to gasify fourteen hundred cubic meters of coal over a thirty day period, using primarily steam and oxygen as the injected reactants. Three distinct periods of gasification are discussed: the

R. J. Cena; R. W. Hill; D. R. Stephens; C. B. Thorsness

1984-01-01

261

Kinetics of Catalyzed Steam Gasification of Low-Rank Coals to Produce Hydrogen. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal goal of coal char-steam gasification research is to establish the feasibility of low-rank coal gasification for hydrogen production. The program has focused on determining reaction conditions for maximum product gas hydrogen content and on e...

S. J. Galegher R. C. Timpe W. G. Willson S. A. Farnum

1986-01-01

262

Influence of high carbon monoxide concentration on the carbon dioxide gasification of a selected coal char  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the effect of high CO concentration on CO2 gasification rates of chars of Illinois #6 coal, a bituminous coal that is industrially important because of its relatively high reactivity and low pollutant emissions. A pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) is used to obtain char gasification mass loss and surface area measurements. The mass loss profiles of Illinois

Nancy Ko-Chieh Tsai

2000-01-01

263

Concepts of fundamental processes related to gasification of coal. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress reports for the following investigations are presented: (1) single stage catalytic coal gasification; (2) single stage coal gasification to high Btu gas; (3) reaction of aromatic compounds with steam. The objective of the first project is to optimize the process variables and catalyst systems to maximize methane yields. For project two, the objective is to investigate the potential for

1981-01-01

264

Availability analysis handbook for coal gasification and combustion turbine-based power systems. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This handbook addresses the analysis of the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of advanced-technology coal gasification power generation plants, subsytems, and components. It includes methods, procedures, and data needed to perform complete RAM analyses of advanced-technology coal gasification plants. 9 refs., 41 figs., 44 tabs.

H. P. Himpler; R. C. Young

1985-01-01

265

Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study: Volume 2, Industrial hygiene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occupational health study performed in Obilich, Kosova, Yugoslavia, evaluated the potential health impact of the operation of a commercial-scale coal gasification facility on the workers and on public health. The effect of exposures to various chemical agents in the working environment generated in the coal gasification process was studied in exposed and control worker populations. A detailed assessment of

M. T. Brandt; J. O. Jackson; C. R. Sutcliffe; O. Jr. White; E. T. Premuzic; S. C. Morris; M. A. Haxhiu; A. Abazi; M. Jockic; B. Jonuzi

1987-01-01

266

Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT) is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering (WRCGR) Project, as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1992). Repowering consists of replacing an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies to achieve significantly improved environmental performance. The desire to demonstrate utility repowering with a two-stage, pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system prompted Destec Energy, Inc., and PSI Energy, Inc., to form a joint venture and submit a proposal for this project. In July 1992, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (WRCGRPJV, the Participant) entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. The project was sited at PSI Energy's Wabash River Generating Station, located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate IGCC repowering using a Destec gasifier and to assess long-term reliability, availability, and maintainability of the system at a fully commercial scale. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding (for capital and operating costs during the demonstration period) of $438 million. Construction for the demonstration project was started in July 1993. Pre-operational tests were initiated in August 1995, and construction was completed in November 1995. Commercial operation began in November 1995, and the demonstration period was completed in December 1999. The independent evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information provided in Wabash's Final Report (Dowd 2000), as well as other references and bibliographic sources.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2002-01-15

267

CFD simulation of entrained-flow coal gasification: Coal particle density\\/sizefraction effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of commercial-scale two-stage upflow and single-stage downflow entrained-flow gasifiers was conducted to study effects of simulating both the coal particle density and size variations. A previously-developed gasification CFD model was modified to account for coal particle density and size distributions as produced from a typical rod mill. Postprocessing tools were developed for analysis of particlewall

Andrew Slezak; John M. Kuhlman; Lawrence J. Shadle; James Spenik; Shaoping Shi

2010-01-01

268

Investigation of reaction of heteroatoms during coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The disposition of the heteroatomic structures contain coal during gasification. The understanding of the behavior of the sulfur containing entities is of special importance because of environmental concerns. This investigation deals with the correlation between the structural incorporation of sulfur and oxygen and the production of hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide as sulfur containing gases and carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane as nonsulfur containing gases. Well characterized sulfur structures were introduced into bituminous coal in low concentration by 0-alkylation methodology into the coal structure so their behavior at elevated temperatures could be monitored. Pyrolysis experiments were performed using a wire screen reactor and temperature programmed pyrolysis high-resolution mass spectroscopic techniques. The relationships between the structural components and the evolution of gases is discussed. Finally, the structural mobility of the anchoring group during the pyrolysis has been demonstrated. For example, the 2-butylthiophene fragment incorporated in coal structure was converted into benzothiophene along with many intermediate compounds. In addition, a few oxygen and nitrogen containing fragments were also introduced in coal structure and the coals were subsequently pyrolyzed. However, their behavior during the pyrolysis was not extensively studied. 83 refs., 68 figs., 26 tabs.

Bal, B.S.; Bal, R.B.; Stock, L.M.; Zabransky, R.F.

1988-03-01

269

Underground coal gasification: a leading contender in the synfuels industry  

SciTech Connect

Underground coal gasification (UCG) promieses to be a relatively low cost, environmentaly sound method for producing clean fuels from coal deposits that are unattractive for mining. The coal is gasified in place, with the reactions supported by oxygen and steam piped down from the surface. Gases produced by the combustion reactions are piped to the surface, where they can be converted to various useful fuels such as pipeline quality gas or gasoline at costs estimated to be competitive with those for fuels from conventional sources. Huge deposits of deep coal exist in the US which are not economically recoverable by mining. It appears that a successful UCG process could recover enough of these presently unusable resources to quadruple our coal reserves. Thus there is a strong economic incentive to develop the UCG process. As a further advantage, the UCG process is expected to have only minor environmental impact since the coal is consumed underground and most of the waste products remain there. In the US, an R and D program in UCG has been supported by the Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies for about a decade, and private industry has also been active in developing the process; elsewhere in the world, development programs are being carried on in a number of countries. Results have been very encouraging, and it appears that if government and industry continue to support UCG development, then the UCG process could become commercially established by the 1990s.

Stephens, D.R.

1981-10-27

270

High pressure rotary piston coal feeder for coal gasification applications  

DOEpatents

The subject development is directed to an apparatus for feeding pulverized coal into a coal gasifier operating at relatively high pressures and elevated temperatures. This apparatus is a rotary piston feeder which comprises a circular casing having a coal loading opening therein diametrically opposed from a coal discharge and contains a rotatable discoid rotor having a cylinder in which a reciprocateable piston is disposed. The reciprocation of the piston within the cylinder is provided by a stationary conjugate cam arrangement whereby the pulverized coal from a coal hopper at atmospheric pressure can be introduced into the cylinder cavity and then discharged therefrom into the high-pressure gasifier without the loss of high pressure gases from within the latter.

Gencsoy, Hasan T. (Morgantown, WV)

1977-05-24

271

Feasibility study for underground coal gasification at the Krabi Coal Mine site, Thailand. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, conducted by Energy and Environmental Research Center, was funded by the U.S Trade and Development Agency. The report summarizes the accomplishments of field, analytical data evaluation and modeling activities focused on assessment of underground coal gasification (UCG) feasibility at Krabi over a two year period. The overall objective of the project was to determine the technical issues, environmental

J. Boysen; J. Sole; C. R. Schmit; J. A. Harju; B. C. Young

1997-01-01

272

LLNL Underground Coal Gasification Project annual report - fiscal year 1984  

SciTech Connect

The Laboratory has been conducting an interdisciplinary underground coal gasification program since 1974 under the sponsorship of DOE and its predecessors. We completed three UCG tests at the Hoe Creek site near Gillette, Wyoming, during the period 1975 to 1979. Five small field experiments, the large-block tests, were completed from 1981 to 1982 at the exposed coal face in the WIDCO coal mine near Centralia, Washington. A larger test at the same location, the partial-seam CRIP test, was completed during fiscal year 1984. In conjunction with the DOE and an industrial group lead by the Gas Research Institute, we have prepared a preliminary design for a large-scale test at the WIDCO site. The planned test features dual injection and production wells, module interaction, and consumption of 20,000 tons of coal during a hundred-day steam-oxygen gasification. During fiscal year 1984, we documented the large-block excavations. The cavities were elongated, the cavity cross sections were elliptical, and the cavities contained ash and slag at the bottom, char and dried coal above that, and a void at the top. The results from the large-block tests provided enough data to allow us to construct a composite model, CAVSM. Preliminary results from the model agree well with the product-gas chemistry and cavity shape observed in the large-block tests. Other models and techniques developed during the year include a transient, moving-front code, a two-dimensional, reactive-flow code using the method of lines, and a wall-recession-rate model. In addition, we measured the rate of methane decomposition in the hot char bed and developed an engineering rate expression to estimate the magnitude of the methane-decomposition reaction. 16 refs., 30 figs., 1 tab.

Stephens, D.R.; O'Neal, E.M. (eds.)

1985-06-15

273

Modeling the underground coal gasification process: part III-subsidence  

SciTech Connect

The cavity created by underground coal gasification (UCG) will be associated with some degree of subsidence in the overburden above the cavity. Subsidence refers to the adjustment in the earth which is made in response to the creation of a subsurface cavity. This subsidence can take a variety of forms, some of which can cause considerable damage both to the environment and to the UCG process and associated equipment. This article reviews the physical and geometrical factors which must be considered in subsidence modeling and the empirical, analytical, numerical, and phenomenological approaches used to model subsidence in UCG. Finally, the results of applying these subsidence models to UCG field tests are reviewed.

Krantz, W.B.; Gunn, R.D.

1983-01-01

274

Underground coal gasification: the state-of-the-art  

SciTech Connect

This symposium volume includes the papers presented in two special technical sessions reviewing the state-of-the-art in underground coal gasification that were part of the 1982 Spring National Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers held in Anaheim, CA, on June 6-10, 1982. The papers contribute to the understanding of large-scale testing of the UCG process, instrumentation for these tests as well as for commercial-scale operations, modeling studies of the process technology, environmental effect of UCG operations, and possible uses of the product gas.

Krantz, W.B.; Gunn, R.D.

1983-01-01

275

Synthetic fuels: Status of the Great Plains coal gasification project  

SciTech Connect

Sponsors of the Great Plains coal gasification project in North Dakota defaulted on a federal loan in the amount of $1.54 billion. The Department of Energy has obtained title to the Great Plains project and is evaluating proposals from investment banking-type companies to assist it in selling the plant and its assets. This fact sheet highlights recent legal action concerning gas purchase agreements and mortgage foreclosure; the status of the project's sponsors' outstanding liability; DOE's progress in evaluating its options; revenue, expense, production, and plant employment data; capital improvement projects; and plant maintenance issues.

Not Available

1987-01-01

276

Centralia partial seam CRIP underground coal gasification experiment  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the result of the partial seam controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) underground coal gasification (UCG) field experiment carried out at the Washington Irrigation and Development Company (WIDCO) Mine near Centralia, Washington, in the fall of 1983. The test was designed to take advantage of the high-wall geometry at the mine and was carried out near the site of the earlier (1981 to 1982) large-block experiments. The primary goals of the experiment were to test the CRIP concept and to further evaluate the site as a potential for the future development of UCG.

Cena, R.J.; Hill, R.W.; Stephens, D.R.; Thorsness, C.B.

1984-06-01

277

Lock hopper valves for coal gasification. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The design, fabrication, and testing of two configurations of Lock Hopper Valves is described. These two configurations are intended to meet the requirements for four typical types of service in coal gasification plants. Operating pressures for either configuration is 1600 psi. One configuration is designed for use at temperatures up to 2000/sup 0/F, and the other for temperatures up to 850/sup 0/F. Several unique construction features are employed, including the extensive use of dense alumina ceramic, especially in the high-temperature valve. The description includes details of construction, and problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and proposed solutions to those problems.

Not Available

1981-05-01

278

Coal gasification. March 1972-January 1990 (A Bibliography from the US Patent data base). Report for March 1972-January 1990  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning devices and processes used in the gasification of coals. Coal-gasification processes, catalysts, and catalyst recovery; desulfurization during gasification; heating methods; pretreatment of coals; process variables; heat recovery; and peripheral equipment are cited. Examples of gasification processes include catalytic systems using alkali metals, stream decomposition, air or oxygen decomposition, thermal cracking, coal-water suspension systems, arc-discharge burning, and fluidized-bed gasification. Liquefaction of coal is examined in a related published bibliography. (Contains 214 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-03-01

279

Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. Topical report, July 1992--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP, or Wabash Project) is a joint venture of Destec Energy, Inc. of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc. of Plainfield, Indiana, who will jointly repower an existing 1950 vintage coal-fired steam generating plant with coal gasification combined cycle technology. The Project is located in West Terre Haute, Indiana at PSI`s existing Wabash River Generating Station. The Project will process locally-mined Indiana high-sulfur coal to produce 262 megawatts of electricity. PSI and Destec are participating in the Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology Program to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments. As a Clean Coal Round IV selection, the project will demonstrate integration of an existing PSI steam turbine generator and auxiliaries, a new combustion turbine generator, heat recovery steam generator tandem, and a coal gasification facility to achieve improved efficiency, reduced emissions, and reduced installation costs. Upon completion in 1995, the Project will not only represent the largest coal gasification combined cycle power plant in the United States, but will also emit lower emissions than other high sulfur coal-fired power plants and will result in a heat rate improvement of approximately 20% over the existing plant configuration. As of the end of December 1993, construction work is approximately 20% complete for the gasification portion of the Project and 25% complete for the power generation portion.

Not Available

1994-01-01

280

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand demanding conditions of high temperatures and pressure differentials. Under the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas, the performance of components degrade significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. A review of the literature indicates that the corrosion reaction is the competition between oxidation and sulfidation reactions. The Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Angel Sanjurjo

2004-05-01

281

Mild coal gasification screw pyrolyzer development and design  

SciTech Connect

Our objective is to produce information and design recommendations needed for the development of an efficient continuous process for the mild gasification of caking bituminous coals. We have focused on the development of an externally heated pyrolyzer in which the sticky, reacting coal is conveyed by one or more screws. We have taken a multifaceted approach to forwarding the development of the externally-heated screw pyrolyzer. Small scale process experiments on a 38-mm single screw pyrolyzer have been a major part of our effort. Engineering analyses aimed at producing design and scaleup equations have also been important. Process design recommendations follow from these. We critically review our experimental data and experience, and information from the literature and equipment manufactures for the purpose of making qualitative recommendations for improving practical pyrolyzer design and operation. Benchscale experiments are used to supply needed data and test some preliminary concepts. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Camp, D.W.

1990-08-01

282

Computational fluid dynamics modeling of coal gasification in a pressurized spout-fluid bed  

SciTech Connect

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, which has recently proven to be an effective means of analysis and optimization of energy-conversion processes, has been extended to coal gasification in this paper. A 3D mathematical model has been developed to simulate the coal gasification process in a pressurized spout-fluid bed. This CFD model is composed of gas-solid hydrodynamics, coal pyrolysis, char gasification, and gas phase reaction submodels. The rates of heterogeneous reactions are determined by combining Arrhenius rate and diffusion rate. The homogeneous reactions of gas phase can be treated as secondary reactions. A comparison of the calculated and experimental data shows that most gasification performance parameters can be predicted accurately. This good agreement indicates that CFD modeling can be used for complex fluidized beds coal gasification processes. 37 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Zhongyi Deng; Rui Xiao; Baosheng Jin; He Huang; Laihong Shen; Qilei Song; Qianjun Li [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education

2008-05-15

283

Coal gasification combined cycle: on-line in the 80's  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Westinghouse Coal-Gasification Combined-Cycle System is an economical and environmentally acceptable method of generating electricity from coal. The cost of generating electricity using the CGCC is projected to be below the electricity cost from a conventional coal-fired steam power plant. The Westinghouse gasification system, because of its unique fluid dynamic design and moderate operating conditions, is able to efficiently process

D. P. Dominicis; R. V. Garland; F. T. Krahulik

1982-01-01

284

Phased construction of integrated coal-gasification combined-cycled power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated coal-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant is a combined-cycle plant fueled by synthetic fuel gas produced by gasifying coal. It can be constructed in several phases, operating first as a combined-cycle power plant fueled by natural gas. A coal-gasification facility is added later to supply the fuel. The problem is how to design a plant to operate in such

Erbes

1987-01-01

285

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Underground Coal Gasification project  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been actively developing Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) technology for 15 years. The goal of the project has been to develop a fundamental technological understanding of UCG and foster the commercialization of the process. In striving to achieve this goal the LLNL project has carried out laboratory experiments, developed mathematical models, actively participated in technology transfer programs, and conducted field test experiments. As a result of this work the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) concept was developed which helps insure optimum performance of an underground gasifier in a flat seam, and provides a means to produce multiple gasification cavities. The LLNL field work culminated in the Rocky Mountain I field test in which a gasifier using the CRIP technology generated gas of a quality equal to that of surface gasifiers. This last test and others preceding it have demonstrated beyond any reasonable doubt, that UCG is technically feasible in moderately thick coal seams at modest depths. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

Thorsness, C.B.; Britten, J.A.

1989-10-15

286

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. A review of the literature indicated that the Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers. We selected diffusion coatings of Cr and Al, and surface coatings of Si and Ti for the preliminary testing. These coatings will be applied using the fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition technique developed at SRI which is rapid and relatively inexpensive. We have procured coupons of typical alloys used in a gasifier. These coupons will be coated with Cr, Al, Si, and Ti. The samples will be tested in a bench-scale reactor using simulated coal gas compositions. In addition, we will be sending coated samples for insertion in the gas stream of the coal gasifier.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Angel Sanjurjo

2004-05-01

287

Costs and technical characteristics of environmental control processes for low-Btu coal gasification plants  

SciTech Connect

Technical characteristics and costs of 25 individual environmental control processes that can be used for treating low-Btu coal gas are given. These processes are chosen from a much larger array of potential environmental control processes because of their likely applicability to low-Btu coal gasification operations and because of the limited scope of this study. The selected processes cover gas treating, by-product recovery, wastewater treating, and particulate recovery operations that are expected to be encountered in coal gasification operations. Although the existence of the Resource Conservtion and Recovery Act of 1976 is recognized, no treatment schemes for solid wastes are evaluated because of the paucity of information in this area. The potential costs of emission controls (by using eight integrated combinations of these 25 environmental control processes) in conceptual low-Btu coal gasification plants are given in an adjunct report titled Evaluation of Eight Environmental Control Systems for Low-Btu Coal Gasification Plants, ORNL-5481.

Singh, S.P.N.; Salmon, R.; Fisher, J.F.; Peterson, G.R.

1980-06-01

288

Engineering Support Services for the DOE/GRI Coal-Gasification Research Program. Technical and Economic Assessment of the Westinghouse Fluidized-Bed Coal Gasification Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kellogg was requested by DOE/GRI to perform a technical and economic assessment of the Westinghouse fluidized bed coal gasification process as applied to production of SNG equivalent to 250 billion BTU/day from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. Based on operating ex...

D. A. Hubbard L. E. Bostwick R. W. Laramore T. R. Ethridge

1981-01-01

289

Engineering support services for the DOE\\/GRI coal-gasification research program. Technical and economic assessment of the Westinghouse fluidized-bed coal gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kellogg was requested by DOE\\/GRI to perform a technical and economic assessment of the Westinghouse fluidized bed coal gasification process as applied to production of SNG equivalent to 250 billion BTU\\/day from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. Based on operating experiences in the PDU, where most of the key variables have been demonstrated during 5+ years of testing, Westinghouse provided process

L. E. Bostwick; D. A. Hubbard; R. W. Laramore; T. R. Ethridge

1981-01-01

290

Chemistry and mechanism of molten salt catalysts in coal gasification processes. Final report Dec 81Jan 84  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkali metal salts have been recognized as effective catalysts in coal gasification. The way in which these materials promote catalysis of the gasification reactions is largely unknown. Electrochemical methods, including cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry, have been applied to study the solution chemistry of salt catalysts based upon alkali carbonate sulfate and chloride mixtures equilibrated with gaseous components of coal gasification

S. H. White; U. M. Twardoch

1984-01-01

291

Status of health and environmental research relative to coal gasification 1976 to the present  

SciTech Connect

Health and environmental research relative to coal gasification conducted by Argonne National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under DOE sponsorship is summarized. The studies have focused on the chemical and toxicological characterization of materials from a range of process streams in five bench-scale, pilot-plant and industrial gasifiers. They also address ecological effects, industrial hygiene, environmental control technology performance, and risk assessment. Following an overview of coal gasification technology and related environmental concerns, integrated summaries of the studies and results in each area are presented and conclusions are drawn. Needed health and environmental research relative to coal gasification is identified.

Wilzbach, K.E.; Reilly, C.A. Jr. (comps.)

1982-10-01

292

Characterization, Extraction, and Reuse of Coal Gasification Solid Wastes. Volume 3. Technical and Economic Feasibility of Bulk Utilization and Metal Recovery for Ashes from an Integrated Coal Gasification Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal gasification waste products, including those from Lurgi gasification, have different properties from the combustion ashes, especially with respect to mineralogy. To date, comparatively little effort has been directed toward the investigation of bulk ...

D. J. Hassett D. L. Laudal O. E. Manz R. C. Ellman

1986-01-01

293

Effect of thermal and structural properties on the growth of an underground coal-gasification cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In field and laboratory studies of underground coal gasification, the growth of the cavity about the initial link has varied from the approximately circular cross section observed in the Hanna Basin coals, to cavities with 2:1 ratios of vertical to horizontal growth as has been observed in the Powder River Basin coals. A model based on the thermal and structural

1983-01-01

294

LLNL in situ coal gasification project. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have continued our laboratory work on forward gasification through drilled holes in blocks of coal. These tests have produced some insight into cavity growth mechanisms and particulate production in Wyodak coal. The results will be presented at the Sixth Underground Coal Conversion Symposium in July. The data from the Hanna 4B experiment have been incorporated into the UCC Data

Olness

1980-01-01

295

Physical and numerical modeling results for controlling groundwater contaminants following shutdown of underground coal gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater contamination has resulted from some of in-situ gasification field tests, and concern over groundwater contamination may hamper commercialization. When UCG recovery operations are terminated, energy remains stored as heat in the adjacent masses of rock and coal ash, and this energy is transferred into the coal seam. Coal continues to pyrolyze as a result of the transferred energy; the

J. E. Boysen; C. G. Mones; R. R. Glaser; S. Sullivan

1987-01-01

296

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory underground coal gasification data base. [US DOE-supported field tests; data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of field projects to determine the feasibility of converting the nation's vast coal reserves into a clean efficient energy source via underground coal gasification (UCG). Due to these tests, a significant data base of process information has developed covering a range of coal seams (flat subbituminous, deep flat bituminous and steeply dipping

R. J. Cena; C. B. Thorsness

1981-01-01

297

Excavation of the Partial Seam CRIP underground coal gasification test site  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fall of 1983, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory conducted the Partial Seam CRIP (PSC) underground coal gasification (UCG) field experiment at the Washington Irrigation and Development Company mine near Centralia, Washington. The test, in the subbituminous Big Dirty coal seam, lasted 30 days during which time 1400 cubic meters of coal were consumed from two injection\\/production well combinations. In

R. J. Cena; J. A. Britten; C. B. Thorsness

1987-01-01

298

Summary of the geology at the underground coal gasification site, Pricetown, WV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center is planning to conduct a field experiment for the in situ recovery of the Pittsburgh Coal at the Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test site, Pricetown, West Virginia. Since the project's inception, field data have been collected and used to evaluate the pre-burn character of the coal seam and the adjacent strata. The results show that

OBrien

1978-01-01

299

A model for cavity growth and resource recovery during underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model describing cavity growth and gas production during underground coal gasification (UCG) has been developed. It is applicable to UCG of shrinking coals in which oxidant injection is maintained at a fixed point low in the coal seam. It is based on a few fundamental assumptions; namely that the cavity is axisymmetric about the injection point, all resistance to

J. A. Britten; C. B. Thorsness

1989-01-01

300

Effects of coal gasification environments on corrosion behavior and mechanical properties of siliconized silicon carbide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential applications of structural ceramic materials in coal gasifiers include high-temperature heat exchangers. This study is an evaluation of the effects of a coal gasification environment on the oxidation and corrosion behavior and mechanical properties of a candidate heat exchanger material, siliconized silicon carbide. The effects of exposure with and without acidic and basic coal slag coatings were studied. It

Easler

1985-01-01

301

Controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) system: a modified-stream method for in situ coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underground coal gasification process, in practice, is subject to various problems that make it difficult to maintain and control an efficient long-term operation. One of the major problems is the need to move the injection point (where the combustion-supporting air or oxygen from the surface is fed into the coal seam) to new areas of unburned coal as the

R. W. Hill; M. J. Shannon

1981-01-01

302

Concepts of fundamental processes related to gasification of coal. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research projects are described: (1) single stage catalytic coal gasification is an attractive concept as a direct method of producing high BTU gas from coal. This process involves the introduction of a coal-solvent slurry and hydrogen gas into a fixed bed catalytic reactor, which employs a catalyst high in hydrogenation and cracking activity. Steam may also be added to

1981-01-01

303

Interaction of subsurface waters with the combustion site during underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

and important problem determining the expediency of using UCG when mining coal deposits. The main sources of subsurface water pollution during UCG are the combustion site in the coal bed and gasification products, representing a mixture of steam and gas products of complete and incomplete combustion of coal and its thermal decomposition, which can enter substtrface waters and be dissolved

E. V. Dvornikova; E. V. Kreinin

1993-01-01

304

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for gasification integrated power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50+% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with the Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but direct test data from coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This research effort evaluates

Gregory A. Hackett; Kirk R. Gerdes; Xueyan Song; Yun Chen; V. Shutthanandan; Mark H. Engelhard; Zihua Zhu; Suntharampillai Thevuthasan; Randall Gemmen

2012-01-01

305

Structural mechanics simulations associated with underground coal gasification. [Including temperature dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical simulations of the structural and thermal responses associated with the Longwall Generator concept of underground coal gasification are described. The work includes characterization of the mechanical properties of coal and shale overburden at elevated temperature, preliminary thermal and structural response modeling, finite element model formulations, and master model analysis. The characterization of mechanical properties of coal and shale overburden

Lin; Y. T. T

1978-01-01

306

Sekitan gasuka slag hai no yuko riyoho ni kansuru chosa. (Investigation on utilization of coal gasification slag ash).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to realize effective utilization of gasification furnace slag in entrained bed coal gasification combined cycle power plant, the results of preliminary study was collected in this paper, about the properties of slag, investigation on actual condi...

1989-01-01

307

Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification. Progress report, May 7-August 6, 1984  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research program are (1) to determine the technical feasibility of and (2) to prepare preliminary process evaluations for each of two new approaches to coal gasification. The objective of Task 1, CO/sub 2/-Coal Gasification Concept, is to obtain fundamental information on a novel coal gasification process concept that involves pressurized carbon dioxide-coal gasification followed by a high-temperature carbon dioxide removal step that uses a metal oxide sorbent. The objective of Task 2, Internal Recirculation Catalysts Coal Gasification Process Concept, is to explore the use of novel semivolatile materials as internal recirculation catalysts for coal gasification. During this quarter, a detailed test plan was developed and approved for each of the three subtasks in Task 1 involving experimental work: CO/sub 2/-coal devolatilization studies; CO/sub 2/-coal char gasification studies; and CO/sub 2/ adsorption/desorption studies. Two coals were selected for testing: a North Dakota lignite and an Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. These samples were processed for testing and analysis. The high-temperature thermobalance was readied for testing, instruments were calibrated, and some reactor tube components were replaced. Instrumentation for the CO/sub 2/ adsorption/desorption tests was specified; quotations are being requested from vendors. The literature on the effect of CO/sub 2/ on coal devolatilization characteristics was reviewed. A detailed analysis of the literature data is under way. For Task 2 a detailed test plan was developed and approved for each of the two subtasks in this program involving experimental work: laboratory-scale batch screening tests; and bench-scale tests. Construction of the experimental apparatus for batch screening tests was begun. New batch reactors capable of operation at high temperatures and high pressures under conditions of rapid pressure and temperature change have been received. 3 references, 5 figures.

Babu, S.P.

1984-08-01

308

LLNL underground coal-gasification project. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1981. [Thermodynamic limit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We completed most of the field work on the large block experiments in the Tono Basin of Washington State. The purpose was to investigate the basic burn and gasification characteristics of Big Dirty coal and to provide a design basis for a larger gasification experiment in another part of the Tono Basin, where the Big Dirty seam is several hundred

1982-01-01

309

Concepts of fundamental processes related to gasification of coal. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress reports are presented for the studies on (1) single stage catalytic coal gasification, and (2) reaction of aromatic compounds with steam. The primary objective of (1) is to optimize the process variables and catalyst systems to maximize methane yields. During this quarter, the gasification system was set up and pressure tested. The electrical system was also completed and is

1981-01-01

310

Thermal expansion of slag and fly ash from coal gasification in IGCC power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated gasification in combined cycle (IGCC) is an electrical power generation system which is characterized to be a clean coal technology different than conventional process in combustible treatment. IGCC process gives rise to inorganic solid wastes in the form of vitreous slag and fly ashes with singular thermal properties. The gasification of the fuel takes place at high temperature and

M. Aineto; A. Acosta; J. Ma. Rincn; M. Romero

2006-01-01

311

Reuse of Coal Combustion Ash as Sorbent: The Effect of Gasification Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beneficiation through gasification of coal combustion ash coming from an industrial power plant aimed at its reuse as adsorbent is addressed. The raw ash was gasified in a tubular reactor at 850C for times ranging from 10 to 60min, using either steam or CO2 as gasifying agents. The relationships among ash properties, gasification treatments, and properties of the gasified ashes

Marco Balsamo; Francesco Di Natale; Alessandro Erto; Amedeo Lancia; Fabio Montagnaro; Luciano Santoro

2012-01-01

312

Simulation of coal gasification in a fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

In this analysis of coal gasification, a fundamental approach is used where a set of multiphase (Eulerian) fluid dynamic equations, obtained either by a suitable averaging technique (Anderson and Jackson, 1976; Drew, 1971) or the formulations of continuum mechanics (Drew, 1983), is used to describe the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for three interpenetrating phases. The particles, like the fluidizing gas, are described as interpenetrating continua. Different particle types are treated as distinct phases; in this study, the feed coal and the bed char are represented as separate phases in order to account for their different histories. Constitutive laws account for the exchange of momentum between phases (``drag``) and interphase energy transfer. The stresses within the granular phases are determined by a formulation based on the kinetic theory, characterized by a ``granular temperature``. A computer code, based on this multiphase hydrodynamic model, has been developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center for the detailed simulation of gas and particle dynamics in heavily loaded coal conversion processes (Syamlal, Rogers, O`Brien, 1994; Syamlal, 1995). The hydrodynamic simulation showed the reactor operated in a jetting/bubbling mode. A gas jet penetrated a considerable distance into the bed, and then detached as ``bubbles`` which rose to the top of the column. The reaction scheme indicated that the feed coal did not begin to devolatilize until it had traversed this region, because of the time required to heat up. Thus, volatiles were not released in the jetting region of the bed, but higher in the bed. The oxygen fed with the coal, however, reacted immediately with the recirculating hot char. The net effect of the char reaction scheme was to created. CO, which burned in the region where.the jet detached, creating a, fairly stable ``flame``. The tar reaction scheme indicated that none of the tar escaped the bed.

O`Brien, T.J.

1996-12-31

313

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we focused on getting a bench-scale test system to expose alloy coupons to simulated gasifier environment. The test facility was designed to allow about 20 specimen coupons to be exposed simultaneously for an extend period to a simulated coal gas stream at temperatures up to 1000 C. The simulated gas stream contained about 26%H{sub 2}, 39%CO, 17%CO{sub 2}, 1.4% H{sub 2}S and balance steam. We successfully ran a 100+h test with coated and uncoated stainless steel coupons. The tested alloys include SS304, SS316, SS405, SS409, SS410, and IN800. The main finding is that Ti/Ta coating provides excellent protection to SS405 under conditions where uncoated austenitic and ferritic stainless steel alloy coupons are badly corroded. Cr coatings also appear to afford some protection against corrosion.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-01-01

314

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project public design and construction report  

SciTech Connect

This Public Design Report describes the 1000 ton per day ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration plant now in operation at the Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The objective of the project is to demonstrate that the proprietary Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology can reliably and economically convert low Btu PRB coal into a superior, high-Btu solid fuel (PDF), and an environmentally attractive low-sulfur liquid fuel (CDL). The Project`s plans also call for the production of sufficient quantities of PDF and CDL to permit utility companies to carry out full scale burn tests. While some process as well as mechanical design was done in 1988, the continuous design effort was started in July 1990. Civil construction was started in October 1990; mechanical erection began in May 1991. Virtually all of the planned design work was completed by July 1991. Most major construction was complete by April 1992 followed by plant testing and commissioning. Plant operation began in late May 1992. This report covers both the detailed design and initial construction aspects of the Project.

NONE

1994-12-01

315

Analysis of forward combustion underground coal gasification models  

SciTech Connect

A survey has been made of forward combustion gasification models that are available in the public domain. The six models obtained for study have been mathematically analyzed to determine their conceptual completeness and computational complexity. The models range in scope of generality from a simple constrained mass balance model to a two-dimensional unsteady-state model. The computer code for each model has been implemented on the University of Wyoming CDC CYBER 730/760 computer system. Computed analyses with each of the programs are compared using data (taken primarily from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Data Base) corresponding to six representative DOE sponsored field experiments at Hanna, Hoe Creek, Rawlins, and Pricetown. Four of the field tests were air injection experiments and two were oxygen/steam injection experiments. This study provides a direct comparison of input data requirements and computer resource requirements of the six computer codes. It furnishes an indication of the applicability of each model to the various operating conditions in the different field tests. Computational capabilities and limitations of each model are discussed in detail. 20 references, 47 figures, 13 tables.

Fausett, L.K.; Fausett, D.W.

1984-01-01

316

Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant Public Design Report. Volume II  

SciTech Connect

This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design information for the Great Plains Gasification Project, the first commercial coal gasification facility in the United States. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the plant owners, and the role of the Department of Energy are briefly discussed. Plant capital and operating costs are also presented. An overview of the mine and plant operations is presented and is followed by detailed nonproprietary descriptions of the individual process units, plant systems, and products. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. The process units are described as they were planned by July 1984. Any modification or alteration that occurred after that date will be the subject of a followup work. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety considerations are also addressed for each operating unit. The report is published in two volumes. Volume II contains: (1) plant process data (sulfur recovery, main flare - area 8300, liquid processing, ash handling and solids disposal, other systems); (2) plant startup procedure and schedule; (3) plant and employee safety; (4) GPGP cost data; and (5) references. 53 refs., 46 figs., 38 tabs.

Miller, W.R.; Belt, R.J.; Honea, F.I.; Ness, H.M.; Lang, R.A.; Berty, T.E.; Delany, R.C.; Mako, P.F.

1985-07-01

317

Biotreatment of UCG waste water condensate. [Underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The process of underground coal gasification generates a waste water stream during the cooling and processing of the product gas. The character of the UCG condensate is similar to that produced by surface gasifiers, although there are some differences. The treatment options studied in this laboratory project were activated sludge treatment of raw condensate, activated sludge treatment of stripped condensate, and activated sludge with powdered activated carbon addition for treatment of stripped condensate. The condensates used were obtained from large-scale field tests in Wyoming. Major variables among the treatment options were the amount of dilution water needed to achieve stable operation, the degree of treatment achieved by each option, and the stability of the biological reactor.

Humenick, M.J.

1984-01-01

318

Proceedings of the ninth annual underground coal gasification symposium  

SciTech Connect

The Ninth Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was held August 7 to 10, 1983 at the Indian Lakes Resort and Conference Center in Bloomingdale, Illinois. Over one-hundred attendees from industry, academia, National Laboratories, State Government, and the US Government participated in the exchange of ideas, results and future research plans. Representatives from six countries including France, Belgium, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, West Germany, and Brazil also participated by presenting papers. Fifty papers were presented and discussed in four formal sessions and two informal poster sessions. The presentations described current and future field testing plans, interpretation of field test data, environmental research, laboratory studies, modeling, and economics. All papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

Wieber, P.R.; Martin, J.W.; Byrer, C.W. (eds.)

1983-12-01

319

Modeling of Coal Gasification for Fuel Cell Utilization. Quarterly Progress Report, May 1-August 1, 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of the first three months of effort on the development of a computational model for coal gasification processes to be used in conjunction with molten carbonate fuel cells. A preliminary identification of the requirements ...

P. F. Lewis G. A. Simons K. L. Wray M. L. Finson

1976-01-01

320

Ground-Water and Subsidence Investigations of the LLL in Situ Coal Gasification Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ground-water sampling and subsidence measurements have been carried out at the sites of two in situ coal gasification experiments conducted in northeastern Wyoming by the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Changes in ground-water quality and the possible effe...

F. T. Wang H. C. Ganow S. W. Mead

1978-01-01

321

Control Aspects of Underground Coal Gasification: LLL Investigations of Ground-Water and Subsidence Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our investigations are designed to evaluate some of the environmental implications of in situ coal gasification, and to identify appropriate environmental controls. Changes in ground-water quality and the possible effects of subsidence and ground movement...

S. W. Mead F. T. Wang H. C. Ganow

1978-01-01

322

Hoe Creek Experiments: LLNL'S Underground Coal-Gasification Project in Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy and predecessor organizations, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory carried out a laboratory program and three field, underground coal gasification tests near Gillette, Wyoming. This report summar...

D. R. Stephens

1981-01-01

323

Process and Technology Development Activities for in Situ Coal Gasification, FY83.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of DOE's Underground Coal Gasification Program, activities at Sandia National Laboratories have been directed at Process and Technology Development. The project areas include (1) the development of a cornering water jet drill for use in linking ve...

R. E. Glass

1983-01-01

324

LLNL Underground Coal Gasification Project. Quarterly Progress Report, July-Sep 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory studies of forward gasification through drilled holes in blocks of coal have continued. Such studies give insight into cavity growth mechanisms and particulate production. In addition to obtaining a qualitative comparison of the forward burn ch...

D. U. Olness

1980-01-01

325

Role of Site Characteristics in the Control of Underground Coal Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) offers many potential economic and environmental advantages. Offsetting these advantages is the substantial lack of ability to control the UCG process. For example, only three elements of external process control have b...

B. E. Bader R. E. Glass

1981-01-01

326

Understanding of Phenolic-Compound Production in Coal-Gasification Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this report is to delineate the relationships that govern the production of phenols during coal gasification. Experimental efforts include: (1) bench-scale investigation of the decomposition characteristics of select phenolic compounds in the ...

J. P. Fillo

1979-01-01

327

Centralia Partial SEAM CRIP (Controlled Retracting Injection Point) Underground Coal Gasification Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the result of the partial seam controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) underground coal gasification (UCG) field experiment carried out at the Washington Irrigation and Development Company (WIDCO) Mine near Centralia, Washington...

R. J. Cena R. W. Hill D. R. Stephens C. B. Thorsness

1984-01-01

328

Analysis of Rocky Mountain I Underground Coal Gasification Test. Topical Report, March 1989-December 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the Rocky Mountain I Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Project, the Extended Linked Well (ELW) module and the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) module were operated and demonstrated side-by-side. This engineering analysis of the process da...

F. M. Floyd S. S. Lan

1989-01-01

329

Instrumentation and Process Control Development In Situ Coal Gasification. Thirteenth Quarterly Report, December 1977--February 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hanna IV in situ coal gasification test was ignited on January 24, 1978. Sandia Laboratories is providing instrumentation support by fielding and monitoring diagnostic and remote monitoring instrumentation techniques. All techniques are supported by a...

D. A. Northrop

1978-01-01

330

High Resolution Seismic Survey of the Hanna, Wyoming Underground Coal Gasification Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In June 1983 a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the Department of Energy, Laramie Energy Technology Center's underground coal gasification test site near Hanna, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to locate and characterize undergrou...

1983-01-01

331

High Resolution Seismic Survey (Of the) Rawlins, Wyoming Underground Coal Gasification Area. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In October 1982, a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the Gulf Research and Development Company's underground coal gasification test site near Rawlins, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to utilize high resolution seismic technology t...

A. D. Youngberg A. S. Orange E. Berkman

1983-01-01

332

Advanced Coal-Gasification and - Liquefaction Process Development at Rockwell International.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rockwell International, through its Energy Systems Group, is involved in the development of several advanced technology processes for the conversion of coal to gaseous and liquid products. These include the Rockgas molten salt gasification process and the...

J. Silverman J. Friedman D. Kahn A. Kohl

1981-01-01

333

Coal Gasification Valves, Phase II. Quarterly Technical Progress Report, June 1977--August 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effort in the design of valves to operate at high temperature in coal gasification plants are detailed. A considerable part of the work involves determining the properties of materials, such as ceramics, which may be satisfactory at these temperatures. Th...

1977-01-01

334

Status of Health and Environmental Research Relative to Coal Gasification 1976 to the Present.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Health and environmental research relative to coal gasification conducted by Argonne National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under DOE sponsorship is summarized. The studies have focused on the ...

C. A. Reilly K. E. Wilzbach

1982-01-01

335

Coal gasification valves. Phase I. Type III valve prototype test plan  

SciTech Connect

A plan is provided for development testing of the prototype 8-inch Type III Coal Gasification Valve. Tests include proof pressure, leakage, actuation, and operational (with test media at both ambient and operating temperatures).

Collins, D.S.

1976-12-01

336

Utilization of solid wastes from the gasification of coal-water slurries  

SciTech Connect

It was found that only fly and bottom ashes are the solid wastes of water-coal slurry gasification in a direct-flow gasifier. The yields and chemical compositions of fly and bottom ashes obtained after the gasification of water-coal slurries prepared using brown (B) and long-flame (D) coals from the Berezovskii and Mokhovskii strip mines (Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk Basins, respectively) were characterized. Based on an analysis of currently available information, the areas of utilization of fly and bottom ashes after water-coal slurry gasification with dry ash removal were summarized. The use of these wastes in the construction of high-ways and earthwork structures (for the parent coals of B and D grades) and in the manufacture of ash concrete (for the parent coal of D grade) is most promising.

M.Y. Shpirt; N.P. Goryunova [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01

337

Results of the Centralia underground coal gasification field test  

SciTech Connect

The Centralia Partial Seam CRIP (PSC) test described herein is the second test conducted at this site. The first test was done in the fall and winter of 1981 to 1982 when the Large Block (LBK) tests were successfully completed at the Centralia, Washington site. The LBK tests consisted of five small scale experiments in which approximately 900 to 1800 cubic feet (25 to 50 cubic meters) of coal were affected in each test. The LBK tests indicated that the Centralia site was a reasonable candidate for UCG. The PSC test was then conceived along with a third test, the Full Seam CRIP test, to provide the technical data needed to further evaluate the economic potential of UCG at the Centralia site, as well as enhance our general knowledge concerning the UCG process. The PSC test represents a 20 to 30 fold increase in scale over the LBK tests with the full-seam test representing another five fold increase in size. This series of three tests have become known as the Tono Basin Tests. During the active gasification phase, which lasted 30 days, 1400 cubic meters (2000 tons) of coal were affected. The test utilized primarily steam and oxygen as the injected reactants. Three distinct periods of gasification were observed. The initial period in which the vertical production well was in use which yielded a typical dry gas heating value of 219 kJ/mol (248 Btu/scf). This period was followed by a period of considerably higher gas quality, 261 kJ/mol (296 Btu/scf), which resulted from the switch to the slant production well and the CRIP maneuver. The final period began when a large-scale underground roof fall occurred and the typical dry gas heating value fell to 194 kJ/mol (220 Btu/scf). 7 references, 11 figures, 3 tables.

Hill, R.W.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.; Stephens, D.R.

1984-08-01

338

Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 1. General information and executive summary  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation. This report covers: (1) history of underground coal gasification leading to the Hanna tests; (2) area characteristics (basic meteorological and socioeconomic data); (3) site selection history; (4) site characteristics; (5) permitting; and (6) executive summary. 5 figs., 15 tabs.

Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

1985-08-01

339

Process and technology development activities for in-situ coal gasification, FY 82  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of DOE's Underground Coal-Gasification program, activities at Sandia National Laboratories have been directed at Process and Technology Development. The project areas include (1) the development of a cornering water-jet drill for use in linking vertical wells in Underground Coal-Gasification (UCG) tests; (2) the development of a controlled-source audiofrequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) surface geophysical technique for monitoring the process, and

1983-01-01

340

Modeling of a high-temperature direct coal gasification process in a two-stream reactor  

SciTech Connect

A new scheme for direct gasification of pulverized coal has been analyzed by a mathematical model. Gasification occurs in the annular region of a cylindrical reactor during the cocurrent flow of a steam/coal mixture, with combustion products in the reactor core region serving as an internal heat source. The model incorporates the two equation model for turbulence, mass exchange between phases due to chemical reactions and radiative heat transfer. Detailed calculations are carried out to asses the feasibility of the scheme.

Hanjalic, K.; Sijercic, M. (Univ. of Sarajevo-Energoinvest, Sarajevo (YU)); Crowe, C.T.; Wojcicki, S. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US))

1988-06-01

341

Modeling of a high-temperature direct coal gasification process in a two-stream reactor  

SciTech Connect

A new scheme for direct gasification of pulverized coal has been analyzed by a mathematical model. Gasification occurs in the annular region of a cylindrical reactor during the cocurrent flow of a steam/coal mixture, with combustion products in the reactor core region serving as an internal heat source. The model incorporates the two equation model for turbulence, mass exchange between phases due to chemical reactions and radiative heat transfer. Detailed calculations are carried out to assess the feasibility of the scheme.

Hanjalic, K.; Sijercic, M.; Crowe, C.T.; Wojcicki, S. (Univ. of Sarajevo-Energoinvest (Yugoslavia))

1988-01-01

342

Method of oxygen-enriched two-stage underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-stage underground coal gasification was studied to improve the caloric value of the syngas and to extend gas production times. A model test using the oxygen-enriched two-stage coal gasification method was carried out. The composition of the gas produced, the time ratio of the two stages, and the role of the temperature field were analysed. The results show that oxygen-enriched

Liu Hongtao; Chen Feng; Pan Xia; Yao Kai; Liu Shuqin

2011-01-01

343

BI-GAS coal-gasification program. Final report, November 1979-August 1982  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this report is to cover in detail activities at the BI-GAS Coal-Gasification Pilot Plant from November 1979 through August 1982. During this period Stearns-Roger Incorporated was the prime contractor for the project. Volume 2 contains topical reports which describe the operation of the gasifier and each of the auxiliary process areas as well as heat and material balance data, computer simulation, gasification of Pittsburgh seam coal and materials evaluation.

McIntosh, M.J.

1983-01-31

344

Preburn versus postburn mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of overburden and coal at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification site  

SciTech Connect

Hundreds of mineralogic and geochemical tests were done under US Department of Energy contracts on core samples taken from the Hanna underground coal gasification site. These tests included x-ray diffraction studies of minerals in coal ash, overburden rocks, and heat-altered rocks; x-ray fluorescence analyses of oxides in coal ash and heat-altered rocks; semi-quantitative spectrographic analyses of elements in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks; chemical analyses of elements and compounds in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks and ASTM proximate and ultimate analyses of coal and heat-altered coal. These data sets were grouped, averaged, and analyzed to provide preburn and postburn mineralogic and geochemical characteristics of rock units at the site. Where possible, the changes in characteristics from the preburn to the postburn state are related to underground coal gasification processes. 11 references, 13 figures, 8 tables.

Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.

1983-12-01

345

Devon station repowering study: Phase 2, Conceptual design of a coal gasification facility: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The 1985 conceptual design and economic analysis of a coal gasification facility producing medium-Btu fuel gas from a Pittsburgh bituminous coal is described in this report. The gasification facility is sited at Connecticut Light and Power Company's Devon Generating Station, Milford, Connecticut. The report was prepared by Lummus Crest, Inc., United Engineers and Constructors, and Northeast Utilities Service Company. Northeast Utilities Service Company and the Electric Power Research Institute co-sponsored the study. The facility design incorporates the proprietary Shell Coal Gasification Process. This process uses a pressurized, high temperature, entrained flow gasification reactor to perform the initial conversion of coal to gas. Dry pulverized coal, oxygen, and a small quantity of steam is fed into the process to produce a medium-Btu gas with a higher heating value of 301.0 Btu/SCF. The plant consumes 5688 tons of coal per day to produce 5083 MM Btu/hr of medium-Btu gas. The synthetic gas is supplied to a combined cycle plant adjacent to the proposed facility. Minimal integration of the gasification and combined cycle systems is included in the plant design. A description of the site and plant facilities, including overall material and energy balances, block flow diagrams, and site arrangement drawings, are presented. A description of the major systems, including an equipment summary, are also provided. An overall capital cost estimate and project execution schedule were prepared. An engineering and economic analysis of the impact of adding the coal gasification facility to the repowering project is presented. This analysis, prepared by Northeast Utilities Service Company, compares the gasified coal combined cycle plant with two options, a pulverized coal steam plant and the repowered plant without the gasification facility. 13 figs., 23 tabs.

Rorstrom, E.G.; Athas, J.G.; Wagner, G.A.; Cooperberg, D.; Bender, D.J.; Willson, E.J. Jr.

1988-12-01

346

Coal gasification for the coproduction of electricity and fertilizer  

SciTech Connect

TVA is proposing to develop and commercially demonstrate the coproduction of electricity and fertilizer (urea) using integrated gasification/combined cycle (IGCC) technology. The coal-based coproduction demonstration project will show that the coproduction process can economically and environmentally enhance the production of both electric power and urea. As conceptualized, the proposed coproduction demonstration project facility would be designed for a nominal electrical capacity of about 250 megawatts (MW), Table I. During normal operation, the facility would produce about 150 MW of base-load electrical power and 1,000 tons per day of urea. Sulfur from the coal would be recovered as elemental sulfur. During peak power demand, the fertilizer capacity could be reduced or bypassed and the full 250 MW could be made available. This scheme would allow continuous operation of the gasifier at 100% of its rated capacity which would reduce the annual revenue requirements for power generation by permitting the production of fertilizer. As TVA's vision of this proposal matures (i.e., as consideration is given to alternative schemes, as TVA reviews its power demands, and as more detailed engineering estimates are developed), the nature and scope of cyclic-operation may be altered.

Kelly, D.A.; Nichols, D.E.; Faucett, H.L.

1992-01-01

347

Coal gasification for the coproduction of electricity and fertilizer  

SciTech Connect

TVA is proposing to develop and commercially demonstrate the coproduction of electricity and fertilizer (urea) using integrated gasification/combined cycle (IGCC) technology. The coal-based coproduction demonstration project will show that the coproduction process can economically and environmentally enhance the production of both electric power and urea. As conceptualized, the proposed coproduction demonstration project facility would be designed for a nominal electrical capacity of about 250 megawatts (MW), Table I. During normal operation, the facility would produce about 150 MW of base-load electrical power and 1,000 tons per day of urea. Sulfur from the coal would be recovered as elemental sulfur. During peak power demand, the fertilizer capacity could be reduced or bypassed and the full 250 MW could be made available. This scheme would allow continuous operation of the gasifier at 100% of its rated capacity which would reduce the annual revenue requirements for power generation by permitting the production of fertilizer. As TVA`s vision of this proposal matures (i.e., as consideration is given to alternative schemes, as TVA reviews its power demands, and as more detailed engineering estimates are developed), the nature and scope of cyclic-operation may be altered.

Kelly, D.A.; Nichols, D.E.; Faucett, H.L.

1992-12-01

348

Underground-coal-gasification cavity simulator with solid motion  

SciTech Connect

The prediction of cavity growth and product composition have long been major goals in the development of underground coal gasification (UCG). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a UCG cavity growth model which incorporates many of the key features observed during our recent large block (LBK) tests conducted at the WIDCo mine at Centralia, Washington, in which early cavity growth and product yield were studied. Postburn excavation following the tests revealed oval-shaped, rubble-filled cavities with significant void space under the cavity roof. The bottom portion of the cavity contained ash and slag, with an overlying rubble region of coal, char, and ash. A void space existed between the rubble pile and the cavity roof which was generally flat with square corners, a result of the apparent breaking away and falling in of the roof material. In this paper, basic features of the model are described and a number of preliminary runs are documented. These runs include matching of the LBK data, studies of sensitivity to variations in model parameters and operational parameters, and calculations of possible performance of the upcoming Centralia partial-seam CRIP test.

Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

1983-06-01

349

Designing process wells for an underground coal-gasification environment  

SciTech Connect

Recent large-scale field experiments designed to advance the state of underground coal gasification (UCG) technology have forced the recognition of some critical uncertainties associated with the UCG process. Among the most important of these uncertainties occurs in attempting to define the reaction zone geometry. Batch processing of a flat-lying coal seam between two process wells involves complex flow patterns, any number of separate reaction zones, and interactions with surrounding media. All of these factors have significant impact on the overall efficiency of the UCG process, and all of them in turn are strongly affected by success or failure in maintaining the integrity of the process wells. The reasons why process well integrity is so important are covered here in a review and evaluation of significant data generated from various field tests, including identification of well failure mechanisms. We observe a close relationship between process well behavior and process performance, which leads us to conclude that reliable process well performance is critical in establishing and maintaining control over the UCG process. As a logical extension of this evaluation, we develop design and performance criteria for UCG process wells. Applications to the next generation of field tests are presented in the form of proposed design features for UCG process wells, features intended to prevent the failure modes that have occurred in past field experiments.

Thompson, D.S.

1981-06-01

350

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we coated coupons of selected alloy steels with diffusion coatings of Cr and Al, as well as with titanium and tantalum nitrides. The coated samples were analyzed for their surface composition. In several instances, the samples were also cut to determine the depth profile of the coating. Several of the early runs did not yield uniform or deep enough coatings and hence a significant portion of the effort in this period was devoted fixing the problems with our fluidized bed reactor. Before the end of the quarter we had prepared a number of samples, many of them in duplicates, and sent one set to Wabash River Energy Laboratory for them to install in their gasifier. The gasifier was undergoing a scheduled maintenance and thus presented an opportunity to place some of our coupons in the stream of an operating gasifier. The samples submitted included coated and uncoated pairs of different alloys.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-01-01

351

Combustion and gasification characteristics of chars from four commercially significant coals of different rank. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The combustion and gasification kinetics of four size graded coal chars were investigated experimentally in Combustion Engineering's Drop Tube Furnace System (DTFS). The chars were prepared in the DTFS from commercially significant coals representing a wide range of rank; these included a Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam hvAb coal, an Illinois No. 6 Seam hvCb coal, a Wyoming Sub C, and a Texas Lignite A. Additionally, a number of standard ASTM and special bench scale tests were performed on the coals and chars to characterize their physicochemical properties. Results showed that the lower rank coal chars were more reactive than the higher rank coal chars and that combustion reactions of chars were much faster than the corresponding gasification reactions. Fuel properties, temperature, and reactant gas partial pressure had a significant influence on both combustion and gasification, and particle size had a mild but discernible influence on gasification. Fuel reactivities were closely related to pore structure. Computer simulation of the combustion and gasification performances of the subject samples in the DTFS supported the experimental findings.

Nsakala, N.Y.; Patel, R.L.; Lao, T.C.

1982-09-01

352

The development of Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carried-Heat Partial Gasification Combined cycle is a novel combined cycle which was proposed by Thermal Engineering Department of Tsinghua University in 1992. The idea of the system comes from the situation that the efficiency of the power plants in China is much lower than that of the advanced countries, but the coal consumption is much higher, which brings about the waste of primary energy resources and the pollution of the environment. With the deep study of the gasification technology, Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle, as the improved system, came into birth in 1996 based on the partial gasification one. At the end of 1997, a new cycle scheme similar to IGCC was created. This paper focuses on several classes combined cycle put forward by Tsinghua University, depending on the plant configuration and carbon conversion, making the solution a viable and attractive option for efficient coal utilization.

Zhao, Li; Xu, Xiangdong

1999-12-01

353

Great Plains Coal Gasification Project: Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1988 (Fourth fiscal quarter, 1987-1988)  

SciTech Connect

This progress report describes the operation of the Great Plains Gasification Plant, including lignite coal production, SNG production, gas quality, by-products, and certain problems encountered. (LTN)

Not Available

1988-07-29

354

Total energy by gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oil gasification plant may be used as a ''total energy'' system for supplying all the various energy needs of a large chemical or refining plant. The plant would produce a low-Btu gas from medium- and high-sulfur crude using either the Shell or Texaco gasification process. Special arrangements can be included in the plant to recycle carbon formed in the

J. B. Fortuin; D. Haag

1974-01-01

355

Experience with high temperature dust filtration in coal gasification systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper tabulates the major experience and future plans worldwide for high temperature filtration of dust-laden gases from coal gasification systems. Past and current experience tabulated includes the hot filtration of gases from entrained-flow and fluidized-bed gasifiers, ranging in capacity between 2 and 700 ton/day coal feed and with operating pressures between 10 and 25 bars. GCC power plants are competitive with conventional coal-based power plants with scrubbers and have advantages in efficiency and environmental emissions. Up to recently, all GCC plants have incorporated cold gas cleanup (i.e., water scrubbing) for control of char particulate (dust) entrained out of the gasifier with the raw product gas. All current GCC plant designs for entrained-flow and fluidized-bed gasifiers, however, incorporate hot gas filtration for capture of the gasifier dust. Benefits to be derived from hot gas dust filtration in GCC plants are as follows: (1) Enables use of lower cost downstream heat exchangers -- smaller boiler, superheater (reduced fouling/improved heat transfer) -- use of fire-tube (vs. water-wall) design -- use of horizontal heat exchangers; (2) Increases reliability/availability of downstream heat exchangers -- reduced erosion/corrosion -- reduced solids deposits; (3) Improves process efficiency for two-stage entrained-flow gasifiers (e.g., Destec, CE, NEDO/IGC) -- recycle dry (vs. wet) char to gasifier improve carbon conversion -- reduces pressure drop for dust capture (vs. cyclones/scrubbers); and (4) Downstream wastewater cleanup simplified, i.e., wastewater does not contain fines.

Epstein, M. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Rath, L.K. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

1992-11-01

356

Experience with high temperature dust filtration in coal gasification systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper tabulates the major experience and future plans worldwide for high temperature filtration of dust-laden gases from coal gasification systems. Past and current experience tabulated includes the hot filtration of gases from entrained-flow and fluidized-bed gasifiers, ranging in capacity between 2 and 700 ton/day coal feed and with operating pressures between 10 and 25 bars. GCC power plants are competitive with conventional coal-based power plants with scrubbers and have advantages in efficiency and environmental emissions. Up to recently, all GCC plants have incorporated cold gas cleanup (i.e., water scrubbing) for control of char particulate (dust) entrained out of the gasifier with the raw product gas. All current GCC plant designs for entrained-flow and fluidized-bed gasifiers, however, incorporate hot gas filtration for capture of the gasifier dust. Benefits to be derived from hot gas dust filtration in GCC plants are as follows: (1) Enables use of lower cost downstream heat exchangers -- smaller boiler, superheater (reduced fouling/improved heat transfer) -- use of fire-tube (vs. water-wall) design -- use of horizontal heat exchangers; (2) Increases reliability/availability of downstream heat exchangers -- reduced erosion/corrosion -- reduced solids deposits; (3) Improves process efficiency for two-stage entrained-flow gasifiers (e.g., Destec, CE, NEDO/IGC) -- recycle dry (vs. wet) char to gasifier improve carbon conversion -- reduces pressure drop for dust capture (vs. cyclones/scrubbers); and (4) Downstream wastewater cleanup simplified, i.e., wastewater does not contain fines.

Epstein, M. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)); Rath, L.K. (USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States))

1992-01-01

357

Two-dimensional thermodynamic model (second stage) of in situ underground coal gasification of eastern thin-seam coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodology and results of determining cavity growth via a side wall burn model in underground coal gasification (UCG) in Eastern, swelling coals is presented. Modeling techniques are still in preliminary stages but when perfected will aid in determining the feasibility of a particular site, dictate the design of the multi-well field pattern, and help control the product gas composition

S. H. Schwartz; T. L. Eddy

1980-01-01

358

Clean low-calorific fuel gas from coal: a case study of the Caterpillar Tractor Company Coal Gasification Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fall of 1979, Caterpillar Tractor Company started up the first commercial coal gasification plant in the U.S. to produce cold, clean, desulfurized fuel gas from bituminous coal. The project represent a seven-year effort by the company to find another fuel supply for its York (PA) facility. Startup was followed by several months of debugging, which resulted in modifications

J. T. Stewart; K. M. Johnson

1982-01-01

359

Characterization, extraction, and reuse of coal-gasification solid wastes. Volume 3. Technical and economic feasibility of bulk utilization and metal recovery for ashes from an integrated coal-gasification facility. Final report, April 1983June 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal-gasification waste products, including those from Lurgi gasification, have different properties from the combustion ashes, especially with respect to mineralogy. To date, comparatively little effort has been directed toward the investigation of bulk utilization or metals extraction. This project was directed towards correction of that deficiency by matching properties of the Great Plains Gasification Plant gasifier ash and the Antelope

O. E. Manz; D. J. Hassett; D. L. Laudal; R. C. Ellman

1986-01-01

360

In-situ coal gasification of bituminous coals-A: development plan  

SciTech Connect

There are in excess of one trillion tons of bituminous coal resources in the United States mostly concentrated in the Appalachian, Illinois and Western Interior Basins. Approximately 220 billion tons of this bituminous resource, which is comparable to the estimated mineable reserves, can be recovered by Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). A technology that would provide for the economic production of gasoline and SNG in the eastern, high energy use markets would provide an essentially new energy source to these markets. The high rank, thin seam, bituminous coals therefore provide an effective target for the development of an economically viable technology for resource recovery. The only recent field test in these thin-seamed, high rank coals was the Pricetown I Field Test performed at Pricetown, West Viriginia. This test demonstrated the feasibility of gasifying deep (approx. 900 feet), thin seam (approx. 8 feet), swelling bituminous coals. This test provided a 72% energy recovery by utilizing only air injection. While the test was successful in meeting all of its objectives, it was only the first step in the development of eastern UCG technology. The data obtained from the test can be used to develop an effective plan which can lead to a commercial demonstration and subsequently, commercial acceptance of this technology for bituminous coals by the 1990's.

Zielinski, R.E.; Agarwal, A.K.

1981-01-01

361

Control aspects of underground coal gasification: LLL investigations of ground-water and subsidence effects. [Hoe Creek I and II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our investigations are designed to evaluate some of the environmental implications of in situ coal gasification, and to identify appropriate environmental controls. Changes in ground-water quality and the possible effects of subsidence and ground movement induced by the underground gasification cavity represent significant environmental concerns associated with the in situ gasification process. We have measured these effects at the site

S. W. Mead; F. T. Wang; H. C. Ganow

1978-01-01

362

Brazing as a means of sealing ceramic membranes for use in advanced coal gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen that will enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes

K. Scott Weil; John S. Hardy; Joseph P. Rice; Jin Yong Y. Kim

2006-01-01

363

Effect of Thermal and Structural Properties on the Growth of an Underground Coal-Gasification Cavity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In field and laboratory studies of underground coal gasification, the growth of the cavity about the initial link has varied from the approximately circular cross section observed in the Hanna Basin coals, to cavities with 2:1 ratios of vertical to horizo...

R. E. Glass

1983-01-01

364

Geology of the Hanna Formation, Hanna Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hanna Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) study area consists of the SW1/4 of Section 29 and the E1/2SE1/4 of Section 30 in Township 22 North, Range 81 West, Wyoming. Regionally, this is located in the coal-bearing Hanna Syncline of the Hanna Basin in...

R. L. Oliver A. D. Youngberg

1984-01-01

365

In-situ coal gasification: a future source of energy. [Pricetown, WV  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) field test in bituminous coal was successfully completed near Pricetown, West Virginia. A methane rich product gas with an average heating value of approximately 25 Btu\\/SCF (9315 KJ\\/M³) was produced at low air injection flow rates during the reverse combustion linkage phase. The heating value of the gas produced during the linkage enhancement phase was

A. K. Agarwal; R. E. Zielinski

1981-01-01

366

Results of the groundwater restoration project, Hanna Underground Coal Gasification Test Site, Wyoming: Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments conducted during the 1970s at the Department of Energy (DOE) site near Hanna, Wyoming, formed six underground cavities in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam, an aquifer of low permeability. When the first Hanna UCG experiment began in March 1973, researchers had little information about what effects the geologic or hydrologic characteristics of the area

1988-01-01

367

Kinetics of bituminous coal char gasification with gases containing steam and hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative mathematical model to describe gasification kinetics of bituminous coal chars in gases containing steam and hydrogen was developed based on experimental information obtained over a wide range of conditions. The model is intended for application to two reaction stages: (1) a high-rate methane formation stage corresponding to a limited period after initial exposure of a coal char containing

Johnson

1976-01-01

368

On the influence of the char gasification reactions on NO formation in flameless coal combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flameless combustion is a well known measure to reduce NOx emissions in gas combustion but has not yet been fully adapted to pulverised coal combustion. Numerical predictions can provide detailed information on the combustion process thus playing a significant role in understanding the basic mechanisms for pollutant formation. In simulations of conventional pulverised coal combustion the gasification by CO2 or

Hannes Stadler; Dobrin Toporov; Malte Frster; Reinhold Kneer

2009-01-01

369

On the influence of the char gasification reactions on NO formation in flameless coal combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flameless combustion is a well known measure to reduce NO emissions in gas combustion but has not yet been fully adapted to pulverised coal combustion. Numerical predictions can provide detailed information on the combustion process thus playing a significant role in understanding the basic mechanisms for pollutant formation. In simulations of conventional pulverised coal combustion the gasification by CO or

Hannes Stadler; Dobrin Toporov; Malte Foerster; Reinhold Kneer

2009-01-01

370

Advanced coal-gasification and - liquefaction process development at Rockwell International  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rockwell International, through its Energy Systems Group, is involved in the development of several advanced technology processes for the conversion of coal to gaseous and liquid products. These include the Rockgas molten salt gasification process and the CS\\/R Hydrogasification and Hydroliquefaction processes based upon flash hydropyrolysis (FHP) technology. In the Rockgas process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air

J. Silverman; J. Friedman; D. Kahn; A. Kohl

1981-01-01

371

Viability of underground coal gasification in the 'deep coals' of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to evaluate the PRB coal geology, hydrology, infrastructure, environmental and permitting requirements and to analyze the possible UCG projects which could be developed in the PRB. Project economics on the possible UCG configurations are presented to evaluate the viability of UCG. There are an estimated 510 billion tons of sub-bituminous coal in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. These coals are found in extremely thick seams that are up to 200 feet thick. The total deep coal resource in the PRB has a contained energy content in excess of twenty times the total world energy consumption in 2002. However, only approximately five percent of the coal resource is at depths less than 500 feet and of adequate thickness to be extracted by open pit mining. The balance is at depths between 500 and 2,000 feet below the surface. These are the PRB 'deep coals' evaluated for UCG in this report. The coal deposits in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming are thick, laterally continuous, and nearly flat lying. These deposits are ideal for development by Underground Coal Gasification. The thick deep coal seams of the PRB can be harvested using UCG and be protective of groundwater, air resources, and with minimum subsidence. Protection of these environmental values requires correct site selection, site characterization, impact definition, and impact mitigation. The operating 'lessons learned' of previous UCG operations, especially the 'Clean Cavity' concepts developed at Rocky Mountain 1, should be incorporated into the future UCG operations. UCG can be conducted in the PRB with acceptable environmental consequences. The report gives the recommended development components for UCG commercialization. 97 refs., 31 figs., 57 tabs., 1 app.

NONE

2007-06-15

372

A Physicochemical Evaluation of the HQ1 Core from the Pricetown I, Underground Coal Gasification Test Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Core samples of coal and rock were obtained from the HQ-1 environmental test well at the Pricetown I, Underground Coal Gasification Test Site. A comprehensive analytical program was performed to characterize the coal samples. The rocks associated with the coals are composed of clay size material containing low amounts of organic matter and hydrocarbon gas relative to the coal seams.

R. E. Zielinski; R. J. Larson

1978-01-01

373

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

SciTech Connect

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002.

Unknown

2003-01-01

374

Underground coal gasification of steeply dipping coal beds; a second generation synthetic fuels process  

SciTech Connect

In situ gasification of steeply dipping coal beds (UCG-SDB) has significant advantages over the more conventional horizontal UCG. In fact, the UCG-SDB process appears to be both technically and operationally competitive with surface gasifiers. The results of the Rawlins UCG-SDB field test program suggest that the process can compete with more conventional sources of synthesis gas on an economic basis. The SDB process mechanism has several advantages over the horizontal process and performs in a fashion similar to surface packedbed reactors. The oxygen requirements for the process are quite low and the degree of process control observed at Rawlins is very attractive.

Davis, B.E.; Ahner, P.F.; Singelton, A.H.

1982-08-01

375

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 11. Gasification of Minnesota peat. [Peat pellets and peat sods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a coooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This

D. Thimsen; R. E. Maurer; A. R. Pooler; D. Pui; B. Liu; D. Kittelson

1985-01-01

376

Construction labor assessment for coal gasification plant Murphy Hill, Alabama  

SciTech Connect

TVA's planned construction of a coal gasification plant, capable of processing about 20,000 tons of coal per day into a clean-burning fuel, will be a large and complex construction project by any relevant measure. The plant site examined here is in northern Alabama near Murphy Hill. The project is estimated to require nearly 7000 workers at peak employment in 1985. It is projected that construction will start in early 1981 and be completed in 1988. Nearly 66 percent of all construction craft worker requirements are expected to occur during a 36-month period from 1984 to 1986, and about 25 percent are projected to occur during the 1985 calendar year alone. This construction labor market assessment report is directed toward establishing and analyzing data on construction labor requirements, and labor availability for the 75-mile geographical zone surrounding Murphy Hill, Alabama. The purpose of this report is to examine potential skilled labor shortages and some alternatives for alleviating those shortages, but not to address the array of socioeconomic implications of reducing shortages by training, by attracting workers who move permanently to the job site, or by attracting workers who live temporarily near the site and return home periodically. Parameters and assessments of the Murphy Hill construction labor market have been developed for: the 75-mile geographical zone surrounding the site; the major skilled construction trades involved; the time phase of construction labor demand; and projected craft-specific labor shortfalls. These objectives have been developed within the engineering bounds of the TVA's labor planning memo.

Not Available

1980-11-01

377

UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS  

SciTech Connect

The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ''as-generated'' slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ''as-generated'' slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase I, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and Phase II, which involves commercial evaluation of these aggregates in a number of applications.

None

1999-03-29

378

Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags  

SciTech Connect

The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of as-generated slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, the authors found that it would be extremely difficult for as-generated slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1,400 and 1,700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase 1, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and Phase 2, which involves commercial evaluation of these aggregates in a number of applications.

None

1999-09-30

379

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

Most of the tasks on the project have successfully been completed and reported. A 12 month no-cost extension has been requested to complete the remaining tasks. This report summarizes the accomplishments of the first six months of the no-cost extensions period. The acetic acid extraction showed that acetic acid has more effect on the extraction of the ternary catalyst (LNK) ions than water. Based on the extraction results, the order of the recovery capability of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} using acetic acid, sulfuric acid and water extractions is sulfuric acid {ge} acetic acid > water; the order for K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is sulfuric acid > water >acetic acid; and the order for Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is acetic acid > sulfuric acid >water. A process flowsheet for the catalyst recovery process was proposed based on the results. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed most of the particles (coal) appear amorphous. Some coal particles are as large as 50-60 {micro}m, but most are smaller. One can also easily see a few crystalline particles (10-20 {micro}m) with sharp facets and corners. The electron micrographs of gasified char samples (reactor-aged) of the LNKcoal mixture showed that a dramatic change is obvious in the morphology and crystallinity of the sample and is consistent with the results obtained from the x-ray diffraction studies. XRD studies of reactor-aged samples showed a substantial increase in the sample crystallinity (due to the gasification of amorphous carbon). The eutectic salt presumably mostly converted to sulfates.

Atul Sheth; Chandramouli Sastry

2001-03-31

380

UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS  

SciTech Connect

The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ''as-generated'' slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ''as-generated'' slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for, various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases Phase I, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and Phase II, which involves commercial evaluation of these aggregates in a number of applications.

Unknown

2000-04-24

381

Physical and numerical modeling results for controlling groundwater contaminants following shutdown of underground coal gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater contamination has resulted from some of in-situ gasification field tests, and concern over groundwater contamination may hamper commercialization. When UCG recovery operations are terminated, energy remains stored as heat in the adjacent masses of rock and coal ash, and this energy is transferred into the coal seam. Coal continues to pyrolyze as a result of the transferred energy; the products of this coal pyrolysis are a source of groundwater contamination resulting from UCG. A laboratory simulator was developed, and six simulations of UCG postburn coal pyrolysis have been completed. The simulations show that the products of coal pyrolysis are the source of most contaminants associated with UCG operations. Injection of water directly into the UCG cavity can limit postburn coal pyrolysis and reduce the production of contaminants by cooling the masses of rubble and coal ash in the cavity. Water flow through the coal towards the cavity also limits postburn pyrolysis and subsequent contaminant generation; however, steam produced in the heated portions of the coal limits the rate of water flow. Simulation results indicate that UCG field tests should be operated so that the flow of pyrolysis liquids and gases into the formation is prevented and that the natural influx of water into the cavity is allowed. This can be accomplished by minimizing gas leakage to the formation during gasification, venting the cavity after the gasification process is complete, and maintaining low postburn cavity pressures. 11 refs., 17 figs., 17 tabs.

Boysen, J.E.; Mones, C.G.; Glaser, R.R.; Sullivan, S.

1987-03-01

382

Analysis of mathematical models of underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported of a survey and comparison of forward combustion underground coal gasification (UCG) models that are available in the public domain. The six models obtained for study were mathematically analyzed to determine their conceptual completeness and computational complexity. The computer code for each model was implemented on the University of Wyoming CDC CYBER 730/760 computer system. Computed analyses were made with each of the programs using data to simulate six representative UCG field tests. Four of the field tests were air injection experiments and two were oxygen/steam. Modifications were necessary to two models in order for them to simulate oxygen/steam injection experiments. A mistake in the computer code for one model was discovered and corrected; this enabled the code to execute with data from one field test for which the original version had failed. An alternate numerical solution technique for one mdoel was studied, and improved correlations for the model were developed. An approximate analytical solution to the model was obtained that is valid over the region where difficulties were encountered, using both multiple shooting and collocation numerical solutions. The applicability of each model to the various conditions occurring in the different field tests was determined.

Fausett, L.V.

1984-01-01

383

Instrumentation for optimizing an underground coal-gasification process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the United States has a coal resource base of 6.4 trillion tons, only seven percent is presently recoverable by mining. The process of in-situ gasification can recover another twenty-eight percent of the vast resource, however, viable technology must be developed for effective in-situ recovery. The key to this technology is system that can optimize and control the process in real-time. An instrumentation system is described that optimizes the composition of the injection gas, controls the in-situ process and conditions the product gas for maximum utilization. The key elements of this system are Monsanto PRISM Systems, a real-time analytical system, and a real-time data acquisition and control system. This system provides from complete automation of the process but can easily be overridden by manual control. The use of this cost effective system can provide process optimization and is an effective element in developing a viable in-situ technology.

Seabaugh, W.; Zielinski, R. E.

1982-06-01

384

Development of a predictive, underground coal gasification model for eastern bituminous coal: Technical note  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a channel-type, underground coal gasification (UCG) model for eastern coal. Previous studies have indicated that it is technically and economically feasible to use a UCG process to obtain medium-heating-value gas in the Illinois Basin and its vicinity. A reliable, predictive model is needed to support the research and development of UCG. Modeling studies are less expensive than field tests and they help researchers compute the process characteristics for a range of parameters and conditions. The concepts and approaches of developing a model for eastern coal are based on existing models for western coal, while recognizing the differences between the physical and chemical phenomena in the UCG of eastern and western coals. The interactions among different parts of a UCG system and the irregular system dimensions are the major difficulties in solving equations of a channel-type, thin-seam UCG model. Possible ways of resolving these difficulties are suggested and incorporated into the proposed model. 55 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

Layne, A.W.; Wang, S.-H.

1988-05-01

385

Combustion Engineering Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project, Clean Coal Technology Program. Environmental Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The DOE entered into a cooperative agreement with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (C-E) under which DOE proposes to provide cost-shared funding to design, construct, and operate an Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project to repower an existing steam turbine generator set at the Springfield (Illinois) City Water, Light and Power (CWL&P) Lakeside Generating Station, while capturing 90% of the coal`s sulfur and producing elemental sulfur as a salable by-product. The proposed demonstration would help determine the technical and economic feasibility of the proposed IGCC technology on a scale that would allow the utility industry to assess its applicability for repowering other coal-burning power plants. This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by DOE in compliance with the requirements of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The sources of information for this EA include the following: C-E`s technical proposal for the project submitted to DOE in response to the Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Program Opportunity Notice (PON); discussions with C-E and CWL&P staff; the volume of environmental information for the project and its supplements provided by C-E; and a site visit to the proposed project site.

Not Available

1992-03-01

386

Laboratory study of small-scale lateral-growth mechanisms for underground coal gasification. Final report, January 1984-January 1988  

SciTech Connect

Quarried coal blocks housed in a refractory chamber were exposed to high-temperature gases approximating underground coal gasification (UCG) conditions. The exposed coal faces were monitored to determine the small-scale mechanisms of lateral cavity growth. Side-wall tests indicate that the lateral growth process is heat transfer-controlled gasification. In roof tests, significant spalling rates were observed for the lignite samples while Hanna coal showed no spalling.

Riggs, J.B.

1988-02-01

387

Engineering evaluation of process heat applications for very high temperature nuclear reactors. [Coal gasification and liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal gasification and liquefaction processes and costs are reviewed. Nuclear-heated processes based on 3000-MWt reactors are compared to the principal fossil-heated coal conversion processes of similar size. The published processes are technically feasible, and costs are consistent with United Engineers' experience. If a 15 percent fixed charge rate and $0.50\\/10 Btu coal can be obtained, and costs published by proponents

D. S. Wiggins; J. J. Williams

1976-01-01

388

Concepts of fundamental processes related to gasification of coal. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of the research on single stage catalytic coal gasification is to optimize the process variables and catalyst systems to maximize yields. The -200 mesh coal will be slurried in a hydrogen donor solvent, tetralin in a ratio of 2 parts solvent to 1 part coal by weight, and initially a sulfided Ni-W\\/SiO-AlO catalyst will be used. All

1981-01-01

389

Study of ammonia removal in coal gasification processes, literature review: Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the combustion and gasification of coal, oxides of nitrogen (NO\\/sub x\\/) are formed from two sources: fixation of atmospheric nitrogen in high-temperature flames, and oxidation of nitrogen compounds that are part of the coal feedstock. Because US coals contain from 0.5 to 2 wt % nitrogen, the possible contribution of this source to NO\\/sub x\\/ emissions is not trivial.

G. N. Krishnan; B. J. Wood; A. Sanjurjo

1987-01-01

390

A pre-heating vaporization technology of coal-water-slurry for the gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pre-heating vaporization technology of coal water slurry, CWS, was developed to increase the efficiency of coal gasification with the reduction of oxygen consumption. A CWS pre-heating experimental unit having a capacity of 2.0tons-coal\\/day was manufactured. After the CWS was heated to 573K at about 10MPa, water in CWS was continuously vaporized in a tube of which the diameter increased

Kosuke Aiuchi; Ryo Moriyama; Shohei Takeda; Shunji Kitada; Masaki Onozaki; Yukuo Katayama

2007-01-01

391

Study of the off-design performance of integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Integrated Coal Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) plant is a combined-cycle plant fueled by coal. A combined-cycle plant consists of one or more gas turbines with a Rankine (i.e., steam) bottoming cycle. The coal is first gasified to produce a synfuel which can be combusted in a gas turbine after particles and sulfur compounds are removed. The exhaust from the gas

1986-01-01

392

Analysis of a coal fired combined cycle with carried-heat gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the research of a more efficient, less costly, more environmentally responsible and less technically difficult method for\\u000a generating electrical power from coal, the Carried-heat Gasification Combined Cycle (CGCC) is introduced by Tsinghua University.\\u000a The high efficiency cycle includes carried-heat partial gasification, compressed air heating in a fluidized bed immersed air\\u000a heater followed by a combustor and the heat recovery

Xiangdong Xu; Weimin Zhu; Li Zhao; F. N. Fett

1994-01-01

393

Summary report: Trace substance emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) sponsored field sampling and analyses to characterize emissions of trace substances from LGTI`s integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant at Plaquemine, Louisiana. The results indicate that emissions from the LGTI facility were quite low, often in the ppb levels, and comparable to a well-controlled pulverized coal-fired power plant.

Williams, A.; Wetherold, B.; Maxwell, D.

1996-10-16

394

Costs of Drilling, Completing and Linking Process Wells for Underground Coal Gasification as a Function of Linking Method, Coal Bed Thickness and Depth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Costs in underground coal gasification for drilling, completing and linking process wells are considered. Both row spacing (sweep width) and column spacing for rectangular arrays of process wells were examined: coal bed thickness and depth were varied; li...

D. R. Stephens

1979-01-01

395

Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags  

SciTech Connect

The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of as-generated slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, the authors found that it would be extremely difficult for as-generated slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1,400 and 1,700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase 1, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and Phase 2, which involves commercial evaluation of these aggregates in a number of applications. Primary funding for the project is provided by DOE's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) at Morgantown, with significant cost sharing by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI).

None

1999-12-30

396

Rocky Mountain 1: Underground coal gasification test, Hanna, Wyoming. Volume 1. Operations. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain 1 underground coal gasification (UCG) test was conducted near Hanna, Wyoming during the period January 1986 through March 1988. The report focuses on operations phases that included site selection, facility design, facility construction, well drilling, gasification and environmental monitoring. Two technologies were evaluated as separate modules: the Extended Linked Well (ELW) and the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) processes. The test results, along with a discussion of the key test parameters and conclusions of the gasification phase, are provided. A bibliography and schematics are included.

Not Available

1989-03-01

397

Compilation and preliminary evaluation of the existing health and environmental data base for coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

As the gasification of coal has progressed technically, in several facilities having reached the commercial/industrial stage of development, researchers have also been conducting investigations of the health and environmental implications of various gasification technologies; a sizable amount of these data has been reported over the past decade. In this report, the authors present a compilation of the health and environmental data now available on coal gasification and make a preliminary evaluation of the information. The report addresses two tasks: first, to determine the scope and adequacy of the existing data for the characterization and understanding of health and environmental issues; second, to begin establishing suitable standards for reducing and abstracting the existing data for inclusion in the gasification technology data base of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The report includes background information of coal-gasification studies; a summary of the toxicological and chemical data now available on gasification; and an analysis of selected subsets of the health and environmental data base, focusing on Ames mutagenicity findings for materials at all gasifiers studied and on the toxicological and chemical data on materials produced by the METC gasifier. The report also includes four appendixes, one of which contains one-page summaries of 116 publications relevant to the focus of this data-compilation effort. 4 figures, 20 tables.

Stamoudis, V.C.; Stetter, J.R.; Reilly, C.A. Jr.; Picel, K.C.; Haugen, D.A.

1984-12-01

398

The gasification of coal-peat and coal-wood chip mixtures in the University of Minnesota, two-stage coal gasifier: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical feasibility of gasifying coal-peat and coal-wood chip mixtures with the University of Minnesota, Duluth Campus commercially technology two-stage coal gasifier was demonstrated during a series of experimental tests. Three types of processed peat products were mixed with coal and gasified. The three peat products were: peat briquettes, peat pellets and sod peat. The best peat product for gasification

1986-01-01

399

Use of methanol as an acid gas removal solvent in coal gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

The results of the experimental program to date clearly show that acid gases can be separated from sour gas streams produced by coal gasification. Furthermore, the acid gases CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S and COS distribute in product streams according to their relative solubilities; there is no unusual accumulation of carbonyl sulfide (COS) in the acid gas removal system. Gasification of devolatilized coal produces a sour gas that does not lead to accumulation of high molecular weight hydrocarbons or sulfur gases in methanol used in an acid gas removal system. However, gasification of a New Mexico subbituminous coal led to significant accumulation of these constituents in circulating methanol. 6 refs.

Rousseau, R.W.; Kelly, R.M.; Ferrell, J.K.

1981-01-01

400

Research on chemical factors in underground coal gasification. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research has been to acquire experimental data and develop mathematical models in order to analyze results from laboratory-scale and field-scale experiments on underground coal gasification (UCG), especially for low-rank coals such as Texas lignite. Experimental data for water injection in a combustion tube, coal core combustion, and coal block gasification are reported; in parallel, a mathematical model for the combustion tube temperature profile and gas composition was developed which compared favorably with experimental data. A mathematical model for predicting gas composition and coal recovery in the Hoe Creek field experiment has been completed and verified with field data. Two experiments have been constructed to obtain data on reactions of interest to UCG; these include an apparatus for determining the kinetics of tar cracking and a microreactor for analyzing the process dynamics of the water gas shift reaction carried out in a fixed bed catalytic system. 44 refs., 60 figs., 22 tabs.

Edgar, T.F.

1985-09-01

401

Combustion Engineering Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project, Clean Coal Technology Program  

SciTech Connect

The DOE entered into a cooperative agreement with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (C-E) under which DOE proposes to provide cost-shared funding to design, construct, and operate an Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project to repower an existing steam turbine generator set at the Springfield (Illinois) City Water, Light and Power (CWL P) Lakeside Generating Station, while capturing 90% of the coal's sulfur and producing elemental sulfur as a salable by-product. The proposed demonstration would help determine the technical and economic feasibility of the proposed IGCC technology on a scale that would allow the utility industry to assess its applicability for repowering other coal-burning power plants. This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by DOE in compliance with the requirements of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The sources of information for this EA include the following: C-E's technical proposal for the project submitted to DOE in response to the Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Program Opportunity Notice (PON); discussions with C-E and CWL P staff; the volume of environmental information for the project and its supplements provided by C-E; and a site visit to the proposed project site.

Not Available

1992-03-01

402

Fossil fuel gasification technical evaluation services. Final report 1978-83  

SciTech Connect

Technical evaluations performed prior to 1981 were published as a separate document, Topical Reports 1978-1980, by C F Braun and Co, November 1982, Report No. GRI-80/0168. These evaluations include the Cities Service-Rockwell, Exxon Catalytic, Mountain Fuels, Slagging Lurgi, U-Gas, and Westinghouse processes for coal gasification, the Peatgas process for peat gasification, the GE Membrane process for acid gas removal, and an integrated test facility for use in the development of gasification processes. Evaluations performed in the 1981 to 1983 period are included in the present document, the Final Report. These evaluations include the Westinghouse process for coal gasification, the Engelhard, Stone and Webster and Texaco processes for gasification of coal derived liquids, the Catalysis Research Corporation (CRC) process for direct methanation of raw gas streams, and the CNG Research Company process for removal of acid gases from coal gasification process streams. Other recent investigations include the evaluation of materials of construction, fundamental design data, and heat recovery technology for coal gasification processes.

Johnson, C.D.

1983-05-01

403

Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

1997-02-01

404

Centralia double module in situ coal gasification test conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

The encouraging results of the Centralia Partial Seam CRIP Test have led to this proposal for a second test to further develop a method for the economic recovery of unminable coal reserves by in-situ gasification. This test will build on the results of the previous experiment and will have several important features of its own. This test was designed to meet the requirements set forth by the technical steering committee convened by WIDCO in January 1984. The test will be operated for 100 days to allow for repetitive testing of the CRIP method and to provide good resource recovery data. The surface facilities will have sufficient redundancy and be of sufficient quality to insure reliable operation, and be a prototype for commercial surface plant design. Two modules will be gasified and allowed to interact part way through the test to observe the effect of burn cavity interaction on product gas heating value. Vertical production wells will be used on one module and a slant production well on the other module to test the effectiveness of these two production methods on the performance of a long duration burn. The basic design for the test is illustrated by a drawing. Directional drilling was chosen as the linking technique since it gives the greatest control of the test geometry. This test is designed to provide both technical and economic evaluation of the CRIP method for controlling average gas quality, of the performance comparison of vertical and slant production well systems, and of interacting versus non-interacting burn cavities. The redundancy provided by the backup production wells and the long injection channels is in accord with the overall goal of reliable, long-term operation. This design is considered to be conceptual and some modifications may be required for the final test design. 3 figures.

Hill, R.W.

1984-09-14

405

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Demonstration Project. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SMC Mining Company (formerly Shell Mining Company, now owned by Zeigler Coal Holding Company), has completed the construction and start-up of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The LFC technology uses a mild pyrolysis or mild gasification process which involves heating the coal under carefully controlled conditions. The process causes chemical changes in the feed coal in contrast to conventional drying, which leads only to physical changes. Wet subbituminous coal contains considerable water, and conventional drying processes physically remove some of this moisture, causing the heating value to increase. The deeper the coal is physically dried, the higher the heating value and the more the pore structure permanently collapses, preventing resorption of moisture. However, deeply dried Powder River Basin coals exhibit significant stability problems when dried by conventional thermal processes. The LFC process overcomes these stability problems by thermally altering the solid to create PDF and CDL. Several of the major objectives of the ENCOAL Project have now been achieved. The LFC Technology has been essentially demonstrated. Significant quantities of specification CDL have been produced from Buckskin coal. Plant operation in a production mode with respectable availability (approaching 90%) has been demonstrated.

NONE

1995-03-01

406

Creating power, technology and products: the role of coal gasification in Ohio's economy and energy future  

SciTech Connect

The study examines how coal gasification (CG) combined with Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) technology could play a role in Ohio's economy and energy future - particularly in Northeast Ohio, a major center of manufacturing in the U.S. This working paper focuses primarily on opportunities for gasification projects to augment Ohio's economy. It examines economic activity factors related to coal gasification and how the location of a number of key support industries in Ohio could provide the state with a competitive advantage in this area. The study focuses on a polygeneration facility that would supply electricity and some other products as an example of the type of gasification facility that could, if a sufficient number of similar facilities were located in the area, serve as the stimulus for a new or expanded industry cluster. Although not further discussed in this paper, any Ohio gasification facility would be in close proximity to oil and gas fields that can serve as sites for sequestering the carbon dioxide separated out from the coal-gasification process. The potential economic impact of locating a polygeneration gasifier in Northeast Ohio is large. A significant portion of the inputs required for one $1.1+ billion facility can be supplied either within northeastern Ohio or from elsewhere in the state. Operation of the facility is estimated to increase annual statewide personal income by $39 million and Ohio output by $161 million. The Northeast Ohio region will account for 98 percent of the operational benefits. The report suggests several possible steps to convert this research to an action plan to build support for, and interest in, a coal-gasification industry cluster in Northeast Ohio. Outreach should focus on engaging industry leaders, foundations, and state and regional economic development leaders. 16 tabs., 3 apps.

NONE

2007-12-15

407

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

SciTech Connect

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co--product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases: Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase 2 is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase 3 updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase 2, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report is WMPI's third quarterly technical progress report. It covers the period performance from October 1, 2001 through December 31, 2001.

John W. Rich

2001-03-01

408

A New Concept for the Gasification of Wyoming Coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Background of the original proposal Wyoming produces 36% of US coal, most of which is burned in pulverized coal boilers to produce electricity. This coal is sold at fuel value, minus transportation cost, resulting in a relatively low economic value because the majority of the coal is shipped out of state. Higher value products from the coal could be

Stefan Heinz; Michael Stoellinger

2009-01-01

409

A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalyst for coal gasification. The lower cost and high catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} required for high coal char activities. The effects of potassium impregnation conditions (pH and coal surface charge) on the reactivities, in carbon dioxide, of chars derived from demineralized lignite, subbituminous and bituminous coals have been determined. Impregnation of the acid-leached coal with potassium from strongly acidic solutions resulted in initial slow char reactivity which progressively increased with reaction time. Higher reactivities were obtained for catalyst (potassium) loaded at pH 6 or 10. The dependence of char gasification rates on catalyst addition pH increased in the order: pH 6 {approximately} pH 10 {much gt} pH 1.

Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

1991-01-01

410

Mild gasification of Usibelli coal in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor  

SciTech Connect

Results of mild gasification tests of minus 16-mesh Usibelli coal in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor are described in this report. The minus 16-mesh fraction was separated from the coal by screening. The coal was dried to zero moisture content, and about 2 wt % of the volatiles was removed as gas by partial decarboxylation using a 100-lb/hr inclined fluidized-bed dryer. The dried coal was subjected to mild gasification at maximum temperatures of 1050 to 1250{degrees}F (566 to 677{degrees}C) and feed rates of 7.5 lb/hr while using a once-through flow of carbon dioxide as fluidizing gas in a 1-inch-wide, inclined fluidized-bed reactor. Mild gasification of the dried coal resulted in production of 44 to 56 wt % of the dried coal as char, 10 to 13 wt % as liquids, 17 to 28 wt % as gas, and 8 to 21 wt % as fines. The yield of moisture- and ash-free (MAF) liquids varied from 11.4 to 14.2 wt % of the dried coal feed. Chemical analysis was carried out on these products.

Merriam, N.W.; Thomas, K.P.; Cha, C.Y.

1991-02-01

411

Study on Co-slurry and Co-gasification of Coal and Semi-char from Rice Stalk Pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-gasification of biomass and coal is an effective way to utilize biomass energy. A wet co-gasification route-preparing slurry with semi-char and coal, was proposed in this article. The co-slurry characteristics of Shenfu coal and semi-char produced from rice stalk fast pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor were investigated. Meanwhile, chemical process simulation software ASPEN PLUS was used to simulate the

Yuzhi Wang; Xueli Chen

2010-01-01

412

Low/medium btu coal gasification assessment program for specific sites of two New York utilities. Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this study is to investigate the technical and economic aspects of coal gasification to supply low- or medium Btu gas to the two power plant boilers selected for study. This includes the following: select a coal based on its availability, mode of transportation and delivered cost to each power plant site; investigate the effects of burning low- and medium-Btu gas in the selected power plant boilers based on efficiency, rating and cost of modifications and make recommendations for each; review the technical feasibility of converting the power plant boilers to coal-derived gas; identify coal gasification systems that are compatible with the selected coals; have proven pilot, demonstration, or commercial plant operating experience; and produce a product gas which is compatible with the fuel requirements of the power plant; review the technical feasibility of designing a coal gasification facility to meet the constantly changing fuel demands of a power plant; select a low- or medium-Btu coal gasification system for study at Arthur Kill Power Plant; select a low- or medium-Btu coal gasification system for study at Oswego Power Plant; identify gas cleanup systems that are available and compatible with the coal gasification systems, and one capable of reducing the total sulfur emission levels to that required by environmental regulations; select a gas cleanup system for use with the selected coal gasification systems; review the regulatory and financial aspects of conversion to a coal-derived gas; prepare capital cost estimates in 1980 dollars for each of the coal gasification systems; prepare capital cost estimates in 1980 dollars for the boiler modifications; and perform economic evaluations for each of the synthetic gas-fired options, and compare them to the case of continued oil-firing.

Not Available

1980-12-01

413

A review of the factors influencing the physicochemical characteristics of underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

In this article, the physicochemical characteristics of the oxidation zone, the reduction zone, and the destructive distillation and dry zone in the process of underground coal gasification (UCG) were explained. The effect of such major factors as temperature, coal type, water-inrush or -intake rate, the quantity and quality of wind blasting, the thickness of coal seams, operational pressure, the length, and the section of gasification gallery on the quality of the underground gas and their interrelationship were discussed. Research showed that the temperature conditions determined the underground gas compositions; the appropriate water-inrush or -intake rate was conducive to the improvement in gas heat value; the properties of the gasification agent had an obvious effect on the compositions and heat value of the product gas. Under the cyclically changing pressure, heat losses decreased by 60%, with the heat efficiency and gasification efficiency being 1.4 times and 2 times those of constant pressure, respectively. The test research further proved that the underground gasifier with a long channel and a big cross-section, to a large extent, improved the combustion-gasification conditions.

Yang, L.H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Jiangsu (China)

2008-07-01

414

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

Not Available

1992-02-01

415

Analysis of Forward Combustion Underground Coal Gasification Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey has been made of forward combustion gasification models that are available in the public domain. The six models obtained for study have been mathematically analyzed to determine their conceptual completeness and computational complexity. The mode...

D. W. Fausett L. K. Fausett

1984-01-01

416

Siting Potential for Coal Gasification Plants in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report identifies areas of sufficient coal reserves to support synthetic natural gas development and summarizes those areas that have the highest potential. Capital requirements, mining and coal cost factors, water availability, and coal-quality data...

A. E. Lindquist

1977-01-01

417

Steady-state model for estimating gas production from underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

A pseudo-one-dimensional channel model has been developed to estimate gas production from underground coal gasification. The model incorporates a zero-dimensional steady-state cavity growth submodel and models mass transfer from the bulk gas to the coal wall using a correlation for natural convection. Simulations with the model reveal that the gas calorific value is sensitive to coal reactivity and the exposed reactive surface area per unit volume in the channel. A comparison of model results with several small-scale field trials conducted at Centralia in the U.S.A. show that the model can make good predictions of the gas production and composition under a range of different operating conditions, including operation with air and steam/oxygen mixtures. Further work is required to determine whether the model formulation is also suitable for simulating large-scale underground coal gasification field trials.

Greg Perkins; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

2008-11-15

418

Subtask 4.2 - Coal Gasification Short Course  

SciTech Connect

Major utilities, independent power producers, and petroleum and chemical companies are intent on developing a fleet of gasification plants primarily because of high natural gas prices and the implementation of state carbon standards, with federal standards looming. Currently, many projects are being proposed to utilize gasification technologies to produce a synthesis gas or fuel gas stream for the production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity. Financing these projects is challenging because of the complexity, diverse nature of gasification technologies, and the risk associated with certain applications of the technology. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has developed a gasification short course that is designed to provide technical personnel with a broad understanding of gasification technologies and issues, thus mitigating the real or perceived risk associated with the technology. Based on a review of research literature, tutorial presentations, and Web sites on gasification, a short course presentation was prepared. The presentation, consisting of about 500 PowerPoint slides, provides at least 7 hours of instruction tailored to an audience's interests and needs. The initial short course is scheduled to be presented September 9 and 10, 2009, in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

Kevin Galbreath

2009-06-30

419

Phototype plant for Nuclear Process Heat (NPH), reference phase. R and D work on Hydrogenated Coal Gasification (HCG). Further operation of semi-industrial plant for hydrogenated coal gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of a scale up, leading to a commercial HCG, futher R and D work was performed on the 100 kg C/hr prototype plant. The inclined tube for feeding coal into the fluidized bed, the raw gas/hydrogenation gas heat exchanger, and the modified hydrogen source were tested. Influence on carbon gasification efficiency of dimension of coal particles, humidity of coal, hydrogen content of gasification gas, introduction place of coal in gasifier, height of fluidized bed, and ash content of coal were studied. The plant was operated for 19,400 hr, of which more than 7400 hr under gasification conditions. Carbon gasification rates up to 82% with methane content up to 48% were obtained.

Fladerer, R.; Schrader, L.

1982-07-01

420

Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components (2) definition of a reference system (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams (4) estimates of capital and operating costs and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

Bloomfield, H.S. (McKee (Davy); Nelson, S.G.; Straight, H.F. (McKee (Davy); Subramaniam, T.K.; Winklepleck, R.G. (McKee (Davy); Winklepleck, R.G.; Winklepleck, R.G. (McKee (Davy); Winklepleck, R.G.

1981-03-01

421

Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, September 15--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification technologies are finding increasing commercial applications for power generation or production of chemical feedstocks. The integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) coal conversion process has been demonstrated to be a clean, efficient, and environmentally acceptable method of generating power. However, the gasification process produces relatively large quantities of a solid waste termed slag. Regulatory trends with respect to solid waste disposal, landfill development costs, and public concern make utilization of slag a high-priority issue. Therefore, it is imperative that slag utilization methods be developed, tested, and commercialized in order to offset disposal costs. This project aims to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of the slag utilization technologies developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates (LWA) and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag in a large-scale pilot operation, followed by total utilization of these aggregates in a number of applications.

NONE

1997-07-01

422

Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study: Volume 3, Retrospective epidemiology  

SciTech Connect

Disease incidence in coal gasification plant workers in Kosova, Yugoslavia, was compared to that in lignite surface miners who received medical care in the same clinic. No statistically significant difference in incidence rate was found for any of twelve disease categories examined. Early development of a high skin cancer rate, as reported within five years of first exposure at a coal hydrogenation plant in Institute, West Virginia, did not occur. Exploratory analysis indicated trends among gasification plant workers in disease incidence with increasing years of service and increasing occupational exposure levels for chronic bronchitis and mental diseases. Particulate exposures in workers' homes were of the same order as exposures at the gasification plant and further study of residential air pollution levels is recommended. 21 refs., 2 figs., 80 tabs.

Morris, S.C.; Haxhiu, M.A.; Canhasi, B.; Begraca, M.; Ukmata, H.

1987-12-01

423

Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salts: Recovery, Regeneration, and Recycle of Spent Eutectic Catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalyst recovery studies were conducted for gasified chars produced from steam gasification of Illinois #6 coal catalyzed with two different catalyst systems. A ternary (43.5 mol% Li2 CO3 31.5 mol% Na2 CO3 25 mol% K2 CO3 ) and a binary (29 mol% Na2 CO3 71 mol% K2 CO3 ) eutectic catalyst system were used for gasifying coal. Various extraction schemes,

Atul C. Sheth; Chandramouli Sastry; Yaw D. Yeboah; Yong Xu; Pradeep Agarwal

2003-01-01

424

Geology of the Hanna Formation, Hanna Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hanna Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) study area consists of the SW1\\/4 of Section 29 and the E1\\/2SE1\\/4 of Section 30 in Township 22 North, Range 81 West, Wyoming. Regionally, this is located in the coal-bearing Hanna Syncline of the Hanna Basin in southeast Wyoming. The structure of the site is characterized by beds dipping gently to the northeast. An

R. L. Oliver; A. D. Youngberg

1984-01-01

425

Concept for a competitive coal fired integrated gasification combined cycle power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design efficiency for a state-of-the-art supercritical coal fired pulverised fuel (p.f.) power plant (e.g. Nordjyllandsvaerket) is quoted at 47%, compared to 43% for the most advanced existing coal-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants (e.g. Buggenum and Puertollano). Of course, power plant design engineers have the experience of thousands of p.f. plants to guide them, compared with a mere

P. E Campbell; J. T McMullan; B. C Williams

2000-01-01

426

Advanced development of the combined-cycle plant with integrated coal gasification (IGCC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advanced development of certain components and process steps is required although, world-wide a number of activities are carried out for the development of a hard coal-fired combined-cycle power plant with integrated coal gasification and demonstration projects are already available or planned. The named high efficiencies can only be achieved, if the design of components respectively process steps allows an

Weinzierl

1990-01-01

427

Pipeline gas demonstration plant. Site master plan report. [Illinois Coal Gasification Group; Perry County  

Microsoft Academic Search

Illinois Coal Gasification Group (ICGG) and the United States Department of Energy executed Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2012 on June 7, 1977. This contract requires ICGG, as Contractor, to analyze, design, construct, test, evaluate, and operate a Demonstration Plant capable of manufacturing pipeline quality gas from a blend of Illinois No. 5 and 6 seam coal. One of the assignments (Task III

Eby

1980-01-01

428

Examination of Gasification Characteristics of Pressurized Two-Stage Entrained Flow Coal Gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program for the 200T\\/D coal gasification pilot plant was initiated in 1986 and successfully completed in 1996. In this program, a two-stage pressurized air-blown entrained flow coal gasifier was adopted, jointly developed by Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, Ltd. using a 2T\\/D bench scale gasifier. In the 200T\\/D pilot plant, domestic Taiheiyo

Saburo Hara; Kazuyoshi Ichikawa; Jun Inumaru; Masami Ashizawa

2001-01-01

429

Advanced development of the combined-cycle plant with integrated coal gasification (IGCC)  

SciTech Connect

The advanced development of certain components and process steps is required although, world-wide a number of activities are carried out for the development of a hard coal-fired combined-cycle power plant with integrated coal gasification and demonstration projects are already available or planned. The named high efficiencies can only be achieved, if the design of components respectively process steps allows an exergetically high energy utilization.

Weinzierl, K. (Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen AG (VEW), Dortmund (Germany, F.R.))

1990-01-01

430

Economic Impact on the State of Illinois of the Medium BTU Coal Gasification Demonstration Facility at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The coal gasification proposal is a plan to design, construct, and operate a coal gasification plant which would use high sulfur Illinois coal to supply the University of Illinois' Abbott Power Plant. This plant would use 500 to 600 tons of coal per day t...

M. Reiber

1974-01-01

431

Eighth annual international conference on coal gasification, liquefaction, and conversion to electricity  

SciTech Connect

The eighth annual international conference on coal gasification, liquefaction, and conversion to electricity was held at the Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Thirty-three papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

Brainard, A.J. (ed.)

1982-03-01

432

Seventh annual international conference on coal gasification, liquefaction, and conversion to electricity  

SciTech Connect

The seventh annual international conference on coal gasification, liquefaction, and conversion to electricity was held August 5-7, 1980, at the Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Twenty-five papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Two papers had been enered previously from other sources. (LTN)

Brainard, A.J. (ed.)

1980-01-01

433

Status of the Fourth Underground Coal Gasification Experiment at Hanna, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fourth underground coal gasification experiment conducted by the Laramie Energy Technology Center is currently underway at a site near Hanna, Wyoming. The Hanna IV experiment, as originally conceived, was significantly larger than the three previous experiments. The experiment was designed to meet the following objectives: determination of the interrelationships of well spacing, air injection rate, and areal sweep efficiency;

Theodore Bartke; Leroy Dockter; Thomas Sterner; Joseph Virgona

1978-01-01

434

Solar gasification of biomass using oil shale and coal as candidate materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification of German oil shale and coal using concentrated solar energy as a heat source is studied in a fixed bed reactor under an argon atmosphere. The reactor allows direct absorption of irradiation resulting in high rates of temperature increase and hence in simultaneous decomposition of organic matter and carbonates present in the shale. Synthesis gases are produced consisting of

Martin Flechsenhar; Christian Sasse

1995-01-01

435

Environmental evaluation and restoration plan of the Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site, Wyoming: Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments were conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at the Hoe Creek Site, Wyoming; the Hoe Creek I experiment was conducted in 1976, the Hoe Creek II experiment in 1977, and the Hoe Creek III experiment in 1979. These experiments have had an impact on the land and groundwater quality at the site, and

W. L. Barteaux; G. L. Berdan; J. Lawrence

1986-01-01

436

Postburn evaluation for Hanna II, Phases 2 and 3, underground coal gasification experiments, Hanna, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1980 and 1981 the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) conducted a post-burn study at the Hanna II, Phases 2 and 3 underground coal gasification (UCG) site, Hanna, Wyoming. This report contains a summary of the field and laboratory results from the study. Lithologic and geophysical well log data from twenty-two (22) drill holes, combined with high resolution seismic data

A. D. Youngberg; D. J. Sinks; G. N. II Craig; F. G. Ethridge; L. K. Burns

1983-01-01

437

The Hanna and Hoe Creek underground coal gasification test sites: Status report, (June 1986June 1987)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To comply with a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Western Research Institute (WRI) is required to submit an annual report summarizing the status of environmentally related work performed by WRI at the Hanna and Hoe Creek underground coal gasification (UCG) sites. The following is a summary of work performed at these two sites from June

G. L. Berdan; B. T. Nolan; W. L. Barteaux; W. Barrash

1987-01-01

438

Differential optical absorption techniques for diagnostics of coal gasification. Technical progress report, April-June 1983  

SciTech Connect

The application of differential optical absorption (DOA) techniques for the in-situ determination of the chemical composition of coal gasification process streams is investigated. Absorption spectra of relevant molecular species and the temperature and pressure effects on DOA-determined spectral characteristics of these species will be determined and cataloged. A system will be configured, assembled, and tested. 10 references, 1 figure.

Not Available

1983-08-01

439

Rocky Mountain 1: Underground Coal Gasification Test, Hanna, Wyoming. Volume 1. Groundwater Evaluation. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An underground coal gasification (UCG) test was conducted at the Rocky Mountain 1 site near Hanna, Wyoming in late 1987 and early 1988. Groundwater sampling and analyses were performed to provide information on the effects of the test on the aquifer and t...

S. R. Lindblom V. E. Smith

1993-01-01

440

Data acquisition system and instrumentation for the Rocky Mountain I Coal Gasification test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) designed the data acquisition system (DAS) to measure all surface and subsurface process parameters during the Rocky Mountain I (RM I) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test. The Hewlett Packard (HP) minicomputer-based system acquired data from strings of type-K thermocouples that were emplaced in vertical wells at key locations in the reactor area. Process data such

G. A. Metzger; J. A. Britten

1988-01-01

441

Process and Technology Development Activities for in-Situ Coal Gasification, FY 82.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of DOE's Underground Coal-Gasification program, activities at Sandia National Laboratories have been directed at Process and Technology Development. The project areas include (1) the development of a cornering water-jet drill for use in linking ve...

R. E. Glass

1983-01-01

442

Combined Air Sparge and Bioremediation of an Underground Coal Gasification Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

EG&G Technical Services of West Virginia (TSWV) Inc. is successfully remediating a former underground coal gasification (UCG) test site in northeastern Wyoming. EG&G is demonstrating the effectiveness of combined air sparge and biostimulation technology. This project is being conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE ) - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), the lease holder of the site. UCG

James R. Covell; M. H. Thomas

1996-01-01

443

Role of site characteristics in the control of underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) offers many potential economic and environmental advantages. Offsetting these advantages is the substantial lack of ability to control the UCG process. For example, only three elements of external process control have been utilized. These are: (1) injected gas composition, (2) injected gas flow rate, and (3) product gas pressure. Variation of these independent variables in UCG

B. E. Bader; R. E. Glass

1981-01-01

444

Role of site characteristics in the control of underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) offers many potential economic and environmental advantages. Offsetting these advantages is the substantial lack of ability to control the UCG process. For example, only three elements of external process control have been utilized. These are: (1) injected gas composition; (2) injected gas flow rate; and (3) product gas pressure. Variation of these independent variables in UCG

B. E. Bader; R. E. Glass

1981-01-01

445

A simple UCG (underground coal gasification) field performance and economics model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, over the past decade, has studied the technical feasibility of underground coal gasification through a combination of field tests, laboratory experiments and mathematical models. In 1979, Thorsness and Cena developed EQSC, a simple equilibrium model to correlate field results. In the model, water influx into the reaction zone and heat loss to the surroundings, coupled with

1987-01-01

446

Hoe Creek experiments: LLNL's underground coal-gasification project in Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy and predecessor organizations, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory carried out a laboratory program and three field, underground coal gasification tests near Gillette, Wyoming. This report summarizes that work. Three methods of linking or connecting injection and production wells were used for the UCG field tests: Hoe Creek No. 1 employed explosive

Stephens

1981-01-01

447

Gasification of Pit Coal and Coke with Hydrogen at High Pressure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The behavior of pit coal regarding its caking power, as well as the tar and gas formation in high-pressure gasification and under hydrogenation conditions was investigated in the temperature region of 500 to 900 exp 0 C. The tests were carried out with co...

H. Markus

1976-01-01

448

User's manual for the Gas Research Institute coal-gasification environmental, health, and safety information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

GRI has developed an information system to provide member companies and other participating researchers access to a carefully screened collection of technical information relevant to controlling potential environmental, health, and safety (EHandS) impacts of coal gasification. The information system does not contain data, but rather a short review of that data or other information, and a rating of its pertinent

G. E. Brown; N. P. Meserole; J. Esh-Sheikh

1985-01-01

449

LLNL Underground Coal-Gasification-Project. Quarterly Progress Report, January-March 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We report here the results of further analysis of data from the large block experiments. The five experiments that were completed were designed to investigate the basic burn and gasification characteristics of the Big Dirty coal seam, which is a likely ca...

D. R. Stephens W. Clements

1982-01-01

450

Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) System: A Modified-Stream Method for in Situ Coal Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The underground coal gasification process, in practice, is subject to various problems that make it difficult to maintain and control an efficient long-term operation. One of the major problems is the need to move the injection point (where the combustion...

M. J. Shannon R. W. Hill

1981-01-01

451

The Centralia partial seam CRIP underground coal gasification experiment. [Controlled retracting injection point  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the result of the partial seam controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) underground coal gasification (UCG) field experiment carried out at the Washington Irrigation and Development Company (WIDCO) mine near Centralia, Washington, in the fall of 1983. The test was designed to take advantage of the high-wall geometry at the mine and was carried out near the site

D. R. Stephens; R. J. Cena; R. W. Hill; C. B. Thorsness

1985-01-01

452

Analysis of Rocky Mountain I Underground Coal Gasification test. Topical report, March 1989December 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Rocky Mountain I Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Project, the Extended Linked Well (ELW) module and the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) module were operated and demonstrated side-by-side. This engineering analysis of the process data was conducted to establish the viability of these technologies for commercial use. The data indicate that an optimum oxygen rate (700 SCFM) exists for

S. S. Lan; F. M. Floyd

1989-01-01

453

Analysis of pipe failure for the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rupture of a carbon steel elbow in the methanation area of the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant resulted in a fire and plant shutdown. The failure was investigated by personnel from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ANG Associates, the plant opera...

J. R. Keiser J. R. Mayotte O. C. Dias

1990-01-01

454

Fate of the chlorine and fluorine in a sub-bituminous coal during pyrolysis and gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of the chlorine and fluorine present in a sub-bituminous coal from Indonesia during pyrolysis and gasification has been studied with fixed and entrained bed reactors. The rate profile for HCl evolved in the temperature programmed pyrolysis exhibits the main and shoulder peaks at 480 and 600C, respectively. Model experiments and subsequent Cl 2p XPS measurements show that HCl

Makoto Takeda; Akio Ueda; Harumi Hashimoto; Tetsuo Yamada; Noboru Suzuki; Masahide Sato; Naoto Tsubouchi; Yoshihiro Nakazato; Yasuo Ohtsuka

2006-01-01

455

Using rotating biological contactors for the treatment of coal gasification wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to determine the treatability of University of North Dakota Energy Research Centers (UNDERC's) and Great Plains' coal gasification wastewaters using a bench scale four stage rotating biological contactor (RBC). The treatability testing included an evaluation of organic removal rates in the first stage and the overall rates in the last three stages using the

C. D. Turner; K. Wernberg

1986-01-01

456

The solar thermal gasification of coal energy conversion efficiency and CO 2 mitigation potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steam-gasification of coal (peat, lignite, bituminous, and anthracite) into syngas is investigated using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat. The advantages of the solar- driven process are threefold: (1) the discharge of pollutants is avoided; (2) the gaseous products are not contaminated by combustion byproducts; and (3) the calorific value of the fuel is upgraded.

A. Steinfeld

2003-01-01

457

Great Plains Coal Gasification Project. Quarterly Technical Progress Report, Third Quarter 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The operations of the Great Plains Gasification Plant are reported for the third quarter of 1985. Contents include the following: (1) lignite coal production; (2) SNG production; (3) SNG gas quality; (4) by-products production and inventories; (5) on-stre...

1985-01-01

458

Great Plains Coal Gasification Project. Quarterly Technical Progress Report Fourth Quarter, 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The operations of the Great Plains Gasification plant are reported for the fourth quarter of 1985. Contents include the following: (1) lignite coal production; (2) SNG production; (3) SNG gas quality; (4) by-products production and inventories; (5) on-str...

1986-01-01

459

Assessment of the Labor Impacts of Coal Gasification Systems: Project No. 61027. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Institute of Gas Technology has estimated the labor requirements and their impacts for construction and operation of coal gasification systems (mine and plant). Commercial-size high-, medium-, and low-Btu systems were studied. For the high-Btu system ...

T. D. Donakowski E. J. Daniels

1980-01-01

460

Structural mechanics simulations associated with underground coal gasification. [Approx. 40 refs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is presented on analytical simulations of the structural and thermal responses associated with the Longwall generator concept of underground coal gasification (UCG). The work includes global and micro\\/macro modeling of the UCG mechanical parameters. Dynamic thermal and stress response solutions are obtained for boundary value problems represented by (1) a radially expanding circular cavity and (2) a line

S. H. Advani; Y. T. Lin

1976-01-01

461

Pyrolysis of Large Coal Blocks: Implications of Heat and Mass Transport Effects for in Situ Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dewatering of coal blocks at in-situ moisture levels was shown to markedly affect pyrolysis gas production by being the rate-limiting mechanism in heat transfer, and by causing self-gasification of the block as steam diffuses from a shrinking core of damp...

P. R. Westmoreland R. C. Forrester

1976-01-01

462

Simulation and control of the coal gasification combined cycle power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gasification combined cycle power plant is a major alternative for the conversion of coal to electric power. Although the operation and control of a combined cycle power plant is complicated, it is warranted due to financial and environmental advantages. The objective of this work is to develop a mathematical and dynamic simulation model of subsystems of the combined cycle

Nazem

1982-01-01

463

Fixed-Bed Gasification Research Using US Coals. Volume 19. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A single-staged, fixed-bed, Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort un...

D. Thimsen R. E. Maurer B. Y. H. Liu D. Pui D. Kittelson

1985-01-01

464

Advances in the development of wire mesh reactor for coal gasification studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to further understand the coal gasification behavior in entrained-flow gasifiers, a high pressure and high temperature wire mesh reactor with new features was recently built. An advanced LABVIEW-based temperature measurement and control system were adapted. Molybdenum wire mesh with aperture smaller than 70 mum and type D thermocouple were used to enable high carbon conversion (>90%) at

Cai Zeng; Lei Chen; Gang Liu; Wenhua Li; Baoming Huang; Hongdong Zhu; Bing Zhang; Vladimir Zamansky

2008-01-01

465

Computer-assisted gas chromatography in the analysis of waste compounds resulting from coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly developed modifications of the coal gasification processes produce greater quantities of unidentified waste compounds. Analysis of these compounds was easier if identification was a matching process. A standard solution of five polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons was made and each was assigned retention indices values. Known compounds in the six different classes that had been detected by older gas chromatographic methods

Raye

1988-01-01

466

Conceptual Designs and Assessments of a Coal Gasification Demonstration Plant. Volume IV. Babcock and Wilcox Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume of the report contains detailed information on the conceptual design and assessment of the facility required to process approximately 20,000 tons per day of coal to produce medium Btu gas using the Babcock and Wilcox gasification process. The ...

1980-01-01

467

Synthesis gas production with an adjustable H{sub 2}/CO ratio through the coal gasification process: effects of coal ranks and methane addition  

SciTech Connect

Direct production of synthesis gas using coal as a cheap feedstock is attractive but challenging due to its low H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas. Three typical U.S. coals of different ranks were tested in a 2.5 in. coal gasifier to investigate their gasification reactivity and adjustability on H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas with or without the addition of methane. Tests indicated that lower-rank coals (lignite and sub-bituminous) have higher gasification reactivity than bituminous coals. The coal gasification reactivity is correlated to its synthesis-gas yield and the total percentage of H{sub 2} and CO in the synthesis gas, but not to the H{sub 2}/CO ratio. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio of coal gasification was found to be correlated to the rank of coals, especially the H/C ratio of coals. Methane addition into the dense phase of the pyrolysis and gasification zone of the cogasification reactor could make the best use of methane in adjusting the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the generated synthesis gas. The maximum methane conversion efficiency, which was likely correlated to its gasification reactivity, could be achieved by 70% on average for all tested coals. The actual catalytic effect of generated coal chars on methane conversion seemed coal-dependent. The coal-gasification process benefits from methane addition and subsequent conversion on the adjustment of the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of synthesis gas. The methane conversion process benefits from the use of coal chars due to their catalytic effects. This implies that there were likely synergistic effects on both. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3

Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jing Jin; Hongchang Zhou; Marten Cohron; Houying Zhao; Hongying Liu; Weiping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

2008-05-15

468

Steam gasification of coal, project prototype plant nuclear process heat: Report at the end of the reference phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work carried out in the field of steam gasification of coal is described. On the basis of the status achieved to date, it can be stated that the mode of operation of the gas generator developed, including the direct feeding of caking high volatile coal, is technically feasible. Moreover, throughput can be improved by 65% at minimum by using catalysts. On the whole, industrial application of steam gasification, using nuclear process heat, stays attractive compared with other gasification processes. Not only coal is conserved, but also the costs of the gas manufactured are favorable. As confirmed by recent economic calculations, these are 20 to 25% lower.

Vanheek, K. H.

1982-05-01

469

LLNL underground coal-gasification project. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1981. [Thermodynamic limit  

SciTech Connect

We completed most of the field work on the large block experiments in the Tono Basin of Washington State. The purpose was to investigate the basic burn and gasification characteristics of Big Dirty coal and to provide a design basis for a larger gasification experiment in another part of the Tono Basin, where the Big Dirty seam is several hundred feet underground. Preliminary results of the large block experiments are reported. Only five of the six experiments could be completed because of water flooding in one of the shallowly inclined injection holes. The gas chemistry experiments were all successful. Information was obtained on pressure buildup in the channels which will be very useful in designing future tests. In addition, the last experiment included a successful test of the CRIP (controlled retracting injection point) technique for progressively moving the burn zone to fresh coal supplies by successive cutoffs of the end of the injection pipe. As part of the preparation for the Tono 1 deep gasification experiment in the Tono Basin, we have been making water quality measurements in the vicinity of the experimental site, some of the preliminary results are presented. We have continued computer modeling of the underground coal gasification process. We did a calculational study to determine whether there are thermodynamic limits to the quality (i.e., heating value) of UCG product gas. The study was prompted by results of laboratory tests of coal gasification, in which three markedly different coal specimens, when gasified with injection of the same 2/1 molar ratio of steam/oxygen, gave product gas of virtually identical heating value. The study confirms that thermodynamic considerations do set a limit on the heating value of the product gas which depends only on the oxygen in the injected gas and the heat losses in the system.

Clements, W. (ed.)

1982-02-08

470

Results of the characterization of an in situ coal gasification site in the state of Washington  

SciTech Connect

Sandia Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and the Laramie Energy Technology Center participated in a Department of Energy funded program to select and characterize a potential underground coal gasification test site in the State of Washington. A site in the Centralia-Chehalis coal district, satisfying certain criteria, was selected for characterization. The characterization procedures included surface and borehole techniques and hydrology tests. Geologic structure and coal seam structure and continuity were determined using surface geophysical prospecting (seismic and electromagnetic surveys) and borehole geophysical (logging and cross-borehole, inseam seismic) techniques. A complete suite of geophysical logs was taken in eight exploratory boreholes to determine lithology and properties of the coal and surrounding strata. Coal cores taken from four different exploratory boreholes were analyzed to determine coal quality. Results of the characterization show that the coal seam of interest is approximately 47 ft thick at a depth of 570 to 600 ft at the site. The seam is characterized by high ash content, relatively low overall heating value, and a low permeability. The site appears suitable for conducting an underground coal gasification test.

Bartel, L. C.; Dobecki, T. L.; Stone, R.

1980-01-01

471

Characterization of a potential underground coal gasification site in the state of Washington  

SciTech Connect

Sandia Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and the Laramie Energy Technology Center participated in a Department of Energy funded program to select and characterize a potential underground coal gasification test site in the State of Washington. A site in the Centralia-Chehalis coal district, satisfying certain criteria, was selected for characterization. The characterization procedures included surface and borehole techniques and hydrology tests. Geologic structure and coal seam structure and continuity were determined using surface geophysical prospecting (seismic and electromagnetic surveys) and borehole geophysical (logging and cross-borehole, in-seam seismic) techniques. A complete suite of geophysical logs was taken in eight exploratory boreholes to determine lithology and properties of the coal and surrounding strata. Coal cores taken from four different exploratory boreholes were analyzed to determine coal quality. Results of the characterization show that the coal seam of interest is approximately 47 ft thick at a depth of 570 to 600 ft at the site. The seam is characterized by high ash content, relatively low overall heating value, and a low permeability. The site appears suitable for conducting an underground coal gasification test.

Bartel, L. C.; Dobecki, T. L.; Stone, R.

1980-01-01