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1

Texaco coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

It is a pleasure to be with you today and to be speaking to you about a clean coal technology, the Texaco Coal Gasification Process. Texaco's gasification research began in the 1940s and in the 70s and 80s Texaco incorporated into its goals the production of energy from coal in an environmental clean and technological superior manner. Gasification technology can also be used to gasify other materials such as natural gas, waste refinery gas, oil, petroleum coke, and even organic waste, such as sludge, etc. This technology is also applicable to the manufacture of high purity hydrogen, which we will discuss in a few minutes. Texaco gasification is license in 100 plants throughout the world today. Texaco coal gasification technology begins with grinding the coal and slurrying it with water, pumping the slurry to a gasifier vessel through a burner where it is mixed with oxygen at approximately 2400{degrees} F and pressures of three to six hundred pounds. Here, inside a refractory lines vessel, the partial oxidation of the carbon occurs and produces hydrogen syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The operating temperature (2400{degrees} F) is high enough to melt the mineral matte in the coal, so that it becomes slag and falls to the bottom of the vessel. It is an inert unleachable nonhazardous material. Sulfur within the coal is converted to hydrogen sulfide and is removed by one of several commercially proven technologies as elemental sulfur.

Siegart, W.R.

1992-01-01

2

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS TEXACO, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

The Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) has operated commercially for nearly 45 years on feeds such as natural gas, liquid petroleum fractions, coal, and petroleum coke. More than 45 plants are either operational or under development in the United States and abroad. Texaco has dev...

3

Pilot plant evaluation of Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh No. 8 coal for the Texaco coal gasification process: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extended pilot plant evaluation was conducted at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory to determine the suitability of Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh No. 8 coals as feedstock for the Texaco coal gasification process. The gasifier was operated for 10.5 days on Illinois No. 6 coal and for 9.2 cumulative days on Pittsburgh No. 8 coal at wide range of operating

G. N. Richter; D. T. Barot; J. M. Crotty

1987-01-01

4

Ruhrchemie\\/Ruhrkohle demonstration plant of the Texaco coal gasification process; gasification of a Western US coal as a pretest for Cool Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1980, German engineers performed test runs on two US coals - candidates for the Cool Water, Calif., gasification plant - in a 150 ton-day Texaco coal-gasification demonstration plant in West Germany. Both runs, with Illinois No. 6 and Utah coals, proved the excellent design and commercial readiness of the Texaco process as well as the suitability of the feedstocks.

B. Cornils; P. Ruprecht; R. Duerrfeld; J. Langhoff

1982-01-01

5

Assessment of environmental control technologies for Koppers-Totzek, Winkler, and Texaco coal gasification systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy, Division of Environmental Control Technology, supports the Assistant Secretary for Environment in discharging responsibilities for environmental control aspects of technology in use and development. The coal gasification technologies employed by Winkler, Koppers-Totzek (K-T) and Texaco are described. Evaluation of the status of these technologies for control of major environmental pollutants indicates that a minimum risk

L. K. Mudge; L. J. Jr. Sealock

1979-01-01

6

Conceptual designs and assessments of a coal gasification demonstration plant. Volume III. Texaco process  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains detailed information on the conceptual design and assessment of the facility required to process approximately 20,000 tons per day of coal to produce medium Btu gas using the Texaco gasification process. The report includes process descriptions, flow diagrams and equipment lists for the various subsystems associated with the gasifiers along with descriptions of the overall facility. The facility is analyzed from both an economic and environmental standpoint. Problems of construction are addressed together with an overall design and construction schedule for the total facility. Resource requirements are summarized along with suggested development areas, both process and environmental.

Not Available

1980-10-01

7

Conceptual design and assessment of a coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant. Volume 3. Summary. [Texaco; Koppers-Totzek  

SciTech Connect

Objective is a commercial-scale coal gasification facility producing clean medium-Btu gas (300 billion Btu/day) from 20,000 tons/day of bituminous coal. The process was narrowed down to either the Texaco process, the Koppers-Totzek process, or a combination of those two. This document is a summary description of the plants for both processes. Brief summary tables are presented for comparison. (DLC)

Not Available

1980-09-01

8

The Ruhrchemie\\/Ruhrkohle demonstration plant of the Texaco coal gasification process; gasification of a western U. S. coal as a pretest for Cool Water. [Utah and Illinois coals tested  

Microsoft Academic Search

In late 1980 Ruhrchemie AG and Ruhrkohle AG performed test runs on two US coals - scheduled for the Cool Water project - in their 150 tpd Texaco coal gasification demonstration plant operating at Oberhausen. West Germany. Both runs - with Illinois No. 6 and a Utah coal - were highly successful and proved the excellent design and the commercial

R. Cornilis; R. Durrfeld; J. Langhoff; P. Ruprecht

1982-01-01

9

TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 6. Plant based on Texaco gasifier. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The baseline of a coal gasification plant producing medium Btu gas, based upon the Texaco gasification process is documented in this report. The coal gasification plant consists of four identical modules, each with a capacity of approximately 4800 tons of coal per day dry basis as delivered to the gasifiers. The entire plant (four modules) produces 1195.0 million standard cubic feet per day of gas with a GHV value of approximately 285 Btu/scf for a total heating value of about 341 billion Btu/day. The plant will be designed to meet all federal, state, and local standards and guidelines. A description of the plant by major sections is included as well as flow diagrams, stream balances and lists of major equipment.

Not Available

1980-11-01

10

TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the evaluation of the Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The Texaco Gasification Process was developed by Texaco Inc. The TGP is a comm...

11

Texaco gasification process: Innovative technology evaluation report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the evaluation of the Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The TGP is a commercial gasification process which converts organic materials into syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The feed reacts with a limited amount of oxygen (partial oxidaton) in a refractory-lined reactor at temperatures between 2,200 degrees and 2,650 degrees F and at pressures above 250 pounds per square inch gauge (psig). Texaco reports that the syngas can be processed into high-purity hydrogen, ammonia, methanol, and other chemicals, as well as clean fuel for electric power. The TGP was evaluated under the EPA SITE Program in January 1994 at Texaco`s Montebello Research Laboratory (MRL) in South El Monte, California, located in the greater Los Angeles area. The Demonstration used a soil feed mixture consisting of approximately 20 weight-percent waste soil from the Purity Oil Sales Superfund Site, Fresno, California and 80 weight-percent clean soil. The slurry included coal as a support fuel and was spiked with lead and barium compounds (inorganic heavy metals) and chlorobenzene (volatile organic compound) as the Principal Organic Hazardous Constituent (POHC).

NONE

1995-07-01

12

U.S. EPA'S EVALUATION OF A TEXACO GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Gasification technologies are designed to produce, from carbonaceous organic materials (e.g., coal, oil), a useable mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen called synthesis gas, or syngas. yngas could be used to produce power or chemicals. he Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) emp...

13

Texaco -- World leader in IGCC  

SciTech Connect

With more than 120 licensed gasification projects over the past 50 years, Texaco is the world leader in gasification technology. Texaco`s fully commercial and well proven gasification technology can accept a broad range of feedstocks including coal, petroleum coke, heavy oil, light oil, Orimulsion, natural gas and even waste materials. Over the years, plants using Texaco gasification technology have demonstrated an outstanding record of reliable, safe, economical and environmental performance. Since the startup in 1984 of the world`s first commercial scale Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant (IGCC), the 120 MW Cool Water plant in Daggett, California (USA) using Texaco gasification technology, Texaco has also been the world leader in IGCC. Today there are 7 publicly announced IGCC projects in various stages of operation, or design/construction which use Texaco gasification technology. Several other projects which have not yet been announced publicly are in various stages of development.

Horton, R.S.; Gardner, J. [Texaco USA (United States)

1997-12-31

14

Environmental Enterprise: Carbon Sequestration using Texaco Gasification Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is a commercially proven clean coal technology that offers significant environmental and economic benefits today, including decreased air and solids emissions. It also offers the potential to capture and sequester carbon dioxide. Coal IGCC provides electric utilities strategic options in meeting today's growing demand for energy products (electricity, fuel, chemicals) while protecting public health

Jeff Seabright; Arthur Lee; Richard Weissman; White Plains

15

Cool Water Coal Gasification Program: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cool Water, cofunded by EPRI et al., is a nominal 120-MW integrated coal gasification and combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant that uses the Texaco coal gasification process. Construction of the IGCC facility at Daggett, California, was completed and operation began in mid 1984. The plant continues to operate successfully on its usual feedstock, a low-sulfur Utah coal, and on several test

1988-01-01

16

Optimum Design of Coal Gasification Plants  

E-print Network

This paper deals with the optimum design of heat recovery systems using the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). TCGP uses an entrained type gasifier and produces hot gases at approximately 2500oF with high heat flux. This heat is removed...

Pohani, B. P.; Ray, H. P.; Wen, H.

1982-01-01

17

Considerations on coal gasification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

Franzen, J. E.

1978-01-01

18

Incentives boost coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Higher energy prices are making technologies to gasify the USA's vast coal reserves attractive again. The article traces the development of coal gasification technology in the USA. IGCC and industrial gasification projects are now both eligible for a 20% investment tax credit and federal loan guarantees can cover up to 80% of construction costs. 4 photos.

Hess, G.

2006-01-16

19

Conceptual design and assessment of a coal-asification commercial demonstration plant. Volume 2: Texaco gasifier. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of Bechtel's conceptual design and techno-economic assessment of a plant producing medium-Btu gas utilizing the Texaco coal gasification process. A large number of alternatives were investigated to determine which combination of technically or commercially proven processes will produce medium-Btu gas at the lowest cost. Comparison of different technologies for the various process steps resulted in a tentative selection of process equipment. These selections were then examined from the standpoint of operational reliability, capital and operating costs, compatibility with the Texaco process, technical suitability, and commercial availability. Once the baseline combination of processes was established, a coal receiving and handling system was devised, and a preliminary plot plan was established for the overall facility, including a suggested layout of the process area. Tradeoff studies were performed to determine the capital and operating cost differences associated with upgrading the coal feed to the plant, utilization of different oxygen purities, changes in the sulfur content of the product gas, changes in the delivery pressure of the product gas, production of sulfur or sulfuric acid as a byproduct, and lowering of the CO/sub 2/ level in the product gas. Other studies examined the sensitivity of the baseline case to variations in coal costs, capital and operating costs, operating stream factor, construction period, and operating life of the plant. Capital and operating cost estimates and corresponding product gas costs were completed for selected process combinations.

Not Available

1980-09-01

20

Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix G: Commercial design and technology evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technology evaluation of five coal gasifier systems (Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Babcock and Wilcox, Lurgi and BGC/Lurgi) and procedures and criteria for evaluating competitive commercial coal gasification designs is presented. The technology evaluation is based upon the plant designs and cost estimates developed by the BDM-Mittelhauser team.

1980-01-01

21

Fundamental mechanisms of coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this project was to obtain improved quantitative understanding of certain features of coal devolatilization of significant interest for coal gasification technology, for basic coal science, and for coal utilization in general. The work features systematic experimental and related mathematical modeling studies of reactions of newly formed coal pyrolysis tars within pyrolyzing coal particles and of how coal

T. P. Griffin; G. H. Ko; D. M. Sanchez; M. R. Hagaligol; J. S. Hsu; W. A. Peters; J. B. Howard

1989-01-01

22

PNNL Coal Gasification Research  

SciTech Connect

This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

2010-07-28

23

TVA coal-gasification plant conceptual design. Volume 1. Plant based on Executive overview (Summary). Final report  

SciTech Connect

TVA plans to build a coal gasification plant to demonstrate the operation of a commercial scale coal gasification facility producing a clean medium Btu gas (MBG) for use in various industrial applications in the TVA region. In the Phase I efforts, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation prepared conceptual designs, cost estimates, and trade-off studies of the following gasification systems: Lurgi Dry Bottom, Koppers-Totzek, Babcock and Wilcox, British Gas Slagger, and Texaco.

Not Available

1980-11-01

24

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

2001-12-01

25

Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feasibility analyses and systems engineering studies for a 20,000 tons per day medium Btu (MBG) coal gasification plant to be built by TVA in Northern Alabama were conducted. Major objectives were as follows: (1) provide design and cost data to support the selection of a gasifier technology and other major plant design parameters, (2) provide design and cost data to support alternate product evaluation, (3) prepare a technology development plan to address areas of high technical risk, and (4) develop schedules, PERT charts, and a work breakdown structure to aid in preliminary project planning. Volume one contains a summary of gasification system characterizations. Five gasification technologies were selected for evaluation: Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Lurgi Dry Ash, Slagging Lurgi, and Babcock and Wilcox. A summary of the trade studies and cost sensitivity analysis is included.

1980-01-01

26

Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER  

SciTech Connect

ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

Steve Colt

2008-12-31

27

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

Not Available

1992-02-01

28

Conceptual design and assessment of a coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant. Volume 1. Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Objective is to demonstrate the operation of a commercial-scale coal gasification facility producing clean medium-Btu gas (MPB). The facility will convert approx. 20,000 tons/d of bituminous coal into approx. 300 billion Btu/d of MBG. The process choice was narrowed down to the Texaco and Koppers-Totzek processes. This report presents the results of Bechtel's conceptual design and techno-economic assessment of the Koppers-Totzek process. (DLC)

Not Available

1980-09-01

29

Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

1984-05-25

30

10 things to know about coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Eastman Gasification Services Company was the first company to commercialise a coal gasification facility in the United States in 1983. Based on many years experience, David Denton, its business development director, lists ten features he believes everyone should know about coal gasification. These include its usefulness as a technology for increasing the US's energy security, being the cleanest coal-based technology, using less water than other coal-based technology, being able to remove high levels of volatile mercury from its production gas, providing a low-cost approach for carbon dioxide capture, and having potential to produce many chemicals and hydrogen. Costs of electricity production from integrated gasification combined cycle technology are now approaching those of other coal-based technologies. 1 fig.

NONE

2005-07-01

31

Low/medium Btu coal-gasification assessment program for potential users in New Jersey. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In order to evaluate the potential for coal utilization, a preliminary technical and economic assessment of district coal gasification in New Jersey was conducted. This evaluation addressed the possibility of installing a coal gasification plant to use a high sulfur eastern coal to produce a medium Btu content gas (MBG) having a heating value of approximately 300 Btu/SCF. In addition, the work also appraised the regulatory, environmental and marketing, and financial considerations of such a facility. The preliminary study evaluation has manifested an overall technical and economic feasibility for producing a medium Btu quality gas (MBG) from coal at PSE and G's Sewaren Generating Station in New Jersey. The production of MBG for use in on-site power plant boilers or for distribution to industrial customers appears to be economically attractive. The economic attractiveness of MBG is very dependent on the location of sufficient numbers of industrial customers near the gasification facilities and on high utilization of the gasification plant. The Sewaren Generating Station was identified as potentially the most suitable site for a gasification plant. The Texaco Coal Gasification Process was selected as the gasifier type due to a combination of efficiency and pilot plant experience. It is projected that a nominal 2000 tons-per-day coal gasification plant would supply supplemental utility boiler fuel, fuel grade methanol and some by-products.

Bianco, J. [BRISC; Schavlan, S. [BRISC; Ku, W. S. [PSE& G; Piascik, T. M. [PSE& G; Hynds, J. A. [PSE& G; West, A. [SDC

1981-01-01

32

EFFECT OF UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION ON GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential effect of underground coal gasification on groundwater has been examined in a laboratory study. The study was directed at Fruitland Formation subbituminous coal of the San Juan Basin and at the groundwater found in this coal seam. Two wells were drilled into the coa...

33

Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

1992-01-01

34

COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: TRACE ELEMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes trace element measurements made at several coal gasification facilities. Most of the measurements were made as part of EPA's source testing and evaluation program on low- and medium-Btu gasification. The behavior of trace elements is discussed in light of th...

35

Underground Coal Gasification at Tennessee Colony  

E-print Network

The Tennessee Colony In Situ Coal Gasification Project conducted by Basic Resources Inc. is the most recent step in Texas Utilities Company's ongoing research into the utilization of Texas lignite. The project, an application of the Soviet...

Garrard, C. W.

1979-01-01

36

Beluga coal gasification feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to determine the economic feasibility of developing and siting a coal-based integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant in the Cook Inlet region of Alaska for the co-production of electric power and marketable by-products. The by-products, which may include synthesis gas, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids, fertilizers such as ammonia and urea, alcohols, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, would be manufactured for local use or for sale in domestic and foreign markets. This report for Phase 1 summarizes the investigation of an IGCC system for a specific industrial setting on the Cook Inlet, the Agrium U.S. Inc. ('Agrium') fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska. Faced with an increase in natural gas price and a decrease in supply, the Agrium is investigating alternatives to gas as feed stock for their plant. This study considered all aspects of the installation and infrastructure, including: coal supply and cost, coal transport costs, delivery routes, feedstock production for fertilizer manufacture, plant steam and power, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) uses, markets for possible additional products, and environmental permit requirements. The Cook Inlet-specific Phase 1 results, reported here, provided insight and information that led to the conclusion that the second study should be for an F-T plant sited at the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, Alaska. This Phase 1 case study is for a very specific IGCC system tailored to fit the chemical and energy needs of the fertilizer manufacturing plant. It demonstrates the flexibility of IGCC for a variety of fuel feedstocks depending on plant location and fuel availability, as well as the available variety of gas separation, gas cleanup, and power and steam generation technologies to fit specific site needs. 18 figs., 37 tabs., 6 apps.

Robert Chaney; Lawrence Van Bibber [Research & Development Solutions (RDS), LLC (United States)

2006-07-15

37

Production of Hydrogen from Underground Coal Gasification  

DOEpatents

A system of obtaining hydrogen from a coal seam by providing a production well that extends into the coal seam; positioning a conduit in the production well leaving an annulus between the conduit and the coal gasification production well, the conduit having a wall; closing the annulus at the lower end to seal it from the coal gasification cavity and the syngas; providing at least a portion of the wall with a bifunctional membrane that serves the dual purpose of providing a catalyzing reaction and selectively allowing hydrogen to pass through the wall and into the annulus; and producing the hydrogen through the annulus.

Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

2008-10-07

38

Evaluation of treatment technologies for water reuse in coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation assessed significant issues and conducted bench scale experiments pertinent to management and reuse of coal coking and coal gasification process wastewaters. For the case of high-BTU coal gasification processes, the cooling tower is the most likely target for reuse of process wastewater. Treatment studies were performed with high BTU pilot coal gasification process quench waters to evaluate enhanced

R. G. Luthy; J. R. Campbell; L. McLaughlin; R. W. Walters

1980-01-01

39

Differences in gasification behaviors and related properties between entrained gasifier fly ash and coal char  

SciTech Connect

In the study, two fly ash samples from Texaco gasifiers were compared to coal char and the physical and chemical properties and reactivity of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption method, and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The main results were obtained. The carbon content of gasified fly ashes exhibited 31-37%, which was less than the carbon content of 58-59% in the feed coal. The fly ashes exhibited higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, richer meso- and micropores, more disordered carbon crystalline structure, and better CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity than coal char. Ashes in fly ashes occurred to agglomerate into larger spherical grains, while those in coal char do not agglomerate. The minerals in fly ashes, especial alkali and alkaline-earth metals, had a catalytic effect on gasification reactivity of fly ash carbon. In the low-temperature range, the gasification process of fly ashes is mainly in chemical control, while in the high-temperature range, it is mainly in gas diffusion control, which was similar to coal char. In addition, the carbon in fly ashes was partially gasified and activated by water vapor and exhibited higher BET surface area and better gasification activity. Consequently, the fact that these carbons in fly ashes from entrained flow gasifiers are reclaimed and reused will be considered to be feasible. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Jing Gu; Shiyong Wu; Youqing Wu; Ye Li; Jinsheng Gao [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources and Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education

2008-11-15

40

WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

Unknown

2000-09-01

41

Evaluation of coal-gasification - combustion-turbine power plants emphasizing low water consumption  

SciTech Connect

A cost and performance study was made of several integrated power plants using coal gasification technology now in advanced development and combustion turbines for power generation. The principal emphasis was placed on studying plants using air cooling and comparing costs and performance of those plants with water-cooled coal gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) and conventional coal-fired power plants. The major objective was to determine whether cost and performance penalties would be prohibitive for air-cooled plants that use yet-to-be-developed coal gasifiers and commercially available combustion turbines for topping cycle power. The results indicate the following: air-cooled GCC plants using conceptual designs of either the Texaco or the British Gas Corporation (BGC) slaging gasifier could have coal-to-net electric power efficiencies equivalent to that of a water-cooled conventional coal-fired plant; the air-cooled GCC plants could produce electricity at busbar cost 1 to 3 mills per kWh (1980 dollars) less than busbar cost in a water-cooled conventional plant and only up to 2 mills per kWh higher than busbar cost in a water-cooled Texaco GCC plant; and even a simple-cycle regenerative combustion turbine plant fueled with gas from the BGC gasifier could have a coal-to-net electric power efficiency of over 30% and a busbar cost competitive with that in a water cooled conventional plant. The principal reason that air-cooled power plants using combustion turbines could be competitive with conventional water-cooled, coal-fired steam plants is that a majority of net power is produced by the combustion turbines, which require no cooling water. This, in turn, leads to a reduced cost and performance penalty when bottoming steam-cycle condensers are air-cooled.

Cavazo, R.; Clemmer, A.B.; de la Mora, J.A.; Grisso, J.R.; Klumpe, H.W.; Meissner, R.E.; Musso, A.; Roszkowski, T.R.

1982-01-01

42

Gasification of residual materials from coal liquefaction: Type II preliminary pilot-plant evaluation of molten H-Coal liquefaction residue  

SciTech Connect

About 5.5 tons of vacuum tower bottoms (residue) obtained from the liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal from the H-Coal liquefaction process pilot plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky were successfully gasified at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory on January 16-17, 1982. Two test runs with molten H-Coal liquefaction residue were completed, each at a different operating temperature. The conversions of carbon in the feed to syngas achieved during the two test runs were 99.4 and 98.6 percent, yielding 35.2 and 35.5 standard cubic feet of dry syngas per pound of residue feed. The oxygen requirement was about 0.8 pound of oxygen per pound of residue for each run. The dry syngas contained about 93.4 (vol.) percent carbon monoxide plus hydrogen. The two short pilot unit runs did confirm the operability of the Texaco Synthesis Gas Generation Process with this feedstock, and the data obtained confirm earlier predictions of performance efficiency. A comparison of the gasification efficiency of molten H-Coal liquefaction residue with the gasification efficiency of H-Coal liquefaction residue-water slurry revealed that the molten process was more efficient. The molten system required less oxygen for gasification, 0.78 versus 1.00 pounds of oxygen per pound of residue, and produced a greater volume percent carbon monoxide plus hydrogen in the product syngas, 93.4% versus 79.2%, than the residue-water slurry.

Wu, C.M.; Robin, A.M.

1982-10-01

43

Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process  

DOEpatents

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

Euker, Jr., Charles A. (15163 Dianna La., Houston, TX 77062); Wesselhoft, Robert D. (120 Caldwell, Baytown, TX 77520); Dunkleman, John J. (3704 Autumn La., Baytown, TX 77520); Aquino, Dolores C. (15142 McConn, Webster, TX 77598); Gouker, Toby R. (5413 Rocksprings Dr., LaPorte, TX 77571)

1984-01-01

44

Process for fixed bed coal gasification  

DOEpatents

The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

1992-01-01

45

Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

1981-01-01

46

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 13. Gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the thirteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal, from July 31, 1984 to August 11, 1984. 6 refs., 22 figs., 20 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

47

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 14. Gasification of Kemmerer subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the fourteen volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Kemmerer subbituminous coal, from August 11, 1984 to August 15, 1984. 4 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

48

Continuous Removal of Coal-Gasification Residue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous-flow hopper processes solid residue from coal gasification, converting it from ashes, cinders, and clinkers to particles size of sand granules. Unit does not require repeated depressurization of lockhopper to admit and release materials. Therefore consumes less energy. Because unit has no airlock valves opened and closed repeatedly on hot, abrasive particles, subjected to lesser wear. Coal-gasification residue flows slowly through pressure-letdown device. Material enters and leaves continuously. Cleanout door on each pressure-letdown chamber allows access for maintenance and emergencies.

Collins, Earl R., Jr.; Suitor, J.; Dubis, D.

1986-01-01

49

Hydrogen production by coal plasma gasification for fuel cell technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal gasification in steam and air atmosphere under arc plasma conditions has been investigated with Podmoskovnyi brown coal, Kuuchekinski bituminous coal and Canadian petrocoke. It was found that for those coals the gasification degree to synthesis gas were 92.3%, 95.8 and 78.6% correspondingly. The amount of produced syngas was 30–40% higher in steam than in air gasification of the coal.The

V. Galvita; V. E. Messerle; A. B. Ustimenko

2007-01-01

50

Apparatus and method for solar coal gasification  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called "synthesis gas", which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

Gregg, David W. (Moraga, CA)

1980-01-01

51

Coal Gasification for Future Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ecause of deregulation, rapidly changing market demands, fluctuations in natural-gas prices, and increased environmental concerns, gasifica- tion will become the centerpiece of tomorrow's advanced power plants. Large improvements in the efficiency, reliability, and feed- stock flexibility of gasification sys- tems are necessary for the success blown, entrained-flow, coal slurry gasifier, a key component in the configuration, has been devel- oped.

Shaoping Shi; Mehrdad Shahnam; Madhava Syamlal

2004-01-01

52

Biological treatment of Hygas coal gasification wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study was performed to assess biological treatability characteristics of Hygas coal gasification process pilot plant wastewater comprised of cyclone and quench condensates. The study evaluated treatability characteristics of ammonia stripped and unstripped wastewater at full strength and at 1:1 dilution. It was determined that minimum pretreatment required for biological oxidation consisted of reducing wastewater alkalinity, and decreasing raw

R. G. Luthy; J. T. Tallon

1978-01-01

53

Coal gasification for power plant fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion Engineering, Inc. is a major supplier of stack gas scrubbing systems in the United States, and has active development programs underway in gasification, solvent refining and fluid bed combustion. These development programs are in response to the growing need for economical and environmentally-acceptable methods to use coal to produce electric power. Although primary development in the United States has

1979-01-01

54

COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the organics data from environmental assessments of several low- and medium-Btu coal gasification processes conducted between 1977 and 1981 under the sponsorship of the U.S. EPA. The data summary focuses on the concentration, composition, and mass flow of or...

55

Low/medium-Btu coal-gasification assessment program for specific sites of two New York utilities  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this study is to investigate the technical and economic aspects of coal gasification to supply low- or medium-Btu gas to the two power plant boilers selected for study. This includes the following major studies (and others described in the text): investigate coals from different regions of the country, select a coal based on its availability, mode of transportation and delivered cost to each power plant site; investigate the effects of burning low- and medium-Btu gas in the selected power plant boilers based on efficiency, rating and cost of modifications and make recommendations for each; and review the technical feasibility of converting the power plant boilers to coal-derived gas. The following two coal gasification processes have been used as the basis for this Study: the Combustion Engineering coal gasification process produces a low-Btu gas at approximately 100 Btu/scf at near atmospheric pressure; and the Texaco coal gasification process produces a medium-Btu gas at 292 Btu/scf at 800 psig. The engineering design and economics of both plants are described. Both plants meet the federal, state, and local environmental requirements for air quality, wastewater, liquid disposal, and ground level disposal of byproduct solids. All of the synthetic gas alternatives result in bus bar cost savings on a yearly basis within a few years of start-up because the cost of gas is assumed to escalate at a lower rate than that of fuel oil, approximately 4 to 5%.

Not Available

1980-12-01

56

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 4. Gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the fourth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal from Sweetwater County, Wyoming. The period of the gasification test was April 11-30, 1983. 4 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-03-31

57

ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD RANKINGS OF POLLUTANTS GENERATED IN COAL GASIFICATION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation and ranking of environmental hazards associated with coal gasification. Applied chemical analytical data were provided by (1) research with an experimental gasifier, and (2) sampling of four commercial gasification processes. Gas, liquid,...

58

The Caterpillar Coal Gasification Facility  

E-print Network

AND BUNKER FREE SPACE IS COLLECTED IN A BAGHOUSE, FE~ER SYSTEM THE FUEL IS FED FROM THE HOPPER INTO THE TOP OF THE GASIFIER RETORT THROUGH AN AUTOMATIC COAL FEEDER SYSTEM. COAL FROM THE (100 TON) TOP BUNKERS FLOWS THROUGH A STEEL INLET COMPARTMENT... SECTION) LOCATED AT THE TOP OF THE GASIFIER. THE CONE IS EQUIPPED WITH A STEEL EXPANSION JOINT AND SPACER RING CONNECTED TO THE TOP CONE COAL CHAMBER UPON WHICH THE COAL LEVEL CONTROL MECHANISM IS MOUNTED. BELOW THE CONE SECTION IS THE TOP COVER...

Welsh, J.; Coffeen, W. G., III

1983-01-01

59

Technical underground-coal-gasification summation: 1982 status. [77 references  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are three basic reasons for the recent emergence of underground coal gasification (UGC) as a leading synfuels candidate: (1) favorable projected economics, (2) ability to use coal seams that are unattractive for mining, and (3) modest environmental impact. The objectives of this summation are to list major underground coal gasification results and conclusions (particularly field-oriented results) and to briefly

D. R. Stephens; C. B. Thorsness; R. W. Hill; D. S. Thompson

1982-01-01

60

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July--September 1993) and the 1993 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, has completed the construction of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). ENCOAL submitted an application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project was selected by DOE in December, 1989 and the Cooperative Agreement approved in September, 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL mild coal gasification facility was completed in June of 1992, and the project is currently in the operations phase. Some plant modifications have been required and are discussed in this report.

Not Available

1993-10-01

61

Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal  

DOEpatents

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

Aquino, Dolores C. (Houston, TX); DaPrato, Philip L. (Westfield, NJ); Gouker, Toby R. (Baton Rouge, LA); Knoer, Peter (Houston, TX)

1986-01-01

62

Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal  

DOEpatents

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

1984-07-06

63

Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification  

DOEpatents

A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA); Salvador, Louis A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1981-01-01

64

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 9. Gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the ninth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal. The period of gasificastion test was September 13 to October 12, 1983. 9 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

65

Coal gasification: New challenge for the Beaumont rotary feeder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of rotary feeders in the coal gasification process is described with emphasis on the efficient conversion of coal to clean gaseous fuels. Commercial applications of the rotary feeder system are summarized.

Stelian, J.

1977-01-01

66

The role of high-Btu coal gasification technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is given of the role and economic potential of Lurgi-technology gasification of coal to the year 2000, in relation to other gas-supply options, the further development of gasifier designs, and probable environmental impact. It is predicted that coal gasification may reach 10% of total gas supplies by the year 2000, with Eastern U.S. coal use reaching commercially significant use in the 1990's. It is concluded that coal gasification is the cleanest way of using coal, with minimal physical, chemical, biological and socioeconomic impacts.

German, M. I.

67

FUGITIVE EMISSION TESTING AT THE KOSOVO COAL GASIFICATION PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes results of a test program to characterize fugitive emissions from the Kosovo coal gasification plant in Yugoslavia, a test program implemented by the EPA in response to a need for representative data on the potential environmental impacts of Lurgi coal gasif...

68

Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium*  

E-print Network

Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium* Ljubisa R November 7983) A comparative study is made of the relative catalytic effects of potassium and calcium of calcium is related to its sintering via crystallite growth. (Keywords: coal; gasification; catalysis

69

Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process  

DOEpatents

The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

Wilson, M.W.

1987-03-23

70

Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process  

DOEpatents

The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

Wilson, Marvin W. (Fairview, WV)

1988-01-01

71

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 2. Gasification of Jetson bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report describes the gasification testing of Jetson bituminous coal. This Western Kentucky coal was gasified during an initial 8-day and subsequent 5-day period. Material flows and compositions are reported along with material and energy balances. Operational experience is also described. 4 refs., 24 figs., 17 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-03-31

72

Pneumatic solids feeder for coal gasification reactor  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a pneumatic feeder system for a coal gasification reactor which includes one or more feeder tubes entering the reactor above the level of the particle bed inside the reactor. The tubes are inclined downward at their outer ends so that coal particles introduced into the tubes through an aperture at the top of the tubes slides downward away from the reactor and does not fall directly into the reactor. Pressurized gas introduced into, or resulting from ignition of recycled combustible gas in a chamber adjacent to the tube ends, propels the coal from the tube into the reactor volume and onto the particle bed. Leveling of the top of the bed is carried out by a bladed rotor mounted on the reactor stirring shaft. Coal is introduced into the tubes from containers above the tubes by means of rotary valves placed across supply conduits. This system avoids placement of feeder hardware in the plenum above the particle bed and keeps the coal from being excessively heated prior to reaching the particle bed.

Notestein, J.E.; Halow, J.S.

1991-12-31

73

Carbon dioxide sorption capacities of coal gasification residues.  

PubMed

Underground coal gasification is currently being considered as an economically and environmentally sustainable option for development and utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. This emerging technology in combination with carbon capture and sorptive CO2 storage on the residual coke as well as free-gas CO2 storage in the cavities generated in the coal seams after gasification could provide a relevant contribution to the development of Clean Coal Technologies. Three hard coals of different rank from German mining districts were gasified in a laboratory-scale reactor (200 g of coal at 800 °C subjected to 10 L/min air for 200 min). High-pressure CO2 excess sorption isotherms determined before and after gasification revealed an increase of sorption capacity by up to 42%. Thus, physical sorption represents a feasible option for CO2 storage in underground gasification cavities. PMID:21210659

Kempka, Thomas; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás; Li, Dong-Yong; Schulten, Marc; Schlüter, Ralph; Krooss, Bernhard M

2011-02-15

74

Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study  

SciTech Connect

This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

2004-01-31

75

Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal gasification.  

PubMed

The hazardous organic pollutants generated from coal gasification, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs), are highly mutagenic and carcinogenic. More researchers have paid particular attention to them. Using air and steam as gasification medium, the experiments of three kinds of coals were carried out in a bench-scale atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. The contents of the 16 PAHs specified by US EPA in raw coal, slag, bag house coke, cyclone coke and gas were measured by HPLC to study the contents of PAHs in raw coal and the effects of the inherent characters of coals on the formation and release of PAHs in coal gasification. The experimental results showed that the distributions of PAHs in the gasified products are similar to raw coals and the total-PAHs content in coal gasification is higher than in raw coal(except Coal C). The total-PAHs contents increase and then decrease with the rise of fixed carbon and sulfur of coal while there has an opposite variation when volatile matters content increase. The quantities of PAHs reduce with the increase of ash content or the drop of heating value during coal gasification. PMID:15900777

Zhou, Hong-cang; Jin, Bao-sheng; Zhong, Zhao-ping; Huang, Ya-ji; Xiao, Rui; Li, Da-ji

2005-01-01

76

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 10. Gasification of Benton lignite  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the tenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Benton lignite. The period of gasification test was November 1-8, 1983. 16 refs., 22 figs., 19 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

77

High-pressure gasification of Montana subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A data base for the fluidized-bed gasification of different coals at elevated pressures has been developed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with different ranks of coal at pressures up to 450 psig and at temperatures dictated by the individual coals. Adequate data have been obtained to characterize the effect of pressure on the gasification of Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal and North Dakota lignite. The results obtained with Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal are presented here. This program was funded by the Gas Research Institute. 9 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Goyal, A.; Bryan, B.; Rehmat, A.

1991-01-01

78

Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix A: Coal gasification catalog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scope of work in preparing the Coal Gasification Data Catalog included the following subtasks: (1) candidate system subsystem definition, (2) raw materials analysis, (3) market analysis for by-products, (4) alternate products analysis, (5) preliminary integrated facility requirements. Definition of candidate systems/subsystems includes the identity of and alternates for each process unit, raw material requirements, and the cost and design drivers for each process design.

1980-01-01

79

POLLUTANTS FROM SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION: COAL GASIFICATION SCREENING TEST RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Coal gasification test runs have been conducted in a semibatch, fixed-bed laboratory gasifier in order to evaluate various coals and operating conditions for pollutant generation. Thirty-eight tests have been completed using char, coal, lignite, and peat. Extensive analyses were ...

80

Coal gasification. Quarterly report, July-September 1979  

SciTech Connect

The status of 18 coal gasification pilot plants or supporting projects supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract number, funding, gasification process, history, process description, flowsheet and progress in the July-September 1979 quarter. (LTN)

None

1980-07-01

81

The suitability of coal gasification in India's energy sector  

E-print Network

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), an advanced coal-based power generation technology, may be an important technology to help India meet its future power needs. It has the potential to provide higher generating ...

Simpson, Lori Allison

2006-01-01

82

Current experiences in applied underground coal gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is experiencing greater stress on its ability to mine and exploit energy resources such as coal, through traditional mining methods. The resources available by extraction from traditional mining methods will have a finite time and quantity. In addition, the high quality coals available are becoming more difficult to find substantially increasing exploration costs. Subsequently, new methods of extraction are being considered to improve the ability to unlock the energy from deep coals and improve the efficiency of the exploitation of the resources while also considering the mitigation of global warming. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a leading commercial technology that is able to maximize the exploitation of the deep coal through extraction of the coal as a syngas (CO and H2) in situ. The syngas is then brought to the surface and efficiently utilized in any of combined cycle power generation, liquid hydrocarbon transport fuel production, fertilizer production or polymer production. Commercial UCG has been successfully operating for more than 50 years at the Yerostigaz facility in Angren, Uzbekistan. Yerostigaz is the only remaining UCG site in the former Soviet Union. Linc Energy currently owns 91.6% of this facility. UCG produces a high quality synthetic gas (syngas), containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. UCG produced syngas can be economically used for a variety of purposes, including: the production of liquid fuels when combined with Gas to Liquids (GTL) technology power generation in gas turbine combined cycle power stations a feedstock for different petrochemical processes, for example producing chemicals or other gases such as hydrogen, methane, ammonia, methanol and dimethyl ether Linc Energy has proven the combined use of UCG to Gas to Liquids (GTL) technologies. UCG to GTL technologies have the ability to provide energy alternatives to address increasing global demand for energy products. With these technologies, Linc Energy is set to become the leading producer of cleaner liquid fuels and other associated products. UCG has now been developed to a point where the commercialisation of the process is no longer questioned, the economics of the process are compelling, and is now seen as a method that resolves energy security for countries that have access to deep coal previously thought to have no economic value.

Peters, Justyn

2010-05-01

83

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Coal Gasification Power Generation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life cycle assessments (LCA) of coal gasification-based electricity generation technologies for emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), principally CO2, are computed. Two approaches for computing LCAs are compared for construction and operation of integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants: a traditional process-based approach, and one based on economic input-output analysis named Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA). It is shown

John A. Ruether; Massood Ramezan; Peter C. Balash

2004-01-01

84

Conceptual designs and assessments of a coal gasification demonstration plant. Volume I. Summary  

SciTech Connect

This is C. F. Braun and Co's final report concerning conceptual designs and assessments in support of Phase I of TVA's Coal Gasification commercial demonstration plant. The report is organized into five volumes. Volume I is a nonproprietary document and provides a summary of the major technical and financial aspects of all three of the gasification processes assigned to us on this project. It is intended to provide an overview of the work accomplished without reference to the specific gasifier reports. Volumes II, III and IV provide detailed data on the Koppers-Totzek, Texaco and Babcock and Wilcox gasification processes respectively. Each volume contains nonproprietary information pertaining to the specific process documented. Volume V contains the task reports prepared concerning process selection studies and plant studies along with TVA's Design Criteria document that provided the basis for our work. Also included is the Gas Cost Guidelines writing and the Building sketches, that are common to all three processes. We believe that the three conceptual designs developed for this project and detailed in accompanying volumes have several unique features. Examples are the zero liquid effluent and the fact that a coal-fired boiler is not required. Because of the configuration of the site and its limited access, special designs will be required to impound the ash and slag, and special procedures will be needed to circumvent the problems imposed by the site during construction. Such items are addressed. From the Phase II design procurement and construction schedule standpoint, on a fast track basis, it appears possible that all three processes could come close to meeting TVA's target completion date.

Not Available

1980-10-01

85

Start-up method for coal gasification plant  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for initiating operation of a coal gasification plant which includes a gasification reactor and gas cleansing apparatus fabricated in part from materials susceptible to chloride induced stress corrosion cracking the presence of oxygen. The reactor is preheated by combusting a stoichiometric mixture of air and fuel to produce an exhaust gas which is then diluted with steam to produce product gas which contains essentially no free oxygen. The product gas heats the reactor to a temperature profile necessary to maintain autothermic operation of the gasification process while maintaining air oxygen-free environment within the plant apparatus while chlorine is liberated from coal being gasified.

Farnia, K.; Petit, P.J.

1983-04-05

86

Underground coal gasification: a brief review of current status  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification is a promising option for the future use of coal. Similarly to gasification in industrial reactors, underground coal gasification (UCG) produces syngas, which can be used for power generation or for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels and other valuable chemical products. As compared with conventional mining and surface gasification, UCG promises lower capital/operating costs and also has other advantages, such as no human labor underground. In addition, UCG has the potential to be linked with carbon capture and sequestration. The increasing demand for energy, depletion of oil and gas resources, and threat of global climate change lead to growing interest in UCG throughout the world. In this article, we review the current status of this technology, focusing on recent developments in various countries.

Shafirovich, E.; Varma, A. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

2009-09-15

87

Utilisation of Malaysian Coal: Merit Pila in the Gasification System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gasification is the most efficient Clean Coal Technology. Gasification of Merit Pila coal had been studied in a laboratory-scale, atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier using air and air-steam as fluidizing agent. Merit Pila coal was chosen for the gasification study because of its high reactivity in nitrogen. Determination of the producer gas compositions were conducted using Gas Chromatography. Gasification experiments were conducted at bed temperature of 650-800 °C, different equivalence ratios, ER and different bed heights. Low heating value, LHVpg of the producer gas were in the range of 2.0-5.5 MJ/Nm3. Introduction of steam as the gasifying agents had shown significant increased of CO, CH4 and H2 contents in producer gas. LHV also increased about 35% with the presence of steam.

Othman, Nor Fadzilah; Bosrooh, Mohd Hariffin; Majid, Kamsani Abdul

2011-06-01

88

Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle  

DOEpatents

Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

Aiman, William R. (Livermore, CA); Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

1983-01-01

89

Hydrogen manufacture by Lurgi gasification of Oklahoma coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advantages and disadvantages of using the Lurgi gasification process to produce hydrogen from Oklahoma coal are listed. Special attention was given to the production of heat for the process; heat is generated by burning part of pretreated coal in the steam generator. Overall performance of the Lurgi process is summarized in tabular form.

1975-01-01

90

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 8. Gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the eighth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The period of gasification test was July 28 to August 19, 1983. 6 refs., 23 figs., 25 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

91

POLLUTANTS FROM SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION: SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS FOR COAL GASIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes sampling and analysis methods involving a laboratory-scale coal gasification facility used to study the generation, sampling, chemical analysis, process evaluation, and environmental assessment of pollutants from coal gasification. It describes methods for pa...

92

Pyrolysis and gasification of coal at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The macropore structure of chars is a major factor in determining their reactivity during the gasification stage. The major objectives of this contract were to (a) quantify by direct measurements the effect of pyrolysis conditions of the macropore structure, and (b) establish how the macropores affected the reactivity pattern, the ignition behavior and the fragmentation of the char particles during gasification in the regime of strong diffusional limitations. Results from this project provide much needed information on the factors that affect the quality of the solid products (chars) of coal utilization processes (for example, mild gasification processes). The reactivity data will also provide essential parameters for the optimal design of coal gasification processes. (VC)

Zygourakis, K.

1992-02-10

93

Development program to support industrial coal gasification. Quarterly report 1  

SciTech Connect

The Development Program to Support Industrial Coal Gasification is on schedule. The efforts have centered on collecting background information and data, planning, and getting the experimental program underway. The three principal objectives in Task I-A were accomplished. The technical literature was reviewed, the coals and binders to be employed were selected, and tests and testing equipment to be used in evaluating agglomerates were developed. The entire Erie Mining facility design was reviewed and a large portion of the fluidized-bed coal gasification plant design was completed. Much of the work in Task I will be experimental. Wafer-briquette and roll-briquette screening tests will be performed. In Task II, work on the fluidized-bed gasification plant design will be completed and work on a plant design involving entrained-flow gasifiers will be initiated.

None

1982-01-15

94

Dry coal feeder development program at Ingersoll-Rand Research, Incorporated. [for coal gasification systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dry coal screw feeder for feeding coal into coal gasification reactors operating at pressures up to 1500 psig is described. Results on the feeder under several different modes of operation are presented. In addition, three piston feeder concepts and their technical and economical merits are discussed.

Mistry, D. K.; Chen, T. N.

1977-01-01

95

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 3. Gasification of Rosebud sub-bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the third volume in a series of documents prepared by Black, Sivalls and Bryson, Incorporated and describes the gasification of Rosebud subbituminous coal during the time period November 2-20, 1982. Test results and data are presented for the gasification of the coal and the operation of a slipstream tar scrubber to cool the gas and remove condensed tar. 5 refs., 29 figs., 18 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-03-31

96

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 17. Gasification and liquids recovery of four US coals  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and government agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the seventeenth in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This report describes the gasification and pyrolysis liquids recovery test for four different coals: Illinois No. 6, SUFCO, Indianhead lignite, and Hiawatha. This test series spanned from July 15, 1985, through July 28, 1985. 4 refs., 16 figs., 19 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-12-01

97

Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary eutectic salt mixture consisting of Li- Na- and K- carbonates has the potential as gasification catalyst. To verify the literature reported, melting points for various compositions consisting of these three salts and the temperature range over which the mixture remained molten were determined in the lab. For mixtures with different concentrations of the three salts, the temperatures at which the mixtures were found to be in complete molten state were recorded. By increasing the amount of Li2CO3, the melting temperature range was reduced significantly. In the literature, the eutectic mixtures of Li- Na- and K-carbonates are claimed to have a lower activation energy than that of K2CO3 alone and they remain molten at a lower temperature than pure K2CO3. The slow increase in the gasification rates with eutectics reported in the literature is believed to be due to a gradual penetration of the coals and coal char particles by the molten and viscous catalyst phase. The even spreading of the salt phase seems to increase the overall carbon conversion rate. In the next reporting period, a number of eutectic salts and methods of their application on the coal will be identified and tested.

Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

1998-12-04

98

The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification  

E-print Network

gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation and methanol synthesis. The potential impact of a non-cryogenic air separation process currently under development is examined based on integration with a high temperature processes....

Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

99

Gasification of New Zealand coals: a comparative simulation study  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary feasibility assessment of gasification of New Zealand (NZ) lignite and sub-bituminous coals, using a commercial simulation tool. Gasification of these coals was simulated in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) application and associated preliminary economics compared. A simple method of coal characterization was developed for simulation purposes. The carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen content of the coal was represented by a three component vapor solid system of carbon, methane, and water, the composition of which was derived from proximate analysis data on fixed carbon and volatile matter, and the gross calorific value, both on a dry, ash free basis. The gasification process was modeled using Gibb's free energy minimization. Data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Shell Gasifier base cases using Illinios No. 6 coal was used to verify both the gasifier and the IGCC flowsheet models. The H:C and O:C ratios of the NZ coals were adjusted until the simulated gasifier output composition and temperature matched the values with the base case. The IGCC power output and other key operating variables such as gas turbine inlet and exhaust temperatures were kept constant for study of comparative economics. The results indicated that 16% more lignite than sub-bituminous coal was required. This translated into the requirement of a larger gasifier and air separation unit, but smaller gas and steam turbines were required. The gasifier was the largest sole contributor (30%) to the estimated capital cost of the IGCC plant. The overall cost differential associated with the processing of lignite versus processing sub-bituminous coal was estimated to be of the order of NZ $0.8/tonne. 13 refs., 9 tabs.

Smitha V. Nathen; Robert D. Kirkpatrick; Brent R. Young [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

2008-07-15

100

Cool water coal gasification: A mid-term performance assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is the US's largest indigenous fossil fuel resource and is used to power 57% of this country's electrical generation. Congress, however, is focusing its attention on the acid rain issue and public sentiment is leaning toward further curtailments of SOâ, NO\\/sub x\\/ and particulates from utility and industrial coal-burning facilities. The Cool Water plant has proven that integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC)

W. N. Clark; V. R. Shorter

1987-01-01

101

Cooling tower simulation with coal gasification wastewater. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was an investigation into the feasibility of utilizing a coal gasification wastewater as makeup to an evaporative cooling tower. A bench scale cooling tower and heat exchanger were constructed and four experimental test runs were performed. Two of the test runs were made with wastewater as the makeup source. The makeup water for the first cooling tower run

L. J. McShea; R. G. Luthy

1984-01-01

102

Application of availability engineering to coal gasification systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Erie Mining Company in Hoyt Lakes, Minnesota, and the Department of Energy have studied the feasibility of constructing a demonstration-scale coal gasification system. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that, if a reliability, maintainability, and availability (RMA) study is conducted during the planning and design stages of a system, the design will be improved and costs will

R. D; P. Y. Wang; P. S. Chopra; J. B. L. Harkness

1979-01-01

103

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTNG OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

The cooperative agreement between Texaco and Polk Power has been revised by Polk Power and ChevronTexaco several times already. Lawyers from both Polk Power and ChevronTexaco are in the process to include the issues related to the ownership transfer of the Texaco gasification unit in the agreement and finalize the draft. The modification fieldwork and testing will start once the cooperative agreement is signed with Polk Power.

Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

2003-04-01

104

Effect of petroleum coke addition on coal gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main fuel for power generation is combustion of coal and/or natural gas. Natural gas is expensive but clean and less problematic, whereas coal is the reverse of natural gas. Natural gas resources are expected to last until 2020 where else coal has another 200 years expectancy. To replace the natural gas, synthetic gas (syngas) can be used as a substitute fuel. Syngas can be produced using coal as fuel. In this study we blend petcoke, a cheap solid carboneous fuel as an alternative to coal for the production of syngas using a 30 Kwattheat bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. The equivalent ratio (ER) was set at 2.8 and a gasification temperature was maintained between 680 to 710°C by manipulating between the feed flow rates and fluidizing medium. This condition was chosen as it proved to be the optimum based on the work by the same group. Various blend of coal:petcoke between 0 to 100% was analyzed. It was found that a 20:80, petcoke to coal gives a good correlation with 100% coal gasification.

Sinnathambi, Chandra Mohan; Najib, Nur Khadijah Mohamad

2014-10-01

105

Coal gasification. Quarterly report, April-June 1979  

SciTech Connect

In DOE's program for the conversion of coal to gaseous fuels both high-and low-Btu gasification processes are being developed. High-Btu gas can be distributed economically to consumers in the same pipeline systems now used to carry natural gas. Low-Btu gas, the cheapest of the gaseous fuels produced from coal, can be used economically only on site, either for electric power generation or by industrial and petrochemical plants. High-Btu natural gas has a heating value of 950 to 1000 Btu per standard cubic foot, is composed essentially of methane, and contains virtually no sulfur, carbon monoxide, or free hydrogen. The conversion of coal to High-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. Coals have widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where they are mined, and are difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, DOE, together with the American Gas Association (AGA), is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, each of the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high-Btu gas have reached the pilot plant Low-Btu gas, with a heating value of up to 350 Btu per standard cubic foot, is an economical fuel for industrial use as well as for power generation in combined gas-steam turbine power cycles. Because different low-Btu gasification processes are optimum for converting different types of coal, and because of the need to provide commercially acceptable processes at the earliest possible date, DOE is sponsoring the concurrent development of several basic types of gasifiers (fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, and entrained-flow).

None

1980-04-01

106

Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process  

DOEpatents

Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ)

1980-01-01

107

Thermodynamic analysis and conceptual design for partial coal gasification air preheating coal-fired combined cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The partial coal gasification air pre-heating coal-fired combined cycle (PGACC) is a cleaning coal power system, which integrates the coal gasification technology, circulating fluidized bed technology, and combined cycle technology. It has high efficiency and simple construction, and is a new selection of the cleaning coal power systems. A thermodynamic analysis of the PGACC is carried out. The effects of coal gasifying rate, pre-heating air temperature, and coal gas temperature on the performances of the power system are studied. In order to repower the power plant rated 100 MW by using the PGACC, a conceptual design is suggested. The computational results show that the PGACC is feasible for modernizing the old steam power plants and building the new cleaning power plants.

Xu, Yue; Wu, Yining; Deng, Shimin; Wei, Shirang

2004-02-01

108

Coal gasification\\/pros and cons  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 80% of total remaining U.S. fossil fuel resource is in the form of coal. World oil production is expected to peak not later than 2000; a precipitous rise in world oil prices can be expected. Currently SNG from coal at a cost of $3.50 to $4.50\\/million Btu, is equivalent to oil at $15 to $25\\/bbl. Low-Btu gas from coal

1977-01-01

109

Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program  

SciTech Connect

The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H{sub 2} mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO{sub x} (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

1992-11-01

110

Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program  

SciTech Connect

The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H[sub 2] mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO[sub x] (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

1992-01-01

111

Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams. [DOE patent  

DOEpatents

A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face is given. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

Gregg, D.W.

1980-08-29

112

Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams  

DOEpatents

A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

Gregg, David W. (Moraga, CA)

1982-01-01

113

Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT) is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering (WRCGR) Project, as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1992). Repowering consists of replacing an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies to achieve significantly improved environmental performance. The desire to demonstrate utility repowering with a two-stage, pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system prompted Destec Energy, Inc., and PSI Energy, Inc., to form a joint venture and submit a proposal for this project. In July 1992, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (WRCGRPJV, the Participant) entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. The project was sited at PSI Energy's Wabash River Generating Station, located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate IGCC repowering using a Destec gasifier and to assess long-term reliability, availability, and maintainability of the system at a fully commercial scale. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding (for capital and operating costs during the demonstration period) of $438 million.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2002-01-15

114

Low-Btu gasification of coal by Atomics International's molten salt process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molten salt coal gasification process is essentially based on partial oxidation and complete gasification of coal at a temperature of 1700 to 1800 F and a pressure of 10 to 20 atm by reaction with air in a bed of molten sodium carbonate, the sulfur and ash of the coal being retained in the melt. The low-Btu gas produced

W. V. Botts; A. L. Kohl; C. A. Trilling

1976-01-01

115

Oxy-co-gasification of coal and biomass in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxy-gasification, or oxygen-blown gasification, enables a clean and efficient use of coal and opens a promising way to CO2 capture. Moreover, oxy-co-gasification with biomass implies the use of a renewable resource and additional CO2 reduction. Proper gasifier operation is a key issue in both techniques. A model of an entrained flow gasifier, validated with nearby 3000 actual steady-state operation data

Antonio Valero; Sergio Usón

2006-01-01

116

Encoal mild coal gasification project: Final design modifications report  

SciTech Connect

The design, construction and operation Phases of the Encoal Mild Coal Gasification Project have been completed. The plant, designed to process 1,000 ton/day of subbituminous Power River Basin (PRB) low-sulfur coal feed and to produce two environmentally friendly products, a solid fuel and a liquid fuel, has been operational for nearly five years. The solid product, Process Derived Fuel (PDF), is a stable, low-sulfur, high-Btu fuel similar in composition and handling properties to bituminous coal. The liquid product, Coal Derived Liquid (CDL), is a heavy, low-sulfur, liquid fuel similar in properties to heavy industrial fuel oil. Opportunities for upgrading the CDL to higher value chemicals and fuels have been identified. Significant quantities of both PDF and CDL have been delivered and successfully burned in utility and industrial boilers. A summary of the Project is given.

NONE

1997-07-01

117

Gas core reactors for coal gasification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of using a gas core reactor to produce hydrogen directly from coal and water is presented. It is shown that the chemical equilibrium of the process is strongly in favor of the production of H2 and CO in the reactor cavity, indicating a 98% conversion of water and coal at only 1500 K. At lower temperatures in the moderator-reflector cooling channels the equilibrium strongly favors the conversion of CO and additional H2O to CO2 and H2. Furthermore, it is shown the H2 obtained per pound of carbon has 23% greater heating value than the carbon so that some nuclear energy is also fixed. Finally, a gas core reactor plant floating in the ocean is conceptualized which produces H2, fresh water and sea salts from coal.

Weinstein, H.

1976-01-01

118

Heat exchanger for coal gasification process  

DOEpatents

This invention provides a heat exchanger, particularly useful for systems requiring cooling of hot particulate solids, such as the separated fines from the product gas of a carbonaceous material gasification system. The invention allows effective cooling of a hot particulate in a particle stream (made up of hot particulate and a gas), using gravity as the motive source of the hot particulate. In a preferred form, the invention substitutes a tube structure for the single wall tube of a heat exchanger. The tube structure comprises a tube with a core disposed within, forming a cavity between the tube and the core, and vanes in the cavity which form a flow path through which the hot particulate falls. The outside of the tube is in contact with the cooling fluid of the heat exchanger.

Blasiole, George A. (Greensburg, PA)

1984-06-19

119

Gasification of coal char with steam. Part 1. Analysis of reaction rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests on the steam gasification of activated carbon produced from brown and bituminous coal chars demonstrated that the gasification rate is affected by reaction-generated changes in pore structure. Investigating temperature dependence, steam partial pressure, and char pore structure at atmospheric conditions, researchers concluded that the (1) gasification rate is proportional to the steam partial pressure, (2) reaction rate increases with

G. Chin; S. Kimura; S. Tone; T. Otake

1983-01-01

120

Pricetown I underground coal gasification field test: operations report  

SciTech Connect

An Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) field test in bituminous coal was successfully completed near Pricetown, West Virginia. The primary objective of this field test was to determine the viability of the linked vertical well (LVV) technology to recover the 900 foot deep, 6 foot thick coal seam. A methane rich product gas with an average heating value of approximately 250 Btu/SCF was produced at low air injection flow rates during the reverse combustion linkage phase. Heating value of the gas produced during the linkage enhancement phase was 221 Btu/SCF with air injection. The high methane formation has been attributed to the thermal and hydrocracking of tars and oils along with hydropyrolysis and hydrogasification of coal char. The high heating value of the gas was the combined effect of residence time, flow pattern, injection flow rate, injection pressure, and back pressure. During the gasification phase, a gas with an average heating value of 125 Btu/SCF was produced with only air injection, which resulted in an average energy production of 362 MMBtu/day.

Agarwal, A.K.; Seabaugh, P.W.; Zielinski, R.E.

1981-01-01

121

Gasification coprocessing of Illinois Basin coal and RDF  

SciTech Connect

Gasification coprocessing of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with coal was investigated with the objective of increasing the utilization of high-sulfur Illinois Basin coals and municipal solid waste (MSW) in an environmentally acceptable manner. MSW is a major recurring solid waste whose disposal entails tipping fees of $30--$40/ton, and poses long-term environmental problems. MSW is routinely processed to recover plastics, aluminum, and other metals as part of state-mandated recycling requirements. Following removal of noncombustibles, the remaining material, primarily paper and food wastes, is shredded to produce RDF fluff which has an as-received calorific value of {approximately} 6,000 Btu/lb. The research addressed the problems of size reduction of RDF fluff (an essential step in making a gasifier feed slurry) and production of a pumpable slurry using additives to maximize coal and RDF solids loading. Gasification evaluation of a 60% solids coal/RDF slurry was conducted in an entrained-flow, oxygen-blown, atmospheric pressure, 0.5 million Btu/h research gasifier. High carbon conversion was achieved, and the product gases contained no furans.

Choudhry, V.; Kwan, S. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States); Pisupati, S.; Klima, M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Banerjee, D.D. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

1998-12-31

122

Method for using fast fluidized bed dry bottom coal gasification  

DOEpatents

Carbonaceous solid material such as coal is gasified in a fast fluidized bed gasification system utilizing dual fluidized beds of hot char. The coal in particulate form is introduced along with oxygen-containing gas and steam into the fast fluidized bed gasification zone of a gasifier assembly wherein the upward superficial gas velocity exceeds about 5.0 ft/sec and temperature is 1500.degree.-1850.degree. F. The resulting effluent gas and substantial char are passed through a primary cyclone separator, from which char solids are returned to the fluidized bed. Gas from the primary cyclone separator is passed to a secondary cyclone separator, from which remaining fine char solids are returned through an injection nozzle together with additional steam and oxygen-containing gas to an oxidation zone located at the bottom of the gasifier, wherein the upward gas velocity ranges from about 3-15 ft/sec and is maintained at 1600.degree.-200.degree. F. temperature. This gasification arrangement provides for increased utilization of the secondary char material to produce higher overall carbon conversion and product yields in the process.

Snell, George J. (Fords, NJ); Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1983-01-01

123

UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project entitled ''Utilization of Lightweight Materials Made from Coal Gasification Slags'' was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of manufacturing low-unit-weight products from coal gasification slags which can be used as substitutes for conventional lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates. In Phase I, the technology developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates from slag (termed SLA) was applied to produce a large batch (10 tons) of expanded slag using pilot direct-fired rotary kilns and a fluidized bed calciner. The expanded products were characterized using basic characterization and application-oriented tests. Phase II involved the demonstration and evaluation of the use of expanded slag aggregates to produce a number of end-use applications including lightweight roof tiles, lightweight precast products (e.g., masonry blocks), structural concrete, insulating concrete, loose fill insulation, and as a substitute for expanded perlite and vermiculite in horticultural applications. Prototypes of these end-use applications were made and tested with the assistance of commercial manufacturers. Finally, the economics of expanded slag production was determined and compared with the alternative of slag disposal. Production of value-added products from SLA has a significant potential to enhance the overall gasification process economics, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are considered.

Vas Choudhry; Stephen Kwan; Steven R. Hadley

2001-07-01

124

Encoal mild coal gasification project: Commercial plant feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

In order to determine the viability of any Liquids from Coal (LFC) commercial venture, TEK-KOL and its partner, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), have put together a technical and economic feasibility study for a commercial-size LFC Plant located at Zeigler Coal Holding Company`s North Rochelle Mine site. This resulting document, the ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Plant: Commercial Plant Feasibility Study, includes basic plant design, capital estimates, market assessment for coproducts, operating cost assessments, and overall financial evaluation for a generic Powder River Basin based plant. This document and format closely resembles a typical Phase II study as assembled by the TEK-KOL Partnership to evaluate potential sites for LFC commercial facilities around the world.

NONE

1997-07-01

125

Economic and social costs of coal gasification vs coal electricity for providing space heat to the Central US  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using coal-electric power plants or coal gasification as a source of space heat for the Central US is considered. Though the region generates substantial amounts of nuclear power, this power is not well suited to heating demands because of the cycling characteristics of nuclear vs coal-fired power plants. Coal is abundant in the region. Consequently its use

Santini

1979-01-01

126

NETL, USDA design coal-stabilized biomass gasification unit  

SciTech Connect

Coal, poultry litter, contaminated corn, rice hulls, moldly hay, manure sludge - these are representative materials that could be tested as fuel feedstocks in a hybrid gasification/combustion concept studied in a recent US Department of Energy (DOE) design project. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) collaborated to develop a design concept of a power system that incorporates Hybrid Biomass Gasification. This system would explore the use of a wide range of biomass and agricultural waste products as gasifier feedstocks. The plant, if built, would supply one-third of electrical and steam heating needs at the USDA's Beltsville (Maryland) Agricultural Research Center. 1 fig., 1 photo.

NONE

2008-09-30

127

Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 1. General information and executive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation. This report covers: (1) history of underground coal gasification leading to the Hanna tests; (2) area characteristics (basic meteorological

T. C. Bartke; D. D. Fischer; S. B. King; R. M. Boyd; A. E. Humphrey

1985-01-01

128

COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: LOW- AND MEDIUM-BTU WASTEWATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a compilation of environmental characterization data for wastewaters from low- and medium-Btu coal gasification facilities. Fixed-bed, entrained-bed, and ash-agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification processes were examined. The fixed-bed gasifiers are the Chapm...

129

Synthetic fuels from coal: status and outlook of coal gasification and liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the request of the US Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, the US Library of Congress analyzed the outlook, environmental impacts, economic aspects, and policy options for obtaining synthetic fuels from coal by gasification and liquefaction. The study concludes that the major reason for increasing federal support of synfuels commercialization is the positive effect of synfuels on the

P. F. Rothberg; L. T. Crane; R. E. Trumbull; M. M. Simmons; A. Kaufman; S. J. Bodilly

1979-01-01

130

Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT) is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering (WRCGR) Project, as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1992). Repowering consists of replacing an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies to achieve significantly improved environmental performance. The desire to demonstrate utility repowering with a two-stage, pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system prompted Destec Energy, Inc., and PSI Energy, Inc., to form a joint venture and submit a proposal for this project. In July 1992, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (WRCGRPJV, the Participant) entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. The project was sited at PSI Energy's Wabash River Generating Station, located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate IGCC repowering using a Destec gasifier and to assess long-term reliability, availability, and maintainability of the system at a fully commercial scale. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding (for capital and operating costs during the demonstration period) of $438 million. Construction for the demonstration project was started in July 1993. Pre-operational tests were initiated in August 1995, and construction was completed in November 1995. Commercial operation began in November 1995, and the demonstration period was completed in December 1999. The independent evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information provided in Wabash's Final Report (Dowd 2000), as well as other references and bibliographic sources.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2002-01-15

131

Feasibility of mild gasification of coal: research needs  

SciTech Connect

This report is an outcome of a series of activities in ''mild gasification,'' defined as a coal devolatilization process that emphasizes production of low-cost condensates (hydrocarbons) from coal. The first part of this report reviews previous work, presents an appraisal of the effects of process conditions on coal devolatilization, and describes advantages and limitations of these pyrolysis processes. It is recognized that a viable (economic) mild gasification process may have attributes such as little or no H/sub 2/ consumption, inexpensive and recyclable reactant usage (if applicable), low-cost or regenerable catalysts' application, efficient operation, and effective end usage of all generated products (solid, liquid, and gases). These attributes served as guidelines in the assessment of the existing literature, and in the identification of technical gaps. The essence of this study is the identification of a number of key research areas, some of which are listed. The investigations regarding the effects of potentially reactive gas atmospheres and vacuum configurations, and the assessment of low yield/high quality processes, can be considered as the highest priority work. A parallel effort should concentrate on evaluating process economics and sensitivities to process variables. The investigation of low-cost catalysts for coal conversion should be addressed next. Finally, the combustion characteristics of char and char/tar slurries and the potential application of high-energy fields should be investigated. It is believed that the findings in the above areas may provide the groundwork for efficient processes that produce clean fuels from coal economically. 73 refs., 8 figs., 29 tabs.

Khan, M.R.; Kurata, T.M.

1985-07-01

132

Lock hopper valves for coal gasification. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The design, fabrication, and testing of two configurations of Lock Hopper Valves is described. These two configurations are intended to meet the requirements for four typical types of service in coal gasification plants. Operating pressures for either configuration is 1600 psi. One configuration is designed for use at temperatures up to 2000/sup 0/F, and the other for temperatures up to 850/sup 0/F. Several unique construction features are employed, including the extensive use of dense alumina ceramic, especially in the high-temperature valve. The description includes details of construction, and problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and proposed solutions to those problems.

Not Available

1981-05-01

133

Geochemical Proxies for Enhanced Process Control of Underground Coal Gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underground coal gasification (UCG) represents a strategy targeting at syngas production for fuel or power generation from in-situ coal seams. It is a promising technique for exploiting coal deposits as an energy source at locations not allowing conventional mining under economic conditions. Although the underlying concept has already been suggested in 1868 and has been later on implemented in a number of field trials and even at a commercial scale, UCG is still facing technological barriers, impeding its widespread application. Field UCG operations rely on injection wells enabling the ignition of the target seam and the supply with oxidants (air, O2) inducing combustion (oxidative conditions). The combustion process delivers the enthalpy required for endothermic hydrogen production under reduction prone conditions in some distance to the injection point. The produced hydrogen - usually accompanied by organic and inorganic carbon species, e.g. CH4, CO, and CO2 - can then be retrieved through a production well. In contrast to gasification of mined coal in furnaces, it is difficult to measure the combustion temperature directly during UCG operations. It is already known that geochemical parameters such as the relative production gas composition as well as its stable isotope signature are related to the combustion temperature and, consequently, can be used as temperature proxies. However, so far the general applicability of such relations has not been proven. In order to get corresponding insights with respect to coals of significantly different rank and origin, four powdered coal samples covering maturities ranging from Ro= 0.43% (lignite) to Ro= 3.39% (anthracite) have been gasified in laboratory experiments. The combustion temperature has been varied between 350 and 900 Ë? C, respectively. During gasification, the generated gas has been captured in a cryo-trap, dried and the carbon containing gas components have been catalytically oxidized to CO2. Thereafter, the generated CO2 has been analyzed with respect to its stable carbon isotope composition by mass spectrometry. All samples exhibited a similar trend: The ^13C signatures of initially produced CO2 revealed to be relatively light and linearly increasing with temperature until approaching the bulk stable carbon isotope composition of the coal at a certain temperature, where the isotope signature kept virtually constant during further temperature increase. The temperature introducing the range of constant isotope compositions of the produced gas increased with coal rank. Additionally, all coal samples were treated by Rock Eval pyrolysis up to 550 Ë? C in order to investigate temperature dependent generation of CO and CO2. The results exhibited a linear decrease of the CO2/CO ratio at increasing temperature. Both experimental approaches demonstrated dependencies between the qualitative and the isotope composition of the generated syngas on the one hand and the applied combustion temperature on the other hand and, consequently, the principal applicability of the considered geochemical parameters as temperature proxies for coals of significantly different rank and origin. Although the investigated samples revealed similar trends, the absolute characteristics of the correlation functions (e.g. linear gradients) between geochemical parameters and combustion temperatures differed on an individual sample base, implying a significant additional dependence of the considered geochemical parameters on the coal composition. As a consequence, corresponding experimental approaches are currently continued and refined by involving multi component compound specific isotope analysis, high temperature Rock Eval pyrolysis as well as an enforced consideration of initial coal and oxidant compositions.

Kronimus, A.; Koenen, M.; David, P.; Veld, H.; van Dijk, A.; van Bergen, F.

2009-04-01

134

Method of in situ gasification, cooling, and liquefaction of a subsurface coal formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of liquefying a coal formation in situ, wherein the coal formation has been preheated as by a coal gasification project, includes the steps of establishing injection and removal passages connecting the coal formation to the surface, injecting water having a temperature below the formation temperature into the formation to gradually lower the temperature of the formation while forming

1976-01-01

135

Hydrogen production from coal gasification for effective downstream CO 2 capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coal gasification process is used in commercial production of synthetic gas as a means toward clean use of coal. The conversion of solid coal into a gaseous phase creates opportunities to produce more energy forms than electricity (which is the case in coal combustion systems) and to separate CO2 in an effective manner for sequestration. The current work compares

Nirmal V. Gnanapragasam; Bale V. Reddy; Marc A. Rosen

2010-01-01

136

Thermodynamic analysis of the process of formation of sulfur compounds in oxygen gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect

A thermodynamic approach to the description of the behavior of the system fuel-oxidizer in oxygen gasification of coal is used to reveal the main mechanisms of the process of capture of sulfur by the mineral part of the coal and to determine the fundamental possibility of the process for coals from different coal fields.

G.Ya. Gerasimov; T.M. Bogacheva [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Mechanics

2001-05-15

137

Study on CO2 gasification reactivity and physical characteristics of biomass, petroleum coke and coal chars.  

PubMed

Gasification reactivities of six different carbonaceous material chars with CO2 were determined by a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). Gasification reactivities of biomass chars are higher than those of coke and coal chars. In addition, physical structures and chemical components of these chars were systematically tested. It is found that the crystalline structure is an important factor to evaluate gasification reactivities of different chars and the crystalline structures of biomass chars are less order than those of coke and coal chars. Moreover, initial gasification rates of these chars were measured at high temperatures and with relatively large particle sizes. The method of calculating the effectiveness factor ? was used to quantify the effect of pore diffusion on gasification. The results show that differences in pore diffusion effects among gasification with various chars are prominent and can be attributed to different intrinsic gasification reactivities and physical characteristics of different chars. PMID:24642484

Huo, Wei; Zhou, Zhijie; Chen, Xueli; Dai, Zhenghua; Yu, Guangsuo

2014-05-01

138

Mild coal gasification screw pyrolyzer development and design  

SciTech Connect

Our objective is to produce information and design recommendations needed for the development of an efficient continuous process for the mild gasification of caking bituminous coals. We have focused on the development of an externally heated pyrolyzer in which the sticky, reacting coal is conveyed by one or more screws. We have taken a multifaceted approach to forwarding the development of the externally-heated screw pyrolyzer. Small scale process experiments on a 38-mm single screw pyrolyzer have been a major part of our effort. Engineering analyses aimed at producing design and scaleup equations have also been important. Process design recommendations follow from these. We critically review our experimental data and experience, and information from the literature and equipment manufactures for the purpose of making qualitative recommendations for improving practical pyrolyzer design and operation. Benchscale experiments are used to supply needed data and test some preliminary concepts. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Camp, D.W.

1990-08-01

139

Lock hopper values for coal gasification plant service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the operating principle of the lock hopper system is extremely simple, valve applications involving this service for coal gasification plants are likewise extremely difficult. The difficulties center on the requirement of handling highly erosive pulverized coal or char (either in dry or slurry form) combined with the requirement of providing tight sealing against high-pressure (possibly very hot) gas. Operating pressures and temperatures in these applications typically range up to 1600 psi (110bar) and 600F (316C), with certain process requirements going even higher. In addition, and of primary concern, is the need for reliable operation over long service periods with the provision for practical and economical maintenance. Currently available data indicate the requirement for something in the order of 20,000 to 30,000 open-close cycles per year and a desire to operate at least that long without valve failure.

Schoeneweis, E. F.

1977-01-01

140

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand demanding conditions of high temperatures and pressure differentials. Under the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas, the performance of components degrade significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. A review of the literature indicates that the corrosion reaction is the competition between oxidation and sulfidation reactions. The Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Angel Sanjurjo

2004-05-01

141

Groundwater Management During Intermediate-to-Deep Underground Coal Gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a safe, economic way to extract energy from coal with significant environmental benefits compared with other coal-based energy production methods. However, in the wrong hands, UCG can adversely impact groundwater systems in two ways: 1) by contamination with inorganic and organic compounds; and 2) groundwater depletion. The hydrogeological conditions of UCG are highly site-specific and so the risks to groundwater have to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Site selection plays a fundamental role in managing these risks and it is possible to identify the general characteristics that will minimise risks of environmental impacts. However, large volumes of water, much of which will come from groundwater, are consumed during UCG projects, leading to possible significant groundwater depletion at such settings. Insufficient water supplies will impact the quality of the syngas produced by UCG because coal conversion efficiencies will decrease. Furthermore, depletion of groundwater levels may extend beyond the UCG site boundary, with consequent implications for regulatory regimes and any off-site groundwater users. Additional artificial water supplies may therefore be required, although the manner in which the water is delivered to the UCG system will also likely have an impact on syngas quality. Large volumes of water delivered via the injection well will likely impact gasification efficiency because 1) large amounts of heat will be used to vaporise the water leading to suppression of the reactor temperature and inhibition of (endothermic) gasification reactions; and 2) the "steam jacket" originally present around the UCG reactor will be absent, which will lead to further heat loss from the system. Additional water may therefore have to be supplied via the surrounding strata and/or coal seam, thus mimicking the natural conditions prior to groundwater depletion. Much of the hydrogeological modelling to date has focussed on a single UCG reactor and so the groundwater impacts of full commercial scale UCG (where perhaps greater than ten modules could be operated simultaneously) are not fully understood. Careful hydrogeological (coupled with geomechanical and chemical) modelling will be required on a site-by-site basis to ensure that groundwater supplies are adequate, that environmental risks are minimised and that any additional water supplies are delivered efficiently.

Lavis, Shaun; Stanley, Edward; Mostade, Marc; Turner, Matthew

2010-05-01

142

Evaluation of coal-gasification - combustion-turbine power plants emphasizing low water consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cost and performance study was made of several integrated power plants using coal gasification technology now in advanced development and combustion turbines for power generation. The principal emphasis was placed on studying plants using air cooling and comparing costs and performance of those plants with water-cooled coal gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) and conventional coal-fired power plants. The major objective was to

R. Cavazo; A. B. Clemmer; J. A. de la Mora; J. R. Grisso; H. W. Klumpe; R. E. Meissner; A. Musso; T. R. Roszkowski

1982-01-01

143

Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels  

SciTech Connect

A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co- produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle pores and energy exchange between the particle and its environment. This char-particle gasification model is capable of predicting the average mass loss rates, sizes, apparent densities, specific surface areas, and temperatures of the char particles produced when co-firing coal and biomass to the type environments established in entrained flow gasifiers operating at high temperatures and elevated pressures. A key result of this work is the finding that the reactivities of the mixed chars were not always in between the reactivities of the pure component chars at comparable gasification conditions. Mixed char reactivity to CO{sub 2} was lower than the reactivities of both the pure Wyodak coal and pure corn stover chars to CO{sub 2}. In contrast, mixed char reactivity to H{sub 2}O was higher than the reactivities of both the pure Wyodak coal and pure corn stover chars to H{sub 2}O. This was found to be in part, a consequence of the reduced mass specific surface areas of the coal char particles formed during devolatilization when the coal and biomass particles are co-fired. The biomass particles devolatilize prior to the coal particles, impacting the temperature and the composition of the environment in which the coal particles devolatilize. This situation results in coal char particles within the mixed char that differ in specific surface area and reactivity from the coal char particles produced in the absence of the devolatilizing biomass particles. Due to presence of this “affected” coal char, it was not possible to develop a mixed char reactivity model that uses linear mixing rules to determine the reactivity of a mixed char from only the reactivities of the pure mixture components. However, it was possible to predict both mixed char specific surface area and reactivity for a wide range of fuel mixture rat os provided the specific surface area and reactivity of the affected coal char particles are known. Using the kinetic parameters determined for the Wyodak coal and corn stover chars, the model was found to adequately predict the observed conversion times a

Mitchell, Reginald

2013-09-30

144

Control technology assessment for coal gasification and liquefaction processes, coal gasification facility, Caterpillar Tractor Company, York, Pennsylvania. Report for the site visit of May 1981. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control technology survey was conducted at the coal gasification facility of the Caterpillar Tractor Company (SIC-5161), in York, Pennsylvania on August 18, 1980 and May 7, 1981, in conjunction with an industrial hygiene characterization study. Potential hazards included coal dust, noise, fire, carbon-monoxide (630080) (CO), polynuclear aromatics, hydrogen sulfide (7783064), phenols, and flammable and explosive gases. Preemployment physicals were

Telesca

1982-01-01

145

Alaska coal gasification feasibility studies - Healy coal-to-liquids plant  

SciTech Connect

The Alaska Coal Gasification Feasibility Study entailed a two-phase analysis of the prospects for greater use of Alaska's abundant coal resources in industrial applications. Phase 1, Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study (Report DOE/NETL 2006/1248) assessed the feasibility of using gasification technology to convert the Agrium fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska, from natural gas to coal feedstock. The Phase 1 analysis evaluated coals from the Beluga field near Anchorage and from the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, both of which are low in sulfur and high in moisture. This study expands the results of Phase 1 by evaluating a similar sized gasification facility at the Usibelli Coal mine to supply Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids to central Alaska. The plant considered in this study is small (14,640 barrels per day, bbl/d) compared to the recommended commercial size of 50,000 bbl/d for coal-to-liquid plants. The coal supply requirements for the Phase 1 analysis, four million tons per year, were assumed for the Phase 2 analysis to match the probable capacity of the Usibelli mining operations. Alaska refineries are of sufficient size to use all of the product, eliminating the need for F-T exports out of the state. The plant could produce marketable by-products such as sulfur as well as electric power. Slag would be used as backfill at the mine site and CO{sub 2} could be vented, captured or used for enhanced coalbed methane recovery. The unexpected curtailment of oil production from Prudhoe Bay in August 2006 highlighted the dependency of Alaskan refineries (with the exception of the Tesoro facility in Nikiski) on Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude. If the flow of oil from the North Slope declines, these refineries may not be able to meet the in-state needs for diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. Additional reliable sources of essential fuel products would be beneficial. 36 refs., 14 figs., 29 tabs., 3 apps.

Lawrence Van Bibber; Charles Thomas; Robert Chaney [Research & Development Solutions, LLC (United States)

2007-07-15

146

Status of health and environmental research relative to coal gasification 1976 to the present  

SciTech Connect

Health and environmental research relative to coal gasification conducted by Argonne National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under DOE sponsorship is summarized. The studies have focused on the chemical and toxicological characterization of materials from a range of process streams in five bench-scale, pilot-plant and industrial gasifiers. They also address ecological effects, industrial hygiene, environmental control technology performance, and risk assessment. Following an overview of coal gasification technology and related environmental concerns, integrated summaries of the studies and results in each area are presented and conclusions are drawn. Needed health and environmental research relative to coal gasification is identified.

Wilzbach, K.E.; Reilly, C.A. Jr. (comps.)

1982-10-01

147

TPD study on SO{sub 2} gasification of coal char  

SciTech Connect

Elementary sulfur can be recovered from SO{sub 2}-containing gas by a gasification reaction between carbon and SO{sub 2}. Gasification of coal chars ranging from brown coal to anthracite was carried out in SO{sub 2} atmosphere using thermo-balance. The gasification temperature ranged from 923 to 1123 K. The SO{sub 2} concentration was 5.3 vol%. Yallourn coal, Australian brown coal, was impregnated with several catalysts. Potassium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide and iron nitrate were used as the starting materials for catalyst impregnation. The active site for SO{sub 2} gasification of coal char was evaluated with TPD technique. The gasification profile was strongly depended on the coal type. High reactivities were observed for low rank coal chars. The gasification rate was enormously enhanced by the addition of alkaline metal catalyst. TPD pattern was depended on the coal type and the catalyst addition. The amount of CO and CO{sub 2} desorbed during TPD procedure in fairly correlated to the reaction rate of sample.

Takarada, T.; Suzuki, Y. [Gunma Univ. (Japan)

1996-10-01

148

Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process  

SciTech Connect

This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

1981-06-01

149

Interaction and its induced inhibiting or synergistic effects during co-gasification of coal char and biomass char.  

PubMed

Co-gasification of coal char and biomass char was conducted to investigate the interactions between them. And random pore model (RPM) and modified random pore model (MRPM) were applied to describe the gasification behaviors of the samples. The results show that inhibiting effect was observed during co-gasification of corn stalk char with Hulunbeier lignite coal char, while synergistic effects were observed during co-gasification of corn stalk char with Shenmu bituminous coal char and Jincheng anthracite coal char. The inhibiting effect was attributed to the intimate contact and comparable gasification rate between biomass char and coal char, and the loss of the active form of potassium caused by the formation of KAlSiO4, which was proved to be inactive during gasification. While the synergistic effect was caused by the high potassium content of biomass char and the significant difference of reaction rate between coal char and biomass char during gasification. PMID:25280109

Ding, Liang; Zhang, Yongqi; Wang, Zhiqing; Huang, Jiejie; Fang, Yitian

2014-12-01

150

Thermal-Hydrological Sensitivity Analysis of Underground Coal Gasification  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents recent work from an ongoing project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a set of predictive tools for cavity/combustion-zone growth and to gain quantitative understanding of the processes and conditions (natural and engineered) affecting underground coal gasification (UCG). We discuss the application of coupled thermal-hydrologic simulation capabilities required for predicting UCG cavity growth, as well as for predicting potential environmental consequences of UCG operations. Simulation of UCG cavity evolution involves coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical-mechanical (THCM) processes in the host coal and adjoining rockmass (cap and bedrock). To represent these processes, the NUFT (Nonisothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport) code is being customized to address the influence of coal combustion on the heating of the host coal and adjoining rock mass, and the resulting thermal-hydrological response in the host coal/rock. As described in a companion paper (Morris et al. 2009), the ability to model the influence of mechanical processes (spallation and cavity collapse) on UCG cavity evolution is being developed at LLNL with the use of the LDEC (Livermore Distinct Element Code) code. A methodology is also being developed (Morris et al. 2009) to interface the results of the NUFT and LDEC codes to simulate the interaction of mechanical and thermal-hydrological behavior in the host coal/rock, which influences UCG cavity growth. Conditions in the UCG cavity and combustion zone are strongly influenced by water influx, which is controlled by permeability of the host coal/rock and the difference between hydrostatic and cavity pressure. In this paper, we focus on thermal-hydrological processes, examining the relationship between combustion-driven heat generation, convective and conductive heat flow, and water influx, and examine how the thermal and hydrologic properties of the host coal/rock influence those relationships. Specifically, we conducted a parameter sensitivity analysis of the influence of thermal and hydrological properties of the host coal, caprock, and bedrock on cavity temperature and steam production.

Buscheck, T A; Hao, Y; Morris, J P; Burton, E A

2009-10-05

151

Simulation of coal gasification in a fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

In this analysis of coal gasification, a fundamental approach is used where a set of multiphase (Eulerian) fluid dynamic equations, obtained either by a suitable averaging technique (Anderson and Jackson, 1976; Drew, 1971) or the formulations of continuum mechanics (Drew, 1983), is used to describe the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for three interpenetrating phases. The particles, like the fluidizing gas, are described as interpenetrating continua. Different particle types are treated as distinct phases; in this study, the feed coal and the bed char are represented as separate phases in order to account for their different histories. Constitutive laws account for the exchange of momentum between phases (``drag``) and interphase energy transfer. The stresses within the granular phases are determined by a formulation based on the kinetic theory, characterized by a ``granular temperature``. A computer code, based on this multiphase hydrodynamic model, has been developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center for the detailed simulation of gas and particle dynamics in heavily loaded coal conversion processes (Syamlal, Rogers, O`Brien, 1994; Syamlal, 1995). The hydrodynamic simulation showed the reactor operated in a jetting/bubbling mode. A gas jet penetrated a considerable distance into the bed, and then detached as ``bubbles`` which rose to the top of the column. The reaction scheme indicated that the feed coal did not begin to devolatilize until it had traversed this region, because of the time required to heat up. Thus, volatiles were not released in the jetting region of the bed, but higher in the bed. The oxygen fed with the coal, however, reacted immediately with the recirculating hot char. The net effect of the char reaction scheme was to created. CO, which burned in the region where.the jet detached, creating a, fairly stable ``flame``. The tar reaction scheme indicated that none of the tar escaped the bed.

O`Brien, T.J.

1996-12-31

152

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we focused on getting a bench-scale test system to expose alloy coupons to simulated gasifier environment. The test facility was designed to allow about 20 specimen coupons to be exposed simultaneously for an extend period to a simulated coal gas stream at temperatures up to 1000 C. The simulated gas stream contained about 26%H{sub 2}, 39%CO, 17%CO{sub 2}, 1.4% H{sub 2}S and balance steam. We successfully ran a 100+h test with coated and uncoated stainless steel coupons. The tested alloys include SS304, SS316, SS405, SS409, SS410, and IN800. The main finding is that Ti/Ta coating provides excellent protection to SS405 under conditions where uncoated austenitic and ferritic stainless steel alloy coupons are badly corroded. Cr coatings also appear to afford some protection against corrosion.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-01-01

153

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project public design and construction report  

SciTech Connect

This Public Design Report describes the 1000 ton per day ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration plant now in operation at the Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The objective of the project is to demonstrate that the proprietary Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology can reliably and economically convert low Btu PRB coal into a superior, high-Btu solid fuel (PDF), and an environmentally attractive low-sulfur liquid fuel (CDL). The Project`s plans also call for the production of sufficient quantities of PDF and CDL to permit utility companies to carry out full scale burn tests. While some process as well as mechanical design was done in 1988, the continuous design effort was started in July 1990. Civil construction was started in October 1990; mechanical erection began in May 1991. Virtually all of the planned design work was completed by July 1991. Most major construction was complete by April 1992 followed by plant testing and commissioning. Plant operation began in late May 1992. This report covers both the detailed design and initial construction aspects of the Project.

NONE

1994-12-01

154

COAL GASIFICATION/GAS CLEANUP TEST FACILITY. VOLUME 5. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE GASIFICATION AND GAS CLEANING OF NORTH CAROLINA PEAT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results from test runs at a small pilot-scale coal gasification and gas purification facility using North Carolina peat. Results from the peat gasification are compared with those obtained previously with a New Mexico subbituminous coal. The peat gas produced had...

155

Thermal expansion of slag and fly ash from coal gasification in IGCC power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated gasification in combined cycle (IGCC) is an electrical power generation system which is characterized to be a clean coal technology different than conventional process in combustible treatment. IGCC process gives rise to inorganic solid wastes in the form of vitreous slag and fly ashes with singular thermal properties. The gasification of the fuel takes place at high temperature and

M. Aineto; A. Acosta; J. Ma. Rincón; M. Romero

2006-01-01

156

A comparative experimental study of biomass, lignite and hard coal steam gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper the results of experimental comparative study on steam gasification of lignite, hard coal and energy crops, such as Spartina pectinata, Helianthus tuberosus L., Sida hermaphrodita R. and Miscanthus X Giganteus in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor at the temperature of 700 °C were presented. The effectiveness of steam gasification in terms of gas flows, composition and carbon conversion

A. Smoli?ski; N. Howaniec; K. Sta?czyk

2011-01-01

157

DYNAMIC MODELING OF A PILOT-SCALE FLUIDIZED-BED COAL GASIFICATION REACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a dynamic mathematical model of a pressurized fluidized-bed coal gasification reactor, developed and used to correlate data from a pilot-scale reactor. The model accounts for pyrolysis, oxidation, char gasification and subsequent gas-phase reactions, fines elu...

158

ANALYSES OF GRAB SAMPLES FROM FIXED-BED COAL GASIFICATION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an analytical screening of selected effluent samples from operating coal gasification units. The work was done to aid in planning for future more comprehensive environmental test programs which will be conducted at gasification units both in the U.S. a...

159

Coal gasification. Quarterly report, January-March 1979. [US DOE supported  

SciTech Connect

Progress in DOE-supported coal gasification pilot plant projects is reported: company, location, contract number, funding, process description, history and progress in the current quarter. Two support projects are discussed: preparation of a technical data book and mathematical modeling of gasification reactors. (LTN)

None

1980-01-01

160

Corrosion performance of alumina scales in coal gasification environments  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion of metallic structural materials in complex gas environments of coal gasification is a potential problem. The corrosion process is dictated by concentrations of two key constituents: sulfur as H{sub 2}S and Cl as HCl. This paper examines the corrosion performance of alumina scales that are thermally grown on Fe-base alloys during exposure to O/S mixed-gas environments. The results are compared with the performance of chromia-forming alloys in similar environments. The paper also discusses the available information on corrosion performance of alloys whose surfaces were enriched with Al by the pack-diffusion process, by the electrospark deposition process, or by weld overlay techniques.

Natesan, K.

1997-02-01

161

Proceedings of the ninth annual underground coal gasification symposium  

SciTech Connect

The Ninth Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was held August 7 to 10, 1983 at the Indian Lakes Resort and Conference Center in Bloomingdale, Illinois. Over one-hundred attendees from industry, academia, National Laboratories, State Government, and the US Government participated in the exchange of ideas, results and future research plans. Representatives from six countries including France, Belgium, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, West Germany, and Brazil also participated by presenting papers. Fifty papers were presented and discussed in four formal sessions and two informal poster sessions. The presentations described current and future field testing plans, interpretation of field test data, environmental research, laboratory studies, modeling, and economics. All papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

Wieber, P.R.; Martin, J.W.; Byrer, C.W. (eds.)

1983-12-01

162

Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

Wiser, W. H.

1980-09-01

163

Methodology for technology evaluation under uncertainty and its application in advanced coal gasification processes  

E-print Network

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has attracted interest as a cleaner alternative to conventional coal-fired power generation processes. While a number of pilot projects have been launched to ...

Gong, Bo, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

164

Recent regulatory experience of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume III. Supporting case studies  

SciTech Connect

The MITRE Corporation conducted a five-month study for the Office of Resource Applications in the Department of Energy on the regulatory requirements of low-Btu coal gasification. During this study, MITRE interviewed representatives of five current low-Btu coal gasification projects and regulatory agencies in five states. From these interviews, MITRE has sought the experience of current low-Btu coal gasification users in order to recommend actions to improve the regulatory process. This report is the third of three volumes. It contains the results of interviews conducted for each of the case studies. Volume 1 of the report contains the analysis of the case studies and recommendations to potential industrial users of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume 2 contains recommendations to regulatory agencies.

Ackerman, E.; Hart, D.; Lethi, M.; Park, W.; Rifkin, S.

1980-02-01

165

MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF EMISSIONS FROM COOLING TOWERS USING COAL GASIFICATION WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a computer program that calculates atmospheric emissions from counterflow cooling towers when using pretreated coal gasification wastewaters as tower makeup water. Air stripping and biological oxidation are both incorporated into the mathematical model as pos...

166

Recent regulatory experience of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume I. Recommendations to industrial users  

SciTech Connect

The MITRE Corporation conducted a five-month study for the Office of Resource Applications in the Department of Energy on the regulatory requirements of low-Btu coal gasification. During this study, MITRE interviewed representatives of five curent low-Btu coal gasification projects and regulatory agencies in five states. From these interviews, MITRE has sought the experience of current low-Btu coal gasification users in order to recommend actions to improve the regulatory process. This report is the first of three volumes. It contains the major findings of the study and recommendations to potential industrial users of low-Btu coal gasification. Recommendations to regulatory agencies are presented in the second volume. Individual case studies are documented in the third volume.

Lethi, Minh- Triet; Hart, Dabney G.

1980-02-01

167

Oxygen plants for coal gasification: Experience at the Cool Water GCC (gasification combined cycle) Power Plant: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a study conducted by Airco-BOC for EPRI to assess performance of the Cool Water Oxygen Plant as it relates to the Cool Water Coal Gasification Program's requirements and evaluate alternate supply arrangements for future larger gasifier based combined cycle power plants. The Cool Water Oxygen Plant is the first application of a dedicated oxygen

R. A. Petras; R. A. Mostello; A. P. Ko

1987-01-01

168

Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants  

SciTech Connect

This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

Not Available

1981-03-31

169

Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 1. General information and executive summary  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation. This report covers: (1) history of underground coal gasification leading to the Hanna tests; (2) area characteristics (basic meteorological and socioeconomic data); (3) site selection history; (4) site characteristics; (5) permitting; and (6) executive summary. 5 figs., 15 tabs.

Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

1985-08-01

170

The particulate and vapor phase components of airborne polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coal gasification pilot plants  

E-print Network

THE PARTICULATE AND VAPOR PHASE COMPONENTS OF AIRBORNE POLYAROMATIC HYDROCARBONS(PAHs) IN COAL GASIFICATION PILOT PLANTS A Thesis by ERIC JON BRINK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene THE PARTICULATE AND VAPOR PHASE COMPONENTS OF AIRBORNE POLYAROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs) IN COAL GASIFICATION PILOT PLANTS A Thesis by ERIC JON BRINK...

Brink, Eric Jon

1980-01-01

171

Basic design of the coal gasification systems for Korean IGCC application  

SciTech Connect

Presented is the basic design scheme of coal gasification system as a part of IGCC engineering package. The basic design scheme has sequential design steps for pulverized coal storage bin, lock hoppers, injection vessels, coal/oxidizer burner nozzles, gasifier, preheater, slag discharge hopper and product gas quencher. Each design module is constructed to generate design data and specifications, and is then coupled together with other design modules in computerized system. The present design method was used for small scale coal gasification facility construction with success, and can be applied to perform parametric studies and scale-up analyses that will be helpful for large scale IGCC power plant applications.

Kim, H.T.; Kim, S.W. [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Energy; Lee, C. [Univ. of Suwon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-12-31

172

Online compositional analysis in coal gasification environment using laser-induced plasma technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants have great potential for future clean-coal power generation. Today, the quality of coal is measured by sampling coal using various offline methods, and the syn-gas composition is determined by taking samples downstream of the gasifier and measured by gas chromatograph (GC). Laser induced plasma technology has demonstrated high sensitivity for elementary detection. The capability of free space transmission and focusing of laser beam makes laser induced plasma a unique technology for online compositional analysis in coal gasification environment and optimization control.

Deng, Kung-Li; Wu, Juntao; Wang, Zhe; Lee, Boon; Guida, Renato

2006-08-01

173

Chemometric Study of the Ex Situ Underground Coal Gasification Wastewater Experimental Data.  

PubMed

The main goal of the study was the analysis of the parameters of wastewater generated during the ex situ underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments on lignite from Belchatow, and hard coal from Ziemowit and Bobrek coal mines, simulated in the ex situ reactor. The UCG wastewater may pose a potential threat to the groundwater since it contains high concentrations of inorganic (i.e., ammonia nitrogen, nitrites, chlorides, free and bound cyanides, sulfates and trace elements: As, B, Cr, Zn, Al, Cd, Co, Mn, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Hg, Se, Ti, Fe) and organic (i.e., phenolics, benzene and their alkyl derivatives, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants. The principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis enabled to effectively explore the similarities and dissimilarities between the samples generated in lignite and hard coal oxygen gasification process in terms of the amounts and concentrations of particular components. The total amount of wastewater produced in lignite gasification process was higher than the amount generated in hard coal gasification experiments. The lignite gasification wastewater was also characterized by the highest contents of acenaphthene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene, whereas hard coal gasification wastewater was characterized by relatively higher concentrations of nitrites, As, Cr, Cu, benzene, toluene, xylene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene. PMID:23136453

Smoli?ski, Adam; Sta?czyk, Krzysztof; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Howaniec, Natalia

2012-11-01

174

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we coated coupons of selected alloy steels with diffusion coatings of Cr and Al, as well as with titanium and tantalum nitrides. The coated samples were analyzed for their surface composition. In several instances, the samples were also cut to determine the depth profile of the coating. Several of the early runs did not yield uniform or deep enough coatings and hence a significant portion of the effort in this period was devoted fixing the problems with our fluidized bed reactor. Before the end of the quarter we had prepared a number of samples, many of them in duplicates, and sent one set to Wabash River Energy Laboratory for them to install in their gasifier. The gasifier was undergoing a scheduled maintenance and thus presented an opportunity to place some of our coupons in the stream of an operating gasifier. The samples submitted included coated and uncoated pairs of different alloys.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-01-01

175

Two-stage coal gasification and desulfurization apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a system which effectively integrates a two-stage, fixed-bed coal gasification arrangement with hot fuel gas desulfurization of a first stream of fuel gas from a lower stage of the two-stage gasifier and the removal of sulfur from the sulfur sorbent regeneration gas utilized in the fuel-gas desulfurization process by burning a second stream of fuel gas from the upper stage of the gasifier in a combustion device in the presence of calcium-containing material. The second stream of fuel gas is taken from above the fixed bed in the coal gasifier and is laden with ammonia, tar and sulfur values. This second stream of fuel gas is burned in the presence of excess air to provide heat energy sufficient to effect a calcium-sulfur compound forming reaction between the calcium-containing material and sulfur values carried by the regeneration gas and the second stream of fuel gas. Any ammonia values present in the fuel gas are decomposed during the combustion of the fuel gas in the combustion chamber. The substantially sulfur-free products of combustion may then be combined with the desulfurized fuel gas for providing a combustible fluid utilized for driving a prime mover.

Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV); Strickland, Larry D. (Morgantown, WV)

1991-01-01

176

Simultaneous removal of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} in coal gasification processes. [Quarterly] report, September 2, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen (N{sub 2}) occurs in coal in the form of tightly bound organic ring compounds typically at levels of 1 to 2 wt % on a dry-ash-free basis. During, coal gasification, this fuelbound nitrogen is released principally as ammonia and nitrogen, with smaller levels of HCN. The formation of NH{sub 3} in a coal gasification processes is a function of the fuel gas composition and the gasifier operating conditions. During the use of coal gas to generate electricity in gas-fired turbines, fuel bound (N{sub 2}) is converted to nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), which are difficult to remove and are highly undesirable as atmospheric pollutants. Recent results indicate that while the efficiency of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anodes is not effected by exposure to NH{sub 3}, NO{sub x} is generated during combustion of the anode exhaust gas. Thus, NH{sub 3} must be removed from the coal gas before it is used in IGCC or MCFC applications. The product stream from a high temperature, oxygen-blown gasifier, such as Texaco, contains about 2000 ppmv of NH{sub 3}, where higher concentrations (about 5000 ppmv) occur when the gasification is conducted at lower temperatures, such as in the Lurgi or GE air-blown gasifier. A range of 1500 to 3000 ppmv is considered for this study. Removal of H{sub 2}S using zinc-based sorbents, particularly zinc titanate, to < 20 ppmv levels has been well established (Lew et al., 1989; Jothimurugesan and Harrison, 1990; Woods et al., 1990; Gupta and Gangwal, 1993,). Studies of NH{sub 3} decomposition indicated that Ni, Ir, Co, Mo, Mn and Ru have high catalytic activities (Krishnan et al., 1988). If desulfurization sorbents such as zinc titanate could be used along with above metals to decompose ammonia present in hot coal then the number of unit processes necessary to clean hot coal gas could be reduced by one.

Jothimurugesan, K.; Adeyiga, A.A.; Gangwal, S.K.; Lewis, C.; Bunch, A.

1993-12-31

177

COAL GASIFICATION/GAS CLEANUP TEST FACILITY: VOLUME II. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF OPERATION WITH DEVOLATILIZED BITUMINOUS COAL AND CHILLED METHANOL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of initial runs of a pilot-scale coal gasification and gas cleaning plant at North Carolina State University. In these runs, a devolatilized Western Kentucky No. 11 bituminous coal was gasified with steam and oxygen, and chilled methanol was used as the a...

178

Combustion and gasification characteristics of chars from four commercially significant coals of different rank. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The combustion and gasification kinetics of four size graded coal chars were investigated experimentally in Combustion Engineering's Drop Tube Furnace System (DTFS). The chars were prepared in the DTFS from commercially significant coals representing a wide range of rank; these included a Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam hvAb coal, an Illinois No. 6 Seam hvCb coal, a Wyoming Sub C, and a Texas Lignite A. Additionally, a number of standard ASTM and special bench scale tests were performed on the coals and chars to characterize their physicochemical properties. Results showed that the lower rank coal chars were more reactive than the higher rank coal chars and that combustion reactions of chars were much faster than the corresponding gasification reactions. Fuel properties, temperature, and reactant gas partial pressure had a significant influence on both combustion and gasification, and particle size had a mild but discernible influence on gasification. Fuel reactivities were closely related to pore structure. Computer simulation of the combustion and gasification performances of the subject samples in the DTFS supported the experimental findings.

Nsakala, N.Y.; Patel, R.L.; Lao, T.C.

1982-09-01

179

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we conducted two exposure tests with coated and uncoated coupons. The first one was aborted after a short period, because of a leak in the pressure regulator of a CO/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} gas mixture gas cylinder that was used to prepare the simulated coal gas stream. Nevertheless, this run was very instructive as it showed that during the brief exposure when the concentration of H{sub 2}S increased to 8.6%, even specialty alloys such as HR160 and I800 were badly corroded, yet the sample of a SS405-steel that was coated with Ti/Ta showed no signs of corrosion. After replacing the pressure regulator, a second run was conducted with a fresh set of coated and uncoated samples. The Ti/Ta-coated on to SS405 steel from the earlier runs was also exposed in this test. The run proceeded smoothly, and at the end of test the uncoated steels were badly damaged, some evidence of corrosion was found on coupons of HR160 and I800 alloys and the Cr-coated steels, but again, the Ti/Ta-coated sample appeared unaffected.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-03-01

180

Finite element modeling of flow in a coal seam with underground coal gasification cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional, finite element groundwater flow model was developed to study the movement of water in a coal seam in which large cavities were created by underground coal gasification (UCG) burns. The burns extract natural gas from the coal without any environmental disturbance at the ground level. On completion of the burn, groundwater mixes with the products of combustion in the cavity and the pollutants move into the coal seam. Mathematical modeling is used to study the movement and fate of these pollutants with time. Water quality modeling has to be preceded by flow modeling to determine velocities as a function of time. This paper studies the flow aspects of the problem. A new code was developed because of the unique requirements of the model. The model utilizes linear triangles to discretize the coal seam in plan and takes into account unsteady flow, anisotropic media, internal boundary conditions imposed by the cavities and a time-varying domain of flow in plan. The model was applied to a series of UCG burns in Hanna, Wyoming. Estimates of the time of filling of the five cavities were obtained. Comparisons of measured and computed potential head are presented at different points in the coal seam. Flow modeling can thus be used to predict the movement of water into and out of UCG cavities while the output of velocities is necessary for water quality modeling.

Contractor, Dinshaw N.

1988-03-01

181

Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the bituminous coal resources of the United States, identifies those resources which are potentially amenable to Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), identifies products and markets in the vicinity of selected target areas, identifies UCG concepts, describes the state of the art of UCG in bituminous coal, and presents three R and D programs for development of the technology to the point of commercial viability. Of the 670 billion tons of bituminous coal remaining in-place as identified by the National Coal Data System, 32.2 billion tons or 4.8% of the total are potentially amenable to UCG technology. The identified amenable resource was located in ten states: Alabama, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Utah, Virginia, and West Virginia. The principal criteria which eliminated 87.3% of the resource was the minimum thickness (42 inches). Three R and D programs were developed using three different concepts at two different sites. Open Borehole, Hydraulic Fracture, and Electrolinking concepts were developed. The total program costs for each concept were not significantly different. The study concludes that much of the historical information based on UCG in bituminous coals is not usable due to the poor siting of the early field tests and a lack of adequate diagnostic equipment. This information gap requires that much of the early work be redone in view of the much improved understanding of the role of geology and hydrology in the process and the recent development of analytical tools and methods.

None

1981-01-01

182

Great Plains Coal Gasification Project: Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1988 (Fourth fiscal quarter, 1987-1988)  

SciTech Connect

This progress report describes the operation of the Great Plains Gasification Plant, including lignite coal production, SNG production, gas quality, by-products, and certain problems encountered. (LTN)

Not Available

1988-07-29

183

Portland General Electric Beaver synfuels project a coal gasification combined cycle methanol facility development program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Beaver coal gasification facility is currently undergoing preliminary engineering and feasibility analysis. Based on the existing 600 MW (nominal) Beaver combined cycle generating station and the adjacent plant site, which is eminently suitable for receiving and storage of subbituminous coal from either Alaska or Wyoming, a non-integrated CGCC facility combined with a methanol plant for increased utilization of the

E. R. Skov; R. A. Yott; G. M. Clancy

1981-01-01

184

COAL GASIFICATION/GAS CLEANUP TEST FACILITY: VOLUME I. DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes an integrated fluidized-bed coal gasification reactor and acid gas removal system. The gasifier operates at 100 psig at up to 2000 F, and has a coal feed capacity of 50 lb/hr. The gas cleaning system contains a cyclone, a venturi scrubber, and an absorber/fla...

185

POLLUTANTS FROM SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION: ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION OF COAL GASIFICATION SCREENING TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an environmental evaluation of 38 screening test runs using a laboratory-scale, fixed-bed coal gasifier to study pollutants generated during the gasification of various coals. Pollutants were identified and quantitative analyses performed for tars, aqu...

186

Control technology assessment for coal gasification and liquefaction processes, CAN-DO Anthracite Coal Gasification Plant, Hazelton, Pennsylvania, 1981. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was conducted at the CAN DO Coal Gasification Facility (SIC-5161), in Hazelton, Pennsylvania on May 28, 1981 to assess control technology and industrial hygiene measures used with the Wellman Galusha gasifier. No formal safety program was in effect. An industrial hygiene support program was being provided by Oak Ridge National Laboratories to assist in protecting employees and to

Telesca

1982-01-01

187

Chemical and toxicological evaluation of underground coal gasification (UCG) effluents. The coal rank effect.  

PubMed

The effect of coal rank on the composition and toxicity of water effluents resulting from two underground coal gasification experiments with distinct coal samples (lignite and hard coal) was investigated. A broad range of organic and inorganic parameters was determined in the sampled condensates. The physicochemical tests were supplemented by toxicity bioassays based on the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri as the test organism. The principal component analysis and Pearson correlation analysis were adopted to assist in the interpretation of the raw experimental data, and the multiple regression statistical method was subsequently employed to enable predictions of the toxicity based on the values of the selected parameters. Significant differences in the qualitative and quantitative description of the contamination profiles were identified for both types of coal under study. Independent of the coal rank, the most characteristic organic components of the studied condensates were phenols, naphthalene and benzene. In the inorganic array, ammonia, sulphates and selected heavy metals and metalloids were identified as the dominant constituents. Except for benzene with its alkyl homologues (BTEX), selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), zinc and selenium, the values of the remaining parameters were considerably greater for the hard coal condensates. The studies revealed that all of the tested UCG condensates were extremely toxic to V. fischeri; however, the average toxicity level for the hard coal condensates was approximately 56% higher than that obtained for the lignite. The statistical analysis provided results supporting that the toxicity of the condensates was most positively correlated with the concentrations of free ammonia, phenols and certain heavy metals. PMID:25463860

Kapusta, Krzysztof; Sta?czyk, Krzysztof

2015-02-01

188

Combustion Engineering Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project, Clean Coal Technology Program. Environmental Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The DOE entered into a cooperative agreement with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (C-E) under which DOE proposes to provide cost-shared funding to design, construct, and operate an Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project to repower an existing steam turbine generator set at the Springfield (Illinois) City Water, Light and Power (CWL&P) Lakeside Generating Station, while capturing 90% of the coal`s sulfur and producing elemental sulfur as a salable by-product. The proposed demonstration would help determine the technical and economic feasibility of the proposed IGCC technology on a scale that would allow the utility industry to assess its applicability for repowering other coal-burning power plants. This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by DOE in compliance with the requirements of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The sources of information for this EA include the following: C-E`s technical proposal for the project submitted to DOE in response to the Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Program Opportunity Notice (PON); discussions with C-E and CWL&P staff; the volume of environmental information for the project and its supplements provided by C-E; and a site visit to the proposed project site.

Not Available

1992-03-01

189

Construction labor assessment for coal gasification plant Murphy Hill, Alabama  

SciTech Connect

TVA's planned construction of a coal gasification plant, capable of processing about 20,000 tons of coal per day into a clean-burning fuel, will be a large and complex construction project by any relevant measure. The plant site examined here is in northern Alabama near Murphy Hill. The project is estimated to require nearly 7000 workers at peak employment in 1985. It is projected that construction will start in early 1981 and be completed in 1988. Nearly 66 percent of all construction craft worker requirements are expected to occur during a 36-month period from 1984 to 1986, and about 25 percent are projected to occur during the 1985 calendar year alone. This construction labor market assessment report is directed toward establishing and analyzing data on construction labor requirements, and labor availability for the 75-mile geographical zone surrounding Murphy Hill, Alabama. The purpose of this report is to examine potential skilled labor shortages and some alternatives for alleviating those shortages, but not to address the array of socioeconomic implications of reducing shortages by training, by attracting workers who move permanently to the job site, or by attracting workers who live temporarily near the site and return home periodically. Parameters and assessments of the Murphy Hill construction labor market have been developed for: the 75-mile geographical zone surrounding the site; the major skilled construction trades involved; the time phase of construction labor demand; and projected craft-specific labor shortfalls. These objectives have been developed within the engineering bounds of the TVA's labor planning memo.

Not Available

1980-11-01

190

UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS  

SciTech Connect

The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ''as-generated'' slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ''as-generated'' slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for, various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases Phase I, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and Phase II, which involves commercial evaluation of these aggregates in a number of applications.

Unknown

2000-04-24

191

Geochemistry of ultra-fine and nano-compounds in coal gasification ashes: a synoptic view.  

PubMed

The nano-mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of coal gasification products have not been studied as extensively as the products of the more widely used pulverized-coal combustion. The solid residues from the gasification of a low- to medium-sulfur, inertinite-rich, volatile A bituminous coal, and a high sulfur, vitrinite-rich, volatile C bituminous coal were investigated. Multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS provided an in-depth understanding of coal gasification ash-forming processes. The petrology of the residues generally reflected the rank and maceral composition of the feed coals, with the higher rank, high-inertinite coal having anisotropic carbons and inertinite in the residue, and the lower rank coal-derived residue containing isotropic carbons. The feed coal chemistry determines the mineralogy of the non-glass, non-carbon portions of the residues, with the proportions of CaCO? versus Al?O? determining the tendency towards the neoformation of anorthite versus mullite, respectively. Electron beam studies showed the presence of a number of potentially hazardous elements in nanoparticles. Some of the neoformed ultra-fine/nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of sulfides and sulfates. PMID:23584038

Kronbauer, Marcio A; Izquierdo, Maria; Dai, Shifeng; Waanders, Frans B; Wagner, Nicola J; Mastalerz, Maria; Hower, James C; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Taffarel, Silvio R; Bizani, Delmar; Silva, Luis F O

2013-07-01

192

Presence of an Unusual Methanogenic Bacterium in Coal Gasification Waste  

PubMed Central

Methanogenic bacteria growing on a pilot-scale, anaerobic filter processing coal gasification waste were enriched in a mineral salts medium containing hydrogen and acetate as potential energy sources. Transfer of the enrichments to methanol medium resulted in the initial growth of a strain of Methanosarcina barkeri, but eventually small cocci became dominant. The cocci growing on methanol produced methane and exhibited the typical fluorescence of methanogenic bacteria. They grew in the presence of the cell wall synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics d-cycloserine, fosfomycin, penicillin G, and vancomycin as well as in the presence of kanamycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis in eubacteria. The optimal growth temperature was 37°C, and the doubling time was 7.5 h. The strain lysed after reaching stationary phase. The bacterium grew poorly with hydrogen as the energy source and failed to grow on acetate. Morphologically, the coccus shared similarities with Methanosarcina sp. Cells were 1 ?m wide, exhibited the typical thick cell wall and cross-wall formation, and formed tetrads. Packets and cysts were not formed. Images PMID:16347791

Tomei, Francisco A.; Rouse, Dwight; Maki, James S.; Mitchell, Ralph

1988-01-01

193

Gasification rate analysis of coal char with a pressurized drop tube furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two coal chars were gasified with carbon dioxide or steam using a Pressurized Drop Tube Furnace (PDTF) at high temperature and pressurized conditions to simulate the inside of an air-blown two-stage entrained flow coal gasifier. Chars were produced by rapid pyrolysis of pulverized coals using a DTF in a nitrogen gas flow at 1400°C. Gasification temperatures were from 1100 to

S. Kajitani; S. Hara; H. Matsuda

2002-01-01

194

UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS  

SciTech Connect

The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ''as-generated'' slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ''as-generated'' slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase I, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and Phase II, which involves commercial evaluation of these aggregates in a number of applications. Primary funding for the project is provided by DOE's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) at Morgantown, with significant cost sharing by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI).

None

1998-12-24

195

Effects of effluents of coal combustion and gasification upon lung structure and function. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the proposed research is to correlate both structural and functional alterations in cells and tissues of the lung brought about by exposure to fluidized bed combustion and fixed bed gasification effluents and reagent grade oxides of metals known to be associated with coal combustion gasification. Projected milestones are described. Progress during the first year in setting up aerosol exposure facilities, intratracheal instillations, pulmonary mechanics, and morphometric examinations is reported. (DMC)

Hinton, D.E.

1980-01-01

196

Combustion Engineering Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project, Clean Coal Technology Program  

SciTech Connect

The DOE entered into a cooperative agreement with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (C-E) under which DOE proposes to provide cost-shared funding to design, construct, and operate an Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project to repower an existing steam turbine generator set at the Springfield (Illinois) City Water, Light and Power (CWL P) Lakeside Generating Station, while capturing 90% of the coal's sulfur and producing elemental sulfur as a salable by-product. The proposed demonstration would help determine the technical and economic feasibility of the proposed IGCC technology on a scale that would allow the utility industry to assess its applicability for repowering other coal-burning power plants. This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by DOE in compliance with the requirements of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The sources of information for this EA include the following: C-E's technical proposal for the project submitted to DOE in response to the Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Program Opportunity Notice (PON); discussions with C-E and CWL P staff; the volume of environmental information for the project and its supplements provided by C-E; and a site visit to the proposed project site.

Not Available

1992-03-01

197

COAL GASIFICATION/GAS CLEANUP TEST FACILITY. VOLUME 4. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE PACKED COLUMN ACID GAS ABSORBER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a mathematical model for adiabatic operation of a packed-column absorber designed to remove acid gases from coal gasification crude product gas. It also gives results of experiments with a small pilot-scale coal gasification/gas cleaning facility designed to ...

198

The role of catalyst precursor anions in coal gasification. Final technical report, September 1991--June 1994  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of coal is currently limited by several factors, including the environmental impacts of coal use and the lack of cost-effective technologies to convert coal into useful gaseous and liquid products. Several catalysts have been evaluated for coal gasification and liquefaction. The activities of the catalysts are dependent on many factors such as the method of catalyst addition to the coal and the catalyst precursor type. Since catalyst addition to coal is frequently conducted in aqueous solution, the surface chemistry of colloidal coal particles will be expected to exert an influence on catalyst uptake. However, the effects of the various coal gasification catalyst precursors on the interfacial properties of coal during catalyst loading from solution has received little attention. The aim of this study is to ascertain the influence of the metal salts (i): calcium acetate (Ca(OOCCH{sub 3}){sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) or calcium nitrate (Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and (ii): potassium acetate (KOOCCH{sub 3}), potassium chloride (KCl), potassium nitrate (KNO{sub 3}), potassium carbonate (K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) and potassium sulfate (K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) on the electrokinetic and adsorptive properties of coal and determine the relationship, if any, between coal surface electrokinetic properties, and catalyst loading and eventually its effects on the reactivities of coal chars.

Abotsi, G.M.K.

1995-01-01

199

Fluidized-bed catalytic coal-gasification process. [US patent; pretreatment to minimize agglomeration  

DOEpatents

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 vol % and 21 vol % oxygen at a temperature between 50 and 250/sup 0/C in an oxidation zone and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

Euker, C.A. Jr.; Wesselhoft, R.D.; Dunkleman, J.J.; Aquino, D.C.; Gouker, T.R.

1981-09-14

200

COAL GASIFICATION/GAS CLEANUP TEST FACILITY: VOLUME III. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF OPERATION WITH NEW MEXICO SUBBITUMINOUS COAL AND CHILLED METHANOL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report concerns the second major study carried out on a pilot-scale coal gasification/gas cleaning test facility, namely, the steam-oxygen gasification of a New Mexico subbituminous coal using refrigerated methanol as the acid gas removal solvent. The report briefly describes...

201

LLNL Underground-Coal-Gasification Project. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981  

SciTech Connect

We have continued our laboratory studies of forward gasification in small blocks of coal mounted in 55-gal drums. A steam/oxygen mixture is fed into a small hole drilled longitudinally through the center of the block, the coal is ignited near the inlet and burns toward the outlet, and the product gases come off at the outlet. Various diagnostic measurements are made during the course of the burn, and afterward the coal block is split open so that the cavity can be examined. Development work continues on our mathematical model for the small coal block experiments. Preparations for the large block experiments at a coal outcrop in the Tono Basin of Washington State have required steadily increasing effort with the approach of the scheduled starting time for the experiments (Fall 1981). Also in preparation is the deep gasification experiment, Tono 1, planned for another site in the Tono Basin after the large block experiments have been completed. Wrap-up work continues on our previous gasification experiments in Wyoming. Results of the postburn core-drilling program Hoe Creek 3 are presented here. Since 1976 the Soviets have been granted four US patents on various aspects of the underground coal gasification process. These patents are described here, and techniques of special interest are noted. Finally, we include ten abstracts of pertinent LLNL reports and papers completed during the quarter.

Stephens, D.R.; Clements, W. (eds.) [eds.

1981-11-09

202

Subtask 4.2 - Coal Gasification Short Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major utilities, independent power producers, and petroleum and chemical companies are intent on developing a fleet of gasification plants primarily because of high natural gas prices and the implementation of state carbon standards, with federal standards looming. Currently, many projects are being proposed to utilize gasification technologies to produce a synthesis gas or fuel gas stream for the production of

Kevin Galbreath

2009-01-01

203

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Demonstration Project. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SMC Mining Company (formerly Shell Mining Company, now owned by Zeigler Coal Holding Company), has completed the construction and start-up of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The LFC technology uses a mild pyrolysis or mild gasification process which involves heating the coal under carefully controlled conditions. The process causes chemical changes in the feed coal in contrast to conventional drying, which leads only to physical changes. Wet subbituminous coal contains considerable water, and conventional drying processes physically remove some of this moisture, causing the heating value to increase. The deeper the coal is physically dried, the higher the heating value and the more the pore structure permanently collapses, preventing resorption of moisture. However, deeply dried Powder River Basin coals exhibit significant stability problems when dried by conventional thermal processes. The LFC process overcomes these stability problems by thermally altering the solid to create PDF and CDL. Several of the major objectives of the ENCOAL Project have now been achieved. The LFC Technology has been essentially demonstrated. Significant quantities of specification CDL have been produced from Buckskin coal. Plant operation in a production mode with respectable availability (approaching 90%) has been demonstrated.

NONE

1995-03-01

204

Analysis of power generation system on gasification of coal and solid wastes using high temperature air  

SciTech Connect

A new concept of gasification power generation systems fueled by coal, RDF and various kinds of wastes using high temperature air is proposed. Cycle analyses of these IGCC and boiler systems are done. The calculation shows that calorific value of syngas almost doubles when one increases the gasification air temperature from 25 C to 1,000 C. More than 45% thermal efficiency is obtainable for both coal and RDF by employing the new high temperature air blown IGCC system. This IGCC system is applicable to various wastes including low grade wastes such as sludge.

Kobayashi, Hiromichi; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Shioda, Susumu

1999-07-01

205

Structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of chars prepared from K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixed HyperCoals and coals  

SciTech Connect

HyperCoal is a clean coal with mineral matter content <0.05 wt %. Oaky Creek (C = 82%), and Pasir (C = 68%) coals were subjected to solvent extraction method to prepare Oaky Creek HyperCoal, and Pasir HyperCoal. Experiments were carried out to compare the gasification reactivity of HyperCoals and parent raw coals with 20, 40, 50 and 60% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a catalyst at 600, 650, 700, and 775{sup o}C with steam. Gasification rates of coals and HyperCoals were strongly influenced by the temperature and catalyst loading. Catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal chars was found to be chemical reaction controlled in the 600-700{sup o}C temperature range for all catalyst loadings. Gasification rates of HyperCoal chars were found to be always higher than parent coals at any given temperature for all catalyst loadings. However, X-ray diffraction results showed that the microstructures of chars prepared from coals and HyperCoals were similar. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy show no significant difference between the chemical compositions of the chars. Significant differences were observed from scanning electron microscopy images, which showed that the chars from HyperCoals had coral-reef like structures whereas dense chars were observed for coals. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Atul Sharma; Hiroyuki Kawashima; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

2009-04-15

206

Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major design related features of each generic plant system were characterized in a catalog. Based on the catalog and requirements data, approximately 17 designs and cost estimates were developed for MBG and alternate products. A series of generic trade studies was conducted to support all of the design studies. A set of cost and programmatic analyses were conducted to supplement the designs. The cost methodology employed for the design and sensitivity studies was documented and implemented in a computer program. Plant design and construction schedules were developed for the K-T, Texaco, and B&W MBG plant designs. A generic work breakdown structure was prepared, based on the K-T design, to coincide with TVA's planned management approach. An extensive set of cost sensitivity analyses was completed for K-T, Texaco, and B&W design. Product price competitiveness was evaluated for MBG and the alternate products. A draft management policy and procedures manual was evaluated. A supporting technology development plan was developed to address high technology risk issues. The issues were identified and ranked in terms of importance and tractability, and a plan developed for obtaining data or developing technology required to mitigate the risk.

1980-01-01

207

Environmental footprints and costs of coal-based integrated gasification combined cycle and pulverized coal technologies  

SciTech Connect

The report presents the results of a study to establish the environmental footprint and costs of the coal-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology relative to the conventional pulverized coal (PC) technologies. The technology options evaluated are restricted to those that are projected by the authors to be commercially applied by 2010. The IGCC plant configurations include coal slurry-based and dry coal-based, oxygen-blown gasifiers. The PC plant configurations include subcritical, supercritical, and ultra-supercritical boiler designs. All study evaluations are based on the use of three different coals: bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite. The same electric generating capacity of 500 MW is used for each plant configuration. State-of-the-art environmental controls are also included as part of the design of each plant. The environmental comparisons of IGCC and PC plants are based on thermal performance, emissions of criteria and non-criteria air pollutants, solid waste generation rates, and water consumption and wastewater discharge rates associated with each plant. The IGCC plants in these comparisons include NOX and SO{sub 2} controls considered viable for 2010 deployment. In addition, the potential for use of other advanced controls, specifically the selective catalytic reduction system for NOX reduction and the ultra-efficient Selexol and Rectisol systems for SO{sub 2} reduction, is also investigated. The cost estimates presented in the report include capital and operating costs for each IGCC and PC plant configuration. Cost impacts of using the advanced NOx and SO{sub 2} controls are included. The report provides an assessment of the CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration potential for the IGCC and PC plants. A review of the technical and economic aspects of CO{sub 2} capture technologies is included. 20 refs., 75 figs., 3 apps.

NONE

2006-07-15

208

Coal conversion processes and analysis methodologies for synthetic fuels production. [technology assessment and economic analysis of reactor design for coal gasification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information to identify viable coal gasification and utilization technologies is presented. Analysis capabilities required to support design and implementation of coal based synthetic fuels complexes are identified. The potential market in the Southeast United States for coal based synthetic fuels is investigated. A requirements analysis to identify the types of modeling and analysis capabilities required to conduct and monitor coal gasification project designs is discussed. Models and methodologies to satisfy these requirements are identified and evaluated, and recommendations are developed. Requirements for development of technology and data needed to improve gasification feasibility and economies are examined.

1979-01-01

209

Creating power, technology and products: the role of coal gasification in Ohio's economy and energy future  

SciTech Connect

The study examines how coal gasification (CG) combined with Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) technology could play a role in Ohio's economy and energy future - particularly in Northeast Ohio, a major center of manufacturing in the U.S. This working paper focuses primarily on opportunities for gasification projects to augment Ohio's economy. It examines economic activity factors related to coal gasification and how the location of a number of key support industries in Ohio could provide the state with a competitive advantage in this area. The study focuses on a polygeneration facility that would supply electricity and some other products as an example of the type of gasification facility that could, if a sufficient number of similar facilities were located in the area, serve as the stimulus for a new or expanded industry cluster. Although not further discussed in this paper, any Ohio gasification facility would be in close proximity to oil and gas fields that can serve as sites for sequestering the carbon dioxide separated out from the coal-gasification process. The potential economic impact of locating a polygeneration gasifier in Northeast Ohio is large. A significant portion of the inputs required for one $1.1+ billion facility can be supplied either within northeastern Ohio or from elsewhere in the state. Operation of the facility is estimated to increase annual statewide personal income by $39 million and Ohio output by $161 million. The Northeast Ohio region will account for 98 percent of the operational benefits. The report suggests several possible steps to convert this research to an action plan to build support for, and interest in, a coal-gasification industry cluster in Northeast Ohio. Outreach should focus on engaging industry leaders, foundations, and state and regional economic development leaders. 16 tabs., 3 apps.

NONE

2007-12-15

210

Mild gasification of Usibelli coal in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor  

SciTech Connect

Results of mild gasification tests of minus 16-mesh Usibelli coal in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor are described in this report. The minus 16-mesh fraction was separated from the coal by screening. The coal was dried to zero moisture content, and about 2 wt % of the volatiles was removed as gas by partial decarboxylation using a 100-lb/hr inclined fluidized-bed dryer. The dried coal was subjected to mild gasification at maximum temperatures of 1050 to 1250{degrees}F (566 to 677{degrees}C) and feed rates of 7.5 lb/hr while using a once-through flow of carbon dioxide as fluidizing gas in a 1-inch-wide, inclined fluidized-bed reactor. Mild gasification of the dried coal resulted in production of 44 to 56 wt % of the dried coal as char, 10 to 13 wt % as liquids, 17 to 28 wt % as gas, and 8 to 21 wt % as fines. The yield of moisture- and ash-free (MAF) liquids varied from 11.4 to 14.2 wt % of the dried coal feed. Chemical analysis was carried out on these products.

Merriam, N.W.; Thomas, K.P.; Cha, C.Y.

1991-02-01

211

A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalyst for coal gasification. The lower cost and high catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} required for high coal char activities. The effects of potassium impregnation conditions (pH and coal surface charge) on the reactivities, in carbon dioxide, of chars derived from demineralized lignite, subbituminous and bituminous coals have been determined. Impregnation of the acid-leached coal with potassium from strongly acidic solutions resulted in initial slow char reactivity which progressively increased with reaction time. Higher reactivities were obtained for catalyst (potassium) loaded at pH 6 or 10. The dependence of char gasification rates on catalyst addition pH increased in the order: pH 6 {approximately} pH 10 {much gt} pH 1.

Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

1991-01-01

212

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

Not Available

1992-02-01

213

A review of the factors influencing the physicochemical characteristics of underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

In this article, the physicochemical characteristics of the oxidation zone, the reduction zone, and the destructive distillation and dry zone in the process of underground coal gasification (UCG) were explained. The effect of such major factors as temperature, coal type, water-inrush or -intake rate, the quantity and quality of wind blasting, the thickness of coal seams, operational pressure, the length, and the section of gasification gallery on the quality of the underground gas and their interrelationship were discussed. Research showed that the temperature conditions determined the underground gas compositions; the appropriate water-inrush or -intake rate was conducive to the improvement in gas heat value; the properties of the gasification agent had an obvious effect on the compositions and heat value of the product gas. Under the cyclically changing pressure, heat losses decreased by 60%, with the heat efficiency and gasification efficiency being 1.4 times and 2 times those of constant pressure, respectively. The test research further proved that the underground gasifier with a long channel and a big cross-section, to a large extent, improved the combustion-gasification conditions.

Yang, L.H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Jiangsu (China)

2008-07-01

214

Interaction and kinetic analysis for coal and biomass co-gasification by TG-FTIR.  

PubMed

This study aims to investigate the interaction and kinetic behavior of CO2 gasification of coal, biomass and their blends by thermogravimetry analysis (TG). The gas products evolved from gasification were measured online with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled with TG. Firstly, TG experiments indicated that interaction between the coals and biomasses mainly occurred during co-gasification process. The most significant synergistic interaction occurred for LN with SD at the blending mass ratio 4:1. Furthermore, thermal kinetic analysis indicated that the activation energy involved in co-gasification decreased as the SD content increased until the blending ratio of SD with coal reached 4:1. The rise of the frequency factor indicated that the increase of SD content favored their synergistic interaction. Finally, FTIR analysis of co-gasification of SD with LN indicated that except for CO, most gases including CH3COOH, C6H5OH, H2O, etc., were detected at around 50-700°C. PMID:24412857

Xu, Chaofen; Hu, Song; Xiang, Jun; Zhang, Liqi; Sun, Lushi; Shuai, Chao; Chen, Qindong; He, Limo; Edreis, Elbager M A

2014-02-01

215

Multivariable control of Texaco`s Eunice South Gas Plant  

SciTech Connect

A model predictive multivariable controller has been commissioned at Texaco`s Eunice South Gas Plant to increase profits and to provide better overall control of the Cryogenic Demethanizer Unit. The project payback was based on increased recovery of ethane and NGL. The controller has also been successful in maintaining a composition specification at the bottom of the demethanizer column while optimizing operations by pushing the plant to run at its pressure constraints. The South Plant Cryogenic Unit at Texaco`s Eunice complex processes about 100 MMscfd of natural gas from various sources. The demethanizer recovers ethane plus while rejecting methane from the bottom product. The column consists of a top section providing entries for the reflux and expander outlet and a lower section consisting of two packed beds. Cold separator liquids enter near the top of the lower section. Bottom and side reboilers are attached to the lower portion of the column. Residue gas leaves the top and demethanized NGL leaves the bottom of the column. A multivariable control (MVC{reg_sign}) module was installed with the primary objective of increasing ethane recovery by decreasing the column pressure and increasing the pressure differential across the expander unit while maintaining operating constraints with varying inlet conditions. The MVC controller runs in a Pentium{reg_sign} computer operating under SCO{reg_sign} UNIX{reg_sign} and is also attached to the plant ethernet network. The plant has programmable logic controllers (PLC) which are networked to a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system through pyramid integrators. MVC computes the optimal setpoint to six basic control loops in supervisory mode.

Alexander, M.C. [Texaco Exploration and Production Inc., Eunice, NM (United States); Martin, O. [Texaco Exploration and Production Inc., Denver, CO (United States); Basu, U.; Poe, W.A. [Continental Controls, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1998-12-31

216

Coal gasification\\/gas cleanup test facility: Volume III. Environmental assessment of operation with New Mexico subbituminous coal and chilled methanol. Report for Aug 80-Jun 81  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report concerns the second major study carried out on a pilot-scale coal gasification\\/gas cleaning test facility, namely, the steam-oxygen gasification of a New Mexico subbituminous coal using refrigerated methanol as the acid gas removal solvent. The report briefly describes the facility; summarizes gasifier operation using the New Mexico coal; gives results of mathematical modeling of the gasifier, detailed chemical

J. K. Ferrell; R. M. Felder; R. W. Rousseau; R. M. Kelly; M. J. Purdy

1982-01-01

217

Subtask 4.2 - Coal Gasification Short Course  

SciTech Connect

Major utilities, independent power producers, and petroleum and chemical companies are intent on developing a fleet of gasification plants primarily because of high natural gas prices and the implementation of state carbon standards, with federal standards looming. Currently, many projects are being proposed to utilize gasification technologies to produce a synthesis gas or fuel gas stream for the production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity. Financing these projects is challenging because of the complexity, diverse nature of gasification technologies, and the risk associated with certain applications of the technology. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has developed a gasification short course that is designed to provide technical personnel with a broad understanding of gasification technologies and issues, thus mitigating the real or perceived risk associated with the technology. Based on a review of research literature, tutorial presentations, and Web sites on gasification, a short course presentation was prepared. The presentation, consisting of about 500 PowerPoint slides, provides at least 7 hours of instruction tailored to an audience's interests and needs. The initial short course is scheduled to be presented September 9 and 10, 2009, in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

Kevin Galbreath

2009-06-30

218

In situ coal gasification: prospects as a source of utility fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second Hanna underground coal gasification experiment has been recently completed. Although the line drive system was unsuccessful, completion of two 2-well burns side by side lead to utilization of 6690 tons (6170 tonnes) of coal during a 4-month period. Sustained production of 175 of 185 Btu\\/scf (6.2 to 6.5 megajoules\\/m³) gas was achieved. Maximum production reached 11.8 MM scfd

C. F. Brandenburg; D. D. Fischer; A. E. Humphrey; L. A. Schrider

1976-01-01

219

Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, September 15--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification technologies are finding increasing commercial applications for power generation or production of chemical feedstocks. The integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) coal conversion process has been demonstrated to be a clean, efficient, and environmentally acceptable method of generating power. However, the gasification process produces relatively large quantities of a solid waste termed slag. Regulatory trends with respect to solid waste disposal, landfill development costs, and public concern make utilization of slag a high-priority issue. Therefore, it is imperative that slag utilization methods be developed, tested, and commercialized in order to offset disposal costs. This project aims to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of the slag utilization technologies developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates (LWA) and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag in a large-scale pilot operation, followed by total utilization of these aggregates in a number of applications.

NONE

1997-07-01

220

Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

1981-01-01

221

VAPOR-PHASE CRACKING AND WET OXIDATION AS POTENTIAL POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR COAL GASIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an investigation of two techniques (hydrocracking of heavy organics in the raw gas prior to quency, and wet oxidation of the gasifier condensate) for pollutant control in coal gasification processes. Bench-scale experiments were used to determine rates...

222

The Role of Diatomite Particles in the Activated Sludge System for Treating Coal Gasification Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diatomite is a kind of natural low-cost mineral material. It has a number of unique physical properties and has been widely used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment. This study was conducted to investigate the aerobic biodegradation of coal gasification wastewater with and without diatomite addition. Experimental resultsindicated that diatomite added in the activated sludge system could promote the biomass

Wenqi ZHANG; Pinhua RAO; Hui ZHANG; Jingli XU

2009-01-01

223

AEROSOL CHARACTERIZATION OF AMBIENT AIR NEAR A COMMERCIAL LURGI COAL GASIFICATION PLANT, KOSOVO REGION, YUGOSLAVIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient air samples were collected continuously from May 14-29, 1980 to determine if the emissions from a commercial Lurgi coal gasification plant could be identified downwind of the facility. Physical, inorganic, and organic analyses were carried out on the collected aerosol sam...

224

Production of hydrogen by direct gasification of coal with steam using nuclear heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems related to: (1) high helium outlet temperature of the reactor, and (2) gas generator design used in hydrogen production are studied. Special attention was given to the use of Oklahoma coal in the gasification process. Plant performance, operation, and environmental considerations are covered.

1975-01-01

225

The solar thermal gasification of coal — energy conversion efficiency and CO 2 mitigation potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steam-gasification of coal (peat, lignite, bituminous, and anthracite) into syngas is investigated using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat. The advantages of the solar- driven process are threefold: (1) the discharge of pollutants is avoided; (2) the gaseous products are not contaminated by combustion byproducts; and (3) the calorific value of the fuel is upgraded.

A. Steinfeld

2003-01-01

226

Chemical and toxicological studies of coal gasification wastewater circulated through a cooling tower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argonne National Laboratory is studying health and environmental issues related to coal gasification, using data and samples from the oxygen-blown slagging fixed-bed gasifier at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC). The pilot study reported here developed preliminary chemical and toxicological data needed to evaluate the health and environmental, as well as the process, implications of using partially

J. R. Stetter; V. C. Stamoudis; R. D. Flotard; Reilly C. A. Jr; K. E. Wilzbach

1984-01-01

227

Site-specific assessment of a 150MW coal gasification fuel cell power plant. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents detailed conceptual design, performance, and cost data for a fully integrated 150-MW coal gasification fuel cell power plant for electric utility application. The plant was designed to meet the site-specific requirements at Southern California Edison Company's Cool Water Generating Station; however, the configuration development is generic and can be used in other utility applications. The basic power

J. Brown; A. Murphy; P. Pietrogrande; J. Tien

1983-01-01

228

Environmental report: proposed underground coal gasification experiment in the Tono Basin, Washington State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Department of Energy is sponsoring a program to select and characterize a potential underground coal gasification experiment site in western Washington State. This activity is evaluated with reference to possible environmental impacts in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act. The following elements are integral parts of the analysis: (1) description of the proposed action and alternatives,

M. Adamson; K. Tonnessen

1980-01-01

229

Enhanced anaerobic biodegradability of real coal gasification wastewater with methanol addition.  

PubMed

Coal gasification effluent is a typical refractory industrial wastewater with a very poor anaerobic biodegradability due to its toxicity. Methanol was introduced to improve anaerobic biodegradability of real coal gasification wastewater, and the effect of methanol addition on the performance was investigated in a mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor with a hydraulic retention time of 24 hr. Experimental results indicated that anaerobic treatment of coal gasification wastewater was feasible with the addition of methanol. The corresponding maximum COD and phenol removal rates were 71% and 75%, respectively, with methanol concentration of 500 mg COD/L for a total organic loading rate of 3.5 kg COD/(m3 x day) and a phenol loading rate of 0.6 kg/(m3 x day). The phenol removal rate was not improved with a higher methanol concentration of 1000 mg COD/L. Substrate utilization rate (SUR) tests indicated that the SURs of phenol were 106, 132, and 83 mg phenol/(g VSS x day) at methanol concentrations of 250, 500, and 1000 mg COD/L, respectively, and only 45 mg phenol/(g VSS x day) in the control reactor. The presence of methanol could reduce the toxicity of coal gasification wastewater and increase the biodegradation of phenolic compounds. PMID:21462703

Wang, Wei; Han, Hongjun; Yuan, Min; Li, Huiqiang

2010-01-01

230

Simulation and control of the coal gasification combined cycle power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gasification combined cycle power plant is a major alternative for the conversion of coal to electric power. Although the operation and control of a combined cycle power plant is complicated, it is warranted due to financial and environmental advantages. The objective of this work is to develop a mathematical and dynamic simulation model of subsystems of the combined cycle

Nazem

1982-01-01

231

Solar gasification of biomass using oil shale and coal as candidate materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification of German oil shale and coal using concentrated solar energy as a heat source is studied in a fixed bed reactor under an argon atmosphere. The reactor allows direct absorption of irradiation resulting in high rates of temperature increase and hence in simultaneous decomposition of organic matter and carbonates present in the shale. Synthesis gases are produced consisting of

Martin Flechsenhar; Christian Sasse

1995-01-01

232

Regulatory Requirements for Land Disposal of Coal Gasification Waste and Their Implications for Disposal Site Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulatory requirements applicable to the land disposal of solid wastes from coal gasification plants are reviewed from the standpoint of disposal site design and design performance evaluation. After consideration of the design flexibility allowed under existing regulations, three approaches to disposal site design are analyzed, and the state-of-the-art approach is determined to be the preferred one. This approach utilizes

Masood Ghassemi; George Richard

1984-01-01

233

Combustion Engineering Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program  

SciTech Connect

On February 22, 1988, DOE issued Program Opportunity Notice (PON) Number-DE-PS01-88FE61530 for Round II of the CCT Program. The purpose of the PON was to solicit proposals to conduct cost-shared ICCT projects to demonstrate technologies that are capable of being commercialized in the 1990s, that are more cost-effective than current technologies, and that are capable of achieving significant reduction of SO[sub 2] and/or NO[sub x] emissions from existing coal burning facilities, particularly those that contribute to transboundary and interstate pollution. The Combustion Engineering (C-E) Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Repowering Project was one of 16 proposals selected by DOE for negotiation of cost-shared federal funding support from among the 55 proposals that were received in response to the PON. The ICCT Program has developed a three-level strategy for complying with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) that is consistent with the President's Council on Environmental Quality regulations implementing NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and the DOE guidelines for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021). The strategy includes the consideration of programmatic and project-specific environmental impacts during and subsequent to the reject selection process.

Not Available

1992-03-01

234

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

SciTech Connect

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co--product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases: Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase 2 is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase 3 updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase 2, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report is WMPI's third quarterly technical progress report. It covers the period performance from October 1, 2001 through December 31, 2001.

John W. Rich

2001-03-01

235

Hydrogen production by high-temperature steam gasification of biomass and coal  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature steam gasification of paper, yellow pine woodchips, and Pittsburgh bituminous coal was investigated in a batch-type flow reactor at temperatures in the range of 700 to 1,200{sup o}C at two different ratios of steam to feedstock molar ratios. Hydrogen yield of 54.7% for paper, 60.2% for woodchips, and 57.8% for coal was achieved on a dry basis, with a steam flow rate of 6.3 g/min at steam temperature of 1,200{sup o}C. Yield of both the hydrogen and carbon monoxide increased while carbon dioxide and methane decreased with the increase in gasification temperature. A 10-fold reduction in tar residue was obtained at high-temperature steam gasification, compared to low temperatures. Steam and gasification temperature affects the composition of the syngas produced. Higher steam-to-feedstock molar ratio had negligible effect on the amount of hydrogen produced in the syngas in the fixed-batch type of reactor. Gasification temperature can be used to control the amounts of hydrogen or methane produced from the gasification process. This also provides mean to control the ratio of hydrogen to CO in the syngas, which can then be processed to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel since the liquid fuel production requires an optimum ratio between hydrogen and CO. The syngas produced can be further processed to produce pure hydrogen. Biomass fuels are good source of renewable fuels to produce hydrogen or liquid fuels using controlled steam gasification.

Kriengsak, S.N.; Buczynski, R.; Gmurczyk, J.; Gupta, A.K. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2009-04-15

236

Pretreatment techniques for coal gasification. Fifth quarterly report, October 1December 31, 1985. [Raw and pretreated coal in helium and steam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of coal in steam is being explored with the goal of improving the economic attractiveness of coal gasification by cogeneration of light liquid fuels. The final draft of a literature survey has been completed and issued. Reactor performance was examined in a series of extended runs using the coal feeder installed during the last quarter. Char deposits found on

Graff

1985-01-01

237

Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems  

SciTech Connect

The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

Not Available

1990-12-01

238

Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energyâ??s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GEâ??s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and gas-phase reactions were properly reproduced and lead to representative syngas composition at the syngas cooler outlet. The experimental work leveraged other ongoing GE R&D efforts such as biomass gasification and dry feeding systems projects. Experimental data obtained under this project were used to provide guidance on the appropriate clean-up system(s) and operating parameters to coal and biomass combinations beyond those evaluated under this project.

Shawn Maghzi; Ramanathan Subramanian; George Rizeq; Surinder Singh; John McDermott; Boris Eiteneer; David Ladd; Arturo Vazquez; Denise Anderson; Noel Bates

2011-09-30

239

Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and gas-phase reactions were properly reproduced and lead to representative syngas composition at the syngas cooler outlet. The experimental work leveraged other ongoing GE R&D efforts such as biomass gasification and dry feeding systems projects. Experimental data obtained under this project were used to provide guidance on the appropriate clean-up system(s) and operating parameters to coal and biomass combinations beyond those evaluated under this project.

Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

2011-09-30

240

Thermal energy storage for an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the use of molten nitrate salt thermal energy storage in an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant allowing the facility to economically provide peak- and intermediate-load electric power. The results of the study show that an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant with thermal energy storage can reduce the cost of coal-fired peak- or intermediate-load electric power by between 5% and 20% depending on the plants operating schedule. The use of direct-contact salt heating can further improve the economic attractiveness of the concept. 12 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Drost, K.; Antoniak, Z.; Brown, D.; Somasundaram, S.

1991-10-01

241

Influence of high carbon monoxide concentration on the carbon dioxide gasification of a selected coal char  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the effect of high CO concentration on CO2 gasification rates of chars of Illinois #6 coal, a bituminous coal that is industrially important because of its relatively high reactivity and low pollutant emissions. A pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) is used to obtain char gasification mass loss and surface area measurements. The mass loss profiles of Illinois #6 chars were measured at temperatures of 1200 and 1273K and pressures of 1.4, 10, and 25 atm in CO2-CO and CO2-N2 mixtures. CO concentrations between 10%--90% at 1.4 atm and 10%--85% at 25 atm were used. The surface areas of the chars are determined from room-temperature (298K) CO2 adsorption on chars after successive stages of partial gasification. A variable partial pressure gas adsorption technique was developed to effectively utilize the PTGA for CO2 surface area measurements. Using experimental mass loss and surface area data combined with structural and kinetics modeling, an overall gasification curve description of kinetically-limited char-CO2 gasification reactivity is formulated for the life span of the char. The model consists of an intrinsic char reactivity expression with a conversion-dependent surface area modifier. First the surface area modifier is developed based on a random pore model and particle mode of burning relations. It is used with the unified gasification curve concept to interpret the isothermal gasification profiles and extrapolate the data to obtain the reactivity at the onset of char conversion. These isothermal initial char reactivities determined at selected gasification conditions are then used to calculate rate coefficients in the kinetics component of the model. The proposed reaction mechanism contains paths for both gas phase and adsorbed CO to interfere with the gasification of Illinois #6 chars by CO 2. The main effect of adsorbed CO in the range of experimental conditions used in this study is to occupy carbon sites that could otherwise be attacked by CO2. This behavior persists even at 1273 K. The impact of CO inhibition, both gas phase and adsorbed CO, was found to decrease with temperature and increase with pressure. This model also reproduces reasonably well the overall rate variations measured in non-isothermal nonisothermal gasification environments.

Tsai, Nancy Ko-Chieh

2000-11-01

242

TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

Not Available

1980-11-01

243

Subcontracted R and D final report: analysis of samples obtained from GKT gasification test of Kentucky coal. Nonproprietary version  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory test program was performed to obtain detailed compositional data on the Gesellshaft fuer Kohle-Technologie (GKT) gasifier feed and effluent streams. GKT performed pilot gasification tests with Kentucky No. 9 coal and collected various samples which were analyzed by GKT and the Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas. The coal chosen had good liquefaction characteristics and a high gasification reactivity. No organic priority pollutants or PAH compounds were detected in the wash water, and solid waste leachates were within RCRA metals limits.

Raman, S.V.

1983-09-01

244

Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions.  

PubMed

Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems. PMID:23301852

Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

2013-02-01

245

Portland General Electric Beaver synfuels project a coal gasification combined cycle methanol facility development program  

SciTech Connect

The Beaver coal gasification facility is currently undergoing preliminary engineering and feasibility analysis. Based on the existing 600 MW (nominal) Beaver combined cycle generating station and the adjacent plant site, which is eminently suitable for receiving and storage of subbituminous coal from either Alaska or Wyoming, a non-integrated CGCC facility combined with a methanol plant for increased utilization of the plant facilities and capital investment looks attractive for the 1987 time frame and forward. The CGCC facility would be environmentally benign since the gasification process inherently permits removal of essentially all sulfur, metals and particulate matter. The association with a methanol plant permits a high utilization factor of the overall CGCC-methanol facility. The beaver coal gasification facility will produce 60 billion Btu/day of MBG equivalent to about 300MWe, plus 1,750 Ton/D methanol, 10 million SCP/D SNG, nd 90 Ton/Day ammonia from about 11,000 Ton/Day subbituminous coal. The products are forecast to be competitively marketed in the region. The project could be implemented on a six year schedule, and a preliminary economic evaluation indicated that the products can be competitive with gas and oil for the 1988 time frame and beyond. 6 refs.

Skov, E.R.; Yott, R.A.; Clancy, G.M.

1981-01-01

246

CoalFleet RD&D augmentation plan for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants  

SciTech Connect

To help accelerate the development, demonstration, and market introduction of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and other clean coal technologies, EPRI formed the CoalFleet for Tomorrow initiative, which facilitates collaborative research by more than 50 organizations from around the world representing power generators, equipment suppliers and engineering design and construction firms, the U.S. Department of Energy, and others. This group advised EPRI as it evaluated more than 120 coal-gasification-related research projects worldwide to identify gaps or critical-path activities where additional resources and expertise could hasten the market introduction of IGCC advances. The resulting 'IGCC RD&D Augmentation Plan' describes such opportunities and how they could be addressed, for both IGCC plants to be built in the near term (by 2012-15) and over the longer term (2015-25), when demand for new electric generating capacity is expected to soar. For the near term, EPRI recommends 19 projects that could reduce the levelized cost-of-electricity for IGCC to the level of today's conventional pulverized-coal power plants with supercritical steam conditions and state-of-the-art environmental controls. For the long term, EPRI's recommended projects could reduce the levelized cost of an IGCC plant capturing 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced from the carbon in coal (for safe storage away from the atmosphere) to the level of today's IGCC plants without CO{sub 2} capture. EPRI's CoalFleet for Tomorrow program is also preparing a companion RD&D augmentation plan for advanced-combustion-based (i.e., non-gasification) clean coal technologies (Report 1013221). 7 refs., 30 figs., 29 tabs., 4 apps.

NONE

2007-01-15

247

Geology of the Hanna Formation, Hanna Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Hanna Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) study area consists of the SW1/4 of Section 29 and the E1/2SE1/4 of Section 30 in Township 22 North, Range 81 West, Wyoming. Regionally, this is located in the coal-bearing Hanna Syncline of the Hanna Basin in southeast Wyoming. The structure of the site is characterized by beds dipping gently to the northeast. An east-west fault graben complex interrupts this basic trend in the center of the area. The target coal bed of the UCG experiments was the Hanna No. 1 coal in the Hanna Formation. Sedimentary rocks comprising the Hanna Formation consist of a sequence of nonmarine shales, sandstones, coals and conglomerates. The overburden of the Hanna No. 1 coal bed at the Hanna UCG site was divided into four broad local stratigraphic units. Analytical studies were made on overburden and coal samples taken from cores to determine their mineralogical composition. Textural and mineralogical characteristics of sandstones from local stratigraphic units A, B, and C were analyzed and compared. Petrographic analyses were done on the coal including oxides, forms of sulfur, pyrite types, maceral composition, and coal rank. Semi-quantitative spectrographic and analytic geochemical analyses were done on the overburden and coal and relative element concentrations were compared. Trends within each stratigraphic unit were also presented and related to depositional environments. The spectrographic analysis was also done by lithotype. 34 references, 60 figures, 18 tables.

Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.

1984-01-01

248

Rapid Qualitative Risk Assessment for Contaminant Leakage From Coal Seams During Underground Coal Gasification and CO2 Injection  

SciTech Connect

One of the major risks associated with underground coal gasification is contamination of local aquifers with a variety of toxic compounds. It is likely that the rate, volume, extent, and concentrations of contaminant plumes will depend on the local permeability field near the point of gasification. This field depends heavily on the geological history of stratigraphic deposition and the specifics of stratigraphic succession. Some coals are thick and isolated, whereas others are thinner and more regionally expressed. Some coals are overlain by impermeable units, such as marine or lacustrine shales, whereas others are overlain by permeable zones associated with deltaic or fluvial successions. Rapid stratigraphic characterization of the succession provides first order information as to the general risk of contaminant escape, which provides a means of ranking coal contaminant risks by their depositional context. This risk categorization could also be used for ranking the relative risk of CO{sub 2} escape from injected coal seams. Further work is needed to verify accuracy and provide some quantification of risks.

Friedmann, S J

2004-07-02

249

Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix D: Cost and economic studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detailed cost estimate documentation for the designs prepared in this study are presented. The include: (1) Koppers-Totzek, (2) Texaco (3) Babcock and Wilcox, (4) BGC-Lurgi, and (5) Lurgi. The alternate product cost estimates include: (1) Koppers-Totzek and Texaco single product facilities (methane, methanol, gasoline, hydrogen), (2) Kopers-Totzek SNG and MBG, (3) Kopers-Totzek and Texaco SNG and MBG, and (4) Lurgi-methane and Lurgi-methane and methanol.

1980-01-01

250

A study on the impacts of changes in coal quality on the performances of gasification processes and IGCC  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a study to investigate the impacts of changes in the coal qualities on the performances of gasification processes and IGCC plants. The purpose of this study aims at selecting the most suitable design coal for IGCC in Korea. Among the 22 kinds of imported coals to Korea for the pulverized coal fired power plants, the 4 kinds of coals were evaluated for the final selection. The important selection criteria are the coal quality such as the ash fusion temperature, moisture, volatile, and oxygen contents, heating value, etc., and the other factors affecting on IGCC. The selection of the most economic coal is an important attribute for the IGCC power generation technology. The performances of gasification processes were predicted using the material and energy balance based on the chemical equilibrium model, and compared with the tests results of Coal Gasification Demonstration Plants. The IGCC performances with bituminous and sub-bituminous coal were predicted as well. It is obtained that, among the imported coals to Korea, the bituminous coal is superior to the sub-bituminous coal for IGCC power generation. The economic coal range for IGCC was suggested in this papers.

Ahn, D.H.; Kim, J.J.; Kim, N.H.; Park, H.Y.; Kim, C.Y. [Korea Electric Power Corp., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1995-12-31

251

Encoal mild coal gasification project: Encoal project final report, July 1, 1997--July 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This document is the summative report on the ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project. It covers the time period from September 17, 1990, the approval date of the Cooperative Agreement between ENCOAL and the US Department of Energy (DOE), to July 17, 1997, the formal end of DOE participation in the Project. The Cooperative Agreement was the result of an application by ENCOAL to the DOE soliciting joint funding under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology Program. By June 1992, the ENCOAL Plant had been built, commissioned and started up, and in October 1994, ENCOAL was granted a two-year extension, carrying the project through to September 17, 1996. No-cost extensions have moved the Cooperative Agreement end date to July 17, 1997 to allow for completion of final reporting requirements. At its inception, ENCOAL was a subsidiary of Shell Mining Company. In November 1992, Shell Mining Company changed ownership, becoming a subsidiary of Zeigler Coal Holding Company (Zeigler) of Fairview Heights, Illinois. Renamed successively as SMC Mining Company and then Bluegrass Coal Development Company, it remained the parent entity for ENCOAL, which has operated a 1,000-ton/day mild coal gasification demonstration plant near Gillette, Wyoming for nearly 5 years. ENCOAL operates at the Buckskin Mine owned by Triton Coal Company (Triton), another Zeigler subsidiary.

NONE

1997-07-01

252

Exxon catalytic coal gasification process development program. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1980  

SciTech Connect

This work is aimed at advancing the catalytic coal gasification technology through the development stage to make it ready for further scaleup in a large pilot plant. One of the major objectives of the program is to demonstrate the feasibility of the integrated process which includes gasification, gas separation, and catalyst recovery. This integrated system will be operated at commercial design conditions feeding bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal catalyzed with potassium hydroxide. This operation will demonstrate the feasibility of the catalytic coal gasification process in integrated operation and will ready the technology for scaleup to the larger pilot plant stage. Work was aimed at further defining the effect of temperature, gas composition, gas flow rate, and pressure on the gasification rate. With pure steam feed to the reactor, the apparent activation energy is about 31 kcal/g mole; however, with a feed mixture of H/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O in equimolar amounts, the apparent activation energy is increased to about 46 kcal/mole. The gasification rate was found to be rather insensitive to pressure changes but highly sensitive to the ratio of H/sub 2/O to H/sub 2/ in the feed gas. Bench scale tests have verified that devolatilization pressure is the most important variable affecting char agglomeration. Initial results indicate that a mild oxidation at 350/sup 0/F followed by a heat treatment will improve agglomeration properties. Work continued on the catalyst recovery screening studies to evaluate the economic impacts of alternative processing approaches and solid-liquid separation techniques.

Not Available

1980-06-01

253

Novel approach to coal gasification using chemically incorporated catalysts (Phase II). Final report, May 1978-June 1981  

SciTech Connect

Since 1974, Battelle has been developing a catalytic treatment process that would allow more economic, efficient and reliable utilization of the vast deposits of eastern coals in gasification systems. In order to keep the process simple and economic, a disposable catalyst lime (CaO), was employed. It was found that the effectiveness of low concentrations of CaO was greatly increased by thorough incorporation into the coal. As a result of these efforts, a catalytic treatment system has been developed that promises to allow simplifications and improvements in existing commercial gasification processes as well as advanced gasification systems. One gasification system that appears exceptionally attractive utilizing the treatment system is direct fluid-bed hydrogasification or hydropyrolysis. A simple pressurized fluid-bed steam/oxygen gasification system is also an attractive option which could be commercialized quickly. Data generated under this program demonstrated the technical and economic advantages of these approaches.

Feldmann, H.F.; Conkle, H.N.; Appelbaum, H.R.; Chauhan, S.P.

1981-01-01

254

Taguchi approach for co-gasification optimization of torrefied biomass and coal.  

PubMed

This study employs the Taguchi method to approach the optimum co-gasification operation of torrefied biomass (eucalyptus) and coal in an entrained flow gasifier. The cold gas efficiency is adopted as the performance index of co-gasification. The influences of six parameters, namely, the biomass blending ratio, oxygen-to-fuel mass ratio (O/F ratio), biomass torrefaction temperature, gasification pressure, steam-to-fuel mass ratio (S/F ratio), and inlet temperature of the carrier gas, on the performance of co-gasification are considered. The analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio suggests that the O/F ratio is the most important factor in determining the performance and the appropriate O/F ratio is 0.7. The performance is also significantly affected by biomass along with torrefaction, where a torrefaction temperature of 300°C is sufficient to upgrade eucalyptus. According to the recommended operating conditions, the values of cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion at the optimum co-gasification are 80.99% and 94.51%, respectively. PMID:23907063

Chen, Wei-Hsin; Chen, Chih-Jung; Hung, Chen-I

2013-09-01

255

Effects of selected inorganic coal-gasification constituents on aquatic life: an annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This review is concentrated on primary inorganic pollutants of concern which result in the aqueous discharges of high-pressure coal-gasification technologies. These pollutants include ammonia, cyanide (thiocyanates), sulfide, and boron. Ammonia toxicity was not reviewed since effective waste treatment technologies and discharge guidelines are available. The open literature concerning the effects of cyanide (thiocyanates), boron, and sulfide on aquatic life was reviewed using computer search techniques to obtain information from the Department of Energy RECON data base, the BIOSIS biological file in ORBIT data base, chemical abstracts, and the National Technical Information Service. It was concluded that there is a void in the literature concerning the toxicity of these parameters in high-pressure, coal-gasification wastewater matrices. The information abstracted is mainly concerned with laboratory studies with individual constitutents; however, some data provide insight to the effects of physical parameters such as temperature and physical stress.

Koch, L.M.; Young, R.C.

1983-03-01

256

Effect of powdered activated carbon technology on short-cut nitrogen removal for coal gasification wastewater.  

PubMed

A combined process consisting of a powdered activated carbon technology (PACT) and short-cut biological nitrogen removal reactor (SBNR) was developed to enhance the removal efficiency of the total nitrogen (TN) from the effluent of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, which was used to treat coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The SBNR performance was improved with the increasing of COD and TP removal efficiency via PACT. The average removal efficiencies of COD and TP in PACT were respectively 85.80% and 90.30%. Meanwhile, the NH3-N to NO2-N conversion rate was achieved 86.89% in SBNR and the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 75.54%. In contrast, the AOB in SBNR was significantly inhibited without PACT or with poor performance of PACT in advance, which rendered the removal of TN. Furthermore, PAC was demonstrated to remove some refractory compounds, which therefore improved the biodegradability of the coal gasification wastewater. PMID:23735800

Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Xu, Chunyan; Zhuang, Haifeng; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Linghan

2013-08-01

257

Instrumentation and process control development for in situ coal gasification. Quarterly report, April-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the results of modeling efforts by Sandia National Laboratories in in-situ coal gasification. The main areas addressed are (1) flow characteristics and (2) initial cavity growth. The flow characteristics problem has been addressed using both a single phase finite element model and a two phase finite difference model. The initial cavity growth problem has been addressed using a finite element structural model. These models are useful for providing insight into the processes and for determining the characteristics needed to insure successful in-situ coal gasification. Also to be discussed is the development of the controlled source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT) electromagnetic geophysical prospecting technique. This technique is being evaluated for use in mapping in-situ processes. The application discussed is the LETC tar sands project near Vernal, Utah.

Glass, R.E. (ed.)

1980-10-01

258

The role of catalyst precursor anions in coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The aims of the proposed project are to enrich our understanding of the roles of various aqueous soluble catalyst precursor anions on the surface electrical properties of coal and to ascertain the influence of the surface charge on the adsorption, dispersion, and activities of calcium and potassium. These goals will be achieved by impregnating a North Dakota lignite (PSOC 1482) and its demineralized derivative with calcium or potassium catalyst precursors containing acetate (CH{sub 3}COO{sup {minus}}), chloride (Cl{sup {minus}}), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), and carbonate (CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}) anions. Catalyst loading will be conducted under well-controlled conditions of solution pH and ionic strength. In the last quarter, the surface charge properties of the coal was determined as a function of acetate (CH{sub 3}COO{sup {minus}}), chloride (Cl{sup {minus}}), nitrate (NO{sup 3}{sup {minus}}), carbonate (CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}) or sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}})concentration using the respective potassium salts of these anions. In general, low anion concentrations (10{sup {minus}3} or 10{sup {minus}2} mol/L) had little effect on the zeta potentials of the coals. However, the surface charge densities of the coal become less negative at 10-1 mol/L of the nitrate, carbonate or sulfate anions. These trends suggest that the surface charge density of the coal is controlled by the adsorption of potassium ions (K{sup +}) onto the coal particles. The net negative charge on the coal panicles creates a repulsive force between the anions and the coal surface and prevents the anions from exerting any significant effect on the coal's electrokinetic properties.

Abotsi, G.M.K.

1992-08-28

259

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process  

SciTech Connect

Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

1992-01-01

260

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process  

SciTech Connect

Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

1992-11-01

261

Transient radiative heat transfer within a suspension of coal particles undergoing steam gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient radiative heat transfer in chemical reacting media is examined for a non-isothermal, non-gray, absorbing, emitting, and Mie-scattering suspension of coal particles, whose radiative properties vary with time as the particles undergo shrinking by endothermic gasification. A numerical model that incorporates parallel filtered collision-based Monte Carlo ray tracing, finite volume method, and explicit Euler time integration scheme is formulated for

W. Lipinski; A. Steinfeld

2005-01-01

262

Solar-driven coal gasification in a thermally irradiated packed-bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal gasification for high-quality synthesis gas production is considered using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat. The solar reactor consists of two cavities separated by a radiant emitter plate, with the upper one serving as the solar absorber and the lower one containing the reacting packed bed that shrinks as the reaction progresses. A 5 kW

Nicolas Piatkowski; Aldo Steinfeld

2008-01-01

263

Coal gasification with CO 2 in molten salt for solar thermal\\/chemical energy conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal gasification with CO2 in Na2CO3–K2CO3 molten salt that was used as thermal storage for gas\\/solid heterogeneous reaction was studied to apply this system for solar thermal\\/chemical energy conversion. The reactions were performed at 1173 K under various CO2 flow rates, weights of the molten salt and Na2CO3\\/K2CO3 ratios. The CO2 gas consumption rate increased with increasing CO2 flow rate,

J Matsunami; S Yoshida; Y Oku; O Yokota; Y Tamaura; M Kitamura

2000-01-01

264

Toxicity of underground coal gasification condenser water and selected constituents to aquatic biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute and embryo-larval toxicity of the Laramie Energy Technology Center's Hanna-3 underground coal gasification (UCG) condenser water and its constituents were studied in continuous-flow bioassays. The 96-hr LC50 dilution values for untreated Hanna-3 UCG condenser water were 0.1% for rainbow trout, 0.11% for fathead minnows and the 48-hr LC50 dilution forDaphnia pulicaria was 0.18%. Separate 96-hr acute tests with

G. M. DeGraeve; R. L. Overcast; H. L. Bergman

1980-01-01

265

Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix H: Work breakdown structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A work breakdown structure (WBS) is presented which encompasses the multiple facets (hardware, software, services, and other tasks) of the coal gasification program. The WBS is shown to provide the basis for the following: management and control; cost estimating; budgeting and reporting; scheduling activities; organizational structuring; specification tree generation; weight allocation and control; procurement and contracting activities; and serves as a tool for program evaluation.

1980-01-01

266

In situ formation of coal gasification catalysts from low cost alkali metal salts  

DOEpatents

A carbonaceous material, such as crushed coal, is admixed or impregnated with an inexpensive alkali metal compound, such as sodium chloride, and then pretreated with a stream containing steam at a temperature of 350.degree. to 650.degree. C. to enhance the catalytic activity of the mixture in a subsequent gasification of the mixture. The treatment may result in the transformation of the alkali metal compound into another, more catalytically active, form.

Wood, Bernard J. (Santa Clara, CA); Brittain, Robert D. (Cupertino, CA); Sancier, Kenneth M. (Menlo Park, CA)

1985-01-01

267

COAL CHAR GASIFICATION KINETICS IN A JET-FLUIDIZED BED (COMBUSTION, REACTION, RATE PHENOMENA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of gasification of -10 + 65 mesh coke and coal char with O(,2) and O(,2)-CO(,2) mixtures was studied in a continuous, bench scale, jet-fluidized reactor over a wide range of temperatures (900(DEGREES)C to > 1400(DEGREES)C) and bed depths under atmospheric pressure. The measured specific reaction rates of carbon ranged from 0.01 to 0.1 gram carbon reacting per gram

MING-YUAN KAO

1984-01-01

268

IsoTex: Texaco`s olefin skeletal isomerization process  

SciTech Connect

Texaco has developed a new process (IsoTex) for the skeletal isomerization of n-olefins. The IsoTex process can convert normal butenes to isobutylene or normal pentenes to isoamylenes. The resulting product stream is an excellent feed for MTBE, ETBE or TAME units. The process has isomerized an untreated refinery C4 raffinate stream from an MTBE plant. A kinetic model was developed for the butene system. This model accurately predicted IsoTex performance in a one barrel per day skid unit at a Gulf Coast chemical plant. Process economics have been calculated for a once through 54,000 BPD C{sub 4} isomerization plant as well as a 10,000 BPD plant for recycle to an existing MTBE reactor. Economics have also been completed for a 6,800 BPD pentene once through isomerization unit.

Sawicki, R.A.; Pellet, R.J.; Kuhlmann, E.J.; Huang, H.M.; O`Young, C.L.; Kessler, R.V.; Casey, D.G. [Texaco Research and Development, Beacon, NY (United States)

1995-09-01

269

Subtask 3.16 - Low-Cost Coal-Water Fuel for Entrained-Flow Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The specific objective of this research project is to assess the potential process efficiency and pollution control benefits that may occur by applying the hydrothermal, or hot water-drying, process to low-rank coals as related to entrained-flow gasification systems. Project emphasis is on identifying more efficient coal dewatering and CWF formulation methods prior to gasification. A favorable estimate of incremental cost for integrated hydrothermal drying depends, in part, on increasing the particle size of the feed coal from minus 100 to minus 28 mesh for the purpose of simplifying the slurry concentration process. Two options will be reviewed for dewatering or concentrating the processed slurry: (1) repressurization and then concentration with sieve bends or (2) partial dewatering at system pressure with hydroclones. Both have their own merits, sieve bends being a low-cost alternative, while hydroclone application would not require additional pumping sections prior to gasification. Various CWF samples with different particle-size distributions and solids concentrations will be sent to equipment vendors for application review. Also, EERC cost models will be used to calculate the integral cost of adding the partial dewatering to the hydrothermal technology for a commercial-size facility.

Anderson, C.M.

1997-10-01

270

Nitrogen mineralization from sludge in an alkaline, saline coal gasification ash environment.  

PubMed

Rehabilitating coal gasification ash dumps by amendment with waste-activated sludge has been shown to improve the physical and chemical properties of ash and to facilitate the establishment of vegetation. However, mineralization of organic N from sludge in such an alkaline and saline medium and the effect that ash weathering has on the process are poorly understood and need to be ascertained to make decisions regarding the suitability of this rehabilitation option. This study investigated the rate and pattern of N mineralization from sludge in a coal gasification ash medium to determine the prevalent inorganic N form in the system and assess the effect of ash weathering on N mineralization. An incubation experiment was performed in which fresh ash, weathered ash, and soil were amended with the equivalent of 90 Mg ha sludge, and N mineralization was evaluated over 63 d. More N (24%) was mineralized in fresh ash than in weathered ash and soil, both of which mineralized 15% of the initial organic N in sludge. More nitrification occurred in soil, and most of the N mineralized in ash was in the form of ammonium, indicating an inhibition of nitrifying organisms in the ash medium and suggesting that, at least initially, plants used for rehabilitation of coal gasification ash dumps will take up N mostly as ammonium. PMID:23673951

Mbakwe, Ikenna; De Jager, Pieter C; Annandale, John G; Matema, Taurai

2013-01-01

271

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process)  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory scale studies examining biogasification of Texas lignite at various coal solids loadings have been completed. Bench scale bioreactors are currently being used to scale up the biogasification process to higher coal solids loadings (5% and 10%) Specific observations reported this quarter are that methane production was not curtailed when B-vitamin solution was not added to the biogasification medium and that aeration of Mic-1 did not sufficiently oxidize the medium to eliminate strict anaerobic bacteria including methanogens.

Not Available

1992-10-30

272

Mineralogical characterization of Sasol feed coals and corresponding gasification ash constituents  

SciTech Connect

Feed coal and coarse ash particles (heated rock fragments and clinkers), produced from Sasol-Lurgi gasifier tests under different operating conditions, have been characterized by quantitative X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analysis, and associated chemical techniques, as a basis for better understanding of the relations between the mineralogical and physical properties of the ash particles. Crystalline phases in the ashes include quartz particles inherited directly from the feed coal, as well as anorthite, mullite, and diopside, derived from solid-state reactions or crystallization of a silicate melt during the gasification process. Glass, cooled from the melt, is also abundant in the ash materials. The abundance of large particles of hard minerals in the coal or the ash, such as quartz, anorthite, pyrite, and diopside, has been correlated with a laboratory-determined abrasion index and may contribute significantly to wear on mechanical equipment during coal- or ash-handling operations. 21 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

Aivo B. Hlatshwayo; Ratale H. Matjie; Zhongsheng Li; Colin R. Ward [Sasol Technology (Proprietary) Limited, Sasolburg (South Africa)

2009-05-15

273

DESIGN, FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

Reliable measurement of gasifier reaction chamber temperature is important for the proper operation of slagging, entrained-flow gasification processes. Historically, thermocouples have been used as the main measurement technique, with the temperature inferred from syngas methane concentration being used as a backup measurement. While these have been sufficient for plant operation in many cases, both techniques suffer from limitations. The response time of methane measurements is too slow to detect rapid upset conditions, and thermocouples are subject to long-term drift, as well as slag attack, which eventually leads to failure of the thermocouple. Texaco's Montebello Technology Center (MTC) has developed an infrared ratio pyrometer system for measuring gasifier reaction chamber temperature. This system has a faster response time than both methane and thermocouples, and has been demonstrated to provide reliable temperature measurements for longer periods of time when compared to thermocouples installed in the same MTC gasifier. In addition, the system can be applied to commercial gasifiers without any significant scale-up issues. The major equipment items, the purge system, and the safety shutdown system in a commercial plant are essentially identical to the prototypes at MTC. The desired result of this DOE program is ''a bench-scale prototype, either assembled or with critical components (laboratory) tested in a convincing manner.'' The prototype of the pyrometer system (including gasifier optical access port) that was designed, assembled and tested for this program, has had previous prototypes that have been built and successfully tested under actual coal and coke gasification conditions in three pilot units at MTC. It was the intent of the work performed under the auspices of this program to review and update the existing design, and to fabricate and bench test an updated system that can be field tested in one or more commercial gasifiers during a follow on phase of this program. For all intents and purposes, the development, bench testing and pilot unit testing of this temperature measurement system has already been done, and was mostly a matter of getting the hardware ready for a commercial field test. The benefits of field-testing are (1) Texaco will gain long-term commercial operating experience and (2) commercial gasifier operators will gain confidence that this system can perform reliably under true commercial plant conditions. This work was performed by Texaco at its Montebello Technology Center in South El Monte, California.

Tom Leininger

2001-03-31

274

Control technology assessment for coal gasification and liquefaction processes, coal gasification facility, Caterpillar Tractor Company, York, Pennsylvania. Report for the site visit of May 1981. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A control technology survey was conducted at the coal gasification facility of the Caterpillar Tractor Company (SIC-5161), in York, Pennsylvania on August 18, 1980 and May 7, 1981, in conjunction with an industrial hygiene characterization study. Potential hazards included coal dust, noise, fire, carbon-monoxide (630080) (CO), polynuclear aromatics, hydrogen sulfide (7783064), phenols, and flammable and explosive gases. Preemployment physicals were given to employees including complete medical histories, physical examinations, and skin examination. Examinations were given annually for the first 5 years and semiannually thereafter. The most hazardous activities were poking, cleaning, inspection of process equipment, and equipment maintenance. Coal dust emissions were effectively reduced by enclosure and venting. Venturi steam injectors in the gasifier pokeholes prevented gas emissions during poking. Ash dust was controlled by removal and handling while it was wet. An audible and visual alarm was used for CO monitoring. The ventilation system in the building effectively prevented accumulation of gases. The author recommends separate lockers for contaminated and clean clothing; a clean area for eating; escape pack respirators located in the rectifier room, control room, and coal bunker; and supplied air respirators in dangerous areas. Disposal of off gas from the feeding system should be addressed.

Telesca, D.R.

1982-04-01

275

Coal gasification in a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor. 2. Gasification of a New Mexico subbituminous coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A New Mexico subbituminous coal was gasified with steam and oxygen in a 15.2 cm i.d. fluidized bed reactor at a pressure of 790 kPa (100 psig) and average bed temperatures between 875 and 990°C. Material balances were obtained on total mass and major elements (C, H, O, N, S). A simple representation of coal pyrolysis has been added to

Mark J. Purdy; Richard M. Felder; James K. Ferrell

1984-01-01

276

Effect of CO2 gasification reaction on oxycombustion of pulverized coal char.  

SciTech Connect

For oxy-combustion with flue gas recirculation, as is commonly employed, it is recognized that elevated CO{sub 2} levels affect radiant transport, the heat capacity of the gas, and other gas transport properties. A topic of widespread speculation has concerned the effect of the CO{sub 2} gasification reaction with coal char on the char burning rate. To give clarity to the likely impact of this reaction on the oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized coal char, the Surface Kinetics in Porous Particles (SKIPPY) code was employed for a range of potential CO{sub 2} reaction rates for a high-volatile bituminous coal char particle (130 {micro}m diameter) reacting in several O{sub 2} concentration environments. The effects of boundary layer chemistry are also examined in this analysis. Under oxygen-enriched conditions, boundary layer reactions (converting CO to CO{sub 2}, with concomitant heat release) are shown to increase the char particle temperature and burning rate, while decreasing the O{sub 2} concentration at the particle surface. The CO{sub 2} gasification reaction acts to reduce the char particle temperature (because of the reaction endothermicity) and thereby reduces the rate of char oxidation. Interestingly, the presence of the CO{sub 2} gasification reaction increases the char conversion rate for combustion at low O{sub 2} concentrations, but decreases char conversion for combustion at high O{sub 2} concentrations. These calculations give new insight into the complexity of the effects from the CO{sub 2} gasification reaction and should help improve the understanding of experimentally measured oxy-fuel char combustion and burnout trends in the literature.

Molina, Alejandro (Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin, Colombia); Hecht, Ethan S.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Haynes, Brian S. (University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia)

2010-07-01

277

FATE OF TRACE AND MINOR CONSTITUENTS OF COAL DURING GASIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the fate of selected minor and trace elements of Montana lignite and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coals during development of the HYGAS process. Solid residue samples from various development stages were analyzed. The data indicate that certain...

278

Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 2. Commercial plant study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit (PDU). This process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of the salt. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

Kohl, Arthur L.

1980-05-01

279

Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 3. The Hanna II, Phase I field test  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project, and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna II, Phase I was conducted during the spring and summer of 1975, at a site about 700 feet up dip (to the southwest) of the Hanna I test. The test was conducted in two stages - Phase IA and IB. Phase IA consisted of linking and gasification operations between Wells 1 and 3 and Phase IB of linking from the 1-3 gasification zone to Well 2, followed by a short period of gasification from Well 2 to Well 3 over a broad range of air injection rates, in order to determine system turndown capabilities and response times. This report covers: (1) site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operational testing; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 7 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

1985-08-01

280

Basic design model of entrained-bed coal gasification system in IGCC power plant  

SciTech Connect

Proposed is the basic design model of entrained-bed coal gasification system, which will be a tool to identify the basic design parameters and the feasible operating range of each component in the system. The present design model is composed of three major design modules for coal/oxidizer burner nozzle, gasifier with refractory, preheater, slag discharge hopper and product gas quenching system. Each design module is constructed by incorporating lumped-mass based design approach with thermochemical data and relevant correlation in order to give the basic design specification of the component, and is then coupled together with other design module. Using the present design model, parametric studies are carried out to investigate the influences of gasification system design variables on the performance parameters of key component, and then scale-up analysis is performed to obtain design data for large scale IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) application. Furthermore, the present model will be combined with the data base of marketable products, from which designer can select the product suitable to the component design specification obtained from design modules.

Kim, H.T.; Kim, S.W.; Lee, C.

1996-12-31

281

Coal reserves and resources as well as potentials for underground coal gasification in connection with carbon capture and storage (CCS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal is the energy source with the largest geological availability worldwide. Of all non-renewable energies coal and lignite accounting for 55 % of the reserves and some 76 % of the resources represent the largest potential. Reserves are those geological quantities of a mineral which can currently be mined under technically and economically viable conditions. Resources are those quantities which are either proven but currently not economically recoverable or quantities which can still be expected or explored on the basis of geological findings. The global availability of energy source does not only depend on geological and economic factors. The technical availability, e.g. mining and preparation capacities, the sufficient availability of land and sea-borne transportation as well as transloading capacities and also a political availability are required likewise. The latter may be disturbed by domestic-policy disputes like strikes or unrest or by foreign-policy disputes like embargos, trade conflicts or even tensions and wars in the producing regions. In the energy-economic discussion the reach of fossil primary energies plays a central role with the most important questions being: when will which energy source be exhausted, which impact will future developments have on the energy price, what does the situation of the other energies look like and which alternatives are there? The reach of coal can only be estimated because of the large deposits on the one hand and the uncertain future coal use and demand on the other. The stronger growth of population and the economic catching-up process in the developing and threshold countries will result in a shift of the production and demand centres in the global economy. However, also in case of further increases the geological potential will be sufficient to reliably cover the global coal demand for the next 100 years. The conventional mining of seams at great depths or of thin seams reaches its technical and economic limits. However, these otherwise unprofitable coal deposits can be mined economically by means of underground coal gasification, during which coal is converted into a gaseous product in the deposit. The synthesis gas can be used for electricity generation, as chemical base material or for the production of petrol. This increases the usability of coal resources tremendously. At present the CCS technologies (carbon capture and storage) are a much discussed alternative to other CO2 abatement techniques like efficiency impovements. The capture and subsequent storage of CO2 in the deposits created by the actual underground gasification process seem to be technically feasible.

Ilse, Jürgen

2010-05-01

282

Advanced technology applications for second and third general coal gasification systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The historical background of coal conversion is reviewed and the programmatic status (operational, construction, design, proposed) of coal gasification processes is tabulated for both commercial and demonstration projects as well as for large and small pilot plants. Both second and third generation processes typically operate at higher temperatures and pressures than first generation methods. Much of the equipment that has been tested has failed. The most difficult problems are in process control. The mechanics of three-phase flow are not fully understood. Companies participating in coal conversion projects are ordering duplicates of failure prone units. No real solutions to any of the significant problems in technology development have been developed in recent years.

Bradford, R.; Hyde, J. D.; Mead, C. W.

1980-01-01

283

Aerosol emissions near a coal gasification plant in the Kosovo region, Yugoslavia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient aerosol samples from the region of Kosovo, Yugoslavia, were collected and analyzed for their elemental composition in order to determine the effect on ambient air quality of Lurgi coal gasification carried out there using low BTU lignite. Low-volume aerosol samples were used to collect air particulate matter during May of 1979. These samplers were deployed at five sites near the Kosovo industrial complex which is comprised of coal gasifier, a coal-fired power plant and a fertilizer plant which uses the waste products from the gasifier and power plant. A total of 126 impactor sets and 10 week-long "streaker" filters were analyzed by PIXE at FSU for 16-18 elements providing a data base of approximately 16 000 elemental concentrations. Preliminary results are reported here with emphasis on the following elements: Si, S, Ca, Fe, Zn and Pb.

Boueres, Luis Carlos S.; Patterson, Ronald K.

1981-03-01

284

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. The primary activity this period was preparation and presentation of the findings on this project at the Twenty-Third annual Pittsburgh Coal Conference. Dr. Malhotra attended this conference and presented a paper. A copy of his presentation constitutes this quarterly report.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

2006-09-30

285

Pyrolysis and gasification of coal at high temperatures. Final technical report, September 15, 1987--September 14, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The macropore structure of chars is a major factor in determining their reactivity during the gasification stage. The major objectives of this contract were to (a) quantify by direct measurements the effect of pyrolysis conditions of the macropore structure, and (b) establish how the macropores affected the reactivity pattern, the ignition behavior and the fragmentation of the char particles during gasification in the regime of strong diffusional limitations. Results from this project provide much needed information on the factors that affect the quality of the solid products (chars) of coal utilization processes (for example, mild gasification processes). The reactivity data will also provide essential parameters for the optimal design of coal gasification processes. (VC)

Zygourakis, K.

1992-02-10

286

Mathematical modeling of entrained-flow coal gasification reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model has been developed to describe physical and chemical processes occurring in an entrained-flow coal hydropyrolysis reactor. The model is one dimensional and incorporates a detailed multistep reaction kinetic model developed by Johnson for hydropyrolysis supplmented by Suuberg's pyrolysis model for rapid reactions, reactions of hydropyrolysis products in the gas phase, hydrodynamics of the gas-solid system, swelling\\/shrinking of

Goyal

1980-01-01

287

The iron mineral changes occurring in lignite coal during gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Representative lignite and gasified material samples were retrieved form a cooled down gasifier. The samples were taken at various heights in the gasifier that operated on lignite, under stable conditions. The proximate analyses, ash composition and temperature in the gasifier were determined according to standard procedures. The main minerals found in the present investigation were bassanite, illite, quartz, kaolinite, calcite and the only iron bearing mineral was found to be pyrite. The trend in the estimated particle surface temperature profile shows an increase in the drying, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion zones from about 300 °C to just over 900 °C. About 1/3 down the gasifier, an average particle temperature of about 400 °C and particle surface temperature of about 600 °C was measured where pyrite conversion started. About 2/3 down the gasifier, where an average temperature of about 700 °C and particle surface temperature of about 900 °C was measured, all the pyrite was converted and in the bottom part of the gasifier, oxidation of the iron started to play a role and hematite and an iron containing glass formed at an average temperature of > 800 °C and surface temperature of 900 °C.

Waanders, F. B.

2013-04-01

288

Corrosion and degradation of test materials in the General Electric GEGAS 25 ton\\/day coal gasification process development unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alloys were evaluated in the GEGAS 25 ton\\/day coal gasification pilot plant operating at 300 psig (2.1 MPa gauge). The exposure period lasted for approximately 500 h under gasification conditions. Coupons were exposed in the gasifier (below the bottom grate and in the off-gas) and spray-quench vessel. Ferritic alloy 18Cr-2Mo was the best performing alloy (<20 mpy (0.5 mm\\/y)) in

Yurkewycz

1985-01-01

289

Laboratory tests at elevated pressures of a silane igniter system for in-situ coal gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A silane/propane igniter and burner system was used for the first time in underground coal gasification experiments in the Tono Basin of Washington in the winter of 1981-1982. With this system, a small diameter tube (1/2 in.) is inserted in the hole to the point where ignition is desired; the tube is purged with nitrogen to drive out the air, and a change of the pyrophoric gas silane (SiH4) is forced through itp when the silane reaches the end of the tube, it bursts into flame upon exposure to the air; a fuel gas such as propane is sent through the tube behind the silane to sustain the burn for as long as desired. The system was designed both for igniting coal and for burning through steel pipe from the inside to provide a new outlet from the pipe. The optimum operating procedure for the igniter system was demonstrated and the system was tested under elevated pressures such as may be encountered in underground coal gasification. It is found that the essential steps in the operating procedure are to turn off the flow briefly after the silane reaches the end of the tube, then slowly begin the flow of fuel behind the silane. Both propane and methane were tested as fuels; propane was found to be preferable for pressures up to about 70 psia (5 atm), and methane for higher pressures. The upper pressure limit for silane ignition was found to be about 230 psia (16 atm).

Thorsness, C. B.; Skinner, D. F.; Fields, D. B.

1982-11-01

290

Cool Water Coal Gasification Program: Monitoring Review Committee meeting report, Washington, D. C. , July 12, 1988  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic-fuels plants. The Cool Water Coal Gasification Program is one of the four projects awarded financial assistance. The program agreed to comply with existing environmental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socioeconomic impacts during the period 1984-1989. As the first commercial-scale integrated gasification combined-cycle plant for generating energy from coal, the plant is designed to process a variety of coals with no liquid discharge, produce non-hazardous solid wastes, and produce very few air emissions. Monitoring data are to provide an information base for evaluating plant operations and for establishing information on environmental uncertainties associated with replication of synthetic-fuels facilities. A Monitoring Review Committee (MRC) comprised of participants from DOE, EPA, and the California Energy Commission, meets with the Program annually to discuss monitoring activities and review environmental and health monitoring information to determine any significant trends or patterns on pollutants releases. Results of the annual MRC meeting held July 12, 1988 in Washington, DC are presented.

Not Available

1988-01-01

291

Environmental research program for slagging fixed-bed coal gasification. Status report, November 1981  

SciTech Connect

A collaborative environmental research program to provide information needed to assess the health and environmental effects associated with large-scale coal gasification technology is being conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center (GFETC). The objectives are to: investigate the toxicology and chemical composition of coal gasification by-products as a function of process variables and coal feed; compare the characteristics of isokinetic side-stream samples with those of process stream samples; identify the types of compounds responsible for toxicity; evaluate the chemical and toxicological effectiveness of various wastewater treatment operations; refine methodology for the collection and measurement of organic vapors and particulates in workplace air; and obtain preliminary data on workplace air quality. So far the toxicities of a set of process stream samples (tar, oil, and gas liquor) and side-stream condensates from the GFETC gasifier have been measured in a battery of cellular screening tests for mutagenicity and cytotoxicity. Preliminary data on the effects of acute and chronic exposures of laboratory animals to process tar have been obtained. The process tar has been chemically fractionated and the distribution of mutagenicity and compound types among the fractions has been determined. Organic vapors and particulates collected at various times and locations in the gasifier building have been characterized.

Wilzbach, K. E.; Stetter, J. R.; Reilly, Jr., C. A.; Willson, W. G.

1982-02-01

292

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification (MicGAS) Process. The objectives of the research during FY 1993--94 were to: (1) enhance kinetics of methane production (biogasification, biomethanation) from Texas lignite (TxL) by the Mic-1 consortium isolated and developed at ARCTECH, (2) increase coal solids loading, (3) optimize medium composition, and (4) reduce retention time. A closer analysis of the results described here indicate that biomethanation of TxL at >5% solids loading is feasible through appropriate development of nutrient medium and further adaptation of the microorganisms involved in this process. Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably. Results are discussed on the following: products of biomethanation and enhance of methane production including: bacterial adaptation; effect of nutrient amendment substitutes; effects of solids loading; effect of initial pH of the culture medium; effect of hydrogen donors and carbon balance.

Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.

1994-10-01

293

Coal gasification by CO 2 gas bubbling in molten salt for solar\\/fossil energy hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal gasification with CO2 (the Boudouard reaction: C+CO2=2CO, ?rH°=169.2 kJ\\/mol at 1150 K), which can be applied to a solar thermochemical process to convert concentrated solar heat into chemical energy, was conducted in the molten salt medium (eutectic mixture of Na2CO3 and K2CO3, weight ratio=1\\/1) to provide thermal storage. When CO2 gas was bubbled through the molten salt, higher reaction

Jun Matsunami; Shinya Yoshida; Yoshinori Oku; Osamu Yokota; Yutaka Tamaura; Mitsunobu Kitamura

2000-01-01

294

Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix F: Critical technology items/issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Critical technology items and issues are defined in which there is a need for developmental research in order to assure technical and economic success for the state of the art of coal gasification in the United States. Technology development needs for the main processing units and the supporting units are discussed. While development needs are shown for a large number of systems, the most critical areas are associated with the gasifier itself and those systems which either feed the gasifier or directly receive products form the gasifier.

1980-01-01

295

Catalytic gasification of coal using eutectic salts: reaction kinetics with binary and ternary eutectic catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic studies of the catalytic steam gasification of Illinois No. 6 coal were carried out using binary and ternary eutectic salt mixtures in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of major process variables such as temperature, pressure, catalyst loading and steam flow rate were evaluated for the binary 29% Na2CO3–71% K2CO3 and ternary 43.5% Li2CO3–31.5% Na2CO3–25% K2CO3 eutectic catalyst systems. A

Atul Sheth; Yaw D. Yeboah; Anuradha Godavarty; Yong Xu; Pradeep K. Agrawal

2003-01-01

296

Conceptual design and simulation study for the production of hydrogen in coal gasification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual design of a coal gasification system for the production of hydrogen is undertaken here using the PRO-II Simulation program. The operating conditions for the gasifier were tuned to between 1200 °C–1500 °C, 15 atm–30 atm and to a feed molar ratio of C:H2O:O2 = 1:0.5–1:0.25–0.5. The refinery temperature and pressure were kept at 550 °Cand 24.5 atm. The syngas produced goes to water gas shift (WGS)

Yun Ju Lee; Sang Deuk Lee; Suk In Hong; Dong Ju Moon

2010-01-01

297

Conceptual designs and assessments of a coal gasification demonstration plant. Volume II. Koppers-Totzek process  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the report contains detailed information on the conceptual design and assessment of the facility required to process approximately 20,000 tons per day of coal to produce medium Btu gas using the Koppers-Totzek gasification process. The report includes process descriptions, flow diagrams and equipment lists for the various subsystems associated with the gasifiers along with descriptions of the overall facility. The facility is analyzed from both an economic and environmental standpoint. Problems of construction are addressed together with an overall design and construction schedule for the total facility. Resource requirements are summarized along with suggested development areas, both process and environmental.

Not Available

1980-10-01

298

Conceptual designs and assessments of a coal gasification demonstration plant. Volume IV. Babcock and Wilcox process  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the report contains detailed information on the conceptual design and assessment of the facility required to process approximately 20,000 tons per day of coal to produce medium Btu gas using the Babcock and Wilcox gasification process. The report includes process descriptions, flow diagrams and equipment lists for the various subsystems associated with the gasifiers along with descriptions of the overall facility. The facility is analyzed from both an economic and environmental standpoint. Problems of construction are addressed together with an overall design and construction schedule for the total facility. Resource requirements are summarized along with suggested development areas, both process and environmental.

Not Available

1980-10-01

299

Underground coal gasification with integrated carbon dioxide mitigation supports Bulgaria's low carbon energy supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underground coal gasification allows for the utilisation of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. The present study investigates underground coal gasification as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a high-calorific synthesis gas to support the Bulgarian energy system. Coupling of underground coal gasification providing synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine with carbon capture and storage is considered to provide substantial benefits in supporting the Bulgarian energy system with a competitive source of energy. In addition, underground voids originating from coal consumption increase the potential for geological storage of carbon dioxide resulting from the coupled process of energy production. Cost-effectiveness, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of this coupled process are investigated by application of a techno-economic model specifically developed for that purpose. Capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) are derived from calculations using six dynamic sub-models describing the entire coupled process and aiming at determination of the levelised costs of electricity generation (COE). The techno-economic model is embedded into an energy system-modelling framework to determine the potential integration of the introduced low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system and its competitiveness at the energy market. For that purpose, boundary conditions resulting from geological settings as well as those determined by the Bulgarian energy system and its foreseeable future development have to be considered in the energy system-modelling framework. These tasks comprise integration of the present infrastructure of the Bulgarian energy production and transport system. Hereby, the knowledge on the existing power plant stock and its scheduled future development are of uttermost importance, since only phasing-out power plants can be economically substituted by low carbon based technologies. Furthermore, the integrated annual load management notably contributes to innovative process integration becoming economic in an energy system affected by low efficiency and flexibility. Further limiting flexibility, the geographic location of this innovative low carbon energy production technology strictly depends on geological boundary conditions, namely the presence of exploitable coal resources, and availability of energy transport networks to supply potential end users with the product. Hereby, feeding upgraded synthesis gas directly into the Bulgarian gas pipeline network avoiding its conversion into electricity is an alternative approach with relevant economic potentials. For that purpose, the proximity and availability of these transport networks as well as the demand of end users are validated by the integrated energy system model. Coupling our techno-economic process model to an energy system-modelling framework allows the determination of the future economical potentials and the limitations for the implementation of a low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system. The obtained results show that the Bulgarian energy system can significantly benefit from the integration of underground coal gasification considering carbon dioxide mitigation technologies potentially initiating a continuous substitution of imported fuels by domestic coal resources.

Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Azzam, Rafig

2013-04-01

300

Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix B: Medium B+U gas design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A four module, 20,000 TPD, based on KT coal gasification technology was designed. The plant processes Kentucky No. 9 coal with provisions for up to five percent North Alabama coal. Medium BTU gas with heat content of 305 BTU/SCF and not more than 200 ppm sulfur is the primary plant product. Sulfur is recovered for scale as prilled sulfur. Ash disposal is on site. The plant is designed for zero water discharge. Trade studies provided the basis for not using boiler produced steam to drive prime movers. Thus process derived steam in excess of process requirements in superheated for power use in prime movers. Electricity from the TVA grid is used to supply the balance of the plant prime mover power requirements. A study of the effect of mine mouth coal cleaning showed that coal cleaning is not an economically preferred route. The design procedure involved defining available processes to meet the requirements of each system, technical/economic trade studies to select the preferred processes, and engineering design and flow sheet development for each module. Cost studies assumed a staggered construction schedule for the four modules beginning spring 1981 and a 90% on stream factor.

1980-01-01

301

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology program: ENCOAL mild coal gasification project: A project proposed by ENCOAL Corporation  

SciTech Connect

This project involves the mild gasification of coal at moderate temperatures and near atmospheric pressure to produce two marketable products. Both products are new low-sulfur fuel forms. The high heating value, low-sulfur solid is called Process Derived Fuel (PDF). The low-sulfur, heavy-hydrocarbon liquid is called Coal Derived Liquid (CDL). The process chemically modifies the feed coal to create the two new fuel forms and also removes most of the moisture and some of the sulfur, depending on the sulfur form in the feed coal. The proposed demonstration plant would be put in service by the first quarter of 1992. The plant would be designed and operated as a small commercial facility and would be expected to produce sufficient quantities of PDF and CDL to conduct full-scale test burns of the products in industrial and utility boilers. There will be no waste water or toxic solid wastes generated by the demonstration plant. Source water requirements will have a very minimal environmental impact at the site. The plant could ultimately have a very favorable impact on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions in the United States if the project is successful. ENCOAL has estimated that the new fuel forms, PDF and CDL, from one commercial plant using the LFC Technology would reduce SO{sub 2} emissions by about 160,000 tons per year when burned at utility customers plants. 5 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1990-06-01

302

High resolution seismic survey of the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In November 1980 a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the underground coal gasification test site near Hanna, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to determine the feasibility of utilizing high resolution seismic technology to locate and characterize underground coal burn zones and to identify shallow geologic faults at the test site. Seismic data acquisition and processing parameters were specifically designed to emphasize reflections at the shallow, 61 to 91 meter (200 to 300 foot) depths of interest. An anomaly was clearly discernable resulting from the rubble-collapse void above the burn zone which was studied in detail and compared to synthetic models. It is felt that the seismic method can be used to define similar burns.

Youngberg, A. D.; Berkman, E.; Orange, A.

1982-01-01

303

High Temperature Electrochemical Polishing of H(2)S from Coal Gasification Process Streams.  

SciTech Connect

An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide from coal gasification streams through an electrochemical membrane is being perfected. H{sub 2}S is removed from a synthetic gas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the exiting syngas, and sulfur, which is condensed downstream from an inert sweep gas stream. The process allows for continuous removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream while allowing negligible pressure loss through the separator. Moreover, the process is economically attractive due to the elimination of the need for a Claus process for sulfur recovery. To this extent the project presents a novel concept for improving utilization of coal for more efficient power generation.

Winnick, J.

1997-12-31

304

Brazing as a Means of Sealing Ceramic Membranes for use in Advanced Coal Gasification Processes  

SciTech Connect

Coal is potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Rice, Joseph P.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.

2006-01-02

305

Brazing as a Means of Sealing Ceramic Membranes for Use in Advanced Coal Gasification Processes  

SciTech Connect

Coal is a potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Rice, Joseph P.; Kim, Jin Yong

2006-01-31

306

High resolution seismic survey (of the) Rawlins, Wyoming underground coal gasification area. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In October 1982, a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the Gulf Research and Development Company's underground coal gasification test site near Rawlins, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to utilize high resolution seismic technology to locate and characterize two underground coal burn zones. Seismic data acquisition and processing parameters were specifically designed to emphasize reflections at the shallow depths of interest. A three-dimensional grid of data was obtained over the Rawlins burn zones. Processing included time varying filters, trace composition, and two-dimensional areal stacking of the data in order to identify burn zone anomalies. An anomaly was discernable resulting from the rubble-collapse cavity associated with the burn zone which was studied in detail at the Rawlins 1 and 2 test sites. 21 refs., 20 figs.

Youngberg, A.D.; Berkman, E.; Orange, A.S.

1983-01-01

307

Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

Kohl, A.L.

1980-05-01

308

Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption  

DOEpatents

Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high purity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Ghate, M.R.; Yang, R.T.

1985-10-03

309

Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption  

DOEpatents

Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon, zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high parity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber.

Ghate, Madhav R. (Morgantown, WV); Yang, Ralph T. (Williamsville, NY)

1987-01-01

310

A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

NONE

1995-12-01

311

Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental results of coal gasification with and without the addition of calcium oxide and potassium hydroxide as dual-functioning catalyst–capture agents. Using two different coal types and temperatures between 700 and 900 °C, we studied the effect of these catalyst–capture agents on (1) the syngas composition, (2) CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S capture, and (3) the steam–coal gasification kinetic rate. The syngas composition from the gasifier was roughly 20% methane, 70% hydrogen, and 10% other species when a CaO/C molar ratio of 0.5 was added. We demonstrated significantly enhanced steam–coal gasification kinetic rates when adding small amounts of potassium hydroxide to coal when operating a CaO–CaCO{sub 3} chemical looping gasification reactor. For example, the steam–coal gasification kinetic rate increased 250% when dry mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 with a sub-bituminous coal, and the kinetic rate increased 1000% when aqueously mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 along with potassium hydroxide at a K/C molar ratio of 0.06. In addition, we conducted multi-cycle studies in which CaCO{sub 3} was calcined by heating to 900 °C to regenerate the CaO, which was then reused in repeated CaO–CaCO{sub 3} cycles. The increased steam–coal gasification kinetics rates for both CaO and CaO + KOH persisted even when the material was reused in six cycles of gasification and calcination. The ability of CaO to capture carbon dioxide decreased roughly 2–4% per CaO–CaCO{sub 3} cycle. We also discuss an important application of this combined gasifier–calciner to electricity generation and selling the purge stream as a precalcined feedstock to a cement kiln. In this scenario, the amount of purge stream required is fixed not by the degradation in the capture ability but rather by the requirements at the cement kiln on the amount of CaSO{sub 4} and ash in the precalcined feedstock.

Siefert, Nicholas S.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Litster, Shawn; Berry, David, A

2013-08-01

312

Computer models to support investigations of surface subsidence and associated ground motion induced by underground coal gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface subsidence induced by underground coal gasification at Hoe Creek, Wyoming, and Centralia, Washington were compared. Calculations with the STEALTH explicit finite difference code match equivalent, implicit finite element method solutions for the removal of underground material. Effects of removing roof material, varying elastic constants, investigating thermal shrinkage, and burning multiple coal seams are studied. A coupled, finite difference continuum rigid block caving code is used to model underground opening behavior. The two methods, numerical and empirical, are most effective when used together.

Trent, B. C.; Langland, R. T.

1981-08-01

313

Evolution and removal of pollutants from the gasification of a subbituminous coal in a fluidized bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cyclone, a cold water quench scrubber, and a refrigerated methanol absorber have been used to clean the make gas from the steam-oxygen gasification of a New Mexico subbituminous coal in a pilot-scale fluidized bed reactor. A model developed for the gasifier provides the capability of predicting the make gas amount and composition as a function of gasifier operating conditions.

R. M. Felder; J. K. Ferrell; R. W. Rousseau; M. J. Purdy; R. M. Kelly

1982-01-01

314

Comparison of coal IGCC with and without CO 2 capture and storage: Shell gasification with standard vs. partial water quench  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work provides a techno-economic assessment of Shell coal gasification -based IGCC, with and without CO2 capture and storage (CCS), focusing on the comparison between the standard Shell configuration with dry gas quench and syngas coolers versus partial water quench cooling.

Emanuele Martelli; Thomas Kreutz; Stefano Consonni

2009-01-01

315

Up against Giants: The National Indian Youth Council, the Navajo Nation, and Coal Gasification, 1974-77  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the spring of 1977, members of the National Indian Youth Council (NIYC), along with the Coalition for Navajo Liberation, barraged the Secretary of the Interior and the chairman of the Navajo Nation with petitions calling for a halt to the proposed construction of several coal gasification plants on the Navajo Reservation in northwestern New…

Shreve, Bradley Glenn

2006-01-01

316

Study of the treatability of wastewater from a coal gasification plant. Supplementary report, July 15-December 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Three methods of treating coal gasification plant waste water have been studied experimentally: biological reaction kinetics of the activated sludge process; chemical precipitation with ferric chloride at the optimum pH value (alum and polymers were less effective); and adsorption in columns of granules of activated carbon. Detailed results of all three experiments are given. (LTN)

Iglar, A. F.

1980-01-01

317

High resolution seismic survey of the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification area  

SciTech Connect

In November 1980 a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the Department of Energy, Laramie Energy Technology Center's underground coal gasification test site near Hanna, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to determine the feasibility of utilizing high resolution seismic technology to locate and characterize underground coal burn zones and to identify shallow geologic faults at the test site. Seismic data acquisition and processing parameters were specifically designed to emphasize reflections at the shallow, 61 to 91 meter (200 to 300 foot) depths of interest. A three-dimensional grid of data was obtained over the Hanna II, Phases 2 and 3 burn zone. Processing included time varying filters, deconvolution, trace composition, and two-dimensional, areal stacking of the data in order to identify burn zone anomalies. An anomaly was clearly discernable resulting from the rubble-collapse void above the burn zone which was studied in detail and compared to synthetic models. It is felt, based on these results, that the seismic method can be used to define similar burns if great care is taken in both acquisition and processing phases of an investigation. The fault studies disclosed faults at the test site of hitherto unsuspected complexity. The fault system was found to be a graben complex with numerous antithetic faults. The antithetic faults also contain folded beds. One of the faults discovered may be responsible for the unexpected problems experienced in some of the early in-situ gasification tests at the site. A series of anomalies were discovered on the northeast end of one of the seismic lines, and these reflections have been identified as adits from the old Hanna No. 1 Coal Mine.

Youngberg, A.D.; Berkman, E.; Orange, A.

1982-01-01

318

Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, September--November 1994  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification technologies are finding increasing commercial applications for power generation or production of chemical feedstocks. The integrated-gasification-combined-cycle coal conversion process has been demonstrated to be a clean, efficient, and environmentally acceptable method of generating power. However, the gasfication process produces relatively large quantities of a solid waste termed slag. Regulatory trends with respect to solid waste disposal, landfill development costs, and public concern make utilization of slag a high-priority issue. Therefore, it is imperative that slag utilization methods be developed, tested, and commercialized in order to offset disposal costs. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ``as-generated`` slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and landfill. We determined that it would be extremely difficult for ``as-generated`` slag to find acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that would meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag could be made into a lightweight material by heating it to between 1600 and 1900{degree}F in a kiln, which indicated the potential for using such materials as substitutes for lightweight aggregates. Between 1987 and 1993, the technologies to produce these materials from slag were developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute, Illinois Clean Coal Institute, and internal resources.

NONE

1994-12-01

319

Control technology assessment for coal gasification and liquefaction processes, CAN-DO Anthracite Coal Gasification Plant, Hazelton, Pennsylvania, 1981. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A survey was conducted at the CAN DO Coal Gasification Facility (SIC-5161), in Hazelton, Pennsylvania on May 28, 1981 to assess control technology and industrial hygiene measures used with the Wellman Galusha gasifier. No formal safety program was in effect. An industrial hygiene support program was being provided by Oak Ridge National Laboratories to assist in protecting employees and to characterize exposures to potential health hazards during startup. Preemployment physical examinations were provided and annual physicals were planned. Monitoring and alarm systems were installed for carbon-monoxide (630080). Industrial hygiene support activities were being conducted to identify other potential safety and health hazards. The author concludes that the management is concerned with providing a safe working environment. Recommendations include: periodic safety meetings; development of emergency procedures; training sessions for management and employees for safety and health related activities; employee participation in safety programs; formation of a safety committee; designation of a clean eating area; escape pack respirators at appropriate locations for emergency use; larger ventilation intake openings; welded joints; hinged poke hole covers; and steam injectors.

Telesca, D.R.

1982-04-01

320

Simultaneous removal of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} in coal gasification processes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen (N{sub 2}) occurs in coal in the form of tightly bound organic ring compounds, typically at levels of 1 to 2 wt.% on a dry-ash-free basis. During gasification, this fuel-bound nitrogen is released principally as ammonia. The formation of NH{sub 3} in coal gasification processes is a function of the coal N{sub 2} content and the gasifier operating conditions.During the use of coal gas to generate electricity in gas-fired turbines or molten carbonate fuel cells, fuel bound N{sub 2} is converted to nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), which are difficult to remove and are highly undesirable as atmospheric pollutants. Thus it is desirable to remove NH{sub 3} from coal gas in addition to other major contaminants such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and particulates. The objective of this study was to develop a successful sorbent-catalyst combination of an NH{sub 3} decomposition catalyst with a zinc-based mixed-metal oxide H{sub 2}S sorbent with stable NH{sub 3} decomposition and H{sub 2}S removal efficiency under cyclic sulfidation-regeneration conditions in the temperature range of 500 to 700 C. Combining the NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S removal steps is expected to reduce capital and operating costs in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant.

Jothimurugesan, K.; Adeyiga, A.A. [Hampton Univ., VA (United States); Gangwal, S.K. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1996-11-01

321

Hoe Creek No. 3 - First long-term underground coal gasification experiment with oxygen-steam injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes the first long-term underground coal gasification experiment with oxygen-steam injection. In the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground experiment, linkage paths were established between the injection and production wells by drilling a horizontal borehole between them near the bottom of the coal seam. The drilled linkage hole was enlarged by reverse burning, and then the forward gasification process was started - first with air injection for one week, then with oxygen-steam injection for the remainder of the experiment. During the oxygen-steam injection period, about 3900 tons of coal were gasified in 47 days, at an average rate of 83 tons per day. The heating value of the dry product gas averaged 218 Btu/scf, suitable for input to a processing plant for upgrading to pipeline quality, which is about 900 Btu/scf.

1980-05-01

322

Mild coal gasification: Product separation, pilot-unit support, twin screw heat transfer, and H sub 2 S evolution  

SciTech Connect

Our general objective is to further the development of efficient continuous mild coal gasification processes. Our efforts this year have been in four main areas. A new thrust has been to identify and develop efficient processes to separate the vapor product stream into particulate-free liquid and mist-free gas. We continued work aimed at predicting heat transfer rates (hence throughput) in externally-heated twin-screw pyrolyzers. We sought to provide technical support for the design, installation, startup, and operation of the DOE-sponsored 500 kg/hr twin-screw mild gasification unit at Coal Technology Corporation (CTC). A smaller laboratory effort had the objective of identifying and testing the reaction mechanisms of sulfur species during coal pyrolysis. Detailed subproject objectives are given in their respective sections. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Camp, D.W.; Wallman, P.H.; Coburn, T.T.

1991-08-09

323

Photoassisted electrolysis applied to coal gasification. Third quarterly report, 1 January 1982-31 Mar 1982  

SciTech Connect

The literature search on electrochemical studies of various carbons has been completed. Two conclusions were reached: (1) The surfaces of various carbons are covered by oxide films to different extents and the oxides resemble either the quinone-like structure in their oxidized form or the hydroquinone-like structure in the reduced form. (2) When carbonaceous materials are oxidized chemically, electrochemically, or thermally, the first stage involves formation of the oxide film and the later stages oxide gas (CO or CO/sub 2/) evolution. The catalytic reaction mechanism of coal oxidation was substantiated by adding Fe/sup 3 +/ or Ce/sup 4 +/ to a cell containing a coal slurry without passing any electrical current and by monitoring the amount of CO/sub 2/ evolved. Also, studies were performed on current efficiencies of CO/sub 2/ production reaction as a function of the particle size of coal samples. Finally, the catalytic rate constants of various redox catalysts for the coal oxidation reaction are reported. These results indicate that the thermodynamics of the reaction systems play a predominant role in determining the rate constants. Methods of studying the stability of semiconductor electrodes were established employing rotating ring-disk electrode techniques. The long-term stability of semiconductor electrodes would be needed to carry out the photoassisted coal gasification reaction. In the method we developed, the semiconductor was used as a disk electrode while the noble metal, e.g., Au or Pt, is used as a ring electrode. The species generated at the semiconductor electrode by light illumination is detected at the ring electrode by applying the proper electrode potential. If the ring detection current is lower than its expected value, the disk may undergo the photocorrosion reaction.

None

1982-01-01

324

Mild gasification of steam-conditioned bituminous coal in fluidized beds: Technical note  

SciTech Connect

A detailed systems analysis of a commercial-scale mild gasification process has been performed. The process includes (1) a conceptual design of the process, (2) mass and energy balances that were calculated with the use of the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) process simulator, and (3) a detailed economic assessment that includes several sensitivity studies. In this conceptual study, 1 million tons per year, dry basis, of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal are conditioned with steam at 700/degree/F for 5 minutes in a fluidized-bed and devolatilized at 1000/degree/F for 3 minutes in a second fluidized-bed. Volatiles are condensed and liquid condensate and gas are separated. Liquid production is 340,000 tons per year (approximately 1,870,000 barrels per year) based on an increased liquid yield due to steam conditioning of 37 weight percent of dry, ash-free coal (DAF). This assumed yield is based on bench-scale experimental results for steam-conditioned coal (Graff 1987). Gas produced in the process is internally consumed for char heating and steam generation. Net char production is 466,000 ton/yr. 27 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Gessner, A.W.; Hand, T.J.; Klara, J.M.

1988-02-01

325

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory underground coal gasification data base. [US DOE-supported field tests; data  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of field projects to determine the feasibility of converting the nation's vast coal reserves into a clean efficient energy source via underground coal gasification (UCG). Due to these tests, a significant data base of process information has developed covering a range of coal seams (flat subbituminous, deep flat bituminous and steeply dipping subbituminous) and processing techniques. A summary of all DOE-sponsored tests to data is shown. The development of UCG on a commercial scale requires involvement from both the public and private sectors. However, without detailed process information, accurate assessments of the commercial viability of UCG cannot be determined. To help overcome this problem the DOE has directed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a UCG data base containing raw and reduced process data from all DOE-sponsored field tests. It is our intent to make the data base available upon request to interested parties, to help them assess the true potential of UCG.

Cena, R. J.; Thorsness, C. B.

1981-08-21

326

Producing fired bricks using coal slag from a gasification plant in indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a promising power generation technology which increases the efficiency of coal-to-power conversion and enhances carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust emissions for better greenhouse gas capture. Two major byproducts from IGCC plants are bottom slag and sulfur. The sulfur can be processed into commercially viable products, but high value applications need to be developed for the slag material in order to improve economics of the process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of incorporating coal slag generated by the Wabash River IGCC plant in Indiana as a raw material for the production of fired bricks. Full-size bricks containing up to 20 wt% of the coal slag were successfully produced at a bench-scale facility. These bricks have color and texture similar to those of regular fired bricks and their water absorption properties met the ASTM specifications for a severe weathering grade. Other engineering properties tests, including compressive strength tests, are in progress.

Chen, L.-M.; Chou, I.-Ming; Chou, S.-F.J.; Stucki, J.W.

2009-01-01

327

Effects and characterization of an environmentally-friendly, inexpensive composite Iron-Sodium catalyst on coal gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal gasification has been commercially used for more than 60 years in the production of fuels and chemicals. Recently, and due to the lowered environmental impacts and high efficiency derived from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), this process has received increased attention. Furthermore, upcoming strict CO2 emissions regulations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will no longer be achievable by traditional means of coal combustion, therefore, growing dependence on different energy sources has drawn attention to clean coal technologies, such as coal-to-liquids processing, and the core of this process is also gasification. Gasification is an energy intensive process that can be substantially improved in terms of efficiency through the use of catalysts. In this study, the effect of the composite catalyst, FeCO3-Na2CO3, on gasification of a low-sulfur sub-bituminous Wyodak coal from the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming was investigated. The catalytic effects of the composite catalysts were evaluated by comparing their effluent gas compositions and carbon conversion kinetics to those achieved in the presence of either FeCO3 or Na2CO3 catalyst alone or without the presence of any catalyst. All of the evaluation work was conducted in a fixed bed gasifier at atmospheric pressure. Compared to raw coal with no catalyst, the composite catalyst is efficient in increasing the carbon conversion rate constant by as much as two times within the 700-800°C range due to its ability to reduce the activation energy of gasification by about 30-40%. Compared to pure sodium and iron catalysts, the composite catalyst can increase the yields of desired products H2 and CO at 800°C by 15% and 40%, respectively. The composite catalyst can not only synergize the advantages, but also overcome the challenges of pure iron or pure sodium based catalytic coal gasification processes. Moreover, the mechanisms of this particular catalytic coal gasification process were studied through characterization tests. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Mossbauer spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were used to perform the analyses. The XRD results are consistent with interactive mechanisms or the formation of Na-Fe oxides as the catalytic pathway. Activity of the iron catalyst during late stages of the gasification process was confirmed through XPS. Mossbauer spectroscopy also indicated the presence of metallic iron and cementite in the char at different stages. The Fe catalysts were better at tar decomposition than the Na catalysts, as indicated by GC-MS analyses. NMR spectra confirmed that tar compositions vary with the catalytic mechanism. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of high yields of aromatic components and long aliphatic chains in the tar. Composite Fe-Na catalysts provide a method to tailor the amounts and composition of product generated during gasification.

Monterroso, Rodolfo

328

FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend current capabilities for modeling fuel transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation coal-based, fuel-flexible combustion and gasification processes. This multi-organization, multi-investigator project has produced data, correlations, and submodels that extend present capabilities in pressure, temperature, and fuel type. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational results are documented in detail in Chapters 1-8 of this report, with Chapter 9 serving as a brief summary of the main conclusions. Chapters 1-3 deal with the effect of elevated pressure on devolatilization, char formation, and char properties. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with advanced combustion kinetic models needed to cover the extended ranges of pressure and temperature expected in next-generation furnaces. Chapter 6 deals with the extension of kinetic data to a variety of alternative solid fuels. Chapter 7 focuses on the kinetics of gasification (rather than combustion) at elevated pressure. Finally, Chapter 8 describes the integration, testing, and use of new fuel transformation submodels into a comprehensive CFD framework. Overall, the effects of elevated pressure, temperature, heating rate, and alternative fuel use are all complex and much more work could be further undertaken in this area. Nevertheless, the current project with its new data, correlations, and computer models provides a much improved basis for model-based design of next generation systems operating under these new conditions.

Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas H. Fletcher; Alan Sayre

2005-04-29

329

Catalytic gasification of coal using eutectic salts: reaction kinetics for hydrogasification using binary and ternary eutectic catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kinetic study of the hydrogasification of Illinois #6 coal was carried out using a ternary (43.5mol% Li2CO3-31.5mol% Na2CO3-25mol% K2CO3) and a binary (29mol% Na2CO3-71mol% K2CO3) eutectic system. Hydrogasification experiments were carried out in a high-pressure, high-temperature differential fixed-bed gasifier unit to evaluate the product inhibition effect of H2 on the overall steam gasification kinetics. The overall gasification rate was

Atul C Sheth; Chandramouli Sastry; Yaw D Yeboah; Yong Xu; Pradeep Agarwal

2004-01-01

330

Advanced coal-gasification system for electric-power generation. First quarterly progress report, Fiscal Year 1981, October 1December 31, 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of the Westinghouse Coal Gasification Program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized fluidized bed gasification system for production of low- and intermediate-Btu fuel gas for electric power generation, syngas, feedstocks or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scale-up data for the process and hardware.

M. J. Arthurs; E. J. Chelen; P. Cherish; G. B. Haldipur; D. L. Keairns; L. K. Rath

1981-01-01

331

Treatment of coal gasification wastewater by membrane bioreactor hybrid powdered activated carbon (MBR–PAC) system.  

PubMed

A laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor hybrid powdered activated carbon (MBR–PAC) system was developed to treat coal gasification wastewater to enhance the COD, total phenols (TPh), NH4+ removals and migrate the membrane fouling. Since the MBR–PAC system operated with PAC dosage of 4 g L?1, the maximum removal efficiencies of COD, TPh and NH4+ reached 93%, 99% and 63%, respectively with the corresponding influent concentrations of 2.27 g L?1, 497 mg L?1 and 164 mg N L?1; the PAC extraction efficiencies of COD, TPh and NH4+ were 6%, 3% and 13%, respectively; the transmembrane pressure decreased 34% with PAC after 50 d operation. The results demonstrate that PAC played a key role in the enhancement of biodegradability and mitigation of membrane fouling. PMID:25461944

Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Fang, Fang; Zhao, Qian

2014-12-01

332

Some studies on a solid state sulfur probe for coal gasification systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements on the solid electrolyte cell (Ar + H(2) + H(2)S/CaS + CaF(2) + (Pt)//CaF(2)//(Pt) + CaF(2) + CaS/H(2) + H(2)+Ar) show that the emf of the cell is directly related to the difference in sulfur potentials established at the Ar + H(2) + H(2)S/electrode interfaces. The electrodes convert the sulfur potential gradient across the calcium fluoride electrolyte into an equivalent fluorine potential gradient. Response time of the probe varies from approximately 9 hr at 990 K to 2.5 hr at 1225 K. The conversion of calcium sulfide and/or calcium fluoride into calcium oxide is not a problem anticipated in commercial coal gasification systems. Suggestions are presented for improving the cell for such commercial applications.

Jacob, K. T.; Rao, D. B.; Nelson, H. G.

1977-01-01

333

Wabash River Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program. Environmental Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The proposed project would result in a combined-cycle power plant with lower emissions and higher efficiency than most existing coal-fired power plants of comparable size. The net plant heat rate (energy content of the fuel input per useable electrical generation output; i.e., Btu/kilowatt hour) for the new repowered unit would be a 21% improvement over the existing unit, while reducing SO{sub 2} emissions by greater than 90% and limiting NO{sub x} emissions by greater than 85% over that produced by conventional coal-fired boilers. The technology, which relies on gasified coal, is capable of producing as much as 25% more electricity from a given amount of coal than today`s conventional coal-burning methods. Besides having the positive environmental benefit of producing less pollutants per unit of power generated, the higher overall efficiency of the proposed CGCC project encourages greater utilization to meet base load requirements in order to realize the associated economic benefits. This greater utilization (i.e., increased capacity factor) of a cleaner operating plant has global environmental benefits in that it is likely that such power would replace power currently being produced by less efficient plants emitting a greater volume of pollutants per unit of power generated.

Not Available

1993-05-01

334

Co-gasification of different rank coals with biomass and petroleum coke in a high-pressure reactor for H(2)-rich gas production.  

PubMed

Four coals of different rank were gasified, using a steam/oxygen mixture as gasifying agent, at atmospheric and elevated pressure in a fixed bed reactor fitted with a solids feeding system in continuous mode. Independently of coal rank, an increase in gasification pressure led to a decrease in H(2) + CO production and carbon conversion. Gasification of the different rank coals revealed that the higher the carbon content and reactivity, the greater the hydrogen production. Co-gasification experiments of binary (coal-biomass) and ternary blends (coal-petcoke-biomass) were conducted at high pressure to study possible synergetic effects. Interactions between the blend components were found to modify the gas production. An improvement in hydrogen production and cold gas efficiency was achieved when the coal was gasified with biomass. PMID:20061144

Fermoso, J; Arias, B; Gil, M V; Plaza, M G; Pevida, C; Pis, J J; Rubiera, F

2010-05-01

335

Stabilization of spent sorbents from coal gasification. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation was to determine the rates of reactions involving partially sulfided dolomite and oxygen, which is needed for the design of the reactor system for the stabilization of sulfide-containing solid wastes from gasification of high sulfur coals. To achieve this objective, samples of partially sulfided dolomite were reacted with oxygen at a variety of operating conditions in a fluidized-bed reactor. The effect of external diffusion was eliminated by using small quantities of the sorbent and maintaining a high flow rate of the reactant gas. The reacted sorbents were analyzed to determine the extent of conversion as a function of operating variables including sorbent particle size, reaction temperature and pressure, and oxygen concentration. The results of sulfation tests indicate that the rate of reaction increases with increasing temperature, increasing oxygen partial pressure, and decreasing sorbent particle size. The rate of the sulfation reaction can be described by a diffuse interface model where both chemical reaction and intraparticle diffusion control the reaction rate. The kinetic model of the sulfation reaction was used to determine the requirements for the reactor system, i.e., reactor size and operating conditions, for successful stabilization of sulfide-containing solid wastes from gasification of high sulfur coals (with in-bed desulfurization using calcium based sorbents). The results indicate that the rate of reaction is fast enough to allow essentially complete sulfation in reactors with acceptable dimensions. The optimum sulfation temperature appears to be around 800{degrees}C for high pressure as well as atmospheric stabilization of the spent sorbents.

Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.H.; Rue, D.M.; Wangerow, J.R. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1993-12-31

336

Environmental assessment for the Hoe Creek underground, Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation, Campbell County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess environmental and human health Issues and to determine potential impacts associated with the proposed Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation that would be performed at the Hoe Creek site in Campbell County, Wyoming. The Hoe Creek site is located south-southwest of the town of Gillette, Wyoming, and encompasses 71 acres of public land under the stewardship of the Bureau of Land Management. The proposed action identified in the EA is for the DOE to perform air sparging with bioremediation at the Hoe Creek site to remove contaminants resulting from underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments performed there by the DOE in the late 1970s. The proposed action would involve drilling additional wells at two of the UCG test sites to apply oxygen or hydrogen peroxide to the subsurface to volatilize benzene dissolved in the groundwater and enhance bioremediation of non-aqueous phase liquids present in the subsurface. Other alternatives considered are site excavation to remove contaminants, continuation of the annual pump and treat actions that have been used at the site over the last ten years to limit contaminant migration, and the no action alternative. Issues examined in detail in the EA are air quality, geology, human health and safety, noise, soils, solid and hazardous waste, threatened and endangered species, vegetation, water resources, and wildlife. Details of mitigative measures that could be used to limit any detrimental effects resulting from the proposed action or any of the alternatives are discussed, and information on anticipated effects identified by other government agencies is provided.

NONE

1997-10-01

337

Characterization and failure analysis of ceramic filters utilized for emission control during coal gasification. Topical report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic filters for pollutant emission control from coal gasification have been evaluated. The following were investigated: permeability, cleaning, back pulse pressure distribution measurement within candle filter without dust cake, and optimization on back pulse system design.

Huque, Ziaul, Mei, D.; Zhou, J.

1998-12-31

338

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the hightemperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period, we analyzed several 409 low alloy steel samples after coating them in our fluidized bed reactor and also after exposing them to our corrosion test. We report the following findings: 1. A protective coating was deposited inside a porous 409 steel sample to protect it from sulfidation attack. The coating was based on a combination of Si diffusion layer, Nb interlayer and nitrides of titanium and silicon. 2. Analysis of solid coupons exposed to simulated coal gas at 900 C for 300 h showed that multilayer metal/ceramic coatings provide a better protection than ceramic coatings. 3. Deposition of several ceramic/metal multilayer coatings showed that coatings with niobium and tantalum interlayers have good adhesion. However, coatings with a tungsten interlayer suffered localized delaminating and coatings with Zr interlayers showed poor adhesion. 4. Analysis of solid coupons, coated with the above-mentioned multilayer films, after exposure to simulated coal gas at 900 C for 300 h showed that niobium is the best candidate for interlayer material.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez-Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

2007-03-31

339

Prediction and measurement of entrained flow coal gasification processes. Interim report, September 8, 1981-September 7, 1983  

SciTech Connect

This volume reports interim experimental and theoretical results of the first two years of a three year study of entrained coal gasification with steam and oxygen. The gasifier facility and testing methods were revised and improved. The gasifier was also modified for high pressure operation. Six successful check-out tests at elevated pressure were performed (55, 75, 100, 130, 170, and 215 psig), and 8 successful mapping tests were performed with the Utah bituminous coal at an elevated pressure of 137.5 psig. Also, mapping tests were performed at atmospheric pressure with a Utah bituminous coal (9 tests) and with a Wyoming subbituminous coal (14 tests). The LDV system was used on the cold-flow facility to make additional nonreactive jets mixing measurements (local mean and turbulent velocity) that could be used to help validate the two-dimensional code. The previously completed two-dimensional entrained coal gasification code, PCGC-2, was evaluated through rigorous comparison with cold-flow, pulverized coal combustion, and entrained coal gasification data. Data from this laboratory were primarily used but data from other laboratories were used when available. A complete set of the data used has been compiled into a Data Book which is included as a supplemental volume of this interim report. A revised user's manual for the two-dimensional code has been prepared and is also included as a part of this interim report. Three technical papers based on the results of this study were published or prepared. 107 references, 57 figures, 35 tables.

Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Fletcher, T.H.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.

1984-01-31

340

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. In previous tests, we had frequently encountered problems with our steam generator that were exacerbated by the very low flow rates that we needed. During this period we installed a new computer-controlled system for injecting water into the steam generator that eliminated this problem. We also tested alloy coupons coated by using the improved procedures described in our last quarterly report. Most of these coatings were nitrided Ti and Ta coatings, either by themselves, or sometimes with barrier layers of Al and Si nitrides. The samples were tested for 300 h at 900 C in a gas stream designed to mimic the environment in the high temperature heat recovery unit (HTHRU). Three samples that showed least corrosion were exposed for an additional 100 h.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2006-06-01

341

Combined Air Sparge and Bioremediation of an Underground Coal Gasification Site  

SciTech Connect

EG&G Technical Services of West Virginia (TSWV) Inc. is successfully remediating a former underground coal gasification (UCG) test site in northeastern Wyoming. EG&G is demonstrating the effectiveness of combined air sparge and biostimulation technology. This project is being conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE ) - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), the lease holder of the site. UCG testing from 1976 through 1979 contaminated three water-bearing units at the site with benzene. Previous pump and treat operations at the site showed the presence of a persistent non-dissolved benzene source material. The Felix I coal seam is the most contaminated unit at the site and was the target unit for the initial demonstration. Air sparging was selected to strip dissolved benzene, volatilize the non- dissolved benzene source material, and to provide oxygen for increasing aerobic bacteria populations. Indigenous bacteria populations were stimulated with ammonium phosphate addition. EG&G designed the remediation system to take advantage of the hydrogeologic environment to produce a cost-effective approach to the groundwater remediation. Groundwater pumping was used to manipulate subsurface air flow, nutrient transport, and biomass management. Demonstration operations began on September 29, 1995, and were suspended on April 30, 1996 to begin demonstration expansion. Initial results of the demonstration show substantial reduction in benzene concentrations across the demonstration area. Benzene concentration reductions greater than 80% were observed two months after demonstration operations were suspended.

Covell, J.R.; Thomas, M.H.

1996-12-01

342

Novel hydrogen separation device development for coal gasification system applications. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken for the development of a novel Electrochemical Hydrogen Separator (EHS) technology for low-cost hydrogen separation from coal derived gases. Design and operating parameter testing was performed using subscale cells (25 cm{sup 2}). High H{sub 2} purity, >99% is one of the main features of the EHS. It was found that N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} behave as equivalent inerts; EHS performance is not affected by the balance of feed gas containing these components. This product purity level is not sacrificed by increased H{sub 2} recovery. CO, however, does adversely affect EHS performance and therefore feed stream pretreatment is recommended. Low levels of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} were added to the feed gas stream and it was verified that these impurities did not affect EHS performance. Task 2 demonstrated the scale-up to full size multi-cell module operation while maintaining a stable energy requirement. A 10-cell full-size module (1050 cm{sup 2} cell active area) was operated for over 3,800 hours and gave a stable baseline performance. Several applications for the EHS were investigated. The most economically attractive systems incorporating an EHS contain low pressure, dilute hydrogen streams, such as coal gasification carbonate fuel cell systems, hydrogen plant purification and fluid catalytic cracker units. In addition, secondary hydrogen recovery from PSA or membrane tailstreams using an EHS may increase overall system efficiency.

Not Available

1993-08-01

343

Low-Btu coal gasification in the United States: company topical. [Brick producers  

SciTech Connect

Hazelton and other brick producers have proved the reliability of the commercial size Wellman-Galusha gasifier. For this energy intensive business, gas cost is the major portion of the product cost. Costs required Webster/Hazelton to go back to the old, reliable alternative energy of low Btu gasification when the natural gas supply started to be curtailed and prices escalated. Although anthracite coal prices have skyrocketed from $34/ton (1979) to over $71.50/ton (1981) because of high demand (local as well as export) and rising labor costs, the delivered natural gas cost, which reached $3.90 to 4.20/million Btu in the Hazelton area during 1981, has allowed the producer gas from the gasifier at Webster Brick to remain competitive. The low Btu gas cost (at the escalated coal price) is estimated to be $4/million Btu. In addition to producing gas that is cost competitive with natural gas at the Webster Brick Hazelton plant, Webster has the security of knowing that its gas supply will be constant. Improvements in brick business and projected deregulation of the natural gas price may yield additional, attractive cost benefits to Webster Brick through the use of low Btu gas from these gasifiers. Also, use of hot raw gas (that requires no tar or sulfur removal) keeps the overall process efficiency high. 25 references, 47 figures, 14 tables.

Boesch, L.P.; Hylton, B.G.; Bhatt, C.S.

1983-07-01

344

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heat exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in an integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high-alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period, we conducted a simulated gasifier test primarily with TiN-coated steel samples. Although the test showed these coatings to offer significant protection against corrosion, they also revealed a lack of uniformity in the coatings. We spent a considerable amount of effort improving our coatings procedure as well as the fluidized bed reactor and its heater. Based on the results collected thus far, we selected 12 samples and sent them to ConocoPhillips for testing in their gasifier at the Wabash River Energy plant.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-12-01

345

In situ small angle x-ray studies of coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress made the first 12 months of a planned 36 month project on small angle x-ray studies of coal and char pore structure. Model carbon studies have been employed to demonstrate the usefulness of small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) in monitoring the structural changes in porous carbonaceous materials during gasification. Scattering data from particles gasified to varying levels of conversion show increases in the micropore sizes with conversion. This is also supported by surface area measurements by SAXS showing a maximum at intermediate conversion in agreements with previous studies by conventional means. The application of SAXS to PSOC coal samples is also demonstrated. Existing models for the porous structure have been reviewed and percolation theory has been selected as a consistent framework for both the modelling and the data analysis. This theory will make it possible to describe the porous structure in terms of its geometry and connectivity, rather than being limited to a fixed geometry as in conventional approaches. Two graduate students and the PI have been trained in SAXS and the associated theory. Results from the model carbon studies have been published. 18 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

Jensen, K F

1983-01-01

346

IGDS/TRAP Interface Program (ITIP). Software User Manual (SUM). [network flow diagrams for coal gasification studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This specification establishes the requirements, concepts, and preliminary design for a set of software known as the IGDS/TRAP Interface Program (ITIP). This software provides the capability to develop at an Interactive Graphics Design System (IGDS) design station process flow diagrams for use by the NASA Coal Gasification Task Team. In addition, ITIP will use the Data Management and Retrieval System (DMRS) to maintain a data base from which a properly formatted input file to the Time-Line and Resources Analysis Program (TRAP) can be extracted. This set of software will reside on the PDP-11/70 and will become the primary interface between the Coal Gasification Task Team and IGDS, DMRS, and TRAP. The user manual for the computer program is presented.

Jefferys, S.; Johnson, W.; Lewis, R.; Rich, R.

1981-01-01

347

A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification. Final technical report, September 1989--November 1992  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project were to investigate the effects of coal surface charge on the uptake of aqueous soluble metal catalysts from solution and to determine the influence of the interfacial interaction on char reactivity. Another goal is to assess the potential of using potassium carbonate, potassium acetate or their mixtures as catalysts for char gasification. The lower cost and the high catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of potassium carbonate required for efficient char reactivities on a commercial scale. To minimize the interference of the coals` inherent inorganic materials with the added calcium or potassium, the gasification studies were restricted to the demineralized coals. In a manner similar to the effect of pH on the surface electrochemistry of the coals, the reactivities of the calcium- or potassium-loaded chars in bon dioxide at 800{degree}C were dependent upon the pH at which the catalysts were ion-exchanged onto the coals. For the calcium-containing chars, the reactivities increased in the order: pH 6 > pH 10 > pH 1. In contrast, the variation of the gasification rates with potassium loading pH was: pH 6 {approximately} pH 10 {much_gt} pH 1. However, simultaneous adsorption of the metals at {approximately} pH 1 enhanced char reactivity relative to metals loading at pH 6 or 10. These findings are attributed to the differences in the extent of electrostatic interaction between the calcium or potassium ions and the charged coal surface during catalyst loading from solution.

Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

1992-12-01

348

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project, Polk Power Station -- Unit No. 1. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994  

SciTech Connect

This describes the Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project which will use a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,300 tons per day of coal (dry basis) coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 Btu/scf (LHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product.

NONE

1995-05-01

349

Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 3: Combustors, furnaces and low-BTU gasifiers. [used in coal gasification and coal liquefaction (equipment specifications)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is presented on the design, performance, operating characteristics, cost, and development status of coal preparation equipment, combustion equipment, furnaces, low-Btu gasification processes, low-temperature carbonization processes, desulfurization processes, and pollution particulate removal equipment. The information was compiled for use by the various cycle concept leaders in determining the performance, capital costs, energy costs, and natural resource requirements of each of their system configurations.

Hamm, J. R.

1976-01-01

350

Geomechanical Analysis of Underground Coal Gasification Reactor Cool Down for Subsequent CO2 Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an efficient method for the conversion of conventionally unmineable coal resources into energy and feedstock. If the UCG process is combined with the subsequent storage of process CO2 in the former UCG reactors, a near-zero carbon emission energy source can be realised. This study aims to present the development of a computational model to simulate the cooling process of UCG reactors in abandonment to decrease the initial high temperature of more than 400 °C to a level where extensive CO2 volume expansion due to temperature changes can be significantly reduced during the time of CO2 injection. Furthermore, we predict the cool down temperature conditions with and without water flushing. A state of the art coupled thermal-mechanical model was developed using the finite element software ABAQUS to predict the cavity growth and the resulting surface subsidence. In addition, the multi-physics computational software COMSOL was employed to simulate the cavity cool down process which is of uttermost relevance for CO2 storage in the former UCG reactors. For that purpose, we simulated fluid flow, thermal conduction as well as thermal convection processes between fluid (water and CO2) and solid represented by coal and surrounding rocks. Material properties for rocks and coal were obtained from extant literature sources and geomechanical testings which were carried out on samples derived from a prospective demonstration site in Bulgaria. The analysis of results showed that the numerical models developed allowed for the determination of the UCG reactor growth, roof spalling, surface subsidence and heat propagation during the UCG process and the subsequent CO2 storage. It is anticipated that the results of this study can support optimisation of the preparation procedure for CO2 storage in former UCG reactors. The proposed scheme was discussed so far, but not validated by a coupled numerical analysis and if proved to be applicable it could provide a significant optimisation of the UCG process by means of CO2 storage efficiency. The proposed coupled UCG-CCS scheme allows for meeting EU targets for greenhouse gas emissions and increases the coal yield otherwise impossible to exploit.

Sarhosis, Vasilis; Yang, Dongmin; Kempka, Thomas; Sheng, Yong

2013-04-01

351

An evaluation of the United Kingdom Clean Coal Power Generation Group`s air-blown gasification cycle  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is conducting an engineering and economic study of various pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) designs. Studies have been completed on bubbling and circulating PFBC technologies and on an advanced PFBC power plant technology, in which the feed coal is partially gasified and the residual char burned in a PFBC. The United Kingdom Clean Coal Power Generation Group`s (CCPGG) air-blown gasification cycle (ABGC), known formerly as the British Coal Topping Cycle, also partially gasifies the feed coal, but uses a circulating atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) to burn the residual char. Although not a PFBC plant, the study was completed to effect a comparison with the advanced PFBC cycle.

Wheeldon, J.M.; Brown, R.A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); McKinsey, R.R. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Dawes, S.G. [British Coal Corp., Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

352

Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix C: Alternate product facility designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of the production of methane, methanol, gasoline, and hydrogen by an add-on facility to a Koppers-Totzek based MBG plant is presented. Applications to a Texaco facility are inferred by evaluation of delta effects from the K-T cases. The production of methane from an add-on facility to a Lurgi based MBG plant and the co-production of methane and methanol from a Lurgi based system is studied. Studies are included of the production of methane from up to 50 percent of the MBG produced in an integrated K-T based plant and the production of methane from up to 50 percent of the MBG produced from an integrated plant in which module 1 is based on K-T technology and modules 2, 3, and 4 are based on Texaco technology.

1980-01-01

353

Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

1982-06-01

354

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period we tested coated alloy coupons under conditions designed to mimic the conditions in the filter unit after the high-temperature heat recovery unit (HTHRU). The filter unit is another important area where corrosion has caused unscheduled downtime, and the remedy has been the use of sintered metal tubes made of expensive alloys such as inconel. The objective of our test was to determine if those coatings on 400-series steel that were not able to withstand the harsher conditions of the HTHRU, may be sufficiently resistant for use in the filter unit, at the reduced temperatures. Indeed, most of our coatings survived well; the exceptions were the coated porous samples of SS316. We continued making improvements to our coatings apparatus and the procedure began during the last quarter. As a result of these modifications, the coupons we are now producing are uniform. We describe the improved procedure for preparing diffusion coatings. Finally, because porous samples of steel in grades other than SS316 are not readily available, we also decided to procure SS409 powder and fabricate our own sintered porous coupons.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2006-01-01

355

A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification. Second quarterly report, January 1, 1990--March 31, 1990  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The work is focused on the elucidation of coal-catalyst precursor interactions in solution and the variables which control the adsorption and dispersion of coal gasification metal catalysts. In order to optimize coal-metal ion interactions and hence maximize catalyst activity, the study examines the surface electrochemistry of a lignite, a subbituminous, and a bituminous coals and their demineralized and oxidized derivatives prior to loading with the catalytic materials. The surface electrical properties of the coals are investigated with the aid of electrophoresis, while the effects of the surface charge on the adsorption of K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} are studied by agitating the coals with aqueous solutions of potassium and calcium. Zeta potential studies show that the surfaces of the lignite are negatively charged between about pH2 to 11, the negative charge density increasing with increase in pH. Highly alkaline media promoted calcium adsorption due to high negative charge on the coal, while calcium uptake was inhibited in strongly acidic solutions.

Abotsi, M.K.; Bota, K.B.

1990-12-31

356

Revised users manual, Pulverized Coal Gasification or Combustion: 2-dimensional (87-PCGC-2): Final report, Volume 2. [87-PCGC-2  

SciTech Connect

A two-dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and non-reactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. Recent code revisions and additions are described. The model, referred to as 87-PCGC-2, is applicable to cylindrical axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using either a flux method or discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a Lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. Several multi-step coal devolatilization schemes are included along with a heterogeneous reaction scheme that allows for both diffusion and chemical reaction. Major gas-phase reactions are modeled assuming local instantaneous equilibrium, and thus the reaction rates are limited by the turbulent rate mixing. A NO/sub x/ finite rate chemistry submodel is included which integrates chemical kinetics and the statistics of the turbulence. The gas phase is described by elliptic partial differential equations that are solved by an iterative line-by-line technique. Under-relaxation is used to achieve numerical stability. The generalized nature of the model allows for calculation of isothermal fluid mechanicsgaseous combustion, droplet combustion, particulate combustion and various mixtures of the above, including combustion of coal-water and coal-oil slurries. Both combustion and gasification environments are permissible. User information and theory are presented, along with sample problems. 106 refs.

Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

1987-12-01

357

Gas Production Strategy of Underground Coal Gasification Based on Multiple Gas Sources  

PubMed Central

To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method. PMID:25114953

Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

2014-01-01

358

Gas production strategy of underground coal gasification based on multiple gas sources.  

PubMed

To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method. PMID:25114953

Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

2014-01-01

359

DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL SPINEL REFRACTORIES FOR USE IN COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Work has been performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in collaboration with industrial refractory manufacturer (Minteq International, Inc.), academic research partner (Missouri University of Science and Technology) and end users to employ novel refractory systems and techniques to reduce energy consumption of refractory lined vessels found in industries such as aluminum, chemical, glass, and pulp and paper. The objective of the project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3 spinel structured unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques. As part of the four-year project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), materials have been developed specifically for coal gasification environments. Additionally, work has been performed to develop and apply low cost coatings using a colloidal approach for protection against corrosion attack of the refractory brick and to develop a light-weight back-up refractory system to help offset the high thermal conductivity inherent in spinel materials. This paper discusses the development of these materials, along with preliminary results achieved toward the reduction of chemical reactions and mechanical degradation by the service environment.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O'Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla

2011-01-01

360

Refractory Materials based on Magnesia-Alumina Spinel for Improved Performance in Coal Gasification Environments  

SciTech Connect

As part of a larger project to develop novel refractory systems and techniques to reduce energy consumption of refractory lined vessels, a team composed of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, refractory manufacturer Minteq International, Inc., and academic partner Missouri University of Science and Technology have developed new refractory materials and coating systems specifically for application in coal gasification environments. Materials were developed under this U.S. DOE funded project to address the need for innovative refractory compositions by developing MgO-Al2O3 spinel gunnable refractory compositions utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques. Work was conducted to develop and deploy these new materials and to develop and apply low cost coatings using a colloidal approach for protection against attack of the refractory brick by the serviced environment. Additionally, a light-weight back-up refractory system was developed to help offset the high thermal conductivity inherent in spinel materials. This paper discusses the efforts involved in the development of these materials, along with the laboratory testing and evaluation of these materials leading to relevant results achieved toward the reduction of chemical reactions and mechanical degradation by the service environment though compositional and processing modifications.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O'Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla

2013-01-01

361

SPINEL-BASED REFRACTORIES FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE IN COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in collaboration with refractory manufacturer Minteq International, Inc., academic partner Missouri University of Science and Technology and refractory end users have developed novel refractory systems and techniques to reduce energy consumption of refractory lined vessels. The objective of this U.S. DOE funded project was to address the need for innovative refractory compositions by developing MgO-Al 2O3 spinel gunnable refractory compositions utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques. Materials have been developed specifically for coal gasification environments and work has been performed to develop and apply low cost coatings using a colloidal approach for protection against attack of the refractory brick by the service environment and to develop a light-weight back-up refractory system to help offset the high thermal conductivity inherent in spinel materials. This paper discusses the systematic development of these materials, laboratory testing and evaluation of these materials, and relevant results achieved toward the reduction of chemical reactions and mechanical degradation by the service environment though compositional and processing modifications.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O'Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla

2013-01-01

362

Review of toxicity studies performed on an underground coal gasification condensate water  

SciTech Connect

Three studies related to the toxicity of underground coal gasification (UCG) waters have bee conducted: (1) toxicity study of UCG water and its fractions as determined by the Microtox test, (2) toxicity study of biotreated UCG water as determined by the Microtox test, and (3) toxicity study of UCG water to macroinvertebrates. The results of these studies are summarized herein. The gas condensate water from the UCG process is extremely toxic as determined by assays with photoluminescent bacteria (Microtox), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates (mayflies), and Daphnia magna (water flea). Microtox bioassays reveal that the toxic components of the water reside in both the organophilic and hydrophilic fractions, although the organophilic fraction is notably more toxic. A sequential treatment process reduced the toxicity of the UCG water, as measured by the Microtox test. Solvent extraction (to remove phenols) followed by ammonia stripping yielded a less toxic water. Additional treatment by activated sludge further reduced toxicity. Finally, the addition of powdered activated carbon to the activated sludge yielded the least toxic water. A bioassay technique was developed for lotic (running water) macroinvertebrates (Drunella doddsi and Iron longimanus). The toxicity results were compared with results from the traditional test animal, Daphnia magna. Short-term exposures to the UCG waters were more toxic to Daphnia magna than to Drunella doddsi or Iron longimanus, although the toxicity values begin to merge with longer test exposure. The greater toxicity seems to be related to a thinner exoskeleton. 26 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Barker, F.P.

1987-09-01

363

The O?-enriched air gasification of coal, plastics and wood in a fluidized bed reactor.  

PubMed

The effect of oxygen-enriched air during fluidized bed co-gasification of a mixture of coal, plastics and wood has been investigated. The main components of the obtained syngas were measured by means of on-line analyzers and a gas chromatograph while those of the condensate phase were off-line analysed by means of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The characterization of condensate phase as well as that of the water used as scrubbing medium completed the performed diagnostics. The experimental results were further elaborated in order to provide material and substances flow analyses inside the plant boundaries. These analyses allowed to obtain the main substance distribution between solid, gaseous and condensate phases and to estimate the conversion efficiency of carbon and hydrogen but also to easily visualise the waste streams produced by the process. The process performance was then evaluated on the basis of parameters related to the conversion efficiency of fuels into valuable products (i.e. by considering tar and particulate as process losses) as well as those related to the energy recovery. PMID:21993077

Mastellone, Maria Laura; Zaccariello, Lucio; Santoro, Donato; Arena, Umberto

2012-04-01

364

Solar-driven coal gasification in a thermally irradiated packed-bed reactor  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification for high-quality synthesis gas production is considered using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat. The solar reactor consists of two cavities separated by a radiant emitter plate, with the upper one serving as the solar absorber and the lower one containing the reacting packed bed that shrinks as the reaction progresses. A 5 kW prototype reactor with an 8 cm depth, 14.3 cm diameter cylindrical bed was fabricated and tested in a high-flux solar furnace, subjected to solar flux concentrations up to 2600 suns and packed-bed temperatures up to 1440 K. The reactor is modeled by formulating the 1D unsteady energy conservation equation that couples conductive-radiative heat transfer with the reaction kinetics and solving it by the finite volume technique for a transient shrinking domain. The overall reaction rate was determined experimentally by thermogravimetry, while the effective thermal conductivity was determined experimentally in a radial heat flow oven. Model validation was accomplished in terms of bed temperatures, gasified mass, and bed shrink rates measured in solar experiments conducted with beech charcoal. Heat transfer through the bed proved to be the rate-controlling mechanism, indicating an ablation regime. 31 refs., 18 figs.

Nicolas Piatkowski; Aldo Steinfeld [ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland). Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering

2008-05-15

365

Manufacture of gasification briquettes from meager-lean coal for use in chemical fertilizer-plant gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

Chinese fertilizer plants, especially middle or small fertilizer plants, feed lump anthracite to atmospheric fixed bed gasifiers to produce fuel gas and syngas. However, the available lump coal meets less than one half the demand for fertilizer production, and the price of good lump anthracite has risen. Most good anthracite is produced in Shanxi Province. Chemical fertilizer plants in other areas pay high transportation costs and leave Shanxi mines with waste fine coal and slime that cause environmental pollution. So, it is important to fully utilize fine anthracite coal or bituminous coal to produce the industrial gasification briquettes. That may mitigate the disparity between supply and demand of lump coal, reduce the fertilizer production cost, and decrease the degree of environmental pollution. The briquettes don`t require heat-drying in their production and have the characteristics of high strength and water resistance. This technology is very important for local fertilizer plants where only meager-lean coal is produced. This paper discusses the processing technique and parameters, the quality standards and testing methods of briquettes made from meager-lean coal.

Xu Zesheng; Yang Qiaowen; Zhao Yinrong; Wang Xingou; Hu Kunmo [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Graduate School; Wang Shiquan; Tao Xilo; Wang Guangnan; Meng Zhongze [Hebi Coal Mine Bureau, Beijing (China). The Fourth Coal Mine

1998-12-31

366

Biological removal of organic constituents in quench water from a slagging, fixed-bed coal-gasification pilot plant  

SciTech Connect

This study is part of an effort to assess the efficiency of activated-sludge treatment for removal of organic constituents from high-Btu coal-gasification pilot-plant quench waters. A sample of raw-gas quench water was obtained from the Grand Forks Energy and Technology Center's pilot plant, which employs the slagging, fixed-bed gasification process. The quench water generated in the processing of Indian Head lignite was pretreated to reduce ammonia and alkalinity, and then diluted and subjected to long-term biological treatment, followed by detailed characterization and analysis of organic constituents. The pretreated (influent) and treated (effluent) samples were extracted using a methylene chloride, pH-fractionation method to obtain acid, base, and neutral fractions, which were analyzed by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Over 99% of the total extractable and chromatographable organic material in the influent acid fraction was composed of phenol and alkylated phenols. Biological treatment removed these compounds almost completely. Major components of the influent base fraction were alkylated pyridines, anilines, aminopyrroles, imidazoles and/or pyrazoles, diazines, and quinolines. Removal efficiency of these compounds ranged between 90 and 100%. The influent neutral fraction was composed mainly of cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, naphthalene, indole, acetophenone, and benzonitrile. Alkylated benzenes were generally absent. Removal efficiencies of these compounds were generally very good, except for certain alkylated cycloalkanes and cycloalkenes. Results are compared with those of a similar study on HYGAS coal-gasification quench water.

Stamoudis, V C; Luthy, R G

1980-02-01

367

Computer models to support investigations of surface subsidence and associated ground motion induced by underground coal gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two computer codes compare surface subsidence induced by underground coal gasification at Hoe Creek, Wyoming, and Centralia, Washington. Calculations with the STEALTH explicit finite-difference code are shown to match equivalent implicit finite-elemet method solutions or the removal of underground material. Effects of removing roof material, varying elastic constants, investigating thermal shrinkage, and burning multiple coal seams are studied. A coupled finite-difference continuum rigid-block caving code is used to model underground opening behavior. Numerical techniques agree qualitatively with empirical studies but, so far, underpredict ground surface displacement. The two methods, numerical and empirical, are most effective when used together. It is recommended that the thermal characteristics of coal measure rock be investigated and that additional calculations be carried out to longer times so that cooling influences can be modeled.

Langland, R. T.; Trent, B. C.

368

A Brief Review of Viscosity Models for Slag in Coal Gasification  

SciTech Connect

Many researchers have defined the phenomenon of 'slagging' as the deposition of ash in the radiative section of a boiler, while 'fouling' refers to the deposition of ash in the convective-pass region. Among the important parameters affecting ash deposition that need to be studied are ash chemistry, its transport, deposit growth, and strength development; removability of the ash deposit; heat transfer mechanisms; and the mode of operation for boilers. The heat transfer at the walls of a combustor depends on many parameters including ash deposition. This depends on the processes or parameters controlling the impact efficiency and the sticking efficiency. For a slagging combustor or furnace, however, the temperatures are so high that much of the coal particles are melted and the molten layer, in turn, captures more particles as it flows. The main problems with ash deposition are reduced heat transfer in the boiler and corrosion of the tubes. Common ways of dealing with these issues are soot blowing and wall blowing on a routine basis; however, unexpected or uncontrolled depositions can also complicate the situation, and there are always locations inaccessible to the use of such techniques. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1300 C and 1500 C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa {center_dot} s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. In such cases the slag should be regarded as a non-Newtonian suspension, consisting of liquid silicate and crystals. A better understanding of the rheological properties of the slag, such as yield stress and shear-thinning, are critical in determining the optimum operating conditions. To develop an accurate heat transfer model in any type of coal combustion or gasification process, the heat transfer and to some extent the rheological properties of ash and slag, especially in high-temperature environments need to be understood and properly modeled. The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal (and biomass for co-firing cases) present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. In this report, we first provide a brief review of the various approaches taken by different researchers in formulating or obtaining a slag viscosity model. In general, these models are based on experiments. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied.

Massoudi, Mehrdad; Wang, Ping

2011-11-01

369

Characterization and Failure Analysis of Ceramic Filters Utilized for Emission Control Coal Gasification  

SciTech Connect

Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power system requires both hot gas desulfurization and particulate filtration to improve system thermal efficiency and overall performance. Therefore, effective high temperature ceramic filters are indispensable key component in both of the advanced IGCC and PFBC coal based power systems to perform hot gas cleanup work. To meet the environmental particulate emission requirements and improve thermal efficiency, ceramic filters are mainly utilized to cleanup the hot gas particulate to protect downstream heat exchanger and gas turbine components from fouling and corrosion. The mechanical integrity of ceramic filters and an efficient dust cake removal system are the key issues for hot gas cleanup systems. The filters must survive combined stresses due to mechanical, thermal, chemical and steam attack throughout normal operations (cold back pulse cleaning jets), unexpected excessive ash accumulation, and the start up and shut down conditions. To evaluate the design and performance of ceramic filters, different long term filter testing programs were conducted. To fulfill this purpose, two Advanced Particle Filter (APF) systems were complete at Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant, in Brilliant, Ohio in late 1990 as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. But the most undesirable thing ever happened was the sudden functional and physical failures of filters prior to its designed life time. In Tidd APF filter vessel, twenty eight (28) filters failed one time. Significant research effort has been carried out to find out the causes that led to the early failure of filters. In this work, the studies are emphasized on the possible failure causes analysis of rigid ceramic candle filters. The objectives of this program were to provide an systematic study on the characterization of filters, material laboratory analysis on filter micro-structure, the dust cake dislodging mechanism and possible causes led to failures of ceramic filters. These research work includes 1) characterization on filter properties, 2) material laboratory investigation on cracked and un-cracked filter batches, 3) a thermal numerical simulation, 4) various physical testing on filter mechanical integrity and 5) the back pulse cleaning mechanism. These studies provide insights into variations of filter permeability, filter toughness against different mechanical loading impact, microstructure changes of filters, coal ash bridging and micro-thermal cracks induced during the cold back pulse cleaning process. To characterize the physical properties of used and unused ceramic filters, filter permeabilities and the pressure field of the gas stream were measured within a filter chamber with the use of fast response pressure transducers and an automatic data acquisition system. Used filters displayed non-uniform permeability distribution along its axis; and these variations developed asymmetric flow pattern in the filter chamber.

Daniel Mei; Jianren Zhou; Ziaul Huque

1998-03-01

370

Characterizing a lignite formation before and after an underground coal gasification experiment  

E-print Network

Table Pa&ac TAMU-Lignite Reservoir Properties (Pre-Gasification) Drawdown on Well ?13 and Interference on Wells 9, 10, and 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . 14 TAMU-Lignite Reservoir Properties (Pre-Gasification) Drawdown on Well ?18... and Interference on Wells 9, 10, and 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 TAMU-Lignite Reservoir Properties (Pre-Gasification) Drawdown on Well ?9 and Interference on Wells 10, 13, and 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 TAMU...

Ahmed, Usman

1981-01-01

371

Image analysis measurements of particle coefficient of restitution for coal gasification applications  

SciTech Connect

New robust Lagrangian computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models are powerful tools that can be used to study the behavior of a diverse population of coal particle sizes, densities, and mineral compositions in entrained gasifiers. By using this approach, the responses of the particles impacting the wall were characterized over a range of velocities (1 to 8 m/s) and incident angles (90 to 20°). Within CFD models, the kinematic coefficient of restitution is the boundary condition defining the particle wall behavior. Four surfaces were studied to simulate the physical conditions of different entrained-flow gasification particle–surface collision scenarios: 1) a flat metal plate 2) a low viscosity silicon adhesive, 3) a high viscosity silicon adhesive, and 4) adhered particles on a flat metal plate with Young's modulus of elasticity ranging from 0.9 to 190 GPa. Entrained flow and drop experiments were conducted with granular coke particles, polyethylene beads and polystyrene pellets. The particle normal and tangential coefficients of restitution were measured using high speed imaging and particle tracking. The measured coefficients of restitution were observed to have a strong dependence on the rebound angles for most of the data. Suitable algebraic expressions for the normal and the tangential component of the coefficient of restitution were developed based upon ANOVA analysis. These expressions quantify the effect of normalized Young's modulus, particle equancy, and relative velocity on the coefficient of restitution. The coefficient of restitution did not have a strong dependence on the particle velocity over the range considered as long as the velocity was above the critical velocity. However, strong correlations were found between the degree of equancy of the particles and the mean coefficient of restitution such that the coefficient of restitution decreased for smaller particle equancies. It was concluded that the degree of equancy and the normalized Young's modulus should be considered in applications such as gasification and other cases involving the impact of non-spherical particles and complex surfaces. Sliding was observed when particles impacted on oblique surfaces; however, the resulting effects were within the range of measurement uncertainties.

Gibson, LaTosha M.; Gopalan, Balaji; Pisupati, Sarma V.; Shadle, Lawrence J.

2013-10-01

372

Statistical model fitting of remote induction sounding data from underground coal gasification site - Hanna II, phases 2 and 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical model fitting of field measurements of the location, shape and size of the coal burned during underground coal gasification at a site near Hanna, Wyoming taken with a wideband loop-loop induction sounding system is discussed. Soundings were taken immediately after the burn and one year later by a system using audio frequency electromagnetic coupling between transmitter and receiver loops, and pseudo-noise pulse trains and cross correlation with averaging at the receiver to obtain minimum mean-square-error time domain signatures. Wire grid approximations of induction models were employed to compute model responses of simulated reaction zones consisting of buried metal boxes, cylinders and spheres in a conducting overburden. A dual-parameter Bayes minimum mean-square-error estimator was used to estimate model dimensions from magnitude responses extracted from field data at 1 kHz. Box model estimates of the volumes of coal gasified are shown to compare favorably with those obtained by chemical estimation, however the location of the conducting anomaly was shifted laterally from the gasification wells and was observed to migrate upwards with site aging.

Queincy, E. A.; Rahman, M. M.; Richmond, J. H.; Rhoades, M. L.

1981-01-01

373

Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburrn fuel for coal-fired boilers: AWMA  

EPA Science Inventory

Gasification or reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient s...

374

Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburn fuel for coal-fired boilers  

EPA Science Inventory

Gasification/reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient sour...

375

Effect of phosphorous addition to model cooling towers using coal gasification wastewater as makeup  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooling towers are an integral part of in-plant water reuse systems in industries such as the Great Plains Gasification Plant being constructed at Beulah, North Dakota. Cooling towers can be used to reduce water requirements, remove biodegradable organics, and concentrate non-biodegradable compounds for ultimate disposal while accomplishing the basic water cooling function. The gasification wastewater used in cooling towers at

B. D. Priebe; C. D. Turner

1984-01-01

376

Evaluation of Biomass Gasification to Produce Reburning Fuel for Coal-Fired Boilers  

EPA Science Inventory

Gasification and reburning testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. EPA and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory. Gasification systems that use biofuels or wastes as feedstock can provide a clean, efficient source of synthesis gas and p...

377

Interaction of iron-copper mixed metal oxide oxygen carriers with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work was to prepare supported bimetallic Fe–Cu oxygen carriers and to evaluate their performance for the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal/air. Ten-cycle CLC tests were conducted with Fe–Cu oxygen carriers in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer utilizing simulated synthesis gas derived from the steam gasification of Polish Janina coal and Illinois #6 coal as fuel. The effect of temperature on reaction rates, chemical stability, and oxygen transport capacity were determined. Fractional reduction, fractional oxidation, and global rates of reactions were calculated from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data. The supports greatly affected reaction performance. Data showed that reaction rates and oxygen capacities were stable during the 10-cycle TGA tests for most Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers. Bimetallic Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers showed higher reduction rates than Fe-support oxygen carriers. The carriers containing higher Cu content showed better stabilities and better reduction rates. An increase in temperature from 800 °C to 900 °C did not have a significant effect on either the oxygen capacity or the reduction rates with synthesis gas derived from Janina coal. Oxidation reaction was significantly faster than reduction reaction for all supported Fe–Cu oxygen carriers. Carriers with higher Cu content had lower oxidation rates. Ten-cycle TGA data indicated that these oxygen carriers had stable performances at 800–900 °C and might be successfully used up to 900 °C for coal CLC reaction in the presence of steam.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. [U.S. DOE; Ksepko, Ewelina; Tian, Hanging [URS

2013-01-01

378

Demonstration of pulse combustion in an application for steam gasification. Comprehensive report to Congress, Clean coal technology program  

SciTech Connect

In response to the PON, 33 proposals were received by DOE in May 1991. After evaluation, nine projects were selected for award. One of the nine projects selected for funding is a project proposed by ThermoChem, Inc. entitled ``Demonstration of Pulse Combustion in an Application for Steam Gasification of Coal`` (PCASGC). The PCASGC demonstration project involves the construction of a 428 ton/day (300 ton/day dry basis) fluidized bed, coal gasification unit. The gasifier will use indirect heating to provide the energy required for the steam-coal reaction occurring in the gasifier. The heat will be added to the gasifier by means of bundles of heat exchanger tubes submerged in the fluidized bed. The hot gas for the indirect heating will be generated by pulse combustion of a portion of the product gas, with the heat exchanger tubes acting as the resonance tubes for the pulse combustor. Pulse combustion increases heat transfer rate by a factor of 3 to 5, thus greatly reducing the heat transfer area required in the gasifier. The PCASGC Demonstration project will be constructed at Caballo Rojo, Inc.`s Caballo Rojo Mine, located south of Gillette, Wyoming. Coal from the Caballo Rojo Mine will provide the feed coal to the gasifier. The total project cost is $37,333,474. DOE`s share is $18,666,737. The cofunder is ThermoChem, whose share is $18,666,737. Operations are scheduled to begin in 1994, and the project is scheduled for completion in 1996.

Not Available

1992-10-01

379

Laser-absorption sensing of gas composition of products from coal gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype in-situ laser-absorption sensor for the real-time composition measurement (CO, CH4, H2O and CO2) of synthesis gas products of coal gasification (called here syngas) was designed, tested in the laboratory, and demonstrated during field-measurement campaigns in a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier at the University of Utah and in an engineering-scale, fluidized-bed transport gasifier at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The prototype design and operation were improved by the lessons learned from each field test. Laser-absorption measurements are problematic in syngas flows because efficient gasifiers operate at elevated pressures (10-50 atm) where absorption transitions are collision broadened and absorption transitions that are isolated at 1 atm become blended into complex features, and because syngas product streams can contain significant particulate, producing significant non-absorption scattering losses of the transmission of laser light. Thus, the prototype sensor used a new wavelength-scanned, wavelength-modulation spectroscopy strategy with 2f-detection and 1f-normalization (WMS-2f/1f) that can provide sensitive absorption measurements of species with spectra blended by collision broadening even in the presence of large non-absorption laser transmission losses (e.g., particulate scattering, beam steering, etc.). The design of the sensor for detection of CO, CH4, H2O and CO2 was optimized for the specific application of syngas monitoring at the output of large-scale gasifiers. Sensor strategies, results and lessons learned from these field measurement campaigns are discussed.

Jeffries, Jay B.; Sur, Ritobrata; Sun, Kai; Hanson, Ronald K.

2014-06-01

380

Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, September--November 1995  

SciTech Connect

Integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. Slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln. The potential exists for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed. The project scope consists of collecting a 20-ton sample of slag (primary slag), processing it for char removal, and subjecting it to pyroprocessing to produce expanded slag aggregates of various size gradations and unit weights, ranging from 12 to 50 lb/ft{sup 3}. A second smaller slag sample will be used for confirmatory testing. The expanded slag aggregates will then be tested for their suitability in manufacturing precast concrete products (e.g., masonry blocks and roof tiles) and insulating concrete, first at the laboratory scale and subsequently in commercial manufacturing plants. These products will be evaluated using ASTM and industry test methods. Technical data generated during production and testing of the products will be used to assess the overall technical viability of expanded slag production. In addition, a market assessment will be made based on an evaluation of both the expanded slag aggregates and the final products, and market prices for these products will be established in order to assess the economic viability of these utilization technologies.

NONE

1995-12-01

381

Characterization, extraction, and reuse of coal-gasification solid wastes. Volume 3. Technical and economic feasibility of bulk utilization and metal recovery for ashes from an integrated coal-gasification facility. Final report, April 1983-June 1986  

SciTech Connect

Coal-gasification waste products, including those from Lurgi gasification, have different properties from the combustion ashes, especially with respect to mineralogy. To date, comparatively little effort has been directed toward the investigation of bulk utilization or metals extraction. This project was directed towards correction of that deficiency by matching properties of the Great Plains Gasification Plant gasifier ash and the Antelope Valley Power Plant combustion explored: mineral wool; sulfur concrete; high-flexural-strength ceramics; ceramic glazed wall tile and vitrified floor tile; dual concrete replacement; road stabilization; blended cement; and recovery of aluminum. Mineral wool of similar physical character to commercial wool and at lower potential cost was produced using the ashes from the GPGA complex. Sulfur concrete utilizing 80% ash and 20% modified sulfur developed flexural and compressive strengths in excess of 2250 and 6000 psi, respectively. A vitrified ceramic product with flexural strength above 7800 psi was produced from a mixture of 50% AVS scrubber ash 45% sand, and 5% clay. By using a total ash mixture of 26% gasifier ash and 74% combustion ash, a very satisfactory, economical, and durable road-base material was developed. The replacement of up to 50% of the cement in concrete with AVS scrubber ash produces higher strength. A modified lime-soda sinter process for aluminum recovery was developed, but is not economical.

Manz, O.E.; Hassett, D.J.; Laudal, D.L.; Ellman, R.C.

1986-06-01

382

Texaco scores a first in the Baltic  

SciTech Connect

Wells on the first of 2 small concrete platforms designed specifically for the fragile but harsh environment of the Baltic Sea will produce the first oil from that offshore area by late 1984. The consortium of Deutsche Texaco AG and Wintershall AG awarded contracts late last year for the platforms and drilling equipment needed to develop the Schwedeneck-See field in Kiel Bay, off the northern coast of West Germany. Severe winter weather in the area dictated the use of concrete platforms rather than conventional 6-pile steel structures. Ice forces, generated by high winds and moderate waves, demanded heavy-duty structures in spite of the shallow water. A complicating factor in the field development plan is the presence of a German Navy submarine practice area which influenced location of one of the platforms. This means that all wells will be directionally drilled, and the reach will be greater than under more favorable conditions.

Not Available

1983-10-01

383

Underground coal gasification: Development of theory, laboratory experimentation, interpretation, and correlation with the Hanna field tests: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The following report is a description of a 7 year effort to develop a theoretical understanding of the underground coal gasification process. The approach used is one of the mathematical model development from known chemical and principles, simplification of the models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models with laboratory experiments and field test data. Chapter I contains only introductory material. Chapter II describes the development of two models for reverse combustion: a combustion model and a linearized model for combustion front instability. Both models are required for realistic field predictions. Chapter III contains a discussion of a successful forward gasification model. Chapter IV discusses the spalling-enhanced-drying model is applicable to prediction of cavity growth and subsidence. Chapter VI decribes the correct use of energy and material balances for the analysis of UCG field test data. Chapter VII shows how laboratory experiments were used to validate the models for reverse combustion and forward gasification. It is also shown that laboratory combustion tube experiments can be used to simulate gas compositions expected from field tests. Finally, Chapter VII presents results from a comprehensive economic analysis of UCG involving 1296 separate cases. 37 refs., 49 figs., 12 tabs.

Gunn, R.D.; Krantz, W.B.

1987-03-01

384

Test and evaluate the tri-gas low-Btu coal-gasification process. Final report, October 21, 1977-October 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the continuation of work done to develop the BCR TRI-GAS multiple fluidized-bed gasification process. The objective is the gasification of all ranks of coals with the only product being a clean, low-Btu fuel gas. Design and construction of a 100 lb/h process and equipment development unit (PEDU) was completed on the previous contract. The process consists of three fluid-bed reactors in series, each having a specific function: Stage 1 - pretreatment; Stage 2- - gasification; Stage 3 - maximization of carbon utilization. Under the present contract, 59 PEDU tests have been conducted. A number of these were single-stage tests, mostly in Stage 1; however, integrated PEDU tests were conducted with a western coal (Rosebud) and two eastern coals (Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh seam). Both Rosebud and Pittsburgh seam coals were gasified with the PEDU operating in the design mode. Operation with Illinois No. 6 seam coal was also very promising; however, time limitations precluded further testing with this coal. One of the crucial tasks was to operate the Stage 1 reactor to pretreat and devolatilize caking coals. By adding a small amount of air to the fluidizing gas, the caking properties of the coal can be eliminated. However, it was also desirable to release a high percentage of the volatile matter from the coal in this vessel. To accomplish this, the reactor had to be operated above the agglomerating temperature of caking coals. By maintaining a low ratio of fresh to treated coal, this objective was achieved. Both Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh seam coals were treated at temperatures of 800 to 900 F without agglomerating in the vessel.

Zabetakis, M.G.

1980-12-01

385

A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification. Eighth quarterly report, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalyst for coal gasification. The lower cost and high catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} required for high coal char activities. The effects of potassium impregnation conditions (pH and coal surface charge) on the reactivities, in carbon dioxide, of chars derived from demineralized lignite, subbituminous and bituminous coals have been determined. Impregnation of the acid-leached coal with potassium from strongly acidic solutions resulted in initial slow char reactivity which progressively increased with reaction time. Higher reactivities were obtained for catalyst (potassium) loaded at pH 6 or 10. The dependence of char gasification rates on catalyst addition pH increased in the order: pH 6 {approximately} pH 10 {much_gt} pH 1.

Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

1991-12-31

386

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Advanced electric power generation systems use a coal gasifier to convert coal to a gas rich in fuels such as H{sub 2} and CO. The gas stream contains impurities such as H{sub 2}S and HCl, which attack metal components of the coal gas train, causing plant downtime and increasing the cost of power generation. Corrosion-resistant coatings would improve plant availability and decrease maintenance costs, thus allowing the environmentally superior integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) plants to be more competitive with standard power-generation technologies. Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in the IGCC system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy will improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. The Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers. In this study, the use of corrosion-resistant coatings on low alloy steels was investigated for use as high-temperature components in IGCC systems. The coatings were deposited using SRI's fluidized-bed reactor chemical vapor deposition technique. Diffusion coatings of Cr and Al were deposited by this method on to dense and porous, low alloy stainless steel substrates. Bench-scale exposure tests at 900 C with a simulated coal gas stream containing 1.7% H{sub 2}S showed that the low alloy steels such SS405 and SS409 coated with {approx}20%Cr and Al each can be resistant to sulfidation attack for 500 h. However, exposure to an actual coal gasifier gas stream at the Wabash River gasifier facility for 1000 h in the temperature range 900 to 950 C indicated that Cr and Al present in the coating diffused further into the substrate decreasing the protective ability of these elements against attack by H{sub 2}S. Similarly, adherent multilayer coatings containing Si, Ti, Al, and Nb were also deposited with subsequent nitridation of these elements to increase the corrosion resistance. Both dense and porous SS409 or SS 410 alloy substrates were coated by using this method. Multilayer coatings containing Ti-Al-Si nitrides along with a diffusion barrier of Nb were deposited on SS410 and they were found also to be resistant to sulfidation attack in the bench scale tests at 900 C. However, they were corroded during exposure to the actual coal gasifier stream at the Wabash River gasifier facility for 1000 h. The Cr/Al coatings deposited inside a porous substrate was found to be resistant to sulfidation attack in the bench-scale simulated tests at 370 C. The long-term exposure test at the Wabash River gasifier facility at 370 C for 2100 h showed that only a minor sulfidation attack occurred inside the porous SS 409 alloy coupons that contained Cr and Al diffusion coatings. This attack can be prevented by improving the coating process to deposit uniform coatings at the interior of the porous structure. It is recommended that additional studies be initiated to optimize the FBR-CVD process to deposit diffusion coatings of the corrosion resistant elements such as Cr, Al, and Ti inside porous metal filters to increase their corrosion resistance. Long-term exposure tests using an actual gas stream from an operating gasifier need to be conducted to determine the suitability of the coatings for use in the gasifier environment.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Jordi Perez; Marc Hornbostel; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2007-05-31

387

Gasification system  

DOEpatents

A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA); Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA); Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA)

1985-01-01

388

Gasification system  

DOEpatents

A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA); Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA); Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA)

1983-01-01

389

Removal of COD, phenols and ammonium from Lurgi coal gasification wastewater using A2O-MBR system.  

PubMed

As a typical industrial wastewater, coal gasification wastewater has poor biodegradability and high toxicity. In this paper, a laboratory-scale anaerobic-anoxic-oxic membrane reactor (A(2)O-MBR) system was developed to investigate the treatment ability of coal gasification wastewater. The removal capacity of each pollutants used in this system were determined at different hydraulic residence times (HRT) and mixed liquor recycle ratios (R). The experimental results showed that this system could effectively deal with COD and phenol removal and remain in a stable level when the operational parameters altered, while the nitrification was sensitive to operational conditions. The best performance was obtained at HRT of 48 h and R of 3. The maximum removal efficiencies of COD, NH(4)(+)-N and phenols were 97.4%, 92.8% and 99.7%, with final concentrations in the effluent of 71 mg/L, 9.6 mg/L and 3 mg/L, respectively. Organics degradation and transformation were analyzed by GC/MS and it was found that anaerobic process played an important role in degradation of refractory compounds. PMID:22902132

Wang, Zixing; Xu, Xiaochen; Gong, Zheng; Yang, Fenglin

2012-10-15

390

Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit. Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, October-December 1980  

SciTech Connect

This represents the second quarterly progress report on Phase 2 of the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit (PDU) Program. Phase 1 of this program started in March 1976 and included the design, construction, and initial operation of the PDU. On June 25, 1980, Phase 2 of the program was initiated. It covers a 1-year operations program utilizing the existing PDU and is planned to include five runs with a targeted total operating time of 9 weeks. During this report period, Run 6, the initial run of the Phase 2 program was completed. The gasification system was operated for a total of 95 h at pressures up to 10 atm. Average product gas HHV values of 100 Btu/scf were recorded during 10-atm operation, while gasifying coal at a rate of 1100 lb/h. The run was terminated when the melt overflow system plugged after 60 continuous hours of overflow. Following this run, melt withdrawal system revisions were made, basically by changing the orifice materials from Monofrax to an 80 Cobalt-20 Chromium alloy. By the end of the report period, the PDU was being prepared for Run 7.

Not Available

1981-01-20

391

Molten salt coal gasification process development unit, Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, July-September 1980  

SciTech Connect

This represents the first quarterly progress report on Phase 2 of the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit (PDU) Program. Phase 1 of this program started in March 1976 and included the design, construction, and initial operation of a PDU to test the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process. On July 24, 1980, Phase 2 of the program was initiated. It covers a 1-year operations program utilizing the existing PDU and is planned to include five runs with a targeted total operating time of 9 weeks. The primary activities during the period covered by this report related to preparations for PDU Run 6, the initial run of the Phase 2 program. These activities included restaffing the PDU operations group, reactivation of the facility, and effecting plant modifications and improvements based on an evaluation of previous operation experience. The Melt Withdrawal System which had proven unreliable during the previous runs, was completely redesigned; thermal and flow analyses were performed; new components procured; and assembly initiated. Run 6 which is scheduled for the next report period, is aimed primarily at verifying the adequacy of the redesigned Melt Withdrawal System.

Slater, M.H.

1980-10-01

392

Analysis of char-slag interaction and near-wall particle segregation in entrained-flow gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect

The fate of carbon particles during entrained-flow gasification of coal in the slagging regime is analyzed. More specifically, the study addresses the relevance of segregation of carbon particles in a near-wall region of the gasifier to coal conversion. Segregation of carbon particles is analyzed considering the effects of turbulence- and swirl-promoted particle migration toward the wall, interaction of the impinging particles with the wall ash layer, coverage of the slag layer by refractory carbon particles, accumulation of carbon particles in a dense-dispersed phase near the wall of the gasifier. Operating conditions of the gasifier and slag properties may be combined so as to give rise to a variety of conversion regimes characterized by distinctively different patterns of carbon particles segregation. A simple 1D model of an entrained-flow gasifier has been developed based on the conceptual framework of carbon particle segregation. The model aims at providing a general assessment of the impact of the different patterns of carbon particle segregation on the course and extent of carbon gasification. A sensitivity analysis with reference to selected model parameters is performed to identify key processes controlling carbon segregation and their impact on the gasifier performance. (author)

Montagnaro, Fabio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario del Monte di Sant'Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Salatino, Piero [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II and Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, CNR, Piazzale Vincenzo Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

2010-05-15

393

Study of the treatability of wastewater from a coal-gasification plant. Final report, July 15, 1978-July 14, 1980  

SciTech Connect

This study focused on the coal gasification facility serving the Holston Army Ammunition Plant in Kingsport, Tennessee. Objectives were to characterize the wastewater produced by the gasification facility, and to evaluate technology for treating the waste in preparation for dischage to the environment. Most wastewater was recycled for scrubbing and cooling the product gas, with the excess requiring disposal found to be an average of only 1170 gallons per day (53 gallons per ton of coal, as received, and 366 gallons per million cubic feet of product gas). Analysis indicated that the waste was warm, high in alkaline material, especially ammonia, high in organic material, especially phenols, and also contaminated with other substances. Sulfides and thiocyanates were especially high in concentration. It was found that pretreatment could be accomplished by stripping (air injection) at high pH, removal of grease and oil (by pH suppression and light aeration) and neutralizatin. Equations were developed to describe the first two steps. Biological treatment through activated sludge was found to be successful, but effected only a moderate degree of treatment, and was troubled with frequent process upset. Attempts to improve treatment efficiency and stability are described. The data indicated the need to study aerated waste stabilization ponds as an alternative to activated sludge. Biological reaction kinetics were studied for activated sludge. Evaluation of the application of granular activated carbon suggested that this could be an effective practical tertiary treatment.

Iglar, A. F.

1980-01-01

394

High temperature electrochemical polishing of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification process streams. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Coal may be used to generate electrical energy by any of several processes, most of which involve combustion or gasification. Combustion in a coal-fired boiler and power generation using a steam-cycle is the conventional conversion method; however total energy conversion efficiencies for this type of process are only slightly over 30%. Integration of a gas-cycle in the process (combined cycle) may increase the total conversion efficiency to 40%. Conversion processes based on gasification offer efficiencies above 50%. H{sub 2}S is the predominant gaseous contaminant in raw coal gas. This process is concerned with the removal of H{sub 2} from coal gas through an electrochemical membrane technology.

Winnick, J.

1996-03-01

395

Expansion of high-temperature, high-pressure data set for coal gasification: Eleventh quarterly report, March 28June 28, 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five of the nine coal\\/COâ gasification experiments for class 3.G were completed. These involved repeat experiments for the composite factorial matrix and tests which partially overlap the METC matrix. The four remaining experiments are of the latter type. We decided to save these until the end since they will push the high pressure reactor to its limits. Nearly all of

P. R. Solomon; M. A. Serio; D. G. Hamblen; G. V. Deshpande; E. Kroo

1987-01-01

396

A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation.The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to

D. R. McIlveen-Wright; F. Pinto; L. Armesto; M. A. Caballero; M. P. Aznar; A. Cabanillas; Y. Huang; C. Franco; I. Gulyurtlu; J. T. McMullan

2006-01-01

397

Novel approach to coal gasification using chemically incorporated catalysts (Phase II). Appendix A-F. Final report, May 1978-June 1981  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains six appendices: experimental apparatus, test conditions, and results of catalytic coal treatment; direct hydrogasification; summary of test runs for hydrogasification of BTC; summary of test runs for hydrogasification of char; summary of steam/O/sub 2/ gasification runs; and process analysis. Forty tables and nine figures are also included.

Feldmann, H.F.; Conkle, H.N.; Appelbaum, H.R.; Chauhan, S.P.

1981-01-01

398

Chemical and physical stability of refractories for use in coal gasification. Ninth quarterly progress report, 1 May 1978--31 July 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities are reported in a program to establish the corrosion resistance of refractories, especially the bond phases, to those high pressure\\/temperature gases and liquids typically present in coal gasification vessels. During this quarter, preparation and pre-exposure characterization of refractory and cement samples for an exposure test were completed. This test commenced on 7 July 1978 and the first two boehmite

S. F. Rahman; D. E. Day

1978-01-01

399

Fixed bed gasification studies on coal-feedlot biomass and coal-chicken litter biomass under batch mode operation  

E-print Network

of the processes for energy conversion of biomass fuels is thermochemical gasification. For the current study, a laboratory scale, 10 kW[th], fixed-bed gasifier (reactor internal diameter 0.15 m, reactor height 0.30 m) facility was built at the Texas A...

Priyadarsan, Soyuz

2002-01-01

400

Assessment of the chemical, microbiological and toxicological aspects of post-processing water from underground coal gasification.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive characterisation (including chemical, microbiological and toxicological parameters) of water after the underground coal gasification (UCG) process. This is the first report in which these parameters were analysed together to assess the environmental risk of the water generated during the simulation of the underground coal gasification (UCG) process performed by the Central Mining Institute (Poland). Chemical analysis of the water indicated many hazardous chemical compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Additionally, large quantities of inorganic compounds from the coal and ashes produced during the volatilisation process were noted. Due to the presence of refractory and inhibitory compounds in the post-processing water samples, the microbiological and toxicological analyses revealed the high toxicity of the UCG post-processing water. Among the tested microorganisms, mesophilic, thermophilic, psychrophilic, spore-forming, anaerobic and S-oxidizing bacteria were identified. However, the number of detected microorganisms was very low. The psychrophilic bacteria dominated among tested bacteria. There were no fungi or Actinomycetes in any of the water samples. Preliminary study revealed that hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria were metabolically active in the water samples. The samples were very toxic to the biotests, with the TU50 reaching 262. None of biotests was the most sensitive to all samples. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity testing of the water samples in Vicia uncovered strong cytotoxic and clastogenic effects. Furthermore, TUNEL indicated that all of the water samples caused sporadic DNA fragmentation in the nuclei of the roots. PMID:25108176

Pankiewicz-Sperka, Magdalena; Sta?czyk, Krzysztof; P?aza, Gra?yna A; Kwa?niewska, Jolanta; Na??cz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

2014-10-01

401

ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR HAZARDOUS ORGANICS IN LIQUID WASTES FROM COAL GASIFICATION AND LIQUEFACTION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted by the University of Southern California group to provide methods for the analysis of coal liquefaction wastes from coal conversion processing plants. Several methods of preliminary fractionation prior to analysis were considered. The most satisfactory me...

402

Statement by Douglas R. Stephens, Project Leader, in situ coal gasification, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development Senate Committee on Energy and National Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the repeated demonstrations of technical feasibility, underground coal gasification is becoming recognized as one of the most promising methods to produce clean fuels from deep unusable coal. Successful use of the technology would quadruple the US proven reserves of coal: from 0.4 trillion to 1.8 trillion tons. Such a resource, which is over twice the energy

Stephens

1980-01-01

403

The O{sub 2}-enriched air gasification of coal, plastics and wood in a fluidized bed reactor  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of the O{sub 2} in the gasification stream of a BFB gasifier has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Main advantage of the O{sub 2}-enriched air is the increasing of the bed temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No remarkable effects on tar reduction. Decreasing of recognized PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasification reactions completed inside the dense bed and splashing zone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polycondensation reactions occur mainly in the freeboard region. - Abstract: The effect of oxygen-enriched air during fluidized bed co-gasification of a mixture of coal, plastics and wood has been investigated. The main components of the obtained syngas were measured by means of on-line analyzers and a gas chromatograph while those of the condensate phase were off-line analysed by means of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The characterization of condensate phase as well as that of the water used as scrubbing medium completed the performed diagnostics. The experimental results were further elaborated in order to provide material and substances flow analyses inside the plant boundaries. These analyses allowed to obtain the main substance distribution between solid, gaseous and condensate phases and to estimate the conversion efficiency of carbon and hydrogen but also to easily visualise the waste streams produced by the process. The process performance was then evaluated on the basis of parameters related to the conversion efficiency of fuels into valuable products (i.e. by considering tar and particulate as process losses) as well as those related to the energy recovery.

Mastellone, Maria Laura, E-mail: mlaura.mastellone@unina2.it [Department of Environmental Sciences-Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43 81100 Caserta (Italy); Zaccariello, Lucio; Santoro, Donato; Arena, Umberto [Department of Environmental Sciences-Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43 81100 Caserta (Italy)

2012-04-15

404

Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 4. Hanna II, Phases II and III field test research report  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna II, Phases II and III, were conducted during the winter of 1975 and the summer of 1976. The two phases refer to linking and gasification operations conducted between two adjacent well pairs as shown in Figure 1 with Phase II denoting operations between Wells 5 and 6 and Phase III operations between Wells 7 and 8. All of the other wells shown were instrumentation wells. Wells 7 and 8 were linked in November and December 1975. This report covers: (1) specific site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 16 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.

Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

1985-08-01

405

Rapid devolatilization and partial gasification of coal in an entrained dust reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article surveys the results of laboratory experiments carried out to determine the optimum conditions for a high degree of desulfurization during rapid devolatilization and partial gasification. The yields and the composition of the gaseous and liquid products obtained during devolatilization are determined with regard to the application of the process for the production of chemical raw materials. In the

K. Hedden; R. Hauk; L. Huber

1979-01-01

406

Novel Low-Cost Process for the Gasification of Biomass and Low-Rank Coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farm Energy envisaged a phased demonstration program, in which a pilot-scale straw gasifier will be installed on a farm. The synthesis gas product will be used to initially (i) generate electricity in a 300 kW diesel generator, and subsequently (ii) used as a feedstock to produce ethanol or mixed alcohols. They were seeking straw gasification and alcohol synthesis technologies that

Thomas Barton

2009-01-01

407

Nitrogen evolution from coal, peat and wood during gasification: Literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

During gasification, fuel nitrogen is liberated mainly as ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, molecular nitrogen, or as heavy aromatic compounds, while a smaller part of the nitrogen is retained in solid char. Independent of the fuel gasified, more NH3 is formed than other nitrogenous compounds in most gasifiers. The NH3 content in the product gas seems to be dependent mainly on the

Jukka Leppälahti; Tiina Koljonen

1995-01-01

408

Combined compressed air storage-low BTU coal gasification power plant  

DOEpatents

An electrical generating power plant includes a Compressed Air Energy Storage System (CAES) fueled with low BTU coal gas generated in a continuously operating high pressure coal gasifier system. This system is used in coordination with a continuously operating main power generating plant to store excess power generated during off-peak hours from the power generating plant, and to return the stored energy as peak power to the power generating plant when needed. The excess coal gas which is produced by the coal gasifier during off-peak hours is stored in a coal gas reservoir. During peak hours the stored coal gas is combined with the output of the coal gasifier to fuel the gas turbines and ultimately supply electrical power to the base power plant.

Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL); Sather, Norman F. (Naperville, IL)

1979-01-01

409

Coal reserves and resources as well as potentials for underground coal gasification in connection with carbon capture and storage (CCS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is the energy source with the largest geological availability worldwide. Of all non-renewable energies coal and lignite accounting for 55 % of the reserves and some 76 % of the resources represent the largest potential. Reserves are those geological quantities of a mineral which can currently be mined under technically and economically viable conditions. Resources are those quantities which

Jürgen Ilse

2010-01-01

410

Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous Fenton oxidation and biological process.  

PubMed

Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted in order to investigate a novel system integrating heterogeneous Fenton oxidation (HFO) with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that HFO with the prepared catalyst (FeOx/SBAC, sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) played a key role in eliminating COD and COLOR as well as in improving the biodegradability of raw wastewater. The surface reaction and hydroxyl radicals (OH) oxidation were the mechanisms for FeOx/SBAC catalytic reaction. Compared with ANMBBR-BAF process, the integrated system was more effective in abating COD, BOD5, total phenols (TPs), total nitrogen (TN) and COLOR and could shorten the retention time. Therefore, the integrated system was a promising technology for engineering applications. PMID:25724695

Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Xu, Chunyan; Wang, Dexin

2015-04-01

411

Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation and biological process.  

PubMed

Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW) was investigated employing heterogeneous catalytic ozonation integrated with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process. The results indicated that catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalyst (i.e. MnOx/SBAC, sewage sludge was converted into sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded manganese oxides) significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal by generated hydroxyl radicals. The effluent of catalytic ozonation process was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. Meanwhile, ANMBBR-BAF showed efficient capacity of pollutants removal in treatment of the effluent of catalytic ozonation at a shorter reaction time, allowing the discharge limits to be met. Therefore, the integrated process with efficient, economical and sustainable advantages was suitable for advanced treatment of real biologically pretreated CGW. PMID:24928270

Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Hou, Baolin; Zhao, Qian

2014-08-01

412

Bioaugmentation of biological contact oxidation reactor (BCOR) with phenol-degrading bacteria for coal gasification wastewater (CGW) treatment.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the biological contact oxidation reactor (BCOR) treating coal gasification wastewater (CGW) after augmented with phenol degrading bacteria (PDB). The PDB were isolated with phenol, 4-methyl phenol, 3,5-dimethyl phenol and resorcinol as carbon resources. Much of the refractory phenolic compounds were converted into easily-biodegradable compounds in spite of low TOC removal. The bioaugmentation with PDB significantly enhanced the removal of COD, total phenols (TP) and NH3-N, with efficiencies from 58% to 78%, 66% to 80%, and 5% to 25%, respectively. In addition, the augmented BCOR exhibited strong recovery capability in TP and COD removal while recovery of NH3-N removal needed longer time. Microbial community analysis revealed that the PDB presented as dominant populations in the bacteria consortia, which in turn determined the overall performance of the system. PMID:24177165

Fang, Fang; Han, Hongjun; Zhao, Qian; Xu, Chunyan; Zhang, Linghan

2013-12-01

413

Behavior of mineral matters in Chinese coal ash melting during char-CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O gasification reaction  

SciTech Connect

The typical Chinese coal ash melting behavior during char-CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O gasification reaction was studied by using TGA, XRD, and SEM-EDX analysis. It was found that ash melting behavior during char gasification reaction is quite different from that during coal combustion process. Far from the simultaneously ash melting behavior during coal combustion, the initial melting behavior of ash usually occurs at a middle or later stage of char-CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O reaction because of endothermic reaction and more reactivity of char gasification reaction as compared with that of mineral melting reactions in ash. In general, the initial melting temperature of ash is as low as 200-300 K below the deformation temperature (T{sub def}) of ash with ASTM test. The initial molten parts in ash are mainly caused by iron bearing minerals such as wustite and iron-rich ferrite phases under gasification condition. Along with the proceeding of ash melting, the melting behavior appears to be accelerated by the presence of calcium to form eutectic mixtures in the FeO-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. The different states of iron are the dominant reason for different melting behaviors under gasification and combustion conditions. Even under both reducing conditions, the ash fusion temperature (AFT) of coal under char-CO{sub 2} reaction is about 50-100 K lower than that under char-H{sub 2}O reaction condition. The main reason of that is the higher content of CO under char-CO{sub 2} reaction, which can get a lower ratio of Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe in NaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-FeO melts. 38 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Xiaojiang Wu; Zhongxiao Zhang; Guilin Piao; Xiang He; Yushuang Chen; Nobusuke Kobayashi; Shigekatsu Mori; Yoshinori Itaya [University of Shanghai for Science & Technology, Shanghai (China). Department of Power Engineering

2009-05-15

414

Nitrogen removal from coal gasification wastewater by activated carbon technologies combined with short-cut nitrogen removal process.  

PubMed

A system combining granular activated carbon and powdered activated carbon technologies along with shortcut biological nitrogen removal (GAC-PACT-SBNR) was developed to enhance total nitrogen (TN) removal for anaerobically treated coal gasification wastewater with less need for external carbon resources. The TN removal efficiency in SBNR was significantly improved by introducing the effluent from the GAC process into SBNR during the anoxic stage, with removal percentage increasing from 43.8%-49.6% to 68.8%-75.8%. However, the TN removal rate decreased with the progressive deterioration of GAC adsorption. After adding activated sludge to the GAC compartment, the granular carbon had a longer service-life and the demand for external carbon resources became lower. Eventually, the TN removal rate in SBNR was almost constant at approx. 43.3%, as compared to approx. 20.0% before seeding with sludge. In addition, the production of some alkalinity during the denitrification resulted in a net savings in alkalinity requirements for the nitrification reaction and refractory chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation by autotrophic bacteria in SBNR under oxic conditions. PACT showed excellent resilience to increasing organic loadings. The microbial community analysis revealed that the PACT had a greater variety of bacterial taxons and the dominant species associated with the three compartments were in good agreement with the removal of typical pollutants. The study demonstrated that pre-adsorption by the GAC-sludge process could be a technically and economically feasible method to enhance TN removal in coal gasification wastewater (CGW). PMID:25458677

Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Fang, Fang

2014-11-01

415

MHTGR\\/coal gasification-an environmentally acceptable technology for clean coal utilization in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new generation of nuclear power plants, such as the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR), which is characterized by its inherently passive safety features and quiescent nature, is in the early stage of deployment. A nuclear\\/clean coal energy supply option with improved environmental characteristics that uses to the fullest extent the two resources (coal and uranium) that are abundant in

Colin F. McDonald; General Atomics

1989-01-01

416

Conceptual design and assessments of a coal gasification commercial demonstration plant. Volume V. Assessments and guidelines  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains additional technical and environmental assessment data for all three gasification processes. This report contains the task reports that were produced to establish the facility design, the facility design criteria issued by TVA, and the Gas Cost Guideline which defines the method used to calculate gas cost. Also included are sketches of various structures of the facility which were used for estimating the cost of the facility.

Not Available

1980-10-01

417

Hydrogen production by gasification of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

As fossil fuel reserves run lower and lower, and as their continued widespread use leads toward numerous environmental problems, the need for clean and sustainable energy alternatives becomes ever clearer. Hydrogen fuel holds promise as such as energy source, as it burns cleanly and can be extracted from a number of renewable materials such as municipal solid waste (MSW), which can be considered largely renewable because of its high content of paper and biomass-derived products. A computer model is being developed using ASPEN Plus flow sheeting software to simulate a process which produces hydrogen gas from MSW; the model will later be used in studying the economics of this process and is based on an actual Texaco coal gasification plant design. This paper gives an overview of the complete MSW gasification process, and describes in detail the way in which MSW is modeled by the computer as a process material. In addition, details of the gasifier unit model are described; in this unit modified MSW reacts under pressure with oxygen and steam to form a mixture of gases which include hydrogen.

Rogers, R. III

1994-05-20

418

Advanced technology applications for second and third generation coal gasification systems. Appendix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sixteen coal conversion processes are described and their projected goals listed. Tables show the reactants used, products derived, typical operating data, and properties of the feed coal. A history of the development of each process is included along with a drawing of the chemical reactor used.

Bradford, R.; Hyde, J. D.; Mead, C. W.

1980-01-01

419

Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology  

ScienceCinema

NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

Gary Stiegel

2010-01-08

420

Biological removal of organic constituents in quench waters from high-Btu coal-gasification pilot plants  

SciTech Connect

Studies were initiated to assess the efficiency of bench-scale, activated-sludge treatment for removal of organic constituents from coal-gasification process effluents. Samples of pilot-plant, raw-gas quench waters were obtained from the HYGAS process of the Institute of Gas Technology and from the slagging, fixed-bed (SFB) process of the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. The types of coal employed were Bituminous Illinois No. 6 for the HYGAS and Indian Head lignite for the SFB process. These pilot-plant quench waters, while not strictly representative of commercial condensates, were considered useful to evaluate the efficiency of biological oxidation for the removal of organics. Biological-reactor influent and effluent samples were extracted using a methylene chloride pH-fractionation method into acid, base, and neutral fractions, which were analyzed by capillary-column gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry. Influent acid fractions of both HYGAS and SFB condensates showed that nearly 99% of extractable and chromatographable organic material comprised phenol and alkylated phenols. Activated-sludge treatment removed these compounds almost completely. Removal efficiency of base-fraction organics was generally good, except for certain alkylated pyridines. Removal of neutral-fraction organics was also good, except for certain alkylated benzenes, certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and certain cycloalkanes and cycloalkenes, especially at low influent concentrations.

Stamoudis, V C; Luthy, R G

1980-02-01

421

The role of catalyst precursor anions in coal gasification. Third quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The aims of the proposed project are to enrich our understanding of the roles of various aqueous soluble catalyst precursor anions on the surface electrical properties of coal and to ascertain the influence of the surface charge on the adsorption, dispersion, and activities of calcium and potassium. These goals will be achieved by impregnating a North Dakota lignite (PSOC 1482) and its demineralized derivative with calcium or potassium catalyst precursors containing acetate (CH{sub 3}COO{sup {minus}}), chloride (Cl{sup {minus}}), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), and carbonate (CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}) anions. Catalyst loading will be conducted under well-controlled conditions of solution pH and ionic strength. In the last quarter, the surface charge properties of the coal was determined as a function of acetate (CH{sub 3}COO{sup {minus}}), chloride (Cl{sup {minus}}), nitrate (NO{sup 3}{sup {minus}}), carbonate (CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}) or sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}})concentration using the respective potassium salts of these anions. In general, low anion concentrations (10{sup {minus}3} or 10{sup {minus}2} mol/L) had little effect on the zeta potentials of the coals. However, the surface charge densities of the coal become less negative at 10-1 mol/L of the nitrate, carbonate or sulfate anions. These trends suggest that the surface charge density of the coal is controlled by the adsorption of potassium ions (K{sup +}) onto the coal particles. The net negative charge on the coal panicles creates a repulsive force between the anions and the coal surface and prevents the anions from exerting any significant effect on the coal`s electrokinetic properties.

Abotsi, G.M.K.

1992-08-28

422

Effect of tar fractions from coal gasification on nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia and nickel-gadolinium doped ceria solid oxide fuel cell anode materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The allowable tar content in gasification syngas is one of the key questions for the exploitation of the full potential of fuel cell concepts with integrated gasification systems. A better understanding of the interaction between tars and the SOFC anodes which leads to carbon formation and deposition is needed in order to design systems where the extent of gas cleaning operations is minimized. Model tar compounds (toluene, benzene, naphthalene) have been used in experimental studies to represent those arising from biomass/coal gasification. However, the use of toluene as a model tar overestimates the negative impact of a real gasification tar on SOFC anode degradation associated with carbon formation. In the present work, the effect of a gasification tar and its distillation fractions on two commercially available fuel cell anodes, Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) and Ni/CGO (gadolinium doped ceria), is reported. A higher impact of the lighter tar fractions was observed, in terms of more carbon formation on the anodes, in comparison with the whole tar sample. The characterization of the recovered tars after contact with the anode materials revealed a shift towards a heavier molecular weight distribution, reinforcing the view that these fractions have reacted on the anode.

Lorente, E.; Berrueco, C.; Millan, M.; Brandon, N. P.

2013-11-01

423

Highly Selective H2 Separation Zeolite Membranes for Coal Gasification Membrane Reactor Applications  

SciTech Connect

Zeolite membranes are thermally, chemically, and mechanically stable. They also have tunable molecular sieving and catalytic ability. These unique properties make zeolite membrane an excellent candidate for use in catalytic membrane reactor applications related to coal conversion and gasification, which need high temperature and high pressure range separation in chemically challenging environment where existing technologies are inefficient or unable to operate. Small pore, good quality, and thin zeolite membranes are needed for highly selective H{sub 2} separation from other light gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO). However, zeolite membranes have not been successful for H{sub 2} separation from light gases because the zeolite pores are either too big or the membranes have a large number of defects. The objective of this study is to develop zeolite membranes that are more suitable for H{sub 2} separation. In an effort to tune the size of zeolite pores and/or to decrease the number of defects, medium-pore zeolite B-ZSM-5 (MFI) membranes were synthesized and silylated. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 crystals reduced MFI-zeolite pore volume, but had little effect on CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 membranes increased H{sub 2} selectivity both in single component and in mixtures with CO{sub 2}CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, or N2. Single gas and binary mixtures of H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} were separated through silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes at feed pressures up to 1.7 MPa and temperatures up to 773 K. For one BZSM-5 membrane after silylation, the H2/CO{sub 2} separation selectivity at 473 K increased from 1.4 to 37, whereas the H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation selectivity increased from 1.6 to 33. Hydrogen permeance through a silylated B-ZSM-5 membrane was activated, but the CO{sub 2} and CH4 permeances decreased slightly with temperature in both single gas and in mixtures. Therefore, the H{sub 2} permeance and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sup 2} /CH{sub 4} separation selectivities increased with temperature. At 673 K, the H2 permeance was 1.0x10-7 molxm-2xs-1xPa-1, and the H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} separation selectivity was 47. Above 673 K, the silylated membrane catalyzed reverse water gas shift reaction and still separated H{sub 2} with high selectivity; and it was thermally stable. However, silylation decreased H{sub 2} permeance more than one order of magnitude. The H{sub 2} separation performance of the silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes depended on the initial membrane quality and acidity, as well as the silane precursors. Increasing the membrane feed pressure also increased the H{sub 2} flux and the H{sub 2} mole fraction in the permeate stream for both mixtures. Another approach used in this study is optimizing the synthesis of small-pore SAPO-34 (CHA) membranes and/or modifying SAPO-34 membranes by silylation or ion exchange. For SAPO-34 membranes, strong CO{sub 2} adsorption inhibited H{sub 2} adsorption and decreased H2 permeances, especially at low temperatures. At 253 K, CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} separation selectivities of a SAPO-34 membrane were greater than 100 with CO{sub 2} permeances of about 3 x 10-8 mol m-2 s-1 Pa-1. The high reverse-selectivity of the SAPO-34 membranes can minimize H{sub 2} recompression because H{sub 2} remained in the retentate stream at a higher pressure. The CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} separation selectivity exhibited a maximum with CO{sub 2} feed concentration possibly caused by a maximum in the CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} sorption selectivity with increased CO{sub 2} partial pressure. The SAPO-34 membrane separated H{sub 2} from CH{sub 4} because CH{sub 4} is close to the SAPO-34 pore size so its diffusivity is much lower than the H{sup 2} diffusivity. The H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation selectivity was almost independent of temperature, pressure, and feed composition. Silylation on SAPO-34 membranes increased H{sup 2}/CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivities but did not increase H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivities because silylation only blocked defects in SAPO-34 membranes. Hydr

Mei Hong; Richard D. Noble; John L. Falconer

2006-09-24

424

Highly Selective H2 Separation Zeolite Membranes for Coal Gasification Membrane Reactor Applications  

SciTech Connect

Zeolite membranes are thermally, chemically, and mechanically stable. They also have tunable molecular sieving and catalytic ability. These unique properties make zeolite membrane an excellent candidate for use in catalytic membrane reactor applications related to coal conversion and gasification, which need high temperature and high pressure range separation in chemically challenging environment where existing technologies are inefficient or unable to operate. Small pore, good quality, and thin zeolite membranes are needed for highly selective H2 separation from other light gases (CO2, CH4, CO). However, current zeolite membranes have either too big zeolite pores or a large number of defects and have not been successful for H2 separation from light gases. The objective of this study is to develop zeolite membranes that are more suitable for H2 separation. In an effort to tune the size of zeolite pores and/or to decrease the number of defects, medium-pore zeolite B-ZSM-5 (MFI) membranes were synthesized and silylated. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 crystals reduced MFI-zeolite pore volume, but had little effect on CO2 and CH4 adsorption. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 membranes increased H2 selectivity both in single component and in mixtures with CO2, CH4, or N2. Single gas and binary mixtures of H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 were permeated through silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes at feed pressures up to 1.7 MPa and temperatures up to 773 K. For one B-ZSM-5 membrane after silylation, the H2/CO2 separation selectivity at 473 K increased from 1.4 to 37, whereas the H2/CH4 separation selectivity increased from 1.6 to 33. Hydrogen permeance through a silylated BZSM-5 membrane was activated with activation energy of {approx}10 kJ/mol, but the CO2 and CH4 permeances decreased slightly with temperature in both single gas and in mixtures. Therefore, the H2 permeance and H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 separation selectivities increased with temperature. At 673 K, the H2 permeance was 1.0x10-7 mol{center_dot}m-2{center_dot}s-1{center_dot}Pa-1, and the H2/CO2 separation selectivity was 47. Above 673 K, the silylated membrane catalyzed reverse water gas shift reaction and still separated H2 with high selectivity; and it was thermally stable. However, silylation decreased H2 permeance more than one order of magnitude. Increasing the membrane feed pressure increased the H2 flux and the H2 mole fraction in the permeate stream for both H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 mixtures. The H2 separation performance of the silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes depended on the initial membrane quality and acidity, as well as the silane precursors. Another approach used in this study is optimizing the synthesis of small-pore SAPO-34 (CHA) membranes and/or modifying SAPO-34 membranes by silylation or ion exchange. For SAPO-34 membranes, strong CO2 adsorption inhibited H2 adsorption and decreased H2 permeances, especially at low temperatures. At 253 K, CO2/H2 separation selectivities of a SAPO-34 membrane were greater than 100 with CO2 permeances of about 3 x 10-8 mol{center_dot}m-2{center_dot}s-1{center_dot}Pa-1. The high reverse-selectivity of the SAPO-34 membranes can minimize H2 recompression because H2 remained in the retentate stream at a higher pressure. The CO2/H2 separation selectivity exhibited a maximum with CO2 feed concentration possibly caused by a maximum in the CO2/H2 sorption selectivity with increased CO2 partial pressure. The SAPO-34 membrane separated H2 from CH4 because CH4 is close to the SAPO-34 pore size so its diffusivity (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

Mei Hong; Richard Noble; John Falconer

2007-09-24

425

Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily ``skimmed`` from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

Not Available

1991-12-01

426

Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect

METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily skimmed'' from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

Not Available

1991-12-01

427

Steam gasification of an australian bituminous coal in a fluidized bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

To produce low calorific value gas, Australian coal has been gasified with air and steam in a fluidized bed reactor (0.1 m-I.Dx1.6\\u000a m-high) at atmospheric pressure. The effects of fluidizing gas velocity (2–5 Uf\\/Umf), reaction temperature (750–900 °C), air\\/coal ratio (1.6-3.2), and steam\\/coal ratio (0.63–1.26) on gas composition, gas yield,\\u000a gas calorific value of the product gas and carbon conversion

Woon-Jae Lee; Sang-Done Kim; Byung-Ho Song

2002-01-01

428

Efficacy of activated sludge\\/powdered activated carbon for removal of organic constituents in wastewater from commercial-scale, high-Btu coal gasification plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bench-scale, activated-sludge (AS) treatability studies indicate that approximately 98 percent of total organic constituents can be removed from wastewater generated by HYGAS and slagging-type, high-Btu coal gasification pilot plants. This suggests that the most important unit of a wastewater treatment system for organics removal in commercial-scale versions of such plants will be the AS unit, augmented by powdered activated carbon

W. Harrison; D. L. Ford

1980-01-01

429

Ceramic filters systems -- Necessary equipment for combined cycles based on coal gasification?  

SciTech Connect

An overview about the development of a hot gas filter technology arranging ceramic candles in a different way compared to competing technologies is shown. This technology has been developed executing an extended research program on PFBC (Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion). The same technology is used in gasification applications. The paper describes the benefits resulting from using ceramic candle filters in such processes and describes the available technology. Test results and different configurations using the same basic principles of the filtration process will be shown.

Wedel, G. von; Kalthoff, U. [LLB Lurgi Lentjes Babcock Energietechnik GmbH, Oberhausen (Germany)

1994-12-31

430

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Nineth quarterly report, [July--September 1992  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory scale studies examining biogasification of Texas lignite at various coal solids loadings have been completed. Bench scale bioreactors are currently being used to scale up the biogasification process to higher coal solids loadings (5% and 10%) Specific observations reported this quarter are that methane production was not curtailed when B-vitamin solution was not added to the biogasification medium and that aeration of Mic-1 did not sufficiently oxidize the medium to eliminate strict anaerobic bacteria including methanogens.

Not Available

1992-10-30

431

Water use for coal gasification: how much is appropriate. [Dry vs wet cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews the engineering economics of water use for high-Btu coal gas plants and examines the sources of supply and water system designs of plants proposed by industry. Water use varies from a minimum of 2000 acre-ft\\/yr to 10,000 acre-ft\\/yr per 250 million fts\\/day plant, depending particularly on the moisture content of the coal and the use of dry

Abbey

1979-01-01

432

Performance and economics of a Pd-based planar WGS membrane reactor for coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual 300 tonne per day (tpd) H2-from-coal plants have been the subject of several major costing exercises in the past decade. Incorporating conventional high- and low-temperature water-gas-shift (WGS) reactors, amine-based CO2 removal and PSA-based H2 purification systems, these studies provide a benchmark against which alternative H2-from-coal technologies can be compared. The catalytic membrane reactor (CMR), combining a WGS catalyst and hydrogen-selective

M. D. Dolan; R. Donelson; N. C. Dave

2010-01-01

433

Kinetic models comparison for steam gasification of coal/biomass blend chars.  

PubMed

The non-isothermal thermogravimetric method (TGA) was applied to different chars produced from lignite (LN), sawdust (SD) and their blends at the different mass ratios in order to investigate their thermal reactivity under steam atmosphere. Through TGA analysis, it was determined that the most prominent interaction between sawdust and lignite occurred at the mass ratio of sawdust/lignite as 1:4, but with further dose of more sawdust into its blends with lignite, the positive interaction deteriorated due to the agglomeration and deactivation of the alkali mineral involved in sawdust at high steam gasification temperature. Through systematic comparison, it could be observed that the random pore model was the most suitable among the three gas-solid reaction models adopted in this research. Finally, rational kinetic parameters were reached from these gas-solid reaction models, which provided a basis for design and operation of the realistic system of co-gasification of lignite and sawdust in this research. PMID:25203234

Xu, Chaofen; Hu, Song; Xiang, Jun; Yang, Haiping; Sun, Lushi; Su, Sheng; Wang, Baowen; Chen, Qindong; He, Limo

2014-11-01

434

Coal gasification system with a modulated on/off control system  

DOEpatents

A modulated control system is provided for improving regulation of the bed level in a fixed-bed coal gasifier into which coal is fed from a rotary coal feeder. A nuclear bed level gauge using a cobalt source and an ion chamber detector is used to detect the coal bed level in the gasifier. The detector signal is compared to a bed level set point signal in a primary controller which operates in proportional/integral modes to produce an error signal. The error signal is modulated by the injection of a triangular wave signal of a frequency of about 0.0004 Hz and an amplitude of about 80% of the primary deadband. The modulated error signal is fed to a triple-deadband secondary controller which jogs the coal feeder speed up or down by on/off control of a feeder speed change driver such that the gasifier bed level is driven toward the set point while preventing excessive cycling (oscillation) common in on/off mode automatic controllers of this type. Regulation of the bed level is achieved without excessive feeder speed control jogging.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01

435

Energy, Environmental, and Economic Analyses of Design Concepts for the Co-Production of Fuels and Chemicals with Electricity via Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project was to quantify the energy, environmental, and economic performance of industrial facilities that would coproduce electricity and transportation fuels or chemicals from a mixture of coal and biomass via co-gasification in a single pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier, with capture and storage of CO{sub 2} (CCS). The work sought to identify plant designs with promising (Nth plant) economics, superior environmental footprints, and the potential to be deployed at scale as a means for simultaneously a