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1

Enriched-Air and Oxygen Gasification of Illinois No. 6 Coal in a Texaco Coal-Gasification Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four runs were made with Illinois No. 6 coal, from Peabody Coal Company River King Mine at Freeburg, Illinois, to demonstrate technology to integrate the Texaco Coal Gasification Process in an environmentally acceptable manner with gas turbines for combin...

W. B. Crouch G. N. Richter E. W. Dillingham

1982-01-01

2

Texaco-based gasification-combined-cycle system performance studies. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of an investigation of the effects on system thermal efficiency of major design variables and configuration options in combined cycle power plants based on air or oxygen-blown Texaco gasifiers. The plants are sized to process 10,000 tons per day of Illinois No. 6 coal. Design parameters considered were: steam cycle steam conditions; gasification system pressure,

J. J. Oliva; S. D. Shemo

1980-01-01

3

Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, April--June 1976. [Change to Texaco gasification process from Koppers-Totzek  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overall progress on the Clean Boiler Fuel Demonstration Plant was maintained on schedule. A major new development involved the decision to change to the Texaco gasifier from Koppers-Totzek, which required new engineering effort in many sections and a rework of the overall plant heat and mass balances. Coalcon completed a total of nine calibration runs on the coal feed apparatus

P. C. White; G. A. Rial

1976-01-01

4

SEM microanalysis techniques in demonstration of sulfur capture by slag and sorbents during gasification of coal in a Texaco gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Texaco's Coal Gasification Process, a significant portion of desulfurization of the product gas (synthesis gas, syngas) may be achieved by slag capture in the gasification step when various sorbents are added to the coal slurry. For example, when iron oxide is added to the coal slurry, sulfur is captured primarily in a discrete iron oxysulfide phase and to a

T. A. Laurion; M. S. Najjar; R. J. McKeon

1990-01-01

5

The Ruhrchemie\\/Ruhrkohle demonstration plant of the Texaco coal gasification process; gasification of a western U. S. coal as a pretest for Cool Water. [Utah and Illinois coals tested  

Microsoft Academic Search

In late 1980 Ruhrchemie AG and Ruhrkohle AG performed test runs on two US coals - scheduled for the Cool Water project - in their 150 tpd Texaco coal gasification demonstration plant operating at Oberhausen. West Germany. Both runs - with Illinois No. 6 and a Utah coal - were highly successful and proved the excellent design and the commercial

R. Cornilis; R. Durrfeld; J. Langhoff; P. Ruprecht

1982-01-01

6

Assessment of environmental control technologies for Koppers-Totzek, Winkler, and Texaco coal gasification systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy, Division of Environmental Control Technology, supports the Assistant Secretary for Environment in discharging responsibilities for environmental control aspects of technology in use and development. The coal gasification technologies employed by Winkler, Koppers-Totzek (K-T) and Texaco are described. Evaluation of the status of these technologies for control of major environmental pollutants indicates that a minimum risk

L. K. Mudge; L. J. Jr. Sealock

1979-01-01

7

Design and Economics of a Lignite-to-SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) Facility Using Lurgi Gasifiers for Lignite Gasification and the Texaco Partial Oxidation Process to Gasify Lurgi By-Product Liquids. Final Topical Report April 1985-November 1985,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A design and cost estimate was prepared for a 250 billion Btu/day lignite-to-SNG plant that uses Lurgi dry-bottom gasifiers to gasify lignite and the Texaco Partial Oxidation (POX) process to gasify the various hydrocarbon liquids produced by the Lurgi pr...

J. T. Smith S. C. Smelser

1985-01-01

8

Coal-to-methanol: an engineering evaluation of Texaco gasification and ICI methanol-synthesis route. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a technical and economic evaluation of producing methanol from bituminous coal using Texaco coal gasification and ICI methanol synthesis. The scope of work included the development of an overall configuration for a large plant comprising coal preparation, air separation, coal gasification, shift conversion, COS hydrolysis, acid gas removal, methanol synthesis, methanol refining, and all

P. A. Buckingham; D. D. Cobb; A. A. Leavitt; W. G. Snyder

1981-01-01

9

Design and economics of a lignite-to-SNG (substitute natural gas) facility using Lurgi gasifiers for lignite gasification and the Texaco Partial Oxidation Process to gasify Lurgi by-product liquids. Final topical report, April 1985November 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design and cost estimate was prepared for a 250 billion Btu\\/day lignite-to-SNG plant that uses Lurgi dry-bottom gasifiers to gasify lignite and the Texaco Partial Oxidation (POX) process to gasify the various hydrocarbon liquids produced by the Lurgi process. Also presented are plant performance and economic comparisons between this plant design and a Base Case design prepared previously in

J. T. Smith; S. C. Smelser

1985-01-01

10

Coal-to-methanol: an engineering evaluation of Texaco gasification and ICI methanol-synthesis route. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a technical and economic evaluation of producing methanol from bituminous coal using Texaco coal gasification and ICI methanol synthesis. The scope of work included the development of an overall configuration for a large plant comprising coal preparation, air separation, coal gasification, shift conversion, COS hydrolysis, acid gas removal, methanol synthesis, methanol refining, and all required utility systems and off-site facilities. Design data were received from both Texaco and ICI while a design and cost estimate were received from Lotepro covering the Rectisol acid gas removal unit. The plant processes 14,448 tons per day (dry basis) of Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal and produces 10,927 tons per day of fuel-grade methanol. An overall thermal efficiency of 57.86 percent was calculated on an HHV basis and 52.64 percent based on LHV. Total plant investment at an Illinois plant site was estimated to be $1159 million dollars in terms of 1979 investment. Using EPRI's economic premises, the first-year product costs were calculated to $4.74 per million Btu (HHV) which is equivalent to $30.3 cents per gallon and $5.37 per million Btu (LHV).

Buckingham, P.A.; Cobb, D.D.; Leavitt, A.A.; Snyder, W.G.

1981-08-01

11

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTNG OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

The cooperative agreement between Texaco and Polk Power has been revised by Polk Power and ChevronTexaco several times already. Lawyers from both Polk Power and ChevronTexaco are in the process to include the issues related to the ownership transfer of the Texaco gasification unit in the agreement and finalize the draft. The modification fieldwork and testing will start once the cooperative agreement is signed with Polk Power.

Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

2003-04-01

12

Texaco-Based Gasification-Combined-Cycle System Performance Studies. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of an investigation of the effects on system thermal efficiency of major design variables and configuration options in combined cycle power plants based on air or oxygen-blown Texaco gasifiers. The plants are sized to proc...

J. J. Oliva S. D. Shemo

1980-01-01

13

Program plan for development of hot dirty gas compressors/expanders for coal gasification systems. [Gasifiers of Texaco, Shell, Koppers-Babcock and Wilcox, Lurgi, Winkle, Westinghouse, U-Gas and Exxon catalytic processes  

SciTech Connect

This effort was conducted to provide supporting data for a proposed Department of Energy program for the development of components for hot dirty gas service in gasification systems. This report deals with compressor/expander applications, and its scope includes a broad range of gasification systems such as the generic models for entrained-flow, moving-bed, and fluidized-bed gasifiers. The normal isostatic operation of gasification systems indicated that there is little incentive to use hot dirty gas compressors/expanders in the primary gasification streams. Gasification systems that require auxiliary carbon combustion to either supply heat or to use char will require a combustion unit that can accept a wide range of fuels. Some of these units can be effectively coupled to a hot dirty gas expander. A state-of-the-art industrial capabilities survey indicated that cat-cracker expander operating conditions closely approached those of a PFBC. The estimated life of these units is in the 3- to 6-year range at an inlet temperature of 705/sup 0/C (1300/sup 0/F) and 1/3- to 1-year range at an inlet temperature of 900/sup 0/C (1650/sup 0/F). A present effort to increase the service life of expanders at inlet temperatures of up to 900/sup 0/C (1650/sup 0/F) is sponsored by DOE as part of the PFBC development program. The scope of the present program to advance the state of the art of hot dirty gas expanders, coupled with industry capability of supplying the presently envisioned gasification needs, appears to be sufficient to fulfill anticipated gasifier needs. Therefore, no expansion of the research and development efforts of the hot dirty gas expander program is justified. However, the general work performed as part of the PFBC program involves test areas that could have direct applications to gasification components. The PFBC program should be closely monitored for potential technology transfer to gasification applications. 15 references, 8 figures, 5 tables.

Lackey, M.E.

1983-11-01

14

Coal Gasification and Coal Hydrogenation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present state of the development works on the coal gasification and coal hydrogenation processes carried out by the coal producing and engineering companies is presented. The coal gasification projects are the following: Texaco suspended dust gasifica...

1980-01-01

15

Assessment of Environmental Control Technologies for Koppers-Totzek, Winkler, and Texaco Coal Gasification Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Department of Energy, Division of Environmental Control Technology, supports the Assistant Secretary for Environment in discharging responsibilities for environmental control aspects of technology in use and development. The coal gasification techn...

L. K. Mudge L. J. Sealock

1979-01-01

16

Preliminary Design Study for an Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plant. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the preliminary design, implementation schedules, and cost data for a fully integrated coal gasification/combined cycle power plant using the oxygen-blown Texaco Coal Gasification Process. The plant will have a net electrical output o...

C. L. Black D. E. Barrett J. Bisserier J. R. Grisso L. N. Ferry

1978-01-01

17

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

Polk Power has decided that the Texaco gasification unit will not be sold to a third party. Therefore, including the ownership transfer of the Texaco gasification unit in the agreement is not an issue any more. The cooperative agreement between Texaco and Polk Power has been revised several times in this quarter. Polk power is making comments on the last draft that Texaco sent to them. The modification fieldwork and testing will start once the cooperative agreement is signed with Polk Power.

Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

2003-07-01

18

Shell coal gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas produced (93 to 98% by volume hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is suitable for the manufacture of hydrogen or reducing gas and, with further processing, substitute natural gas (SNG). Moreover, the gas can be used for the synthesis of ammonia, methanol, and liquid hydrocarbons. Another possible application of this process is as an integral part of a combined-cycle power station

G. R. McCullough; S. C. Roberts; M. J. van der Burgt

1982-01-01

19

Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CSR process; and Exxon Gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service\\/Rockwell (CS\\/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the

J. McCarthy; J. Ferrall; T. Charng; J. Houseman

1981-01-01

20

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Volume 1, Final report, September 1987--October 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A five-year Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) was awarded to Texaco on September 30, 1987 to develop and demonstrate hot gas clean-up for the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). The program targeted the development and demonst...

A. M. Robin L. A. Davis T. F. Leininger

1993-01-01

21

Coking and gasification process  

DOEpatents

An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

Billimoria, Rustom M. (Houston, TX); Tao, Frank F. (Baytown, TX)

1986-01-01

22

Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

1981-01-01

23

Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process single stage high mass flux (HMF) process (CS/R) hydrogasification process and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

1981-06-01

24

Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

1981-01-01

25

Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible "syngas" in a high temperature (above 700 degrees C), oxygen deficient environment. Syngas can be combusted to generate power, which recycles energy from waste products. At 66% to 79% moisture, raw salmon waste streams are too wet to undergo pyrolysis and combustion. Ground raw or de-oiled salmon whole fish, heads, viscera, or frames were therefore "dried" by mixing with wood pellets to a final moisture content of 20%. Ground whole salmon with moisture reduced to 12% moisture was gasified without a drying agent. Gasification tests were performed in a small-scale, fixed-bed, updraft gasifer. After an initial start-up period, the gasifier was loaded with 1.5 kg of biomass. Temperature was recorded at 6 points in the gasifier. Syngas was collected during the short steady-state period during each gasifier run and analyzed. Percentages of each type of gas in the syngas were used to calculate syngas heating value. High heating value (HHV) ranged from 1.45 to 1.98 MJ/kg. Bomb calorimetry determined maximum heating value for the salmon by-products. Comparing heating values shows the efficiency of gasification. Cold gas efficiencies of 13.6% to 26% were obtained from the various samples gasified. Though research of gasification as a means of salmon waste disposal and energy production is ongoing, it can be concluded that pre-dried salmon or relatively low moisture content mixtures of waste with wood are gasifiable. PMID:19799663

Rowland, Sarah; Bower, Cynthia K; Patil, Krushna N; DeWitt, Christina A Mireles

2009-10-01

26

ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD RANKINGS OF POLLUTANTS GENERATED IN COAL GASIFICATION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation and ranking of environmental hazards associated with coal gasification. Applied chemical analytical data were provided by (1) research with an experimental gasifier, and (2) sampling of four commercial gasification processes. Gas, liquid,...

27

Texaco sets horizontal well marks  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Texaco Exploration and Production Inc. has completed the first dual lateral horizontal well in East Texas and claimed a horizontal oil well record in the Gulf of Mexico. The East Texas well, 1 Texaco Fee Brookeland, is the company's first dual lateral well. Site is in Newton County. The Brookeland well was drilled vertically to the top of Cretaceous Austin chalk at 9,138 ft. Texaco set casing, then drilled horizontally 3,242 ft to the southeast and 3,000 ft to the northwest for a total horizontal displacement of 6,242 ft. Texaco set an industry record offshore with its B19-ST well on its Teal prospect in Eugene Island Block 338, its first horizontal oil well in the gulf, by drilling a horizontal section of 1,414 ft. Measured depth (MD) is 7,500 ft and true vertical depth (TVD) 4,662 ft. Site is in 268 ft of water. Drilling horizontally through the Pleistocene prograding sand complex allowed Texaco to penetrate 50% more of the reservoir than would have been possible with a conventional well, Wallace the. In another industry first, Texaco isolated the Teal reservoir gas cap by setting intermediate casing 50 ft below the oil-gas contact with the 90{degrees} angle already established because of concern that the reservoir had an expanded gas cap. The dual lateral Brookeland well cost $500,000-700,000 less than two vertical wells capable of comparable production rates and recovery. Texaco expects the full cost of the well, production facilities, and gathering system to pay out in about 4 months. Texaco estimates the B19-ST well cost about 10% more than a Teal vertical well. A cross discipline team of Texaco geologists, geophysicists, engineers, and field technicians contributed to the success of both projects.

Not Available

1992-07-06

28

Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process  

SciTech Connect

This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

1981-06-01

29

Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process  

DOEpatents

The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

Wilson, M.W.

1987-03-23

30

Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process  

DOEpatents

The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

Wilson, Marvin W. (Fairview, WV)

1988-01-01

31

Texaco Canada completes unique horizontal drilling program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texaco Canada Resources Ltd. recently completed an innovative drilling program to tap shallow reserves in its Athabasca oil sands lease, south and east of Fort McMurray, Alberta. Texaco successfully drilled 3 wells using a drilling rig with a 45 degrees-slanted mast. Since 1972, Texaco has operated an in situ pilot project in their Athabasca field. In 1979, the company recognized

Loxam

1982-01-01

32

Early Entrance Co-Production Plant Decentralized Gasification Cogeneration Transportation Fuels and Steam From Available Feedstocks. Quarterly Technical Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (N...

2002-01-01

33

Coal-gasification-process concepts. [Dependence on gasifier pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

First Generation coal gasification continues to grow with the expansion of Lurgi process to make gasoline in South Africa and SNG in the United States. This moving-bed gasifier is no doubt the leading commercial application of coal gasification. This can probably be attributed to its operation at the elevated pressure that simultaneously increases coal throughput and broadens the utility of

C. L. Miller; P. B. Tarman

1982-01-01

34

BIOMASS REACTIVITY IN GASIFICATION BY THE HYNOL PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

A thermobalance reactor was used to evaluate the reactivity of poplar wood in gasification under the operating conditions specific for the Hynol process where biomass is gasified at 30 atm and 800E C with a hydrogen-rich gas recycled from methane synthesis. The gasification invol...

35

The Garrett Energy Research biomass gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiple hearth furnace is used for the gasification of biomass materials. Drying, pyrolysis, steam\\/char gasification, and combustion steps are carried out, each on its own hearth. Partially dry biomass feed is contacted on the top hearth of the furnace with hot flue gas from the combustion stage. The steam contained in the flue gas leaving the top hearth is

R. D. Mikesell; D. C. Hoang; D. E. Garrett

1978-01-01

36

Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process  

DOEpatents

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

Euker, Jr., Charles A. (15163 Dianna La., Houston, TX 77062); Wesselhoft, Robert D. (120 Caldwell, Baytown, TX 77520); Dunkleman, John J. (3704 Autumn La., Baytown, TX 77520); Aquino, Dolores C. (15142 McConn, Webster, TX 77598); Gouker, Toby R. (5413 Rocksprings Dr., LaPorte, TX 77571)

1984-01-01

37

Coal gasification and the Phenosolvan process  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of commercial coal gasification projects under design in the USA. By 1976-77, two such projects may be coming onstream in New Mexico, each producing 250 million standard cubic feet per day of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG). The gasification of coal produces large amounts of by-product phenol. The New Mexico projects will each involve about 25,000 tons

Beychok

1974-01-01

38

Process for Energy Production by Means of Underground Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process is described for energy production by underground gasification of bituminous deposits, especially low-grade ones, in which thermal energy is supplied to the deposits intersected by boreholes for gas production from the bituminous rock masses, ch...

F. Jansen

1975-01-01

39

Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. [Lurgi Process  

SciTech Connect

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) is the first commercial coal-to-synthetic natural gas plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input/output diagrams, and stream design data sheets for 161 major GPGP process and effluent streams. This stream design data provides an important base for evaluation of plant and process performance and for verification of the Department of Energy's ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) computer simulation models of the GPGP processes. 8 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

Honea, F.I.

1985-09-01

40

Process for fixed bed coal gasification  

DOEpatents

The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

1992-01-01

41

Utilization of chemical looping strategy in coal gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three chemical looping gasification processes, i.e. Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process, Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process, and Calcium Looping process (CLP), are being developed at the Ohio State University (OSU). These processes utilize simple reaction schemes to convert carbonaceous fuels into products such as hydrogen, electricity, and synthetic fuels through the transformation of a highly reactive, highly recyclable chemical

Liangshih Fan; Fanxing Li; Shwetha Ramkumar

2008-01-01

42

ASPEN modeling of the Tri-State indirect liquefaction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ASPEN process simulator has been used to model an indirect liquefaction flowsheet patterned after that of the Tri-State project. This flowsheet uses Lurgi moving-bed gasification with synthesis gas conversion to methanol followed by further processing to gasoline using the Mobil MTG process. Models developed in this study include the following: Lurgi gasifier, Texaco gasifier, synthesis gas cooling, Rectisol, methanol

J. M. Begovich; J. H. Clinton; P. J. Johnson; R. E. Barker

1983-01-01

43

Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Institute of Gas Technology has conducted a fundamental research program to determine the technical feasibility of and to prepare preliminary process evaluations for two new approaches to coal gasification. These two concepts were assessed under two major project tasks: Task 1. COâ-Coal Gasification Process Concept; Task 2. Internal Recirculation Catalysts Coal Gasification Process Concept. The first process concept involves

A. H. Hill; R. A. Knight; G. L. Anderson; H. L. Feldkirchner; S. P. Babu

1986-01-01

44

A summary report on combustion and gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

Six poster papers regarding combustion and gasification were reviewed. These six papers address various different technology subjects: (1) underground coal gasification modeling, (2) wood gasification kinetics, (3) heat transfer surface pretreatment by iron implantation, (4) coal water slurry stabilization technology, (5) coal log pipeline technology, and (6) nuclear reactor decontamination. Summaries and comments of the following papers are presented: Characterization of Flow and Chemical Processes in an Underground Gasifier at Great Depth; Model for Reaction Kinetics in Pyrolysis of Wood; Development of a Stainless Steel Heat Transfer Surface with Low Scaling Tendency; Storage and Transportation of Coal Water Mixtures; Coal Log Pipeline: Development Status of the First Commercial System; and Decontamination of Nuclear Systems at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station.

Rath, L.K.; Lee, G.T.

1996-08-01

45

Oxygen supply for coal gasification power stations (combined cycle process)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptation of air separation processes to coal gasification plants was investigated. Main points are the start up and the load change behavior of the total process. Air separation processes which put at disposal oxygen most energetically to the combined cycle process are estimated. The technical feasibility of such a plant is checked. The load change behavior of the plant, the adaptation of the coal gasification and the start up of the total system are investigated. The influence of process parameters on the energy consumption is calculated. The most economical air separation processes are investigated. It is found that a low pressure plant with mixed heat exchangers and a medium pressure plant with molsieves are the most economical processes and that air separation processes and the order of magnitude can be constructed economically.

Rottmann, D.; Schoenpflug, E.

1982-02-01

46

Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) in the first commercial coal-to-SNG synthetic fuel plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input\\/output diagrams and stream design data sheets for 161

Honea

1985-01-01

47

Plasma gasification of sewage sludge: Process development and energy optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma gasification process has been demonstrated in many of the most recent studies as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization. This method is applied here to the treatment of sewage sludge. Results are presented for a case study concerning the Athens’ Central Wastewater Treatment Plant, at Psittalia Island. An

A. Mountouris; E. Voutsas; D. Tassios

2008-01-01

48

Great Plains Gasification Project Process Stream Design Data. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) in the first commercial coal-to-SNG synthetic fuel plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major ...

F. I. Honea

1985-01-01

49

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process simulation and optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is an electrical power generation system which offers efficient generation from coal with lower effect on the environment than conventional coal power plants. However, further improvement of its efficiency and thereby lowering emissions are important tasks to achieve a more sustainable energy production. In this paper, a process simulation tool is proposed for simulation

F. Emun; M. Gadalla; Thokozani Majozi; D. Boer

2010-01-01

50

Texaco Canada completes unique horizontal drilling program  

SciTech Connect

Texaco Canada Resources Ltd. recently completed an innovative drilling program to tap shallow reserves in its Athabasca oil sands lease, south and east of Fort McMurray, Alberta. Texaco successfully drilled 3 wells using a drilling rig with a 45 degrees-slanted mast. Since 1972, Texaco has operated an in situ pilot project in their Athabasca field. In 1979, the company recognized the need to reduce capital cost for a commercial venture while providing improved recovery in development of the oil sands. Texaco could only develop these shallow 260- to 660-ft (80- to 200-m) oil sands by drilling highly deviated wells. Furthermore, the combination of shallow depth and unconsolidated bituminous sands presented unique drilling problems to obtain long horizontal sections. Although the path followed in drilling was not always as proposed, the company achieved its objectives.

Loxam, D.C.

1982-09-01

51

Groups win pollution suit against Texaco  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) and the Delaware Audubon Society have won a ruling in federal court against Texaco Refining and Marketing, Inc. for continuous pollution of the Delaware River. Texaco was found to have committed hundreds of violations under the Clean Water Act during a 9 year period from 1983 to 1991, and was ordered to pay a $1.68 million penalty. Texaco must also improve its water pollution investigation practices which were deemed inconsistent and less than thorough, relying on supposition rather than thorough investigation. A court order enjoining Texaco from further violations was deemed necessary to vindicate the public interest. Illegal discharges included chlorine, ammonia, and oil and grease, with some violations exceeding legal limits by as much as 2000%.

Stern, P. (Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-12-01

52

Texaco's deepstar: Deepwater staged recovery  

SciTech Connect

The deepwater of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) represents one of the best remaining domestic opportunities accessible to the oil and gas industry and believed to contain significant reserves of producible hydrocarbons. In the last five years 3.5 billion barrels of reserves have been discovered in the deepwater Gulf-defined as water depths from 3,000 to 6,000 feet. The challenges offered by the deep-water GOM are considerable - both commercially and technically. Current production system technology limits are 3,000 - 3,500 foot water depths. There is limited production experience to date from deep-water fields. However, production strategy and equipment to produce these reserves are being developed by DeepStar, an industry effort led by Texaco, Inc. Staged production using subsea techniques allows companies to avoid major financial commitment until production capability has been proven. The project has identified phased subsea production systems operating as extensions of shallow water platforms a key mechanism for commercial development of deepwater prospects. A small number of shallow water platforms tied to subsea production systems, offset up to 60-miles into deep water, are capable of commercially developing in excess of 80 percent of existing deepwater GOM leases. DeepStar may provide the entire offshore producing community with a way to commercially access deep water.

Verret, A.J. (Texaco USA, New Orleans (United States))

1994-04-01

53

Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification. Progress report, May 7August 6, 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this research program are (1) to determine the technical feasibility of and (2) to prepare preliminary process evaluations for each of two new approaches to coal gasification. The objective of Task 1, COâ-Coal Gasification Concept, is to obtain fundamental information on a novel coal gasification process concept that involves pressurized carbon dioxide-coal gasification followed by a high-temperature

Babu

1984-01-01

54

Process for gasification and production of by-product superheated steam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texaco has developed a continuous process for the partial oxidation of an ash-containing solid fuel to produce a cool, clean stream of synthesis gas, fuel gas, or reducing gas, and by-product superheated steam. The process avoids the plugging and fouling problems caused by molten-slag droplets in the raw gas. Coal or other high-ash-containing carbonaceous solid fuel reacts with a free-oxygen-containing

P. N. Woldy; H. C. Kaufman; M. M. Dach; J. F. Beall

1981-01-01

55

Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) in the first commercial coal-to-SNG synthetic fuel plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input/output diagrams and stream design data sheets for 161 major GPGP process and effluent streams. This stream design data provides an important base for evaluation of plant and process performance and for verification of the DOE ASPEN computer simulation models of the GPGP processes. 8 refs.

Honea, F.I.

1985-09-01

56

Membrane air separation for intensification of coal gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-ash and other low-quality coals are available in huge quantities in Russia and in other East European countries. Similar solid fuels can also be obtained as by-product of the enrichment process of coal. The aim of this work is the analysis of the possibility to use such low-quality coals as alternative energy sources in fluidised bed gasification process. In order

A. A Belyaev; Yu. P Yampolskii; L. E Starannikova; A. M Polyakov; G Clarizia; E Drioli; G Marigliano; G Barbieri

2003-01-01

57

Coal-gasification environmental data summary: low- and medium-Btu wastewaters. Final report, September 1984December 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report is a compilation of environmental characterization data for wastewaters from low- and medium-Btu coal-gasification facilities. Fixed-bed, entrained-bed, and ash-agglomerating fluidized-bed coal-gasification processes were examined. The fixed-bed gasifiers are the Chapman, Wellman-Galusha, Riley, Foster Wheeler\\/STOIC, and Lurgi-type processes. The entrained-bed gasifiers are the Koppers-Totzek and Texaco processes. The KRW-PDU was used as an example of an ash-agglomerating fludized-bed process.

F. J. Castaldi; F. D. Skinner

1986-01-01

58

Tampa Electric Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tampa Electric Company (Tampa Electric) successfully completed a fiveyear demonstration of a 250-MWe integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant based on Texaco's pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrainedflow gasifier. Tampa Electric worked with ...

2004-01-01

59

Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program  

SciTech Connect

The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H[sub 2] mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO[sub x] (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

1992-01-01

60

Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program  

SciTech Connect

The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H{sub 2} mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO{sub x} (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

1992-11-01

61

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Phase 2, Process optimization: Volume 1, Program summary and PDU operations  

SciTech Connect

This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

1991-09-01

62

A steam dried municipal solid waste gasification and melting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering high-moisture municipal solid waste (MSW) of China, a steam dried MSW gasification and melting process was proposed,\\u000a the feasibility was tested, and the mass and energy balance was analyzed. Preliminary experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed\\u000a drying apparatus, a 200 kg per day fluidized-bed gasifier, and a swirl melting furnace. Moisture percentage was reduced from\\u000a 50% to 20% roughly

Gang Xiao; Baosheng Jin; Mingjiang Ni; Kefa Cen; Yong Chi; Zhongxin Tan

2011-01-01

63

The gasification of molten coal hydrogenation residues - experience with the Ruhrkohle/Ruhrchemie coal gasification plant at Oberhausen-Holten  

SciTech Connect

In the wake of the 1973 oil crisis, ongoing, large-scale development of coal upgrading processes was undertaken in West Germany and around the world. Two of the most successful processes are the coal-oil plant at Bottrop and the Texaco coal gasification plant at Oberhausen-Holten. The fact that developments ran in parallel made possible transfer of the vacuum residue in a molten state from the hydrogenation plant to the gasification plant. The gasification of the residue is in the interest of economical production of the make-up hydrogen required for hydrogenation or-where this hydrogen can be acquired from another source-for production of synthesis gas while at the same time disposing of the residue in an environmentally sound fashion.

Langhoff, J.; Schafer, W.; Cornils, B.; Konkol, W.

1985-01-01

64

Considerations on coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial processes for gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process of gasification of coal dust gasification, in which fine dust-like fuel particles are carried through the gasification chamber in the flow of the gasification medium, is described. The outlook for future application of coal gasification is discussed.

J. E. Franzen

1977-01-01

65

Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual

K. Durai-Swamy; M. N. Mansour; D. W. Warren

1991-01-01

66

Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process  

DOEpatents

Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ)

1980-01-01

67

Process simulation of single-step dimethyl ether production via biomass gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we simulated the single-step process of dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis via biomass gasification using ASPEN Plus™. The whole process comprised four parts: gasification, water gas shift reaction, gas purification, and single-step DME synthesis. We analyzed the influence of the oxygen\\/biomass and steam\\/biomass ratios on biomass gasification and synthesis performance. The syngas H2\\/CO ratio after water gas shift

Fudong Ju; Hanping Chen; Xuejun Ding; Haiping Yang; Xianhua Wang; Shihong Zhang; Zhenghua Dai

2009-01-01

68

Improving process performances in coal gasification for power and synfuel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is aimed at developing process alternatives of conventional coal gasification. A number of possibilities are presented, simulated, and discussed in order to improve the process performances, to avoid the use of pure oxygen, and to reduce the overall CO emissions. The different process configurations considered include both power production, by means of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)

M. Sudiro; A. Bertucco; F. Ruggeri; M. Fontana

2008-01-01

69

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

2001-12-01

70

Process description of the SASOL 1 coal-gasification plant. Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SASOL I coal-gasification plant is part of a highly-integrated industrial complex which produces liquid and solid hydrocarbons, petrochemicals, LPG, and medium-Btu gas by Lurgi gasification followed by gas cleanup and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Many of the process units used in this plant are also found in the designs of a number of first-generation coal-gasification plants proposed for this country. Some

J. D. Quass; F. D. Skinner

1987-01-01

71

Assessment of the SRI Gasification Process for Syngas Generation with HTGR Integration -- White Paper  

SciTech Connect

This white paper is intended to compare the technical and economic feasibility of syngas generation using the SRI gasification process coupled to several high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) with more traditional HTGR-integrated syngas generation techniques, including: (1) Gasification with high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE); (2) Steam methane reforming (SMR); and (3) Gasification with SMR with and without CO2 sequestration.

A.M. Gandrik

2012-04-01

72

Early Entrance Co-Production Plant Decentralized Gasification Cogeneration Transportation Fuels and Steam From Available Feedstocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste Processors Management, Inc.(WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE),...

2002-01-01

73

Theoretical Investigations of the Working Processes in a Plasma Coal Gasification System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical investigations of the working processes in a plasma coal pilot gasification system have been conducted. The obtained results and recommendations can be used for modeling the operational modes of plasma gasification system, as well as geometry optimization, and the engineering design of prospective power generation units.

Serhiy I. Serbin; Igor B. Matveev

2010-01-01

74

Innovative concepts for hydrogen production processes based on coal gasification with CO 2 capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the technical aspects of innovative hydrogen production concepts based on coal gasification with CO2 capture. More specifically, it focuses on the technical evaluation and the assessment of performance of a number of plant configurations based on standard entrained-flow gasification processes (dry feed and slurry feed types) producing hydrogen at pipeline pressure, which incorporate improvements for increasing hydrogen

Calin-Cristian Cormos; Fred Starr; Evangelos Tzimas; Stathis Peteves

2008-01-01

75

Co-gasification of tire and biomass for enhancement of tire-char reactivity in CO2 gasification process.  

PubMed

In this investigation, palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and almond shell (AS) were implemented as two natural catalysts rich in alkali metals, especially potassium, to enhance the reactivity of tire-char through co-gasification process. Co-gasification experiments were conducted at several blending ratios using isothermal Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under CO2. The pronounced effect of inherent alkali content of biomass-chars on promoting the reactivity of tire-char was proven when acid-treated biomass-chars did not exert any catalytic effect on improving the reactivity of tire-char in co-gasification experiments. In kinetic studies of the co-gasified samples in chemically-controlled regime, modified random pore model (M-RPM) was adopted to describe the reactive behavior of the tire-char/biomass-char blends. By virtue of the catalytic effect of biomass, the activation energy for tire-char gasification was lowered from 250 kJ/mol in pure form 203 to 187 kJ/mol for AS-char and EFB-char co-gasified samples, respectively. PMID:23612170

Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

2013-06-01

76

Chemical and Biological Characterization of High-Btu Coal Gasification: (The HYGAS Process) I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have examined the relationships between mutagenic activity and chemical composition for fractions prepared from process stream materials obtained from a high-Btu coal-gasification pilot plant in which the HYGAS process is employed. Fractionation proced...

V. C. Stamoudis S. Bourne D. A. Haugen M. J. Peak C. A. Reilly

1980-01-01

77

Integration of stripping of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process  

DOEpatents

In an integrated fluid coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a wet scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped to remove acidic gases, the stripped vapors of the stripping zone are sent to the gas cleanup stage of the gasification product gas. The improved stripping integration is particularly useful in the combination coal liquefaction process, fluid coking of bottoms of the coal liquefaction zone and gasification of the product coke.

DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

1980-01-01

78

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report is a final brief summary of development of a mild-gasification and char conversion process. Morgantown Energy Technology Center developed a concept called mild gasification. In this concept, devolatilization of coal under nonoxidizing and relatively mild temperature and pressure conditions can yield three marketable products: (1) a high-heating-value gas, (2) a high-aromatic coal liquid, and (3) a high-carbon char. The objective of this program is to develop an advanced, continuous, mild-gasification process to produce products that will make the concept economically and environmentally viable. (VC)

Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.

1991-11-01

79

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts  

SciTech Connect

This report is a final brief summary of development of a mild-gasification and char conversion process. Morgantown Energy Technology Center developed a concept called mild gasification. In this concept, devolatilization of coal under nonoxidizing and relatively mild temperature and pressure conditions can yield three marketable products: (1) a high-heating-value gas, (2) a high-aromatic coal liquid, and (3) a high-carbon char. The objective of this program is to develop an advanced, continuous, mild-gasification process to produce products that will make the concept economically and environmentally viable. (VC)

Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.

1991-11-01

80

Gasification of municipal solid waste in the Plasma Gasification Melting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

â–º 6 tests are conducted to study the performance of a PGM reactor. â–º For air gasification, increasing ER will decrease syngas LHV value. â–º Increasing ER will increase syngas yield and energy efficiency. â–º High-temperature steam injection can significantly increase syngas yield. â–º High-temperature steam injection will also increase syngas LHV value.

Qinglin Zhang; Liran Dor; Dikla Fenigshtein; Weihong Yang; Wlodzmierz Blasiak

2012-01-01

81

Energy (and Resource) Recovery from Paper Pulp Waste through Residue Derived Fuel and Plasma Gasification Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the condition for reutilization of derived energy and melting ash, the plasma gasification process was adopted to use high temperature of plasma furnace to gasify wastes (e.g., paper reject, paper sludge and hydro-cleaner residues). Processing paper pulp to residue derived fuel (RDF) can enhance physical stability and improve gasification efficiency. Paper pulp derived RDF has 12% ash, 15~20%

Jai-Houng Leu; Ay Su

2011-01-01

82

Geochemical Proxies for Enhanced Process Control of Underground Coal Gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underground coal gasification (UCG) represents a strategy targeting at syngas production for fuel or power generation from in-situ coal seams. It is a promising technique for exploiting coal deposits as an energy source at locations not allowing conventional mining under economic conditions. Although the underlying concept has already been suggested in 1868 and has been later on implemented in a number of field trials and even at a commercial scale, UCG is still facing technological barriers, impeding its widespread application. Field UCG operations rely on injection wells enabling the ignition of the target seam and the supply with oxidants (air, O2) inducing combustion (oxidative conditions). The combustion process delivers the enthalpy required for endothermic hydrogen production under reduction prone conditions in some distance to the injection point. The produced hydrogen - usually accompanied by organic and inorganic carbon species, e.g. CH4, CO, and CO2 - can then be retrieved through a production well. In contrast to gasification of mined coal in furnaces, it is difficult to measure the combustion temperature directly during UCG operations. It is already known that geochemical parameters such as the relative production gas composition as well as its stable isotope signature are related to the combustion temperature and, consequently, can be used as temperature proxies. However, so far the general applicability of such relations has not been proven. In order to get corresponding insights with respect to coals of significantly different rank and origin, four powdered coal samples covering maturities ranging from Ro= 0.43% (lignite) to Ro= 3.39% (anthracite) have been gasified in laboratory experiments. The combustion temperature has been varied between 350 and 900 Ë? C, respectively. During gasification, the generated gas has been captured in a cryo-trap, dried and the carbon containing gas components have been catalytically oxidized to CO2. Thereafter, the generated CO2 has been analyzed with respect to its stable carbon isotope composition by mass spectrometry. All samples exhibited a similar trend: The ^13C signatures of initially produced CO2 revealed to be relatively light and linearly increasing with temperature until approaching the bulk stable carbon isotope composition of the coal at a certain temperature, where the isotope signature kept virtually constant during further temperature increase. The temperature introducing the range of constant isotope compositions of the produced gas increased with coal rank. Additionally, all coal samples were treated by Rock Eval pyrolysis up to 550 Ë? C in order to investigate temperature dependent generation of CO and CO2. The results exhibited a linear decrease of the CO2/CO ratio at increasing temperature. Both experimental approaches demonstrated dependencies between the qualitative and the isotope composition of the generated syngas on the one hand and the applied combustion temperature on the other hand and, consequently, the principal applicability of the considered geochemical parameters as temperature proxies for coals of significantly different rank and origin. Although the investigated samples revealed similar trends, the absolute characteristics of the correlation functions (e.g. linear gradients) between geochemical parameters and combustion temperatures differed on an individual sample base, implying a significant additional dependence of the considered geochemical parameters on the coal composition. As a consequence, corresponding experimental approaches are currently continued and refined by involving multi component compound specific isotope analysis, high temperature Rock Eval pyrolysis as well as an enforced consideration of initial coal and oxidant compositions.

Kronimus, A.; Koenen, M.; David, P.; Veld, H.; van Dijk, A.; van Bergen, F.

2009-04-01

83

Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

1997-02-01

84

Biomass reactivity in gasification by the Hynol process. Report for November 94-May 1995  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the use of a thermobalance reactor to evaluate the reactivity of poplar wood in gasification under the operating conditions specific for the Hynol process (30 atm and 800 C). The gasification involved a rapid devolization and pyrolysis reaction of the volatile matter in biomass and slow reaction of residual carbon with the process gas. Gasification rate and biomass conversion were strongly affected by reaction temperature and particle size. The conv ersion was proportional to the partial pressures of hydrogen and steam in the feed gas. A kinetic model was developed to correlate the experimental data and quantitatively express gasification rates and biomass conversion as functions of reaction time. The activation energies for the rapid and slow reactions were estimated to be 3.8 and 34 kcal/mol, respectively.

Dong, Y.; Borgwardt, R.H.

1995-12-31

85

Texaco scores a first in the Baltic  

SciTech Connect

Wells on the first of 2 small concrete platforms designed specifically for the fragile but harsh environment of the Baltic Sea will produce the first oil from that offshore area by late 1984. The consortium of Deutsche Texaco AG and Wintershall AG awarded contracts late last year for the platforms and drilling equipment needed to develop the Schwedeneck-See field in Kiel Bay, off the northern coast of West Germany. Severe winter weather in the area dictated the use of concrete platforms rather than conventional 6-pile steel structures. Ice forces, generated by high winds and moderate waves, demanded heavy-duty structures in spite of the shallow water. A complicating factor in the field development plan is the presence of a German Navy submarine practice area which influenced location of one of the platforms. This means that all wells will be directionally drilled, and the reach will be greater than under more favorable conditions.

Not Available

1983-10-01

86

Three Texaco EOR projects seek improved recovery  

SciTech Connect

Texaco USA recently began 3 enhanced oil recovery test projects in an effort to capture additional oil from stubborn reservoirs. Two of the reservoirs are watered out and the third contains relatively viscous oil in a shallow sandstone. If successful, 2 projects will be expanded in the same reservoir; the third method will find application in different but similar reservoirs. The projects are (1) a semicommercial chemical flood in the Benoist sand of the Salem (Illinois) field, abandoned after waterflooding; (2) an in situ combustion project in the Nacatoch sand of Caddo Pine Island field in N.W. Louisiana; (3) a gravity-stable miscible CO/sub 2/ flood in a dipping fault on the Louisiana Gulf Coast. Wells were previously shut in following depletion by natural water drive.

Bleakley, W.B.

1981-11-01

87

Hydrogen from Various Biomass Species via Pyrolysis and Steam Gasification Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the scientific and engineering advancements of producing hydrogen from biomass via two thermochemical processes: (a) conventional pyrolysis followed by reforming of the carbohydrate fraction of the bio-oil and (b) gasification followed by reforming of the syngas (H2 + CO). The yield from steam gasification increases with increasing water-to-sample ratio. The yields of

M. Fatih Demirbas

2006-01-01

88

Gasification of solid waste in accordance with the SFW-FUNK process  

SciTech Connect

The Saarberg-Fernwaerme in Saarbruecken, West Germany is planning to build a pilot plant to demonstrate the feasibility of solid waste gasification after having gained long range experience in operating incinerators. The Federal Ministry of Research and Technology of West Germany agreed to support this project because the two committees, one for energy conservation and the other for environmental protection, recommended it for implementation. A description of the gasification process is presented.

Funk, H.; Hummelsiep, H.

1980-01-01

89

Coal Gasification Pilot Plant Support Studies. Subtask 1-3. Application of Availability Analysis in Assessing the Efficiency of Coal Gasification Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The methodology for availability analysis to assess thermodynamic efficiency in coal gasification processes has been established. The methodology includes the following: procedures for estimating chemical, thermal, and mechanical contributions to enthalpy...

1980-01-01

90

ASPEN modeling of the Tri-State indirect-liquefaction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ASPEN process simulator has been used to model an indirect-liquefaction flowsheet patterned after that of the Tri-State project. This flowsheet uses Lurgi moving-bed gasification with synthesis-gas conversion to methanol folowed by further processing to gasoline using the Mobil MTG process. Models developed in this study include the following: Lurgi gasifier, Texaco gasifier, synthesis gas cooling, Rectisol, methanol synthesis, methanol-to-gasoline,

R. E. Barker; J. M. Begovich; J. H. Clinton; P. J. Johnson

1983-01-01

91

Early Entrance Co-Production Plant Decentralized Gasification Cogeneration Transportation Fuels and Steam From Available Feedstock. Quarterly Technical Progress Report January to March 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE...

2003-01-01

92

Early Entrance Co-Production Plant-Decentralized Gasification Cogeneration Transportation Fuels and Steam from Available Feedstocks. Quarterly Technical Progress Report July to September 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE...

2003-01-01

93

Advanced coal-gasification and - liquefaction process development at Rockwell International  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rockwell International, through its Energy Systems Group, is involved in the development of several advanced technology processes for the conversion of coal to gaseous and liquid products. These include the Rockgas molten salt gasification process and the CS\\/R Hydrogasification and Hydroliquefaction processes based upon flash hydropyrolysis (FHP) technology. In the Rockgas process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air

J. Silverman; J. Friedman; D. Kahn; A. Kohl

1981-01-01

94

Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process  

DOEpatents

In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

1984-12-04

95

Modeling the underground coal gasification process. Part 3. Subsidence  

SciTech Connect

Subsidence modeling studies attempt to predict vertical subsidence or settlement profiles, horizontal displacement, principal stress contours, horizontal strain profiles, overburden failure and collapse, and collapse zone shape above the cavity. The physical and geometrical factors to consider in subsidence modeling; the empirical, analytical, numerical, and phenomenological approaches used to model subsidence in underground coal gasification; and the results of applying these subsidence models to UCG field tests were reviewed.

Krantz, W.B.; Gunn, R.D.

1983-01-01

96

Process for gasification using a synthetic CO/sub 2/ acceptor  

SciTech Connect

Conoco's gasification process uses a synthetic CO/sub 2/ acceptor consisting essentially of at least one calcium compound (either calcium oxide or calcium carbonate) supported in a refractory carrier matrix having the general formula Ca/sub 5/(SiO/sub 4/)/sub 2/CO/sub 3/. The synthetic acceptor is more effective than a natural calcium oxide acceptor during the gasification process because the thermally stable matrix causes the calcium compounds to remain in discrete particles that tend to reactivate with each passage through the process. This eliminates the need for large quantities of fresh makeup acceptor materials.

Lancet, M.S.; Curran, G.P.

1980-11-04

97

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of food processing wastes. 1995 topical report  

SciTech Connect

The catalytic gasification system described in this report has undergone continuing development and refining work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for over 16 years. The original experiments, performed for the Gas Research Institute, were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous stirred-tank reactor tests provided useful design information for evaluating the preliminary economics of the process. This report is a follow-on to previous interim reports which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with batch and continuous-feed reactor systems from 1989 to 1994, including much work with food processing wastes. The discussion here provides details of experiments on food processing waste feedstock materials, exclusively, that were conducted in batch and continuous- flow reactors.

Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.

1996-08-01

98

The potential for adding plastic waste fuel at a coal gasification power plant.  

PubMed

Plastics wastes from a municipal solid waste plant have a high energy content which make it an interesting option for co-processing with coal. The potential for adding plastic waste to a coal fired Texaco IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power station is examined. The resulting efficiency increases due to the improved gasification qualities of plastic over coal. For the overall economics to be the same as the coal only case, the maximum amount that the power station can afford to spend on preparing the plastic waste for use is similar to the assumed coal cost, plus the avoided landfill cost, minus the transport cost. The location of the power station plays a key role, since this has an effect on the transport costs as well as on the landfill charges. The sensitivity of the economics of co-processing plastic waste with coal for a variety of power station operational parameters is presented. PMID:12201682

Campbell, P E; Evans, R H; McMullan, J T; Williams, B C

2001-12-01

99

Kansas refinery starts up coke gasification unit  

SciTech Connect

Texaco Refining and Marketing Inc. has started up a gasification unit at its El Dorado, Kan., refinery. The unit gasifies delayed coke and other refinery waste products. This is the first refinery to install a coke-fueled gasification unit for power generation. Start-up of the $80-million gasification-based power plant was completed in mid-June. The gasifier produces syngas which, along with natural gas, fuels a combustion turbine. The turbine produces virtually 100% of the refinery`s electricity needs and enough heat to generate 40% of its steam requirements.

Rhodes, A.K.

1996-08-05

100

Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat

Umberto Arena

101

Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the

W. R. Niessen; C. H. Marks; R. E. Sommerlad

1996-01-01

102

Conceptual Designs and Assessments of a Coal Gasification Demonstration Plant. Volume II. Koppers-Totzek Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume of the report contains detailed information on the conceptual design and assessment of the facility required to process approximately 20,000 tons per day of coal to produce medium Btu gas using the Koppers-Totzek gasification process. The repo...

1980-01-01

103

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

1991-09-01

104

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

ChevronTexaco has shipped the pyrometer system to Tampa, Florida. Polk Power is in the process of installing the mechanical, electrical and instrumentation of the pyrometer system as well as integrating the instrumentation to the test site Distributed Control System. The startup and field testing of the system will begin afterwards.

Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

2004-01-01

105

Improving process performances in coal gasification for power and synfuel production  

SciTech Connect

This paper is aimed at developing process alternatives of conventional coal gasification. A number of possibilities are presented, simulated, and discussed in order to improve the process performances, to avoid the use of pure oxygen, and to reduce the overall CO{sub 2} emissions. The different process configurations considered include both power production, by means of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant, and synfuel production, by means of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The basic idea is to thermally couple a gasifier, fed with coal and steam, and a combustor where coal is burnt with air, thus overcoming the need of expensive pure oxygen as a feedstock. As a result, no or little nitrogen is present in the syngas produced by the gasifier; the required heat is transferred by using an inert solid as the carrier, which is circulated between the two modules. First, a thermodynamic study of the dual-bed gasification is carried out. Then a dual-bed gasification process is simulated by Aspen Plus, and the efficiency and overall CO{sub 2} emissions of the process are calculated and compared with a conventional gasification with oxygen. Eventually, the scheme with two reactors (gasifier-combustor) is coupled with an IGCC process. The simulation of this plant is compared with that of a conventional IGCC, where the gasifier is fed by high purity oxygen. According to the newly proposed configuration, the global plant efficiency increases by 27.9% and the CO{sub 2} emissions decrease by 21.8%, with respect to the performances of a conventional IGCC process. 29 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

M. Sudiro; A. Bertucco; F. Ruggeri; M. Fontana [University of Padova, Milan (Italy). Italy and Foster Wheeler Italiana Spa

2008-11-15

106

CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID BED PROCESS FOR SULPHUR REMOVAL DURING GASIFICATION OF CARBONACEOUS FUELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report covers the final 3 years of a 9-year program to evaluate the Chemically Active Fluid Bed (CAFB) process for gasification and desulfurization of liquid and solid fuels in a fluidized bed of hot lime. A range of alternative fuels, including three coals and a lignite, wer...

107

Brazing as a means of sealing ceramic membranes for use in advanced coal gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen that will enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes

K. Scott Weil; John S. Hardy; Joseph P. Rice; Jin Yong Y. Kim

2006-01-01

108

Results of In-situ Desulfurization Tests in the U-GAS Coal Gasification Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A high-pressure coal gasification Process Development Unit (PDU) has been used by the Institute of Gas Technology to study in-situ desulfurization in an ash-agglomerating, fluidized-bed coal gasifier at elevated pressures. Previous work in this area has b...

B. G. Bryan A. Goyal J. G. Patel M. R. Ghate

1988-01-01

109

SFW-Funk Process for Gasification of Solid Urban and Industrial Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It was the purpose of the R+D-project, to develop the SFW-Funk process for gasification of solid urban and industrial waste for commercial plants. On the base of a literature study and some experiments on a laboratory plant, a demonstration plant was desi...

H. Hummelsiep F. Heinrich

1982-01-01

110

A review of the primary measures for tar elimination in biomass gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar formation is one of the major problems to deal with during biomass gasification. Tar condenses at reduced temperature, thus blocking and fouling process equipments such as engines and turbines. Considerable efforts have been directed on tar removal from fuel gas. Tar removal technologies can broadly be divided into two approaches; hot gas cleaning after the gasifier (secondary methods), and

Lopamudra Devi; Krzysztof J Ptasinski; Frans J. J. G Janssen

2003-01-01

111

Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Quarterly report, May 21--August 20, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work performed during the seventh quarterly reporting period on the research program, ''Scale-up of Mild Gasification to a Process Development Unit'' is presented in this report. The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasific...

J. A. L. Campbell R. H. Carty H. Foster

1993-01-01

112

Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

Arena, Umberto, E-mail: umberto.arena@unina2.it [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via A. Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

2012-04-15

113

Continuous in-line gasification\\/vitrification process for thermal waste treatment: process technology and current status of projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Thermoselect High Temperature Recycling process has been developed in order to make available a thermal waste treatment technology avoiding major problems as known from traditional techniques like landfills or ashes, filter dust and emission producing processes. It combines slow degassing with fixed bed oxygen blown gasification and mineral and metal residue melting in a closed loop system. Municipal, industrial

Bernd Calaminus; R. Stahlberg

1998-01-01

114

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Tasks 2, 3, and 4. 1 to 4. 6), Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 contains information on the following topics: (1) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (2) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (3) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. (VC)

Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

1991-09-01

115

Two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process for solid waste valorisation: Technical review and preliminary thermodynamic modelling of sulphur emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification of solid waste for energy has significant potential given an abundant feed supply and strong policy drivers. Nonetheless, significant ambiguities in the knowledge base are apparent. Consequently this study investigates sulphur mechanisms within a novel two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process. This paper includes a detailed review of gasification and plasma fundamentals in relation to the specific process, along

Shane Morrin; Paola Lettieri; Chris Chapman; Luca Mazzei

116

Technoeconomic Analysis of a Lignocellulosic Biomass Indirect Gasification Process to Make Ethanol via Mixed Alcohols Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

A technoeconomic analysis of a 2000 tonne/day lignocellulosic biomass conversion process to make mixed alcohols via gasification and catalytic synthesis was completed. The process, modeled using ASPEN Plus process modeling software for mass and energy calculations, included all major process steps to convert biomass into liquid fuels, including gasification, gas cleanup and conditioning, synthesis conversion to mixed alcohols, and product separation. The gas cleanup area features a catalytic fluidized-bed steam reformer to convert tars and hydrocarbons into syngas. Conversions for both the reformer and the synthesis catalysts were based on research targets expected to be achieved by 2012 through ongoing research. The mass and energy calculations were used to estimate capital and operating costs that were used in a discounted cash flow rate of return analysis for the process to calculate a minimum ethanol selling price of $0.267/L ($1.01/gal) ethanol (U.S.$2005).

Phillips, S. D.

2007-01-01

117

Engineering Support Services for the DOE/GRI Coal-Gasification Research Program. Technical and Economic Assessment of the Westinghouse Fluidized-Bed Coal Gasification Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kellogg was requested by DOE/GRI to perform a technical and economic assessment of the Westinghouse fluidized bed coal gasification process as applied to production of SNG equivalent to 250 billion BTU/day from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. Based on operating ex...

D. A. Hubbard L. E. Bostwick R. W. Laramore T. R. Ethridge

1981-01-01

118

Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process  

DOEpatents

In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

1981-01-01

119

Release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during biomass pyrolysis and steam gasification process.  

PubMed

Investigating the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs) is of potential interest because of AAEM's possible useful service as catalysts in biomass thermal conversion. In this study, three kinds of typical Chinese biomass were selected to pyrolyse and their chars were subsequently steam gasified in a designed quartz fixed-bed reactor to investigate the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs). The results indicate that 53-76% of alkali metal and 27-40% of alkaline earth metal release in pyrolysis process, as well as 12-34% of alkali metal and 12-16% of alkaline earth metal evaporate in char gasification process, and temperature is not the only factor to impact AAEMs emission. The releasing characteristics of AAEMs during pyrolysis and char gasification process of three kinds of biomass were discussed in this paper. PMID:22525260

Long, Jiang; Song, Hu; Jun, Xiang; Sheng, Su; Lun-Shi, Sun; Kai, Xu; Yao, Yao

2012-07-01

120

Considerations on coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title

J. E. Franzen

1978-01-01

121

Steam gasification of coal, project prototype plant nuclear process heat: Report at the end of the reference phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work carried out in the field of steam gasification of coal is described. On the basis of the status achieved to date, it can be stated that the mode of operation of the gas generator developed, including the direct feeding of caking high volatile coal, is technically feasible. Moreover, throughput can be improved by 65% at minimum by using catalysts. On the whole, industrial application of steam gasification, using nuclear process heat, stays attractive compared with other gasification processes. Not only coal is conserved, but also the costs of the gas manufactured are favorable. As confirmed by recent economic calculations, these are 20 to 25% lower.

Vanheek, K. H.

1982-05-01

122

Assessment of the CRIP (Controlled Retracting Injection Point) Process for Underground Coal Gasification: The Rocky Mountain I Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of the recently completed Rocky Mountain I (RMI) underground coal gasification (UCG) field test have shown that the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) process for UCG is capable of producing consistently high quality gas from a single in...

R. J. Cena C. B. Thorsness J. A. Britten

1988-01-01

123

Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review.  

PubMed

The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option. PMID:22035903

Arena, Umberto

2012-04-01

124

Solvent extraction process development and on-site trial-plant for phenol removal from industrial coal-gasification wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phenol removal process was developed for the coal-gasification wastewater. Based on extraction principles and experimental results, an extracting solvent was selected in consideration of phenol removal, solvent recovery and COD removal for the coal-gasification wastewater. The extraction process conditions were studied, and a flowsheet for phenol removal was proposed. An on-site trial-plant of 2t\\/h wastewater was set up for

Chufen Yang; Yu Qian; Lijuan Zhang; Jianzhong Feng

2006-01-01

125

High temperature electrochemical separation of H sub 2 S from coal gasification process streams  

SciTech Connect

An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane is being developed using the funds from this grant. H{sub 2}S is removed from the syn-gas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the syn-gas, and sulfur, which can be condensed from an inert gas sweep stream. The process allows removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream and with neglible pressure loss through the separator. The process is economically attractive by the lack of adsorbents and the lack of a Claus process for sulfur recovery.

Winnick, J.

1991-01-01

126

Hydrogen production by gasification of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

As fossil fuel reserves run lower and lower, and as their continued widespread use leads toward numerous environmental problems, the need for clean and sustainable energy alternatives becomes ever clearer. Hydrogen fuel holds promise as such as energy source, as it burns cleanly and can be extracted from a number of renewable materials such as municipal solid waste (MSW), which can be considered largely renewable because of its high content of paper and biomass-derived products. A computer model is being developed using ASPEN Plus flow sheeting software to simulate a process which produces hydrogen gas from MSW; the model will later be used in studying the economics of this process and is based on an actual Texaco coal gasification plant design. This paper gives an overview of the complete MSW gasification process, and describes in detail the way in which MSW is modeled by the computer as a process material. In addition, details of the gasifier unit model are described; in this unit modified MSW reacts under pressure with oxygen and steam to form a mixture of gases which include hydrogen.

Rogers, R. III

1994-05-20

127

Control Technology Assessment for Coal Gasification and Liquefaction Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The control technology available to prevent exposure to harmful substances during coal conversion operations is evaluated for the TOSCOAL Coal Pyrolysis Process which is being developed at the Tosco Rocky Flats Research Center, located in Golden, Colorado...

D. R. Telesca

1982-01-01

128

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

2002-04-01

129

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

2002-06-01

130

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)  

SciTech Connect

In order for the coal biogasification process to be economically feasible, an inexpensive nutrient amendment must be found to replace the Difco[trademark] yeast extract and tryptic soy broth (YE/TSB) used in the current medium formulation. Five products have been identified which support greater methane production from Texas lignite than YE/TSB.

Not Available

1992-04-30

131

Coal gasification. Two-stage coal combustion process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-stage coal combustion process is being developed by Applied Technology Corp. under the sponsorship of the Environmental Protection Agency. In the first stage, coal is dissolved in a mass of molten iron, where fixed carbon and sulphur are retained and the volatiles crack and come off as CO and Hâ. The dissolved carbon is gasified in the second stage

Karnavas

1973-01-01

132

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification (MicGAS) Process. The objectives of the research during FY 1993--94 were to: (1) enhance kinetics of methane production (biogasification, biomethanation) from Texas lign...

D. S. Walia K. C. Srivastava

1994-01-01

133

Preliminary evaluation of a conceptual molten iron gasification process for the production of hydrogen. [Molten iron gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual designs for a molten iron hydrogen production process are developed and assessed, and process designs and costs are derived for the best of these designs. The selected designs have been integrated with the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) plant presented in R and D Report No. 114, Interim Report No. 4 by The Ralph M. Parsons Company under Contract No.

L. Seglin; R. H. Lamb

1978-01-01

134

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process)  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory scale studies examining biogasification of Texas lignite at various coal solids loadings have been completed. Bench scale bioreactors are currently being used to scale up the biogasification process to higher coal solids loadings (5% and 10%) Specific observations reported this quarter are that methane production was not curtailed when B-vitamin solution was not added to the biogasification medium and that aeration of Mic-1 did not sufficiently oxidize the medium to eliminate strict anaerobic bacteria including methanogens.

Not Available

1992-10-30

135

Bi-flow rotary kiln coal gasification process  

SciTech Connect

A process is disclosed for gasifying solid coal particles in a rotary kiln that produces simultaneously and continuously two distinctly different fuel gas streams from the opposite ends of a single kiln. A relatively low temperature gas is discharged from the solids inlet end of the kiln, which contains substantially all tars produced by the process. A second of the gas streams is discharged from the solids discharge end of the kiln at approximately 1,900* F. And substantially tar-free. Heat is recovered from this tar-free gas after only a simple cleaning of particulate matter, as may be provided by a cyclone separator. The discharge of gas out the solids inlet end of the kiln and the gas discharged out the solids discharge end of the kiln, is adjustably proportioned relative to each other so that at least some high temperature tar-free gas will mix inside the kiln with the lower temperature tar-containing gas, in an amount sufficient to keep such mixed gases at a temperature high enough to avoid the tars condensing on equipment surfaces. Several process parameters are disclosed for adjusting the proportion of the gas flows out each end of the kiln to maintain the aforesaid condition of both gas streams.

Garside, P.G.

1983-02-22

136

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification (MicGAS) Process. The objectives of the research during FY 1993--94 were to: (1) enhance kinetics of methane production (biogasification, biomethanation) from Texas lignite (TxL) by the Mic-1 consortium isolated and developed at ARCTECH, (2) increase coal solids loading, (3) optimize medium composition, and (4) reduce retention time. A closer analysis of the results described here indicate that biomethanation of TxL at >5% solids loading is feasible through appropriate development of nutrient medium and further adaptation of the microorganisms involved in this process. Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably. Results are discussed on the following: products of biomethanation and enhance of methane production including: bacterial adaptation; effect of nutrient amendment substitutes; effects of solids loading; effect of initial pH of the culture medium; effect of hydrogen donors and carbon balance.

Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.

1994-10-01

137

In-process control of nitrogen and sulfur in entrained-bed gasifers. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of an evaluation of theoretical aspects and engineering considerations of in-process pollutant control of the entrained-bed slagging coal-gasification process, as applied to combined-cycle operation or to the retrofit of existing boilers. The pollutants of concern are the nitrogen and sulfur oxides (NOx and SOx) which, without controls, are products of combustion of the gasifier product gas. A literature search and theoretical evlauation were conducted to identify the chemical/physical conditions and flow characteristics of entrained-bed slagging gasification as they relate to in-process control of NOx and SOx precursors. However, the degree of success of the suggested in-process controls could not be projected. The applicability of potential in-process control was examined. It was concluded that in-process controls, if feasible, are applicable for reducing NOx and SOx precursors so that the capacities of downstream control devices can be reduced with subsequent cost savings.

Adams, R.C.; Aul, E.F.; Kulkarni, S.; McAllister, R.A.; Margerum, S.

1986-12-01

138

Coal Gasification (chapter only)  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification is presented in terms of the chemistry of coal conversion and the product gas characteristics, the historical development of coal gasifiers, variations in the types and performance of coal gasifiers, the configuration of gasification systems, and the status and economics of coal gasification. In many ways, coal gasification processes have been tailored to adapt to the different types of coal feedstocks available. Gasification technology is presented from a historical perspective considering early uses of coal, the first practical demonstration and utilization of coal gasification, and the evolution of the various processes used for coal gasification. The development of the gasification industry is traced from its inception to its current status in the world economy. Each type of gasifier is considered focusing on the process innovations required to meet the changing market needs. Complete gasification systems are described including typical system configurations, required system attributes, and aspects of the industry's environmental and performance demands. The current status, economics of gasification technology, and future of gasification are also discussed.

Shadle, L.J.; Berry, D.A.; Syamlal, Madhava

2002-11-15

139

Control technology assessment for coal gasification and liquefaction processes: Report of site visit on Apeton, Pennsylvania  

SciTech Connect

A survey was conducted at the Synthane Pilot Facility (SIC-5161) in Bruceton, Pennsylvania on April 5, 1979. The operation of the facility was discontinued in 1978; however, it was included in the study of control technology because certain aspects of the process were important to development of coal gasification technology and because of relevant process modifications. The facility had maintained a high pressure, deep injection, fluidized bed gasification process designed to convert caking, bituminous and subbituminous coals and lignite to pipeline quality substitute natural gas. Major hazards of the process were carbon-monoxide (630080) and hydrogen-sulfide (7783064). Nickel-carbonyl (13463393) formation in the methanation unit was also a hazard. A safety supervisor was responsible for the work environment. Safety policies and standards were set by a safety committee. Inspections and accident reporting and investigations were stressed. A full time nurse and a part time doctor were available. Preemployment, annual, and termination physical examinations were given to all employees. The author concludes that because the facility was not in operation, a thorough assessment was not possible. They recommend surge tankage increase to prevent process upsets, installation of remote control shutoff valves, and completion of design work to reduce material sifting through baghouse bags.

Not Available

1980-03-01

140

Lurgi's MPG gasification plus Rectisol{reg_sign} gas purification - advanced process combination for reliable syngas production  

SciTech Connect

Lurgi's Multi Purpose Gasification Process (MPG) is the reliable partial oxidation process to convert hydrocarbon liquids, slurries and natural gas into valuable syngas. The MPG burner has once again proven its capabilities in an ammonia plant based on asphalt gasification. Lurgi is operating the HP-POX demonstration plant together with the University of Freiberg, Germany. Gasification tests at pressures of up to 100 bar have shown that syngas for high pressure synthesis such as methanol and ammonia can be produced more economically. The Rectisol{reg_sign} gas purification process yields ultra clean synthesis gas which is required to avoid problems in the downstream synthesis. Pure carbon dioxide is produced as a separate stream and is readily available for sequestration, enhanced oil recovery or other uses. The reliability of the Rectisol{reg_sign} process and the confidence of plant operators in this process are acknowledged by the fact that more than 75% of the syngas produced world wide by coal, oil and waste gasification is purified in Rectisol{reg_sign} units. Virtually all coal gasification plants currently under construction rely on Rectisol{reg_sign}. The new, large GTL plants and hydrogen production facilities require effective CO{sub 2} removal. New developments make Rectisol{reg_sign} attractive for this task. 10 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photos.

NONE

2005-07-01

141

Biomass waste gasification – Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of

Jind?ich Šulc; Ji?í Štojdl; Miroslav Richter; Jan Popelka; Karel Svoboda; Ji?í Smetana; Ji?í Vacek; Siarhei Skoblja; Petr Buryan

142

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products  

SciTech Connect

The char produced in the 100-lb/hr process development unit has been magnetically cleaned by AMAX and returned to the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). The final calcining step of the process is currently being performed in the 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). The liquid products generated by the PDU have been collected and split into usable fractions and fractions to be discarded. Samples of the coal-derived liquids have been sent to Merichem Corporation of Houston and Koppers Industries of Pittsburgh for determination of their usefulness as chemical feedstock for the production of cresylic acids and anode-grade-binder pitch. The technical and economic assessment performed by Xbi and J.E Sinor Consultants has been completed. The briquette testing being conducted at the EERC has produced high quality briquettes using a number of binder agents. The next step in the test matrix will include the use of coal-derived liquids from the PDU as the binder. An additional coal has been added to the mild gasification test matrix. AMAX recently acquired two eastern low-sulfur bituminous coals and suggested that a limited test schedule be conducted to determine the suitability of these coals for the mild gasification process. The sulfur levels in the raw coals are below the target levels suggested by the steel industry for metallurgical coke use. To date, it has not been possible to reach these goals using the high-sulfur Illinois Basin coals tested.

Runge, B.D.; Ness, R.O. Jr.; Sharp, L.L.; Shockey, R.E.

1992-07-01

143

Energy from biomass: the simplex process for the gasification of coal and forest pulp  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective for this effort was to investigate the adaptation of the developing Simplex process to the gasification of wood waste and forest pulp. Several specific objectives had to be met to achieve this overall objective: wood supply and wood comminution requirements had to be determined, a briquette formulation procedure has to be developed and tested, and sample briquettes had to be successfully gasified in the small scale Columbia University gasification facility. The study was successful in developing an acceptable sylvan-simplex briquette using a low energy wood comminution technique and commercial briquette manufacturing process. The briquettes exhibited satisfactory performance in the Simplex prototype gasifier at Columbia University and the conclusion follows that the Simplex process has been successfully adapted to forest pulp and wood waste feedstocks. Further development efforts for both the Simplex and Sylvan-Simplex options should be directed at pilot scale testing in a 10 to 20 ton per day gasifier. This magnitude of scale-up is now appropriate as a further step toward eventual commercialization of this renewable resource fueled technology.

Arbo, J.C.

1980-04-01

144

High Temperature Electrochemical Polishing of H(2)S from Coal Gasification Process Streams.  

SciTech Connect

An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide from coal gasification streams through an electrochemical membrane is being perfected. H{sub 2}S is removed from a synthetic gas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the exiting syngas, and sulfur, which is condensed downstream from an inert sweep gas stream. The process allows for continuous removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream while allowing negligible pressure loss through the separator. Moreover, the process is economically attractive due to the elimination of the need for a Claus process for sulfur recovery. To this extent the project presents a novel concept for improving utilization of coal for more efficient power generation.

Winnick, J.

1997-12-31

145

Evaluating the status of the Texaco gasifier  

SciTech Connect

Conclusions after a series of runs at steady state conditions in the pilot plant are: (1) Western Kentucky No. 9 coal (either run-of-mine or washed) can be gasified without pretreatment; (2) other coking bituminous coal may also be able to be gasified without pretreatment; (3) pretreatment is not required to achieve satisfactory ash agglomeration; (4) balanced ash agglomeration with satisfactory removal of the agglomerates has been achieved and stable operation of ash agglomeration is possible during periods of short upset; (5) solutions appear to have been found for prevention of clinkering and sintering by alternative venturi design, modification in the oxygen feed system and increasing the superficial velocity of the gas; (6) under certain circumstances fines recycle has been achieved with stable operation and fluidization; (7) the process can be operated at pressures up to 60 psig without adversely affecting other process parameters; (8) a wide range of operating conditions can be used while maintaining system operability; and (9) in a single test water cooling of the cyclone appears to prevent ash deposition on the cooled surfaces which confirms the experience of Westinghouse with ash deposition prevention in their fluidized bed gasifier. 11 references, 12 tables.

Perry, H.

1981-01-01

146

Scaleup of mild gasification to be a process development. Quarterly report, February 1995--May 1995  

SciTech Connect

The work performed during the Fourteenth quarterly reporting period (February 21 through May 20, 1995) on the research program, {open_quotes}Scale-Up of Mild Gasification to a Process Development Unit{close_quotes} is presented in this report. The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: (1) design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup; (2) obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; (3) prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and (4) develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The project team that is performing the initial phases of the PDU development are: Kerr-McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal), the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel), and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300{degrees}F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The 1 ton/hr PDU facility that is to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of gases, coal liquids, and char; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid products; and coal feeding and char handling equipment. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste. This quarter, the formal HAZOP review was completed and a report detailing action items for resolution by the parties responsible was prepared.

Doane, E.P.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

1995-06-01

147

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on the production of co-products from mild gasification. This quarter, 10 mild gasification tests were conducted in the 8-inch-I.D. process research unit (PRU). Modifications to the PRU were made during this period to improve mixing and to overcome the caking tendency of the Illinois No. 6 coal. Six of the tests resulted in satisfactory operation at steady conditions for 2.25 to 3.25 hours. Samples of char, gas, water, and organic condensables were collected over a one-hour period from each of these successful tests and analyzed. The effects of process temperature over the range of 1025{degree} to 1390{degree} was studied during this quarter. Compositional effects on the oils and tars observed with increased temperature are increased light oil content, decreased pitch content, decreased oxygen content, increased nitrogen and sulfur content, and increasing aromaticity. Char upgrading studies continued during the quarter. Briquettes made in a laboratory press, using either a pitch binder or Illinois No. 6 coal to provide an in-situ binder, were calcined and tested for diametral compression strength. Char was also subjected to steam activation at a variety of conditions to determine the potential for use as a low-cost absorbent for water treatment. 2 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs.

Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.; Onischak, M.; Kline, S.; Babu, S.P.

1990-01-01

148

Process and technology development activities for in situ coal gasification, FY83  

SciTech Connect

As part of DOE's Underground Coal Gasification Program, activities at Sandia National Laboratories have been directed at Process and Technology Development. The project areas include (1) the development of a cornering water jet drill for use in linking vertical wells in Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) tests; (2) the development of a controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) surface geophysical technique for monitoring the process, and (3) the development of models for use in predicting surface subsidence and cavity growth. The accomplishments for the year include (1) the successful completion of the high wall tests of the cornering water jet drill, (2) the start of the down hole tests including completion of the vertical hole and underreamed volume, testing of the sump pump and initial drilling to a hole length of three meters, (3) the preliminary CSAMT survey of the Tono partial seam controlled reacting injection point (CRIP) test area, (4) the development of a data acquisition and analysis system for the CSAMT technique, (5) the development of a predictive model for subsidence and cavity growth and their application to the partial seam CRIP test.

Glass, R.E. (ed.)

1983-12-01

149

Feasibility Study Regarding the Production of 1000 T/D Ammonia on the Basis of Fluid Bed Gasification (Rheinbraun HTW-Process) of Peat. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conceptual design of a 1000 t/d ammonia plant is described. The basis is the fluid bed gasification (Rheinbraun-HTW-Process) of peat. The reasons of selecting the various process steps (gasification, shift conversion, H sub 2 S/CO sub 2 -removal, liqu...

E. Nitschke, H. Ilgner

1985-01-01

150

Experimental and Process Design Study of a High Rate Entrained Coal Gasification Process. Final Report, January 1974-November 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the project were to: demonstrate stable, reliable, long term, continuous operation of a pressurized, downflow, entrained, laboratory scale coal gasification pilot plant; develop a mathematical model of the gasification reactor which will...

M. J. McIntosh R. L. Coates

1978-01-01

151

Aldehyde and Unburned Fuel Emission Measurements from a Methanol-Fueled Texaco Stratified Charge Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Texaco L-163S TCCS (Texaco Controlled Combustion System) engine was operated with pure methanol to investigate the origin of unburned fuel (UBF) and formaldehyde emissions. Both continuous and time-resolved exhaust gas sampling methods were used to meas...

C. Kim D. E. Foster

1985-01-01

152

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1991-09-01

153

Gasification. 2nd. ed.  

SciTech Connect

This book covers gasification as a comprehensive topic, covering its many uses, from refining, to natural gas, to coal. It provides an overview of commercial processes and covers applications relevant to today's demands. The new edition is expanded and provides more detail on the integration issues for current generation, state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC); CO{sub 2} capture in the IGCC context addressing the issues of pre-investment and retrofitting as well as defining what the term 'CO{sub 2} capture ready' might mean in practice; issues of plant reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) including as evaluation of feedback from existing plants; implementation of fuel cell technology in IGCC concepts. Contents are: Introduction; The Thermodynamics of Gasification; The Kinetics of Gasification and Reactor Theory; Feedstocks and Feedstock Characteristics; Gasification Processes; Practical Issues; Applications; Auxiliary Technologies; Economics, environmental, and Safety Issues; Gasification and the Future. 5 apps.

Christopher Higman; Maarten van der Burgt [Lurgi Oel Gas Chemie (Germany)

2008-02-15

154

Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1996-08-01

155

Numerical simulation of the pyrolysis zone in a downdraft gasification process.  

PubMed

Models of the gasification process are mostly based on lumped analysis with distinct zones of the process treated as one entity. The study presented here was conducted to develop a more useful model specifically for the pyrolysis zone of the reactor of a downdraft gasifier based on finite computation method. Applying principles of energy and mass conservation, governing equations formed were solved by implicit finite difference method on the node of 100 throughout the length of the considered pyrolysis range (20 cm). Heat transfer considered convection, conduction, and the influence of solid radiation components. Chemical kinetics concept was also adopted to simultaneously solve the temperature profile and feedstock consumption rate on the pyrolysis zone. The convergence criteria were set at 10(-6) and simulation used Fortran Power Station 4.0. Validation experiments were also conducted resulting in maximum deviation of 24 degrees C and 0.37 kg/h for temperature and feedstock feed rate, respectively. PMID:19631526

Jaojaruek, K; Kumar, S

2009-12-01

156

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products  

SciTech Connect

A project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, Inc., and Bechtel National, Inc., is developing a mild gasification process that uses a fluidized/entrained-bed reactor. This reactor is designed to process caking bituminous coals over a wide range of particle sizes without oxidative pretreatment, and also without the use of oxygen or air as reactants. The co-product streams, consisting of char, fuel gas, water, and condensables, would be separated by conventional means such as cyclone, staged condensers, and recycle-oil scrubbers. An isothermal process research unit (PRU) has been built at IGT, consisting of an 8-inch-I.D., 8-foot-long fluidized-bed section and a 4-inch-I.D., 13-foot-long entrained flow section, externally heated by electrical heaters. This quarter, eleven mild gasification tests were conducted in the PRU. Illinois No. 6 coal was used in nine of the tests and a West Virginia metallurgical grade of coal was used in the last two tests. The tests conducted in the PRU this quarter were operated with feed rates about three times higher than those used in the last quarter. Results show the effect of process temperature on the shields of char, oils/tars, and gases. Various compositional effects on the oils/tars were also discovered. Char upgrading studies were completed for the char co-product options of smokeless fuel and adsorbent char. A total condensate collection system was designed for the PRU system. 18 figs., 22 tabs.

Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.; Kline, S.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA))

1990-04-01

157

Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal-gasification research program. Metal-carbonyl formation in coal-gasification processes. [130 references  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of carbonyl formation should be taken into account at the design stage. Formation of carbonyls in a coal gasification process is not only a potential problem for the user of the gas but may result in corrosion and/or catalyst damage in the gasification process itself. Designers should make use of the methods for preventing carbonyl formation that are described in the section entitled Methods of Control. Equilibrium and kinetic data are given in this report along with suggestions as to where further data may be found. Carbonyls can be removed from gas streams by the methods described in the section entitled Methods of Control. It may be necessary to remove carbonyls from gas streams if they appear unexpectedly or if it is uneconomic to completely prevent their formation in a particular design. The formation of solid deposits on and around gas burners has been reported at lower concentrations of carbonyl than any other problem caused by the presence of carbonyls. The maximum permissible concentration of carbonyls in SNG is therefore set by the need to avoid such deposits. A tentative limit of 0.01 ppMV was obtained by a reasonable extrapolation of European data. Since the exact mechanism of formation of the solid deposits is unknown, this extrapolation from one gas composition to another is suspect. New experiments should be performed to determine the effects of carbonyls in forming solid deposits on and around gas burners using SNG. Recommendations for specific further studies are given.

Montgomery, R.L.

1981-04-01

158

Assessment of the CRIP (Controlled Retracting Injection Point) process for underground coal gasification: The Rocky Mountain I test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of the recently completed Rocky Mountain I (RMI) underground coal gasification (UCG) field test have shown that the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) process for UCG is capable of producing consistently high quality gas from a single injection well for an extended period of time. The RMI CRIP module was in operation for 93 days and gasified over 10,000

R. J. Cena; C. B. Thorsness; J. A. Britten

1988-01-01

159

Gasification system  

DOEpatents

A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA); Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA); Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA)

1985-01-01

160

Catalytic gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for catalytic gasification of heavy oil of a specific gravity of higher than 0.7 with steam or steam\\/oxygen-containing gas characterized in that the heavy oil is contacted with chromium oxide catalyst or a catalyst comprising a mixture of chromium oxide and one or more of alkaline earth metal oxides, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, nickel oxide and cobalt oxide.

K. Isogaya; K. Kikuchi; E. Sugiyama; K. Yoshida

1982-01-01

161

Gasification system  

DOEpatents

A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA) [Hempfield, PA; Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA) [Penn Hills, PA; Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA) [Bethel Park, PA

1983-01-01

162

Brazing as a Means of Sealing Ceramic Membranes for use in Advanced Coal Gasification Processes  

SciTech Connect

Coal is potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Rice, Joseph P.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.

2006-01-02

163

Brazing as a Means of Sealing Ceramic Membranes for Use in Advanced Coal Gasification Processes  

SciTech Connect

Coal is a potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Rice, Joseph P.; Kim, Jin Yong

2006-01-31

164

Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Topical report, Process analysis, FY 1983  

SciTech Connect

KRW Energy Systems, Inc., is engaged in the continuing development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally-acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized carbonaceous feedstocks and industrial fuels. This report presents process analysis of the 24 ton-per-day Process Development Unit (PDU) operations and is a continuation of the process analysis work performed in 1980 and 1981. Included is work performed on PDU process data; gasification; char-ash separation; ash agglomeration; fines carryover, recycle, and consumption; deposit formation; materials; and environmental, health, and safety issues. 63 figs., 43 tabs.

None

1987-07-31

165

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Tasks 2, 3, and 4.1 to 4.6), Volume 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 contains information on the following topics: (1) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (2) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (3) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. (VC)

Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1991-09-01

166

Hydrothermal gasification of waste biomass: process design and life cycle asessment.  

PubMed

A process evaluation methodology is presented that incorporates flowsheet mass and energy balance modeling, heat and power integration, and life cycle assessment Environmental impacts are determined by characterizing and weighting (using CO2 equivalents, Eco-indicator 99, and Eco-scarcity) the flowsheet and inventory modeling results. The methodology is applied to a waste biomass to synthetic natural gas (SNG) conversion process involving a catalytic hydrothermal gasification step. Several scenarios are constructed for different Swiss biomass feedstocks and different scales depending on logistical choices: large-scale (155 MW(SNG)) and small-scale (5.2 MW(SNG)) scenarios for a manure feedstock and one scenario (35.6 MW(SNG))for a wood feedstock. Process modeling shows that 62% of the manure's lower heating value (LHV) is converted to SNG and 71% of wood's LHV is converted to SNG. Life cycle modeling shows that, for all processes, about 10% of fossil energy use is imbedded in the produced renewable SNG. Converting manure and replacing it, as a fertilizer, with the process mineral byproduct leads to reduced N20 emissions and an improved environmental performance such as global warming potential: -0.6 kg(CO2eq)/MJ(SNG) vs. -0.02 kg(CO2eq)/MJ(SNG) for wood scenarios. PMID:19350938

Luterbacher, Jeremy S; Fröling, Morgan; Vogel, Frederic; Maréchal, François; Tester, Jefferson W

2009-03-01

167

Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology  

SciTech Connect

NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

Gary Stiegel

2008-03-26

168

Pulverized coal plasma gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of experiments on the plasma-vapor gasification of brown coals of three types have been carried out using an experimental plant with an electric-arc reactor of the combined type. On the basis of the material and heat balances, process parameters have been obtained: the degree of carbon gasification (?c), the level of sulfur conversion into the gas phase (?s),

R. A. Kalinenko; A. P. Kuznetsov; A. A. Levitsky; V. E. Messerle; Yu. A. Mirokhin; L. S. Polak; Z. B. Sakipov; A. B. Ustimenko

1993-01-01

169

Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology  

ScienceCinema

NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

Gary Stiegel

2010-01-08

170

Texaco-Cities laying pipeline link with LOOP (Louisiana Offshore Oil Port)  

SciTech Connect

Texaco Inc. and Cities Service Pipe Line Co. are building a jointly owned, $50 million, 36 mi, 24 in. pipeline to connect a LOOP storage terminal at the Clovelly salt dome near Galliano, Lafourche Parish, LA, to a Texas pipe Line Co. connection at Houma, LA. The pipeline will be able to move 250,000 bbl/day of crude to Texaco's refineries and other facilities in Louisiana and Texas. At Houma, some of the crude will enter a 22 in. line owned by Texas Pipe Line for delivery to Texaco's Port Arthur, TX, and Port Neches, TX, refineries.

Not Available

1980-06-23

171

NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work performed, accomplishments and conclusion obtained from the project entitled ''Novel Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation in Gasification Processes in Vision 21 Energy Plants'' under the United States Department of Energy Contract DE-FC26-01NT40973. ITN Energy Systems was the prime contractor. Team members included: the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory; Nexant Consulting; Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair. The objective of the program was to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The separation technology module is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. The program developed and evaluated composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules were fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed Ion Conducting Ceramic Membrane (ICCM) approach, including system integration issues, were also assessed. This resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of integration schemes of ICCM hydrogen separation technology within Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Several results and conclusion were obtained during this program. In the area of materials synthesis, novel pyrochlore-based proton conductors were identified, synthesized and characterized. They exhibited conductivity as high as 0.03 S/cm at 900 C. Long-term stability under CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} atmospheres was also demonstrated. In the area of membrane fabrication by plasma spray processing, the initial results showed that the pyrochlore materials could be processed in a spray torch. Although leak-tight membranes were obtained, cracking, most likely due to differences in thermal expansion, remained a problem. More modeling and experimental work can be used to solve this problem. Finally the techno-economic analyses showed that the ITN ICCM approach for separating H{sub 2} is comparable to conventional pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technology in efficiency and economics. Enhanced membrane flux and lower operating temperatures may make the ICCM approach superior to PSA.

Michael Schwartz

2004-12-01

172

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts: Task 4. 6, Technical and economic evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of DOE has sponsored, and continues to sponsor, programs for the development of technology and market strategies which will lead to the commercialization of processes for the production of coproducts from mild gasification of coal. It has been recognized by DOE and industry that mild gasification is a promising technology with potential to economically convert coal into marketable products, thereby increasing domestic coal utilization. In this process, coal is devolatilized under non- oxidizing conditions at mild temperature (900--1100{degrees}F) and pressure (1--15psig). Condensation of the vapor will yield a liquid product that can be upgraded to a petroleum substitute, and the remaining gas can provide the fuel for the process. The residual char can be burned in a power plant. Thus, in a long-term national scenario, implementation of this process will result in significant decrease of imported oil and increase in coal utilization.

Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

1991-12-01

173

Supercritical water gasification of biomass for H2 production: process design.  

PubMed

The supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of biomass for H(2) production is analyzed in terms of process development and energetic self-sustainability. The conceptual design of a plant is proposed and the SCWG process involving several substrates (glycerol, microalgae, sewage sludge, grape marc, phenol) is simulated by means of AspenPlus™. The influence of various parameters - biomass concentration and typology, reaction pressure and temperature - is analyzed. The process accounts for the possibility of exploiting the mechanical energy of compressed syngas (later burned to sustain the SCWG reaction) through expansion in turbines, while purified H(2) is fed to fuel cells. Results show that the SCWG reaction can be energetically self-sustained if minimum feed biomass concentrations of 15-25% are adopted. Interestingly, the H(2) yields are found to be maximal at similar feed concentrations. Finally, an energy balance is performed showing that the whole process could provide a net power of about 150 kW(e)/(1000 kg(feed)/h). PMID:22858478

Fiori, Luca; Valbusa, Michele; Castello, Daniele

2012-10-01

174

Concentrating-solar biomass gasification process for a 3rd generation biofuel.  

PubMed

A new concept of producing synfuel from biomass using concentrating solar energy as its main energy source is proposed in this paper. The aim of the concept is to obtain an easy to handle fuel with near-zero CO2 emission and reduced land-use requirements compared to first and second generation biofuels. The concept's key feature is the use of high-temperature heat from a solar concentrating tower to drive the chemical process of converting biomassto a biofuel, obtaining a near-complete utilization of carbon atoms in the biomass. H2 from water electrolysis with solar power is used for reverse water gas shift to avoid producing CO2 during the process. In a chemical process simulation, we compare the solar biofuel concept with two other advanced synfuel concepts: second generation biofuel and coal-to-liquid, both using gasification technology and capture and storage of CO2 generated in the fuel production. The solar-driventhird generation biofuel requires only 33% of the biomass input and 38% of total land as the second generation biofuel, while still exhibiting a CO2-neutral fuel cycle. With CO2 capture, second generation biofuel would lead to the removal of 50% of the carbon in the biomass from the atmosphere. There is a trade-off between reduced biomass feed costs and the increased capital requirements for the solar-driven process; it is attractive at intermediate biomass and CO2 prices. PMID:19569353

Hertwich, Edgar G; Zhang, Xiangping

2009-06-01

175

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the results of Task 4 under which a 50 pound/hour char-to-carbon (CTC) process research unit (PRU) was designed in the second half of 1989, with construction completed in June 1990. The CTC PRU at Golden was operated for nearly one year during which 35 runs were completed for a total of nearly 800 hours of operation. Char methanation and carbon production reactor development activities are detailed in this report, as well as the results of integrated runs of the CTC process. Evaluation of the process and the carbon product produced is also included. It was concluded that carbon could be produced from mild gasification char utilizing the CTC process. Char methanation and membrane separation steps performed reasonably well and can scaled up with confidence. However, the novel directly heated reactor system for methane cracking did not work satisfactorily due to materials of construction and heat transfer problems, which adversely affected the quantity and quality of the carbon product. Alternative reactor designs are recommended.

Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.; Hogsett, R.F.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.

1991-12-01

176

Lime enhanced gasification of solid fuels: Examination of a process for simultaneous hydrogen production and CO 2 capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lime enhanced gasification (LEGS) process uses CaO as a CO2 carrier and consists of two coupled reactors: a gasifier in which CO2 absorption by CaO produces a hydrogen-rich product gas, and a regenerator in which the sorbent is calcined producing a high purity CO2 gas stream suitable for storage. The LEGS process operates at a pressure of 2.0MPa and

Thomas Weimer; Roland Berger; Craig Hawthorne; J. Carlos Abanades

2008-01-01

177

Advanced coal-gasification and - liquefaction process development at Rockwell International  

SciTech Connect

Rockwell International, through its Energy Systems Group, is involved in the development of several advanced technology processes for the conversion of coal to gaseous and liquid products. These include the Rockgas molten salt gasification process and the CS/R Hydrogasification and Hydroliquefaction processes based upon flash hydropyrolysis (FHP) technology. In the Rockgas process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air (or with oxygen plus steam) within a highly turbulent pool of sodium carbonate-based melt at a temperature of approximately 1800/sup 0/F. Sulfur and ash from the coal are retained in the melt, and a small melt stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of the salt. A 1-T/h process development unit (PDU) has been operated in the air-blown (low-Btu) configuration since 1978 and has provided design data for the overall process including the melt regeneration system. The CS/R hydroconversion processes use a short-residence-time (in milli-seconds) reactor, derived from aerospace rocket reactor technology, to quickly react pulverized coal with hot hydrogen. By specifying reactor temperature, pressure, and reactor residence time, the product mix can be precisely controlled. Very short residence times emphasize liquid products formation, and longer residence times (up to several seconds) result in high-Btu SNG production. Engineering scale test data (up to 1 T/h) have been used in commercial process design studies to demonstrate the attractive economics which can be achieved. For example, an SNG plant with coproduction of benzene as the sole byproduct offers a gas cost at least $1.00/MMBtu lower than competitive processes. The application of SRT hydropyrolysis in the economic production of petrochemicals from heavy residual petroleum feedstocks is also reviewed.

Silverman, J.; Friedman, J.; Kahn, D.; Kohl, A.

1981-01-01

178

Optimization of electricity-methanol coproduction: Configurations of integrated - gasification - combined - cycle/once-through methanol  

SciTech Connect

An attractive alternative providing considerable flexibility in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant involves plant modification to coproduce methanol and electricity. The methanol, produced continuously and stored during off peak hours, becomes a storable liquid fuel saleable as a by-product or usable as supplemental fuel during peak demand periods. The Once-Through Methanol (OTM) process converts to methanol without shifting into a balanced gas as required by conventional vapor phase. A promising OTM concept involves the liquid-phase methanol (LPMEOH{sup TM}){asterisk} process, particularly suited for use with carbon monoxide (CO) rich coal-derived synthesis gas, which has the potential to produce methanol at lower costs than traditional vapor-phase processes. The purpose of this study was to estimate the cost of methanol coproduced in IGCC/OTM configurations, including baseload and intermediate load following applications. The study developed an OTM design based on the LPMEOH process for a 650 MW Texaco-based IGCC facility load following a design previously developed by Flour. Using a portion of the synthesis gas generated in the gasification plant to coproduce methanol, methanol cost was calculated to maintain the same revenue requirements from power sale (cost of electricity) as the IGCC plant. The report also evaluated incorporation of the LPMEOH unit for load following, and estimated and compared electricity cost with and IGCC-only facility cycled to produce the same base and peak power load for summer and winter ambient conditions. 14 refs., 52 figs., 73 tabs.

Not Available

1990-06-01

179

Fluidized-bed catalytic coal-gasification process. [US patent; pretreatment to minimize agglomeration  

DOEpatents

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 vol % and 21 vol % oxygen at a temperature between 50 and 250/sup 0/C in an oxidation zone and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

Euker, C.A. Jr.; Wesselhoft, R.D.; Dunkleman, J.J.; Aquino, D.C.; Gouker, T.R.

1981-09-14

180

Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER = 0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV = 3.15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950 Degree-Sign C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream.

Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Karel, E-mail: svoboda@icpf.cas.cz [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri [D.S.K. Ltd., Ujezdecek - Dukla 264, 415 01 Teplice I (Czech Republic); Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr [Dept. of Gas, Coke and Air protection, Institute of Chemical Technol., Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2012-04-15

181

Optimization of Biomass Gasification Process for F-T Bio-Diesel Synthesys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of biomass steam gasification were investigated to make an optimum syngas for Fischer Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of bio-diesel. Korean pine wood chip was used as a fuel and the experiment was conducted in a lab scale bubbling fluidized bed (0.1m LD. x 3.Omheight). Gas composition was evaluated by changing operating parameters such as gasifier temperature, and steam to fuel ratio. Major syngas was monitored by on-line gas analyzer (ND-IR spectroscopy) and gas chromatography (GC). As the temperature of gasifier increases hydrogen in the syngas increases while CO in the product gas decreases. The low concentration of sulfur compound and nitrogen in the product gas shows the potential advantages in the purification process of the syngas for F-T process. Optimum operating condition of the gasifier was found concerning the following gas cleaning and F-T process; H2-CO ratio and total gas yield increase while decreasing methane and CO2 concentrations in the syngas.

Song, Jae Hun; Sung, Yeon Kyung; Yu, Tae U.; Choi, Young Tae; Lee, Uen Do

182

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, April--June 1994  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is to develop an advanced continuous mild gasification process and product upgrading processes which will be capable of eventual commercialization. The program consists of four tasks. Task 1 is a literature survey of mild gasification processes and product upgrading methods and also a market assessment of markets for mild gasification products. Based on the literature survey, a mild gasification process and char upgrading method will be identified for further development. Task 2 is a bench-scale investigation of mild gasification to generate design data for a larger scale reactor. Task 3 is a bench-scale study of char upgrading to value added products. Task 4 is being implemented by building and operating a 1000-pound per hour demonstration facility. Task 4 also includes a technical and economic evaluation based on the performance of the mild gasification demonstration facility. Installation of a continuous coke pilot plant started in the second quarter of 1994. Ten of 14 major components have been set. The remaining four are on order. Startup is scheduled for late September 1994. Eight test runs were completed in the continuous mild gasification unit (CMGU). These were short test runs to evaluate repair work or to demonstrate the PDU. Efforts continued to obtain financing for a commercial unit.

O`Neal, G.W.

1994-07-01

183

High Throughput Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental investigation of pulverized coal gasification in a batch process reactor under conditions of high temperature and high heating rate is described. Effects of process variables such as background gas composition, particle size, mass loading ...

D. B. Northam C. W. von Rosenberg

1979-01-01

184

Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

Wiser, W. H.

1980-09-01

185

Sfw-Funk Process for Gasification of Solid Urban and Industrial Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development and testing of an urban and industrial waste gasification plant are described. Domestic waste of different compostion, grain size and closeness of grain and rubber and wood were gasified at varying operating conditions (composition, quanti...

H. Hummelsiep F. Heinrich

1982-01-01

186

Steam gasification of waste tyre: influence of process temperature on yield and product composition.  

PubMed

An experimental survey of waste tyre gasification with steam as oxidizing agent has been conducted in a continuous bench scale reactor, with the aim of studying the influence of the process temperature on the yield and the composition of the products; the tests have been performed at three different temperatures, in the range of 850-1000°C, holding all the other operational parameters (pressure, carrier gas flow, solid residence time). The experimental results show that the process seems promising in view of obtaining a good quality syngas, indicating that a higher temperature results in a higher syngas production (86 wt%) and a lower char yield, due to an enhancement of the solid-gas phase reactions with the temperature. Higher temperatures clearly result in higher hydrogen concentrations: the hydrogen content rapidly increases, attaining values higher than 65% v/v, while methane and ethylene gradually decrease over the range of the temperatures; carbon monoxide and dioxide instead, after an initial increase, show a nearly constant concentration at 1000°C. Furthermore, in regards to the elemental composition of the synthesis gas, as the temperature increases, the carbon content continuously decreases, while the oxygen content increases; the hydrogen, being the main component of the gas fraction and having a small atomic weight, is responsible for the progressive reduction of the gas density at higher temperature. PMID:22749720

Portofino, Sabrina; Donatelli, Antonio; Iovane, Pierpaolo; Innella, Carolina; Civita, Rocco; Martino, Maria; Matera, Domenico Antonio; Russo, Antonio; Cornacchia, Giacinto; Galvagno, Sergio

2013-03-01

187

Mountain fuel resources 30 tons per day entrained flow coal gasification process development unit  

SciTech Connect

Pressurized gasification of coal in experimental entrained flow gasifiers was studied rather extensively during the period between 1953 and 1962 at the U.S. Bureau of Mines Morgantown Coal Research Center. A laboratory-scale gasifier with some similarity to the Bureau of Mines unit was operated by the Eyring Research Institute (MFI) between 1974 and 1978. This work was followed by extensive process design studies carried out by Mountain Fuel Resources which also led to the issuance of a U.S. patent. One of the important conclusions from this study was that feeding the dry coal to an entrained flow gasifier with recycle product gas was inherently more efficient than feeding the coal as a water slurry. A 30 tons per day process development unit (PDU) was designed, constructed and operated between 1980 and 1984 to provide data for further scale-up of system components. Controlled continuous dry-feeding of pulverized coal into the gasifier at pressures between 100 and 260 psia (600 and 1700 kPa) was achieved. The unit was operated for more than 2000 hours on six different feedstocks. Most of the tests were conducted with Utah bituminous coal, achieving above 90 percent carbon conversion without char recycle.

Chen, C.; Coates, R.L.

1986-01-01

188

Mathematical modeling and investigations of the processes of heat conduction of ammonium perchlorate with phase transitions in thermal decomposition and gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient heat-conduction processes occurring in the period of thermal decomposition and gasification of a crystalline oxidant — ammonium perchlorate — have been investigated and analyzed on the basis of the developed mathematical model.

Mikhailov, A. V.; Lagun, I. M.; Polyakov, E. P.

2013-01-01

189

The formation mechanism of CO2 and its conversion in the process of coal gasification under arc plasma conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carbon dioxide (CO2) formation mechanism and co-conversion of CO2 with coal was investigated in the process of coal gasification in a steam medium at atmospheric pressure under arc plasma conditions in a tube-type setup. The arc plasma was diagnosed in situ by optical emission spectroscopy and the gas products were analysed by gas chromatography. CO2 yields are correlated with

Xiaojun He; Mingdong Zheng; Jieshan Qiu; Zongbin Zhao; Tengcai Ma

2006-01-01

190

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 4. 7), Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this task is the preparation of (1) preliminary piping and instrument diagrams (P IDs) and single line electrical diagrams for a site-specific conceptual design and (2) a factored cost estimate for a 24 ton/day (tpd) capacity mild gasification process development unit (PDU) and an associated form coke preparation PDU. The intended site for this facility is the Illinois Coal Development Park at Carterville, Illinois, which is operated by Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. (VC)

Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

1991-09-01

191

Treatment of biomass gasification wastewater using a combined wet air oxidation/activated sludge process  

SciTech Connect

A lab-scale treatability study for using thermal and biological oxidation to treat a biomass gasification wastewater (BGW) having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 46,000 mg/l is described. Wet air oxidation (WA0) at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) was used to initially treat the BGW and resulted in a COD reduction of 74%. This was followed by conventional activated sludge treatment using operating conditions typical of municipal sewage treatment plants. This resulted in an additional 95% COD removal. Overall COD reduction for the combined process was 99%. A detailed chemical analysis of the raw BGW and thermal and biological effluents was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These results showed a 97% decrease in total extractable organics with WA0 and a 99.6% decrease for combined WA0 and activated sludge treatment. Components of the treated waters tended to be fewer in number and more highly oxidized. An experiment was conducted to determine the amount of COD reduction caused by volatilization during biological treatment. Unfortunately, this did not yield conclusive results. Treatment of BGW using WA0 followed by activated sludge appears to be very effective and investigations at a larger scale are recommended.

English, C.J.; Petty, S.E.; Sklarew, D.S.

1983-02-01

192

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems  

SciTech Connect

This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

1991-09-01

193

Chemical Processing in High-Pressure Aqueous Environments. 9. Process Development for Catalytic Gasification of Algae Feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

Through the use of a metal catalyst, gasification of wet algae slurries can be accomplished with high levels of carbon conversion to gas at relatively low temperature (350 C). In a pressurized-water environment (20 MPa), near-total conversion of the organic structure of the algae to gases has been achieved in the presence of a supported ruthenium metal catalyst. The process is essentially steam reforming, as there is no added oxidizer or reagent other than water. In addition, the gas produced is a medium-heating value gas due to the synthesis of high levels of methane, as dictated by thermodynamic equilibrium. As opposed to earlier work, biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties in the fixed catalyst bed tubular reactor system. As a result, the algae feedstocks, even those with high ash contents, were much more reliably processed. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations. Consistent catalyst operation in these short-term tests suggested good stability and minimal poisoning effects. High methane content in the product gas was noted with significant carbon dioxide captured in the aqueous byproduct in combination with alkali constituents and the ammonia byproduct derived from proteins in the algae. High conversion of algae to gas products was found with low levels of byproduct water contamination and low to moderate loss of carbon in the mineral separation step.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.

2012-07-26

194

Gasification Technologie: Opportunities & Challenges  

SciTech Connect

This course has been put together to provide a single source document that not only reviews the historical development of gasification but also compares the process to combustion. It also provides a short discussion on integrated gasification and combined cycle processes. The major focus of the course is to describe the twelve major gasifiers being developed today. The hydrodynamics and kinetics of each are reviewed along with the most likely gas composition from each of the technologies when using a variety of fuels under different conditions from air blown to oxygen blown and atmospheric pressure to several atmospheres. If time permits, a more detailed discussion of low temperature gasification will be included.

Breault, R.

2012-01-01

195

Phase-equilibria for design of coal-gasification processes: dew points of hot gases containing condensible tars. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This research is concerned with the fundamental physical chemistry and thermodynamics of condensation of tars (dew points) from the vapor phase at advanced temperatures and pressures. Fundamental quantitative understanding of dew points is important for rational design of heat exchangers to recover sensible heat from hot, tar-containing gases that are produced in coal gasification. This report includes essentially six contributions toward establishing the desired understanding: (1) Characterization of Coal Tars for Dew-Point Calculations; (2) Fugacity Coefficients for Dew-Point Calculations in Coal-Gasification Process Design; (3) Vapor Pressures of High-Molecular-Weight Hydrocarbons; (4) Estimation of Vapor Pressures of High-Boiling Fractions in Liquefied Fossil Fuels Containing Heteroatoms Nitrogen or Sulfur; and (5) Vapor Pressures of Heavy Liquid Hydrocarbons by a Group-Contribution Method.

Prausnitz, J.M.

1980-05-01

196

Fluid bed gasification--plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: experimental assessment of sulphur species.  

PubMed

Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO2 and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO2's generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO2 was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO2 generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS--hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling. PMID:24176239

Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Taylor, Richard

2014-01-01

197

Control Technology Assessment for Coal Gasification and Liquefaction Processes, Coal Gasification Facility, Caterpiller Tractor Company, York, Pennsylvania. Report for the Site Visit of May 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A control technology survey was conducted at the coal gasification facility of the Caterpillar Tractor Company (SIC-5161), in York, Pennsylvania on August 18, 1980 and May 7, 1981, in conjunction with an industrial hygiene characterization study. Potentia...

D. R. Telesca

1982-01-01

198

Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 3: Gasification, process fuels, and balance of plant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of an investigation of gasification and clean fuels from coal. Factors discussed include: coal and coal transportation costs; clean liquid and gas fuel process efficiencies and costs; and cost, performance, and environmental intrusion elements of the integrated low-Btu coal gasification system. Cost estimates for the balance-of-plant requirements associated with advanced energy conversion systems utilizing coal or coal-derived fuels are included.

Boothe, W. A.; Corman, J. C.; Johnson, G. G.; Cassel, T. A. V.

1976-01-01

199

Early Entrance Co-Production Plant-Decentralized Gasification Cogeneration Transportation Fuels and Steam from Available Feedstocks. Quarterly Technical Progress Report- July-September 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification, SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Te...

2001-01-01

200

Coal conversion solid waste disposal. [Cogas, British Gas\\/Lurgi, Grace\\/Texaco, U-Gas, SRC-I\\/Kopper-Totzek, SRC-II\\/Texaco, Foster Wheeler\\/Stoic, Combustion Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major solid waste produced at coal conversion facilities will be gasification slag or ash. To evaluate the impact of this waste on the environment, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted extensive characterization and leaching studies on ash\\/slags that had been generated in bench-scale operations, pilot plants, and\\/or process development units for eight different gasification processes. These studies, designed to

C. W. Francis; W. J. Jr. Boegly; R. R. Turner; E. C. Davis

1982-01-01

201

Biomass gasification and in-bed contaminants removal: performance of iron enriched olivine and bauxite in a process of steam/O2 gasification.  

PubMed

A modified Olivine, enriched in iron content (10% Fe/Olivine), and a natural bauxite, were tested in the in-bed reduction of tar and alkali halides (NaCl and KCl) released in a process of biomass steam/O(2) gasification. The tests were carried out at an ICBFB bench scale reactor under the operating conditions of: 855-890 °C, atmospheric pressure, 0.5 steam/biomass and 0.33 ER ratios. From the use of the two materials, a reduction in the contaminant contents of the fuel gas produced was found. For the alkali halides, a decrease up to 70%(wt) was observed for the potassium concentration, while for sodium, the reduction was found to be quite poor. For the organic content, compared to unmodified Olivine, the chromatographically determined total tar quantity showed a removal efficiency of 38%(wt). Moreover, regarding the particulate content a rough doubling in the fuel gas revealed a certain brittleness of the new bed material. PMID:22705523

Barisano, D; Freda, C; Nanna, F; Fanelli, E; Villone, A

2012-08-01

202

Kinetics of coal gasification reactions at process conditions. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

An entire fixed bed coal gasification reactor is suspended from a large analytical balance for thermogravimetric measurement of the reaction rate. This thermobalance has advantages over the hanging basket types in that sample size can be larger, thermocouples can be embedded directly in the reacting bed, and there is more control over extraparticle mass transfer resistance. Steam gasification of a North Dakota lignitic coal was studied at pressures from 20 to 33 atmospheres and temperatures from 720 to 900/sup 0/C. The observed reaction order was close to one. The gasification rates were essentially independent of the measured temperature. The suggested explanation for this behavior was that the particles act collectively, giving a large resistance to mass and heat transport. The reaction took place under a strong diffusional control. Gas chromatographic analysis of the products indicated that the carbon-steam reaction is the principal gasification mechanism. Steam was in excess, and the products underwent the water-gas shift reaction. Hydrogasification studies were complicated by the observation of an ignition phenomena in the coal bed when the exothermic heat of reaction could not be removed fast enough. An expression for the temperature dependence of the reaction rate was determined. 6 references, 28 figures, 9 tables.

Gardner, N.C.; Zheng, C.; Pehmoeller, D.; Gorecka, B.

1984-01-01

203

Thermal and Catalytic Cracking of Tars and Tar Constituents from Coal-Gasification Processes. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program is to screen catalysts and determine operating conditions for maximizing gas and char production from the pyrolysis of coal gasification tars. The product yields from cracking a bituminous coal tar in a fixed-bed reactor were...

W. Y. Wen

1983-01-01

204

Novel Low-Cost Process for the Gasification of Biomass and Low-Rank Coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farm Energy envisaged a phased demonstration program, in which a pilot-scale straw gasifier will be installed on a farm. The synthesis gas product will be used to initially (i) generate electricity in a 300 kW diesel generator, and subsequently (ii) used as a feedstock to produce ethanol or mixed alcohols. They were seeking straw gasification and alcohol synthesis technologies that

Thomas Barton

2009-01-01

205

Gasification of solid waste in accordance with the SFW-FUNK process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Saarberg-Fernwaerme in Saarbruecken, West Germany is planning to build a pilot plant to demonstrate the feasibility of solid waste gasification after having gained long range experience in operating incinerators. The Federal Ministry of Research and Technology of West Germany agreed to support this project because the two committees, one for energy conservation and the other for environmental protection, recommended

H. Funk; H. Hummelsiep

1980-01-01

206

Coal gasification process. [improvement by adding coal and clean recycle gas to the product gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improvement in the Koppers--Totzek coal gasification system comprises the step of adding cool and clean recycle gas to the product gas as it leaves the gasifier unit, thereby eliminating the use of water sprays to quench the product gas.

Hess

1976-01-01

207

Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feasibility analyses and systems engineering studies for a 20,000 tons per day medium Btu (MBG) coal gasification plant to be built by TVA in Northern Alabama were conducted. Major objectives were as follows: (1) provide design and cost data to support the selection of a gasifier technology and other major plant design parameters, (2) provide design and cost data to support alternate product evaluation, (3) prepare a technology development plan to address areas of high technical risk, and (4) develop schedules, PERT charts, and a work breakdown structure to aid in preliminary project planning. Volume one contains a summary of gasification system characterizations. Five gasification technologies were selected for evaluation: Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Lurgi Dry Ash, Slagging Lurgi, and Babcock and Wilcox. A summary of the trade studies and cost sensitivity analysis is included.

1980-01-01

208

NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

ITN Energy Systems, along with its team members, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair, propose to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is taking a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into fabrication designs; combining functionally graded materials, monolithic module concept and plasma spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing with low costs. This program will develop and evaluate composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules will be fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, will also be assessed. This will result in a complete evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of ICCM hydrogen separation for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner.

Michael Schwartz

2003-07-01

209

NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

ITN Energy Systems, along with its team members, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair, propose to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is taking a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into fabrication designs; combining functionally graded materials, monolithic module concept and plasma spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing with low costs. This program will develop and evaluate composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules will be fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, will also be assessed. This will result in a complete evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of ICCM hydrogen separation for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner.

Michael Schwartz

2004-01-01

210

NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

ITN Energy Systems, along with its team members, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair, propose to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is taking a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into fabrication designs; combining functionally graded materials, monolithic module concept and plasma spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing with low costs. This program will develop and evaluate composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules will be fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, will also be assessed. This will result in a complete evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of ICCM hydrogen separation for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner.

Michael Schwartz

2003-10-01

211

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

Polk Power and ChevronTexaco have signed the cooperative agreement at the end of reporting period. ChevronTexaco is shipping the pyrometer system to Tampa, Florida. Polk Power will start the modification fieldwork and installation of the system. The testing will start when the next opportunity is available.

Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

2003-10-01

212

Novel Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation in Gasification Processes in Vision 21 Energy Plants  

SciTech Connect

ITN Energy Systems, Inc. (ITN) and its partners, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, LLC and Praxair, Inc. are developing composite membranes for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is pursuing a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into module fabrication designs; combining functionally-graded materials, monolithic module concept and thermal spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows for the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing techniques with low costs. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, are being assessed. This will result in an evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of the proposed ICCM hydrogen separation approach for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of such plants. Of particular importance is that the proposed technology also results in a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows for the facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner.

Schwartz, Michael

2001-11-06

213

Modeling of the Coal Gasification Processes in a Hybrid Plasma Torch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major advantages of plasma treatment systems are cost effectiveness and technical efficiency. A new efficient electrodeless 1-MW hybrid plasma torch for waste disposal and coal gasification is proposed. This product merges several solutions such as the known inductive-type plasma torch, innovative reverse-vortex (RV) reactor and the recently developed nonequilibrium plasma pilot and plasma chemical reactor. With the use of

Igor B. Matveev; Serhiy I. Serbin

2007-01-01

214

Coal gasification and occupational health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification and prevention of health effects due to occupational exposures in coal gasification processes requires a basic knowledge of the technological process by which gasification proceeds. This paper presents an overview of the technology and a rational approach to health hazard identification based upon the concept of the unit operation specific micro environment. A final section is devoted to summarizing

RONALD J. YOUNG; WILLIAM J. McKAY; JAMES M. EVANS

1978-01-01

215

Two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process for solid waste valorisation: technical review and preliminary thermodynamic modelling of sulphur emissions.  

PubMed

Gasification of solid waste for energy has significant potential given an abundant feed supply and strong policy drivers. Nonetheless, significant ambiguities in the knowledge base are apparent. Consequently this study investigates sulphur mechanisms within a novel two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process. This paper includes a detailed review of gasification and plasma fundamentals in relation to the specific process, along with insight on MSW based feedstock properties and sulphur pollutant therein. As a first step to understanding sulphur partitioning and speciation within the process, thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage has been performed. Preliminary findings, supported by plant experience, indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur species (as opposed to H(2)S) - Na and K based species in particular. Work is underway to further investigate and validate this. PMID:21982278

Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Mazzei, Luca

2012-04-01

216

Synthesis gas production with an adjustable H{sub 2}/CO ratio through the coal gasification process: effects of coal ranks and methane addition  

SciTech Connect

Direct production of synthesis gas using coal as a cheap feedstock is attractive but challenging due to its low H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas. Three typical U.S. coals of different ranks were tested in a 2.5 in. coal gasifier to investigate their gasification reactivity and adjustability on H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas with or without the addition of methane. Tests indicated that lower-rank coals (lignite and sub-bituminous) have higher gasification reactivity than bituminous coals. The coal gasification reactivity is correlated to its synthesis-gas yield and the total percentage of H{sub 2} and CO in the synthesis gas, but not to the H{sub 2}/CO ratio. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio of coal gasification was found to be correlated to the rank of coals, especially the H/C ratio of coals. Methane addition into the dense phase of the pyrolysis and gasification zone of the cogasification reactor could make the best use of methane in adjusting the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the generated synthesis gas. The maximum methane conversion efficiency, which was likely correlated to its gasification reactivity, could be achieved by 70% on average for all tested coals. The actual catalytic effect of generated coal chars on methane conversion seemed coal-dependent. The coal-gasification process benefits from methane addition and subsequent conversion on the adjustment of the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of synthesis gas. The methane conversion process benefits from the use of coal chars due to their catalytic effects. This implies that there were likely synergistic effects on both. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3

Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jing Jin; Hongchang Zhou; Marten Cohron; Houying Zhao; Hongying Liu; Weiping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

2008-05-15

217

Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

1982-06-01

218

Techno-economic assessment of gasification as a process step within biomass-to-liquid (BtL) fuel and chemicals production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the gasification process step which converts a biomass derived intermediate called slurry into synthesis gas (syngas) for subsequent synthesis of fuel and chemicals. The slurry is produced by fast pyrolysis plants and is then processed in a pressurized entrained flow gasifier. The resulting syngas has to be conditioned and cleaned before it is converted in a Fischer–Tropsch

Frederik Trippe; Magnus Fröhling; Frank Schultmann; Ralph Stahl; Edmund Henrich

2011-01-01

219

Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Progress report, November 21, 1994--February 20, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The project team that is performing the initial phases of the PDU development are: Kerr-McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal), the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel), and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300{degrees}F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The 1 ton/hr PDU facility that is to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of gases, coal liquids, and char; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid products; and coal feeding and char handling equipment. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste. This quarter, Roberts and Schaefer (R&S) of Salt Lake City, Utah was awarded the contract to perform the detailed design for the gasification, liquids recovery and overall plant design coordination. They began work in December of 1994 and a meeting was held between R&S, Bechtel, and IGT to discuss control methods, detailed equipment design, the heavy liquids filter, and possible modifications to the first and second stage cyclones.

Doane, E.P.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

1995-03-01

220

Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation and biological process.  

PubMed

Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW) was investigated employing heterogeneous catalytic ozonation integrated with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process. The results indicated that catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalyst (i.e. MnOx/SBAC, sewage sludge was converted into sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded manganese oxides) significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal by generated hydroxyl radicals. The effluent of catalytic ozonation process was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. Meanwhile, ANMBBR-BAF showed efficient capacity of pollutants removal in treatment of the effluent of catalytic ozonation at a shorter reaction time, allowing the discharge limits to be met. Therefore, the integrated process with efficient, economical and sustainable advantages was suitable for advanced treatment of real biologically pretreated CGW. PMID:24928270

Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Hou, Baolin; Zhao, Qian

2014-08-01

221

Comparison of Shell, Texaco, BGL and KRW gasifiers as part of IGCC plant computer simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performances of four IGCC plants employing Shell, Texaco, BGL and KRW gasifiers were simulated using ASPEN Plus software for three different feeds. Performance analyses and comparisons of all four IGCC plants were performed based on the established data bank from the simulation. Discussions were focused on gas compositions, gasifier selection and overall performance.

Ligang Zheng; Edward Furinsky

2005-01-01

222

Overview of the Texaco Highlander field development. [Design for exploitation of marginal fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faced with the challenge of a small reservoir located in 420 feet of water eight miles distant from the existing Tartan 'A' Platform in the UK sector of the North Sea, Texaco has chosen a subsea development plant to achieve both early production and full field development. Design, procurement and construction have been structured to maximise UK content and to

G. D. Smith; G. H. Batcheler

1985-01-01

223

Coal gasification for advanced power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a review of the development and deployment of coal based gasification technologies for power generation. The global status of gasification is described covering the various process and technology options. The use of gasification for power generation is then highlighted including the advantages and disadvantages of this means for coal utilisation. The R, D & D needs and

Andrew J. Minchener

2005-01-01

224

Great Plains coal gasification project: Quarterly technical progress report, Third quarter 1986. [Lurgi process  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the third quarter of 1986 are presented for the Great Plains coal gasification plant. The following areas are discussed: (1) lignite coal production; (2) SNG production; (3) SNG gas quality; (4) by-products production and inventories; (5) onstream factors; (6) raw material, product and by-product consumption and energy consumption for plant operations; (7) plant modifications - 1986 budget; (8) plant maintenance; (9) safety; (10) industrial hygiene; (11) medical services; (12) environmental executive summary; and (13) quality assurance/quality control activities.

Not Available

1986-10-31

225

Two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process for solid waste valorisation: Technical review and preliminary thermodynamic modelling of sulphur emissions  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate sulphur during MSW gasification within a fluid bed-plasma process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We review the literature on the feed, sulphur and process principles therein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The need for research in this area was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We perform thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial findings indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur. - Abstract: Gasification of solid waste for energy has significant potential given an abundant feed supply and strong policy drivers. Nonetheless, significant ambiguities in the knowledge base are apparent. Consequently this study investigates sulphur mechanisms within a novel two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process. This paper includes a detailed review of gasification and plasma fundamentals in relation to the specific process, along with insight on MSW based feedstock properties and sulphur pollutant therein. As a first step to understanding sulphur partitioning and speciation within the process, thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage has been performed. Preliminary findings, supported by plant experience, indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur species (as opposed to H{sub 2}S) - Na and K based species in particular. Work is underway to further investigate and validate this.

Morrin, Shane, E-mail: shane.morrin@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Advanced Plasma Power, South Marston Business park, Swindon, SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Lettieri, Paola, E-mail: p.lettieri@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Chapman, Chris, E-mail: chris.chapman@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, South Marston Business park, Swindon, SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Mazzei, Luca, E-mail: l.mazzei@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

2012-04-15

226

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment VIII. The wood-fueled gasification system, Evergreen Energy Corporation's final engineering report  

SciTech Connect

Evergreen Energy Corporation provided projected cost and operating data on the Evergreen/Texaco entrained-bed wood gasification system currently under development as an alternative to the state-of-the-art fixed-bed wood gasification system proposed by Davy McKee. Overall capital costs for the total plant remain about the same at approx. $250 million. The Evergreen/Texaco system will provide significant capital cost savings in the gasifiers, gas cleanup, and waste water treatment sections, and eliminate the need for a large off-site wood-fired power boiler. These reductions are offset by higher investments in the feedstock preparation, drying, and feeding section plus the need for a larger air separation plant and compressor to supply oxygen at high pressure to the gasifier.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01

227

High temperature electrochemical polishing of H(sub 2)S from coal gasification process stream. Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane is being developed. H2S is removed from the syn-gas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the exiting syn-gas...

J. Winnick

1995-01-01

228

A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation.The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to

D. R. McIlveen-Wright; F. Pinto; L. Armesto; M. A. Caballero; M. P. Aznar; A. Cabanillas; Y. Huang; C. Franco; I. Gulyurtlu; J. T. McMullan

2006-01-01

229

Numerical analysis of the process of combustion and gasification of the polydisperse coke residue of high-ash coal under pressure in a fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

A numerical analysis of the process of 'wet' gasification of high-ash coal under pressure in a low-temperature fluidized bed has been performed. The applicability of the previously developed computational model, algorithm, and program for the case under consideration has been noted. The presence of 'hot spots' (short-time local heatings) at different points of the bed has been confirmed.

A.Y. Maistrenko; V.P. Patskov; A.I. Topal; T.V. Patskova [National Academy of Sceinces of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Institute of Coal Power Technologies

2007-09-15

230

Coal gasification 2006: roadmap to commercialization  

SciTech Connect

Surging oil and gas prices, combined with supply security and environmental concerns, are prompting power generators and industrial firms to further develop coal gasification technologies. Coal gasification, the process of breaking down coal into its constituent chemical components prior to combustion, will permit the US to more effectively utilize its enormous, low cost coal reserves. The process facilitates lower environmental impact power generation and is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to traditional generation techniques. The study is designed to inform the reader as to this rapidly evolving technology, its market penetration prospects and likely development. Contents include: Clear explanations of different coal gasification technologies; Emissions and efficiency comparisons with other fuels and technologies; Examples of US and global gasification projects - successes and failures; Commercial development and forecast data; Gasification projects by syngas output; Recommendations for greater market penetration and commercialization; Current and projected gasification technology market shares; and Recent developments including proposals for underground gasification process. 1 app.

NONE

2006-05-15

231

Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Quarterly report, February--May, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-ton/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1,300 F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. This quarter, the permit to construct was obtained from the state of Illinois EPA. A meeting was held at IGT on February 23, 1994 between IGT and Bechtel to discuss the revisions to the flowsheet and the new timetable for obtaining the revised bids. Bechtel Corp. was reactivated and flowsheet, reactor design details, and heat and material balances were revised. Bechtel Corp. prepared revised PFDs, PIDs, process specifications, and the data sheets for the gasifier for resubmittal to the bidders. The revised bid sheets were submitted to the bidders and the new bids have been received and are being analyzed.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

1994-08-01

232

Assessment of hydrogen and electricity co-production schemes based on gasification process with carbon capture and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through gasification, a solid feedstock is partially oxidized with oxygen and steam to produce syngas which can be used for conversion into different valuable compounds (e.g. hydrogen) or to generate power in a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT). Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is one of power generation technologies having the highest potential for carbon capture with low penalties in

Calin-Cristian Cormos

2009-01-01

233

Steam reforming of tar from a biomass gasification process over Ni\\/olivine catalyst using toluene as a model compound  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Ni\\/olivine catalyst, previously developed for biomass gasification and tar removal during fluidized bed steam gasification of biomass, was tested in a fixed bed reactor in toluene steam reforming as a tar destruction model reaction. The influence of the catalyst preparation parameters (nickel precursor, calcination temperature and nickel content) and operating parameters (reaction temperature, steam to carbon S\\/C ratio and

D. ?wierczy?ski; S. Libs; C. Courson; A. Kiennemann

2007-01-01

234

Integrated mild gasification processing at the Homer City Electric Power Generating Station site. Final report, July 1989--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

A new process for the production of commercial grade coke, char, and carbon products has been evaluated by Penelec/NYSEG. The process, developed by Coal Technology Corporation, CTC, utilizes a unique screw reactor to produce a devolatilized char from a wide variety of coals for the production of commercial grade coke for use in blast furnaces, foundries, and other processes requiring high quality coke. This process is called the CTC Mild Gasification Process (MGP). The process economics are significantly enhanced by integrating the new technology into an existing power generating complex. Cost savings are realized by the coke producer, the coke user, and the electric utility company. Site specific economic studies involving the Homer City Generating Station site in Western Pennsylvania, confirmed that an integrated MGP at the Homer City site, using coal fines produced at the Homer City Coal Preparation Plant, would reduce capital and operating costs significantly and would enable the HC Owners to eliminate thermal dryers, obtain low cost fuel in the form of combustible gases and liquids, and obtain lower cost replacement coal on the spot market. A previous report, identified as the Interim Report on the Project, details the technical and economic studies.

Battista, J.J.; Zawadzki, E.A. [Pennsylvania Electric Co., Johnstown, PA (United States)

1993-07-01

235

Gasification of refuse derived fuel in the Battelle high throughput gasification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of an experimental program to demonstrate the suitability of the Battelle High Throughput Gasification Process to non-wood biomass fuels. An extensive data base on wood gasification was generated during a multi-year experimental program. This data base and subsequent design and economic analysis activities led to the discussion to study the gasification character of other fuels.

M. A. Paisley; K. S. Creamer; T. L. Tweksbury; D. R. Taylor

1989-01-01

236

Liquefaction technology assessment - Phase II: indirect liquefaction of coal to gasoline using Texaco and Koppers-Totzek gasifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a comparison of two entrained-flow gasifiers - the Koppers-Totzek and the Texaco - for use in a plant to convert coal to gasoline by an indirect method. The results of the current study are also compared with those from a previous study that employed a Lurgi gasifier for the same purpose. Koppers-Totzek- and Texaco gasifiers-equipped plants were

A. R. Irvine; R. M. Wham; J. F. Fisher; R. Salmon; W. C. Ulrich

1984-01-01

237

Mineralization of integrated gasification combined-cycle power-station wastewater effluent by a photo-Fenton process.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the mineralization of wastewater effluent from an integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power station sited in Spain to meet the requirements of future environmental legislation. This study was done in a pilot plant using a homogeneous photo-Fenton oxidation process with continuous addition of H(2)O(2) and air to the system. The mineralization process was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics. Experimental kinetic constants were fitted using neural networks (NNs). The NNs model reproduced the experimental data to within a 90% confidence level and allowed the simulation of the process for any values of the parameters within the experimental range studied. At the optimum conditions (H(2)O(2) flow rate=120 mL/h, [Fe(II)]=7.6 mg/L, pH=3.75 and air flow rate=1 m(3)/h), a 90% mineralization was achieved in 150 min. Determination of the hydrogen peroxide consumed and remaining in the water revealed that 1.2 mol of H(2)O(2) was consumed per each mol of total organic carbon removed from solution. This result confirmed that an excess of dissolved H(2)O(2) was needed to achieve high mineralization rates, so continuous addition of peroxide is recommended for industrial application of this process. Air flow slightly improved the mineralization rate due to the formation of peroxo-organic radicals which enhanced the oxidation process. PMID:20510498

Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; San Martín, I; Aguirre, M

2010-09-01

238

Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Progress report for August 21--November 20, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The 1 ton/hr PDU facility that is to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of gases, coal liquids, and char; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid products; and coal feeding and char handling equipment. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste. This quarter work included clearing, grubbing, grading and backfilling of the site, installation of culverts and fencing, placing of the main structure foundation and truck pad, and installation of gravel on the areas that will later be blacktopped. Also this quarter, a contract for the emissions and control package was awarded to Calidus Technologies. In addition, agreement with Central Illinois Power Service on the electrical supply scope and the natural gas delivery pressure was made and the FAA waived any requirement for aircraft warning devices on the top of the structure.

Doane, E.P.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

1995-02-01

239

Status of coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal gasification, while providing a route to coal combustion which facilitates the removal of ash and sulfur, has two major disadvantages: it consumes large quantities of water, especially significant in arid western states where some of the largest coal reserves are located, and it is less efficient than direct combustion. Some reactors provide limited optimization of either process efficiency or

D. A. Tillman

1976-01-01

240

Modeling of the coal gasification processes in a hybrid plasma torch  

SciTech Connect

The major advantages of plasma treatment systems are cost effectiveness and technical efficiency. A new efficient electrodeless 1-MW hybrid plasma torch for waste disposal and coal gasification is proposed. This product merges several solutions such as the known inductive-type plasma torch, innovative reverse-vortex (RV) reactor and the recently developed nonequilibrium plasma pilot and plasma chemical reactor. With the use of the computational-fluid-dynamics-computational method, preliminary 3-D calculations of heat exchange in a 1-MW plasma generator operating with direct vortex and RV have been conducted at the air flow rate of 100 g/s. For the investigated mode and designed parameters, reduction of the total wall heat transfer for the reverse scheme is about 65 kW, which corresponds to an increase of the plasma generator efficiency by approximately 6.5%. This new hybrid plasma torch operates as a multimode, high power plasma system with a wide range of plasma feedstock gases and turn down ratio, and offers convenient and simultaneous feeding of several additional reagents into the discharge zone.

Matveev, I.B.; Serbin, S.I. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

2007-12-15

241

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operaated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are being developed for integrated gasification power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but test data from direct coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This effort evaluates the significance of performance losses associated with exposure to direct coal syngas. Specimen are operated in a unique mobile test skid that is deployed to the research gasifier at NCCC in Wilsonville, AL. The test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas to a parallel array of twelve SOFCs. During the 500 h test period, all twelve cells are monitored for performance at four current densities. Degradation is attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that is accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that are operated at 0 and 125 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 h, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 h, respectively. Spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

Hackett, G.; Gerdes, K.; Song, X.; Chen, Y.; Shutthanandan, V.; Englehard, M.; Zhu, Z.; Thevuthasan, S.; Gemmen, R.

2012-01-01

242

Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

2011-05-01

243

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Task 4, System integration studies: Char upgrading  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the results of Task 4 under which a 50 pound/hour char-to-carbon (CTC) process research unit (PRU) was designed in the second half of 1989, with construction completed in June 1990. The CTC PRU at Golden was operated for nearly one year during which 35 runs were completed for a total of nearly 800 hours of operation. Char methanation and carbon production reactor development activities are detailed in this report, as well as the results of integrated runs of the CTC process. Evaluation of the process and the carbon product produced is also included. It was concluded that carbon could be produced from mild gasification char utilizing the CTC process. Char methanation and membrane separation steps performed reasonably well and can scaled up with confidence. However, the novel directly heated reactor system for methane cracking did not work satisfactorily due to materials of construction and heat transfer problems, which adversely affected the quantity and quality of the carbon product. Alternative reactor designs are recommended.

Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.; Hogsett, R.F.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.

1991-12-01

244

Angrenskaya Underground Coal Gasification Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report continues our survey of the Soviet effort in underground coal gasification (UCG) and summarizes production data and process improvements developed at the Angrenskaya Station. Of the six UCG stations operated in the Soviet Union, only the Angre...

D. Olness

1982-01-01

245

Coal Gasification for Power Generation, 3. edition  

SciTech Connect

The report provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered include: an overview of Coal Generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; a description of gasification technology including processes and systems; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; a discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; an evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; a discussion of IGCC project development options; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and, a detailed description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

NONE

2007-11-15

246

Evaluation of treatment technologies for water reuse in coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation assessed significant issues and conducted bench scale experiments pertinent to management and reuse of coal coking and coal gasification process wastewaters. For the case of high-BTU coal gasification processes, the cooling tower is the most likely target for reuse of process wastewater. Treatment studies were performed with high BTU pilot coal gasification process quench waters to evaluate enhanced

R. G. Luthy; J. R. Campbell; L. McLaughlin; R. W. Walters

1980-01-01

247

Coal Gasification. Quarterly Report, April--June 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for all high Btu gasification processes each of the processes under development has unique characteristics. There are, for example, important differences in reactor configurations and me...

1979-01-01

248

Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants  

SciTech Connect

Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

2008-12-15

249

Conventional gasification technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Winkler, Lurgi, and Koppers-Totzek gasification processes are compared. The Winkler process uses a fluidized fuel bed; the Lurgi, a 'fixed' (slowly downwards-moving) fuel bed; the Koppers-Totzek, entrainment of the coal or other feedstock. The dependency of these processes on coal type and sizing, temperature, atmosphere, pressure, and water vapor is examined. The economic impact of various operating conditions and

D. C. Elgin

1976-01-01

250

Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Quarterly report, November 1993--February 1994  

SciTech Connect

The work performed during the ninth quarterly reporting period (November 21, 1993 through February 20, 1994) is presented in this report. The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mid-Gasification MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The project team that is performing the initial phases of the PDU development are: Kerr-McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal), the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel), and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The 1 ton/hr PDU facility that is to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of gases, coal liquids, and char; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid products; and coal feeding and char handling equipment. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste. A Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) was obtained on our NEPA submittal on February 10, 1994, allowing us to proceed with the project. The permitting documentation for the authority to construct was submitted to the Illinois EPA this quarter. Work to finalize the process design and obtain updated bids on the PDU was begun after the FONSI was obtained.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

1994-05-01

251

Advanced hybrid gasification facility  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this procurement is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology for electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas{trademark} staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may react with aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their concentration in the hot raw coal gas passing through the system to the gas turbine. This paper describes a novel, staged, airblown, fixed-bed gasifier designed to solve both through the incorporation of pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification. It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration which occurs in a fixed-bed process when coal is gradually heated through the 400{degrees}F to 900{degrees}F range. In a pyrolyzer, the coal is rapidly heated such that coal tar is immediately vaporized. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can be chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NOx from fuel home nitrogen, moisture is minimized to control ammonia generation, and HCN in the upper gasifier region is partially oxidized to NO which reacts with NH3/HCN to form N2.

Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H. [CRS Sirrine, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States); Dixit, V.B. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States). Riley Research Center

1993-08-01

252

Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Quarterly report, February--May 1993  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS Process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300 F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The 1 ton/hr PDU facility that is to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of gases, coal liquids, and char; a thermal cracker for upgrading of the coal liquids; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid products; and coal feeding and char handling equipment. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste. This quarter the authors continued to assist DOE in the preparation of the Environmental Assessment documentation for the NEPA application. Also this quarter, they obtain permission from DOE to pursue the permitting needed to construct the PDU and they have started the preparation of the application document for the Illinois EPA Air Emissions permit.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

1994-03-01

253

Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Quarterly report, May--August 1993  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300 F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The 1 ton/hr PDU facility that is to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of gases, coal liquids, and char; a thermal cracker for upgrading of the coal liquids; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid products; and coal feeding and char handling equipment. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste. This quarter, the authors completed preparation of the draft of the permitting documentation that will be required by the Illinois EPA for the permit to construct the PDU and it is planned to submit it to the State of Illinois early in the next quarter. Also this quarter, a presentation of the project aims and status were presented during a site visit on August 11, 1993 by DOE personnel and Robert Kripowicz, the Staff Assistant, Subcommittee on the Interior, of the US House Committee on Appropriations.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

1994-03-01

254

Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Quarterly report, February 1994--May 1994  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: (1) design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup; (2) obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; (3) prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; (4) develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the NMDGAS process. The project team that is performing the initial phases of the PDU development are: Kerr-McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal), the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel), and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300{degrees}F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The 1 ton/hr PDU facility that is to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of gases, coal liquids, and char; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid products; and coal feeding and char handling equipment. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste. This quarter, the bids from Bateman Engineering and Kilborn Engineering were analyzed and Kilborn appeared to be the successful bidder. Negotiations with Kilborn Engineering to finalize the exact scope and cost of their bid were undertaken but Kilborn is unwilling to assume the standard flowdown liability clause. Because of this impasse, alternatives to Kilborn are being explored.

Doane, E.P.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

1994-11-01

255

Plasma Gasification of Coal in Different Oxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam\\/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam\\/air, steam\\/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power

Igor B. Matveev; Vladimir E. Messerle; Alexander B. Ustimenko

2008-01-01

256

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930[degree] and 1470[degree]F (500[degree]and 800[degree]C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a coal refinery'' system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

1992-11-01

257

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930{degree} and 1470{degree}F (500{degree}and 800{degree}C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a ``coal refinery`` system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R&D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

1992-11-01

258

Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Quarterly report, August--November 1993  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300 F. The 1 ton/hr PDU facility that is to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of gases, coal liquids, and char; a thermal cracker for upgrading of the coal liquids; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid products; and coal feeding and char handling equipment. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste. This quarter, the authors completed preparation of the draft of the permitting documentation that will be required by the Illinois EPA for the permit to construct the PDU. SIUC`s comments are currently being incorporated into the version of the permitting document that will be submitted to the Illinois EPA. The Environmental Assessment (EA) was prepared by DOE and submitted in September, 1993 to the State of Illinois and the Crab Orchard Wildlife Refuge for comments. Neither organization found any issue with the EA that would prevent construction of the PDU at the proposed site. They did submit comments which are being taken into consideration in revising the EA.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

1994-03-01

259

Costs and Technical Characteristics of Environmental Control Processes for Low-Btu Coal Gasification Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technical characteristics and costs of 25 individual environmental control processes that can be used for treating low-Btu coal gas are given. These processes are chosen from a much larger array of potential environmental control processes because of thei...

S. P. N. Singh R. Salmon J. F. Fisher G. R. Peterson

1980-01-01

260

Status of coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was made of economic and environmental trade-offs, in terms of land disturbance from mining, and water consumption, to be considered in choosing the Wellman-Galusha, Koppers-Totzek, or Lurgi coal gasification processes. Performance maximization, in terms of process efficiency or water consumption, was found to be application specific and site specific. Relatively small energy requirements appear to be best met

David A. Tillman

1976-01-01

261

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 4.7), Volume 3. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this task is the preparation of (1) preliminary piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs) and single line electrical diagrams for a site-specific conceptual design and (2) a factored cost estimate for a 24 ton/day (tpd) capacity mild gasification process development unit (PDU) and an associated form coke preparation PDU. The intended site for this facility is the Illinois Coal Development Park at Carterville, Illinois, which is operated by Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. (VC)

Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1991-09-01

262

Adaptation of the Simplex gasification process to the co-conversion of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings and recommendations of a research investigation designed to adapt the Simplex coal and biomass gasification process to the codisposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) and dewatered sewage sludge (DSS). The rationale of the Phase I study was to delimit and optimize briquette formulation parameters and to set experimental targets for the Phase II process optimization study that will lead directly to the pilot plant demonstration of the Simplex S process in large scale Simplex gasifier facilities. The Phase I program attained its experimental objectives in that it identified a practical range of briquette formulation parameters that permit the production of sturdy briquettes while incorporating fractions of DSS along with MSW and coal. These preferred formulations, which were developed after testing 225 experimental compositions, retain their structural integrity in all zones of the gasifier, do not cake or agglomerate in the pyrolysis and coking zone, and can stand prolonged storage without fungal growth. The operable ratio of coal to waste is from 1:1 to 2:1. The acceptable moisture content in the finished briquette ranges from 12 to 19%. Sound briquettes were produced from DSS containing 20% solids, provided the ratio of RDF (refuse-derived fuel) to DSS is above 8. When employing DSS with a solids content of 40%, the ratio of RDF to DSS may be as low as 4.The critical determinant is the moisture content in the pressed briquette which must be attained without expressing excess water. Recommendations are provided for the Phase II process optimization study that has for its principal goal the production of sturdy, non-caking sludge-freighted briquettes on commercial briquette fabrication equipment.

Arbo, J.C.; Glaser, D.P.; Lipowicz, M.A.; Schulz, R.B.; Spencer, J.L.

1981-04-01

263

High temperature electrochemical separation of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification process streams. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane is being developed using the funds from this grant. H{sub 2}S is removed from the syn-gas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the syn-gas, and sulfur, which can be condensed from an inert gas sweep stream. The process allows removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream and with neglible pressure loss through the separator. The process is economically attractive by the lack of adsorbents and the lack of a Claus process for sulfur recovery.

Winnick, J.

1991-12-31

264

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1988  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is investigating a process concept called Mild Gasification in which rapid devolatilization of coal under mild conditions of temperature and pressure would yield three product slates: a low- or medium-BTU gas, a valuable hydrocarbon condensate, and a reactive char. The ongoing objective of this program is to develop a continuous mild gasification process which will produce a product mix that optimizes process economics. In order to provide the incentive for private industry to commercialize the process, it is necessary to demonstrate yields and qualities in a versatile continuous process development unit (PDU). This unit must be capable of assessing both coal- and process-specific effects in a cost-effective and timely manner. Based on literature reviews and experimental verification, a data base will be developed correlating coal and process parameters with product characteristics. This will provide process developers with the information necessary to derive site-specific economics which will be crucial for the commercialization of the mild gasification process. The literature review and market assessment has been completed under Task 1 of the program. Under Task 2, coal-specific tests are being conducted on three AMAX coals: Chinook, an Indiana {number_sign}3 bituminous coal; Delta, an Illinois {number_sign}6 bituminous coal; and Eagle Butte, a Wyodak subbituminous coal. Various methods of char upgrading are being conducted by AMAX R&D of Golden, Colorado. The upgraded char is then combined with iron ore and tested for pig iron production under an AMAX subcontract to Pellet Technology Corporation of Marquette, Michigan. In addition to the test program, process development and scaleup information is being developed for a 1 ton/hr pilot plant unit. Plans for Tasks 2 and 3, equipment modifications, and report. Results include: char analysis, condensable analysis, waste water analysis, and gas analysis.

Ness, R.O. Jr.

1988-07-01

265

Catalytic Gasification of Bagasse for the Production of Methanol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of catalytic gasification of bagasse to produce methanol. In previous studies, a catalytic steam gasification process was developed which converted wood to methanol synthesis ...

E. G. Baker M. D. Brown R. J. Robertus

1985-01-01

266

Catalytic coal gasification: an emerging technology for SNG  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been known that salts of alkali metals catalyze the gasification of coal. In 1971, Exxon Research and Engineering Company discovered that potassium salts added to coal also promote the methanation of coal gasification products. This discovery led to Exxon's Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) process. In the CCG process, coal with added potassium salts is gasified in a

R. R. Lessard; R. A. Reitz

1981-01-01

267

Investigation of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air/steam and oxygen/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal. Numerical simulation showed that the plasma oxygen/steam gasification of coal is a more preferable process in comparison with the plasma air/steam coal gasification. On the numerical experiments, a plasma vortex fuel reformer is designed.

Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (United States)

2009-04-15

268

Mild gasification mechanisms and char conversion  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of these programs is to (1) obtain basic process chemistry data for the mild gasification of various coal types in a stirred moving bed reactor as a function of process variables and (2) construct a countercurrent moving bed reactor for obtaining data on the hydrogasification of char resulting from mild gasification. Results are described. 2 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

1989-06-01

269

Chemical processing in high-pressure aqueous environments. 6: Demonstration of catalytic gasification for chemical manufacturing wastewater cleanup in industrial plants  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic gasification of organics has been demonstrated at the engineering development scale as an option for chemical manufacturing wastewater cleanup. A high-pressure (about 20 MPa) and high-temperature (about 350 C) liquid water processing environment was used to treat wastewaters at two industrial sites. Organic byproducts from chemical manufacturing were converted primarily to methane and carbon dioxide in the presence of a fixed bed of nickel/ruthenium catalyst. Test results with chemical manufacturing wastewater streams showed that this process could be effectively used with the appropriate catalyst to clean up wastewater and recover waste organics as useful fuel gas. Preliminary process economics were determined.

Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Phelps, M.R.; Hart, T.R.; Zacher, A.H.; Silva, L.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1999-03-01

270

Hydrogen production from coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fixed bed, fluidized bed and entrained phase techniques for hydrogen production from coal gasification are considered. Process heat may be supplied by the addition of oxygen, solid, liquid or gaseous heat carriers or indirectly through heat-transferring walls. In particular, attention is given to the selection of the Lurgi pressure process, the Winkler process or the Koppers-Totzek process for treating various

H. Teggers; H. Huettner; L. Schrader

1977-01-01

271

2007 gasification technologies conference papers  

SciTech Connect

Sessions covered: gasification industry roundtable; the gasification market in China; gasification for power generation; the gasification challenge: carbon capture and use storage; industrial and polygeneration applications; gasification advantage in refinery applications; addressing plant performance; reliability and availability; gasification's contribution to supplementing gaseous and liquid fuels supplies; biomass gasification for fuel and power markets; and advances in technology-research and development

NONE

2007-07-01

272

Energy from Biomass: The Simplex Process for the Gasification of Coal and Forest Pulp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Simplex is a process which simultaneously turns coal and cellulosic materials such as municipal solid wastes, forest pulp and sewage sludge solids into gas. This report summarizes a series of tests performed to investigate the adaptation of the Simplex pr...

J. C. Arbo D. P. Glaser

1980-01-01

273

Analytical Methods for Hazardous Organics in Liquid Wastes from Coal Gasification and Liquefaction Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted by the University of Southern California group to provide methods for the analysis of coal liquefaction wastes from coal conversion processing plants. Several methods of preliminary fractionation prior to analysis were considered....

T. F. Yen J. I. S. Tang M. Wasburne S. Cohanim

1982-01-01

274

Catalyzed Steam Gasification of Biomass. Phase III. Biomass Process Development Unit (PDU) Construction and Initial Operation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and construction of the process development unit (PDU) are described in detail, examining each system and component in order. The following are covered: siting, the chip handling system, the reactor feed system, the reactor, the screw conveyor,...

J. J. Healey R. H. Hooverman

1981-01-01

275

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process). Seventh quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

In order for the coal biogasification process to be economically feasible, an inexpensive nutrient amendment must be found to replace the Difco{trademark} yeast extract and tryptic soy broth (YE/TSB) used in the current medium formulation. Five products have been identified which support greater methane production from Texas lignite than YE/TSB.

Not Available

1992-04-30

276

Catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Phase 3: Biomass Process Development Unit (PDU) construction and initial operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and construction of the process development unit (PDU) are described in detail, examining each system and component in order. Siting, the chip handling system, the reactor feed system, the reactor, the screw conveyor, the ash dump system, the PDU support equipment, control and information management, and shakedown runs are described.

Healey, J. J.; Hooverman, R. H.

1981-12-01

277

Low-energy process for separating hydrogen and methane in advanced coal-gasification processes. Final report, September 8, 1980-January 7, 1983  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the detailed results of the following three-part study: Part I. Adsorption of H/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ from single and mixed gases on activated carbon, coals and chars; Part II. Adsorption of H/sub 2/S and its mixtures with H/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ on activated carbon, coals and chars; and Part III. Separation of H/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ and H/sub 2//CH/sub 4//H/sub 2/S mixtures by a temperature-cycling process. The original scope of the study, as indicated by the title of the report, has been expanded to include H/sub 2/S in the gas mixture. The inclusion of H/sub 2/S was to study the feasibility of combining the H/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ separation step with the H/sub 2/S removal step into a single process. The success of the feasibility study naturally leads to the possibility of separating both CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S from H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/ in coal gasification products by the cyclic adsorption/desorption process. The results of the study are presented.

Yang, R.T.; Saunders, J.T.; Byers, S.G.; Wang, S.S.

1983-01-01

278

Instrumentation and Process Control Development for In Situ Coal Gasification. Eighty Quarterly Report, September--November 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second Hanna in situ coal gasification experiment ended on July 31, 1976. After limited post-test monitoring activities have focused upon the reduction and analysis of the experimental data. Analysis of thermal data yielded additional detail on the li...

D. A. Northrop

1977-01-01

279

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Nineth quarterly report, [July--September 1992  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory scale studies examining biogasification of Texas lignite at various coal solids loadings have been completed. Bench scale bioreactors are currently being used to scale up the biogasification process to higher coal solids loadings (5% and 10%) Specific observations reported this quarter are that methane production was not curtailed when B-vitamin solution was not added to the biogasification medium and that aeration of Mic-1 did not sufficiently oxidize the medium to eliminate strict anaerobic bacteria including methanogens.

Not Available

1992-10-30

280

Catalytic Wet Gasification of Municipal and Animal Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there is worldwide interest in deriving energy from bio-based materials via gasification. Our objective was to assess the feasibility of wet gasification for treatment\\/energy conversion of both animal and municipal wastes. Wet wastes such as swine manure and raw sewage sludge could be processed directly via current wet gasification technology. Furthermore, these wastes generated high amounts of net energy

Kyoung S. Ro; Keri Cantrell; Douglas Elliott; Patrick G. Hunt

2007-01-01

281

Gasification of a Condensed Material in a Hot Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A theoretical analysis is presented for the gasification process of a condensed material suddenly exposed to a hot stagnant gas. When the gasification rate is given by an Arrhenius law the surface temperature rises to the non-gasification jump value upon ...

M. Kindelan A. Linan

1976-01-01

282

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2009-07-01

283

Development of Biological Coal Gasification (MicGAS Process). Topical report, July 1991--February 1993  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory and bench scale reactor research carried out during the report period confirms the feasibility of biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL) and some other low-rank coals to methane by specifically developed unique anaerobic microbial consortia. The data obtained demonstrates specificity of a particular microbial consortium to a given lignite. Development of a suitable microbial consortium is the key to the success of the process. The Mic-1 consortium was developed to tolerate higher coal loadings of 1 and 5% TxL in comparison to initial loadings of 0.01% and 0.1% TxL. Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic-1 consortium. Four different bench scale bioreactor configurations, namely Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), Upflow Fluidized Bed Reactor (UFBR), Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR), and Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) were evaluated for scale up studies. Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic-1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor. However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC.

Srivastava, K.C.

1993-06-01

284

Groundwater Pollution from Underground Coal Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ coal gasification poses a potential environmental risk to groundwater pollution although it depends mainly on local hydrogeological conditions. In our investigation, the possible processes of groundwater pollution originating from underground coal gasification (UCG) were analyzed. Typical pollutants were identified and pollution control measures are proposed. Groundwater pollution is caused by the diffusion and penetration of contaminants generated by

Shu-qin LIU; Jing-gang LI; Mei MEI; Dong-lin DONG

2007-01-01

285

Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

1984-05-25

286

Large-Scale Plasma Waste Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma resource recovery system is a two-stage plasma gasification and vitrification system used to process mu- nicipal solid waste. A transferred arc discharge is used to generate syngas from the waste, and an air plasma torch is used to polish the gasification products. Online syngas monitoring can be employed to compensate for variations in waste feed, thus maintaining both

Jason Robert Tavares; Lakshminarayana Rao; Chawki Derboghossian; Pierre Carabin; Aïda Kaldas; Philippe Chevalier; Gillian Holcroft

2011-01-01

287

Gasification in combined/cogeneration cycles  

SciTech Connect

Explains how gasification permits use of less costly coal or residual petroleum products as fuel for highly efficient combined/cogeneration cycles having low capital costs. The generation of power is maximized if as much of the energy as possible is directed to flow through the gas turbine combustor. Gasification requires conversion of some of the heat values of the primary fuel to sensible heat to generate the high temperature required. Gasification products must be cooled to permit gas-cleaning operations. The most efficient use of the sensible heat generated by the gasification process and the process steam requirements of the gasification and gas treatment processes must be considered in the design of the steam and power generation cycle. Concludes that the effect of cogeneration upon capital investment is variable and depends on whether condenser temperature approaches are increased or decreased.

Roszkowski, T.R.; Grisso, J.R.; Klumpe, H.W.; Snyder, N.W.

1983-01-01

288

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products  

SciTech Connect

The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

Cohen, L.R. (Xytel-Bechtel, Inc. (United States)); Hogsett, R.F. (AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States)); Sinor, J.E. (Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States)); Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D. (North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center)

1992-10-01

289

Liquefaction Technology Assessment - Phase II: Indirect Liquefaction of Coal to Gasoline Using Texaco and Koppers-Totzek Gasifiers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a comparison of two entrained-flow gasifiers - the Koppers-Totzek and the Texaco - for use in a plant to convert coal to gasoline by an indirect method. The results of the current study are also compared with those from a previous stu...

A. R. Irvine J. F. Fisher R. Salmon R. M. Wham W. C. Ulrich

1984-01-01

290

Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to

J Luche; Q Falcoz; T Bastien; J P Leninger; K Arabi; O Aubry; A Khacef; J M Cormier; J Lédé

2012-01-01

291

Energy recovery via mild gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mild gasification research process unit capable of processing up to one ton of coal per day has been constructed at UCC Research Corporation, Bristol, Virginia. The unit is very flexible utilizing coal preparation waste, bituminous, and subbituminous coal as feedstocks. The results, to date, have been encouraging, in that a high quality condensable hydrocarbon has been produced and a

R. A. Wolfe; C. J. Im; B. L. Gillespie; M. R. Ghate

1986-01-01

292

Hydrogen: Technical and Economical Comparison of Different Methods of Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons (catalytic reforming, partial oxidation and refinery gas processing), coal gasification (Lurgi, Koppers-Totzek, Winkler, Texaco processes and in-situ gasification), water decomposition (electrolysis, thermolysis, ther...

A. Salvadori D. Marque

1988-01-01

293

Equilibrium analysis of hydrogen production using the steam-plasma gasification process of the used car tires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with the treatment of used car tires. The method of used tires plasma gasification is proposed. The investigation of the syngas composition was carried out according to the temperature and plasma flow rate variation. The method of the steam catalytic conversion of CO, which is a part of the syngas, and CaO usage are suggested. The results of the calculation modeling at various temperatures, pressures, and steam flow rates are presented.

Kuznetsov, V. A.; Kumkova, I. I.; Lerner, A. S.; Popov, V. E.

2012-12-01

294

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992  

SciTech Connect

The char produced in the 100-lb/hr process development unit has been magnetically cleaned by AMAX and returned to the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). The final calcining step of the process is currently being performed in the 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). The liquid products generated by the PDU have been collected and split into usable fractions and fractions to be discarded. Samples of the coal-derived liquids have been sent to Merichem Corporation of Houston and Koppers Industries of Pittsburgh for determination of their usefulness as chemical feedstock for the production of cresylic acids and anode-grade-binder pitch. The technical and economic assessment performed by Xbi and J.E Sinor Consultants has been completed. The briquette testing being conducted at the EERC has produced high quality briquettes using a number of binder agents. The next step in the test matrix will include the use of coal-derived liquids from the PDU as the binder. An additional coal has been added to the mild gasification test matrix. AMAX recently acquired two eastern low-sulfur bituminous coals and suggested that a limited test schedule be conducted to determine the suitability of these coals for the mild gasification process. The sulfur levels in the raw coals are below the target levels suggested by the steel industry for metallurgical coke use. To date, it has not been possible to reach these goals using the high-sulfur Illinois Basin coals tested.

Runge, B.D.; Ness, R.O. Jr.; Sharp, L.L.; Shockey, R.E.

1992-07-01

295

Phototype plant for Nuclear Process Heat (NPH), reference phase. R and D work on Hydrogenated Coal Gasification (HCG). Further operation of semi-industrial plant for hydrogenated coal gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of a scale up, leading to a commercial HCG, futher R and D work was performed on the 100 kg C/hr prototype plant. The inclined tube for feeding coal into the fluidized bed, the raw gas/hydrogenation gas heat exchanger, and the modified hydrogen source were tested. Influence on carbon gasification efficiency of dimension of coal particles, humidity of coal, hydrogen content of gasification gas, introduction place of coal in gasifier, height of fluidized bed, and ash content of coal were studied. The plant was operated for 19,400 hr, of which more than 7400 hr under gasification conditions. Carbon gasification rates up to 82% with methane content up to 48% were obtained.

Fladerer, R.; Schrader, L.

1982-07-01

296

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Final report, September 1987--September 1996  

SciTech Connect

Char, the major co-product of mild coal gasification, represents about 70 percent of the total product yield. The only viable use for the char is in the production of formed coke. Early work to develop formed coke used char from a pilot plant sized mild gasification unit (MGU), which was based on commercial units of the COALITE plant in England. Formed coke was made at a bench-scale production level using MGU chars from different coals. An evolutionary formed coke development process over a two-year period resulted in formed coke production at bench-scale levels that met metallurgical industries` specifications. In an ASTM D5341 reactivity test by a certified lab, the coke tested CRI 30.4 and CSR 67.0 which is excellent. The standard is CRI < 32 and CSR > 55. In 1991, a continuous 1000 pounds per hour coal feed mild coal gasification pilot plant (CMGU) was completed. The gasification unit is a heated unique screw conveyor designed to continuously process plastic coal, vent volatiles generated by pyrolysis of coal, and convert the plastic coal to free flowing char. The screw reactor auxiliary components are basic solids materials handling equipment. The screw reactor will convert coal to char and volatile co-products at a rate greater than 1000 pounds per hour of coal feed. Formed coke from CMGU char is comparable to that from the MGU char. In pilot-plant test runs, up to 20 tons of foundry coke were produced. Three formed coke tests at commercial foundries were successful. In all of the cupola tests, the iron temperature and composition data indicated that the formed coke performed satisfactorily. No negative change in the way the cupola performed was noticed. The last 20-ton test was 100 percent CTC/DOE coke. With conventional coke in this cupola charging rates were 10 charges per hour. The formed coke charges were 11 to 12 charges per hour. This equates to a higher melt rate. A 10 percent increase in cupola production would be a major advantage. 13 figs., 13 tabs.

NONE

1996-12-31

297

High temperature electrochemical polishing of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification process streams. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide from coal gasification streams through an electrochemical membrane is being perfected. H{sub 2}S is removed from a synthetic gas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the existing syn-gas, and sulfur, which is condensed downstream from an inert sweep gas stream. The process allows for continuous removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream while allowing negligible pressure loss through the separator. Moreover, the process is economically attractive due to the elimination of the need for a Claus process for sulfur recovery. To this extent the project presents a novel concept for improving utilization of coal for more efficient power generation. This quarter`s research focused on fabricating LiCoO{sub 2} electrodes and then utilizing them in full cell experiments at 650 C. The cathode showed inefficient porosity to allow mass transfer of the extremely dilute hydrogen sulfide to the electrolyte interface.

Winnick, J.

1998-08-01

298

Scale-up of mild gasification to be a process development unit mildgas 24 ton/day PDU design report. Final report, November 1991--July 1996  

SciTech Connect

From November 1991 to April 1996, Kerr McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal) led a project to develop the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) Mild Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program were to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scale-up; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The project team for the PDU development program consisted of: K-M Coal, IGT, Bechtel Corporation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC), General Motors (GM), Pellet Technology Corporation (PTC), LTV Steel, Armco Steel, Reilly Industries, and Auto Research.

NONE

1996-03-01

299

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

On November 6, 1991, a meeting was held at the AMAX Research and Development Center in Golden, Colorado. Those in attendance at the meeting included Brian Runge and Robert Ness of the EERC, Scott McFeely of Xoi, Frank Hogsett and Mahesh Jha of AMAX, and Jerry Sinor and Trevor Ellis of J.E- Sinor Consultants. Items on the agenda included framing the scope of work to be conducted by Sinor on the market assessment for mild gasification products. An attempt was made to draft an integrated time line for the completion of all subcontracts issued under the project. The commercial process flowsheet under development by XBi was presented for review. The goals to be achieved by the technical and economic assessment to be performed by XBi were outlined. Frank Hogsett reported on the progress of the coal cleaning being conducted by AMAX. As soon as sufficient coal has been cleaned, the mild gasification reactors at the EERC will be run to generate sufficient quantities of products to allow testing of product upgrading and utilization methods. The next project review meeting was held on December 12, 1991, in the Houston, Texas, offices of XBi. The major work conducted during this meeting focused on review of the preliminary process flow diagrams (PFOS) prepared by XBi. Several modifications were discussed and will be reflected in the updated PFDs.

Runge, B.D.; Ness, R.O. Jr.

1992-01-01

300

Chemistry of coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Coal is a complex solid material containing a mixture of substances that chemically consist mostly of carbon with lesser amounts of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and ash. Gasification is the conversion of solid coal to combustible gases by combining the carbon with additional oxygen and/or hydrogen. Although thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) can produce gaseous fuels, they are usually produced by reaction with oxygen, hydrogen, steam and carbon dioxide. The elemental composition range of coal and several combustible gases that may be derived from coal are given. At one extreme, the sole addition of oxygen provides carbon monoxide, the main component of a fuel gas called producer gas. At the other extreme, the addition of only hydrogen provides methane, the main constituent of substitute natural gas (SNG). In between these extremes, the addition of both oxygen and hydrogen provides a mixture of CO and H/sub 2/, which can be used either for fuel or for a chemical feedstock (synthesis gas or syngas). Coal gasification is carried out at high temperatures and chemical heat effects play an important part in controlling the process as well as providing for the process energy needs. The most important reactions for gasifying carbon are given in Table 2. Combinations with oxygen result in heat evolution (exothermic reactions). Conversely, the reaction of carbon with steam (H/sub 2/O(g)) to form H/sub 2/ and CO or to form H/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ requires the input of heat (an endothermic reaction). Also, carbon may be gasified by the direct addition of hydrogen (hydrogasification) to form methane (an exothermic reaction) or by CO/sub 2/ to form CO (an endothermic reaction). Most gasification processes are controlled by balancing the heat effects of the exothermic and endothermic reactions.

Vorres, K.S.

1982-01-01

301

Advanced Thermochemical Biomass Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of advanced biomass gasification systems offers the potential for increasing the industrial use of biomass. An overview of the limitations of thermal gasification systems for producing medium-Btu gas from biomass is presented. The use of an ex...

R. S. Butner D. C. Elliott L. J. Sealock

1986-01-01

302

Gasification: redefining clean energy  

SciTech Connect

This booklet gives a comprehensive overview of how gasification is redefining clean energy, now and in the future. It informs the general public about gasification in a straight-forward, non-technical manner.

NONE

2008-05-15

303

Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water.  

PubMed

Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water was studied. Influences of main reaction parameters, including temperature (623-698 K), pressure (25-35 Mpa), residence time (10-15 min) and dry matter content (5-25 wt%), were investigated to optimize the gasification process. The main gas products were methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and traces of ethene, etc. Results showed that 10 wt% dry matter content digested sewage sludge at a temperature of 698 K and residence time of 50 min, with a pressure of 25 MPa, were the most favorable conditions for the sewage sludge gasification and carbon gasification efficiencies. In addition, potassium carbonate (K2CO3) was also employed as the catalyst to make a comparison between gasification with and without catalyst. When 2.6 g K2CO3 was added, a gasification efficiency of 25.26% and a carbon gasification efficiency of 20.02% were achieved, which were almost four times as much as the efficiencies without catalyst. K2CO3 has been proved to be effective in sewage sludge gasification. PMID:23315366

Zhai, Yunbo; Wang, Chang; Chen, Hongmei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Pang, Daoxiong; Lu, Pei

2013-04-01

304

2010 Worldwide Gasification Database  

DOE Data Explorer

The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

305

Catalysis in biomass gasification  

SciTech Connect

The objective of these studies is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products by catalytic gasification of biomass. Catalyst performance is a key factor in the feasibility of catalytic gasification processes. The results of studies designed to gain a fundamental understanding of catalytic mechanisms and causes of deactivation, and discussion of the state-of-the-art of related catalytic processes are presented. Experiments with primary and secondary catalysts were conducted in a 5-cm-diameter, continuous-wood-feed, fixed-catalyst-bed reactor. The primary catalysts used in the experiments were alkali carbonates mixed with the biomass feed; the secondary catalysts included nickel or other transition metals on supports such as alumina, silica, or silica-alumina. The primary catalysts were found to influence wood pyrolysis as well as the char/steam reaction. Secondary catalysts were used in a fixed-bed configuration to direct gas phase reactions. Results of the performance of these catalysts are presented. Secondary catalysts were found to be highly effective for conversion of biomass to specific gas products: synthesis gases and methane-rich gas. With an active catalyst, equilibrium gas composition are obtained, and all liquid pyrolysis products are converted to gases. The major cause of catalyst deactivation was carbon deposition, or coking. Loss of surface area by sintering was also inportant. Catalyst deactivation by sulfur poisoning was observed when bagasse was used as the feedstock for catalytic gasification. Mechanisms of catalyst activity and deactivation are discussed. Model compounds (methane, ethylene, and phenol) were used to determine coking behavior of catalysts. Carbon deposition is more prevalent with ethylene and phenol than with methane. Catalyst formulations that are resistant to carbon deposition are presented. 60 references, 10 figures, 21 tables.

Baker, E.G.; Mudge, L.K.

1984-06-01

306

Angrenskaya underground coal gasification station  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report continues our survey of the Soviet effort in underground coal gasification (UCG) and summarizes production data and process improvements developed at the Angrenskaya Station. Of the six UCG stations operated in the Soviet Union, only the Angrenskaya Station was established from the outset as a commercial venture rather than as a research facility. Development began in 1952. Industrial

Olness

1982-01-01

307

GASIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS ORGANIC WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this project is to co-gasify a simulated chlorinated organic waste stream with coal and determine if toxic chlorinated organics are formed during the gasification process. EPA's Office of Solid Waste (OSW) recently proposed regulatory changes in which hazardous wa...

308

Modeling Integrated Biomass Gasification Business Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biomass gasification is an approach to producing energy and/or biofuels that could be integrated into existing forest product production facilities, particularly at pulp mills. Existing process heat and power loads tend to favor integration at existing pu...

E. M. Bilek M. A. Dietenberger P. J. Ince

2011-01-01

309

Investigations on Water Vapor-Coal Partial Gasification in a Helium Heated Vertical Gas Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Process engineering design and layout strategies for a gas generator in vertical construction (vs. horizontal construction in the past) of the process of water vapor-coal gasification to non-catalytical partial and complete gasification of bituminous coal...

H. Barnert J. Singh H. Hohn G. Romes H. Kalwitzki

1987-01-01

310

Coal conversion solid waste disposal. [Cogas, British Gas/Lurgi, Grace/Texaco, U-Gas, SRC-I/Kopper-Totzek, SRC-II/Texaco, Foster Wheeler/Stoic, Combustion Engineering  

SciTech Connect

The major solid waste produced at coal conversion facilities will be gasification slag or ash. To evaluate the impact of this waste on the environment, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted extensive characterization and leaching studies on ash/slags that had been generated in bench-scale operations, pilot plants, and/or process development units for eight different gasification processes. These studies, designed to assess the consequences of disposal in landfills, showed that none of the leachates from these eight wastes exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's toxicity limits. Thus, these ash/slags would be classified as nonhazardous wastes. Quantities of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that were observed in the aqueous leachates of selected ash/slags were less than 1 ..mu..g/g and appear to be of no significant environmental concern. Column elution studies revealed effluents with pH values less than three and sulfate concentrations greater than 10,000 mg/L for wastes containing sulfur concentrations from 0.3 to 4%. As a result, the major environmental impact associated with disposal of these solid wastes appears to be the dissolution of sulfate and the potential acidification of ground water. 2 figures, 4 tables.

Francis, C.W.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Turner, R.R.; Davis, E.C.

1982-12-01

311

Test and evaluate the TRI-GAS low-Btu coal gasification process. Quarterly report, April-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

Four tests were conducted in the TRI-GAS PEDU. Test No. 3S-55 was prematurely shut down because of failure of the steam boiler. Steay-state operation was not achieved. Following repairs to the steam boiler Test No. 3S-56 was conducted. This test was also terminated prematurely, due to failure of the power controller for the steam boiler. Repairs were again made. In Test No. 3S-57, bed temperatures in Stages 2 and 3 were lower than required for gasification, although some reaction occurred at the top of the reactors where the temperatures exceeded 1600 F. The test was concluded somewhat prematurely due to plugging of the coal-feed line. PEDU Test No. 3S-58, an integrated three-stage test, was conducted in June. The heating value of the product gas was about 100 Btu per cu ft even though failure of the reactor heaters prevented the Stage 2 temperature from exceeding 1550 F.

Not Available

1980-07-01

312

Coal gasification: the new energy source  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of coal gasification describes processes available today and ; in the future. Winkler, Koppers-Totzek, and Lurgi processes are briefly ; described. The Lurgi Process has been applied extensively for practically all of ; the first-generation projects. Some new processes include Bituminous Coal ; Research's BIGAS Process, Consolidation Coal's COâ Acceptor'' Process, ; and the Institute of Gas Technology's

J. E. Williams; J. H. Dressel

1973-01-01

313

The production of substitute natural gas by oil gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the author describes the use of the whole range of petroleum fractions for the manufacture of substitute natural gas (SNG). The principal process steps are catalytic steam gasification and hydroconversion, and non-catalytic hydrogenation and steam-oxygen gasification. The integration of these steps into complete processes is presented in terms of the types of oil that each process can

H. J. F. Stroud

1978-01-01

314

Evaluation of iron based chemical looping for hydrogen and electricity co-production by gasification process with carbon capture and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is one of power generation technologies having the highest potential for carbon capture with low penalties in efficiency and cost. Syngas produced by gasification can be decarbonised using chemical looping methods in which an oxygen carrier (usually a metallic oxide) is recycled between the syngas oxidation reactor (fuel reactor) and the chemical agent oxidation reactor

Calin-Cristian Cormos

2010-01-01

315

High temperature electrochemical polishing of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification process streams: Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1996-September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Electrochemical Membrane Separator (E.M.S.), the focus of experimental work, purges a fuel gas contaminated with H{sub 2}S. This is done by reducing the most electro-active species in the gas stream. In this case, H{sub 2}S is reduced by the following: H{sub 2}S + 2e{sup -} {yields} H{sub 2} + S{sup 2-}. A membrane which contains sulfide ions in a molten salt electrolyte will act to transport the ions across to the anode. If the membrane is impermeable to H{sub 2} diffusion from the cathode side, an inert sweep gas can be used to carry the vaporous oxidized sulfur downstream to be condensed. S{sup 2-}{yields} 1/2 S{sub 2} +2e{sup -}. Processes to remove H{sub 2}S typically rely on low-to-ambient temperature adsorption, followed by sorbent regeneration and Claus plant treatment for conversion of H{sub 2}S to a salable by-product, sulfur. Although effective, this type of removal is very process- intensive as well as energy-inefficient due to low temperature operation. Gasification streams generally range from 500{degrees}C - 1000{degrees}C, requiring cooling before and reheating after process gas sweetening. Although these technologies have proven capable of meeting H{sub 2}S levels required by molten carbonate fuel cell systems, there are several disadvantages inherent to these processes. Alternative high temperature methods are presently available, but process drawbacks including morphological changes in catalytic beds or inefficient molten salt sorbent processes negate savings incurred through energy efficient removal temperatures. An electrochemical membrane separation system for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gasification product streams is the subject of this investigation. The high operating temperature, flow-through design, and capability of selective H{sub 2}S removal and direct production of elemental sulfur offered by this process provide several advantages over existing and developmental H{sub 2}S removal technologies. 17 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

Winnick, J. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

1997-03-01

316

Mild gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this initial year's mission-oriented multi-year program is to develop a process chemistry data base for the mild gasification of coal with emphasis on eastern bituminous coal. One important objective of this program was to obtain the trends in product formation from different coals as a function of several process variables which included temperature, pressure, coal particle residence time, coal flow rate, type of additives such as lime, limestone, silica flour and ash in a short period of time. This was achieved by a careful development of a test matrix using a fractional factorial statistical design. The equipment used was the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) combination stirred moving-bed, entrained-tubular reactor which is capable of processing 2 to 3 pounds of coal per hour. A Wellmore Kentucky No. 8 bituminous coal, a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal and a Mississippi lignite with particles having a size of 150 {mu}m or less were selected for this study. The mild gasification experiments were conducted at temperatures from 550{degree} to 650{degree}C at nitrogen sweep gas pressures of 15 to 50 psi and residence times of 0.1 to 2 min. The coal flow rate was 0. 4 to 1.0 lb/hr and the concentration of the lime additives was 0 to 10% by weight of the dry coal feed. All variables were tested at two different levels, low and high, corresponding to the above ranges of the variables. A rapid calculation of the main effects and interactions was made using Yate's algorithm and the significance of the effects was determined from the normal probability plots. 10 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs.

Sundaram, M.S.; Fallon, P.T.; Steinberg, M.

1989-01-01

317

Gasification of Low-Rank Coals: Technology Status and Recent Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technology for gasification of low-rank coals includes processes that are commercially available as well as some that are being developed. Commercial Lurgi technology is being utilized by the Great Plains Gasification Associates (GPGA) to convert North Da...

G. A. Wiltsee W. G. Willson

1985-01-01

318

POLLUTANTS FROM SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION: SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS FOR COAL GASIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes sampling and analysis methods involving a laboratory-scale coal gasification facility used to study the generation, sampling, chemical analysis, process evaluation, and environmental assessment of pollutants from coal gasification. It describes methods for pa...

319

Comparison of Solid Wastes from Coal Combustion and Pilot Coal-Gasification Plants. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Comparisons of the physical and chemical properties of solid wastes from coal combustion and gasification processes should assist in deciding whether gasification solid wastes can be utilized or disposed of in the same manner as combustion solid wastes. I...

C. W. Gehrs

1983-01-01

320

Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

Yang, L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2008-07-01

321

Plasma gasification of waste as a method of energy saving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several versions of the organizations of the process of plasma-chemical gasification with the use of air, carbon dioxide, steam and their mixtures as the plasma-forming gas are considered in the presentation. The results of the calculation-theoretical evaluations of the quality of synthesis gas and efficiency of gasification, and also the results of experiments on plasma gasification of wood waste carried

V. E. Popov; A. N. Bratsev; V. A. Kuznetsov; S. V. Shtengel; A. A. Ufimtsev

2011-01-01

322

Hydrogen recovery from the thermal plasma gasification of solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal plasma gasification has been demonstrated as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization in many of studies. Therefore, the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification (paper mill waste, 1.2 ton\\/day) was applied for the recovery of high purity H2 (>99.99%). Gases emitted from a gasification furnace equipped with a

Youngchul Byun; Moohyun Cho; Jae Woo Chung; Won Namkung; Hyeon Don Lee; Sung Duk Jang; Young-Suk Kim; Jin-Ho Lee; Carg-Ro Lee; Soon-Mo Hwang

2011-01-01

323

Thermodynamic optimization of biomass gasification for decentralized power generation and Fischer–Tropsch synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, biomass gasification has emerged as a viable option for decentralized power generation, especially in developing countries. Another potential use of producer gas from biomass gasification is in terms of feedstock for Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis – a process for manufacture of synthetic gasoline and diesel. This paper reports optimization of biomass gasification process for these two applications. Using

Buljit Buragohain; Pinakeswar Mahanta; Vijayanand S. Moholkar

2010-01-01

324

Coal gasification vessel  

DOEpatents

A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

Loo, Billy W. (Oakland, CA)

1982-01-01

325

Coal gasification. Quarterly report, July-September 1979  

SciTech Connect

The status of 18 coal gasification pilot plants or supporting projects supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract number, funding, gasification process, history, process description, flowsheet and progress in the July-September 1979 quarter. (LTN)

None

1980-07-01

326

Update of the Texaco mortality study 1947-93: Part II. Analyses of specific causes of death for white men employed in refining, research, and petrochemicals  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine patterns of mortality for specific causes of death with increases in the Texaco mortality study to determine if the patterns are related to employment in the petroleum industry. METHODS: Mortality patterns by duration of employment in various job groups were examined for mesothelioma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, cell type specific leukaemia, and brain tumours. RESULTS: Mortality from mesothelioma was examined for the total cohort and for two maintenance groups with the greatest potential for exposure to asbestos. The insulator group had a standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 3029, and a larger group consisting of insulators, carpenters, labourers, electricians, pipefitters, boiler-makers, and welders had an SMR of 411. The mortalities from mesothelioma increased with increasing duration of employment. Mortality was lower for those first employed after 1950. An analysis of all brain tumours for the total cohort and some job and unit subgroups resulted in an SMR of 178 for those employed on the units related to motor oil and 166 for those employed as laboratory workers. Mortality from brain tumours in both of these job groups was higher for those employed > or = 5 years in the group. An analysis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma showed no consistent patterns among the various employment groups. Mortality from multiple myeloma was non-significantly increased among people employed on the crude (SMR = 155) and fluid catalytic cracking units (SMR = 198). Leukaemia mortality was not increased for the total cohort, and a cell type analysis of leukaemia mortality for the total cohort showed no significant increases for the major cell types. However, there were significant increases for acute unspecified leukaemia (SMR = 276) and leukaemia of unknown cell type (SMR = 231). CONCLUSIONS: Analyses of specific causes of death by duration of employment in various job and process units did not show any patterns which suggest that, other than for mesothelioma, any of these increases in mortalities were likely to have resulted from workplace exposures or from employment at one of the places included in the Texaco mortality study.  

Divine, B. J.; Hartman, C. M.; Wendt, J. K.

1999-01-01

327

Update of the Texaco mortality study 1947-93: Part I. Analysis of overall patterns of mortality among refining, research, and petrochemical workers  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To update information on the workers of the Texaco mortality study to determine if the patterns of mortality have changed with 16 additional years of follow up. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: All workers were employed for > or = 5 years at company refineries, petrochemical plants, and research laboratories from 1947-93. The cohort now consists of 28,480 employees with an average of > or = 20 years of follow up. RESULTS: The overall mortality, and most cause specific mortalities were lower than or similar to those for the general population of the United States. For white men (86% of the cohort), there were 8873 observed deaths and 11,181 expected resulting in a significantly lower standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 79. There were significant deficits for all the leading causes of death in the United States including all cancers, cancer of the lung, stroke, heart disease, respiratory disease, and accidents. Slightly increased mortality was found for cancer of the pancreas, cancer of the brain and central nervous system, leukaemia, and cancer of other lymphatic tissue. For cancer of the bone, the SMR was 162 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 86 to 278), and for benign and unspecified neoplasms, it was 152 (95% CI 109 to 206). Overall mortality patterns for non-white men and women were similar to those for white men. Mortality patterns for white men were also examined by duration of employment, time first employed, location, and by job and process unit. There were significantly increased SMRs for brain cancer for those people employed as laboratory workers and on units with motor oil and for cancer of other lymphatic tissue for people employed on the fluid catalytic cracking unit. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the updated study showed a favourable mortality experience for employees in the Texaco mortality study compared with the United States population. There were a few increases found consistently including, but not limited to, brain cancer and cancer of other lymphatic tissue. These increases led to additional analyses that will be discussed in the accompanying paper.  

Divine, B. J.; Hartman, C. M.; Wendt, J. K.

1999-01-01

328

Biooxidation of coal gasification wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies were carried out on the feasibility of using a fixed-film fluidised-bed bioreactor to treat coal gasification wastewaters. Dilute synthetic wastewaters were treated successfully by this process for over a year, and dilute actual wastewaters for 9 months. The bioreactors were stable, and no serious operating problems occurred. Effluent phenol concentration of <0.001 kg\\/m³ was achieved with a synthetic

T. L. Donaldson; G. W. Strandberg; J. D. Hewitt; G. S. Shields

1984-01-01

329

Coal conversion processes and analysis methodologies for synthetic fuels production. [technology assessment and economic analysis of reactor design for coal gasification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information to identify viable coal gasification and utilization technologies is presented. Analysis capabilities required to support design and implementation of coal based synthetic fuels complexes are identified. The potential market in the Southeast United States for coal based synthetic fuels is investigated. A requirements analysis to identify the types of modeling and analysis capabilities required to conduct and monitor coal gasification project designs is discussed. Models and methodologies to satisfy these requirements are identified and evaluated, and recommendations are developed. Requirements for development of technology and data needed to improve gasification feasibility and economies are examined.

1979-01-01

330

Plasma gasification of coals  

SciTech Connect

To avoid problems of transporting coal from Siberia to the European part of the Soviet Union, plasma gasification could be used to give methane and liquid methyl fuel which could be transported by pipeline. Plasma-assisted gasification is particularly effective in the case of brown coals. (11 refs.)

Kruzhilin, G.I.; Khudyakov, G.N.; Tselishchev, P.A.

1981-01-01

331

Environmental, health, and safety data base for the KRW coal-gasification process development unit. Volume 1. Final report, August 1982-June 1985  

SciTech Connect

An environmental, health and safety data base was developed for the KRW coal gasification process development unit (PDU) in Madison, Pennsylvania. The study was performed to expand the existing information for most stream flows and compositions for the KRW gasifier. Results were obtained from multiple coal tests conducted in 1983. Process data, along with chemical analyses, were used to prepare material balances for major components around both the gasifier and the entire PDU for each coal test. The distribution of trace elements, sulfur species, nitrogen species, and organics in outlet streams has been determined. The program also included a health and safety study. Workplace area and personnel monitoring were conducted during both a maintenance period and normal PDU operations. Records were researched to identify previous accidents and conditions which affected worker health and safety. The program found no EHandS effects that should limit the commercial applicability of the KRW process. Commercially available technologies and procedures should be acceptable for treating and disposing of waste streams according to current regulatory requirements.

Mann, R.M.; Harris, G.E.; Menzies, W.R.; Simonson, A.V.; Williams, W.A.

1985-06-01

332

Environmental, health, and safety data base for the KRW coal-gasification process development unit. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report, August 1982-June 1985  

SciTech Connect

An environmental, health and safety data base was developed for the KRW coal gasification process development unit (PDU) in Madison, Pennsylvania. The study was performed to expand the existing information for most stream flows and compositions for the KRW gasifier. Results were obtained from multiple coal tests conducted in 1983. Process data, along with chemical analyses, were used to prepare material balances for major components around both the gasifier and the entire PDU for each coal test. The distribution of trace elements, sulfur species, nitrogen species, and organics in outlet streams has been determined. The program also included a health and safety study. Workplace area and personnel monitoring were conducted during both a maintenance period and normal PDU operations. Records were researched to identify previous accidents and conditions which affected worker health and safety. The program found no EHandS effects that should limit the commercial applicability of the KRW process. Commercially available technologies and procedures should be acceptable for treating and disposing of waste streams according to current regulatory requirements.

Mann, R.M.; Harris, G.E.; Menzies, W.R.; Simonson, A.V.; Williams, W.A.

1985-06-01

333

An overview of peat gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal and biological peat gasification processes are reviewed, with research showing that peat is high in both oxygen and hydrogen, and also nitrogen, which can be used to form ammonia as a byproduct. The hydrogen-carbon ratio of peat has been shown to exceed that of subbituminous coal, indicating less of a need to supply more hydrogen in the formation of gaseous fuels. The gasification process involves crushing the peat into particles smaller than 2 mm, which cascade through drying air into a gasifier, where gases from the hydrogasifier induce hydropyrolysis. The char then flows into a reactor with steam and oxygen to make synthesis gas. Minnesota peat has shown the highest hydrocarbon yields in the U.S., and economic comparisons show peak gasification has economic parity with other means of producing SNG. Experiments have also shown the feasibility of wet peat conversion using a peat-water slurry in an anaerobic digestor to produce methane. Building of pilot plants is suggested as necessary to verify existing processes.

Punwani, D. V.

334

Calcium Silicate Cement Sorbent for H sub 2 S Removal and Improved Gasification Processes. Annual Progress Report, October 1, 1981-September 30, 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Commercial calcium silicate bearing Portland cement type III (PC III), in the form of agglomerated cement sorbent (ACS) pellets, is being investigated for in-situ desulfurization of fuel gases and for improved coal gasification. The preparation procedure ...

H. J. Yoo M. Steinberg

1982-01-01

335

Research and Development on Membrane Processes for Removal of Acid Gases During Coal Gasification. Final Report, 20 June 1975-19 October 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of this program was to develop novel and unique membranes for separating acid gases from coal gasification streams. Many candidate membranes, including cationic, hydrophilic, and silicone, were tested. Optimum separation properties were possess...

R. J. Petersen J. E. Cadotte E. J. Conway R. H. Forester M. J. Steuck

1976-01-01

336

Waste to Energy:The Waste Incineration Directive and its Implementation in the Netherlands: Assessment of Essent\\\\'s Waste Wood Gasification Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essent operates a coal-fired power plant, called AC-9, in Geertruidenberg. A gasifier connected to AC-9 thermally treats waste wood through gasification. The waste wood Essent used is demolition and construction wood, the so-called B-wood. The gas produced through gasification is fed into the connected AC-9 where it is used as fuel. However, after the BVA’s (Besluit Verbranden Afvalstoffen) entry into

Murat Duman; Luciaan Boels

2007-01-01

337

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, October--December 1995  

SciTech Connect

Efforts continued to obtain financing for a commercial continuous formed coke plant. Discussions were held with two steel companies that are interested in producing coke for their use in steel production and foundry operations. Planning for production of 40 tons of foundry formed coke is underway. This coke will be used in two 20-ton tests at General Motors` foundries. During this production, it is planned to determine if a tunnel kiln can be used as a coking furnace as an alternative for a rotary hearth. A rotary hearth is about three times more costly than a competitive-sized tunnel kiln. Work continued on using Western non-caking coals to produce formed coke. Successful tests were made by using Eastern caking coals and other binders to permit using up to 50% of the cheaper Western non-caking coals in formed coke production. The primary objective of this project is to develop an advanced continuous mild gasification process and product upgrading processes which will be capable of eventual commercialization.

O`Neal, G.W.

1996-01-01

338

Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill  

SciTech Connect

As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also produced a comparable tensile and burst index pulps. Product gas composition determined using computer simulations The results demonstrate that RVS-1 can effectively remove > 99.8% of the H2S present in simulated synthesis gas generated from the gasification of black liquor. This level of sulfur removal was consistent over simulated synthesis gas mixtures that contained from 6 to 9.5 vol % H2S.A significant amount of the sulfur in the simulated syngas was recovered as SO2 during regeneration. The average recovery of sulfur as SO2 was about 75%. Because these are first cycle results, this sulfur recovery is expected to improve. Developed WINGems model of the process.The total decrease in variable operating costs for the BLG process compared to the HERB was in excess of $6,200,000 per year for a mill producing 350,000 tons of pulp per year. This represents a decrease in operating cost of about $17.7/ton of oven dry pulp produced. There will be additional savings in labor and maintenance cost that has not been taken into account. The capital cost for the MSSAQ based gasifier system was estimated at $164,000,000, which is comparable to a High Efficiency Recovery Boiler. The return on investment was estimated at 4%. A gasifier replacement cannot be justified on its own, however if the recovery boiler needs to be replaced the MSSAQ gasifier system shows significantly higher savings. Before black liquor based gasifer technology can be commercialized more work is necessary. The recovery of the absorbed sulfur in the absorbent as sulfur dioxide is only 75%. This needs to be greater than 90% for economical operation. It has been suggested that as the number of cycles is increased the sulfur dioxide recovery might improve. Further research is necessary. Even though a significant amount of work has been done on a pilot scale gasifiers using liquors containing sulfur, both at low and high temperatures the lack of a commercial unit is an impediment to the implementation of the MSSAQ technology. The implementation of a commercial unit needs to be facilated before the benefits of

Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

2010-01-27

339

Results from the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe results from the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification test. The experiment employed a drilled channel between process wells spaced 130 ft apart. The drilled channel was enlarged by reverse combustion prior to forward gasification. The first week of forward gasification was carried out using air injection, during which 250 tons of coal were

C. B. Thorsness; R. W. Hill; R. J. Cena; W. R. Aiman; D. R. Stephens

1980-01-01

340

Steam catalytic gasification of municipal solid waste for producing tar-free fuel gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, a two-region municipal solid waste (MSW) steam catalytic gasification process was proposed. The gasifier was composed of two individual reactors: one is the gasification reactors and the other is the catalytic reactor. The MSW was initially gasified and the produced tar was gasified in the gasification reactor, and further, the tar not gasified entered the catalytic reactor

Yanwen Guan; Siyi Luo; Shiming Liu; Bo Xiao; Lei Cai

2009-01-01

341

High temperature solid oxide fuel cell integrated with novel allothermal biomass gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass gasification derived gas is a renewable fuel, which can be used for SOFC applications. This work investigates the integration of a near atmospheric solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a novel allothermal biomass steam gasification process into a combined heat and power (CHP) system of less than MWe range. Heat for steam gasification is supplied from SOFC depleted fuel

K. D. Panopoulos; L. Fryda; J. Karl; S. Poulou; E. Kakaras

2006-01-01

342

Plan for acquistion, handling and characterization of coal gasification solid wastes. Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term viability of the gas industry will depend increasingly on the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from the gasification of coal. Coal gasification produces a number of solid wastes, of which the major type is ash. The ash results directly from the gasification process and from the supporting combustion units that produce steam and electricity for the

G. J. McCarthy; G. H. Groenewold; D. J. Hassett; M. L. Jones; O. E. Manz

1983-01-01

343

Catalyzed Steam Gasification of Biomass. Phase II. Final Research Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Wright-Malta gasification process is characterized by low-temperature, catalyzed steam gasification in a pressurized rotary kiln. Fresh biomass moves slowly and continuously through the kiln, where it is gradually heated to around 1200 exp 0 F in an a...

R. H. Hooverman

1979-01-01

344

Assessment of plasma gasification of high caloric waste streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma gasification is an innovative technology for transforming high calorific waste streams into a valuable synthesis gas and a vitrified slag by means of a thermal plasma. A test program has been set up to evaluate the feasibility of plasma gasification and the impact of this process on the environment. RDF (refuse derived fuel) from carpet and textile waste was

Bert Lemmens; Helmut Elslander; Ive Vanderreydt; Kurt Peys; Ludo Diels; Michel Oosterlinck; Marc Joos

2007-01-01

345

Modelling coal gasification with a hybrid neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification of two coals was carried out in a batch feed fluidized bed reactor at atmospheric pressure using steam as fluidizing medium. A model of coal gasification was developed, incorporating a first-principles model with a neural network parameter estimator. The hybrid neural network was trained with experimental data for the two coals and gave good performance in process modelling. A

Bing Guo; Youting Shen; Dingkai Li; Fu Zhao

1997-01-01

346

Evaluation of Treated Gasification Wastewater as Cooling Tower Makeup.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal goal of gasification research at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC) is to develop process and environmental data on the treatability and reuse of aqueous effluents from the fixed-bed gasification of lignite. It is...

M. D. Johnson M. D. Mann S. J. Galegher

1985-01-01

347

Evaluation of treated gasification wastewater as cooling tower makeup  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal goal of gasification research at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC) is to develop process and environmental data on the treatability and reuse of aqueous effluents from the fixed-bed gasification of lignite. It is the objective of the UNDERC wastewater research program to define the extent of treatment required to produce a gas liquor for

S. J. Galegher; M. D. Mann; M. D. Johnson

1985-01-01

348

FIXED (SLOW-MOVING) BED UPDRAFT GASIFICATION OF AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory-scale countercurrent fixed-bed gasifier has been designed and constructed to produce data for process modelling and to compare the gasification characteristics of several biomasses. Densified woody biomass, birch, in form of pellets with a diameter of 8 mm and a length between 5 and 15 mm has been used as a raw material for batch autothermal gasification using air

Alejandro Grimm; Emilia Björnbom; Rolando Zanzi

349

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF BIOMASS GASIFICATION IN A FIXED BED GASIFIER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper there are presented results of experimental investigation of biomass gasification process in a fixed bed gasifier. Gasification was carried out with atmospheric pressure and air was used as oxidizer. Parameters taken into consideration were the air flow rate, amounts of biomass supplied into a gasifier, parameters of raw biomass- elemental composition and initial moisture content. Two kinds

R. K. WILK; P. PLIS

350

Solid waste gasification and energy utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following questions concerning solid waste gasification are answered in this discussion: what is gasification; why gasify solid waste; how is gasification accomplished; what is the present industrial application, and what is the future of solid waste gasification.

Rinker

1980-01-01

351

Steam Gasification of Biomass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported in the construction of the biogasifier to be used in experiments on basic parameters involved in the steam gasification of biomass. Photographs illustrating various stages in the construction are included. (ERA citation 03:014252)

1977-01-01

352

Steam Gasification of Biomass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Construction of experimental equipment for research on basic parameters involved in the steam gasification of biomass was completed. Modifications were made on the equipment to improve performance. Information obtained from preliminary runs indicated that...

1977-01-01

353

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

Not Available

1992-02-01

354

LLL Underground Coal Gasification Project: 1978 Status.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results from the recent LLL underground coal gasification experiment, Hoe Creek No. 2 are presented. It was a two process-well experiment, using both air and oxygen/steam injection: both low and medium-Btu gas were produced. The process wells were spaced ...

R. W. Hill C. B. Thorsness D. R. Stephens D. S. Thompson W. R. Aiman

1978-01-01

355

Small-scale coal-gasification plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents technical and economic analyses of coal-gasification processes to manufacture medium-heating-value gas and synthetic natural gas from two commercially available processes: Koppers-Totzek and Lurgi. The plants were designed for a capacity of 30 x 10 to the 9th Btu\\/day.

ARUN VERMA; P. J. Read

1979-01-01

356

WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

Unknown

2000-09-01

357

Evaluation of coal-gasification - combustion-turbine power plants emphasizing low water consumption  

SciTech Connect

A cost and performance study was made of several integrated power plants using coal gasification technology now in advanced development and combustion turbines for power generation. The principal emphasis was placed on studying plants using air cooling and comparing costs and performance of those plants with water-cooled coal gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) and conventional coal-fired power plants. The major objective was to determine whether cost and performance penalties would be prohibitive for air-cooled plants that use yet-to-be-developed coal gasifiers and commercially available combustion turbines for topping cycle power. The results indicate the following: air-cooled GCC plants using conceptual designs of either the Texaco or the British Gas Corporation (BGC) slaging gasifier could have coal-to-net electric power efficiencies equivalent to that of a water-cooled conventional coal-fired plant; the air-cooled GCC plants could produce electricity at busbar cost 1 to 3 mills per kWh (1980 dollars) less than busbar cost in a water-cooled conventional plant and only up to 2 mills per kWh higher than busbar cost in a water-cooled Texaco GCC plant; and even a simple-cycle regenerative combustion turbine plant fueled with gas from the BGC gasifier could have a coal-to-net electric power efficiency of over 30% and a busbar cost competitive with that in a water cooled conventional plant. The principal reason that air-cooled power plants using combustion turbines could be competitive with conventional water-cooled, coal-fired steam plants is that a majority of net power is produced by the combustion turbines, which require no cooling water. This, in turn, leads to a reduced cost and performance penalty when bottoming steam-cycle condensers are air-cooled.

Cavazo, R.; Clemmer, A.B.; de la Mora, J.A.; Grisso, J.R.; Klumpe, H.W.; Meissner, R.E.; Musso, A.; Roszkowski, T.R.

1982-01-01

358

Biothermal gasification of biomass and organic residues  

SciTech Connect

The BIOTHERMGAS process is described for gasification of biomass and organic residues to substitute natural gas (SNG). This process combines biological and thermochemical unit operations for the conversion of a broad variety of organic feeds such as plant materials, organic residues, and peat to SNG or other fuels, regardless of their water and nutrient content. The process employs biological gasification followed by thermochemical gasification of refractory digester residues. Ammonia and other inorganic nutrients are recycled from the thermochemical process unit to the biological gasification unit (digester). Waste heat from thermochemical conversion components is used to supply the heat requirement of the bioconversion component. The product gases from the thermochemical unit can be upgraded to SNG by either biological or catalytic methanation. The results of preliminary systems analyses of three different operating conditions are presented here: 9.1 x 10/sup 6/ kg/day Bermuda grass plant with catalytic methanation, 9.1 x 10/sup 6/ kg/day Bermuda grass plant with biomethanation, and 0.9 x 10/sup 6/ kg/day municipal solid waste (MSW) and sewage sludge plant with biomethanation. The results of these analyses indicate that the performance of this process is superior to biological or thermochemical processes used separately. Laboratory studies conducted on conversion of typical thermochemical product gases (H/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, and CO) to methane in a sewage sludge digester showed that effective conversion of gases can be accomplished by biomethanation without any adverse effect on the sludge bioconversion process.

Chynoweth, D.D.; Srivastava, V.J.; Jerger, D.E.; Tarman, P.B.

1980-01-01

359

Marine Accident Report--U.S. Tankship S/S Texaco North Dakota and Artificial Island EI-361-A, Collision and Fire, Gulf of Mexico, August 21, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

About 0430 on August 21, 1980, the United States tankship S/S TEXACO NORTH DAKOTA collided with Eugene Island 361-A, a partially constructed artificial island used in oil production operations, located in the Gulf of Mexico, about 100 nautical miles south...

1981-01-01

360

Development of Highly Durable and Reactive Regenerable Magnesium-Based Sorbents for CO2 Separation in Coal Gasification Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The specific objective of this project was to develop physically durable and chemically regenerable MgO-based sorbents that can remove carbon dioxide from raw coal gas at operating condition prevailing in IGCC processes.

J. Abbasian A. H. Khayyat R. B. Slimane

2005-01-01

361

Evaluation of Gasification and Gas-Cleanup Processes for Use in Molten-Carbonate Fuel-Cell Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This interim report satisfies the Task B requirement to define process configurations for systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants. The configurations studied include entrained, fluid...

E. J. Vidt G. Jablonski M. A. Alvin R. A. Wenglarz P. Patel

1981-01-01

362

Experimental Program for the Development of Peat Gasification. Interim Report No. 4. Physical Properties Evaluation: Task 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This interim report presents the results of tests conducted to determine the physical properties of Minnesota reed sedge peat which might be needed in developing a model for peat gasification, selecting the gasification process most suitable for peat, and...

1978-01-01

363

Biomass gasification: yesterday, today, and tomorrow  

SciTech Connect

The solid fuels, biomass and coal, can be converted by gasification into clean gaseous fuels that are easier to distribute and required for many technical processes. The simplest method of conversion is air gasification, producing a low-energy gas well suited for direct-heat or engine applications but unsuitable for pipeline use. Oxygen gasification produces a medium-energy gas composed primarily of CO and H/sub 2/, which can be used industrial pipelines for operation of turbines for power and heat cogeneration or for chemical synthesis of methanol or ammonia. Steam or hydrogen gasification are also possible but external heat and energy sources are required. Slow pyrolysis produces a medium-energy gas, charcoal, and oil. Gases resulting from fast pyrolysis contain a high concentration of olefins (primarily ethylene), which are quite useful for synthesis of fuels or chemicals. This paper presents some of the most pertinent material from the three-volume SERI report, A Survey of Biomass Gasification.

Reed, T.B.

1980-03-01

364

ASPEN modeling of the Tri-State indirect liquefaction process  

SciTech Connect

The ASPEN process simulator has been used to model an indirect liquefaction flowsheet patterned after that of the Tri-State project. This flowsheet uses Lurgi moving-bed gasification with synthesis gas conversion to methanol followed by further processing to gasoline using the Mobil MTG process. Models developed in this study include the following: Lurgi gasifier, Texaco gasifier, synthesis gas cooling, Rectisol, methanol synthesis, methanol-to-gasoline, CO-shift, methanation, and naphtha hydrotreating. These models have been successfully developed in modular form so that they can be used to simulate a number of different flowsheets or process alternatives. Simulations of the Tri-State flowsheet have been made using two different coal feed rates and two types of feed coal. The overall simulation model was adjusted to match the Tri-State flowsheet values for methanol, LPG, isobutane, and gasoline. As a result of this adjustment, the MTG reactor yield structure necessary to match the flowsheet product rates was determined. The models were exercised at different flow rates and were unaffected by such changes, demonstrating their range of operability. The use of Illinois No. 6 coal, with its lower ash content, resulted in slightly higher production rates for each of the products as compared to use of the Kentucky coal.

Begovich, J.M.; Clinton, J.H.; Johnson, P.J.; Barker, R.E.

1983-01-01

365

Program for large-scale underground-coal-gasification tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuing development of underground coal gasification technology requires extended multi-module field programs in which the output gas is linked to surface usage. An effort was to appraise whether existing surface facilities in the utility, petroleum refinery, or natural gas industries could be used to reduce the cost of such an extended multi-module test and whether regional demand in areas having underground coal gasification coal resources could support the manufacture of transportation fuels from underground coal gasification gases. To limit the effort to a reasonable level but yet to permit a fair test of the concept, effort was focused on five states, Illinois, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming, which have good underground coal gasification reserves. Studies of plant distribution located 25 potential sites within 3 miles of the underground coal gasification amenable reserves in the five states. Distribution was 44% to utilities, 44% to refineries, and 12% to gas processing facilities.

Hammesfahr, F. W.; Winter, P. L.

1982-11-01

366

Coal gasification for power generation. 2nd ed.  

SciTech Connect

The report gives an overview of the opportunities for coal gasification in the power generation industry. It provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; A description of gasification technology including processes and systems; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; An analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; A discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; An evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; A discussion of IGCC project development options; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; Profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and A description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

NONE

2006-10-15

367

Analytical methods for hazardous organics in liquid wastes from coal gasification and liquefaction processes. Report for Feb 79-Oct 80  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted by the University of Southern California group to provide methods for the analysis of coal liquefaction wastes from coal conversion processing plants. Several methods of preliminary fractionation prior to analysis were considered. The most satisfactory method is that employing column separation, using macroreticular absorbent resins and dividing the wastewaters into hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions. By subsequent

T. F. Yen; J. I. S. Tang; M. Wasburne; S. Cohanim

1982-01-01

368

Process analysis for polygeneration of Fischer–Tropsch liquids and power with CO 2 capture based on coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper designs four cases to investigate the performances of the polygeneration processes, which depend on the commercially ready technology to convert coal to liquid fuels (CTL) and electricity with CO2 sequestration. With Excel-Aspen Plus based models, mass and energy conversion are calculated in detail. The simulation shows that the thermal efficiency is down with the synfuels yield decrease though

Ge-wen Yu; Yuan-yuan Xu; Xu Hao; Yong-wang Li; Guang-qi Liu

2010-01-01

369

Indirect liquefaction of coal. [Coal gasification plus Fischer-Tropsch, methanol or Mobil M-gasoline process  

SciTech Connect

The most important potential environmental problems uniquely associated with indirect liquefaction appear to be related to the protection of occupational personnel from the toxic and carcinogenic properties of process and waste stream constituents, the potential public health risks from process products, by-products and emissions and the management of potentially hazardous solid wastes. The seriousness of these potential problems is related partially to the severity of potential effects (i.e., human mortality and morbidity), but even more to the uncertainty regarding: (1) the probable chemical characteristics and quantities of process and waste streams; and (2) the effectiveness and efficiencies of control technologies not yet tested on a commercial scale. Based upon current information, it is highly improbable that these potential problems will actually be manifested or pose serious constraints to the development of indirect liquefaction technologies, although their potential severity warrants continued research and evaluation. The siting of indirect liquefaction facilities may be significantly affected by existing federal, state and local regulatory requirements. The possibility of future changes in environmental regulations also represents an area of uncertainty that may develop into constraints for the deployment of indirect liquefaction processes. Out of 20 environmental issues identified as likely candidates for future regulatory action, 13 were reported to have the potential to impact significantly the commercialization of coal synfuel technologies. These issues are listed.

None

1980-06-30

370

Performance analysis of integrated biomass gasification fuel cell (BGFC) and biomass gasification combined cycle (BGCC) systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass gasification processes are more commonly integrated to gas turbine based combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems. However, efficiency can be greatly enhanced by the use of more advanced power generation technology such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The key objective of this work is to develop systematic site-wide process integration strategies, based on detailed process simulation in

Jhuma Sadhukhan; Yingru Zhao; Nilay Shah; Nigel P Brandon

2010-01-01

371

Research and development on membrane processes for removal of acid gases during coal gasification. Final report, 20 June 1975-19 October 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of this program was to develop novel and unique membranes for separating acid gases from coal gasification streams. Many candidate membranes, including cationic, hydrophilic, and silicone, were tested. Optimum separation properties were possessed by membranes formulated from crosslinked methyl cellulose coated on polysulfone support films. The observed separation properties were explained theoretically by the solubility of the various

R. J. Petersen; J. E. Cadotte; E. J. Conway; R. H. Forester; M. J. Steuck

1976-01-01

372

Applied Research and Evaluation of Process Concepts for Liquefaction and Gasification of Western Coals. Quarterly Progress Report, April--June 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second stage of a two-stage direct coal gasification system for production of high-BTU gas was studied. The effect of variables was determined. Catalysts for the hydrogenation of CO to produce C sub 2 --C sub 4 hydrocarbons have been prepared and test...

W. H. Wiser

1976-01-01

373

Hydrogen production via the K-T (Koppers-Totzek) coal gasification process: current economic and technological aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The K-T process for partial oxidation of various coals, coke, char, tars, heavy residua, or light to heavy oils yields 300 Btu\\/cu ft syngas containing typically 50-55Vertical Bar3< CO and 30-35Vertical Bar3< Hâ from coal or 45Vertical Bar3< each CO and Hâ from liquid feedstocks. If hydrogen is desired as the end product, the raw syngas is treated with steam

H. J. Michaels; H. F. Leonards

1978-01-01

374

Chemical Looping Gasification of Biomass for Hydrogen Enriched Gas Production with In-Process Carbon-Dioxide Capture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research presents an innovative idea of developing a continuous H2 production process employing fluidized bed technology from agricultural biomass with in-situ CO2 capture and catalyst regeneration. Novelty of the process lies in the generation of relatively pure H2 from biomass with CO2 as a by-product using steam as the gasifying agent. Another unique feature of the process is internal regeneration of the catalyst, fouled in the gasifier. Thus, the technology will serve the twin purpose of regenerating the catalyst, and generation of N2 free H2 and CO2. The work also reports the experimental results conducted in a batch type fluidized bed steam gasifier using CaO as the catalyst. A 71% concentration of H2 and nearly 0 concentration of CO2 were achieved in the product gas when sawdust was used as the feedstock. In a separate test using a circulating fluidized bed reactor as the regenerator, a 40 % regeneration of CaO was also achieved at a calcination temperature of 800°C.

Dutta, Animesh; Aeharya, Bishnu; Basu, Prabir

375

Introducing novel graphical techniques to assess gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its complexity, coal gasification is perhaps one industry’s least understood processes. This is despite the fact that this process is critical to countries such as South Africa, as it is responsible for producing a large portion of the country’s fuel needs through the Fischer–Tropsch process. Worldwide, this process has also become critical for applications such as IGCC, for

Lwazi Ngubevana; Diane Hildebrandt; David Glasser

2011-01-01

376

Environmental assessment: source test and evaluation report - rectisol acid gas removal. Final report, Aug 81-Oct 83  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of tests of a Rectisol acid gas removal unit at a Texaco refinery. The primary goal was to provide a data base for evaluation of Rectisol performance in entrained coal gasification applications. This Rectisol unit processes gases from the partial oxidation of oil by the Texaco synthesis gas generation process. A secondary goal was to validate

K. W. Crawford; R. A. Orsini

1984-01-01

377

Biological treatment of Hygas coal gasification wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eight month experimental study was performed to assess biological treatability characteristics of Hygas coal gasification process pilot plant wastewater comprised of cyclone and quench condensates. The study evaluated treatability characteristics of ammonia stripped and unstripped wastewater at full strength and at 1:1 dilution. It was determined that minimum pretreatment required for biological oxidation consisted of reducing wastewater alkalinity, and

R. G. Luthy; J. T. Tallon

1978-01-01

378

COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the organics data from environmental assessments of several low- and medium-Btu coal gasification processes conducted between 1977 and 1981 under the sponsorship of the U.S. EPA. The data summary focuses on the concentration, composition, and mass flow of or...

379

Automobile shredder residue gasification.  

PubMed

Automobile Shredder Residue (ASR) shows a broad chemical composition owing to the presence of different materials, and its high organic content makes it interesting as a source of energy. In this work, a bench scale two-stage reactor is used for gasifying ASR. The reactor shows an efficient ASR gasification, avoiding the formation of difficult to manage char and tar and allowing an easy recovery of energy. The results of the investigation were used to test a simple model based on mass and energy balances and chemical equilibrium, predicting syngas composition including the presence of problematic elements such as sulphur and chlorine. Gasification data calculated by the model agree in a satisfactory way with the experimental ones. Due to the large variation in ASR composition, the model predicts that ASR gasification is industrially feasible only if a blend of ASR and RDF is used as a reactor feed. PMID:14661893

De Filippis, Paolo; Pochetti, Fausto; Borgianni, Carlo; Paolucci, Martino

2003-10-01

380

Synthesis Gas Demonstration Plant Program, Phase I. Deliverable No. 42. Technical Support Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Demonstration Plant Process and Conceptual Mechanical Design was prepared by Ebasco Services in conjunction with its key subcontractors, Humphreys and Glasgow (H and G) as process subcontractor and Texaco as supplier of the gasification technology. In...

1979-01-01

381

Coal gasification. March 1972-January 1990 (A Bibliography from the US Patent data base). Report for March 1972-January 1990  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning devices and processes used in the gasification of coals. Coal-gasification processes, catalysts, and catalyst recovery; desulfurization during gasification; heating methods; pretreatment of coals; process variables; heat recovery; and peripheral equipment are cited. Examples of gasification processes include catalytic systems using alkali metals, stream decomposition, air or oxygen decomposition, thermal cracking, coal-water suspension systems, arc-discharge burning, and fluidized-bed gasification. Liquefaction of coal is examined in a related published bibliography. (Contains 214 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-03-01

382

Development of Highly Durable and Reactive Regenerable Magnesium-Based Sorbents for CO2 Separation in Coal Gasification Process  

SciTech Connect

The specific objective of this project was to develop physically durable and chemically regenerable MgO-based sorbents that can remove carbon dioxide from raw coal gas at operating condition prevailing in IGCC processes. A total of sixty two (62) different sorbents were prepared in this project. The sorbents were prepared either by various sol-gel techniques (22 formulations) or modification of dolomite (40 formulations). The sorbents were prepared in the form of pellets and in granular forms. The solgel based sorbents had very high physical strength, relatively high surface area, and very low average pore diameter. The magnesium content of the sorbents was estimated to be 4-6 % w/w. To improve the reactivity of the sorbents toward CO{sub 2}, The sorbents were impregnated with potassium salts. The potassium content of the sorbents was about 5%. The dolomite-based sorbents were prepared by calcination of dolomite at various temperature and calcination environment (CO{sub 2} partial pressure and moisture). Potassium carbonate was added to the half-calcined dolomite through wet impregnation method. The estimated potassium content of the impregnated sorbents was in the range of 1-6% w/w. In general, the modified dolomite sorbents have significantly higher magnesium content, larger pore diameter and lower surface area, resulting in significantly higher reactivity compared to the sol-gel sorbents. The reactivities of a number of sorbents toward CO{sub 2} were determined in a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) unit. The results indicated that at the low CO{sub 2} partial pressures (i.e., 1 atm), the reactivities of the sorbents toward CO{sub 2} are very low. At elevated pressures (i.e., CO{sub 2} partial pressure of 10 bar) the maximum conversion of MgO obtained with the sol-gel based sorbents was about 5%, which corresponds to a maximum CO{sub 2} absorption capacity of less than 1%. The overall capacity of modified dolomite sorbents were at least one order of magnitude higher than those of the sol-gel based sorbents. The results of the tests conducted with various dolomite-based sorbent indicate that the reactivity of the modified dolomite sorbent increases with increasing potassium concentration, while higher calcination temperature adversely affects the sorbent reactivity. Furthermore, the results indicate that as long as the absorption temperature is well below the equilibrium temperature, the reactivity of the sorbent improves with increasing temperature (350-425 C). As the temperature approaches the equilibrium temperature, because of the significant increase in the rate of reverse (i.e., regeneration) reaction, the rate of CO{sub 2} absorption decreases. The results of cyclic tests show that the reactivity of the sorbent gradually decreases in the cyclic process. To improve long-term durability (i.e., reactivity and capacity) of the sorbent, the sorbent was periodically re-impregnated with potassium additive and calcined. The results indicate that, in general, re-treatment improves the performance of the sorbent, and that, the extent of improvement gradually decreases in the cyclic process. The presence of steam significantly enhances the sorbent reactivity and significantly decreases the rate of decline in sorbent deactivation in the cyclic process.

Javad Abbasian; Armin Hassanzadeh Khayyat; Rachid B. Slimane

2005-06-01

383

Numerical study on the coal gasification characteristics in an entrained flow coal gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coal gasification process of a slurry feed type, entrained-flow coal gasifier was numerically predicted in this paper. By dividing the complicated coal gasification process into several simplified stages such as slurry evaporation, coal devolatilization and two-phase reactions coupled with turbulent flow and two-phase heat transfer, a comprehensive numerical model was constructed to simulate the coal gasification process. The k–?

Y. C. Choi; X. Y. Li; T. J. Park; J. H. Kim; J. G. Lee

2001-01-01

384

Feasibility of Electricity Production from Biomass by Gasification Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objectives of the EC Research Program JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different types of...

Y. Solantausta E. Kurkela

1995-01-01

385

Methane or Methanol Via Catalytic Gasification of Biomass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methane and methanol synthesis gas can be produced by steam gasification of biomass in the presence of appropriate catalysts. A 5 cm diameter reactor has been used to determine the desired catalysts and operating temperature. A process development unit (P...

D. H. Mitchell L. K. Mudge R. J. Robertus S. L. Weber L. J. Sealock

1980-01-01

386

Mathematical-modeling studies of in-situ coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Commercialization of the in-situ or underground coal gasification (UCG) process has been impeded because of uncertainties with respect to its reliability and predictability. Modeling studies when combined with a well-designed field test program are the only avenue to a proper understanding of this technology. This paper reviews the latest developments in four important facets of the UCG process: reverse-combustion linking; gasification and resource recovery; water influx; and subsidence.

Krantz, W.B.; Gunn, R.D.

1983-01-01

387

HIGH TEMPERATURE REMOVAL OF H{sub 2}S FROM COAL GASIFICATION PROCESS STREAMS USING AN ELECTROCHEMICAL MEMBRANE SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

A bench scale set-up was constructed to test the cell performance at 600-700 C and 1 atm. The typical fuel stream inlet proportions were 34% CO, 22% CO{sub 2}, 35% H{sub 2}, 8% H{sub 2}O, and 450-2000 ppm H{sub 2}S. The fundamental transport restrictions for sulfur species in an electrochemical cell were examined. Temperature and membrane thickness were varied to examine how these parameters affect the maximum flux of H{sub 2}S removal. It was found that higher temperature allows more sulfide species to enter the electrolyte, thus increasing the sulfide flux across the membrane and raising the maximum flux of H{sub 2}S removal. The results identify sulfide diffusion across the membrane as the rate-limiting step in H{sub 2}S removal. The maximum H{sub 2}S removal flux of 1.1 x 10-6 gmol H{sub 2}S min{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (or 3.5 mA cm{sup -2}) was obtained at 650 C, with a membrane that was 0.9 mm thick, 36% porous, and had an estimated tortuosity of 3.6. Another focus of this thesis was to examine the stability of cathode materials in full cell trials. A major hurdle that remains in process scale-up is cathode selection, as the lifetime of the cell will depend heavily on the lifetime of the cathode material, which is exposed to very sour gas. Materials that showed success in the past (i.e. cobalt sulfides and Y{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3}) were examined but were seen to have limitations in operating environment and temperature. Therefore, other novel metal oxide compounds were studied to find possible candidates for full cell trials. Gd{sub 2}TiMoO{sub 7} and La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}VO{sub 3} were the compounds that retained their structure best even when exposed to high H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O concentrations.

Jack Winnick; Meilin Liu

2003-06-01

388

Analysis of energy recovery potential using innovative technologies of waste gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, two alternative thermo-chemical processes for waste treatment were analysed: high temperature gasification and gasification associated to plasma process. The two processes were analysed from the thermodynamic point of view, trying to reconstruct two simplified models, using appropriate simulation tools and some support data from existing\\/planned plants, able to predict the energy recovery performances by process application. In

Lidia Lombardi; Ennio Carnevale; Andrea Corti

389

Modeling and optimization of a modified claus process as part of an integrted gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture  

SciTech Connect

The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Due to these criteria, modifications are often required to the conventional process, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO2 capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant such as rapid change in the feed flowrates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus furnace, a four-stage method was devised so as to determine which set of linearly independent reactions would best describe the product distributions from available plant data. Various approaches are taken to derive the kinetic rate expressions which are either missing in the open literature or found to be inconsistent. A set of plant data is used for optimal estimation of the kinetic parameters. The final model agrees well with the published plant data. Using the developed kinetics models of the Claus reaction furnace, WHB, and catalytic stages, two optimization studies are carried out. The first study shows that there exists an optimal steam pressure generated in the WHB that balances hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In the second study, it is shown that an optimal H2S/SO2 ratio exists that balances single-pass conversion, hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In addition, an operability study has been carried out to examine the operating envelope in which both H2S/SO2 ratio and adiabatic flame temperature can be controlled in the face of disturbances typical for the operation of an IGCC power plant with CO2 capture. Impact of CO2 capture on the Claus process has also been discussed.

Jones, D.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

2011-01-01

390

Control aspects of underground coal gasification: LLL investigations of ground-water and subsidence effects. [Hoe Creek I and II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our investigations are designed to evaluate some of the environmental implications of in situ coal gasification, and to identify appropriate environmental controls. Changes in ground-water quality and the possible effects of subsidence and ground movement induced by the underground gasification cavity represent significant environmental concerns associated with the in situ gasification process. We have measured these effects at the site

S. W. Mead; F. T. Wang; H. C. Ganow

1978-01-01

391

Pyrolysis and gasification of coal at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The macropore structure of chars is a major factor in determining their reactivity during the gasification stage. The major objectives of this contract were to (a) quantify by direct measurements the effect of pyrolysis conditions of the macropore structure, and (b) establish how the macropores affected the reactivity pattern, the ignition behavior and the fragmentation of the char particles during gasification in the regime of strong diffusional limitations. Results from this project provide much needed information on the factors that affect the quality of the solid products (chars) of coal utilization processes (for example, mild gasification processes). The reactivity data will also provide essential parameters for the optimal design of coal gasification processes. (VC)

Zygourakis, K.

1992-02-10

392

Studies of biomass gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A downdraft gas producer was designed and fabricated to investigate the thermal behavior and performance of several types of biomass under gasification conditions. The reactor was a batch fed system with a stationary grate which operated at near atmospheric pressures. Air was used as the oxidizer and was introduced to the midsection of the gasifier at various mass flow rates

Tabatabaie-Raissi

1982-01-01

393

Gasification of black liquor  

DOEpatents

A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1987-07-28

394

Gasification of black liquor  

DOEpatents

A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

Kohl, A.L.

1987-07-28

395

Kinetics of coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports on a kinetic study on the gasification of Brazilian mineral coal with steam using a thermobalance. The coal is a high ash content (>50 wt %) subbituminous, run of mine coal (Charqueadas). Isothermal runs were made at temperatures between 800 and 1000\\/degree\\/C and at atmospheric pressure, using -14 +20 mesh Tyler size particles. The coal was devolatilized

Martin Schmal; Jose Luiz Fontes Monteiro; Jorge Luiz Castellan

1982-01-01

396

Underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a method whereby the mining and conversion of coal are accomplished in a single step. Many field tests of UCG have been operated worldwide since the 1930's with varying degrees of success; based on this experience (especially in the USSR and US), a field design which is applicable to a wide range of geological conditions

T. F. Edgar; D. W. Gregg

1978-01-01

397

Mild gasification mechanism and char conversion  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program is to obtain process chemistry data for (1) the mild gasification of several ranks of coal in a stirred moving bed reactor as function of process variables and (2) the hydrogasification of char from the mild gasification of Wyodak coal in a countercurrent moving bed reactor. Mild gasification experimental runs are being preformed in a long stirred moving-bed reactor constructed of a high alloy stainless steel. The feed to the moving bed reactor is through an entrained flow tube long reactor which preheats the coal particles with cocurrent sweep gas up to 400{degree}C, at which temperature there is essentially no formation of condensible coproducts. The yields of coproducts are than obtained as a function of several parameters. In the second part of the program, a moving bed countercurrent flow reactor. The reactor is designed for a gas flow rate below the incipient fluidization velocity of the column char. Char from the mild gasification of Wyodak sub-bituminous coal will be initially used in this investigation. 1 ref., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Fallon, P.; Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.

1990-01-01

398

Recovery of zinc and lead from fly ash from ash-melting and gasification-melting processes of MSW – Comparison and applicability of chemical leaching methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash generated from MSW ash-melting and gasification-melting plants, known as Melting Furnace Fly Ash (MFA), contains considerable amounts of heavy metals such as Pb and Zn. These metals can be recovered using a smelting furnace after “pre-treatment” for removal of unnecessary elements such as Cl, Sn and Si. Chemical methods have been studied for pretreatment in the past. However,

T. Okada; Y. Tojo; N. Tanaka; T. Matsuto

2007-01-01

399

Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second stage of a two-stage direct coal gasification system for production of high-BTU gas was studied. The effect of variables was determined. Catalysts for the hydrogenation of CO to produce C--C hydrocarbons have been prepared and tested to determine the effect of cobalt and copper in Co--Cu catalysts, the effect of pretreatment and the effectiveness of iron catalysts. Adsorption

1976-01-01

400

Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the microorganisms used to deal with tars are selected and pre-conditioned to the tar environment. Overall, the results provided a basis for operational and design strategy for a combined gasification system but further study is recommended such as determination of the impacts in terms of emissions, power, efficiency and costs associated with the use of producer gas-enriched biogas taking advantage of hydrogen enrichment to reduce NOx and other pollutants in reciprocating engines and other energy conversion systems.

Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

401

Apparatus for solar coal gasification  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats through a window onto the surface of a moving bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam in one embodiment at the rear surface of a secondary mirror used to redirect the focused sunlight. Another novel feature of the invention is the location and arrangement of the array of mirrors on an inclined surface (e.g., a hillside) to provide for direct optical communication of said mirrors and the carbonaceous feed without a secondary redirecting mirror.

Gregg, D.W.

1980-08-04

402

GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I  

SciTech Connect

Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

2001-12-01

403

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project, Polk Power Station -- Unit No. 1. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994  

SciTech Connect

This describes the Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project which will use a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,300 tons per day of coal (dry basis) coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 Btu/scf (LHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product.

NONE

1995-05-01

404

Experimental design and statistical evaluation of a full-scale gasification project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sasol in South Africa gasifies approximately 30 million tons of bituminous coal per year to synthesis gas, which is converted to fuels and chemicals via the Fischer–Tropsch process. Three years ago, Sasol embarked upon a unique project to optimise the gas production of the Sasol–Lurgi fixed bed dry bottom coal gasification process. Optimisation of the gasification process was carried out

R. L. J. Coetzer; M. J. Keyser

2003-01-01

405

Industry-wide studies report of an in-depth industrial hygiene survey of the Texaco Chemical Company, Port Neches, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for 1,3-butadiene at the Texaco Chemical Company, Port Neches, Texas in April, 1985. Company industrial hygiene monitoring data were reviewed. Engineering controls and work practices were observed. The highest exposures occurred for laboratory technicians cleaning sample cylinders. Engineering controls consisted of single and dual mechanical seals on 1,3-butadiene pumps. Quality-control sampling involved on-line gas chromatographs and open-loop systems.

Ungers, L.J.; Fajen, J.M.; Roberts, D.

1986-04-01

406

Conceptual design report -- Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)  

SciTech Connect

The problems heretofore with coal gasification and IGCC concepts have been their high cost and historical poor performance of fixed-bed gasifiers, particularly on caking coals. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is being developed to solve these problems through the development of a novel coal gasification invention which incorporates pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification (fixed-bed). It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration caused in the conventional process of gradually heating coal through the 400 F to 900 F range. In so doing, the coal is rapidly heated sufficiently such that the coal tar exists in gaseous form rather than as a liquid. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can become chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NH{sub 3} and HCN from fuel born nitrogen, steam injection is minimized, and residual nitrogen compounds are partially chemically reduced in the cracking stage in the upper gasifier region. Assuming testing confirms successful deployment of all these integrated processes, future IGCC applications will be much simplified, require significantly less mechanical components, and will likely achieve the $1,000/kWe commercialized system cost goal of the GPIF project. This report describes the process and its operation, design of the plant and equipment, site requirements, and the cost and schedule. 23 refs., 45 figs., 23 tabs.

Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; House, L.S.; Duck, R.R. [CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Lisauskas, R.A.; Dixit, V.J. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States); Morgan, M.E.; Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States). PowerServe Div.; Boni, A.A. [PSI-Environmental Instruments Corp., Andover, MA (United States)

1994-09-01

407

Environmental effects of in situ coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of avialable engineering, geological and operating data on underground coal gasification indicates that this process can cause significant air and water pollution and land subsidence. Of the possible impacts, groundwater pollution is the most serious. Modeling studies and large-scale field tests are needed to determine the long-term fate of pollutants and the degree of restoration required before UCG can become a commercial process.

Humenick, M.J.; Edgar, T.F.; Charbeneau, R.J.

1983-01-01

408

Purification of intermediate streams in coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desulfurization processes may account for approx. 20Vertical Bar3< of the cost of a high-Btu coal gasification facility; wastewater cleanup and recycle account for another significant portion of the cost. A comprehensive study covers the purification requirements for high-Btu pipeline quality gas as compared with low-Btu gas for combined-cycle power generation; proposed high-temperature desulfurization processes for low-Btu gas to avoid the

1975-01-01

409

ASPEN modeling of the Tri-State indirect-liquefaction process  

SciTech Connect

The ASPEN process simulator has been used to model an indirect-liquefaction flowsheet patterned after that of the Tri-State project. This flowsheet uses Lurgi moving-bed gasification with synthesis-gas conversion to methanol folowed by further processing to gasoline using the Mobil MTG process. Models developed in this study include the following: Lurgi gasifier, Texaco gasifier, synthesis gas cooling, Rectisol, methanol synthesis, methanol-to-gasoline, CO-shift, methanation, and naphtha hydrotreating. These models have been successfully developed in modular form so that they can be used to simulate a number of different flowsheets or process alternatives. Simulations of the Tri-State flowsheet have been made using two different coal-feed rates and two types of feed coal. The overall simulation model was adjusted to match the Tri-State flowsheet values for methanol, LPG, isobutane, and gasoline. As a result of this adjustment, the MTG reactor yield structure necessary to match the flowsheet product rates was determined. The models were exercised at different flow rates and were unaffected by such changes, demonstrating their range of operability. The use of Illinois No. 6 coal, with its lower ash content, resulted in slightly higher production rates of each of the products as compared to use of the Kentucky coal.

Barker, R.E.; Begovich, J.M.; Clinton, J.H.; Johnson, P.J.

1983-10-01

410

High temperature steam gasification of solid wastes: Characteristics and kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greater use of renewable energy sources is of pinnacle importance especially with the limited reserves of fossil fuels. It is expected that future energy use will have increased utilization of different energy sources, including biomass, municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes, agricultural wastes and other low grade fuels. Gasification is a good practical solution to solve the growing problem of landfills, with simultaneous energy extraction and nonleachable minimum residue. Gasification also provides good solution to the problem of plastics and rubber in to useful fuel. The characteristics and kinetics of syngas evolution from the gasification of different samples is examined here. The characteristics of syngas based on its quality, distribution of chemical species, carbon conversion efficiency, thermal efficiency and hydrogen concentration has been examined. Modeling the kinetics of syngas evolution from the process is also examined. Models are compared with the experimental results. Experimental results on the gasification and pyrolysis of several solid wastes, such as, biomass, plastics and mixture of char based and plastic fuels have been provided. Differences and similarities in the behavior of char based fuel and a plastic sample has been discussed. Global reaction mechanisms of char based fuel as well polystyrene gasification are presented based on the characteristic of syngas evolution. The mixture of polyethylene and woodchips gasification provided superior results in terms of syngas yield, hydrogen yield, total hydrocarbons yield, energy yield and apparent thermal efficiency from polyethylene-woodchips blends as compared to expected weighed average yields from gasification of the individual components. A possible interaction mechanism has been established to explain the synergetic effect of co-gasification of woodchips and polyethylene. Kinetics of char gasification is presented with special consideration of sample temperature, catalytic effect of ash, geometric changes of pores inside char and diffusion limitations inside and outside the char particle.

Gomaa, Islam Ahmed

411

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Coal Gasification Power Generation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life cycle assessments (LCA) of coal gasification-based electricity generation technologies for emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), principally CO2, are computed. Two approaches for computing LCAs are compared for construction and operation of integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants: a traditional process-based approach, and one based on economic input-output analysis named Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA). It is shown

John A. Ruether; Massood Ramezan; Peter C. Balash

2004-01-01

412

The effect of underground coal gasification on groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground water contamination as a result of underground coal gasification has been studied over a 15-month period at an experimental site in Wyoming by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The experiments have shown that except for the earliest measurement (two weeks after gasification), the principal groundwater contaminants are water-soluble, low-molecular-weight aromatic hydrocarbons. A conceptual model of contaminant-transport processes is suggested and the work is currently in progress on acidic and basic organic contaminants.

1980-09-01

413

Catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Phase II. Final research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wright-Malta gasification process is characterized by low-temperature, catalyzed steam gasification in a pressurized rotary kiln. Fresh biomass moves slowly and continuously through the kiln, where it is gradually heated to around 1200°F in an atmosphere of 300 psi steam. During its traverse, pyrolysis and reaction of steam with the nascent char convert nearly all of the organic solids to

Hooverman

1979-01-01

414

Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Wastes by Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of energy from MSW by combustion in Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plants reduces landfilling and air\\/water emissions, and also lessens dependence on fossil fuels for power generation. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of gasification processes as an alternative to the combustion of MSW. Gasification uses a relatively small amount of oxygen or water vapor to convert

Alexander Klein; Nickolas J. Themelis

2003-01-01

415

A Comparison of Gasification and Incineration of Secondary Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification technologies meeting the definition proposed by the GTC offer an alternative process for the recovery and recycling of low-value, secondary materials by producing a more valuable commodity - syngas. The multiple uses of syngas (power production, chemicals, methanol, etc.) and the availability of gas clean-up technologies common to the petroleum refining industry make gasification of secondary oil-bearing materials a

Douglas A. Orr; David P. Maxwell

1999-01-01

416

Coal research. II - Gasification faces an uncertain future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four coal gasification processes developed in the 1960s as alternatives to the Lurgi and Koppers-Totzek processes - Carbon Dioxide Acceptor, Hygas, Bi-gas and Synthane - have been or are being evaluated in pilot plants. These processes are outlined, and their technological and economic difficulties are identified. Two processes presently under consideration for demonstration plants, a slagging Lurgi process and the

A. L. Hammond

1976-01-01

417

Control Technology Assessment for Coal Gasification and Liquefaction Processes, Solvent Refined Lignite Process Development Unit, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota, March 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A control technology assessment was conducted at the Solvent Refined Lignite Process Development Unit (PDU) of the University of North Dakota (SIC-3312), Grand Forks, North Dakota, on March 5, 1980. The survey was conducted to study the control technology...

D. R. Telesca

1982-01-01

418

Gasification of bagasse in the presence of a pilot flame in a modified fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

Solid waste can be efficiently gasified in the presence of a pilot flame in a modified fluidized bed. About 95% of the feed solids were gasified at a moderate temperature by this gasification process. The data of the degree of gasification were obtained and the factors that affected the formation and characteristics of the solid particles of products during gasification are described. The air-to-solid feed ratio was a major operating variable in this process. The reaction mechanisms of solid gasification in the presence of a pilot flame are also discussed.

Chou, T.C.; Chang, K.T.

1981-01-01

419

Solid Fuel Plasma Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a numerical analysis and experimental investtigation of the gasification under steam and air plasma conditions\\u000a of two very different solid fuels, a low-rank bituminous coal of 40% ash content and a petrocoke of 3% ash content; with an\\u000a aim of producing synthesis gas. The numerical analysis was fulfilled using the software package TERRA for equilibrium computation.\\u000a Using

V. E. Messerle; A. B. Ustimenko

420

50 kW-forgasseren. Forgasning af halm i totrins-processen. Gasrensning. Motordrift paa gas fra halm. Reduktion af H(sub 2)-koncentrationen i forgasningsgas. (50 kW-gasifier. Gasification of straw based on the two-step process. Gas purification. Operation of motors using gas from straw. Reduction of H(sub 2) concentration in gasification gas).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A significant problem connected with the gasification of straw is that straw tends to become soft at the temperature that is most suitable for a satisfactory speed of gasification. Once the straw has become soft or begun to melt a most unmanageable slag i...

U. Henriksen O. Christensen

1994-01-01

421

Update on the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project  

SciTech Connect

The Great Plains Gasification Plant is the US's first commercial synthetic fuels project based on coal conversion. The ANG Coal Gasification Company is the administer of the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project for the United States Department of Energy. The Project is designed to convert 14 M TPD of North Dakota of lignite into 137.5 MM SCFD of pipeline quality synthetic natural gas (SNG). Located in Mercer County, North Dakota, the gasification plant, and an SNG pipeline. Some 12 years passed from the time the project was conceived unit it became a reality by producing SNG into the Northern Border pipeline in 1984 for use by millions of residential, commercial, and industrial consumers. In this paper, the basic processes utilized in the plant are presented. This is followed by a discussion of the start-up activities and schedule. Finally, some of the more interesting start-up problems are described.

Imler, D.L.

1985-12-01

422

Biomass integrated gasification fuel cell systems–Concept development and experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The link-up of wood gasification with high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (Biomass-Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System, B-IGFC) is a promising approach to reach high electrical efficiencies in small-scale biomass fuelled combined heat and power plants (CHP). The main technical challenge is the adjustment of the three main system components gasification, gas processing and fuel cell. A B-IGFC concept has

F. P. Nagel; S. Ghosh; C. Pitta; T. J. Schildhauer; S. Biollaz

2011-01-01

423

Results from the third LLL underground coal gasification experiment at Hoe Creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major objective of the US Energy Program is the development of processes to produce clean fuels from coal. Underground coal gasification is one of the most promising of these processes. If successful, underground coal gasification (UCG) would quadruple the proven reserves of the US coal. Cost for products produced from UCG are projected to be 65 to 75% of

R. W. Hill; C. B. Thorsness; R. J. Cena; W. R. Aiman; D. R. Stephens

1980-01-01

424

Study on the model experiment and numerical simulation for underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas production process in underground coal gasification is closely linked to the temperature distribution and seepage conditions of the gasifier. In this paper, mathematical models on the underground coal gasification in steep coal seams are established according to their storage conditions and features of gas production process. Additionally, the paper introduces ways to determine model parameters and the control

Lanhe Yang

2004-01-01

425

Preparation of low-sulfur fuel gas for gasification of Battelle treated coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battelle's Columbus Laboratories has developed a proprietary process for treating coal with calcium compounds, called the Battelle Treated Coal process, in which the incorporated calcium produces an improved gasification feedstock. From the results of batch and continuous fixed-bed gasification testing of BTC the following conclusions were drawn: 1) 80-95% of the coal's sulfur can be captured in the coal ash,

H. N. Conkle; H. F. Feldmann; O. J. Hahn

1983-01-01

426

Thermal expansion of slag and fly ash from coal gasification in IGCC power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated gasification in combined cycle (IGCC) is an electrical power generation system which is characterized to be a clean coal technology different than conventional process in combustible treatment. IGCC process gives rise to inorganic solid wastes in the form of vitreous slag and fly ashes with singular thermal properties. The gasification of the fuel takes place at high temperature and

M. Aineto; A. Acosta; J. Ma. Rincón; M. Romero

2006-01-01

427

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

The project, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the project are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal; evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (e.g., temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. The eutectic catalysts increased gasification rate significantly. The methods of catalyst preparation and addition had significant effect on the catalytic activity and coal gasification. The incipient wetness method gave more uniform catalyst distribution than that of physical mixing for the soluble catalysts resulting in higher gasification rates for the incipient wetness samples. The catalytic activity increased by varying degrees with catalyst loading. The above results are especially important since the eutectic catalysts (with low melting points) yield significant gasification rates even at low temperatures. Among the ternary eutectic catalysts studied, the system 39% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-38.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-22.5% Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} showed the best activity and will be used for further bench scale fixed-bed gasification reactor in the next period. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies in the previous reporting period, the project team selected the 43.5% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed-bed studies at UTSI during this reporting period. Temperature was found to have a significant effect on the rate of gasification of coal. The rate of gasification increased up to 1400 F. Pressure did not have much effect on the gasification rates. The catalyst loading increased the gasification rate and approached complete conversion when 10 wt% of catalyst was added to the coal. Upon further increasing the catalyst amount to 20-wt% and above, there was no significant rise in gasification rate. The rate of gasification was lower for a 2:1 steam to char molar ratio (60%) compared to gasification rates at 3.4:1 molar ratio of steam-to-char where the conversion approached 100%. The characterization results of Georgia Tech are very preliminary and inconclusive and will be made available in the next report.

Unknown

1999-04-01

428

Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology

Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

2009-01-01

429

Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification  

DOEpatents

A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA); Salvador, Louis A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1981-01-01

430

SOLAR ASSISTED GASIFICATION: IMPLEMENTATION AND SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste-to-Energy through gasification is a two-sided solution to the threat of fossil fuel depletion and to the environmental impact of methane and carbon dioxide emissions from the landfills. This practice is rewarding since it generates a renewable and sustainable source when it is used to produce fuels and chemicals from waste (industrial, medical, municipal) and the byproducts of downstream processes

Rana Qudaih; Zaki Al-Nahari; Ilham Talab; Isam Janajreh

431

Control technology assessment for coal gasification and liquefaction processes, Combustion Engineering Process Development Unit, Windsor, Connecticut. Report for the site visit of January 1979. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A survey was conducted to study control technology at the Combustion Engineering Process Development Unit (SIC-5161) (CEPDU) in Windsor, Connecticut on January 18 and March 8, 1979. A comprehensive industrial hygiene survey was conducted in April 1981. There was no specific health and safety program for the facility; health and safety were monitored by a division program. Standard preemployment and annual physical examinations were provided for all employees and included chest X-rays and electrocardiograms. Industrial hygiene surveys showed low worker exposure to aromatic compounds. Monitoring of arsenic (7440382), beryllium (7440417), cadmium (7440439), lead (7439921), and nickel (7440020) showed concentrations well below current federal limits. Protective clothing and respirators were provided. Safety shoes, safety glasses, and hard hats were required in process areas. Neoprene gloves and protective overalls were available. Respirators were required for activities with high vapor exposures. The author concludes that greater emphasis should be placed on personal hygiene. Respirators should be located throughout the facility for easy worker access.

Telesca, D.R.

1982-03-01

432

Pipeline-gas Demonstration Plant: Phase I. Quarterly technical process report, 1 January 1981 - 31 March 1981. [Proprietary process for coal gasification plants  

SciTech Connect

Contract No EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coal into clean pipeline quality gas. During the reporting period of January 1, 1981, through March 31, 1981, the major work effort of the project was focused on Task VI, Demonstration Plant Engineering and Design, and on Task VII, Construction Planning. Work continued on plans for obtaining coal, catalysts, chemicals, and flux, and on plans for sale of the products and by-products. Work on Task VIII, Economic Reassessment, was started during the reporting period. The design phase of the project, Phase I, is scheduled for completion on June 30, 1981. Conoco Inc. expects to meet all major milestone dates and complete Phase I on schedule.

DiFulgentiz, R. A. [comp. and ed.

1981-01-01

433

Biomass thermochemical gasification: Experimental studies and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall goals of this research were to study the biomass thermochemical gasification using experimental and modeling techniques, and to evaluate the cost of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation. This dissertation includes an extensive review of progresses in biomass thermochemical gasification. Product gases from biomass gasification can be converted to biopower, biofuels and chemicals. However, for its viable commercial applications, the study summarizes the technical challenges in the gasification and downstream processing of product gas. Corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstocks. One of the objectives was to determine selected physical and chemical properties of corn stover related to thermochemical conversion. The parameters of the reaction kinetics for weight loss were obtained. The next objective was to investigate the effects of temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition and efficiencies. DDGS gasification was performed on a lab-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents and efficiencies. A model was developed to simulate the performance of a lab-scale gasifier using Aspen Plus(TM) software. Mass balance, energy balance and minimization of Gibbs free energy were applied for the gasification to determine the product gas composition. The final objective was to optimize the process by maximizing the net energy efficiency, and to estimate the cost of industrial gas, and combined heat and power (CHP) at a biomass feedrate of 2000 kg/h. The selling price of gas was estimated to be 11.49/GJ for corn stover, and 13.08/GJ for DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were 37 and 86%, respectively for corn stover, and 34 and 78%, respectively for DDGS. For corn stover, the selling price of electricity was 0.1351/kWh. For DDGS, the selling price of electricity was 0.1287/kWh.

Kumar, Ajay

434

Considerations Based on Reaction Rate on Char Gasification Behavior in Two-stage Gasifier for Biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to develop a small-scale gasifier in which biomass can be converted to energy with high efficiency, we planned a gasification process that consists of two parts: pyrolysis part (rotary kiln) and gasification part (downdraft gasifier). We performed fundamental experiments on gasification part and discussed the appropriate conditions such as air supply location, air ratio, air temperature and hearth load. We considered the results by calculating reaction rates of representative reactions on char gasification part and found that water gas reaction is dominant in the reduction area and its behavior gives important information to decide the adequate length of the char layer.

Taniguchi, Miki; Nishiyama, Akio; Sasauchi, Kenichi; Ito, Yusuke; Akamatsu, Fumiteru

435

Catalytic steam gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) tested the catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol synthesis gas. The process uses steam, indirect heat, and a catalyst to produce synthesis gas in one step in fluidized bed gasifier. Both laboratory and process development scale (nominal 1 ton/day) gasifiers were used to test two different catalyst systems: (1) supported nickel catalysts and (2) alkali carbonates doped on the bagasse. This paper presents the results of laboratory and process development unit gasification tests and includes an economic evaluation of the process. 20 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.

1983-12-01

436

Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle  

DOEpatents

Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

Aiman, William R. (Livermore, CA); Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

1983-01-01

437

Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

Luche, J.; Falcoz, Q.; Bastien, T.; Leninger, J. P.; Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J. M.; Lédé, J.

2012-02-01

438

Modern and prospective technologies for hydrogen production from fossil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is presented assessing the technology and economics of hydrogen production by conventional and advanced processes. Six conventional processes are assessed including (1) steam reforming of natural gas, (2) partial oxidation of residual oil, (3) gasification of coal by Texaco process, (4) gasification of coal by Koppers-Totzek process, (5) steam-iron process and (6) water electrolysis. The advanced processes include

M. Steinberg; Hsing C. Cheng

1988-01-01

439

Supercritical droplet gasification experiments with forced convection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results of a comprehensive experimental program are presented which offer the first direct observations of suspended n-heptane droplet gasifications in pure nitrogen with forced convection without the interference to optical probing associated with a flame. Measurements show attainment of a wet-bulb temperature until reduced pressures exceed about 1.0 under supercritical gas temperatures. Thereafter, temperature measurements indicate fully transient heat-up through the critical temperature. The surface is found to regress in a continuous manner with the measured temperature approaching the critical value at the end of the droplet lifetime under supercritical conditions with very mild level of convection. At increased level of convection for the same ambient conditions, similar sized droplets will undergo significant deformation during the gasification process until partially convected away as a dense vapor cloud as the critical temperature is approached.

Litchford, Ron; Parigger, Chris; Jeng, San-Mou

1992-01-01

440

The ENCOAL Mild Gasification Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The DOE plans to enter into a Cooperative Agreement with ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, for the cost-shared design, construction and operation of a mild gasification facility based on Liquids-from-Coal (LFC) technology. The facility is planned to be located at the Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The mild gasification process to be demonstrated will produce two new, low-sulfur fuel forms (a solid and a liquid) from subbituminous coal. The new fuel forms would be suitable for combustion in commercial, industrial, and utility boilers. This environmental assessment has been prepared by the DOE to comply with the requirements of the NEPA. Pollutant emissions, land use, water, and waste management are briefly discussed. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1990-07-01

441

Solar heated fluidized bed gasification system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar-powered fluidized bed gasification system for gasifying carbonaceous material is presented. The system includes a solar gasifier which is heated by fluidizing gas and steam. Energy to heat the gas and steam is supplied by a high heat capacity refractory honeycomb which surrounds the fluid bed reactor zone. The high heat capacity refractory honeycomb is heated by solar energy focused on the honeycomb by solar concentrator through solar window. The fluid bed reaction zone is also heated directly and uniformly by thermal contact of the high heat capacity ceramic honeycomb with the walls of the fluidized bed reactor. Provisions are also made for recovering and recycling catalysts used in the gasification process. Back-up furnace is provided for start-up procedures and for supplying heat to the fluid bed reaction zone when adequate supplies of solar energy are not available.

Qader, S. A. (inventor)

1981-01-01

442

Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production.  

PubMed

Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H(2)) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify(®)) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration. PMID:23726119

Arafat, Hassan A; Jijakli, Kenan

2013-08-01

443

Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the

B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

2010-01-01

444

Gasification of refuse derived fuel in the Battelle high throughput gasification system  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an experimental program to demonstrate the suitability of the Battelle High Throughput Gasification Process to non-wood biomass fuels. An extensive data base on wood gasification was generated during a multi-year experimental program. This data base and subsequent design and economic analysis activities led to the discussion to study the gasification character of other fuels. The specific fuel studied was refuse derived fuel (RDF) which is a prepared municipal solid waste (MSW). The use of RDF, while providing a valuable fuel, can also provide a solution to MSW disposal problems. Gasification of MSW provides advantages over land fill or mass burn technology since a more usable form of energy, medium Btu gas, is produced. Land filling of wastes produces no usable products and mass burning while greatly reducing the volume of wastes for disposal can produce only steam. This steam must be used on site or very nearby this limiting the potential locations for mass burn facilities. Such a gas, if produced from currently available supplies of MSW, can contribute 2 quads to the US energy supply. 3 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

Paisley, M.A.; Creamer, K.S.; Tweksbury, T.L.; Taylor, D.R. (Battelle Columbus Div., Washington, DC (USA))

1989-07-01

445

Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix A: Coal gasification catalog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scope of work in preparing the Coal Gasification Data Catalog included the following subtasks: (1) candidate system subsystem definition, (2) raw materials analysis, (3) market analysis for by-products, (4) alternate products analysis, (5) preliminary integrated facility requirements. Definition of candidate systems/subsystems includes the identity of and alternates for each process unit, raw material requirements, and the cost and design drivers for each process design.

1980-01-01

446

Co-gasification of solid waste and lignite - a case study for Western Macedonia.  

PubMed

Co-gasification of solid waste and coal is a very attractive and efficient way of generating power, but also an alternative way, apart from conventional technologies such as incineration and landfill, of treating waste materials. The technology of co-gasification can result in very clean power plants using a wide range of solid fuels but there are considerable economic and environmental challenges. The aim of this study is to present the available existing co-gasification techniques and projects for coal and solid wastes and to investigate the techno-economic feasibility, concerning the installation and operation of a 30MW(e) co-gasification power plant based on integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, using lignite and refuse derived fuel (RDF), in the region of Western Macedonia prefecture (WMP), Greece. The gasification block was based on the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) gasifier, while the gas clean-up block was based on cold gas purification. The competitive advantages of co-gasification systems can be defined both by the fuel feedstock and production flexibility but also by their environmentally sound operation. It also offers the benefit of commercial application of the process by-products, gasification slag and elemental sulphur. Co-gasification of coal and waste can be performed through parallel or direct gasification. Direct gasification constitutes a viable choice for installations with capacities of more than 350MW(e). Parallel gasification, without extensive treatment of produced gas, is recommended for gasifiers of small to medium size installed in regions where coal-fired power plants operate. The preliminary cost estimation indicated that the establishment of an IGCC RDF/lignite plant in the region of WMP is not profitable, due to high specific capital investment and in spite of the lower fuel supply cost. The technology of co-gasification is not mature enough and therefore high capital requirements are needed in order to set up a direct co-gasification plant. The cost of electricity estimated was not competitive, compared to the prices dominating the Greek electricity market and thus further economic evaluation is required. The project would be acceptable if modular construction of the unit was first adopted near operating power plants, based on parallel co-gasification, and gradually incorporating the remaining process steps (gas purification, power generation) with the aim of eventually establishing a true direct co-gasification plant. PMID:17631995

Koukouzas, N; Katsiadakis, A; Karlopoulos, E; Kakaras, E

2008-01-01

447

Gasification of wood to produce urea  

SciTech Connect

A study is described which examines the economic feasibility of producing urea by the gasification of wood. The process includes an oxygen blown fluidized bed gasifier, an air separation plant supplying both oxygen and nitrogen to the process, the use of a water gas process for hydrogen production, an Amine Guard AG/T carbon dioxide removal system, and a pressure swing absorption system for purifying the hydrogen used in the ammonia synthesis. Ammonia combined with carbon dioxide produces ammonium carbamate which is dehydrated to urea. The economic analysis shows that urea can be produced from wood at a profit. 5 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

Bettinger, J.A.; Kosstrin, H.M.

1984-06-01

448

COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: LOW- AND MEDIUM-BTU WASTEWATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a compilation of environmental characterization data for wastewaters from low- and medium-Btu coal gasification facilities. Fixed-bed, entrained-bed, and ash-agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification processes were examined. The fixed-bed gasifiers are the Chapm...

449

A comparative study of charcoal gasification in two types of spouted bed reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification is considered to be a favourable method for converting a solid fuel into a more versatile gaseous fuel. Performance of a gasifier depends on the design of the gasifier, type of fuel used and air flow rate, etc. The applications of spouted bed for a variety of processes such as drying, coating, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion have been reported.

P. Abdul Salam; S. C. Bhattacharya

2006-01-01

450

Plasma Gasification and Vitrification of Ash - Conversion of Ash into Glasslike Products and Syngas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Plasma Gasification and Vitrification of Ash (PGVA) system is a patented process that uses energy generated by plasma arcs along with the controlled addition of small amounts of air and steam to convert the organic portion of ash into a synthesis gas (gasification) and the inorganic portion into a glassy rock (vitrification). The vitrification of the ash's inorganic portion

Pierre Carabin; Jean-René Gagnon

451

Coal gasification. Quarterly report, January-March 1979. [US DOE supported  

SciTech Connect

Progress in DOE-supported coal gasification pilot plant projects is reported: company, location, contract number, funding, process description, history and progress in the current quarter. Two support projects are discussed: preparation of a technical data book and mathematical modeling of gasification reactors. (LTN)

None

1980-01-01

452

Vanadium-catalysed gasification of carbon and its application in the carbothermic reduction of barite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium vanadate, a waste from Bayer's alumina process was used as a catalyst in the CO2 gasification of active charcoal. The catalytic effect was quite evident with the observed enhanced rate of gasification accompanied by the typical compensation effect. This effect has been able to predict the observed anamolous behaviour of the vanadium catalysed carbothermic reduction of barite.

A. N Gokarn; S. D Pradhan; G Pathak; S. S Kulkarni

2000-01-01

453

High temperature solid oxide fuel cell integrated with novel allothermal biomass gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass gasification derived fuel gas is a renewable fuel that can be used by high temperature fuel cells. In this two-part work an attempt is made to investigate the integration of a near atmospheric pressure solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a novel allothermal biomass steam gasification process into a combined heat and power (CHP) system of less than MWe

K. D. Panopoulos; L. E. Fryda; J. Karl; S. Poulou; E. Kakaras

2006-01-01

454

LLL environmental studies of in situ coal gasification. Annual report, fiscal year 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first annual report on a continuing investigation at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) into the environmental ramifications of in situ coal gasification. The investigation is focused on changes in ground-water quality and the effects of ground movement and subsidence, which represent important environmental concerns associated with the in situ coal gasification process. Our methods include laboratory measurements,

S. W. Mead; J. H. Campbell; H. C. Ganow; R. T. Langland; R. C. Greenlaw; F. T. Wang; R. V. Homsy

1978-01-01

455

Baseline discharge inventory and control technology review for coal-gasification systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental Research and Technology, Inc. is conducting investigations and research for the purpose of contributing to the comprehensive health and environmental data base currently being developed for surface coal gasification. One of the key elements of the work is concerned with the development of a fundamental understanding of pollutant formation and distribution with gasification process and assessment of environmental control

E. D. Maruhnich; R. C. Weber; D. V. Nakles; J. P. Fillo; R. W. Rittmeyer; J. E. Bratina

1982-01-01

456

Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study: Volume 2, Industrial hygiene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occupational health study performed in Obilich, Kosova, Yugoslavia, evaluated the potential health impact of the operation of a commercial-scale coal gasification facility on the workers and on public health. The effect of exposures to various chemical agents in the working environment generated in the coal gasification process was studied in exposed and control worker populations. A detailed assessment of

M. T. Brandt; J. O. Jackson; C. R. Sutcliffe; O. Jr. White; E. T. Premuzic; S. C. Morris; M. A. Haxhiu; A. Abazi; M. Jockic; B. Jonuzi

1987-01-01

457

Computational fluid dynamics modeling of coal gasification in a pressurized spout-fluid bed  

SciTech Connect

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, which has recently proven to be an effective means of analysis and optimization of energy-conversion processes, has been extended to coal gasification in this paper. A 3D mathematical model has been developed to simulate the coal gasification process in a pressurized spout-fluid bed. This CFD model is composed of gas-solid hydrodynamics, coal pyrolysis, char gasification, and gas phase reaction submodels. The rates of heterogeneous reactions are determined by combining Arrhenius rate and diffusion rate. The homogeneous reactions of gas phase can be treated as secondary reactions. A comparison of the calculated and experimental data shows that most gasification performance parameters can be predicted accurately. This good agreement indicates that CFD modeling can be used for complex fluidized beds coal gasification processes. 37 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Zhongyi Deng; Rui Xiao; Baosheng Jin; He Huang; Laihong Shen; Qilei Song; Qianjun Li [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education

2008-05-15

458

Separating hydrogen from coal gasification gases with alumina membranes  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis gas produced in coal gasification processes contains hydrogen, along with carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, water, nitrogen, and other gases, depending on the particular gasification process. Development of membrane technology to separate the hydrogen from the raw gas at the high operating temperatures and pressures near exit gas conditions would improve the efficiency of the process. Tubular porous alumina membranes with mean pore radii ranging from about 9 to 22 {Angstrom} have been fabricated and characterized. Based on hydrostatic tests, the burst strength of the membranes ranged from 800 to 1600 psig, with a mean value of about 1300 psig. These membranes were evaluated for separating hydrogen and other gases. Tests of membrane permeabilities were made with helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. Measurements were made at room temperature in the pressure range of 15 to 589 psi. Selected membranes were tested further with mixed gases simulating a coal gasification product gas. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Egan, B.Z. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E.; White, D.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA))

1991-01-01

459

Hydrogen recovery from the thermal plasma gasification of solid waste.  

PubMed

Thermal plasma gasification has been demonstrated as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization in many of studies. Therefore, the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification (paper mill waste, 1.2 ton/day) was applied for the recovery of high purity H(2) (>99.99%). Gases emitted from a gasification furnace equipped with a nontransferred thermal plasma torch were purified using a bag-filter and wet scrubber. Thereafter, the gases, which contained syngas (CO+H(2)), were introduced into a H(2) recovery system, consisting largely of a water gas shift (WGS) unit for the conversion of CO to H(2) and a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit for the separation and purification of H(2). It was successfully demonstrated that the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification, combined with the WGS and PSA, produced high purity H(2) (20 N m(3)/h (400 H(2)-Nm(3)/PMW-ton), up to 99.99%) using a plasma torch with 1.6 MWh/PMW-ton of electricity. The results presented here suggest that the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification for the production of high purity H(2) may provide a new approach as a future energy infrastructure based on H(2). PMID:21497018

Byun, Youngchul; Cho, Moohyun; Chung, Jae Woo; Namkung, Won; Lee, Hyeon Don; Jang, Sung Duk; Kim, Young-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Carg-Ro; Hwang, Soon-Mo

2011-06-15

460

Methane or methanol via catalytic gasification of biomass  

SciTech Connect

Methane and methanol synthesis gas can be produced by steam gasification of biomass in the presence of appropriate catalysts. A 5 cm diameter reactor has been used to determine the desired catalysts and operating temperature. A process development unit (PDU) has demonstrated steam gasification of biomass with catalysts at rates up to 35 kg per hour. Methane yields of 0.28 nm/sup 3/ per kg of dry wood were produced in the small laboratory reactor. Further methanation of the product gas mixture can increase methane yields to 0.33 nm/sup 3//kg. The catalyst system is nickel and silica-alumina. The preferred reactor operating temperature is 500 to 550/sup 0/C. Tests have been at atmospheric pressure. The PDU performance has confirmed results obtained in the laboratory. Methanol synthesis gas can be produced in a single stage reactor at 750 to 850/sup 0/C by steam gasification of wood with silica-alumina and nickel catalysts present. From this gas, up to 0.6 kg of methanol can be produced per kg of wood. Gasification of the wood to produce synthesis gas has been demonstrated in the laboratory scale reactor, but remains to be successfully done using the PDU. Catalyst deactivation rates and regeneration schemes must be determined in order to determine the economic feasibility of wood to methane or methanol processes. Some advantages of catalytic steam gasification of biomass over steam-oxygen gasification are: no oxygen is required for methane or methanol synthesis gas, therefore, no oxygen plant is needed; little or no tar is produced resulting in simpler gas cleaning equipment; no shift reactor is required for methanol synthesis; methanation requirements are low resulting in high conversion efficiency; and yields and efficiencies are greater than obtained by conventional gasification.

Mitchell, D.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Robertus, R.J.; Weber, S.L.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

1980-03-01

461

Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF). Final report  

SciTech Connect

The gasifier selected for development under this contract is an innovative and patented hybrid technology which combines the best features of both fixed-bed and fluidized-bed types. PyGas{trademark}, meaning Pyrolysis Gasification, is well suited for integration into advanced power cycles such as IGCC. It is also well matched to hot gas clean-up technologies currently in development. Unlike other gasification technologies, PyGas can be designed into both large and small scale systems. It is expected that partial repowering with PyGas could be done at a cost of electricity of only 2.78 cents/kWh, more economical than natural gas repowering. It is extremely unfortunate that Government funding for such a noble cause is becoming reduced to the point where current contracts must be canceled. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project was initiated to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology at a cost approaching $1,000 per kilowatt for electric power generation applications. The project was to include an innovative, advanced, air-blown, pressurized, fixed-bed, dry-bottom gasifier and a follow-on hot metal oxide gas desulfurization sub-system. To help defray the cost of testing materials, the facility was to be located at a nearby utility coal fired generating site. The patented PyGas{trademark} technology was selected via a competitive bidding process as the candidate which best fit overall DOE objectives. The paper describes the accomplishments to date.

NONE

1995-09-01