Sample records for texaco gasification process

  1. TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the evaluation of the Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The Texaco Gasification Process was developed by Texaco Inc. The TGP is a comm...

  2. Ammonia production from coal by utilization of Texaco coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.R.; McClanhan, T.S.; Weatherington, R.W.

    1983-12-01

    Operating data will be presented for the coal gasification and gas purification unit which has been retrofitted to the front end of an existing ammonia plant. The plant uses 200 tons per day of coal and produces 135 tons per day of ammonia. The plant uses the Texaco coal gasification process, Haldor-Topsoe catalyst systems, Selexol acid gas removal process, and the Holmes-Stretford sulfur recovery process.

  3. Texaco Coal Gasification Wastewater Handling and Treatment Pilot Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dille

    1990-01-01

    Radian was contracted by the Electric Power Research Institute to collect and analyze water, sludge, and vapor samples associated with the pilot study of the Texaco coal gasification wastewater process. The pilot plant tests, processing grey water produced from the gasification of SUFCO coal, were conducted at the Cool Water Coal Gasification Program (CWCGP) facility during the first four months

  4. U.S. EPA'S EVALUATION OF A TEXACO GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasification technologies are designed to produce, from carbonaceous organic materials (e.g., coal, oil), a useable mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen called synthesis gas, or syngas. yngas could be used to produce power or chemicals. he Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) emp...

  5. Texaco coal gasification wastewater handling and treatment pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Klock, B.V.; Vuong, D.C.; Webster, G.H. (Texaco, Inc., Port Arthur, TX (USA). Port Arthur Research Labs.)

    1990-07-01

    The Cool Water Coal Gasification Program (CWCGP) provided the first commercial scale demonstration of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power production from coal. Water treating at Cool Water was simplified by the plant's location in the Mojave desert which allowed the use of evaporation ponds. Because most utilities will not be able to dispose of plant wastewater in evaporation ponds, a water treating pilot plant was installed at Cool Water to provide a basis for the design of future effluent treatment facilities. All of the pilot plant's equipment and operations costs were paid by Texaco. The overall treatment results were sponsored by EPRI and are being made available to member utilities in this report. The pilot plant test, which processes wastewater from the gasification of SUFCo coal, were conducted during the first four months of 1989. The wastewater (grey water) was characterized by the presence of cyanide, sulfide, ammonia, coal ash particles, and formate. The Texaco process removed these constituents from the wastewater by: (1) reacting cyanide and sulfide with ferrous iron; (2) settling and filtering out the solids; (3) steam stripping the ammonia; and (4) biologically treating for formate. The work showed that the Texaco Gasification Wastewater Treatment Process (TGWTP) can be utilized to treat Texaco coal gasification plant wastewater to very low contaminant levels. The work also indicated that a reduction in water treatment capital cost can be obtained by concentrating the wastewater prior to treatment.

  6. Texaco Coal Gasification Wastewater Handling and Treatment Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dille, R.M. (Dille (R.M.), Port Arthur, TX (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Radian was contracted by the Electric Power Research Institute to collect and analyze water, sludge, and vapor samples associated with the pilot study of the Texaco coal gasification wastewater process. The pilot plant tests, processing grey water produced from the gasification of SUFCO coal, were conducted at the Cool Water Coal Gasification Program (CWCGP) facility during the first four months of 1989. Radian collected samples of the pilot plant streams for three test runs: January 8 through January 13, March 27 through March 31, and April 23 through April 30, 1989. There were two sampling periods in each test run. The CWCGP wastewater (grey water) is characterized by the presence of cyanide, sulfide, ammonia, coal ash particles, and formate. The Texaco process is designed to remove these constituents by: (1) reacting cyanide and sulfide with ferrous iron; (2) settling and filtering the solids; (3) steam stripping the ammonia; and (4) biologically treating for formate. Samples collected to characterize the wastewater treatment process were the influent water, effluent water, iron sludge, biological sludge, and stripper overhead gas condensate. All samples were collected as aqueous or solid grab samples and analyzed by approved methods. Ammonia, solids, and formate removal were demonstrated in all three test runs. The best cyanide removals were demonstrated during Runs 2 and 3 when effluent cyanide concentrations decreased by a factor of 10, compared to the influent levels, as a result of the wastewater treatment. Sulfide removal was most clearly observed during Run 1. Very low sulfide concentrations (at or near the detection limit) in the influent stream precluded estimates of sulfide removal during Runs 2 and 3.

  7. IsoTex: Texaco`s olefin skeletal isomerization process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Sawicki; R. J. Pellet; E. J. Kuhlmann; H. M. Huang; R. V. Kessler; D. G. Casey

    1995-01-01

    Texaco has developed a new process (IsoTex) for the skeletal isomerization of n-olefins. The IsoTex process can convert normal butenes to isobutylene or normal pentenes to isoamylenes. The resulting product stream is an excellent feed for MTBE, ETBE or TAME units. The process has isomerized an untreated refinery C4 raffinate stream from an MTBE plant. A kinetic model was developed

  8. SEM microanalysis techniques in demonstration of sulfur capture by slag and sorbents during gasification of coal in a Texaco gasifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Laurion; M. S. Najjar; R. J. McKeon

    1990-01-01

    In Texaco's Coal Gasification Process, a significant portion of desulfurization of the product gas (synthesis gas, syngas) may be achieved by slag capture in the gasification step when various sorbents are added to the coal slurry. For example, when iron oxide is added to the coal slurry, sulfur is captured primarily in a discrete iron oxysulfide phase and to a

  9. IsoTex: Texaco`s olefin skeletal isomerization process

    SciTech Connect

    Sawicki, R.A.; Pellet, R.J.; Kuhlmann, E.J.; Huang, H.M.; O`Young, C.L.; Kessler, R.V.; Casey, D.G. [Texaco Research and Development, Beacon, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Texaco has developed a new process (IsoTex) for the skeletal isomerization of n-olefins. The IsoTex process can convert normal butenes to isobutylene or normal pentenes to isoamylenes. The resulting product stream is an excellent feed for MTBE, ETBE or TAME units. The process has isomerized an untreated refinery C4 raffinate stream from an MTBE plant. A kinetic model was developed for the butene system. This model accurately predicted IsoTex performance in a one barrel per day skid unit at a Gulf Coast chemical plant. Process economics have been calculated for a once through 54,000 BPD C{sub 4} isomerization plant as well as a 10,000 BPD plant for recycle to an existing MTBE reactor. Economics have also been completed for a 6,800 BPD pentene once through isomerization unit.

  10. SEM microanalysis techniques in demonstration of sulfur capture by slag and sorbents during gasification of coal in a Texaco gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Laurion, T.A.; Najjar, M.S.; McKeon, R.J. (Texaco Research Center, Beacon, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    In Texaco's Coal Gasification Process, a significant portion of desulfurization of the product gas (synthesis gas, syngas) may be achieved by slag capture in the gasification step when various sorbents are added to the coal slurry. For example, when iron oxide is added to the coal slurry, sulfur is captured primarily in a discrete iron oxysulfide phase and to a lesser degree in the glassy silicates phase. Evidence confirming the success of the sorbents approach was gathered through high-temperature, high-pressure bench scale microreactor experiments as well as those with a pilot unit gasifer at Texaco's Montebello, CA research facility. The role of optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in discerning and analyzing the phases and obtaining approximate phase quantitation are presented.

  11. Texaco coal gasification wastewater handling and treatment pilot plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Klock; D. C. Vuong; G. H. Webster

    1990-01-01

    The Cool Water Coal Gasification Program (CWCGP) provided the first commercial scale demonstration of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power production from coal. Water treating at Cool Water was simplified by the plant's location in the Mojave desert which allowed the use of evaporation ponds. Because most utilities will not be able to dispose of plant wastewater in evaporation ponds,

  12. Application of RBM strategy in texaco coal gasification system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong Guo; Yuhui Wang; Dongchen Shi

    2009-01-01

    Risk-based maintenance (RBM) approach is helpful to develop a cost-effective maintenance plan to ensure benefit and safety with low maintenance cost. However, most maintenance is imperfect in process industry. The imperfect effect has not been considered in the maintenance planning step in the previous works on RBM strategy. As a result, they could hardly fit the reality. An improved RBM

  13. ASPEN simulations of fluidized-bed and entrained-flow integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants. [KRW and Texaco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1985-01-01

    A fluidized-bed, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant simulation was developed by METC using the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) process simulator. The ASPEN simulation is based on a conceptual design of a 570 megawatt (MW) IGCC plant using Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) ash agglomerating pressurized fluid-bed gasifiers and conventional cold gas cleanup processes. The conceptual design was completed by Bechtel

  14. Westinghouse gasification process: commercialization status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Holmgren; P. Cherish; W. J. Havener

    1983-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, Westinghouse Electric Corporation has been engaged in the development of a pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site located near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This pressurized gasification technology has been developed jointly by the United States Department of Energy and its precursor agencies, the Gas Research Institute and Westinghouse. The process has been judged to

  15. Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained flow gasification for power generation systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. F. Leininger; A. Robin; D. Y. Jung; J. S. Kassman; J. K. Wolfenbarger; P. P. Yang

    1992-01-01

    To help achieve the goal of clean, low cost power generation from coal, Texaco submitted an unsolicited proposal in July 1986 to develop and demonstrate the integration of high temperature desulfurization with the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). The main goals of the proposed program were: Develop and demonstrate in-situ desulfurization of synthesis gas in an entrained flow gasifier using

  16. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

    1987-11-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  17. Multivariable control of Texaco`s Eunice South Gas Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, M.C. [Texaco Exploration and Production Inc., Eunice, NM (United States); Martin, O. [Texaco Exploration and Production Inc., Denver, CO (United States); Basu, U.; Poe, W.A. [Continental Controls, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A model predictive multivariable controller has been commissioned at Texaco`s Eunice South Gas Plant to increase profits and to provide better overall control of the Cryogenic Demethanizer Unit. The project payback was based on increased recovery of ethane and NGL. The controller has also been successful in maintaining a composition specification at the bottom of the demethanizer column while optimizing operations by pushing the plant to run at its pressure constraints. The South Plant Cryogenic Unit at Texaco`s Eunice complex processes about 100 MMscfd of natural gas from various sources. The demethanizer recovers ethane plus while rejecting methane from the bottom product. The column consists of a top section providing entries for the reflux and expander outlet and a lower section consisting of two packed beds. Cold separator liquids enter near the top of the lower section. Bottom and side reboilers are attached to the lower portion of the column. Residue gas leaves the top and demethanized NGL leaves the bottom of the column. A multivariable control (MVC{reg_sign}) module was installed with the primary objective of increasing ethane recovery by decreasing the column pressure and increasing the pressure differential across the expander unit while maintaining operating constraints with varying inlet conditions. The MVC controller runs in a Pentium{reg_sign} computer operating under SCO{reg_sign} UNIX{reg_sign} and is also attached to the plant ethernet network. The plant has programmable logic controllers (PLC) which are networked to a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system through pyramid integrators. MVC computes the optimal setpoint to six basic control loops in supervisory mode.

  18. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this research is to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible “syngas” in a high temperature (above 700 °C), oxygen deficient environmen...

  19. Process wastewater treatability study for Westinghouse fluidized-bed coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Winton, S.L.; Buvinger, B.J.; Evans, J.M.; French, W.E.; Page, G.C.; Rhodes, W.J.

    1983-11-01

    In the development of a synthetic fuels facility, water usage and wastewater treatment are major areas of concern. Coal gasification processes generally produce relatively large volumes of gas condensates. These wastewaters are typically composed of a variety of suspended and dissolved organic and inorganic solids and dissolved gaseous contaminants. Fluidized-bed coal gasification (FBG) processes are no exception to this rule. The Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), the Gas Research Institute (GRI), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA/IERLRTP) recognized the need for a FBG treatment program to provide process design data for FBG wastewaters during the environmental, health, and safety characterization of the Westinghouse Process Development Unit (PDU). In response to this need, METC developed conceptual designs and a program plan to obtain process design and performance data for treating wastewater from commercial-scale Westinghouse-based synfuels plants. As a result of this plan, METC, GRI, and EPA entered into a joint program to develop performance data, design parameters, conceptual designs, and cost estimates for treating wastewaters from a FBG plant. Wastewater from the Westinghouse PDU consists of process quench and gas cooling condensates which are similar to those produced by other FBG processes such as U-Gas, and entrained-bed gasification processes such as Texaco. Therefore, wastewater from this facility was selected as the basis for this study. This paper outlines the current program for developing process design and cost data for the treatment of these wastewaters.

  20. Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  1. Chicken-Bio Nuggets Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, A.C. [Univ. of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    With the cost of landfill disposal skyrocketing and land availability becoming scarce, better options are required for managing our nation`s biomass waste. In response to this need, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) is evaluating an innovative idea (described as Chicken-Bio Nuggets Gasification process) to gasify waste products from the poultry industry and industrial wood/biomass-based residues in {open_quotes}as-is{close_quotes} or aggregate form. The presence of potassium salts in the poultry waste as well as in the biomass can act as a catalyst in reducing the severity of the thermal gasification. As a result, the mixture of these waste products can be gasified at a much lower temperature (1,300-1,400{degrees}F versus 1,800-2,000{degrees}F for conventional thermal gasification). Also, these potassium salts act as a catalyst by accelerating the gasification reaction and enhancing the mediation reaction. Hence, the product gas from this UTSI concept can be richer in methane and probably can be used as a source of fuel (to replace propane in hard reach remote places) or as a chemical feed stock. Exxon Research and Engineering Company has tested a similar catalytic gasification concept in a fluid-bed gasifier using coal in a one ton/day pilot plant in Baytown, Texas. If found technically and economically feasible, this concept can be later on extended to include other kinds of waste products such as cow manure and wastes from swine, etc.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD RANKINGS OF POLLUTANTS GENERATED IN COAL GASIFICATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation and ranking of environmental hazards associated with coal gasification. Applied chemical analytical data were provided by (1) research with an experimental gasifier, and (2) sampling of four commercial gasification processes. Gas, liquid,...

  3. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  4. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Sarah; Bower, Cynthia K; Patil, Krushna N; DeWitt, Christina A Mireles

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible "syngas" in a high temperature (above 700 degrees C), oxygen deficient environment. Syngas can be combusted to generate power, which recycles energy from waste products. At 66% to 79% moisture, raw salmon waste streams are too wet to undergo pyrolysis and combustion. Ground raw or de-oiled salmon whole fish, heads, viscera, or frames were therefore "dried" by mixing with wood pellets to a final moisture content of 20%. Ground whole salmon with moisture reduced to 12% moisture was gasified without a drying agent. Gasification tests were performed in a small-scale, fixed-bed, updraft gasifer. After an initial start-up period, the gasifier was loaded with 1.5 kg of biomass. Temperature was recorded at 6 points in the gasifier. Syngas was collected during the short steady-state period during each gasifier run and analyzed. Percentages of each type of gas in the syngas were used to calculate syngas heating value. High heating value (HHV) ranged from 1.45 to 1.98 MJ/kg. Bomb calorimetry determined maximum heating value for the salmon by-products. Comparing heating values shows the efficiency of gasification. Cold gas efficiencies of 13.6% to 26% were obtained from the various samples gasified. Though research of gasification as a means of salmon waste disposal and energy production is ongoing, it can be concluded that pre-dried salmon or relatively low moisture content mixtures of waste with wood are gasifiable. PMID:19799663

  5. Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-06-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  6. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Marvin W. (Fairview, WV)

    1988-01-01

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  7. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, M.W.

    1987-03-23

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  8. BIOMASS REACTIVITY IN GASIFICATION BY THE HYNOL PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A thermobalance reactor was used to evaluate the reactivity of poplar wood in gasification under the operating conditions specific for the Hynol process where biomass is gasified at 30 atm and 800E C with a hydrogen-rich gas recycled from methane synthesis. The gasification invol...

  9. Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Euker, Jr., Charles A. (15163 Dianna La., Houston, TX 77062); Wesselhoft, Robert D. (120 Caldwell, Baytown, TX 77520); Dunkleman, John J. (3704 Autumn La., Baytown, TX 77520); Aquino, Dolores C. (15142 McConn, Webster, TX 77598); Gouker, Toby R. (5413 Rocksprings Dr., LaPorte, TX 77571)

    1984-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  10. Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Durai-Swamy, K.; Mansour, M.N.; Warren, D.W.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual carbon, which forms as a deposit on the particle surface, is then gasified by reaction with steam. Heat is supplied from pulse combustor resonance tubes which are immersed within the fluid bed. A portion of the gasifier product gas is returned to the pulse combustors to provide the energy requirements of the reactor. Oxidized sulfur species are partially reduced by reaction with the gasifier products, principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reduced sulfur decomposed to solid sodium carbonate and gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Sodium values are recovered by discharging a dry sodium carbonate product from the gasifier. MTCI's indirectly heated gasification technology for black liquor recovery also relies on the scrubbing of H{sub 2}S for product gases to regenerate green liquor for reuse in the mill circuit. Due to concerns relative to the efficiency of sulfur recovery in the MTCI integrated process, an experimental investigation was undertaken to establish performance and design data for this portion of the system.

  11. Utilization of chemical looping strategy in coal gasification processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liangshih Fan; Fanxing Li; Shwetha Ramkumar

    2008-01-01

    Three chemical looping gasification processes, i.e. Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process, Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process, and Calcium Looping process (CLP), are being developed at the Ohio State University (OSU). These processes utilize simple reaction schemes to convert carbonaceous fuels into products such as hydrogen, electricity, and synthetic fuels through the transformation of a highly reactive, highly recyclable chemical

  12. Process for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

    1992-01-01

    The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  13. Texaco, carbide form hydrogen plant venture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-30

    This paper reports that Texaco Inc. and Union Carbide Industrial Gases Inc. (UCIG) have formed a joint venture to develop and operate hydrogen plants. The venture, named HydroGEN Supply Co., is owned by Texaco Hydrogen Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Texaco, and UCIG Hydrogen Services Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of UCIG. Plants built by HydroGEN will combine Texaco's HyTEX technology for hydrogen production with UCIG's position in cryogenic and advanced air separation technology. Texaco the U.S. demand for hydrogen is expected to increase sharply during the next decade, while refinery hydrogen supply is expected to drop. The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require U.S. refiners to lower aromatics in gasoline, resulting in less hydrogen recovered by refiners from catalytic reforming units. Meanwhile, requirements to reduce sulfur in diesel fuel will require more hydrogen capacity.

  14. Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. [Lurgi Process

    SciTech Connect

    Honea, F.I.

    1985-09-01

    The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) is the first commercial coal-to-synthetic natural gas plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input/output diagrams, and stream design data sheets for 161 major GPGP process and effluent streams. This stream design data provides an important base for evaluation of plant and process performance and for verification of the Department of Energy's ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) computer simulation models of the GPGP processes. 8 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Coal gasification in a large underground gasifier: Process efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Blinderman, M.S.

    1997-12-31

    The process of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) in a large, commercial scale, underground gasifier is considered both from theoretical and practical points of view. Such a gasifier may comprise a number of gasification channels in the coal seam where the actual coal-to-gas conversion occurs. The UCG gas quality and process efficiency in such a system are investigated as functions of the process parameters. The latter include geological characteristics of coal seam, gasifier layout and controlled technology variables (e.g. flow rate and pressure of the oxidant). In addition to the gasification itself, the author studied how the gas quality and process efficiency are affected by conditions in process wells. The gas formation is not completed in the gasification channel of an underground gasifier. A number of reactions may proceed in production wells. The ways to control the reactions are discussed. Quality of the gas is determined not only by its composition, but also by its enthalpy as well as by concentration of oils and tars and particulates in the gas. The author discusses how these factors are influenced by the process parameters and design. The process efficiency depends on many factors including gas and heat loss. The ways to mitigate and/or recover these losses are suggested. Examples of commercial scale gasifiers are considered.

  16. Groups win pollution suit against Texaco

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, P. (Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) and the Delaware Audubon Society have won a ruling in federal court against Texaco Refining and Marketing, Inc. for continuous pollution of the Delaware River. Texaco was found to have committed hundreds of violations under the Clean Water Act during a 9 year period from 1983 to 1991, and was ordered to pay a $1.68 million penalty. Texaco must also improve its water pollution investigation practices which were deemed inconsistent and less than thorough, relying on supposition rather than thorough investigation. A court order enjoining Texaco from further violations was deemed necessary to vindicate the public interest. Illegal discharges included chlorine, ammonia, and oil and grease, with some violations exceeding legal limits by as much as 2000%.

  17. Heat exchanger for coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Blasiole, George A. (Greensburg, PA)

    1984-06-19

    This invention provides a heat exchanger, particularly useful for systems requiring cooling of hot particulate solids, such as the separated fines from the product gas of a carbonaceous material gasification system. The invention allows effective cooling of a hot particulate in a particle stream (made up of hot particulate and a gas), using gravity as the motive source of the hot particulate. In a preferred form, the invention substitutes a tube structure for the single wall tube of a heat exchanger. The tube structure comprises a tube with a core disposed within, forming a cavity between the tube and the core, and vanes in the cavity which form a flow path through which the hot particulate falls. The outside of the tube is in contact with the cooling fluid of the heat exchanger.

  18. DESIGN, FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Leininger

    2001-03-31

    Reliable measurement of gasifier reaction chamber temperature is important for the proper operation of slagging, entrained-flow gasification processes. Historically, thermocouples have been used as the main measurement technique, with the temperature inferred from syngas methane concentration being used as a backup measurement. While these have been sufficient for plant operation in many cases, both techniques suffer from limitations. The response time of methane measurements is too slow to detect rapid upset conditions, and thermocouples are subject to long-term drift, as well as slag attack, which eventually leads to failure of the thermocouple. Texaco's Montebello Technology Center (MTC) has developed an infrared ratio pyrometer system for measuring gasifier reaction chamber temperature. This system has a faster response time than both methane and thermocouples, and has been demonstrated to provide reliable temperature measurements for longer periods of time when compared to thermocouples installed in the same MTC gasifier. In addition, the system can be applied to commercial gasifiers without any significant scale-up issues. The major equipment items, the purge system, and the safety shutdown system in a commercial plant are essentially identical to the prototypes at MTC. The desired result of this DOE program is ''a bench-scale prototype, either assembled or with critical components (laboratory) tested in a convincing manner.'' The prototype of the pyrometer system (including gasifier optical access port) that was designed, assembled and tested for this program, has had previous prototypes that have been built and successfully tested under actual coal and coke gasification conditions in three pilot units at MTC. It was the intent of the work performed under the auspices of this program to review and update the existing design, and to fabricate and bench test an updated system that can be field tested in one or more commercial gasifiers during a follow on phase of this program. For all intents and purposes, the development, bench testing and pilot unit testing of this temperature measurement system has already been done, and was mostly a matter of getting the hardware ready for a commercial field test. The benefits of field-testing are (1) Texaco will gain long-term commercial operating experience and (2) commercial gasifier operators will gain confidence that this system can perform reliably under true commercial plant conditions. This work was performed by Texaco at its Montebello Technology Center in South El Monte, California.

  19. Membrane air separation for intensification of coal gasification process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A Belyaev; Yu. P Yampolskii; L. E Starannikova; A. M Polyakov; G Clarizia; E Drioli; G Marigliano; G Barbieri

    2003-01-01

    High-ash and other low-quality coals are available in huge quantities in Russia and in other East European countries. Similar solid fuels can also be obtained as by-product of the enrichment process of coal. The aim of this work is the analysis of the possibility to use such low-quality coals as alternative energy sources in fluidised bed gasification process. In order

  20. Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Honea, F.I.

    1985-09-01

    The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) in the first commercial coal-to-SNG synthetic fuel plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input/output diagrams and stream design data sheets for 161 major GPGP process and effluent streams. This stream design data provides an important base for evaluation of plant and process performance and for verification of the DOE ASPEN computer simulation models of the GPGP processes. 8 refs.

  1. Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Phase 2, Process optimization: Volume 1, Program summary and PDU operations

    SciTech Connect

    Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

    1991-09-01

    This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

  2. Separation of products from mild coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.

    1991-09-11

    The primary mild coal gasification product mixture containing noncondensible gas, high-boiling hydrocarbon vapors and entrained fines is difficult to process into the desired pure products: gas, liquids, and dry solids. This challenge for mild coal gasification process development has been studied by surveying the technical literature for suitable separations processes and for similar issues in related processes. The choice for a first-stage solids separation step is standard cyclones, arranged in parallel trains for large-volume applications in order to take advantage of the higher separation efficiency of smaller cyclones. However, mild gasification pilot-plant data show entrainment of ultrafine particles for which standard cyclones have poor separation efficiency. A hot secondary solids separation step is needed for the ultrafine entrainment in order to protect the liquid product from excessive amounts of contaminating solids. The secondary solids separation step is similar to many high-temperature flue-gas applications with an important complicating condition: Mild gasifier vapors form coke on surfaces in contact with the vapors. Plugging of the filter medium by coke deposition is concluded to be the main product separation problem for mild gasification. Three approaches to solution of this problem are discussed in the order of preference: (1) a barrier filter medium made of a perforated foil that is easy to regenerate, (2) a high-efficiency cyclone coupled with recycle of a solids-containing tar fraction for coking/cracking in the gasifier, and (3) a granular moving bed filter with regeneration of the bed material. The condensation of oil vapors diluted by noncondensible gas is analyzed thermodynamically, and the conclusion is that existing commercial oil fractionator designs are adequate as long as the vapor stream does not contain excessive amounts of solids. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  3. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-12-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

  4. Modeling the underground coal gasification process: part III-subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    Krantz, W.B.; Gunn, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The cavity created by underground coal gasification (UCG) will be associated with some degree of subsidence in the overburden above the cavity. Subsidence refers to the adjustment in the earth which is made in response to the creation of a subsurface cavity. This subsidence can take a variety of forms, some of which can cause considerable damage both to the environment and to the UCG process and associated equipment. This article reviews the physical and geometrical factors which must be considered in subsidence modeling and the empirical, analytical, numerical, and phenomenological approaches used to model subsidence in UCG. Finally, the results of applying these subsidence models to UCG field tests are reviewed.

  5. Scaleup of mild gasification to a process development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Mead, J.; Foster, H.

    1992-11-01

    The overall objectives of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. During the first ten months of this project. the NEPA Application for construction and operation of the PDU facility at the SIUC site was written and submitted for approval. In addition, the process design for the PDU was completed, bid packages for the PDU modules were prepared and sent to a slate of prospective bidders, and bids were received from the participating bidders.

  6. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Task 4, Mild gasification tests

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Kang, T.W.; Vaillancourt, M.B.

    1990-12-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) teamed with the AMAX Research and Development Center and Riley Stoker Corporation on Development of an Advanced, Continuous Mild-Gasification Process for the Production of Coproducts under contract DE-AC21-87MC24268 with the Morgantown Energy Technology of the US Department of Energy. The strategy for this project is to produce electrode binder pitch and diesel fuel blending stock by mild gasification of Wyodak coal. The char is upgraded to produce anode-grade carbon, carbon black, and activated carbon. This report describes results of mild-gasification tests conducted by WRI. Char upgrading tests conducted by AMAX will be described in a separate report.

  7. Development of the Shell-Koppers coal gasification process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, E. V.; van der Burgt, M. J.

    1981-03-01

    The Shell-Koppers process for the gasification of coal under pressure is based on the principles of entrained-bed technology. It is characterized by practically complete gasification of virtually all solid fuels, production of a clean gas without by-products, high throughput, high thermal efficiency, efficient heat recovery, and environmental acceptability. The gas produced is 93 to 98 vol % hydrogen and carbon monoxide and is suitable for the manufacture of hydrogen or reducing gas, and, with further processing, substitute natural gas. It can also be used for the synthesis of ammonia, methanol, and liquid hydrocarbons. The process can be applied as an integral part of a combined-cycle power station featuring both gas and steam turbines, which will yield electricity generation at 42 to 45% efficiency for a wide range of feed coals. A 150 t/day gasifier has been put into operation successfully at Harburg, Germany, achieving a conversion of 99% for hard coal, and units of a capacity up to 2500 t/day are planned for the end of the 1980s.

  8. The BGL coal gasification process -- Applications and status

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, H.S.; Vierrath, H.E.; Johnson, K.S.; Kluttz, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    In 1991 British Gas completed a 15 year program for the development and demonstration of the BGL gasification process for Substitute Natural Gas and power generation. The final two objectives in this program at the Westfield Development Centre of British Gas were to demonstrate the suitability of the BGL gasifier for power generation under utility load requirements using typical UK power station coals and to operate the gasifier at pressures up to 65 bar. The first part of the program was an $18 million joint demonstration with National Power and PowerGen and supported by British Coal, the UK Department of Energy and the European Community which confirmed conclusively in tests spanning 40 days of operation that the full range of available UK power station coals can be gasified at very high efficiency in the BGL Gasifier. The development program then concluded with tests on a new, purpose designed, high pressure gasifier to determine the effect of pressure on gasification performance and operability. The use of the new ABB GT 24/26 gas turbines in BGL IGCC plant is explored and the BGL IGCC project in the US Clean Coal Technology Programme (CCTV) is described briefly.

  9. Designing process wells for an underground coal-gasification environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.S.

    1981-06-01

    Recent large-scale field experiments designed to advance the state of underground coal gasification (UCG) technology have forced the recognition of some critical uncertainties associated with the UCG process. Among the most important of these uncertainties occurs in attempting to define the reaction zone geometry. Batch processing of a flat-lying coal seam between two process wells involves complex flow patterns, any number of separate reaction zones, and interactions with surrounding media. All of these factors have significant impact on the overall efficiency of the UCG process, and all of them in turn are strongly affected by success or failure in maintaining the integrity of the process wells. The reasons why process well integrity is so important are covered here in a review and evaluation of significant data generated from various field tests, including identification of well failure mechanisms. We observe a close relationship between process well behavior and process performance, which leads us to conclude that reliable process well performance is critical in establishing and maintaining control over the UCG process. As a logical extension of this evaluation, we develop design and performance criteria for UCG process wells. Applications to the next generation of field tests are presented in the form of proposed design features for UCG process wells, features intended to prevent the failure modes that have occurred in past field experiments.

  10. Process and technology development activities for in situ coal gasification, FY83

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    As part of DOE's Underground Coal Gasification Program, activities at Sandia National Laboratories have been directed at Process and Technology Development. The project areas include (1) the development of a cornering water jet drill for use in linking vertical wells in Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) tests; (2) the development of a controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) surface geophysical technique for

  11. Innovative concepts for hydrogen production processes based on coal gasification with CO 2 capture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calin-Cristian Cormos; Fred Starr; Evangelos Tzimas; Stathis Peteves

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the technical aspects of innovative hydrogen production concepts based on coal gasification with CO2 capture. More specifically, it focuses on the technical evaluation and the assessment of performance of a number of plant configurations based on standard entrained-flow gasification processes (dry feed and slurry feed types) producing hydrogen at pipeline pressure, which incorporate improvements for increasing hydrogen

  12. Multiphysics modeling of carbon gasification processes in a well-stirred reactor with detailed gas-phase chemistry

    E-print Network

    Qiao, Li

    Multi-physics numerical modeling a b s t r a c t Fuel synthesis through coal and biomass gasification parameters for syngas production, we developed a multiphysics model to simulate the gasification processes

  13. Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained flow gasification for power generation systems. [Zinc titanates

    SciTech Connect

    Leininger, T.F.; Robin, A.; Jung, D.Y.; Kassman, J.S.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Yang, P.P.

    1992-01-01

    To help achieve the goal of clean, low cost power generation from coal, Texaco submitted an unsolicited proposal in July 1986 to develop and demonstrate the integration of high temperature desulfurization with the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). The main goals of the proposed program were: Develop and demonstrate in-situ desulfurization of synthesis gas in an entrained flow gasifier using both air and oxygen gasification. Develop and demonstrate a high efficiency integrated system on a process development unit (PDU) scale which would include coal preparation, gasification, sulfur removal, particle and trace element removal and a gas turbine. In addition, secondary goals were proposed which would help further major research in which DOE/METC was already involved. These were: Test advanced instruments developed by METC for coal conversion processes. Screen alternative high temperature sulfur removal sorbents that could be used external to the gasifier. Development of these sorbents would provide a backup to the in-situ desulfurization approach. Accomplishments to date are presented.

  14. Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained flow gasification for power generation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Leininger, T.F.; Robin, A.; Jung, D.Y.; Kassman, J.S.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Yang, P.P.

    1992-11-01

    To help achieve the goal of clean, low cost power generation from coal, Texaco submitted an unsolicited proposal in July 1986 to develop and demonstrate the integration of high temperature desulfurization with the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). The main goals of the proposed program were: Develop and demonstrate in-situ desulfurization of synthesis gas in an entrained flow gasifier using both air and oxygen gasification. Develop and demonstrate a high efficiency integrated system on a process development unit (PDU) scale which would include coal preparation, gasification, sulfur removal, particle and trace element removal and a gas turbine. In addition, secondary goals were proposed which would help further major research in which DOE/METC was already involved. These were: Test advanced instruments developed by METC for coal conversion processes. Screen alternative high temperature sulfur removal sorbents that could be used external to the gasifier. Development of these sorbents would provide a backup to the in-situ desulfurization approach. Accomplishments to date are presented.

  15. Integration of stripping of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    In an integrated fluid coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a wet scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped to remove acidic gases, the stripped vapors of the stripping zone are sent to the gas cleanup stage of the gasification product gas. The improved stripping integration is particularly useful in the combination coal liquefaction process, fluid coking of bottoms of the coal liquefaction zone and gasification of the product coke.

  16. Instrumentation for optimizing an underground coal-gasification process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabaugh, W.; Zielinski, R. E.

    1982-06-01

    While the United States has a coal resource base of 6.4 trillion tons, only seven percent is presently recoverable by mining. The process of in-situ gasification can recover another twenty-eight percent of the vast resource, however, viable technology must be developed for effective in-situ recovery. The key to this technology is system that can optimize and control the process in real-time. An instrumentation system is described that optimizes the composition of the injection gas, controls the in-situ process and conditions the product gas for maximum utilization. The key elements of this system are Monsanto PRISM Systems, a real-time analytical system, and a real-time data acquisition and control system. This system provides from complete automation of the process but can easily be overridden by manual control. The use of this cost effective system can provide process optimization and is an effective element in developing a viable in-situ technology.

  17. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report is a final brief summary of development of a mild-gasification and char conversion process. Morgantown Energy Technology Center developed a concept called mild gasification. In this concept, devolatilization of coal under nonoxidizing and relatively mild temperature and pressure conditions can yield three marketable products: (1) a high-heating-value gas, (2) a high-aromatic coal liquid, and (3) a high-carbon char. The objective of this program is to develop an advanced, continuous, mild-gasification process to produce products that will make the concept economically and environmentally viable. (VC)

  18. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report is a final brief summary of development of a mild-gasification and char conversion process. Morgantown Energy Technology Center developed a concept called mild gasification. In this concept, devolatilization of coal under nonoxidizing and relatively mild temperature and pressure conditions can yield three marketable products: (1) a high-heating-value gas, (2) a high-aromatic coal liquid, and (3) a high-carbon char. The objective of this program is to develop an advanced, continuous, mild-gasification process to produce products that will make the concept economically and environmentally viable. (VC)

  19. Methodology for technology evaluation under uncertainty and its application in advanced coal gasification processes

    E-print Network

    Gong, Bo, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has attracted interest as a cleaner alternative to conventional coal-fired power generation processes. While a number of pilot projects have been launched to ...

  20. Process and technology development activities for in-situ coal gasification, FY 82

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    As part of DOE's Underground Coal-Gasification program, activities at Sandia National Laboratories have been directed at Process and Technology Development. The project areas include (1) the development of a cornering water-jet drill for use in linking vertical wells in Underground Coal-Gasification (UCG) tests; (2) the development of a controlled-source audiofrequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) surface geophysical technique for monitoring the process, and

  1. Diatomaceous Earth Project put on standby by Texaco

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Texaco has placed its Diatomite Project, located at McKittrick in California's Kern County, in a standby condition. The Project will be reactivated when conditions in the industry dictate. Texaco stressed that the Project is not being abandoned, but is being put on hold due to the current worldwide energy supply picture. The Lurgi pilot unit is being maintained in condition for future operations. Texaco estimates that the Project could yield in excess of 300 million barrels of 21 to 23 API oil from the oil-bearing diatomite deposits which lie at depths up to 1200 feet. The deposits will be recovered by open pit mining and back filling techniques.

  2. Low/medium Btu coal-gasification assessment program for potential users in New Jersey. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, J. [BRISC; Schavlan, S. [BRISC; Ku, W. S. [PSE& G; Piascik, T. M. [PSE& G; Hynds, J. A. [PSE& G; West, A. [SDC

    1981-01-01

    In order to evaluate the potential for coal utilization, a preliminary technical and economic assessment of district coal gasification in New Jersey was conducted. This evaluation addressed the possibility of installing a coal gasification plant to use a high sulfur eastern coal to produce a medium Btu content gas (MBG) having a heating value of approximately 300 Btu/SCF. In addition, the work also appraised the regulatory, environmental and marketing, and financial considerations of such a facility. The preliminary study evaluation has manifested an overall technical and economic feasibility for producing a medium Btu quality gas (MBG) from coal at PSE and G's Sewaren Generating Station in New Jersey. The production of MBG for use in on-site power plant boilers or for distribution to industrial customers appears to be economically attractive. The economic attractiveness of MBG is very dependent on the location of sufficient numbers of industrial customers near the gasification facilities and on high utilization of the gasification plant. The Sewaren Generating Station was identified as potentially the most suitable site for a gasification plant. The Texaco Coal Gasification Process was selected as the gasifier type due to a combination of efficiency and pilot plant experience. It is projected that a nominal 2000 tons-per-day coal gasification plant would supply supplemental utility boiler fuel, fuel grade methanol and some by-products.

  3. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. W. Merriam; M. C. Jha

    1991-01-01

    This report is a final brief summary of development of a mild-gasification and char conversion process. Morgantown Energy Technology Center developed a concept called mild gasification. In this concept, devolatilization of coal under nonoxidizing and relatively mild temperature and pressure conditions can yield three marketable products: (1) a high-heating-value gas, (2) a high-aromatic coal liquid, and (3) a high-carbon char.

  4. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  5. A thermocatalytic process for the gasification of high-moisture food processing wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Butner; E. G. Baker; D. C. Elliott; L. J. Sealock; N. G. Banns

    1988-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a thermocatalytic gasification system that converts high-moisture organic solid wastes to a medium-Btu (450 to 550 Btu\\/scf) fuel gas. High-COD liquid wastes can also be treated but may require the use of supplemental fuel. A 1-liter batch reactor has been used to gasify a number of food processing wastes, including fruit pomace, potato peeling

  6. Process for the fluid bed gasification of agglomerating coals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Wilson; W. N. Mitchell; H. E. von Rosenberg

    1976-01-01

    Feed coal particles are mixed with fine particles of devolatilized carbonaceous material having an average particle diameter less than about 25 percent of that of the coal and then injected into a high temperature fluidized bed gasification zone. The devolatilized material adheres to the coal particles as they soften and forms a nonsticky coating which hinders the formation of large

  7. Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, A H; Knight, R A; Anderson, G L; Feldkirchner, H L; Babu, S P

    1986-10-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has conducted a fundamental research program to determine the technical feasibility of and to prepare preliminary process evaluations for two new approaches to coal gasification. These two concepts were assessed under two major project tasks: Task 1. CO/sub 2/-Coal Gasification Process Concept; Task 2. Internal Recirculation Catalysts Coal Gasification Process Concept. The first process concept involves CO/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ gasification of coal followed by CO/sub 2/ removal from the hot product gas by a solid MgO-containing sorbent. The sorbent is regenerated by either a thermal- or a pressure-swing step and the CO/sub 2/ released is recycled back to the gasifier. The product is a medium-Btu gas. The second process concept involves the use of novel ''semivolatile'' materials as internal recirculating catalysts for coal gasification. These materials remain in the gasifier because their vapor pressure-temperature behavior is such that they will be in the vapor state at the hotter, char exit part of the reactor and will condense in the colder, coal-inlet part of the reactor. 21 refs., 43 figs., 43 tabs.

  8. Design of a wastewater plant for a 200-ton/day coal gasification pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, R.L.; Brown, J.

    1982-01-01

    The TVA Ammonia from Coal Project consists of retrofitting a 200-ton/day coal gasification and gas purification facility on the front end of an existing small, modern natural gas-steam reforming ammonia plant located at the National Fertilizer Development Center, in Muscle Shoals, AL. The main objective is to provide technical and economic information to the US fertilizer industry for the substitution of coal for natural gas as a feedstock for producing ammonia. The coal gasification unit is based on the Texaco partial oxidation process. The total plant cost is estimated to be about $43.2 million, of which 10.1% of the cost (about $4.3 million) is for the wastewater plant. the TVA Ammonia from Coal Project contains developmental and first-time-out design features, therefore these costs should not be used to determine the costs of commercial plants. Data are presented on the design conditions for the facility.

  9. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of food processing wastes. 1995 topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.

    1996-08-01

    The catalytic gasification system described in this report has undergone continuing development and refining work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for over 16 years. The original experiments, performed for the Gas Research Institute, were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous stirred-tank reactor tests provided useful design information for evaluating the preliminary economics of the process. This report is a follow-on to previous interim reports which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with batch and continuous-feed reactor systems from 1989 to 1994, including much work with food processing wastes. The discussion here provides details of experiments on food processing waste feedstock materials, exclusively, that were conducted in batch and continuous- flow reactors.

  10. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process

    DOEpatents

    Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

    1984-12-04

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  11. The study of reactions influencing the biomass steam gasification process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Franco; F Pinto; I Gulyurtlu; I Cabrita

    2003-01-01

    Steam gasification studies were carried out in an atmospheric fluidised bed. The gasifier was operated over a temperature range of 700–900°C whilst varying a steam\\/biomass ratio from 0.4 to 0.85w\\/w. Three types of forestry biomass were studied: Pinus pinaster (softwood), Eucalyptus globulus and holm-oak (hardwood). The energy conversion, gas composition, higher heating value and gas yields were determined and correlated

  12. IN-PROCESS CONTROL OF NITROGEN AND SULFUR IN ENTRAINED-BED GASIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of theoretical aspects and engineering considerations of in-process pollutant control of the entrained-bed slagging coal gasification process, as applied to combined cycle operation or to the retrofit of existing boilers. The pollutants o...

  13. Modeling the underground coal gasification process: part II--water influx

    SciTech Connect

    Krantz, W.B.; Gunn, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Water influx plays a pivotal role in the underground coal gasification (UCG) process. The natural water influx is an inherent advantage of the UCG process since it promotes the steam/char gasification reaction without the need for injection of high quality surface water. However, the vaporization of excessive water influx robs heat needed to promote the endothermic gasification reactions. Water-influx modeling studies seek to identify the principal mechanisms responsible for water influx, to predict the instantaneous water influx, to prescribe laboratory methods for characterizing the water influx properties of a UCG site, and to suggest operating strategies whereby the adverse effects of excessive water influx can be minimized. This paper then reviews the state-of-the-art in water-influx modeling studies.

  14. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.A.; Wright, R.E.; Im, C.J.; Henkelman, M.R.; O`Neal, G.W.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a continuous mild gasification process to convert highly caking coals to coal liquids, char and coke for near term commercial application. Task 3, Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study, has been underway since September 1989. In char upgrading studies, ``green`` uncured char briquettes have been prepared and calcined in 20-pound batches to evaluate the effects of char, binders, and heating conditions on final coke properties. A total of 150. formulations have been tested thus far in this work. Work on Task 4, Process Development Unit (PDU) Mild Gasification Study, has been in progress since February 1991, with the completion of a Continuous Mild Gasification Unit (CMGU) with a design rate of 1000 lb./hr. Since start-up of the CMGU, there have been 72 runs with a variety of operating conditions and coal types.

  15. Scaleup of mild gasification to a process development unit. [MILDGAS Process

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Mead, J.; Foster, H.

    1992-01-01

    The overall objectives of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. During the first ten months of this project. the NEPA Application for construction and operation of the PDU facility at the SIUC site was written and submitted for approval. In addition, the process design for the PDU was completed, bid packages for the PDU modules were prepared and sent to a slate of prospective bidders, and bids were received from the participating bidders.

  16. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Kang, T.W.; Vaillancourt, M.B.

    1990-12-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) teamed with the AMAX Research and Development Center and Riley Stoker Corporation on Development of an Advanced, Continuous Mild-Gasification Process for the Production of Coproducts under contract DE-AC21-87MC24268 with the Morgantown Energy Technology of the US Department of Energy. The strategy for this project is to produce electrode binder pitch and diesel fuel blending stock by mild gasification of Wyodak coal. The char is upgraded to produce anode-grade carbon, carbon black, and activated carbon. This report describes results of mild-gasification tests conducted by WRI. Char upgrading tests conducted by AMAX will be described in a separate report.

  17. The effects of gas-turbine characteristics on integrated gasification combined-cycle power-plant performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnson

    1990-01-01

    This study examines how gas turbine specifications affect the performance of Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power plants. Three gas turbines characterized as current, advanced, and future technology machines (with turbine firing temperatures of 1985 F, 2300 F, and 2500 F, respectively) were simulated in computer models of IGCC plants based on Texaco coal gasification technology. A gas turbine modeling procedure

  18. Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production from Biomass via Pyrolysis and Gasification Processes and Effects of Catalyst on Hydrogen Yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Balat

    2008-01-01

    The main objective in doing the present study is to investigate hydrogen production from biomass via pyrolysis and gasification. Hydrogen is currently derived from nonrenewable natural gas and petroleum but could in principle be generated from renewable resources such as biomass. It can be produced from biomass via two thermochemical processes: (1) gasification followed by reforming of the syngas, and

  19. Corrosion and degradation of test materials in the Westinghouse 15 ton\\/day Coal Gasification Process Development Unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yurkewycz

    1985-01-01

    Two periods of in-plant exposures of candidate materials in the Westinghouse PDU have been completed. Coupons were exposed in the gasifier, hot-gas cyclone, quench scrubber, and gas cooler vessels. Corrosion monitoring of test materials is currently being conducted in the Westinghouse Coal Gasification Process Development Unit (PDU) coal gasification pilot plant. The corrosion data presented are from work during 1981

  20. Improving process performances in coal gasification for power and synfuel production

    SciTech Connect

    M. Sudiro; A. Bertucco; F. Ruggeri; M. Fontana [University of Padova, Milan (Italy). Italy and Foster Wheeler Italiana Spa

    2008-11-15

    This paper is aimed at developing process alternatives of conventional coal gasification. A number of possibilities are presented, simulated, and discussed in order to improve the process performances, to avoid the use of pure oxygen, and to reduce the overall CO{sub 2} emissions. The different process configurations considered include both power production, by means of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant, and synfuel production, by means of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The basic idea is to thermally couple a gasifier, fed with coal and steam, and a combustor where coal is burnt with air, thus overcoming the need of expensive pure oxygen as a feedstock. As a result, no or little nitrogen is present in the syngas produced by the gasifier; the required heat is transferred by using an inert solid as the carrier, which is circulated between the two modules. First, a thermodynamic study of the dual-bed gasification is carried out. Then a dual-bed gasification process is simulated by Aspen Plus, and the efficiency and overall CO{sub 2} emissions of the process are calculated and compared with a conventional gasification with oxygen. Eventually, the scheme with two reactors (gasifier-combustor) is coupled with an IGCC process. The simulation of this plant is compared with that of a conventional IGCC, where the gasifier is fed by high purity oxygen. According to the newly proposed configuration, the global plant efficiency increases by 27.9% and the CO{sub 2} emissions decrease by 21.8%, with respect to the performances of a conventional IGCC process. 29 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Process for desulfurization of gases with molten mineral baths during gasification of carbon products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kunicki; M. Roussel

    1985-01-01

    A process for desulfurization of gases with molten mineral baths during gasification of carbon products comprises the replacement of limestone or calcomagnesium materials by metallurgical slags, such as blast-furnace or steel-furnace slags, having a high basicity index. By means of this replacement, substantial savings in material and energy are achieved. Moreover, the use of residual slags for production of mineral

  2. CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID BED PROCESS FOR SULPHUR REMOVAL DURING GASIFICATION OF CARBONACEOUS FUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report covers the final 3 years of a 9-year program to evaluate the Chemically Active Fluid Bed (CAFB) process for gasification and desulfurization of liquid and solid fuels in a fluidized bed of hot lime. A range of alternative fuels, including three coals and a lignite, wer...

  3. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Tasks 2, 3, and 4. 1 to 4. 6), Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Volume 2 contains information on the following topics: (1) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (2) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (3) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. (VC)

  4. Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

    1981-01-01

    In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

  5. Absolute diode laser-based in situ detection of HCl in gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortwein, P.; Woiwode, W.; Fleck, S.; Eberhard, M.; Kolb, T.; Wagner, S.; Gisi, M.; Ebert, V.

    2010-10-01

    The release of HCl is an important parameter for industrial combustion and gasification processes, which must be determined in the ppm range for active process control and optimization. Based on a low power vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) at 1.74 ?m, we developed a new tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometer for calibration-free, absolute in situ HCl detection using the H35Cl (2 ? 0) R(3) absorption line with minimized cross-sensitivity to CO2 and H2O. The spectrometer was applied to in situ measurements in a gasification process ( T = 1,130°C, P = 1 atm, L = 28 cm) and yielded an optical resolution of 2.3·10-4, i.e. a HCl sensitivity of 45 ppm (13 ppm·m).

  6. Release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during biomass pyrolysis and steam gasification process.

    PubMed

    Long, Jiang; Song, Hu; Jun, Xiang; Sheng, Su; Lun-Shi, Sun; Kai, Xu; Yao, Yao

    2012-07-01

    Investigating the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs) is of potential interest because of AAEM's possible useful service as catalysts in biomass thermal conversion. In this study, three kinds of typical Chinese biomass were selected to pyrolyse and their chars were subsequently steam gasified in a designed quartz fixed-bed reactor to investigate the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs). The results indicate that 53-76% of alkali metal and 27-40% of alkaline earth metal release in pyrolysis process, as well as 12-34% of alkali metal and 12-16% of alkaline earth metal evaporate in char gasification process, and temperature is not the only factor to impact AAEMs emission. The releasing characteristics of AAEMs during pyrolysis and char gasification process of three kinds of biomass were discussed in this paper. PMID:22525260

  7. Differences in gasification behaviors and related properties between entrained gasifier fly ash and coal char

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Gu; Shiyong Wu; Youqing Wu; Ye Li; Jinsheng Gao [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources and Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education

    2008-11-15

    In the study, two fly ash samples from Texaco gasifiers were compared to coal char and the physical and chemical properties and reactivity of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption method, and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The main results were obtained. The carbon content of gasified fly ashes exhibited 31-37%, which was less than the carbon content of 58-59% in the feed coal. The fly ashes exhibited higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, richer meso- and micropores, more disordered carbon crystalline structure, and better CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity than coal char. Ashes in fly ashes occurred to agglomerate into larger spherical grains, while those in coal char do not agglomerate. The minerals in fly ashes, especial alkali and alkaline-earth metals, had a catalytic effect on gasification reactivity of fly ash carbon. In the low-temperature range, the gasification process of fly ashes is mainly in chemical control, while in the high-temperature range, it is mainly in gas diffusion control, which was similar to coal char. In addition, the carbon in fly ashes was partially gasified and activated by water vapor and exhibited higher BET surface area and better gasification activity. Consequently, the fact that these carbons in fly ashes from entrained flow gasifiers are reclaimed and reused will be considered to be feasible. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Underground coal gasification of steeply dipping coal beds; a second generation synthetic fuels process

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.E.; Ahner, P.F.; Singelton, A.H.

    1982-08-01

    In situ gasification of steeply dipping coal beds (UCG-SDB) has significant advantages over the more conventional horizontal UCG. In fact, the UCG-SDB process appears to be both technically and operationally competitive with surface gasifiers. The results of the Rawlins UCG-SDB field test program suggest that the process can compete with more conventional sources of synthesis gas on an economic basis. The SDB process mechanism has several advantages over the horizontal process and performs in a fashion similar to surface packedbed reactors. The oxygen requirements for the process are quite low and the degree of process control observed at Rawlins is very attractive.

  9. Underground coal gasification of steeply dipping beds: A second generation synthetic fuels process

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.E.; Ahner, P.F.

    1982-09-01

    In-situ gasification of steeply dipping coal beds (UCG-SDB) has significant advantages over the more conventional horizontal UCG. In fact, the UCG-SDB process appears to be both technically and operationally competitive with surface gasifiers. The results of the Rawlins UCG-SDB field test program suggest that the process can compete with more conventional sources of synthesis gas on an economic basis. The SDB process mechanism has several advantages over the horizontal process and performs in a fashion similar to surface packed bed reactors. The oxygen requirements for the process are quite low and the degree of process control observed at Rawlins is very attractive.

  10. Hydrogen production by gasification of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R. III

    1994-05-20

    As fossil fuel reserves run lower and lower, and as their continued widespread use leads toward numerous environmental problems, the need for clean and sustainable energy alternatives becomes ever clearer. Hydrogen fuel holds promise as such as energy source, as it burns cleanly and can be extracted from a number of renewable materials such as municipal solid waste (MSW), which can be considered largely renewable because of its high content of paper and biomass-derived products. A computer model is being developed using ASPEN Plus flow sheeting software to simulate a process which produces hydrogen gas from MSW; the model will later be used in studying the economics of this process and is based on an actual Texaco coal gasification plant design. This paper gives an overview of the complete MSW gasification process, and describes in detail the way in which MSW is modeled by the computer as a process material. In addition, details of the gasifier unit model are described; in this unit modified MSW reacts under pressure with oxygen and steam to form a mixture of gases which include hydrogen.

  11. Solvent extraction process development and on-site trial-plant for phenol removal from industrial coal-gasification wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chufen Yang; Yu Qian; Lijuan Zhang; Jianzhong Feng

    2006-01-01

    A phenol removal process was developed for the coal-gasification wastewater. Based on extraction principles and experimental results, an extracting solvent was selected in consideration of phenol removal, solvent recovery and COD removal for the coal-gasification wastewater. The extraction process conditions were studied, and a flowsheet for phenol removal was proposed. An on-site trial-plant of 2t\\/h wastewater was set up for

  12. Development of mild gasification process. Quarterly report, July--September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

    1987-11-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  13. Instrumentation and process control development for in situ coal gasification. Quarterly report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.E. (ed.)

    1980-10-01

    This report discusses the results of modeling efforts by Sandia National Laboratories in in-situ coal gasification. The main areas addressed are (1) flow characteristics and (2) initial cavity growth. The flow characteristics problem has been addressed using both a single phase finite element model and a two phase finite difference model. The initial cavity growth problem has been addressed using a finite element structural model. These models are useful for providing insight into the processes and for determining the characteristics needed to insure successful in-situ coal gasification. Also to be discussed is the development of the controlled source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT) electromagnetic geophysical prospecting technique. This technique is being evaluated for use in mapping in-situ processes. The application discussed is the LETC tar sands project near Vernal, Utah.

  14. Process and technology development activities for in-situ coal gasification, FY 82

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.E. (ed.)

    1983-04-01

    As part of DOE's Underground Coal-Gasification program, activities at Sandia National Laboratories have been directed at Process and Technology Development. The project areas include (1) the development of a cornering water-jet drill for use in linking vertical wells in Underground Coal-Gasification (UCG) tests; (2) the development of a controlled-source audiofrequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) surface geophysical technique for monitoring the process, and (3) the development of models for use in predicting the growth of the cavity. The accomplishments for the year include (1) the successful completion of the first phase of testing for the cornering water-jet drill, (2) the mapping of underground coal-mine fires and the Hanna II and Rawlins T-2 UCG test sites using the controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric technique, and (3) the completion of a thermomechanical cavity-growth model.

  15. Process for gasification using a synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor

    DOEpatents

    Lancet, Michael S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Curran, George P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1980-01-01

    A gasification process is disclosed using a synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor consisting essentially of at least one compound selected from the group consisting of calcium oxide and calcium carbonate supported in a refractory carrier matrix, the carrier having the general formula Ca.sub.5 (SiO.sub.4).sub.2 CO.sub.3. A method for producing the synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor is also disclosed.

  16. Fluid bed gasification – Plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: Experimental assessment of sulphur species

    SciTech Connect

    Morrin, Shane, E-mail: shane.morrin@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Lettieri, Paola, E-mail: p.lettieri@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Chapman, Chris, E-mail: chris.chapman@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Taylor, Richard, E-mail: richard.taylor@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • We investigate gaseous sulphur species whilst gasifying sulphur-enriched wood pellets. • Experiments performed using a two stage fluid bed gasifier – plasma converter process. • Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels were identified. • Oxygen-rich regions of the bed are believed to facilitate SO{sub 2}, with a delayed release. • Gas phase reducing regions above the bed would facilitate more prompt COS generation. - Abstract: Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO{sub 2}’s generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO{sub 2} was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO{sub 2} generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS – hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling.

  17. A thermocatalytic process for the gasification of high-moisture food processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, R.S.; Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J.; Banns, N.G.

    1988-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a thermocatalytic gasification system that converts high-moisture organic solid wastes to a medium-Btu (450 to 550 Btu/scf) fuel gas. High-COD liquid wastes can also be treated but may require the use of supplemental fuel. A 1-liter batch reactor has been used to gasify a number of food processing wastes, including fruit pomace, potato peeling sludge, cheese whey, and brewer's spent grain. The waste is gasified in the presence of a nickel catalyst at 350/degree/C to 400/degree/C and 2000 to 4000 psig. Carbon conversion to gas is typically 90 to 95 wt% after 15 to 30 min. Methane yields of up to 6.3 scf/dry pound of spent grain have been obtained, with the methane content of the raw gas ranging from 45 vol% to 55 vol%. Data obtained from the batch reactor studies indicate that the process is a net energy produced for most organic waste streams containing more than 2 wt% solids. The PNL process is currently being tested in a continuous reactor system designed to obtain reactor engineering and design data which will be required for process scaleup. Results from both the batch and continuous reactor systems are presented in this paper. Plans for a pilot-scale demonstration facility are also discussed. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Mathematical modelling of some chemical and physical processes in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Creighton, J. R.

    1981-08-01

    Underground coal gasification normally involves two vertical wells which must be linked by a channel having low resistance to gas flow. There are several ways of establishing such linkage, but all leave a relatively open horizontal hole with a diameter on the order of a meter. To increase our understanding of the chemical and physical processes governing underground coal gasification LLNL has been conducting laboratory scale experiments accompanied by mathematical modelling. Blocks of selected coal types are cut to fit 55 gallon oil drums and sealed in place with plaster. A 1 cm. diameter hole is drilled the length of the block and plumbing attached to provide a flow of air or oxygen/steam mixture. After an instrumented burn the block is sawed open to examine the cavity. Mathematical modelling has been directed towards predicting the cavity shape. This paper describes some sub-models and examines their impact on predicted cavity shapes.

  19. Evaluation of a Combined Cyclone and Gas Filtration System for Particulate Removal in the Gasification Process

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Jeffrey J. [Phillips66 Company, West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    2010-04-30

    The Wabash gasification facility, owned and operated by sgSolutions LLC, is one of the largest single train solid fuel gasification facilities in the world capable of transforming 2,000 tons per day of petroleum coke or 2,600 tons per day of bituminous coal into synthetic gas for electrical power generation. The Wabash plant utilizes Phillips66 proprietary E-Gas (TM) Gasification Process to convert solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal into synthetic gas that is fed to a combined cycle combustion turbine power generation facility. During plant startup in 1995, reliability issues were realized in the gas filtration portion of the gasification process. To address these issues, a slipstream test unit was constructed at the Wabash facility to test various filter designs, materials and process conditions for potential reliability improvement. The char filtration slipstream unit provided a way of testing new materials, maintenance procedures, and process changes without the risk of stopping commercial production in the facility. It also greatly reduced maintenance expenditures associated with full scale testing in the commercial plant. This char filtration slipstream unit was installed with assistance from the United States Department of Energy (built under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-97FT34158) and began initial testing in November of 1997. It has proven to be extremely beneficial in the advancement of the E-Gas (TM) char removal technology by accurately predicting filter behavior and potential failure mechanisms that would occur in the commercial process. After completing four (4) years of testing various filter types and configurations on numerous gasification feed stocks, a decision was made to investigate the economic and reliability effects of using a particulate removal gas cyclone upstream of the current gas filtration unit. A paper study had indicated that there was a real potential to lower both installed capital and operating costs by implementing a char cyclonefiltration hybrid unit in the E-Gas (TM) gasification process. These reductions would help to keep the E-Gas (TM) technology competitive among other coal-fired power generation technologies. The Wabash combined cyclone and gas filtration slipstream test program was developed to provide design information, equipment specification and process control parameters of a hybrid cyclone and candle filter particulate removal system in the E-Gas (TM) gasification process that would provide the optimum performance and reliability for future commercial use. The test program objectives were as follows: 1. Evaluate the use of various cyclone materials of construction; 2. Establish the optimal cyclone efficiency that provides stable long term gas filter operation; 3. Determine the particle size distribution of the char separated by both the cyclone and candle filters. This will provide insight into cyclone efficiency and potential future plant design; 4. Determine the optimum filter media size requirements for the cyclone-filtration hybrid unit; 5. Determine the appropriate char transfer rates for both the cyclone and filtration portions of the hybrid unit; 6. Develop operating procedures for the cyclone-filtration hybrid unit; and, 7. Compare the installed capital cost of a scaled-up commercial cyclone-filtration hybrid unit to the current gas filtration design without a cyclone unit, such as currently exists at the Wabash facility.

  20. Physical and numerical modeling results for controlling groundwater contaminants following shutdown of underground coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Boysen, J.E.; Mones, C.G.; Glaser, R.R.; Sullivan, S.

    1987-03-01

    Groundwater contamination has resulted from some of in-situ gasification field tests, and concern over groundwater contamination may hamper commercialization. When UCG recovery operations are terminated, energy remains stored as heat in the adjacent masses of rock and coal ash, and this energy is transferred into the coal seam. Coal continues to pyrolyze as a result of the transferred energy; the products of this coal pyrolysis are a source of groundwater contamination resulting from UCG. A laboratory simulator was developed, and six simulations of UCG postburn coal pyrolysis have been completed. The simulations show that the products of coal pyrolysis are the source of most contaminants associated with UCG operations. Injection of water directly into the UCG cavity can limit postburn coal pyrolysis and reduce the production of contaminants by cooling the masses of rubble and coal ash in the cavity. Water flow through the coal towards the cavity also limits postburn pyrolysis and subsequent contaminant generation; however, steam produced in the heated portions of the coal limits the rate of water flow. Simulation results indicate that UCG field tests should be operated so that the flow of pyrolysis liquids and gases into the formation is prevented and that the natural influx of water into the cavity is allowed. This can be accomplished by minimizing gas leakage to the formation during gasification, venting the cavity after the gasification process is complete, and maintaining low postburn cavity pressures. 11 refs., 17 figs., 17 tabs.

  1. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-04-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

  2. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  3. Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Foster, H.

    1992-06-01

    The work performed during the second quarterly reporting period (February 21 through May 20, 1992) on the research program, Scale-Up of Mild Gasification to a Process Development Unit'' is presented in this report. The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: (1) design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup. (2) obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation. (3) prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit. (4) develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300[degrees]F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The PDU to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of char, coal liquids, and gases; a thermal cracker for upgrading of the coal liquids; and a hot briquetting unit for the production of form coke and smokeless fuel briquettes. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste.

  4. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, January 1994--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, G.W.

    1994-04-01

    The primary objective of this project is to develop an advanced continuous mild gasification process and product upgrading processes which will be capable of eventual commercialization. This program consists of four tasks. Task 1 is a literature survey of mild gasification processes and product upgrading methods and also a market assessment for mild gasification products. Based on the literature survey, a mild gasification process and char upgrading method will be identified for further development. Task 2 is a bench-scale investigation of mild gasification to generate data for a larger scale reactor. Task 3 is a bench-scale study of char upgrading to value added products. Task 4 is being implemented by building and operating a 1000-pound per hour demonstration facility. Task 4 also includes a technical and economic evaluation based on the performance of the mild gasification demonstration facility.

  5. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 2. Commercial plant study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit (PDU). This process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of the salt. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  6. Instrumentation for optimizing an underground-coal-gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, R.E.; Seabaugh, P.W.; Agarwal, A.K.

    1982-01-01

    The instrumentation and algorithms utilized for the Pricetown field test were proven to be effective. Since these were of modular design, they are directly applicable to a multi-module commercial UCG process. The further development of the global formalism used for the Pricetown field test can be accomplished is such a way as to allow for maximum and efficient control of the commercial UCG process. The UCG process, itself, produces a range of products that can be directly used or upgraded; however, proven instrumentation and control algorithms are required for maximum utilization of the coal resource and economic and efficient processing of the product. The instrumentation and control algorithms utilized at Pricetown can be effectively upgraded to support a commercial operation.

  7. Instrumentation for optimizing an underground coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, R.E.; Seabaugh, P.W.; Agarwal, A.K.

    1982-09-01

    The instrumentation and algorithms utilized for the Pricetown field test were proven to be effective. Since these were of modular design, they are directly applicable to a multi-module commercial UCG process. The further development of the global formalism used for the Pricetown field test can be accomplished in such a way as to allow for maximum and efficient control of the commerical UCG process. The UCG process, itself, produces a range of products that can be directly used or upgraded, however, proven instrumentation and control algorithms are required for maximum utilization of the coal resource and economic and efficient processing of the product. The instrumentation and control algorithms utilized at Pricetown can be effectively upgraded to support a commercial operation.

  8. Instrumentation and process control development for in situ coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Love

    1981-01-01

    This report describes (1) the results of calculations made to determine the influence of various permeability structures on reverse combustion linkage for UCG, and (2) the results of heavy oil fireflood mapping by the Controlled Source Audio Magnetotelluric (CSAMT) method proposed for UCG process mapping. A two-phase, two-dimension reservoir model called RESEV was used for the permeability effects work; the

  9. Coal gasification: molten salt processes for sulfur emission control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glueck

    1973-01-01

    Two molten salt desulfurization processes are illustrated. ; Precombustion desulfurization of coal takes place in a single vessel. Pulverized ; coal, slurried with molten salt, is allowed to react with a melt that contains an ; agent with an affinity for the sulfurous compounds. The coal collects at the ; top, being less dense than the melt, and is drawn

  10. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)

    SciTech Connect

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.

    1994-10-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification (MicGAS) Process. The objectives of the research during FY 1993--94 were to: (1) enhance kinetics of methane production (biogasification, biomethanation) from Texas lignite (TxL) by the Mic-1 consortium isolated and developed at ARCTECH, (2) increase coal solids loading, (3) optimize medium composition, and (4) reduce retention time. A closer analysis of the results described here indicate that biomethanation of TxL at >5% solids loading is feasible through appropriate development of nutrient medium and further adaptation of the microorganisms involved in this process. Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably. Results are discussed on the following: products of biomethanation and enhance of methane production including: bacterial adaptation; effect of nutrient amendment substitutes; effects of solids loading; effect of initial pH of the culture medium; effect of hydrogen donors and carbon balance.

  11. Simulation and Life Cycle Assessment of Algae Gasification Process in Dual Fluidized Bed Gasifiers

    E-print Network

    Azadi, Pooya; Brownbridge, George; Mosbach, Sebastian; Inderwildi, Oliver; Kraft, Markus

    2015-01-01

    - tain parts of these studies, such as the analysis of the GHG emission associated with algae cultivation and dewatering, are also applicable to the LCA of algal syngas production. Due to its relatively high technology readiness level, the conversion... cc ep te d M an us cr ip t .algae pond gasification net syngas thermal drying 1 2 3 he at & po w er ge n er at io n dewatering solar drying (a) Process flow diagram. 0 5 10 15 20 25 20 30 40 20 30 40 20 30 40 N et sy n ga s pr od...

  12. Gasification. 2nd. ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Higman; Maarten van der Burgt [Lurgi Oel Gas Chemie (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    This book covers gasification as a comprehensive topic, covering its many uses, from refining, to natural gas, to coal. It provides an overview of commercial processes and covers applications relevant to today's demands. The new edition is expanded and provides more detail on the integration issues for current generation, state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC); CO{sub 2} capture in the IGCC context addressing the issues of pre-investment and retrofitting as well as defining what the term 'CO{sub 2} capture ready' might mean in practice; issues of plant reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) including as evaluation of feedback from existing plants; implementation of fuel cell technology in IGCC concepts. Contents are: Introduction; The Thermodynamics of Gasification; The Kinetics of Gasification and Reactor Theory; Feedstocks and Feedstock Characteristics; Gasification Processes; Practical Issues; Applications; Auxiliary Technologies; Economics, environmental, and Safety Issues; Gasification and the Future. 5 apps.

  13. Instrumentation and process control development for in situ coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Love, S.L. (ed.)

    1981-03-01

    This report describes (1) the results of calculations made to determine the influence of various permeability structures on reverse combustion linkage for UCG, and (2) the results of heavy oil fireflood mapping by the Controlled Source Audio Magnetotelluric (CSAMT) method proposed for UCG process mapping. A two-phase, two-dimension reservoir model called RESEV was used for the permeability effects work; the results indicate that high permeability horizontal zones, well completion and separation, and orthotropic permeability all have significant influence on the success of reverse combustion linkage. Specific conclusions are made which emphasize the need for careful site characterization and for proper well completions. Regarding the second activity, CSAMT-derived resistivity maps provided good descriptions of the progress of the fireflood, which is being conducted by BETC near Bartlette, KS. The combustion front apparently did not proceed in a uniform, radial manner.

  14. Biological treatment of Grand Forks Energy Technology Center slagging fixed-bed coal gasification process wastewater. Eleventh quarterly report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Luthy; D. J. Sekel; J. T. Tallon

    1979-01-01

    A wastewater biological treatability study was performed with effluent from the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center slagging fixed-bed coal gasification process. Bench-scale air activated sludge reactors were used to determine minimum dilution requirements, maximum acceptable loadings, biological treatment kinetic coefficients, and other performance characteristics. It was found that ammonia stripped wastewater could be processed reliably at 33% strength at substrate

  15. CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID-BED PROCESS FOR SULPHUR REMOVAL DURING GASIFICATION OF HEAVY FUEL OIL - THIRD PHASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the third phase of studies on the CAFB process for desulfurization/gasification of heavy fuel oil in a bed of hot lime. Major conclusions relating to process performance and operability are: (1) water, either in the fuel or in the fluidizing air, has a strong...

  16. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA); Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA); Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  17. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA); Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA); Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  18. Process and technology development activities for in situ coal gasification, FY83

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.E. (ed.)

    1983-12-01

    As part of DOE's Underground Coal Gasification Program, activities at Sandia National Laboratories have been directed at Process and Technology Development. The project areas include (1) the development of a cornering water jet drill for use in linking vertical wells in Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) tests; (2) the development of a controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) surface geophysical technique for monitoring the process, and (3) the development of models for use in predicting surface subsidence and cavity growth. The accomplishments for the year include (1) the successful completion of the high wall tests of the cornering water jet drill, (2) the start of the down hole tests including completion of the vertical hole and underreamed volume, testing of the sump pump and initial drilling to a hole length of three meters, (3) the preliminary CSAMT survey of the Tono partial seam controlled reacting injection point (CRIP) test area, (4) the development of a data acquisition and analysis system for the CSAMT technique, (5) the development of a predictive model for subsidence and cavity growth and their application to the partial seam CRIP test.

  19. Comparison of intergrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants with current and advanced gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Banda, B.M.; Evans, T.F.; McCone, A.I.; Westisik, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    Two recent conceptual design studies examined ''grass roots'' integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) plants for the Albany Station site of Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation. One of these studies was based on the Texaco Gasifier and the other was developed around the British Gas Co.-Lurgi slagging gasifier. Both gasifiers were operated in the ''oxygen-blown'' mode, producing medium Btu fuel gas. The studies also evaluated plant performance with both current and advanced gas turbines. Coalto-busbar efficiencies of approximately 35 percent were calculated for Texaco IGCC plants using current technology gas turbines. Efficiencies of approximately 39 percent were obtained for the same plant when using advanced technology gas turbines.

  20. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.E.; Wolfe, R.A.; Im, C.J.; Henkelman, M.R.; O`Neal, G.W.; McKinney, D.A.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a continuous mild gasification process to convert highly caking coals to coal liquids, char and coke for near term commercial application. Coal liquids after fractionation can be blended with petroleum and used interchangeably with conventional fuels without modifications in gasoline and diesel engines. Char can be used as a carbon source in the production of ferroalloys and in mini-mills. Coke can be produced by upgrading char through briquetting and calcining and for use in the steel industry foundries and blast furnaces. In a step beyond the scope of the project, the plan is to finance, design and construct, in a partnership with others, a plant to produce coal liquid, char and coke in the initial range of 250,000 tons/year. In the Coal Technology Corporation CTC/CLC{reg_sign} Process, coal is continuously moved by interfolded twin screws through a heated retort in the absence of air. The residence time of the coal in the Continuous Mild Gasification Unit (CMGU) is in the range of 20--30 minutes. The coal is heated to controlled temperatures between 800{degree} and 1400{degree}F and is converted into char, condensible hydrocarbon liquids, small quantities of water, and non-condensible fuel gases. The coal derived fuel gases could supply all the required process heat, but for convenience, natural gas is used in the experimental unit. The process concept particularly suitable for highly caking coals which cannot be processed in fluidized bed or moving bed furnaces.

  1. Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Stiegel

    2008-03-26

    NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

  2. Pulverized coal plasma gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Kalinenko; A. P. Kuznetsov; A. A. Levitsky; V. E. Messerle; Yu. A. Mirokhin; L. S. Polak; Z. B. Sakipov; A. B. Ustimenko

    1993-01-01

    A number of experiments on the plasma-vapor gasification of brown coals of three types have been carried out using an experimental plant with an electric-arc reactor of the combined type. On the basis of the material and heat balances, process parameters have been obtained: the degree of carbon gasification (?c), the level of sulfur conversion into the gas phase (?s),

  3. Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

  4. Instrumentation and process control development for in situ coal gasification. Sixth quarterly report, March--May 1976

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Northrop

    1976-01-01

    Phase 2b of the Second Hanna Experiment was conducted during April and May, 1976. The linkage and gasification between a pair of wells and assessment of a line drive concept for improved areal recovery are the major portion of this field experiment. Copious amounts of field data are being processed and reduced; preliminary analyses based upon available data can be

  5. CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID-BED PROCESS FOR SULPHUR REMOVAL DURING GASIFICATION OF HEAVY FUEL OIL - SECOND PHASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the second phase of studies on the CAFB process for desulfurizing gasification of heavy fuel oil in a bed of hot lime. The first continuous pilot plant test with U.S. limestone BCR 1691 experienced local stone sintering and severe production of sticky dust du...

  6. CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID-BED PROCESS FOR SULPHUR REMOVAL DURING GASIFICATION OF HEAVY FUEL OIL - FOURTH PHASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of Phase 4 of a study on the CAFB process for gasification/desulfurization of liquid and solid fuels in a bed of hot lime. A new pilot unit was designed and constructed, incorporating such novel features as: a new fluidizing air distributor, high-flow/low...

  7. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Tasks 2, 3, and 4.1 to 4.6), Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Volume 2 contains information on the following topics: (1) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (2) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (3) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. (VC)

  8. Comparison of the activated sludge and rotating biological contactor processes for treatment of Great Plains Gasification Plant's stripped gas liquor: Final report for the period ending June 30, 1986

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Mayer; J. R. Gallagher; R. E. Shockey; T. A. Moe; C. A. Wentz

    1986-01-01

    Fixed film (rotating biological contactor, RBC) and suspended growth (activated sludge) biological treatment processes were used to treat gasification wastewater from the Great Plains Gasification Plant. This report contains the results of the study, including a comparison of the two processes. The wastewater used was a condensate from Lurgi dry-ash gasification of lignite. The condensate was pretreated at Great Plains

  9. Brazing as a Means of Sealing Ceramic Membranes for Use in Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Rice, Joseph P.; Kim, Jin Yong

    2006-01-31

    Coal is a potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

  10. Brazing as a Means of Sealing Ceramic Membranes for use in Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Rice, Joseph P.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.

    2006-01-02

    Coal is potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

  11. Energy efficient production of hydrogen and syngas from biomass: development of low-temperature catalytic process for cellulose gasification.

    PubMed

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Ito, Shin-ichi; Kunimori, Kimio; Yamada, Muneyoshi; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2002-10-15

    The Rh/CeO2/M (M = SiO2, Al2O3, and ZrO2) type catalysts with various compositions have been prepared and investigated in the gasification of cellulose, a model compound of biomass, in a fluidized bed reactor at 500-700 degrees C. The conventional nickel and dolomite catalysts have also been investigated. Among the catalysts, Rh/CeO2/SiO2 with 35% CeO2 has been found to be the best catalyst with respect to the carbon conversion to gas and product distribution. The steam addition contributed to the complete conversion of cellulose to gas even at 600 degrees C. Lower steam supply gave the syngas and higher steam supply gave the hydrogen as the major product. Hydrogen and syngas from cellulose or cellulosic biomass gasification are environmentally super clean gaseous fuels for power generation. Moreover, the syngas derived liquid fuels such as methanol, dimethyl ether, and synthetic diesels are also super clean transportation fuels. However, the use of cellulose or cellulosic biomass for energy source through the gasification is challenging because of the formation of tar and char during the gasification process. It is interesting that no tar or char was finally formed in the effluent gas at as low as 500-600 degrees C using Rh/CeO2/SiO2(35) catalyst in this process. PMID:12387426

  12. ANALYSES OF GRAB SAMPLES FROM FIXED-BED COAL GASIFICATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an analytical screening of selected effluent samples from operating coal gasification units. The work was done to aid in planning for future more comprehensive environmental test programs which will be conducted at gasification units both in the U.S. a...

  13. Test and evaluate the tri-gas low-Btu coal-gasification process. Final report, October 21, 1977October 31, 1980

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zabetakis

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the continuation of work done to develop the BCR TRI-GAS multiple fluidized-bed gasification process. The objective is the gasification of all ranks of coals with the only product being a clean, low-Btu fuel gas. Design and construction of a 100 lb\\/h process and equipment development unit (PEDU) was completed on the previous contract. The process consists of

  14. Gasification Technologie: Opportunities & Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Breault, R.

    2012-01-01

    This course has been put together to provide a single source document that not only reviews the historical development of gasification but also compares the process to combustion. It also provides a short discussion on integrated gasification and combined cycle processes. The major focus of the course is to describe the twelve major gasifiers being developed today. The hydrodynamics and kinetics of each are reviewed along with the most likely gas composition from each of the technologies when using a variety of fuels under different conditions from air blown to oxygen blown and atmospheric pressure to several atmospheres. If time permits, a more detailed discussion of low temperature gasification will be included.

  15. Chemical process modelling of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) and evaluation of produced gas quality for end use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korre, Anna; Andrianopoulos, Nondas; Durucan, Sevket

    2015-04-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is an unconventional method for recovering energy from coal resources through in-situ thermo-chemical conversion to gas. In the core of the UCG lays the coal gasification process which involves the engineered injection of a blend of gasification agents into the coal resource and propagating its gasification. Athough UCG technology has been known for some time and considered a promising method for unconventional fossil fuel resources exploitation, there are limited modelling studies which achieve the necessary accuracy and realistic simulation of the processes involved. This paper uses the existing knowledge for surface gasifiers and investigates process designs which could be adapted to model UCG. Steady state simulations of syngas production were developed using the Advanced System for Process ENgineering (Aspen) Plus software. The Gibbs free energy minimisation method was used to simulate the different chemical reactor blocks which were combined using a FORTRAN code written. This approach facilitated the realistic simulation of the gasification process. A number of model configurations were developed to simulate different subsurface gasifier layouts considered for the exploitation of underground coal seams. The two gasifier layouts considered here are the linked vertical boreholes and the controlled retractable injection point (CRIP) methods. Different stages of the UCG process (i.e. initialisation, intermediate, end-phase) as well as the temperature level of the syngas collection point in each layout were found to be the two most decisive and distinctive parameters during the design of the optimal model configuration for each layout. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the significance of the operational parameters and the performance indicators used to evaluate the results. The operational parameters considered were the type of reagents injected (i.e. O2, N2, CO2, H2O), the ratio between the injected reagents and the feedstock quantity (i.e. coal), the pressure, the gasification and the combustion temperatures. The performance indicators included the composition and the energy content of the product gas as well as the carbon and energy efficiency achieved under each operational scenario. Different operational scenarios for every model configuration facilitated the cross-comparison among different configurations. The proximate and ultimate analysis data for the coal seams modelled were taken from a number of candidate UCG sites (Durucan et al., 2014) .The model findings were validated using the results of field trials reported in the literature. It was found that, increased gasification temperature leads to higher H2 and CO quantities in the product gas. Moreover, CH4 and CO2 concentrations increased as reaction pressure increased, while the CH4 quantity reached its highest value at the highest operational pressure, when combined with the lowest gasification temperature. The simulation models developed can be used to design and validate experimental UCG studies and offer significant advantages in terms of time and resource savings. As the UCG process consists of interrelated stages and a number of diverse phenomena, therefore, the gasification designs developed could act as the basis for an integrated UCG model tailored to the needs of a UCG pilot plant.

  16. Concentrating-solar biomass gasification process for a 3rd generation biofuel.

    PubMed

    Hertwich, Edgar G; Zhang, Xiangping

    2009-06-01

    A new concept of producing synfuel from biomass using concentrating solar energy as its main energy source is proposed in this paper. The aim of the concept is to obtain an easy to handle fuel with near-zero CO2 emission and reduced land-use requirements compared to first and second generation biofuels. The concept's key feature is the use of high-temperature heat from a solar concentrating tower to drive the chemical process of converting biomassto a biofuel, obtaining a near-complete utilization of carbon atoms in the biomass. H2 from water electrolysis with solar power is used for reverse water gas shift to avoid producing CO2 during the process. In a chemical process simulation, we compare the solar biofuel concept with two other advanced synfuel concepts: second generation biofuel and coal-to-liquid, both using gasification technology and capture and storage of CO2 generated in the fuel production. The solar-driventhird generation biofuel requires only 33% of the biomass input and 38% of total land as the second generation biofuel, while still exhibiting a CO2-neutral fuel cycle. With CO2 capture, second generation biofuel would lead to the removal of 50% of the carbon in the biomass from the atmosphere. There is a trade-off between reduced biomass feed costs and the increased capital requirements for the solar-driven process; it is attractive at intermediate biomass and CO2 prices. PMID:19569353

  17. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.; Hogsett, R.F.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.

    1991-12-01

    This document describes the results of Task 4 under which a 50 pound/hour char-to-carbon (CTC) process research unit (PRU) was designed in the second half of 1989, with construction completed in June 1990. The CTC PRU at Golden was operated for nearly one year during which 35 runs were completed for a total of nearly 800 hours of operation. Char methanation and carbon production reactor development activities are detailed in this report, as well as the results of integrated runs of the CTC process. Evaluation of the process and the carbon product produced is also included. It was concluded that carbon could be produced from mild gasification char utilizing the CTC process. Char methanation and membrane separation steps performed reasonably well and can scaled up with confidence. However, the novel directly heated reactor system for methane cracking did not work satisfactorily due to materials of construction and heat transfer problems, which adversely affected the quantity and quality of the carbon product. Alternative reactor designs are recommended.

  18. Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

    1991-09-01

    This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

  19. Fluidized-bed catalytic coal-gasification process. [US patent; pretreatment to minimize agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Euker, C.A. Jr.; Wesselhoft, R.D.; Dunkleman, J.J.; Aquino, D.C.; Gouker, T.R.

    1981-09-14

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 vol % and 21 vol % oxygen at a temperature between 50 and 250/sup 0/C in an oxidation zone and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  20. Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    SciTech Connect

    Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Karel, E-mail: svoboda@icpf.cas.cz [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri [D.S.K. Ltd., Ujezdecek - Dukla 264, 415 01 Teplice I (Czech Republic); Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr [Dept. of Gas, Coke and Air protection, Institute of Chemical Technol., Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER = 0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV = 3.15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950 Degree-Sign C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream.

  1. Mathematical modeling and investigations of the processes of heat conduction of ammonium perchlorate with phase transitions in thermal decomposition and gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Lagun, I. M.; Polyakov, E. P.

    2013-01-01

    Transient heat-conduction processes occurring in the period of thermal decomposition and gasification of a crystalline oxidant — ammonium perchlorate — have been investigated and analyzed on the basis of the developed mathematical model.

  2. Optimization of Biomass Gasification Process for F-T Bio-Diesel Synthesys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jae Hun; Sung, Yeon Kyung; Yu, Tae U.; Choi, Young Tae; Lee, Uen Do

    The characteristics of biomass steam gasification were investigated to make an optimum syngas for Fischer Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of bio-diesel. Korean pine wood chip was used as a fuel and the experiment was conducted in a lab scale bubbling fluidized bed (0.1m LD. x 3.Omheight). Gas composition was evaluated by changing operating parameters such as gasifier temperature, and steam to fuel ratio. Major syngas was monitored by on-line gas analyzer (ND-IR spectroscopy) and gas chromatography (GC). As the temperature of gasifier increases hydrogen in the syngas increases while CO in the product gas decreases. The low concentration of sulfur compound and nitrogen in the product gas shows the potential advantages in the purification process of the syngas for F-T process. Optimum operating condition of the gasifier was found concerning the following gas cleaning and F-T process; H2-CO ratio and total gas yield increase while decreasing methane and CO2 concentrations in the syngas.

  3. GASIFICATION OF WASTE TYRE AND PLASTIC (PET) BY SOLAR THERMOCHEMICAL PROCESS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Matsunami; S. Yoshida; O. Yokota; M. Nezuka; M. Tsuji; Y. Tamaura

    1999-01-01

    Waste tyre and plastic such as polyethylene terephthalate can be utilized as a useful material for conversion of solar energy into chemical energy by solar thermochemical gasification into synthesis gas (CO+H2) using concentrated solar energy. In the present paper, the gasification of waste tyre (C: 86 wt.%, H: 8.4 wt.%) and of PET (C10H8O4)n, were studied using ZnO as a

  4. Steam gasification of waste tyre: influence of process temperature on yield and product composition.

    PubMed

    Portofino, Sabrina; Donatelli, Antonio; Iovane, Pierpaolo; Innella, Carolina; Civita, Rocco; Martino, Maria; Matera, Domenico Antonio; Russo, Antonio; Cornacchia, Giacinto; Galvagno, Sergio

    2013-03-01

    An experimental survey of waste tyre gasification with steam as oxidizing agent has been conducted in a continuous bench scale reactor, with the aim of studying the influence of the process temperature on the yield and the composition of the products; the tests have been performed at three different temperatures, in the range of 850-1000°C, holding all the other operational parameters (pressure, carrier gas flow, solid residence time). The experimental results show that the process seems promising in view of obtaining a good quality syngas, indicating that a higher temperature results in a higher syngas production (86 wt%) and a lower char yield, due to an enhancement of the solid-gas phase reactions with the temperature. Higher temperatures clearly result in higher hydrogen concentrations: the hydrogen content rapidly increases, attaining values higher than 65% v/v, while methane and ethylene gradually decrease over the range of the temperatures; carbon monoxide and dioxide instead, after an initial increase, show a nearly constant concentration at 1000°C. Furthermore, in regards to the elemental composition of the synthesis gas, as the temperature increases, the carbon content continuously decreases, while the oxygen content increases; the hydrogen, being the main component of the gas fraction and having a small atomic weight, is responsible for the progressive reduction of the gas density at higher temperature. PMID:22749720

  5. Phase I, Volume II, Theoretical and bench scale research at TRCB (Texaco Research Center in Beacon, New York)

    SciTech Connect

    Najjar, M.S.

    1989-03-01

    The objective of this work was to identify and characterize in-situ sulfur capture sorbents for use in coal gasification tests at the Montebello Research Laboratory. The work addressed two tasks: (1) theoretical studies of in-situ desulfurization and slag-sorbent interactions and (2) bench-scale testing to study the behavior of slag and slag/sorbent systems under slagging gasifier conditions. The theoretical studies included literature searches, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, optical basicity calculations and predictions of ash/sorbent interactions utilizing published phase diagrams. Based on cost considerations and the results of the theoretical studies, compounds of iron, sodium and calcium were selected for bench scale testing. The bench-scale tests primarily consisted of exposing mixtures of coal ash and sulfur sorbents to simulated synthesis gas at temperatures within the range of those found in a Texaco gasifier for sufficient time to reach equilibrium. After rapid quenching, the resulting slags were extensively analyzed to determine the various phases that were formed. The viscosity of the slags was also measured to assess potential operating problems in the gasifier. 65 refs., 30 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Development of advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Aulich, T.R.

    1991-05-01

    The current objective of the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) mild gasification project is to optimize reaction char and marketable liquids production on a 100-lb/hr scale using Wyodak subbituminous and Indiana No. 3 bituminous coals. Tests performed using the EERC 100-lb/hr process development unit (PDU) include a refractory-cure (Test P001), a test using petroleum coke (Test P002), and tests using Wyodak and Indiana coals. The reactor system used for the 11 PDU tests conducted to date consists of a spouted, fluid-bed carbonizer equipped with an on-line condensation train that yields three boiling point fractions of coal liquids ranging in volatility from about (77{degrees}--750{degrees}F) (25{degrees}--400{degrees}C). The September--December 1990 quarterly report described reaction conditions and the bulk of the analytical results for Tests P010 and P011. This report describes further P010 and P011 analytical work, including the generation of simulated distillation curves for liquid samples on the basis of sulfur content, using gas chromatography coupled with atomic emission detection (GC/AED) analysis. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Phase-equilibria for design of coal-gasification processes: dew points of hot gases containing condensible tars. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Prausnitz, J.M.

    1980-05-01

    This research is concerned with the fundamental physical chemistry and thermodynamics of condensation of tars (dew points) from the vapor phase at advanced temperatures and pressures. Fundamental quantitative understanding of dew points is important for rational design of heat exchangers to recover sensible heat from hot, tar-containing gases that are produced in coal gasification. This report includes essentially six contributions toward establishing the desired understanding: (1) Characterization of Coal Tars for Dew-Point Calculations; (2) Fugacity Coefficients for Dew-Point Calculations in Coal-Gasification Process Design; (3) Vapor Pressures of High-Molecular-Weight Hydrocarbons; (4) Estimation of Vapor Pressures of High-Boiling Fractions in Liquefied Fossil Fuels Containing Heteroatoms Nitrogen or Sulfur; and (5) Vapor Pressures of Heavy Liquid Hydrocarbons by a Group-Contribution Method.

  8. Fluid bed gasification--plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: experimental assessment of sulphur species.

    PubMed

    Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Taylor, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO2 and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO2's generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO2 was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO2 generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS--hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling. PMID:24176239

  9. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 3: Gasification, process fuels, and balance of plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothe, W. A.; Corman, J. C.; Johnson, G. G.; Cassel, T. A. V.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of gasification and clean fuels from coal. Factors discussed include: coal and coal transportation costs; clean liquid and gas fuel process efficiencies and costs; and cost, performance, and environmental intrusion elements of the integrated low-Btu coal gasification system. Cost estimates for the balance-of-plant requirements associated with advanced energy conversion systems utilizing coal or coal-derived fuels are included.

  10. Probabilistic Modeling and Evaluation of the Performance, Emissions, and Cost of Texaco Gasifier-

    E-print Network

    Frey, H. Christopher

    .2 Commercial Status of Coal and Heavy Residual Oil-Fueled Gasification Systems- Based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Systems Using ASPEN Prepared by: H. Christopher Frey Naveen................................................................................................. 1 1.1 Overview of Gasification Systems

  11. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel heterogeneous Fenton oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Wencheng; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Zhao, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Sewage sludge from a biological wastewater treatment plant was converted into sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) with ZnCl2 as activation agent, which was used as a support for ferric oxides to form a catalyst (FeOx/SBAC) by a simple impregnation method. The new material was then used to improve the performance of Fenton oxidation of real biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that the prepared FeOx/SBAC significantly enhanced the pollutant removal performance in the Fenton process, so that the treated wastewater was more biodegradable and less toxic. The best performance was obtained over a wide pH range from 2 to 7, temperature 30°C, 15mg/L of H2O2 and 1g/L of catalyst, and the treated effluent concentrations of COD, total phenols, BOD5 and TOC all met the discharge limits in China. Meanwhile, on the basis of significant inhibition by a radical scavenger in the heterogeneous Fenton process as well as the evolution of FT-IR spectra of pollutant-saturated FeOx/BAC with and without H2O2, it was deduced that the catalytic activity was responsible for generating hydroxyl radicals, and a possible reaction pathway and interface mechanism were proposed. Moreover, FeOx/SBAC showed superior stability over five successive oxidation runs. Thus, heterogeneous Fenton oxidation of biologically pretreated CGW by FeOx/SBAC, with the advantages of being economical, efficient and sustainable, holds promise for engineering application. PMID:26141873

  12. Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Progress report, February 21, 1992--May 20, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Foster, H.

    1992-06-01

    The work performed during the second quarterly reporting period (February 21 through May 20, 1992) on the research program, ``Scale-Up of Mild Gasification to a Process Development Unit`` is presented in this report. The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: (1) design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup. (2) obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation. (3) prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit. (4) develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300{degrees}F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The PDU to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of char, coal liquids, and gases; a thermal cracker for upgrading of the coal liquids; and a hot briquetting unit for the production of form coke and smokeless fuel briquettes. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste.

  13. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Li, Y.; Heidt, M.

    1992-09-01

    Prior to disassembly of the CFBR, accumulated tar residue must be removed from the reactor, piping and tubing lines, and the condenser vessels. Based on experience from the CFBR mild gasification tests, lacquer thinner must be pumped through the unit for at least one hour to remove the residual tar. The lacquer thinner wash may be followed by a water wash. The CFBR will be disassembled after the system has been thoroughly flushed out. The following equipment must be disassembled and removed for storage: Superheater; Water supply pump; Coal feed system (hopper, auger, ball feeder, valves); Reactor; Cyclone and fines catch pot; Condensers (water lines, glycol bath, condenser pots, valves); and Gas meter. After the process piping and reactor have been disassembled, the equipment will be inspected for tar residues and flushed again with acetone or lacquer thinner, if necessary. All solvent used for cleaning the system will be collected for recycle or proper disposal. Handling and disposal of the solvent will be properly documented. The equipment will be removed and stored for future use. Equipment contaminated externally with tar (Level 4) will be washed piece by piece with lacquer thinner after disassembly of the PRU. Proper health and safety practices must be followed by the personnel involved in the cleanup operation. Care must be taken to avoid ingestion, inhalation, or prolonged skin contact of the coal tars and lacquer thinner. Equipment contaminated internally by accumulation of residual tar or oil (Level 5) will be flushed section by section with lacquer thinner. The equipment will be washed with solvent both before and after disassembly to ensure that all tar has been removed from the piping, pumps, gas quench condensers, light tar condensers, and drain lines. The coal tars wig be separated from the solvent and incinerated.

  14. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Aulich, T.R.

    1990-08-01

    Research continued on continuous mild gasification for the production of co-products. Work performed during the quarter included the refractory cure of the carbonizer, and then shakedown of the carbonizer, water quench system, and char removal system. Construction continued on the tar/oil quench system. Sulfur capture tests carried out at AMAX included iron oxide sorbent scouting studies. 3 tabs.

  15. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Hackett; Kirk R. Gerdes; Xueyan Song; Yun Chen; V. Shutthanandan; Mark H. Engelhard; Zihua Zhu; Suntharampillai Thevuthasan; Randall Gemmen

    2012-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for gasification integrated power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50+% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with the Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but direct test data from coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This research effort evaluates

  16. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operaated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Hackett; K. Gerdes; X. Song; Y. Chen; V. Shutthanandan; M. Englehard; Z. Zhu; S. Thevuthasan; R. Gemmen

    2012-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are being developed for integrated gasification power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but test data from direct coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This effort evaluates the significance of

  17. Novel Low-Cost Process for the Gasification of Biomass and Low-Rank Coals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Barton

    2009-01-01

    Farm Energy envisaged a phased demonstration program, in which a pilot-scale straw gasifier will be installed on a farm. The synthesis gas product will be used to initially (i) generate electricity in a 300 kW diesel generator, and subsequently (ii) used as a feedstock to produce ethanol or mixed alcohols. They were seeking straw gasification and alcohol synthesis technologies that

  18. Coal gasification for advanced power generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Minchener

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the development and deployment of coal based gasification technologies for power generation. The global status of gasification is described covering the various process and technology options. The use of gasification for power generation is then highlighted including the advantages and disadvantages of this means for coal utilisation. The R, D & D needs and

  19. Hybrid bio-thermal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Chtnoweth; P. B. Tarman

    1981-01-01

    A hybrid bio-thermal gasification process is disclosed for improved carbonaceous gasification. A biological feed is anaerobically digested with product methane and carbon dioxide containing gas withdrawn from the digester and biological residue separately withdrawn from the digester and introduced into a thermal gasifier where a substantial portion of the biological residue is gasified under elevated temperature conditions producing thermal gasifier

  20. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schwartz

    2003-07-01

    ITN Energy Systems, along with its team members, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair, propose to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is taking a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into fabrication designs; combining functionally graded materials, monolithic module concept and plasma spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing with low costs. This program will develop and evaluate composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules will be fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, will also be assessed. This will result in a complete evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of ICCM hydrogen separation for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner.

  1. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schwartz

    2004-01-01

    ITN Energy Systems, along with its team members, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair, propose to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is taking a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into fabrication designs; combining functionally graded materials, monolithic module concept and plasma spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing with low costs. This program will develop and evaluate composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules will be fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, will also be assessed. This will result in a complete evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of ICCM hydrogen separation for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner.

  2. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schwartz

    2003-10-01

    ITN Energy Systems, along with its team members, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair, propose to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is taking a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into fabrication designs; combining functionally graded materials, monolithic module concept and plasma spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing with low costs. This program will develop and evaluate composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules will be fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, will also be assessed. This will result in a complete evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of ICCM hydrogen separation for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner.

  3. Exergy analysis of biomass-to-synthetic natural gas (SNG) process via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caecilia R. Vitasari; Martin Jurascik; Krzysztof J. Ptasinski

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an exergy analysis of SNG production via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock, including virgin (woody) biomass as well as waste biomass (municipal solid waste and sludge). In indirect gasification heat needed for endothermic gasification reactions is produced by burning char in a separate combustion section of the gasifier and subsequently the heat is transferred to the

  4. Two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process for solid waste valorisation: technical review and preliminary thermodynamic modelling of sulphur emissions.

    PubMed

    Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Mazzei, Luca

    2012-04-01

    Gasification of solid waste for energy has significant potential given an abundant feed supply and strong policy drivers. Nonetheless, significant ambiguities in the knowledge base are apparent. Consequently this study investigates sulphur mechanisms within a novel two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process. This paper includes a detailed review of gasification and plasma fundamentals in relation to the specific process, along with insight on MSW based feedstock properties and sulphur pollutant therein. As a first step to understanding sulphur partitioning and speciation within the process, thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage has been performed. Preliminary findings, supported by plant experience, indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur species (as opposed to H(2)S) - Na and K based species in particular. Work is underway to further investigate and validate this. PMID:21982278

  5. Synthesis gas production with an adjustable H{sub 2}/CO ratio through the coal gasification process: effects of coal ranks and methane addition

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jing Jin; Hongchang Zhou; Marten Cohron; Houying Zhao; Hongying Liu; Weiping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

    2008-05-15

    Direct production of synthesis gas using coal as a cheap feedstock is attractive but challenging due to its low H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas. Three typical U.S. coals of different ranks were tested in a 2.5 in. coal gasifier to investigate their gasification reactivity and adjustability on H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas with or without the addition of methane. Tests indicated that lower-rank coals (lignite and sub-bituminous) have higher gasification reactivity than bituminous coals. The coal gasification reactivity is correlated to its synthesis-gas yield and the total percentage of H{sub 2} and CO in the synthesis gas, but not to the H{sub 2}/CO ratio. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio of coal gasification was found to be correlated to the rank of coals, especially the H/C ratio of coals. Methane addition into the dense phase of the pyrolysis and gasification zone of the cogasification reactor could make the best use of methane in adjusting the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the generated synthesis gas. The maximum methane conversion efficiency, which was likely correlated to its gasification reactivity, could be achieved by 70% on average for all tested coals. The actual catalytic effect of generated coal chars on methane conversion seemed coal-dependent. The coal-gasification process benefits from methane addition and subsequent conversion on the adjustment of the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of synthesis gas. The methane conversion process benefits from the use of coal chars due to their catalytic effects. This implies that there were likely synergistic effects on both. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3

  6. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  7. Optimization of Biomass Gasification Process for FT BioDiesel Synthesys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae Hun Song; Yeon Kyung Sung; Tae U Yu; Young Tae Choi; Uen Do Lee

    \\u000a The characteristics of biomass steam gasification were investigated to make an optimum syngas for Fischer Tropsch (F-T) synthesis\\u000a of bio-diesel. Korean pine wood chip was used as a fuel and the experiment was conducted in a lab scale bubbling fluidized\\u000a bed (0.1m LD. x 3.Omheight). Gas composition was evaluated by changing operating parameters such as gasifier temperature,\\u000a and steam to

  8. Optimization of Biomass Gasification Process for FT BioDiesel Synthesys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae Hun Song; Yeon Kyung Sung; Tae U. Yu; Young Tae Choi; Uen Do Lee

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of biomass steam gasification were investigated to make an optimum syngas for Fischer Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of bio-diesel. Korean pine wood chip was used as a fuel and the experiment was conducted in a lab scale bubbling fluidized bed (0.1m LD. x 3.Omheight). Gas composition was evaluated by changing operating parameters such as gasifier temperature, and steam to

  9. Performance of a semi-industrial scale gasification process for the destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Alberto; Caballero, Porfirio; Villarreal, Juan A; Viramontes, Ricardo

    2006-11-01

    A semi-industrial scale test was conducted to thermally treat mixtures of spent oil and askarels at a concentration of 50,000 ppm and 100,000 ppm of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) under a reductive atmosphere. In average, the dry-basis composition of the synthesis gas (syngas) obtained from the gasification process was: hydrogen 46%, CO 34%, CO2 18%, and CH4 0.8%. PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) in the gas stream were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry. The coplanar PCBs congeners 77, 105, 118, 156/ 157, and 167 were detected in the syngas at concentrations < 2 x 10(-7) mg/m3 (at 298 K, 1 atm, dry basis, 7% O2). The chlorine released in the destruction of the PCBs was transformed to hydrogen chloride and separated from the gas by an alkaline wet scrubber. The concentration of PCBs in the water leaving the scrubber was below the detection limit of 0.002 mg/L, whereas the destruction and removal efficiency was > 99.9999% for both tests conducted. The concentration of PCDDs/PCDFs in the syngas were 8.1 x 10(-6) ng-toxic equivalent (TEQ)/m3 and 7.1 x 10(-6) ng-TEQ/m3 (at 298 K, 1 atm, dry basis, 7% O2) for the tests at 50,000 ppm and 100,000 ppm PCBs, respectively. The only PCDD/F congener detected in the gas was the octachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin, which has a toxic equivalent factor of 0.001. The results obtained for other pollutants (e.g., metals and particulate matter) meet the maximum allowed emission limits according to Mexican, U.S., and European regulations for the thermal treatment of hazardous waste (excluding CO, which is a major component of the syngas, and total hydrocarbons, which mainly represent the presence of CH4). PMID:17117746

  10. The soft measurement system of Texaco gasifier based on RVM and COM technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Kebing; Zhu Jianning; Shi Hongbo

    2008-01-01

    As the present soft measurement system of Texaco gasifier canpsilat give attention to both performance of predicting and the hardware source, this paper presents a soft measurement method system which based on RVM and the technology of COM. This method that use RVM modeling, has better capability of regression and extend usage. At the same time, the usage of COM

  11. Biological treatment of Grand Forks Energy Technology Center slagging fixed-bed coal gasification process wastewater. Eleventh quarterly report, March 1979

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Luthy; D. J. Sekel; J. T. Tallon

    1979-01-01

    A wastewater biological treatability study was performed with effluent from the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center slagging fixed-bed coal gasification process. Bench scale air activated sludge reactors were used to determine minimum dilution requirements, maximum acceptable loadings, biological treatment kinetic coefficients, and other performance characteristics. It was found that ammonia stripped wastewater could be processed reliably at 33% strength at

  12. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit, Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, July-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, M.H.

    1980-10-01

    This represents the first quarterly progress report on Phase 2 of the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit (PDU) Program. Phase 1 of this program started in March 1976 and included the design, construction, and initial operation of a PDU to test the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process. On July 24, 1980, Phase 2 of the program was initiated. It covers a 1-year operations program utilizing the existing PDU and is planned to include five runs with a targeted total operating time of 9 weeks. The primary activities during the period covered by this report related to preparations for PDU Run 6, the initial run of the Phase 2 program. These activities included restaffing the PDU operations group, reactivation of the facility, and effecting plant modifications and improvements based on an evaluation of previous operation experience. The Melt Withdrawal System which had proven unreliable during the previous runs, was completely redesigned; thermal and flow analyses were performed; new components procured; and assembly initiated. Run 6 which is scheduled for the next report period, is aimed primarily at verifying the adequacy of the redesigned Melt Withdrawal System.

  13. Coal gasification 2006: roadmap to commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    Surging oil and gas prices, combined with supply security and environmental concerns, are prompting power generators and industrial firms to further develop coal gasification technologies. Coal gasification, the process of breaking down coal into its constituent chemical components prior to combustion, will permit the US to more effectively utilize its enormous, low cost coal reserves. The process facilitates lower environmental impact power generation and is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to traditional generation techniques. The study is designed to inform the reader as to this rapidly evolving technology, its market penetration prospects and likely development. Contents include: Clear explanations of different coal gasification technologies; Emissions and efficiency comparisons with other fuels and technologies; Examples of US and global gasification projects - successes and failures; Commercial development and forecast data; Gasification projects by syngas output; Recommendations for greater market penetration and commercialization; Current and projected gasification technology market shares; and Recent developments including proposals for underground gasification process. 1 app.

  14. Hybrid bio-thermal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Chtnoweth, D.P.; Tarman, P.B.

    1981-09-15

    A hybrid bio-thermal gasification process is disclosed for improved carbonaceous gasification. A biological feed is anaerobically digested with product methane and carbon dioxide containing gas withdrawn from the digester and biological residue separately withdrawn from the digester and introduced into a thermal gasifier where a substantial portion of the biological residue is gasified under elevated temperature conditions producing thermal gasifier products and thermal residue with at least a portion of the thermal gasifier products or their derivatives being returned to the digester. The process provides high conversion of the carbonaceous material and biological feed stocks to gas products and permits gasification of a wider variety of biological feeds by anaerobic digestion processes while requiring less external nutrient feeding to the process. The process of this invention provides a highly efficient process for production of substitute natural gas. Various advantages of interrelation between the anaerobic digester and thermal gasification are taught.

  15. Assessment of the chemical, microbiological and toxicological aspects of post-processing water from underground coal gasification.

    PubMed

    Pankiewicz-Sperka, Magdalena; Sta?czyk, Krzysztof; P?aza, Gra?yna A; Kwa?niewska, Jolanta; Na??cz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive characterisation (including chemical, microbiological and toxicological parameters) of water after the underground coal gasification (UCG) process. This is the first report in which these parameters were analysed together to assess the environmental risk of the water generated during the simulation of the underground coal gasification (UCG) process performed by the Central Mining Institute (Poland). Chemical analysis of the water indicated many hazardous chemical compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Additionally, large quantities of inorganic compounds from the coal and ashes produced during the volatilisation process were noted. Due to the presence of refractory and inhibitory compounds in the post-processing water samples, the microbiological and toxicological analyses revealed the high toxicity of the UCG post-processing water. Among the tested microorganisms, mesophilic, thermophilic, psychrophilic, spore-forming, anaerobic and S-oxidizing bacteria were identified. However, the number of detected microorganisms was very low. The psychrophilic bacteria dominated among tested bacteria. There were no fungi or Actinomycetes in any of the water samples. Preliminary study revealed that hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria were metabolically active in the water samples. The samples were very toxic to the biotests, with the TU50 reaching 262. None of biotests was the most sensitive to all samples. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity testing of the water samples in Vicia uncovered strong cytotoxic and clastogenic effects. Furthermore, TUNEL indicated that all of the water samples caused sporadic DNA fragmentation in the nuclei of the roots. PMID:25108176

  16. Catalyzed gasification of biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Jr. Sealock; R. J. Robertus; L. K. Mudge; D. H. Mitchell; J. L. Cox

    1978-01-01

    Catalyzed biomass gasification studies are being conducted by Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Investigations are being carried out concurrently at the bench and process development unit scales. These studies are designed to test the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gaseous products from biomass by enhancing its reactivity and product specificity through the use of specific catalysts. The program is

  17. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. McIlveen-Wright; F. Pinto; L. Armesto; M. A. Caballero; M. P. Aznar; A. Cabanillas; Y. Huang; C. Franco; I. Gulyurtlu; J. T. McMullan

    2006-01-01

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation.The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to

  18. Coal Gasification for Power Generation, 3. edition

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    The report provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered include: an overview of Coal Generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; a description of gasification technology including processes and systems; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; a discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; an evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; a discussion of IGCC project development options; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and, a detailed description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  19. Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

    2008-12-15

    Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

  20. Development of advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products addendum to technical evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the material balance data for Wyodak, Indiana No. 3, and Cannelton coals that were tested in the mild gasification program. Data include tests conducted using the 1- to 4-lb/hr continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) and the 100-lb/hr Process Research Unit (PRU). All raw analysis data were reduced to calculate product yields as a percentage of the product mass divided by the maf coal feed. The material closure was then determined, and losses were assigned to one or a combination of the three product streams: char, condensate (includes condensed steam), and gas. Mass was added proportionally to each constituent of the stream until the closure was 100%.

  1. Development of advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products addendum to technical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the material balance data for Wyodak, Indiana No. 3, and Cannelton coals that were tested in the mild gasification program. Data include tests conducted using the 1- to 4-lb/hr continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) and the 100-lb/hr Process Research Unit (PRU). All raw analysis data were reduced to calculate product yields as a percentage of the product mass divided by the maf coal feed. The material closure was then determined, and losses were assigned to one or a combination of the three product streams: char, condensate (includes condensed steam), and gas. Mass was added proportionally to each constituent of the stream until the closure was 100%.

  2. Co-processing methane in high temperature steam gasification of biomass.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Aaron W; Jorgensen, Erica L; Sorli, Jeni C; Weimer, Alan W

    2013-01-01

    High temperature steam gasification/reforming of biomass-methane mixtures was carried out in an indirectly heated entrained flow reactor to analyze the feasibility of controlling the output composition of the major synthesis gas products: H(2), CO, CO(2), CH(4). A 2(3) factorial experimental design was carried out and compared to thermodynamic equilibrium predictions. Experiments demonstrated the product gas composition is mostly dependent on temperature and that excess steam contributes to CO(2) formation. Results showed that with two carbon-containing reactants it is possible to control the gas composition of the major products. At 1500 °C, the equilibrium results accurately predicted the syngas composition and can be used to guide optimization of the syngas for downstream liquid fuel synthesis technologies. PMID:23208181

  3. Advanced hybrid gasification facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H. [CRS Sirrine, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States); Dixit, V.B. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States). Riley Research Center

    1993-08-01

    The objective of this procurement is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology for electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas{trademark} staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may react with aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their concentration in the hot raw coal gas passing through the system to the gas turbine. This paper describes a novel, staged, airblown, fixed-bed gasifier designed to solve both through the incorporation of pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification. It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration which occurs in a fixed-bed process when coal is gradually heated through the 400{degrees}F to 900{degrees}F range. In a pyrolyzer, the coal is rapidly heated such that coal tar is immediately vaporized. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can be chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NOx from fuel home nitrogen, moisture is minimized to control ammonia generation, and HCN in the upper gasifier region is partially oxidized to NO which reacts with NH3/HCN to form N2.

  4. Scale-up requirements of the Exxon catalytic coal gasification process. Monthly report, November 1November 30, 1977

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1978-01-01

    A study design and cost estimate have been completed for a major revamp of the Synthane Coal gasification pilot plant which would allow it to be operated as a catalytic coal gasification (CCG) large pilot plant. The study design was based upon modifying the Synthane Unit so that it would duplicate as closely as possible the size and capabilities of

  5. Steam reforming of tar from a biomass gasification process over Ni\\/olivine catalyst using toluene as a model compound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. ?wierczy?ski; S. Libs; C. Courson; A. Kiennemann

    2007-01-01

    A Ni\\/olivine catalyst, previously developed for biomass gasification and tar removal during fluidized bed steam gasification of biomass, was tested in a fixed bed reactor in toluene steam reforming as a tar destruction model reaction. The influence of the catalyst preparation parameters (nickel precursor, calcination temperature and nickel content) and operating parameters (reaction temperature, steam to carbon S\\/C ratio and

  6. Assessment of hydrogen and electricity co-production schemes based on gasification process with carbon capture and storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calin-Cristian Cormos

    2009-01-01

    Through gasification, a solid feedstock is partially oxidized with oxygen and steam to produce syngas which can be used for conversion into different valuable compounds (e.g. hydrogen) or to generate power in a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT). Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is one of power generation technologies having the highest potential for carbon capture with low penalties in

  7. Process simulation for a new conceptual design of LNG terminal coupling NGL recovery and LNG re-gasification for maximum energy savings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muqeet, Mohammed A.

    With the high demands of shale gas and promising development of LNG terminals, a lot of research has focused towards the process development for effective recovery of C2+ hydrocarbons (NGL). Shale gas requires a large amount of cold energy to cool down and recover the NGL; and the LNG re-gasification process requires a lot of heat energy to evaporate for NGL recovery. Thus, coupling the shale gas NGL recovery process and LNG re-gasification process, for utilizing the cold energy from LNG re-gasification process to assist NGL recovery from shale gas has significant economic benefits on both energy saving and high value product recovery. Wang et al. developed new conceptual design of such coupled process in 2013 and later Wang and Xu developed an optimal design considering uncertainties in 2014. This work deals with process simulation of both these designs and the feasibility of the process is verified. A steady state model is developed based on the plant design proposed by Wang et al. using Aspen plusRTM and then a dynamic model of the process is developed using Aspen dynamicsRTM. An effective control strategy is developed and the flexibility of the dynamic model is examined by giving disturbances in the shale gas feed. A comparison is made between the two proposed design and the prospects of the design for real plant scenario is discussed.

  8. Plasma gasification of biomedical waste

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, G.W.; Tsangaris, A.V.

    1995-12-31

    Resorption Canada Limited (RCL) has operated a plasma gasification installation near Ottawa, Ontario, Canada for over ten years; therefore, the salient capabilities and advantages of plasma gasification over other state-of-the-art technologies for environmentally cleaner disposal of a number of waste materials became increasingly clearer as more and more experience was gained. Plasma gasification is a non-incineration thermal process which uses extremely high temperatures to completely decompose input waste material into very simple molecules. The capability to generate such high heat without using oxygen, unlike a combustion flame, and the temperature profile of the hot plasma gases being between 3,000 C and 8,000 C was ideal for the disposal of waste materials through gasification. RCL conducted two major plasma gasification projects with Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) which were highly successful, indicating very clearly that the basic technology for plasma gasification was a very viable alternative to conventional incineration techniques with resultant environmental benefits related to gaseous emission levels and slag properties. The experimentation ended with two tests which included full environmental analyses for each. These results provided the initiative for similar testing with biomedical waste. The work on the plasma gasification of biomedical waste is summarized. The work on MSW is presented in a separate paper.

  9. Integrated mild gasification processing at the Homer City Electric Power Generating Station site. Final report, July 1989--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Battista, J.J.; Zawadzki, E.A. [Pennsylvania Electric Co., Johnstown, PA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    A new process for the production of commercial grade coke, char, and carbon products has been evaluated by Penelec/NYSEG. The process, developed by Coal Technology Corporation, CTC, utilizes a unique screw reactor to produce a devolatilized char from a wide variety of coals for the production of commercial grade coke for use in blast furnaces, foundries, and other processes requiring high quality coke. This process is called the CTC Mild Gasification Process (MGP). The process economics are significantly enhanced by integrating the new technology into an existing power generating complex. Cost savings are realized by the coke producer, the coke user, and the electric utility company. Site specific economic studies involving the Homer City Generating Station site in Western Pennsylvania, confirmed that an integrated MGP at the Homer City site, using coal fines produced at the Homer City Coal Preparation Plant, would reduce capital and operating costs significantly and would enable the HC Owners to eliminate thermal dryers, obtain low cost fuel in the form of combustible gases and liquids, and obtain lower cost replacement coal on the spot market. A previous report, identified as the Interim Report on the Project, details the technical and economic studies.

  10. Analysis of the organic contaminants in the condensate produced in the in situ underground coal gasification process.

    PubMed

    Smoli?ski, Adam; Sta?czyk, Krzysztof; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Howaniec, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Addressing the environmental risks related to contamination of groundwater with the phenolics, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which might be potentially released from the underground coal gasification (UCG) under adverse hydrogeological and/or operational conditions, is crucial in terms of wider implementation of the process. The aim of this study was to determine the main organic pollutants present in the process condensate generated during the UCG trial performed on hard coal seam in the Experimental Mine 'Barbara', Poland; 8,933 L of condensate was produced in 813 h of experiment duration (including 456 h of the post-process stage) with average phenolics, BTEX and PAH concentrations of 576,000, 42.3 and 1,400.5 ?g/L, respectively. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis was used to explore the differences and similarities between the samples. The sample collected during the first 48 h of the process duration was characterized by the lowest phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene contents, high xylene content and the highest concentrations of phenolics, benzene, toluene and ethyl benzene. The samples collected during the stable operation of the UCG process were characterized by higher concentrations of naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, while in the samples acquired in the post-process stage the lowest concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, acenaphthene and fluorene were observed. PMID:23202571

  11. Comparison of performance data of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell using biomass gasification gas and natural gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnstein Norheim; Johan E. Hustad; Jan Byrknes; Arild Vik

    Gasification of biomass produces a gas consisting mainly of H2, CO, CO2, H2, N2, CH4 and other light hydrocarbons. The composition of the gas mixture differs depending on the biomass used, gasification process conditions and technology. Gasification processes using air as gasification medium produces a diluted fuel gas, with high nitrogen content, up to 50 % (vol). Steam gasification on

  12. Corrosion and degradation of test materials in the General Electric GEGAS 25 ton/day coal gasification process development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Yurkewycz, R.

    1985-01-31

    Alloys were evaluated in the GEGAS 25 ton/day coal gasification pilot plant operating at 300 psig (2.1 MPa gauge). The exposure period lasted for approximately 500 h under gasification conditions. Coupons were exposed in the gasifier (below the bottom grate and in the off-gas) and spray-quench vessel. Ferritic alloy 18Cr-2Mo was the best performing alloy (<20 mpy (0.5 mm/y)) in the air-superheated steam (temperature range: 500/sup 0/ to 1000/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/ to 538/sup 0/C)) environment in the ash pit below the grate assembly. Austenitic alloys Types 304 and 316 underwent stress-corrosion cracking. Irregular corrosion and pitting attack were the modes of corrosion for martenstic alloy Type 410, low-alloy steels 5Cr-0.5Mo and 2.25Cr-1Mo, and carbon steel A515. Their corrosion rates were >100 mpy (2.5 mm/y). In the gasifier off-gas test location, alloys Incoloy 800, Incoloy 825, and 20Cb-3 gave the best corrosion performance in the low-Btu product gas. Alloys 18-18-2, 18Cr-2Mo, and Type 321 experienced corrosion losses due to scaling; intergranular corrosion was experienced by Types 304 and 316. Operating temperatures ranged from 1000/sup 0/ to 1200/sup 0/F (538/sup 0/ to 649/sup 0/C). Process conditions were much milder for alloy coupons in the spray-quench vessel during 500 h exposure. High-alloy steels (18-18-2, 18Cr-2Mo, Types 304 and 316) experienced little corrosion at 350/sup 0/ to 400/sup 0/F (177/sup 0/ to 204/sup 0/C) in the vapor phase. The performances of carbon steel A515 and cast iron A278 were unacceptable since corrosion rates were >30 mpy (0.8 mm/y). 13 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Assessment of the CRIP (Controlled Retracting Injection Point) process for underground coal gasification: The Rocky Mountain I test

    SciTech Connect

    Cena, R.J.; Thorsness, C.B.; Britten, J.A.

    1988-08-01

    Results of the recently completed Rocky Mountain I (RMI) underground coal gasification (UCG) field test have shown that the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) process for UCG is capable of producing consistently high quality gas from a single injection well for an extended period of time. The RMI CRIP module was in operation for 93 days and gasified over 10,000 tonnes (11,023 tons) of coal, with an average dry product heating value of 253 kJ/mol (287 Btu/scf). The CRIP process, which utilizes a horizontally drilled injection borehole, has the advantage over vertical well process techniques in that it maintains oxidant injection low in the coal seam for optimal resource recovery, and provides a method for reignition of the coal in a different location when gas quality declines as the maturing reactor begins to interact with inert overburden. This report discusses the results of the RMI CRIP module, compares its performance with the simultaneously operated Extended Linked Well (ELW) module, and explains the behavior of the CRIP reactors with the aid of a model developed for describing UCG reactor dynamics for cases in which oxidant injection remains low in the coal. It is shown that both in terms of fundamental understanding and practical application, the CRIP process for UCG in subbituminous and lower ranking coals has reached a level where the remaining technical uncertainties and risk to commercial development have been largely reduced. 6 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  15. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Task 4, System integration studies: Char upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.; Hogsett, R.F.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.

    1991-12-01

    This document describes the results of Task 4 under which a 50 pound/hour char-to-carbon (CTC) process research unit (PRU) was designed in the second half of 1989, with construction completed in June 1990. The CTC PRU at Golden was operated for nearly one year during which 35 runs were completed for a total of nearly 800 hours of operation. Char methanation and carbon production reactor development activities are detailed in this report, as well as the results of integrated runs of the CTC process. Evaluation of the process and the carbon product produced is also included. It was concluded that carbon could be produced from mild gasification char utilizing the CTC process. Char methanation and membrane separation steps performed reasonably well and can scaled up with confidence. However, the novel directly heated reactor system for methane cracking did not work satisfactorily due to materials of construction and heat transfer problems, which adversely affected the quantity and quality of the carbon product. Alternative reactor designs are recommended.

  16. Repowering applications using the British Gas/Lurgi fixed-bed gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Shellhorse, V.H. [Duke Energy Corp, Charlotte, NC (United States); Garstang, J.H. [British Gas plc, London (United Kingdom). Gasification Dept.; Herbert, P.K. [Lurgi Energie- und Umwelttechnik, Frankfurt (Germany); Kluttz, D.E. [Duke Engineering and Services, Inc., Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Steady economic growth, aging US base load power plants and Phase 2 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment, will stimulate planning for new base-load capacity. What type of plants will be considered for the next increment of base load in the US? One option that is frequently discussed is the repowering of existing power plants with advanced technology, clean fuels and state-of-the-art environmental controls. Repowerings using natural gas have been implemented where supplies of natural gas are adequate and pricing is competitive. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (CGCC) is another repowering option with growing interest based on support from the US Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology Program demonstration plants and experience gleaned from plants in several European countries. The British Gas Lurgi (BGL) fixed-bed, slagging gasifier is a state-of-the-art technology well suited for CGCC repowering applications. It offers dramatically reduced environmental emissions, simplicity, and improved thermal efficiency. This paper discusses such repowering applications.

  17. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operaated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, G.; Gerdes, K.; Song, X.; Chen, Y.; Shutthanandan, V.; Englehard, M.; Zhu, Z.; Thevuthasan, S.; Gemmen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are being developed for integrated gasification power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but test data from direct coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This effort evaluates the significance of performance losses associated with exposure to direct coal syngas. Specimen are operated in a unique mobile test skid that is deployed to the research gasifier at NCCC in Wilsonville, AL. The test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas to a parallel array of twelve SOFCs. During the 500 h test period, all twelve cells are monitored for performance at four current densities. Degradation is attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that is accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that are operated at 0 and 125 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 h, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 h, respectively. Spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

  18. Modeling of the coal gasification processes in a hybrid plasma torch

    SciTech Connect

    Matveev, I.B.; Serbin, S.I. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

    2007-12-15

    The major advantages of plasma treatment systems are cost effectiveness and technical efficiency. A new efficient electrodeless 1-MW hybrid plasma torch for waste disposal and coal gasification is proposed. This product merges several solutions such as the known inductive-type plasma torch, innovative reverse-vortex (RV) reactor and the recently developed nonequilibrium plasma pilot and plasma chemical reactor. With the use of the computational-fluid-dynamics-computational method, preliminary 3-D calculations of heat exchange in a 1-MW plasma generator operating with direct vortex and RV have been conducted at the air flow rate of 100 g/s. For the investigated mode and designed parameters, reduction of the total wall heat transfer for the reverse scheme is about 65 kW, which corresponds to an increase of the plasma generator efficiency by approximately 6.5%. This new hybrid plasma torch operates as a multimode, high power plasma system with a wide range of plasma feedstock gases and turn down ratio, and offers convenient and simultaneous feeding of several additional reagents into the discharge zone.

  19. Investigation of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (United States)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air/steam and oxygen/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal. Numerical simulation showed that the plasma oxygen/steam gasification of coal is a more preferable process in comparison with the plasma air/steam coal gasification. On the numerical experiments, a plasma vortex fuel reformer is designed.

  20. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, Gregory A.; Gerdes, Kirk R.; Song, Xueyan; Chen, Yun; Shutthanandan, V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Gemmen, Randall

    2012-09-15

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for gasification integrated power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50+% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with the Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but direct test data from coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This research effort evaluates the significance of SOFC performance losses associated with exposure of a SOFC anode to direct coal syngas. SOFC specimen of industrially relevant composition are operated in a unique mobile test skid that was deployed to the research gasifier at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. The mobile test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas (up to 300°C) directly to a parallel array of 12 button cell specimen, each of which possesses an active area of approximately 2 cm2. During the 500 hour test period, all twelve cells were monitored for performance at four discrete operating current densities, and all cells maintained contact with a data acquisition system. Of these twelve, nine demonstrated good performance throughout the test, while three of the cells were partially compromised. Degradation associated with the properly functioning cells was attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that was accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that were operated at 0 and 125 mA/cm² degraded at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 hours, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA/cm² degraded at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 hours, respectively. Post-trial spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

  1. Corrosion and degradation of test materials in the General Electric GEGAS 25 ton\\/day coal gasification process development unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yurkewycz

    1985-01-01

    Alloys were evaluated in the GEGAS 25 ton\\/day coal gasification pilot plant operating at 300 psig (2.1 MPa gauge). The exposure period lasted for approximately 500 h under gasification conditions. Coupons were exposed in the gasifier (below the bottom grate and in the off-gas) and spray-quench vessel. Ferritic alloy 18Cr-2Mo was the best performing alloy (<20 mpy (0.5 mm\\/y)) in

  2. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930{degree} and 1470{degree}F (500{degree}and 800{degree}C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a ``coal refinery`` system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R&D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  3. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930[degree] and 1470[degree]F (500[degree]and 800[degree]C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a coal refinery'' system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  4. Combustion Engineering two-stage, atmospheric-pressure, entrained-flow coal-gasification-process development-unit program. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Darling; R. W. Koucky; M. C. Tanca

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted to design, construct and operate a two-stage, atmospheric-pressure, entrained-flow, low-Btu coal-gasification-process development unit (PDU) having a capacity of 5 tons\\/h of coal. The program was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Combustion Engineering, Inc. The objectives of the program were: (1) to demonstrate the capability and suitability of

  5. A biomass combustion-gasification model: Validation and sensitivity analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Bettagli; D. Fiaschi; U. Desideri

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to study the gasification and combustion of biomass and waste materials. A model for the analysis of the chemical kinetics of gasification and combustion processes was developed with the main objective of calculating the gas composition at different operating conditions. The model was validated with experimental data for sawdust gasification. After having set

  6. Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

  7. Groundwater Pollution from Underground Coal Gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-qin LIU; Jing-gang LI; Mei MEI; Dong-lin DONG

    2007-01-01

    In situ coal gasification poses a potential environmental risk to groundwater pollution although it depends mainly on local hydrogeological conditions. In our investigation, the possible processes of groundwater pollution originating from underground coal gasification (UCG) were analyzed. Typical pollutants were identified and pollution control measures are proposed. Groundwater pollution is caused by the diffusion and penetration of contaminants generated by

  8. Hydrogen production by underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Li; Bao Deyou [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China)

    1997-12-31

    A new technique of Long Tunnel, Large Section and Two-Stage (LLTS) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) combines coal mining and coal gasification in one process and with abandoned coal mine resources. The new technique of UCG will be developed in China for producing hydrogen at a large scale at low cost.

  9. Underground coal gasification simulation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, R.D.

    1984-07-01

    The underground coal gasification (UCG) process - both forward gasification and reverse combustion linkage - was mathematically modeled. The models were validated with field and laboratory data. They were then used to explain some important UCG phenomena that had not been predictable with other methods. Some views on the UCG technology status are also presented. 3 references, 25 figures, 10 tables.

  10. Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

    1984-05-25

    This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.8, Decontamination and disassembly of the mild gasification process research unit and disposal of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Li, Y.; Heidt, M.

    1992-09-01

    Prior to disassembly of the CFBR, accumulated tar residue must be removed from the reactor, piping and tubing lines, and the condenser vessels. Based on experience from the CFBR mild gasification tests, lacquer thinner must be pumped through the unit for at least one hour to remove the residual tar. The lacquer thinner wash may be followed by a water wash. The CFBR will be disassembled after the system has been thoroughly flushed out. The following equipment must be disassembled and removed for storage: Superheater; Water supply pump; Coal feed system (hopper, auger, ball feeder, valves); Reactor; Cyclone and fines catch pot; Condensers (water lines, glycol bath, condenser pots, valves); and Gas meter. After the process piping and reactor have been disassembled, the equipment will be inspected for tar residues and flushed again with acetone or lacquer thinner, if necessary. All solvent used for cleaning the system will be collected for recycle or proper disposal. Handling and disposal of the solvent will be properly documented. The equipment will be removed and stored for future use. Equipment contaminated externally with tar (Level 4) will be washed piece by piece with lacquer thinner after disassembly of the PRU. Proper health and safety practices must be followed by the personnel involved in the cleanup operation. Care must be taken to avoid ingestion, inhalation, or prolonged skin contact of the coal tars and lacquer thinner. Equipment contaminated internally by accumulation of residual tar or oil (Level 5) will be flushed section by section with lacquer thinner. The equipment will be washed with solvent both before and after disassembly to ensure that all tar has been removed from the piping, pumps, gas quench condensers, light tar condensers, and drain lines. The coal tars wig be separated from the solvent and incinerated.

  12. Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Luche; Q Falcoz; T Bastien; J P Leninger; K Arabi; O Aubry; A Khacef; J M Cormier; J Lédé

    2012-01-01

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to

  13. Chemical processing in high-pressure aqueous environments. 2. Development of catalysts for gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas C. Elliott; L. John Sealock; Eddie G. Baker

    1993-01-01

    A liquid water processing environment was used at 20 MPa and 350 C to convert organic compounds to methane and carbon dioxide in the presence of catalysts. This paper describes the evaluation of various types of base and noble metal catalysts and numerous support compositions for the process. The feedstock used in these tests was a mixture of p-cresol and

  14. Mathematical Modeling of Coal Gasification Processes in a Well-Stirred Reactor: Effects of Devolatilization and Moisture Content

    E-print Network

    Qiao, Li

    in coal and biomass play an important role on the gasification performance of these fuels and syngas production). The results show that the syngas yield is most sensitive to the reaction rates on the syngas composition. The coal conversion time is most sensitive to the heat transfer rates including both

  15. Evaluation of energy vectors poly-generation schemes based on solid fuel gasification processes with Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calin-Cristian Cormos; Ana-Maria Cormos; Victoria Goia; Serban Agachi

    2009-01-01

    Energy issue is very important and actual for the modern world giving the double significance of the problem: security of energy supply, environmental protection and climate change prevention by reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (mainly carbon dioxide).This paper investigates the innovative ways for transforming the coal in addition with renewable energy sources (biomass), through gasification into different energy vectors (power,

  16. Calcium silicate cement sorbent for H/sub 2/S removal and improved gasification processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, H.J.; Steinberg, M.

    1983-10-01

    Based on the studies performed on the agglomerated cement sorbent (ACS) pellet for in-situ desulfurization of gases and for improved gasification, in low and medium Btu fluidized bed coal gasifier (FBG) systems, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) The pelletization method by a drum pelletizer is a good way of agglomerating large sized (>20 US mesh) ACS pellets having high sorbent performance. (2) The ACS pellets have a sulfur capture capacity of about 60% at 950/sup 0/C, are 100% regenerable, and so not lose reactivity during cyclic use. (3) The rate of sulfidation increases linearly with H/sub 2/S concentration in the feed gas stream up to 1.0%. (4) The rate of sulfidation first increases with temperature in an Arrhenius fashion in the temperature range of 800/sup 0/C to 1000/sup 0/C and then decreases with further increase in temperatures, giving rise to an optimum sulfidation temperature of about 1000/sup 0/C. (5) The gasification of coal or coal char either with CO/sub 2/ gas or by partial oxidation in a 40 mm ID FBG shows that the gasification efficiency of coal (or coal char) is very much enhanced with the ACS pellets and with Greer limestone over the coal (or coal char) alone. There is, however, not much difference between the ACS pellets and Greer limestone in the degree of enhancement. (6) The gasification of coal by partial oxidation with air to low Btu gas in a 1-inch coal-fired FBG unit shows that in the temperature range of 800/sup 0/ to 900/sup 0/C the efficiency of coal gasification is improved by as much as 40% when ACS pellets are used compared to the use of Greer limestone. At the same time the sulfur removal efficiency is increased from 50 to 65% with Greer limestone to over 95% with the ACS pellets.

  17. Thermochemical conversion of biomass to syngas via an entrained pyrolysis\\/gasification process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Purdy; C. W. Gorton; J. A. Jr. Knight

    1985-01-01

    Biomass feedstock raw material is converted to synthesis gas by drying and sizing biomass raw material, pyrolyzing the processed biomass in intimate mixture with inert gases such as combustion products, thereby obtaining a product mixture of char, pyrolysis oil, and pyrolysis gas, and gasifying the char and some of the pyrolysis oil in the presence of steam and oxygen at

  18. Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification. Second annual report, [November 1990--February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This second annual report summarizes the work accomplished during the period November 1990 through February 1992 for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC05-90CE40893. The overall project objective is to field test an energy-efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system at a significant industrial scale. This is intended to demonstrate the maturity of the technology in an industrial environment and serve as an example to the industry of the safer and more energy-efficient processing technique. The project structure is comprised of three primary activities: process characterization testing, scale-up hardware development, and field testing. The objective of the process characterization testing was to resolve key technical issues regarding the black liquor recovery process that were identified during earlier laboratory verification tests. This was intended to provide a sound engineering data base for the design, construction and testing of a nominal 1.0 TPH integrated black liquor recovery gasifier. The objective of the scale-up hardware development effort was to ensure that key hardware components, in particular the pulse heater module, would perform reliably and safely in the field. Finally, the objective of the field test is to develop an industrial data base sufficient to demonstrate the capabilities and performance of the operating system with respect to thermal efficiency, product quality, fuel handling, system control, reliability and cost. These tests are to provide long-term and continuous operating data at a capacity unattainable in the bench-scale apparatus.

  19. Exxon catalytic coal-gasification process development program. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Euker, Jr, C. A.

    1980-03-01

    Work continued on the catalyst recovery screening studies to evaluate the economic impacts of alternative processing approaches and solid-liquid separation techniques. Equipment specifications have been completed for two cases with countercurrent water washing using rotary-drum filters for the solid-liquid separations. Material and energy balances have been completed for an alternative methane recovery process configuration using low pressure stripping which requires 26% less horsepower than the Study Design system. A study has been initiated to identify trace components which might be present in the CCG gas loop and to assess their potential impacts on the CCG process. This information will be used to assist in planning an appropriate series of analyses for the PDU gasifier effluent. A study has been initiated to evaluate the use of a small conventional steam reformer operating in parallel with a preheat furnace for heat input to the catalytic gasifier which avoids the potential problem of carbon laydown. Preliminary replies from ten manufacturers are being evaluated as part of a study to determine the types and performance of coal crushing equipment appropriate for commercial CCG plants. A material and energy balance computer model for the CCG reactor system has been completed. The new model will provide accurate, consistent and cost-efficient material and energy balances for the extensive laboratory guidance and process definition studies planned under the current program. Other activities are described briefly.

  20. An economic and energy analysis on bio-hydrogen fuel using a gasification process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoshi Dowaki; Tsuyoshi Ohta; Yasukazu Kasahara; Mitsuo Kameyama; Koji Sakawaki; Shunsuke Mori

    2007-01-01

    Recently, in Japan, recycling technologies have been developed using waste biomass material. Waste biomass is traded in the waste materials market between users and a third-party, who receives a fee for processing them. This study is an environmental and economic analysis of a biomass energy system, which can produce hydrogen fuel for fuel cells (purity of 99.99%) as an example

  1. Removal of organic constituents in a coal gasification process wastewater by activated sludge treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. C. Stamoudis; R. G. Luthy; W. Harrison

    1979-01-01

    The wastewater sample was obtained from a pilot-scale HYGAS run. Wastewater was pretreated to reduce ammonia and alkalinity and was then processed in an activated sludge reactor at a hydraulic residence time of two days with a bacterial mean cell residence time of 15 days and a COD removal rate of 0.86 per day. Analysis indicates that activated sludge treatment

  2. Gasification: redefining clean energy

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    This booklet gives a comprehensive overview of how gasification is redefining clean energy, now and in the future. It informs the general public about gasification in a straight-forward, non-technical manner.

  3. Low-energy process for separating hydrogen and methane in advanced coal-gasification processes. Final report, September 8, 1980-January 7, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, R.T.; Saunders, J.T.; Byers, S.G.; Wang, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    This report contains the detailed results of the following three-part study: Part I. Adsorption of H/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ from single and mixed gases on activated carbon, coals and chars; Part II. Adsorption of H/sub 2/S and its mixtures with H/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ on activated carbon, coals and chars; and Part III. Separation of H/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ and H/sub 2//CH/sub 4//H/sub 2/S mixtures by a temperature-cycling process. The original scope of the study, as indicated by the title of the report, has been expanded to include H/sub 2/S in the gas mixture. The inclusion of H/sub 2/S was to study the feasibility of combining the H/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ separation step with the H/sub 2/S removal step into a single process. The success of the feasibility study naturally leads to the possibility of separating both CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S from H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/ in coal gasification products by the cyclic adsorption/desorption process. The results of the study are presented.

  4. Syngas chemical looping gasification process: oxygen carrier particle selection and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Fanxing Li; Hyung Ray Kim; Deepak Sridhar; Fei Wang; Liang Zeng; Joseph Chen; L.-S. Fan [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2009-08-15

    The syngas chemical looping (SCL) process coproduces hydrogen and electricity. The process involves reducing metal oxides with syngas followed by regeneration of reduced metal oxides with steam and air in a cyclic manner. Iron oxide is determined to be a desired oxygen carrier for hydrogen production considering overall properties including oxygen carrying capacity, thermodynamic properties, reaction kinetics, physical strength, melting points, and environmental effects. An iron oxide based particle can maintain good reactivity for more than 100 reduction-oxidation (redox) cycles in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The particle exhibits a good crushing strength (>20 MPa) and low attrition rate. Fixed bed experiments are carried out which reaffirm its reactivity. More than 99.75% of syngas is converted during the reduction stage. During the regeneration stage, hydrogen with an average purity of 99.8% is produced. 23 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Test and evaluate the tri-gas low-Btu coal-gasification process. Final report, October 21, 1977-October 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Zabetakis, M.G.

    1980-12-01

    This report describes the continuation of work done to develop the BCR TRI-GAS multiple fluidized-bed gasification process. The objective is the gasification of all ranks of coals with the only product being a clean, low-Btu fuel gas. Design and construction of a 100 lb/h process and equipment development unit (PEDU) was completed on the previous contract. The process consists of three fluid-bed reactors in series, each having a specific function: Stage 1 - pretreatment; Stage 2- - gasification; Stage 3 - maximization of carbon utilization. Under the present contract, 59 PEDU tests have been conducted. A number of these were single-stage tests, mostly in Stage 1; however, integrated PEDU tests were conducted with a western coal (Rosebud) and two eastern coals (Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh seam). Both Rosebud and Pittsburgh seam coals were gasified with the PEDU operating in the design mode. Operation with Illinois No. 6 seam coal was also very promising; however, time limitations precluded further testing with this coal. One of the crucial tasks was to operate the Stage 1 reactor to pretreat and devolatilize caking coals. By adding a small amount of air to the fluidizing gas, the caking properties of the coal can be eliminated. However, it was also desirable to release a high percentage of the volatile matter from the coal in this vessel. To accomplish this, the reactor had to be operated above the agglomerating temperature of caking coals. By maintaining a low ratio of fresh to treated coal, this objective was achieved. Both Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh seam coals were treated at temperatures of 800 to 900 F without agglomerating in the vessel.

  6. Theoretical Investigation of the Process of Steam-Oxygen Gasification of Coke-Ash Particles in a Fluidized Bed Under Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokhman, B. B.

    2015-03-01

    The problem on the evolution of the state of an ensemble of reacting coke-ash particles in a fluidized-bed gas generator is considered. A kinetic equation for the distribution function of particles within small ranges of carbon concentration variation for the stages of surface and bulk reaction has been constructed and integrated. Boundary conditions ("matching" conditions) at the boundaries between these ranges are formulated. The influence of the granulometric composition of the starting coal, height, porosity, and of the bed temperature on the process of steam-oxygen gasification of coke-ash particles of individual sorts of fuel and of a binary coal mixture has been investigated.

  7. Development of Biological Coal Gasification (MicGAS Process). Topical report, July 1991--February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, K.C.

    1993-06-01

    Laboratory and bench scale reactor research carried out during the report period confirms the feasibility of biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL) and some other low-rank coals to methane by specifically developed unique anaerobic microbial consortia. The data obtained demonstrates specificity of a particular microbial consortium to a given lignite. Development of a suitable microbial consortium is the key to the success of the process. The Mic-1 consortium was developed to tolerate higher coal loadings of 1 and 5% TxL in comparison to initial loadings of 0.01% and 0.1% TxL. Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic-1 consortium. Four different bench scale bioreactor configurations, namely Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), Upflow Fluidized Bed Reactor (UFBR), Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR), and Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) were evaluated for scale up studies. Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic-1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor. However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC.

  8. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, R W; Benson, J M; Li, A P; Henderson, R F; Brooks, A L

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays (CHO/HGPRT and Ames). The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. Coke oven main extract produced fewer revertants in bacteria than the raw gas sample. However, the coke oven main extract was more genotoxic in the two eukaryotic systems (CHL/SCE and CHO/HGPRT) than was the raw gas sample. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems. PMID:6389110

  9. The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification

    E-print Network

    Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

    Air Products supplies oxygen to a number of coal gasification and partial oxidation facilities worldwide. At the high operating pressures of these processes, economics favor the use of 90% and higher oxygen purities. The effect of inerts...

  10. The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification 

    E-print Network

    Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

    1986-01-01

    Air Products supplies oxygen to a number of coal gasification and partial oxidation facilities worldwide. At the high operating pressures of these processes, economics favor the use of 90% and higher oxygen purities. The effect of inerts...

  11. Processes forming Gas, Tar, and Coke in Cellulose Gasification from Gas-Phase Reactions of Levoglucosan as Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Fukutome, Asuka; Kawamoto, Haruo; Saka, Shiro

    2015-07-01

    The gas-phase pyrolysis of levoglucosan (LG), the major intermediate species during cellulose gasification, was studied experimentally over the temperature range of 400-900?°C. Gaseous LG did not produce any dehydration products, which include coke, furans, and aromatic substances, although these are characteristic products of the pyrolysis of molten LG. Alternatively, at >500?°C, gaseous LG produced only fragmentation products, such as noncondensable gases and condensable C1 -C3 fragments, as intermediates during noncondensable gas formation. Therefore, it was determined that secondary reactions of gaseous LG can result in the clean (tar- and coke-free) gasification of cellulose. Cooling of the remaining LG in the gas phase caused coke formation by the transition of the LG to the molten state. The molecular mechanisms that govern the gas- and molten-phase reactions of LG are discussed in terms of the acid catalyst effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding to promote the molten-phase dehydration reactions. PMID:26099988

  12. Equilibrium analysis of hydrogen production using the steam-plasma gasification process of the used car tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, V. A.; Kumkova, I. I.; Lerner, A. S.; Popov, V. E.

    2012-12-01

    The paper deals with the treatment of used car tires. The method of used tires plasma gasification is proposed. The investigation of the syngas composition was carried out according to the temperature and plasma flow rate variation. The method of the steam catalytic conversion of CO, which is a part of the syngas, and CaO usage are suggested. The results of the calculation modeling at various temperatures, pressures, and steam flow rates are presented.

  13. Mild gasification technology development process: Task 3, Bench-scale char upgrading study, February 1988--November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Carty, R.H.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Knight, R.A.; Wootten, J.M.; Duthie, R.G.

    1990-12-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop mild gasification technology and co-product utilization. The objective of Task 3 was to investigate the necessary steps for upgrading the mild gasification char into potential high-market-value solid products. Recommendations of the Task 1 market survey section formed the basis for selecting three value-added solid products from mild gasification char: form coke, smokeless fuel, and activated adsorbent char. The formation and testing for the form coke co-product involved an evaluation of its briquette strength and reactivity. The measured tensile strength and reactivity of the form coke sample briquettes were in the range of commercial coke, and development tests on a larger scale are recommended. The reaction rate of the form coke carbon with carbon dioxide at 1825{degree}F was measured using a standard procedure. A smokeless fuel briquette with limestone added to control sulfur can be made from mild gasification char in a simple manner. Test results have shown that briquettes with limestone have a heating value comparable to other solid fuels and the limestone can retain up to 88% of the sulfur during combustion in a simple bench-scale combustion test, almost all of it as a stable calcium sulfate. Adsorbent chars were prepared with a standard steam activation procedure and tested for a variety of pertinent property and performance values. Such adsorbents may be better suited for use in some areas, such as the adsorption of low-molecular-weight substances, because of the smaller pore sizes measured in the char. 5 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Four stage, fluidized bed gasification process minimizes NO{sub x}

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, F.M.; Haug, R.T.

    1999-07-01

    In 1981, after a long and thorough study of alternative methods of sewage sludge (biosolids) disposal, the City of Los Angeles (CLA) embarked on a pilot test program to incinerate dried sewage sludge from its Hyperion Wastewater Treatment Plant. This dried sludge is typically 47% ash, 53% combustible, and has an average higher heating value (HHV), moisture, ash-free (MAF) of 10,675 Btu/Lbm. The dried sludge is called sludge derived fuel (SDF). Approximately 8% of the MAF fraction of SDF is fuel-bound nitrogen. When SDF, with its extremely high fuel-bound nitrogen, was combusted in conventional multiple hearth and fluidized bed pilot plant furnaces, NO{sub x} emissions were extremely high ({gt}1,000 ppm). Faced with this dilemma, the CLA initiated an R and D program to reduce NO{sub x}. The pilot tests with a sub-stoichiometric fluid bed and an excess air afterburner (two-stages) reduced NO{sub x} to 400--600 ppm. With one intermediate stage added (three-stage), NO{sub x} was reduced to 130--150 ppm. However, when the following four-stage process was developed and tested, NO{sub x} was reduced to 50--75 ppm. Stage 1: Sub-stoichiometric fluidized bed operating at a nominal 30% stoichiometric air (SA). Stage 2:Sub-stoichiometric zone operating at a nominal 80% SA. Stage 3: Stoichiometric zone operating at a nominal 100% SA. Stage 4: Excess air zone (Afterburner) operating at a nominal 135% SA (35% excess air). After pilot testing was complete and design parameters established, three full-size, fluid bed gasifiers (two operational--one standby) were designed, constructed and operated until 1996. This paper describes the design, operation, and emission testing of these four-stage fluid bed gasifiers with special emphasis on the problems of (a) pneumatic feeding of SDF powder into the pressurized bed and (b) baghouse fabrics (expanded PTEE membrane on PTFE scrim). Final emission test results for NO{sub x} and other criteria pollutants are also presented.

  15. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Final report, September 1987--September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Char, the major co-product of mild coal gasification, represents about 70 percent of the total product yield. The only viable use for the char is in the production of formed coke. Early work to develop formed coke used char from a pilot plant sized mild gasification unit (MGU), which was based on commercial units of the COALITE plant in England. Formed coke was made at a bench-scale production level using MGU chars from different coals. An evolutionary formed coke development process over a two-year period resulted in formed coke production at bench-scale levels that met metallurgical industries` specifications. In an ASTM D5341 reactivity test by a certified lab, the coke tested CRI 30.4 and CSR 67.0 which is excellent. The standard is CRI < 32 and CSR > 55. In 1991, a continuous 1000 pounds per hour coal feed mild coal gasification pilot plant (CMGU) was completed. The gasification unit is a heated unique screw conveyor designed to continuously process plastic coal, vent volatiles generated by pyrolysis of coal, and convert the plastic coal to free flowing char. The screw reactor auxiliary components are basic solids materials handling equipment. The screw reactor will convert coal to char and volatile co-products at a rate greater than 1000 pounds per hour of coal feed. Formed coke from CMGU char is comparable to that from the MGU char. In pilot-plant test runs, up to 20 tons of foundry coke were produced. Three formed coke tests at commercial foundries were successful. In all of the cupola tests, the iron temperature and composition data indicated that the formed coke performed satisfactorily. No negative change in the way the cupola performed was noticed. The last 20-ton test was 100 percent CTC/DOE coke. With conventional coke in this cupola charging rates were 10 charges per hour. The formed coke charges were 11 to 12 charges per hour. This equates to a higher melt rate. A 10 percent increase in cupola production would be a major advantage. 13 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Scale-up of mild gasification to be a process development unit mildgas 24 ton/day PDU design report. Final report, November 1991--July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    From November 1991 to April 1996, Kerr McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal) led a project to develop the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) Mild Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program were to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scale-up; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The project team for the PDU development program consisted of: K-M Coal, IGT, Bechtel Corporation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC), General Motors (GM), Pellet Technology Corporation (PTC), LTV Steel, Armco Steel, Reilly Industries, and Auto Research.

  17. High temperature electrochemical polishing of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification process streams. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Winnick, J.

    1995-12-31

    An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane is being developed. H{sub 2}S is removed from the syn-gas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the exiting syn-gas, and sulfur, which is condensed from an inert sweep gas stream. The process allows removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream and with negligible pressure loss through the separator. The process is made economically attractive by the lack of need for a Claus process for sulfur recovery. Membrane manufacturing coupled with full-cell experimentation was the primary focus this quarter. A tape-casted zirconia membrane was developed and utilized in one full-cell experiment (run 25); run 24 utilized a fabricated membrane purchased from Zircar Corporation. Results are discussed.

  18. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, B.D.; Ness, R.O. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    On November 6, 1991, a meeting was held at the AMAX Research and Development Center in Golden, Colorado. Those in attendance at the meeting included Brian Runge and Robert Ness of the EERC, Scott McFeely of Xoi, Frank Hogsett and Mahesh Jha of AMAX, and Jerry Sinor and Trevor Ellis of J.E- Sinor Consultants. Items on the agenda included framing the scope of work to be conducted by Sinor on the market assessment for mild gasification products. An attempt was made to draft an integrated time line for the completion of all subcontracts issued under the project. The commercial process flowsheet under development by XBi was presented for review. The goals to be achieved by the technical and economic assessment to be performed by XBi were outlined. Frank Hogsett reported on the progress of the coal cleaning being conducted by AMAX. As soon as sufficient coal has been cleaned, the mild gasification reactors at the EERC will be run to generate sufficient quantities of products to allow testing of product upgrading and utilization methods. The next project review meeting was held on December 12, 1991, in the Houston, Texas, offices of XBi. The major work conducted during this meeting focused on review of the preliminary process flow diagrams (PFOS) prepared by XBi. Several modifications were discussed and will be reflected in the updated PFDs.

  19. Prediction and measurement of optimum operating conditions for entrained coal gasification processes. Quarterly technical progress report, No. 1, 1 November 1979-31 January 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Smith, P.J.

    1980-02-15

    This report summarizes work completed to predict and measure optimum operating conditions for entrained coal gasifications processes. This study is the third in a series designed to investigate mixing and reaction in entrained coal gasifiers. A new team of graduate and undergraduate students was formed to conduct the experiments on optimum gasification operating conditions. Additional coal types, which will be tested in the gasifier were identified, ordered, and delivered. Characterization of these coals will be initiated. Hardware design modifications to introduce swirl into the secondary were initiated. Minor modifications were made to the gasifier to allow laser diagnostics to be made on an independently funded study with the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The tasks completed on the two-dimensional model included the substantiation of a Gaussian PDF for the top-hat PDF in BURN and the completion of a Lagrangian particle turbulent dispersion module. The reacting submodel is progressing into the final stages of debug. The formulation of the radiation submodel is nearly complete and coding has been initiated. A device was designed, fabricated, and used to calibrate the actual Swirl Number of the cold-flow swirl generator used in the Phase 2 study. Swirl calibrations were obtained at the normal tests flow rates and at reduced flow rates. Two cold-flow tests were also performed to gather local velocity data under swirling conditions. Further analysis of the cold-flow coal-dust and swirl test results from the previous Phase 2 study were completed.

  20. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Amick; G. J. Mann; J. J. Cook; R. Fisackerly; R. C. Spears

    1992-01-01

    The Destec gasification process features an oxygen-blown, two stage entrained flow gasifier. PSI will procure coal for the Project consistent with the design specification ranges of Destec`s coal gasification facility. Destec`s plant will be designed to accept coal with a maximum sulfur content of 5.9% (dry basis) and a minimum energy content of 13,5000 BTU\\/pound (moisture and ash free basis).

  1. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Amick; G. J. Mann; J. J. Cook; R. Fisackerly; R. C. Spears

    1992-01-01

    The Destec gasification process features an oxygen-blown, two stage entrained flow gasifier. PSI will procure coal for the Project consistent with the design specification ranges of Destec's coal gasification facility. Destec's plant will be designed to accept coal with a maximum sulfur content of 5.9% (dry basis) and a minimum energy content of 13,5000 BTU\\/pound (moisture and ash free basis).

  2. EMERY BIOMASS GASIFICATION POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Phillips; Scott Hassett; Harry Gatley

    2002-11-27

    Emery Recycling Corporation (now Emery Energy Company, LLC) evaluated the technical and economical feasibility of the Emery Biomass Gasification Power System (EBGPS). The gasifier technology is owned and being developed by Emery. The Emery Gasifier for this project was an oxygen-blown, pressurized, non-slagging gasification process that novelly integrates both fixed-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes into a single vessel. This unique internal geometry of the gasifier vessel will allow for tar and oil destruction within the gasifier. Additionally, the use of novel syngas cleaning processes using sorbents is proposed with the potential to displace traditional amine-based and other syngas cleaning processes. The work scope within this project included: one-dimensional gasifier modeling, overall plant process modeling (ASPEN), feedstock assessment, additional analyses on the proposed syngas cleaning process, plant cost estimating, and, market analysis to determine overall feasibility and applicability of the technology for further development and commercial deployment opportunities. Additionally, the project included the development of a detailed technology development roadmap necessary to commercialize the Emery Gasification technology. Process modeling was used to evaluate both combined cycle and solid oxide fuel cell power configurations. Ten (10) cases were evaluated in an ASPEN model wherein nine (9) cases were IGCC configurations with fuel-to-electricity efficiencies ranging from 38-42% and one (1) case was an IGFC solid oxide case where 53.5% overall plant efficiency was projected. The cost of electricity was determined to be very competitive at scales from 35-71 MWe. Market analysis of feedstock availability showed numerous market opportunities for commercial deployment of the technology with modular capabilities for various plant sizes based on feedstock availability and power demand.

  3. Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2008-07-01

    Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

  4. Oxygen plants for coal gasification: Experience at the Cool Water GCC (gasification combined cycle) Power Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Petras, R.A.; Mostello, R.A.; Ko, A.P.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by Airco-BOC for EPRI to assess performance of the Cool Water Oxygen Plant as it relates to the Cool Water Coal Gasification Program's requirements and evaluate alternate supply arrangements for future larger gasifier based combined cycle power plants. The Cool Water Oxygen Plant is the first application of a dedicated oxygen plant to a commercial sized gasifier based combined cycle power generating facility. Performance of the installation has exceeded the requirements of the Cool Water Program. Performance of the entire oxygen facility is presented at various loadings. Operating ranges of system components are discussed. The oxygen plant back-up system is described and subsequent performance noted. Load following tests were conducted by Airco-BOC and the Cool Water Program to determine the entire facility's operating flexibility. Operating ramp rates achievable on the oxygen plant have exceeded the requirements of the coal gasification facility. The oxygen plant's load-following system is described and results of load-following tests conducted are presented. A supplemental study was conducted to determine alternative oxygen generating facilities to support a nominal 600 MW Texaco gasifier based combined cycle power generation facility. The results of this section of the study are presented. 8 refs., 33 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. The Powerton gasification combined-cycle test facility - A preview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. E. Stauffer; D. E. Welty; A. Sacker; W. A. Boothe

    1978-01-01

    A demonstration power plant integrating coal gasification and combined-cycle electrical generation is under development. The gasification facility will use the Lurgi process to convert coal into a clean, low-Btu fuel gas. The combined-cycle plant will provide an efficient source of air and steam for the gasification facility. Since the fuel gas will have an adiabatic flame temperature lower than natural

  6. Hydrogen recovery from the thermal plasma gasification of solid waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youngchul Byun; Moohyun Cho; Jae Woo Chung; Won Namkung; Hyeon Don Lee; Sung Duk Jang; Young-Suk Kim; Jin-Ho Lee; Carg-Ro Lee; Soon-Mo Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Thermal plasma gasification has been demonstrated as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization in many of studies. Therefore, the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification (paper mill waste, 1.2 ton\\/day) was applied for the recovery of high purity H2 (>99.99%). Gases emitted from a gasification furnace equipped with a

  7. Biothermal gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Srivastava, V.J.; Henry, M.P.; Tarman, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The BIOTHERMGAS Process is described for conversion of biomass, organic residues, and peat to substitute natural gas (SNG). This new process, under development at IGT, combines biological and thermal processes for total conversion of a broad variety of organic feeds (regardless of water or nutrient content). The process employs thermal gasification for conversion of refractory digester residues. Ammonia and other inorganic nutrients are recycled from the thermal process effluent to the bioconversion unit. Biomethanation and catalytic methanation are presented as alternative processes for methanation of thermal conversion product gases. Waste heat from the thermal component is used to supply the digester heat requirements of the bioconversion component. The results of a preliminary systems analysis of three possible applications of this process are presented: (1) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with catalytic methanation; (2) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with biomethanation; and (3) 1000 ton/day municipal solid waste (MSW) sewage sludge plant with biomethanation. The results indicate that for these examples, performance is superior to that expected for biological or thermal processes used separately. The results of laboratory studies presented suggest that effective conversion of thermal product gases can be accomplished by biomethanation.

  8. Catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Baker; M. D. Brown; R. J. Robertus

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of catalytic gasification of bagasse to produce methanol. In previous studies, a catalytic steam gasification process was developed which converted wood to methanol synthesis gas in one step using nickel based catalysts in a fluid-bed gasifier. Tests in a nominal 1 ton\\/day process development unit (PDU) gasifier

  9. Gasification Product Improvement Facility status

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, R.D.; Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H. [CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Dixit, V.B.; Lisauskas, R.A. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States); Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States). PowerServe Div.

    1994-10-01

    The objective of the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is to provide a test site to support early commercialization of the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology. The design of this facility will by based on PyGas{trademark}, a patented air blown fixed bed gasification process. The GPIF will be capable of processing run-of-mine high swelling coals that comprise 87% of all Eastern US coals. The GPIF project is expected to deliver a gasifier design that will satisfy the criteria for good process performance and cost effectiveness. The PyGas{trademark} process was conceived to handle high swelling coals, crack tars, and reduce ammonia and trace metal emissions. The GPIF program will generate useful scale up data. Initially, the PyGas{trademark}-IGCC systems will be offered as modular units for the repowering markets which will reduce the financial burden on utilities in comparison to large plants. In addition, modular designs will also reduce the plant construction schedules.

  10. Underground coal gasification: environmental update

    SciTech Connect

    Dockter, L.; McTernon, E.M.

    1985-06-01

    Over the past decade underground coal gasification (UCG) in the US has progressed to the point where both its technical and economic prospects are causing industry to re-evaluate the process as a means of converting coal to gaseous fuels and synthesis gas. The technical feasibility of UCG has been demonstrated for subbituminous coals. Steeply dipping beds of these coals seem particularly amenable to recovery by this process. The fact that coal in currently uneconomical deposits or deposits which are difficult to mine can be converted into a useful gaseous product without large surface facilities, mines, and transportation requirements makes UCG very attractive. Contamination of ground water is a major concern in the development of underground coal gasification. A realistic evaluation of this possibility is presented.

  11. Biooxidation of coal gasification wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Donaldson; G. W. Strandberg; J. D. Hewitt; G. S. Shields

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory studies were carried out on the feasibility of using a fixed-film fluidised-bed bioreactor to treat coal gasification wastewaters. Dilute synthetic wastewaters were treated successfully by this process for over a year, and dilute actual wastewaters for 9 months. The bioreactors were stable, and no serious operating problems occurred. Effluent phenol concentration of <0.001 kg\\/m³ was achieved with a synthetic

  12. Incentives boost coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, G.

    2006-01-16

    Higher energy prices are making technologies to gasify the USA's vast coal reserves attractive again. The article traces the development of coal gasification technology in the USA. IGCC and industrial gasification projects are now both eligible for a 20% investment tax credit and federal loan guarantees can cover up to 80% of construction costs. 4 photos.

  13. Evaluation of iron based chemical looping for hydrogen and electricity co-production by gasification process with carbon capture and storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calin-Cristian Cormos

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is one of power generation technologies having the highest potential for carbon capture with low penalties in efficiency and cost. Syngas produced by gasification can be decarbonised using chemical looping methods in which an oxygen carrier (usually a metallic oxide) is recycled between the syngas oxidation reactor (fuel reactor) and the chemical agent oxidation reactor

  14. 2006 gasification technologies conference papers

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Sessions covered: business overview, industry trends and new developments; gasification projects progress reports; industrial applications and opportunities; Canadian oil sands; China/Asia gasification markets - status and projects; carbon management with gasification technologies; gasification economics and performance issues addressed; and research and development, and new technologies initiatives.

  15. Comparison of the activated sludge and rotating biological contactor processes for treatment of Great Plains Gasification Plant's stripped gas liquor: Final report for the period ending June 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, G.G.; Gallagher, J.R.; Shockey, R.E.; Moe, T.A.; Wentz, C.A.

    1986-09-01

    Fixed film (rotating biological contactor, RBC) and suspended growth (activated sludge) biological treatment processes were used to treat gasification wastewater from the Great Plains Gasification Plant. This report contains the results of the study, including a comparison of the two processes. The wastewater used was a condensate from Lurgi dry-ash gasification of lignite. The condensate was pretreated at Great Plains by solvent extraction and steam stripping to reduce phenols and ammonia, respectively. This pretreated wastewater is known as stripped gas liquor (SGL). At the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center, this wastewater was treated by both methods at the process development unit (PDU) scale. The RBC was a three stage unit that was tested at four organic loadings, ranging from 0.9 to 3.4 lbs BOD/1000 ft/sup 2/-day. The activated sludge treatment was a completely mixed system with the following operating parameters: a hydraulic retention time of 1 to 4 days, solids retention times of 2 to 13.6 days, and flow rates from 170 to 1500 liters per day (45 to 405 gpd). Process performance data were obtained and the kinetics of treatment were estimated for both treatment units. This report also includes preliminary design data for the RBC and activated sludge processes at the design wastewater flow rate for the Great Plains Gasification Plant. This comparison indicates that for a single process, the activated sludge would probably be the most cost effective. However, the advantages inherent in each process can be realized using the RBC as a pretreatment and the activated sludge process as the polishing step. 22 refs., 36 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. Modelling coal gasification with a hybrid neural network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bing Guo; Youting Shen; Dingkai Li; Fu Zhao

    1997-01-01

    Gasification of two coals was carried out in a batch feed fluidized bed reactor at atmospheric pressure using steam as fluidizing medium. A model of coal gasification was developed, incorporating a first-principles model with a neural network parameter estimator. The hybrid neural network was trained with experimental data for the two coals and gave good performance in process modelling. A

  17. Evaluation of treated gasification wastewater as cooling tower makeup

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Galegher; M. D. Mann; M. D. Johnson

    1985-01-01

    The principal goal of gasification research at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC) is to develop process and environmental data on the treatability and reuse of aqueous effluents from the fixed-bed gasification of lignite. It is the objective of the UNDERC wastewater research program to define the extent of treatment required to produce a gas liquor for

  18. THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF SELECTED TRACE ELEMENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a theoretical investigation of the disposition of five volatile trace elements (arsenic, boron, lead, selenium, and mercury) in SNG-producing coal gasification plants. Three coal gasification processes (dry-bottom Lurgi, Koppers-Totzek, and HYGAS) were...

  19. Coal conversion processes and analysis methodologies for synthetic fuels production. [technology assessment and economic analysis of reactor design for coal gasification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Information to identify viable coal gasification and utilization technologies is presented. Analysis capabilities required to support design and implementation of coal based synthetic fuels complexes are identified. The potential market in the Southeast United States for coal based synthetic fuels is investigated. A requirements analysis to identify the types of modeling and analysis capabilities required to conduct and monitor coal gasification project designs is discussed. Models and methodologies to satisfy these requirements are identified and evaluated, and recommendations are developed. Requirements for development of technology and data needed to improve gasification feasibility and economies are examined.

  20. The feasibility of using combined TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Wang, Dexin; Li, Kun; Zhao, Qian

    2015-08-01

    The study examined the feasibility of using combined heterogeneous photocatalysis oxidation (HPO) and moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that the TOC removal efficiency was significantly improved in HPO. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicated that the HPO could be employed to eliminate bio-refractory and toxic compounds. Meanwhile, the BOD5/COD of the raw wastewater was increased from 0.08 to 0.49. Furthermore, in the integration of TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process, the effluent of COD, BOD5, TOC, NH4(+)-N and TN were 22.1 mg/L, 1.1 mg/L, 11.8 mg/L, 4.1mg/L and 13.7 mg/L, respectively, which all met class-I criteria of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB18918-2002, China). The total operating cost was 2.8CNY/t. Therefore, there is great potential for the combined system in engineering applications as a final treatment for biologically pretreated CGW. PMID:25934578

  1. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also produced a comparable tensile and burst index pulps. Product gas composition determined using computer simulations The results demonstrate that RVS-1 can effectively remove > 99.8% of the H2S present in simulated synthesis gas generated from the gasification of black liquor. This level of sulfur removal was consistent over simulated synthesis gas mixtures that contained from 6 to 9.5 vol % H2S.A significant amount of the sulfur in the simulated syngas was recovered as SO2 during regeneration. The average recovery of sulfur as SO2 was about 75%. Because these are first cycle results, this sulfur recovery is expected to improve. Developed WINGems model of the process.The total decrease in variable operating costs for the BLG process compared to the HERB was in excess of $6,200,000 per year for a mill producing 350,000 tons of pulp per year. This represents a decrease in operating cost of about $17.7/ton of oven dry pulp produced. There will be additional savings in labor and maintenance cost that has not been taken into account. The capital cost for the MSSAQ based gasifier system was estimated at $164,000,000, which is comparable to a High Efficiency Recovery Boiler. The return on investment was estimated at 4%. A gasifier replacement cannot be justified on its own, however if the recovery boiler needs to be replaced the MSSAQ gasifier system shows significantly higher savings. Before black liquor based gasifer technology can be commercialized more work is necessary. The recovery of the absorbed sulfur in the absorbent as sulfur dioxide is only 75%. This needs to be greater than 90% for economical operation. It has been suggested that as the number of cycles is increased the sulfur dioxide recovery might improve. Further research is necessary. Even though a significant amount of work has been done on a pilot scale gasifiers using liquors containing sulfur, both at low and high temperatures the lack of a commercial unit is an impediment to the implementation of the MSSAQ technology. The implementation of a commercial unit needs to be facilated before the benefits of

  2. Evaluation of coal-gasification - combustion-turbine power plants emphasizing low water consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Cavazo, R.; Clemmer, A.B.; de la Mora, J.A.; Grisso, J.R.; Klumpe, H.W.; Meissner, R.E.; Musso, A.; Roszkowski, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    A cost and performance study was made of several integrated power plants using coal gasification technology now in advanced development and combustion turbines for power generation. The principal emphasis was placed on studying plants using air cooling and comparing costs and performance of those plants with water-cooled coal gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) and conventional coal-fired power plants. The major objective was to determine whether cost and performance penalties would be prohibitive for air-cooled plants that use yet-to-be-developed coal gasifiers and commercially available combustion turbines for topping cycle power. The results indicate the following: air-cooled GCC plants using conceptual designs of either the Texaco or the British Gas Corporation (BGC) slaging gasifier could have coal-to-net electric power efficiencies equivalent to that of a water-cooled conventional coal-fired plant; the air-cooled GCC plants could produce electricity at busbar cost 1 to 3 mills per kWh (1980 dollars) less than busbar cost in a water-cooled conventional plant and only up to 2 mills per kWh higher than busbar cost in a water-cooled Texaco GCC plant; and even a simple-cycle regenerative combustion turbine plant fueled with gas from the BGC gasifier could have a coal-to-net electric power efficiency of over 30% and a busbar cost competitive with that in a water cooled conventional plant. The principal reason that air-cooled power plants using combustion turbines could be competitive with conventional water-cooled, coal-fired steam plants is that a majority of net power is produced by the combustion turbines, which require no cooling water. This, in turn, leads to a reduced cost and performance penalty when bottoming steam-cycle condensers are air-cooled.

  3. Program for large-scale underground-coal-gasification tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammesfahr, F. W.; Winter, P. L.

    1982-11-01

    The continuing development of underground coal gasification technology requires extended multi-module field programs in which the output gas is linked to surface usage. An effort was to appraise whether existing surface facilities in the utility, petroleum refinery, or natural gas industries could be used to reduce the cost of such an extended multi-module test and whether regional demand in areas having underground coal gasification coal resources could support the manufacture of transportation fuels from underground coal gasification gases. To limit the effort to a reasonable level but yet to permit a fair test of the concept, effort was focused on five states, Illinois, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming, which have good underground coal gasification reserves. Studies of plant distribution located 25 potential sites within 3 miles of the underground coal gasification amenable reserves in the five states. Distribution was 44% to utilities, 44% to refineries, and 12% to gas processing facilities.

  4. Coal gasification for power generation. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2006-10-15

    The report gives an overview of the opportunities for coal gasification in the power generation industry. It provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; A description of gasification technology including processes and systems; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; An analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; A discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; An evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; A discussion of IGCC project development options; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; Profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and A description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  5. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brooks, K.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Brown, M.J.

    1992-11-01

    The objective is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas{trademark} staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may condense onto aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their exiting with the hot raw coal gas and passing through the system to the gas turbine. The management plan calls for a three phased program. The initial phase (Phase 1), includes the CRS Sinine Engineers, Inc. proprietary gasification invention called PyGas{trademark}, necessary coal and limestone receiving/storage/reclaim systems to allow closely metered coal and limestone to be fed into the gasifier for testing. The coal gas is subsequently piped to and combusted in an existing burner of the Monongahela Power Fort Martin Generating Station Unit No. 2. Continuous gasification process steam is generated by a small GPIF packaged boiler using light oil fuel at startup, and by switching from light oil to coal gas after startup. The major peripheral equipment such as foundations, process water system, ash handling, ash storage silo, emergency vent pipe, building, lavatory, electrical interconnect, control room, provisions for Phases II & III, and control system are all included in Phase I. A future hot gas cleanup unit conceptualized to be a zinc ferrite based fluidized bed process constitutes the following phase (Phase H). The final phase (Phase III) contemplates the addition of a combustion turbine and generator set sized to accommodate the parasitic load of the entire system.

  6. Numerical simulation of waste tyres gasification.

    PubMed

    Janajreh, Isam; Raza, Syed Shabbar

    2015-05-01

    Gasification is a thermochemical pathway used to convert carbonaceous feedstock into syngas (CO and H2) in a deprived oxygen environment. The process can accommodate conventional feedstock such as coal, discarded waste including plastics, rubber, and mixed waste owing to the high reactor temperature (1000?°C-1600?°C). Pyrolysis is another conversion pathway, yet it is more selective to the feedstock owing to the low process temperature (350?°C-550?°C). Discarded tyres can be subjected to pyrolysis, however, the yield involves the formation of intermediate radicals additional to unconverted char. Gasification, however, owing to the higher temperature and shorter residence time, is more opted to follow quasi-equilibrium and being predictive. In this work, tyre crumbs are subjected to two levels of gasification modelling, i.e. equilibrium zero dimension and reactive multi-dimensional flow. The objective is to investigate the effect of the amount of oxidising agent on the conversion of tyre granules and syngas composition in a small 20?kW cylindrical gasifier. Initially the chemical compositions of several tyre samples are measured following the ASTM procedures for proximate and ultimate analysis as well as the heating value. The measured data are used to carry out equilibrium-based and reactive flow gasification. The result shows that both models are reasonably predictive averaging 50% gasification efficiency, the devolatilisation is less sensitive than the char conversion to the equivalence ratio as devolatilisation is always complete. In view of the high attained efficiency, it is suggested that the investigated tyre gasification system is economically viable. PMID:25755167

  7. COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the organics data from environmental assessments of several low- and medium-Btu coal gasification processes conducted between 1977 and 1981 under the sponsorship of the U.S. EPA. The data summary focuses on the concentration, composition, and mass flow of or...

  8. Environmental effects of in situ coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Humenick; T. F. Edgar; R. J. Charbeneau

    1983-01-01

    An assessment of avialable engineering, geological and operating data on underground coal gasification indicates that this process can cause significant air and water pollution and land subsidence. Of the possible impacts, groundwater pollution is the most serious. Modeling studies and large-scale field tests are needed to determine the long-term fate of pollutants and the degree of restoration required before UCG

  9. Numerical study on the coal gasification characteristics in an entrained flow coal gasifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. C. Choi; X. Y. Li; T. J. Park; J. H. Kim; J. G. Lee

    2001-01-01

    The coal gasification process of a slurry feed type, entrained-flow coal gasifier was numerically predicted in this paper. By dividing the complicated coal gasification process into several simplified stages such as slurry evaporation, coal devolatilization and two-phase reactions coupled with turbulent flow and two-phase heat transfer, a comprehensive numerical model was constructed to simulate the coal gasification process. The k–?

  10. Coal gasification: New challenge for the Beaumont rotary feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelian, J.

    1977-01-01

    The use of rotary feeders in the coal gasification process is described with emphasis on the efficient conversion of coal to clean gaseous fuels. Commercial applications of the rotary feeder system are summarized.

  11. Modeling, Optimization and Economic Evaluation of Residual Biomass Gasification 

    E-print Network

    Georgeson, Adam

    2012-02-14

    Gasification is a thermo-chemical process which transforms biomass into valuable synthesis gas. Integrated with a biorefinery it can address the facility’s residue handling challenges and input demands. A number of feedstock, technology, oxidizer...

  12. Gasification and combustion modeling for porous char particles

    E-print Network

    Singer, Simcha Lev

    2012-01-01

    Gasification and combustion of porous char particles occurs in many industrial applications. Reactor-scale outputs of importance depend critically on processes that occur at the particle-scale. Because char particles often ...

  13. Methane Production from Catalytic Wet Gasification of Animal Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research investigates the technical and economical viability of a proprietary catalytic wet gasification process in treating animal wastewater, capturing nutrients, destroying pharmaceutically active compounds (PACs) and estrogens, and producing methane. This study reviews and analyzes physicoc...

  14. Underground coal gasification. Presentations

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The 8 presentations are: underground coal gasification (UCG) and the possibilities for carbon management (J. Friedmann); comparing the economics of UCG with surface gasification technologies (E. Redman); Eskom develops UCG technology project (C. Gross); development and future of UCG in the Asian region (L. Walker); economically developing vast deep Powder River Basin coals with UCG (S. Morzenti); effectively managing UCG environmental issues (E. Burton); demonstrating modelling complexity of environmental risk management; and UCG research at the University of Queensland, Australia (A.Y. Klimenko).

  15. Single-stage fluidized-bed gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, F. S.; Rue, D. M.; Weil, S. A.; Punwani, D. V.

    1982-04-01

    The single-stage fluidized-bed gasification process, in addition to being a simple system, maximizes gas production and allows the economic exploitation of small peat deposits. The objective of this gasification project is to conduct experiments in order to obtain data for designing a single-stage fluidized-bed gasifier, and to evaluate the economics of converting peat to synthesis gas and to SNG by this process. An existing high-temperature and high-pressure process development unit (PDU) was modified to permit the direct feeding of peat to the fluidized bed. Peat flows by gravity from the feed hopper through a 6-inch line to the screw-feeder conveyor. From there, it is fed to the bottom tee section of the reactor and transported into the gasification zone. Oxygen and steam are fed through a distributing ring into the reactor. Gasification reactions occur in the annulus formed by the reactor tube and a central standpipe. Peat ash is discharged from the reactor by overflowing into the standpipe and is collected in a solids receiver.

  16. Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic Gasification Process for Synthetic Natural Gas and Hydrogen Coproduction Year 6 - Activity 1.14 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Michael; Henderson, Ann

    2012-04-01

    The GreatPoint Energy (GPE) concept for producing synthetic natural gas and hydrogen from coal involves the catalytic gasification of coal and carbon. GPE’s technology “refines” coal by employing a novel catalyst to “crack” the carbon bonds and transform the coal into cleanburning methane (natural gas) and hydrogen. The GPE mild “catalytic” gasifier design and operating conditions result in reactor components that are less expensive and produce pipeline-grade methane and relatively high purity hydrogen. The system operates extremely efficiently on very low cost carbon sources such as lignites, subbituminous coals, tar sands, petcoke, and petroleum residual oil. In addition, GPE’s catalytic coal gasification process eliminates troublesome ash removal and slagging problems, reduces maintenance requirements, and increases thermal efficiency, significantly reducing the size of the air separation plant (a system that alone accounts for 20% of the capital cost of most gasification systems) in the catalytic gasification process. Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale gasification facilities were used to demonstrate how coal and catalyst are fed into a fluid-bed reactor with pressurized steam and a small amount of oxygen to “fluidize” the mixture and ensure constant contact between the catalyst and the carbon particles. In this environment, the catalyst facilitates multiple chemical reactions between the carbon and the steam on the surface of the coal. These reactions generate a mixture of predominantly methane, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Product gases from the process are sent to a gas-cleaning system where CO{sub 2} and other contaminants are removed. In a full-scale system, catalyst would be recovered from the bottom of the gasifier and recycled back into the fluid-bed reactor. The by-products (such as sulfur, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2}) would be captured and could be sold to the chemicals and petroleum industries, resulting in near-zero hazardous air or water pollution. This technology would also be conducive to the efficient coproduction of methane and hydrogen while also generating a relatively pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or sequestration. Specific results of bench-scale testing in the 4- to 38-lb/hr range in the EERC pilot system demonstrated high methane yields approaching 15 mol%, with high hydrogen yields approaching 50%. This was compared to an existing catalytic gasification model developed by GPE for its process. Long-term operation was demonstrated on both Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and on petcoke feedstocks utilizing oxygen injection without creating significant bed agglomeration. Carbon conversion was greater than 80% while operating at temperatures less than 1400°F, even with the shorter-than-desired reactor height. Initial designs for the GPE gasification concept called for a height that could not be accommodated by the EERC pilot facility. More gas-phase residence time should allow the syngas to be converted even more to methane. Another goal of producing significant quantities of highly concentrated catalyzed char for catalyst recovery and material handling studies was also successful. A Pd–Cu membrane was also successfully tested and demonstrated to produce 2.54 lb/day of hydrogen permeate, exceeding the desired hydrogen permeate production rate of 2.0 lb/day while being tested on actual coal-derived syngas that had been cleaned with advanced warm-gas cleanup systems. The membranes did not appear to suffer any performance degradation after exposure to the cleaned, warm syngas over a nominal 100-hour test.

  17. Start-up method for coal gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Farnia, K.; Petit, P.J.

    1983-04-05

    A method is disclosed for initiating operation of a coal gasification plant which includes a gasification reactor and gas cleansing apparatus fabricated in part from materials susceptible to chloride induced stress corrosion cracking the presence of oxygen. The reactor is preheated by combusting a stoichiometric mixture of air and fuel to produce an exhaust gas which is then diluted with steam to produce product gas which contains essentially no free oxygen. The product gas heats the reactor to a temperature profile necessary to maintain autothermic operation of the gasification process while maintaining air oxygen-free environment within the plant apparatus while chlorine is liberated from coal being gasified.

  18. Sulfidation resistant coatings for coal gasification process equipment. Final technical report. [FeCrAl and CoCrAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R.A.; Packer, C.M.

    1985-05-01

    This report presents the results of a program of research to develop and evaluate sulfidation resistant coatings for low alloy and stainless steel components of coal gasification process equipment. Furnace fused CoCrAl and FeCrAl coatings were developed for use on 304SS, and laboratory tests indicate good resistance to attack by simulated slagging gasifier atmospheres at 1000 to 1300/sup 0/F (538 to 704/sup 0/C). The CoCrAl coating exhibits the best performance and will protect 304SS at 1000 to 1600/sup 0/F (537 to 871/sup 0/C) for over 1500 hr. These coatings will protect 304SS at 1600/sup 0/F (871/sup 0/C) at the highest level of P/sub S/sub 2// for any level of P/sub O/sub 2// compared with other alloys and surface coatings. Weld parameters were studied for the deposition of FeCrAl clad layers on FeCrAl and Alloy 800 plate and on T-91 steel tube. Crack-free weld deposited layers could not be produced under any conditions for alloys with as little as 4% Al and the technical feasibility of cladding steels with weld deposited FeCrAl is considered to be poor. Similar results were obtained in tests by laser surface fusion of CoCrAl and FeCrAl coatings on 310SS and T-11 steel. The technical feasibility of aluminizing and chromizing low alloy steels by a slip pack diffusion process has been demonstrated. High quality aluminide coatings on T-11 steel resistant to CGA attack at 1000 to 1600/sup 0/F were produced. Performance was equal to or better than that of commercial pack aluminized steels. The process is considered to have the potential for a major improvement in quality and performance of large, complex components aluminized by the pack diffusion process. Development and scale up of the process is recommended. 30 refs., 63 figs., 38 tabs.

  19. Kinetics of coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Schmal; Jose Luiz Fontes Monteiro; Jorge Luiz Castellan

    1982-01-01

    This work reports on a kinetic study on the gasification of Brazilian mineral coal with steam using a thermobalance. The coal is a high ash content (>50 wt %) subbituminous, run of mine coal (Charqueadas). Isothermal runs were made at temperatures between 800 and 1000\\/degree\\/C and at atmospheric pressure, using -14 +20 mesh Tyler size particles. The coal was devolatilized

  20. Underground coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. F. Edgar; D. W. Gregg

    1978-01-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a method whereby the mining and conversion of coal are accomplished in a single step. Many field tests of UCG have been operated worldwide since the 1930's with varying degrees of success; based on this experience (especially in the USSR and US), a field design which is applicable to a wide range of geological conditions

  1. Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

    Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the microorganisms used to deal with tars are selected and pre-conditioned to the tar environment. Overall, the results provided a basis for operational and design strategy for a combined gasification system but further study is recommended such as determination of the impacts in terms of emissions, power, efficiency and costs associated with the use of producer gas-enriched biogas taking advantage of hydrogen enrichment to reduce NOx and other pollutants in reciprocating engines and other energy conversion systems.

  2. Syngas suitability for solid oxide fuel cells applications produced via biomass steam gasification process: Experimental and modeling analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisa Pieratti; Marco Baratieri; Sergio Ceschini; Lorenzo Tognana; Paolo Baggio

    2011-01-01

    The technologies and the processes for the use of biomass as an energy source are not always environmental friendly. It is worth to develop approaches aimed at a more sustainable exploitation of biomass, avoiding whenever possible direct combustion and rather pursuing fuel upgrade paths, also considering direct conversion to electricity through fuel cells. In this context, it is of particular

  3. Indirect liquefaction of coal. [Coal gasification plus Fischer-Tropsch, methanol or Mobil M-gasoline process

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-06-30

    The most important potential environmental problems uniquely associated with indirect liquefaction appear to be related to the protection of occupational personnel from the toxic and carcinogenic properties of process and waste stream constituents, the potential public health risks from process products, by-products and emissions and the management of potentially hazardous solid wastes. The seriousness of these potential problems is related partially to the severity of potential effects (i.e., human mortality and morbidity), but even more to the uncertainty regarding: (1) the probable chemical characteristics and quantities of process and waste streams; and (2) the effectiveness and efficiencies of control technologies not yet tested on a commercial scale. Based upon current information, it is highly improbable that these potential problems will actually be manifested or pose serious constraints to the development of indirect liquefaction technologies, although their potential severity warrants continued research and evaluation. The siting of indirect liquefaction facilities may be significantly affected by existing federal, state and local regulatory requirements. The possibility of future changes in environmental regulations also represents an area of uncertainty that may develop into constraints for the deployment of indirect liquefaction processes. Out of 20 environmental issues identified as likely candidates for future regulatory action, 13 were reported to have the potential to impact significantly the commercialization of coal synfuel technologies. These issues are listed.

  4. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I

    SciTech Connect

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-12-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  5. COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION OF CASHEW NUT (Anacardium Occidentale L.) SHELL: LIQUID, SOLID AND GAS PRODUCTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flávio Augusto; Bueno Figueiredo; Renata Andrade Figueiredo; Caio Glauco Sánchez; Elisabete Maria Saraiva Sanchez; Jesús Arauzo; José Luis Sánchez; Alberto Gonzalo

    Brazil is a great world producer of biomass. Combustion and gasification are alternative processes for biomass energy recovery. Depending on biomass type and burn process, liquid (tar), char or gases, can be obtained in different proportions. In the gasification process, it is mainly obtained the gas combustible whose composition and calorific value will depend mainly on the gasifying agent used

  6. Fabrication of Pd/Pd-Alloy Films by Surfactant Induced Electroless Plating for Hydrogen Separation from Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ilias, Shamsuddin; Kumar, Dhananjay

    2012-07-31

    Dense Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag composite membranes on microporous stainless steel substrate (MPSS) were fabricated by a novel electroless plating (EP) process. In the conventional Pd-EP process, the oxidation-reduction reactions between Pd-complex and hydrazine result in an evolution of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} gas bubbles. When adhered to the substrate surface and in the pores, these gas bubbles hinder uniform Pd-film deposition which results in dendrite growth leading to poor film formation. This problem was addressed by introducing cationic surfactant in the electroless plating process known as surfactant induced electroless plating (SIEP). The unique features of this innovation provide control of Pd-deposition rate, and Pd-grain size distribution. The surfactant molecules play an important role in the EP process by tailoring grain size and the process of agglomeration by removing tiny gas bubbles through adsorption at the gas-liquid interface. As a result surfactant can tailor a nanocrystalline Pd, Cu and Ag deposition in the film resulting in reduced membrane film thickness. Also, it produces a uniform, agglomerated film structure. The Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes on MPSS support were fabricated by sequential deposition using SIEP method. The pre- and post-annealing characterizations of these membranes (Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag on MPSS substrate) were carried out by SEM, EDX, XRD, and AFM studies. The SEM images show significant improvement of the membrane surface morphology, in terms of metal grain structures and grain agglomeration compared to the membranes fabricated by conventional EP process. The SEM images and helium gas-tightness studies indicate that dense and thinner films of Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes can be produced with shorter deposition time using surfactant. H{sub 2} Flux through the membranes fabricated by SIEP shows large improvement compared to those by CEP with comparable permselectivity. Pd-MPSS composite membrane was subjected to test for long term performance and thermal cycling (573 - 723 - 573 K) at 15 psi pressure drop for 1200 hours. Pd membranes showed excellent hydrogen permeability and thermal stability during the operational period. Under thermal cycling (573 K - 873 K - 573 K), Pd-Cu-MPSS membrane was stable and retained hydrogen permeation characteristics for over three months of operation. From this limited study, we conclude that SIEP is viable method for fabrication of defect-free, robust Pd-alloy membranes for high-temperature H{sub 2}-separation applications.

  7. Conceptual design report -- Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; House, L.S.; Duck, R.R. [CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Lisauskas, R.A.; Dixit, V.J. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States); Morgan, M.E.; Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States). PowerServe Div.; Boni, A.A. [PSI-Environmental Instruments Corp., Andover, MA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The problems heretofore with coal gasification and IGCC concepts have been their high cost and historical poor performance of fixed-bed gasifiers, particularly on caking coals. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is being developed to solve these problems through the development of a novel coal gasification invention which incorporates pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification (fixed-bed). It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration caused in the conventional process of gradually heating coal through the 400 F to 900 F range. In so doing, the coal is rapidly heated sufficiently such that the coal tar exists in gaseous form rather than as a liquid. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can become chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NH{sub 3} and HCN from fuel born nitrogen, steam injection is minimized, and residual nitrogen compounds are partially chemically reduced in the cracking stage in the upper gasifier region. Assuming testing confirms successful deployment of all these integrated processes, future IGCC applications will be much simplified, require significantly less mechanical components, and will likely achieve the $1,000/kWe commercialized system cost goal of the GPIF project. This report describes the process and its operation, design of the plant and equipment, site requirements, and the cost and schedule. 23 refs., 45 figs., 23 tabs.

  8. High temperature steam gasification of solid wastes: Characteristics and kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomaa, Islam Ahmed

    Greater use of renewable energy sources is of pinnacle importance especially with the limited reserves of fossil fuels. It is expected that future energy use will have increased utilization of different energy sources, including biomass, municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes, agricultural wastes and other low grade fuels. Gasification is a good practical solution to solve the growing problem of landfills, with simultaneous energy extraction and nonleachable minimum residue. Gasification also provides good solution to the problem of plastics and rubber in to useful fuel. The characteristics and kinetics of syngas evolution from the gasification of different samples is examined here. The characteristics of syngas based on its quality, distribution of chemical species, carbon conversion efficiency, thermal efficiency and hydrogen concentration has been examined. Modeling the kinetics of syngas evolution from the process is also examined. Models are compared with the experimental results. Experimental results on the gasification and pyrolysis of several solid wastes, such as, biomass, plastics and mixture of char based and plastic fuels have been provided. Differences and similarities in the behavior of char based fuel and a plastic sample has been discussed. Global reaction mechanisms of char based fuel as well polystyrene gasification are presented based on the characteristic of syngas evolution. The mixture of polyethylene and woodchips gasification provided superior results in terms of syngas yield, hydrogen yield, total hydrocarbons yield, energy yield and apparent thermal efficiency from polyethylene-woodchips blends as compared to expected weighed average yields from gasification of the individual components. A possible interaction mechanism has been established to explain the synergetic effect of co-gasification of woodchips and polyethylene. Kinetics of char gasification is presented with special consideration of sample temperature, catalytic effect of ash, geometric changes of pores inside char and diffusion limitations inside and outside the char particle.

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Coal Gasification Power Generation Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Ruether; Massood Ramezan; Peter C. Balash

    2004-01-01

    Life cycle assessments (LCA) of coal gasification-based electricity generation technologies for emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), principally CO2, are computed. Two approaches for computing LCAs are compared for construction and operation of integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants: a traditional process-based approach, and one based on economic input-output analysis named Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA). It is shown

  10. Gasification and shell characteristics in slurry droplet burning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lee; C. K. Law

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the gasification process of the liquid component of freely falling carbon slurry droplets in a hot oxidizing environment is studied both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical model formulated describes droplet gasification as consisting of two periods: An initial period of regressing droplet size governed by the classical d²-law, and a subsequent d³-law period which the droplet size

  11. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project, Polk Power Station -- Unit No. 1. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This describes the Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project which will use a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,300 tons per day of coal (dry basis) coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 Btu/scf (LHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product.

  12. Synfuel trends: underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.; Brandenburg, C.F.; Burwell, E.L.

    1980-04-01

    A major objective of the US energy program is to develop environmentally acceptable ways to use coal. Underground coal gasification (UCG) is one of the most promising of these processes. It offers 3 major advantages as a source of synthetic fuel: (1) pipeline quality gas at costs competitive with or lower than that of other synfuels; (2) use of as much as 1.2 trillion tons of coal (triple the present coal reserves) that would not be economical to strip or deep mine; and (3) possible environmental advantages. This study reviews the state of the art in UCG, with emphasis on the US Department of Energy program. The conclusion is that UCG can recover the energy in unminable coal seams to ease demand for imported oil and natural gas, and a commercial UCG process could be onstream by the late 1980s. 34 references.

  13. Development of Highly Durable and Reactive Regenerable Magnesium-Based Sorbents for CO2 Separation in Coal Gasification Process

    SciTech Connect

    Javad Abbasian; Armin Hassanzadeh Khayyat; Rachid B. Slimane

    2005-06-01

    The specific objective of this project was to develop physically durable and chemically regenerable MgO-based sorbents that can remove carbon dioxide from raw coal gas at operating condition prevailing in IGCC processes. A total of sixty two (62) different sorbents were prepared in this project. The sorbents were prepared either by various sol-gel techniques (22 formulations) or modification of dolomite (40 formulations). The sorbents were prepared in the form of pellets and in granular forms. The solgel based sorbents had very high physical strength, relatively high surface area, and very low average pore diameter. The magnesium content of the sorbents was estimated to be 4-6 % w/w. To improve the reactivity of the sorbents toward CO{sub 2}, The sorbents were impregnated with potassium salts. The potassium content of the sorbents was about 5%. The dolomite-based sorbents were prepared by calcination of dolomite at various temperature and calcination environment (CO{sub 2} partial pressure and moisture). Potassium carbonate was added to the half-calcined dolomite through wet impregnation method. The estimated potassium content of the impregnated sorbents was in the range of 1-6% w/w. In general, the modified dolomite sorbents have significantly higher magnesium content, larger pore diameter and lower surface area, resulting in significantly higher reactivity compared to the sol-gel sorbents. The reactivities of a number of sorbents toward CO{sub 2} were determined in a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) unit. The results indicated that at the low CO{sub 2} partial pressures (i.e., 1 atm), the reactivities of the sorbents toward CO{sub 2} are very low. At elevated pressures (i.e., CO{sub 2} partial pressure of 10 bar) the maximum conversion of MgO obtained with the sol-gel based sorbents was about 5%, which corresponds to a maximum CO{sub 2} absorption capacity of less than 1%. The overall capacity of modified dolomite sorbents were at least one order of magnitude higher than those of the sol-gel based sorbents. The results of the tests conducted with various dolomite-based sorbent indicate that the reactivity of the modified dolomite sorbent increases with increasing potassium concentration, while higher calcination temperature adversely affects the sorbent reactivity. Furthermore, the results indicate that as long as the absorption temperature is well below the equilibrium temperature, the reactivity of the sorbent improves with increasing temperature (350-425 C). As the temperature approaches the equilibrium temperature, because of the significant increase in the rate of reverse (i.e., regeneration) reaction, the rate of CO{sub 2} absorption decreases. The results of cyclic tests show that the reactivity of the sorbent gradually decreases in the cyclic process. To improve long-term durability (i.e., reactivity and capacity) of the sorbent, the sorbent was periodically re-impregnated with potassium additive and calcined. The results indicate that, in general, re-treatment improves the performance of the sorbent, and that, the extent of improvement gradually decreases in the cyclic process. The presence of steam significantly enhances the sorbent reactivity and significantly decreases the rate of decline in sorbent deactivation in the cyclic process.

  14. Plasma gasification of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, G.W.; Tsangaris, A.V. [Resorption Canada Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Resorption Canada Limited (RCL) has conducted extensive operational testing with plasma technology in their plasma facility near Ottawa, Ontario, Canada to develop an environmentally friendly waste disposal process. Plasma technology, when utilized in a reactor vessel with the exclusion of oxygen, provides for the complete gasification of all combustibles in source materials with non-combustibles being converted to a non-hazardous slag. The energy and environmental characteristics of the plasma gasification of carbonaceous waste materials were studied over a period of eight years during which RCL completed extensive experimentation with MSW. A plasma processing system capable of processing 200--400 lbs/hr of MSW was designed and built. The experimentation on MSW concentrated on establishing the optimum operating parameters and determining the energy and environmental characteristics at these operating parameters.

  15. Catalytic gasification of wet biomass in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Xu, Xiaodong [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    A pressurized catalytic gasification process, operated at 600{degrees}C, 34.5 MPa, efficiently produces a hydrogen rich synthesis gas from high-moisture content biomass. Glucose was selected as a model compound for catalytic biomass gasification. A proprietary heterogeneous catalyst X was extremely effective for the gasification of both the model compound and whole biomass feeds. The effect of temperature, pressure, reactant concentration on the gasification of glucose with catalyst X were investigated. Complete conversion of glucose (22% by weight in water) to gas was obtained at a weight hourly space velocity of 22.2 (g/h)/g in supercritical water at 600{degrees}C, 34.5 MPa. Complete conversion of whole biomass feeds including water hyacinth, depithed bagasse liquid extract, sewage sludge, and paper sludge was also achieved at the same temperature and pressure. The propriety catalyst X is inexpensive and extremely effective.

  16. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  17. Catalytic gasification fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Last year it was found that Maya coke gasification could be greatly accelerated if the colting took place in the presence of small amounts (below 1%) of caustic. When the Maya coke thus prepared was impregnated with 1% of CaO-KO[sub x] catalyst, the rate of gasification was doubled. During the past year, this phenomenon has been further investigated and the work has been extended to two other and very different cokes. As shown in Figure 2, a Statfjord Bottoms coke prepared in the presence of 1% NaOH and then impregnated with CaO[sub x]-KO[sub x] catalyst gasified very much faster than the same material coked in the absence of NaOH. The same phenomenon is exhibited in Figure 3 for a Torrance Hondo coke, although in this case the difference between the cokes prepared in the presence and absence of NaOH is somewhat smaller. It is concluded that the preparation method of the coke is of major importance for the rate of gasification and that the phenomenon that presence of alkali during coking is helpful is a generic one.

  18. Catalytic gasification fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1992-11-01

    Last year it was found that Maya coke gasification could be greatly accelerated if the coking took place in the presence of small amounts (below 1%) of caustic. When the Maya coke thus prepared was impregnated with 1% of CaO-KO{sub x} catalyst, the rate of gasification was doubled. During the past year, this phenomenon has been further investigated and the work has been extended to two other and very different cokes. As shown in Figure 2, a Statfjord Bottoms coke prepared in the presence of 1% NaOH and then impregnated with CaO{sub x}-KO{sub x} catalyst gasified very much faster than the same material coked in the absence of NaOH. The same phenomenon is exhibited in Figure 3 for a Torrance Hondo coke, although in this case the difference between the cokes prepared in the presence and absence of NaOH is somewhat smaller. It is concluded that the preparation method of the coke is of major importance for the rate of gasification and that the phenomenon that presence of alkali during coking is helpful is a generic one.

  19. Calcium silicate cement sorbent for H/sub 2/S removal and improved gasification processes. Annual progress report, October 1, 1981-September 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, H.J.; Steinberg, M.

    1982-10-01

    Commercial calcium silicate bearing Portland cement type III (PC III), in the form of agglomerated cement sorbent (ACS) pellets, is being investigated for in-situ desulfurization of fuel gases and for improved coal gasification. The preparation procedure and conditions for pelletizing agglomerated cement sorbent (ACS) by a low energy, low cost agglomeration technique have been modified using a two-stage pelletization procedure, which yields ACS pellets of greater mechanical strength. A 40 mm ID bench scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) was used to determine sulfur removal efficiency of ACS pellets as well as their attrition resistance, using a simulated gas mixture. These tests show that 90% or more of the sulfur removal from the gas is achieved until 35% of the ACS pellet is sulfidated and that it has excellent attrition resistance (less than 0.1% wt loss) during cyclic tests excluding the first conditioning cycle. The gasification of coal by partial oxidation with air to low Btu gas was conducted in a 1-inch bench scale FBG unit by our collaborator, the Foster Wheeler Corporation (FWC). At temperatures between 800/sup 0/C and 950/sup 0/C the efficiency of coal gasification is improved by as much as 40% when ACS pellets are used compared to the use of Greer limestone. At the same time the sulfur removal efficiency is increased from 50 to 65% with Greer limestone to over 95% with the ACS pellets. The test on sulfur fixation characteristics of the sorbent in the 1-inch FBG unit using a simulated gas also shows that the ACS pellet is much more reactive toward H/sub 2/S than Greer limestone. The ability of ACS pellets to simultaneously desulfurize and improve the gasification efficiency of coal in FBG justifies further investigation.

  20. HIGH TEMPERATURE REMOVAL OF H{sub 2}S FROM COAL GASIFICATION PROCESS STREAMS USING AN ELECTROCHEMICAL MEMBRANE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Winnick; Meilin Liu

    2003-06-01

    A bench scale set-up was constructed to test the cell performance at 600-700 C and 1 atm. The typical fuel stream inlet proportions were 34% CO, 22% CO{sub 2}, 35% H{sub 2}, 8% H{sub 2}O, and 450-2000 ppm H{sub 2}S. The fundamental transport restrictions for sulfur species in an electrochemical cell were examined. Temperature and membrane thickness were varied to examine how these parameters affect the maximum flux of H{sub 2}S removal. It was found that higher temperature allows more sulfide species to enter the electrolyte, thus increasing the sulfide flux across the membrane and raising the maximum flux of H{sub 2}S removal. The results identify sulfide diffusion across the membrane as the rate-limiting step in H{sub 2}S removal. The maximum H{sub 2}S removal flux of 1.1 x 10-6 gmol H{sub 2}S min{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (or 3.5 mA cm{sup -2}) was obtained at 650 C, with a membrane that was 0.9 mm thick, 36% porous, and had an estimated tortuosity of 3.6. Another focus of this thesis was to examine the stability of cathode materials in full cell trials. A major hurdle that remains in process scale-up is cathode selection, as the lifetime of the cell will depend heavily on the lifetime of the cathode material, which is exposed to very sour gas. Materials that showed success in the past (i.e. cobalt sulfides and Y{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3}) were examined but were seen to have limitations in operating environment and temperature. Therefore, other novel metal oxide compounds were studied to find possible candidates for full cell trials. Gd{sub 2}TiMoO{sub 7} and La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}VO{sub 3} were the compounds that retained their structure best even when exposed to high H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O concentrations.

  1. Field test of large-scale hydrogen manufacturing from underground coal gasification (UCG)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lanhe Yang; Xing Zhang; Shuqin Liu; Li Yu; Weilian Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The paper explores the reliability of using an underground coal gasification (UCG) technique for hydrogen manufacturing. Methods for increasing the temperature in underground gasifier are analyzed with the aim of improving the hydrogen-manufacturing process. In this paper, the rationales behind hydrogen manufacturing in UCG is explained. The experimental conditions and process of the underground gasification in Woniushan Mine, Xuzhou, Jiangsu

  2. Study on the model experiment and numerical simulation for underground coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lanhe Yang

    2004-01-01

    The gas production process in underground coal gasification is closely linked to the temperature distribution and seepage conditions of the gasifier. In this paper, mathematical models on the underground coal gasification in steep coal seams are established according to their storage conditions and features of gas production process. Additionally, the paper introduces ways to determine model parameters and the control

  3. Pilot-scale treatment and cooling tower reuse of gasification wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Galegher; M. D. Mann; W. G. Willson; G. G. Mayer; J. G. Hendrikson

    1985-01-01

    The principal goal of the gasification research program at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC) is to develop environmental data for effluent streams for fixed-bed gasification processes using low rank coals (LRC). Current efforts involve the treatment of gas liquor wastewater streams, and subsequent reuse in process cooling towers. The relatively large volume of wastewater produced in

  4. Results from the third LLL underground coal gasification experiment at Hoe Creek

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Hill; C. B. Thorsness; R. J. Cena; W. R. Aiman; D. R. Stephens

    1980-01-01

    A major objective of the US Energy Program is the development of processes to produce clean fuels from coal. Underground coal gasification is one of the most promising of these processes. If successful, underground coal gasification (UCG) would quadruple the proven reserves of the US coal. Cost for products produced from UCG are projected to be 65 to 75% of

  5. Potential of underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Burwell, E.L.

    1984-02-01

    A rapidly growing interest in underground coal gasification (UCG), in the U.S. and several other countries, has developed in the past few years. This has been accompanied by in-depth evaluations of the potential of UCG, its technology, economics, risks, and rewards by a number of highly qualified engineering groups. Several common findings seem to emerge from each study as: sufficient technological feasibility has been proved to warrant further study; if long-term operation can be made to bear out the promise shown in field tests, the process will be economically competitive; actual development could greatly expand existing coal reserves; and significant potential advantages exist which made UCG a leading candidate for synfuels development.

  6. Transient behavior of devolatilization and char reaction during steam gasification of biomass.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jihong; Lee, Jeungwoo; Lee, Uendo; Hwang, Jungho

    2013-04-01

    Steam gasification of biomass is a promising method for producing high quality syngas for polygeneration. During the steam gasification, devolatilization and char reaction are key steps of syngas production and the contributions of the two reactions are highly related to gasification conditions. In this study, the transient characteristics of devolatilization and char reaction in biomass steam gasification were investigated by monitoring cumulative gas production and composition changes in terms of reaction temperature and S/B ratio. Contribution of each reaction stage on the product gas yield was studied in detail. The results provide important insight for understanding the complex nature of biomass gasification and will guide future improvements to the biomass gasification process. PMID:23454389

  7. Simultaneous high-temperature removal of alkali and particulates in a pressurized gasification system. Fifth quarterly project report, April 1982-June 1982. [Concentration of Na and K in gas at process conditions; also optimization of removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Mulik, P.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1982-07-01

    This program is directed at performing experimental and analytical investigations, deriving system designs, and estimating costs to ascertain the feasibility of using aluminosilicate-based getters for controlling alkali in pressurized gasification systems. Its overall objective is to develop a comprehensive plan for evaluating a scaled-up version of the gettering process as a unit operation or as an integral part of a particulate removal device. This report briefly summarizes efforts previously completed on thermodynamic projections and system performance projections, together with current work on getter selection and qualification completed during the fifth quarter of the project. Work on the thermodynamic projections has been completed and includes an update of the data base, development of alkali phase diagrams, and projections for several gasification processes. Getter selection and qualification efforts involved four tests - two with activated bauxite and one each with diatomaceous earth and Novacite on the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) system. Finally, system performance projections entailed examination of available kinetic data to ascertain the rate-controlling step, along with modeling efforts to determine the size requirements of a commercial-sized unit.

  8. Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA); Salvador, Louis A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

  9. Biomass thermochemical gasification: Experimental studies and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay

    The overall goals of this research were to study the biomass thermochemical gasification using experimental and modeling techniques, and to evaluate the cost of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation. This dissertation includes an extensive review of progresses in biomass thermochemical gasification. Product gases from biomass gasification can be converted to biopower, biofuels and chemicals. However, for its viable commercial applications, the study summarizes the technical challenges in the gasification and downstream processing of product gas. Corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstocks. One of the objectives was to determine selected physical and chemical properties of corn stover related to thermochemical conversion. The parameters of the reaction kinetics for weight loss were obtained. The next objective was to investigate the effects of temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition and efficiencies. DDGS gasification was performed on a lab-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents and efficiencies. A model was developed to simulate the performance of a lab-scale gasifier using Aspen Plus(TM) software. Mass balance, energy balance and minimization of Gibbs free energy were applied for the gasification to determine the product gas composition. The final objective was to optimize the process by maximizing the net energy efficiency, and to estimate the cost of industrial gas, and combined heat and power (CHP) at a biomass feedrate of 2000 kg/h. The selling price of gas was estimated to be 11.49/GJ for corn stover, and 13.08/GJ for DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were 37 and 86%, respectively for corn stover, and 34 and 78%, respectively for DDGS. For corn stover, the selling price of electricity was 0.1351/kWh. For DDGS, the selling price of electricity was 0.1287/kWh.

  10. Modeling of contaminant transport in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Lanhe Yang; Xing Zhang [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources and Geosciences

    2009-01-15

    In order to study and discuss the impact of contaminants produced from underground coal gasification on groundwater, a coupled seepage-thermodynamics-transport model for underground gasification was developed on the basis of mass and energy conservation and pollutant-transport mechanisms, the mathematical model was solved by the upstream weighted multisell balance method, and the model was calibrated and verified against the experimental site data. The experiment showed that because of the effects of temperature on the surrounding rock of the gasification panel the measured pore-water-pressure was higher than the simulated one; except for in the high temperature zone where the simulation errors of temperature, pore water pressure, and contaminant concentration were relatively high, the simulation values of the overall gasification panel were well fitted with the measured values. As the gasification experiment progressed, the influence range of temperature field expanded, the gradient of groundwater pressure decreased, and the migration velocity of pollutant increased. Eleven months and twenty months after the test, the differences between maximum and minimum water pressure were 2.4 and 1.8 MPa, respectively, and the migration velocities of contaminants were 0.24-0.38 m/d and 0.27-0.46 m/d, respectively. It was concluded that the numerical simulation of the transport process for pollutants from underground coal gasification was valid. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    DOEpatents

    Aiman, William R. (Livermore, CA); Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  12. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING

    SciTech Connect

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick

    2003-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate poultry litter disposal problems for the area's poultry farmers.

  13. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate the feasibility of gasification on a broader level, Nexant, Inc. was contracted to perform a comprehensive study to provide a set of gasification alternatives for consideration by the DOE. Nexant completed the first two tasks (Tasks 1 and 2) of the ''Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Study'' for the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in 2003. These tasks evaluated the use of the E-GAS{trademark} gasification technology (now owned by ConocoPhillips) for the production of power either alone or with polygeneration of industrial grade steam, fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids, or hydrogen. NETL expanded this effort in Task 3 to evaluate Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. The Task 3 study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. These objectives were divided into five subtasks. Subtasks 3.2 through 3.4 covered the technical analyses for the different design cases. Subtask 3.1 covered management activities, and Subtask 3.5 covered reporting. Conceptual designs were developed for several coal gasification facilities based on the fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. Subtask 3.2 developed two base case designs for industrial combined heat and power facilities using Southeastern Ohio coal that will be located at an upstate New York location. One base case design used an air-blown gasifier, and the other used an oxygen-blown gasifier in order to evaluate their relative economics. Subtask 3.3 developed an advanced design for an air-blown gasification combined heat and power facility based on the Subtask 3.2 design. The air-blown case was chosen since it was less costly and had a better return on investment than the oxygen-blown gasifier case. Under appropriate conditions, this study showed a combined heat and power air-blown gasification facility could be an attractive option for upgrading or expanding the utilities area of industrial facilities. Subtask 3.4 developed a base case design for a large lignite-fueled IGCC power plant that uses the advanced GE 7FB combustion turbine to be located at a generic North Dakota site. This plant uses low-level waste heat to dry the lignite that otherwise would be rejected to the atmosphere. Although this base case plant design is economically attractive, further enhancements should be investigated. Furthermore, since this is an oxygen-blown facility, it has the potential for capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2}. The third objective for Task 3 was accomplished by having NETL personnel working closely with Nexant and Gas Technology Institute personnel during execution of this project. Technology development will be the key to the long-term commercialization of gasification technologies. This will be important to the integration of this environmentally superior solid fuel technology into the existing mix of power plants and industrial facilities. As a result of this study, several areas have been identified in which research and development will further advance gasification technology. Such areas include improved system availability, development of warm-gas clean up technologies, and improved subsystem designs.

  14. Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luche, J.; Falcoz, Q.; Bastien, T.; Leninger, J. P.; Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J. M.; Lédé, J.

    2012-02-01

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

  15. Solar heated fluidized bed gasification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qader, S. A.

    1981-09-01

    A solar-powered fluidized bed gasification system for gasifying carbonaceous material is presented. The system includes a solar gasifier which is heated by fluidizing gas and steam. Energy to heat the gas and steam is supplied by a high heat capacity refractory honeycomb which surrounds the fluid bed reactor zone. The high heat capacity refractory honeycomb is heated by solar energy focused on the honeycomb by solar concentrator through solar window. The fluid bed reaction zone is also heated directly and uniformly by thermal contact of the high heat capacity ceramic honeycomb with the walls of the fluidized bed reactor. Provisions are also made for recovering and recycling catalysts used in the gasification process. Back-up furnace is provided for start-up procedures and for supplying heat to the fluid bed reaction zone when adequate supplies of solar energy are not available.

  16. Supercritical droplet gasification experiments with forced convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron; Parigger, Chris; Jeng, San-Mou

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results of a comprehensive experimental program are presented which offer the first direct observations of suspended n-heptane droplet gasifications in pure nitrogen with forced convection without the interference to optical probing associated with a flame. Measurements show attainment of a wet-bulb temperature until reduced pressures exceed about 1.0 under supercritical gas temperatures. Thereafter, temperature measurements indicate fully transient heat-up through the critical temperature. The surface is found to regress in a continuous manner with the measured temperature approaching the critical value at the end of the droplet lifetime under supercritical conditions with very mild level of convection. At increased level of convection for the same ambient conditions, similar sized droplets will undergo significant deformation during the gasification process until partially convected away as a dense vapor cloud as the critical temperature is approached.

  17. On the gasification of biomass in a steam-oxygen blown CFB gasifier with the focus on gas quality upgrading: technology background, experiments and mathematical modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Siedlecki

    2011-01-01

    This work presents and discusses the results of the research on the gasification of biomass in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed, with a mixture of steam and oxygen as fluidization \\/ gasification medium. The main objectives of this research were to investigate and improve the gasification process in order to produce hydrogen-rich gas from relatively dry woody and agricultural biomass.

  18. Gasification of refuse derived fuel in the Battelle high throughput gasification system

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, M.A.; Creamer, K.S.; Tweksbury, T.L.; Taylor, D.R. (Battelle Columbus Div., Washington, DC (USA))

    1989-07-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental program to demonstrate the suitability of the Battelle High Throughput Gasification Process to non-wood biomass fuels. An extensive data base on wood gasification was generated during a multi-year experimental program. This data base and subsequent design and economic analysis activities led to the discussion to study the gasification character of other fuels. The specific fuel studied was refuse derived fuel (RDF) which is a prepared municipal solid waste (MSW). The use of RDF, while providing a valuable fuel, can also provide a solution to MSW disposal problems. Gasification of MSW provides advantages over land fill or mass burn technology since a more usable form of energy, medium Btu gas, is produced. Land filling of wastes produces no usable products and mass burning while greatly reducing the volume of wastes for disposal can produce only steam. This steam must be used on site or very nearby this limiting the potential locations for mass burn facilities. Such a gas, if produced from currently available supplies of MSW, can contribute 2 quads to the US energy supply. 3 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Co-gasification of solid waste and lignite - a case study for Western Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Koukouzas, N; Katsiadakis, A; Karlopoulos, E; Kakaras, E

    2008-01-01

    Co-gasification of solid waste and coal is a very attractive and efficient way of generating power, but also an alternative way, apart from conventional technologies such as incineration and landfill, of treating waste materials. The technology of co-gasification can result in very clean power plants using a wide range of solid fuels but there are considerable economic and environmental challenges. The aim of this study is to present the available existing co-gasification techniques and projects for coal and solid wastes and to investigate the techno-economic feasibility, concerning the installation and operation of a 30MW(e) co-gasification power plant based on integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, using lignite and refuse derived fuel (RDF), in the region of Western Macedonia prefecture (WMP), Greece. The gasification block was based on the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) gasifier, while the gas clean-up block was based on cold gas purification. The competitive advantages of co-gasification systems can be defined both by the fuel feedstock and production flexibility but also by their environmentally sound operation. It also offers the benefit of commercial application of the process by-products, gasification slag and elemental sulphur. Co-gasification of coal and waste can be performed through parallel or direct gasification. Direct gasification constitutes a viable choice for installations with capacities of more than 350MW(e). Parallel gasification, without extensive treatment of produced gas, is recommended for gasifiers of small to medium size installed in regions where coal-fired power plants operate. The preliminary cost estimation indicated that the establishment of an IGCC RDF/lignite plant in the region of WMP is not profitable, due to high specific capital investment and in spite of the lower fuel supply cost. The technology of co-gasification is not mature enough and therefore high capital requirements are needed in order to set up a direct co-gasification plant. The cost of electricity estimated was not competitive, compared to the prices dominating the Greek electricity market and thus further economic evaluation is required. The project would be acceptable if modular construction of the unit was first adopted near operating power plants, based on parallel co-gasification, and gradually incorporating the remaining process steps (gas purification, power generation) with the aim of eventually establishing a true direct co-gasification plant. PMID:17631995

  20. Hydrogen manufacture by Lurgi gasification of Oklahoma coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of using the Lurgi gasification process to produce hydrogen from Oklahoma coal are listed. Special attention was given to the production of heat for the process; heat is generated by burning part of pretreated coal in the steam generator. Overall performance of the Lurgi process is summarized in tabular form.

  1. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-01-01

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the

  2. Underground coal gasification: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center is conducting a program in underground coal gasification (UCG). The purpose of this program is to develop the technology for converting coal seams, in place, to a combustible gas that can be cleaned, treated, and upgraded for a variety of end uses, such as the production of chemicals, substitute natural gas, liquid fuels, and electrical power. Coal resources targeted for UCG processing are those coal seams that are unsuitable for recovery using current mining technology because of technical, environmental, health and safety, or economic factors. Conceptually, UCG processing is relatively simple and straightforward. Wells are drilled from the surface to provide access to the target coal seam. One well serves for injection of an oxidant, such as air or a mixture of oxygen and steam, into the seam, while another well serves as a production well for the gasification process gases. These two process wells are connected within the seam using one of several linking techniques to provide an open pathway for the flow of large quantities of gaseous products. Surface treatment of the product gas stream is similar to that for surface gasification processes. The Program is divided into two main technical areas or subprograms: (1) Process Technology, and (2) Process Monitoring, Control, and Environmental Impact Mitigation. The intent of this report is to present the research and accomplishments since 1983 by discussing the elements in these two subprograms that are inhibiting the commercialization of UCG: (1) site suitability, (2) process well linkage, (3) process control, and (4) environmental risks. 60 refs., 12 figs.

  3. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Ghate; R. T. Yang

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes the method for bulk separation of multi-component gases generated in a coal gasification process wherein coal is gasified in a gasifier to produce gasification products including a mixture of gases comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gas components carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. It consists of the steps of conveying a stream comprising the mixture of

  4. MODELLING THE LOW-TAR BIG GASIFICATION CONCEPT Lars Andersen, Brian Elmegaard, Bjrn Qvale, Ulrik Henriksen

    E-print Network

    and gasification chamber are bubbling fluid beds, fluidised with steam. For moist fuels, the gasifier can be integrated with a steam drying process, where the produced steam is used in the pyrolysis plant systems: Gas engine, Simple cycle gas turbine, Recuperated gas turbine and Integrated Gasification

  5. Multicriteria Optimization of Gasification Operational Parameters Using a Pareto Genetic Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel CALDAS; Luisa CALDAS; Viriato SEMIÃO

    Gasification is a well-known technology that allows for a combustible gas to be obtained from a carbonaceous fuel by a partial oxidation process (POX). The resulting gas (synthesis gas or syngas) can be used either as a fuel or as a feedstock for chemical production. Recently, gasification has also received a great deal of attention concerning power production possibilities through

  6. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, January-March 1979. [US DOE supported

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-01-01

    Progress in DOE-supported coal gasification pilot plant projects is reported: company, location, contract number, funding, process description, history and progress in the current quarter. Two support projects are discussed: preparation of a technical data book and mathematical modeling of gasification reactors. (LTN)

  7. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of coal gasification in a pressurized spout-fluid bed

    SciTech Connect

    Zhongyi Deng; Rui Xiao; Baosheng Jin; He Huang; Laihong Shen; Qilei Song; Qianjun Li [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education

    2008-05-15

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, which has recently proven to be an effective means of analysis and optimization of energy-conversion processes, has been extended to coal gasification in this paper. A 3D mathematical model has been developed to simulate the coal gasification process in a pressurized spout-fluid bed. This CFD model is composed of gas-solid hydrodynamics, coal pyrolysis, char gasification, and gas phase reaction submodels. The rates of heterogeneous reactions are determined by combining Arrhenius rate and diffusion rate. The homogeneous reactions of gas phase can be treated as secondary reactions. A comparison of the calculated and experimental data shows that most gasification performance parameters can be predicted accurately. This good agreement indicates that CFD modeling can be used for complex fluidized beds coal gasification processes. 37 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The gasifier selected for development under this contract is an innovative and patented hybrid technology which combines the best features of both fixed-bed and fluidized-bed types. PyGas{trademark}, meaning Pyrolysis Gasification, is well suited for integration into advanced power cycles such as IGCC. It is also well matched to hot gas clean-up technologies currently in development. Unlike other gasification technologies, PyGas can be designed into both large and small scale systems. It is expected that partial repowering with PyGas could be done at a cost of electricity of only 2.78 cents/kWh, more economical than natural gas repowering. It is extremely unfortunate that Government funding for such a noble cause is becoming reduced to the point where current contracts must be canceled. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project was initiated to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology at a cost approaching $1,000 per kilowatt for electric power generation applications. The project was to include an innovative, advanced, air-blown, pressurized, fixed-bed, dry-bottom gasifier and a follow-on hot metal oxide gas desulfurization sub-system. To help defray the cost of testing materials, the facility was to be located at a nearby utility coal fired generating site. The patented PyGas{trademark} technology was selected via a competitive bidding process as the candidate which best fit overall DOE objectives. The paper describes the accomplishments to date.

  9. Angrenskaya underground coal gasification station

    SciTech Connect

    Olness, D.

    1982-06-17

    This report continues our survey of the Soviet effort in underground coal gasification (UCG) and summarizes production data and process improvements developed at the Angrenskaya Station. Of the six UCG stations operated in the Soviet Union, only the Angrenskaya Station was established from the outset as a commercial venture rather than as a research facility. Development began in 1952. Industrial operation began in 1961 and has continued to the present. It was anticipated that improvements planned for the Angren system, coupled with the assumed advantages of thick seams, would make the UCG process developed at Tula both efficient and profitable as operated at Angren. Unfortunately, this was not the case, and the cost of UCG at Angren has remained relatively high despite the various system changes that have been tried over the years. Although the Angrenskaya Station presently operates at only about 20% capacity, undoubtedly a consequence of the disappointing results, the Soviets keep it in operation as a demonstration facility for foreign investors who may wish to enter into licensing agreements and as a place for testing new process developments.

  10. The Caterpillar Coal Gasification Facility 

    E-print Network

    Welsh, J.; Coffeen, W. G., III

    1983-01-01

    INTO THE STEAM DRUM WHICH IS FITTED WITH WATER LEVEL AND STEAM PRESSURE CONTROLS. THE STEAM LEAVING THE TOP OF THE STEAM DRUM IS UTILIZED IN SATURATING THE AIR USED FOR GASIFICATION. THE WATER JACKET (ANNULAR BOILER) IS PROVIDED WITH A MANHOLE AND BLOWPOWN... EXPENSIVE AND A MORE RELIABLE SUPPLY. ALTHOUGH COAL GASIFICATION IS ONLY NOW BEING REDISCOVERD IN THE UNITED STATES, THE TECHNOLOGY HAS REMAINED RELA TIVELY COMMON IN OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD, NOTABLY SOUTH AFRICA. A CATERPILLAR ENGINEERING TEAM VISITED...

  11. SYNGAS FROM BIOMASS-BASED SLURRY ENTRAINED-FLOW GASIFICATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Kolb; Tobias Jakobs; Nikolaos Zarzalis

    At the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe a new process - BIOLIQ® - for the production of synthesis gas from biomass is being developed. Straw or other abundant lignocellulosic agricultural by-products are converted to synthesis gas by a two-step process with pyrolysis and subsequent entrained flow gasification. The tar-free synthesis gas can be converted to high value products, such as synfuel or methanol.

  12. LOW- AND MEDIUM-BTU GASIFICATION SYSTEMS: TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives an overview of low- and medium-Btu gasification systems. It describes systems or combinations of processes which are likely to be used for production of low- and medium-Btu gas from coal. This involves making judgments as to types of coals that will be processed,...

  13. Biotreatment of UCG waste water condensate. [Underground coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Humenick

    1984-01-01

    The process of underground coal gasification generates a waste water stream during the cooling and processing of the product gas. The character of the UCG condensate is similar to that produced by surface gasifiers, although there are some differences. The treatment options studied in this laboratory project were activated sludge treatment of raw condensate, activated sludge treatment of stripped condensate,

  14. Influence of pressure on coal pyrolysis and char gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Haiping Yang; Hanping Chen; Fudong Ju; Rong Yan; Shihong Zhang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2007-12-15

    Coal char structure varied greatly with pyrolysis pressure, which has a significant influence on the gasification reactivity. In this study, the influence of pressure on the behavior of coal pyrolysis and physicochemical structure and gasification characteristics of the resultant coal char was investigated using a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer combined with an ambient thermogravimetric analyzer. First, the pyrolysis of Shenfu (SF) bituminous coal was performed in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at different pressures (0.1, 0.8, 1.5, 3, and 5 MPa). The volatile mainly evolved out at 400-800{sup o}C. The gas products are mainly CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, and light aliphatics with some water. It was observed that the pyrolysis of coal was shifted to lower temperature (50{sup o}C) with pressure increasing from ambient to 5 MPa, and the devolatilization rate of coal pyrolysis was decreased and the coal char yield was increased slightly. The structure of solid coal char was analyzed using FTIR, ASAP2020, and CNHS. In the solid char, the main organic functional groups are mainly CO, C-C (alkane), C-H ar, C-O-C, and C=C ar. The carbon content was increased while H content decreased. Finally, the gasification of the solid char was preformed at ambient pressure with CO{sub 2} as gasify agent. The gasification process of coal char can be divided into postpyrolysis and char gasification. Higher pressure accelerated the initial stage of char gasification, and higher gasification reactivity was observed for char derived at 5 MPa. 23 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Underground coal gasification modelling activities in Belgium

    SciTech Connect

    Coeeme, A.; Mostade, M. [Institution pour le Developpement de la Gazeification Souterraine, Liege (Belgium); Pirard, J.P.; Pirlot, P. [Univ. de Liege (Belgium). Institut de Chimie; Sintzoff, I. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes recent modelling studies in Belgium. The models were developed within the framework of the two European Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) field trials at great depth: Thulin (Belgium), 1980--1987 and Alcorisa (Spain), 1992--1997 (in progress). UCG process modelling can be divided into two categories according to the degree of physicochemical description details: (1) models based on a macroscopic or ``global`` description of phenomena and (2) models based on a more detailed description of the mechanisms involved. In parallel to UCG process modelling activities, a production well model was developed on the same detailed description of the mechanisms involved.

  16. Pyrolysis, combustion and gasification characteristics of Nannochloropsis gaditana microalgae.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Silva, L; López-González, D; Garcia-Minguillan, A M; Valverde, J L

    2013-02-01

    Pyrolysis, combustion and gasification characteristics of Nannochloropsis gaditana microalgae (NG microalgae) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). NG microalgae pyrolysis and combustion could be divided into three main stages: dehydration, proteins and polysaccharides degradation and char decomposition. The effects of the initial sample mass, particle size and gas flow on the pyrolysis and combustion processes were studied. In addition, gasification operation conditions such as temperature, initial sample mass, particle size, sweep gas flow and steam concentration, were experimentally evaluated. The evolved gases were analyzed online using mass spectroscopy (MS). In pyrolysis and combustion processes, most of the gas products were generated at the second degradation step. N-compounds evolution was associated with the degradation of proteins. Furthermore, SO(2) release from combustion could be related to sulphated polysaccharides decomposition. The main products detected during gasification were CO(2), CO, H(2), indicating that oxidation reactions, water gas and water gas shift reactions, were predominant. PMID:23313676

  17. Hydrogen Production from Biomass via Supercritical Water Gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Demirbas

    2010-01-01

    Comparison with other biomass thermochemical gasification, such as air gasification or steam gasification, the supercritical water gasification can directly deal with the wet biomass without drying, and has high gasification efficiency in lower temperatures. The cost of hydrogen production from supercritical water gasification of wet biomass was several times higher than the current price of hydrogen from steam methane reforming.

  18. Gasification behavior of carbon residue in bed solids of black liquor gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Preto, Fernando; Zhang, Xiaojie (Frank); Wang, Jinsheng [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    Steam gasification of carbon residue in bed solids of a low-temperature black liquor gasifier was studied using a thermogravimetric system at 3 bar. Complete gasification of the carbon residue, which remained unreactive at 600 C, was achieved in about 10 min as the temperature increased to 800 C. The rate of gasification and its temperature dependence were evaluated from the non-isothermal experiment results. Effects of particle size and adding H{sub 2} and CO to the gasification agent were also studied. The rate of steam gasification could be taken as zero order in carbon until 80% of carbon was gasified, and for the rest of the gasification process the rate appeared to be first order in carbon. The maximum rate of carbon conversion was around 0.003/s and the activation energy was estimated to be in the range of 230-300 kJ/mol. The particle size did not show significant effect on the rate of gasification. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide appeared to retard the onset of the gasification process. (author)

  19. Geosphere in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, D.J.; Groenewold, G.H.; Schmit, C.R.; Evans, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    The feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG), the in-situ conversion of coal to natural gas, has been demonstrated through 28 tests in the US alone, mainly in low-rank coals, since the early 1970s. Further, UCG is currently entering the commercial phase in the US with a planned facility in Wyoming for the production of ammonia-urea from UCG-generated natural gas. Although the UCG process both affects and is affected by the natural setting, the majority of the test efforts have historically been focused on characterizing those aspects of the natural setting with the potential to affect the burn. With the advent of environmental legislation, this focus broadened to include the potential impacts of the process on the environment (e.g., subsidence, degradation of ground water quality). Experience to date has resulted in the growing recognition that consideration of the geosphere is fundamental to the design of efficient, economical, and environmentally acceptable UCG facilities. The ongoing RM-1 test program near Hanna, Wyoming, sponsored by the US Department of Energy and an industry consortium led by the Gas Research Institute, reflects this growing awareness through a multidisciplinary research effort, involving geoscientists and engineers, which includes (1) detailed geological site characterization, (2) geotechnical, hydrogeological, and geochemical characterization and predictive modeling, and (3) a strategy for ground water protection. Continued progress toward commercialization of the UCG process requires the integration of geological and process-test information in order to identify and address the potentially adverse environmental ramifications of the process, while identifying and using site characteristics that have the potential to benefit the process and minimize adverse impacts.

  20. Pipeline-gas Demonstration Plant: Phase I. Quarterly technical process report, 1 January 1981 - 31 March 1981. [Proprietary process for coal gasification plants

    SciTech Connect

    DiFulgentiz, R. A. [comp. and ed.

    1981-01-01

    Contract No EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coal into clean pipeline quality gas. During the reporting period of January 1, 1981, through March 31, 1981, the major work effort of the project was focused on Task VI, Demonstration Plant Engineering and Design, and on Task VII, Construction Planning. Work continued on plans for obtaining coal, catalysts, chemicals, and flux, and on plans for sale of the products and by-products. Work on Task VIII, Economic Reassessment, was started during the reporting period. The design phase of the project, Phase I, is scheduled for completion on June 30, 1981. Conoco Inc. expects to meet all major milestone dates and complete Phase I on schedule.

  1. Countercurrent fixed-bed gasification of biomass at laboratory scale

    SciTech Connect

    Di Blasi, C.; Signorelli, G.; Portoricco, G. [Univ. degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica

    1999-07-01

    A laboratory-scale countercurrent fixed-bed gasification plant has been designed and constructed to produce data for process modeling and to compare the gasification characteristics of several biomasses (beechwood, nutshells, olive husks, and grape residues). The composition of producer gas and spatial temperature profiles have been measured for biomass gasification at different air flow rates. The gas-heating value always attains a maximum as a function of this operating variable, associated with a decrease of the air-to-fuel ratio. Optical gasification conditions of wood and agricultural residues give rise to comparable gas-heating values, comprised in the range 5--5.5 MJ/Nm{sup 3} with 28--30% CO, 5--7% CO{sub 2}, 6--8% H{sub 2}, 1--2% CH{sub 4}, and small amounts of C{sub 2}- hydrocarbons (apart from nitrogen). However, gasification of agricultural residues is more difficult because of bed transport, partial ash sintering, nonuniform flow distribution, and the presence of a muddy phase in the effluents, so that proper pretreatments are needed for largescale applications.

  2. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2} separation, and also syngas production from coal with the calcium sulfide (CaS)/calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) loop utilizing the PDU facility. The results of Phase I were reported in Reference 1, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase I Report' The objective for Phase II was to develop the carbonate loop--lime (CaO)/calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) loop, integrate it with the gasification loop from Phase I, and ultimately demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen production from the combined loops. The results of this program were reported in Reference 3, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase II Report'. The objective of Phase III is to operate the pilot plant to obtain enough engineering information to design a prototype of the commercial Chemical Looping concept. The activities include modifications to the Phase II Chemical Looping PDU, solids transportation studies, control and instrumentation studies and additional cold flow modeling. The deliverable is a report making recommendations for preliminary design guidelines for the prototype plant, results from the pilot plant testing and an update of the commercial plant economic estimates.

  3. Characterization of cellulosic wastes and gasification products from chicken farms

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, Paul, E-mail: p.joseph@ulster.ac.uk [School of the Built Environment and the Built Environment Research Institute, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, County Antrim, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana; McKenna, Siobhan [School of the Built Environment and the Built Environment Research Institute, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, County Antrim, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The gas chromatography indicated the variable quality of the producer gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The char had appreciable NPK values, and can be used as a fertiliser. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bio-oil produced was of poor quality, having high moisture content and low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mass and energy balances showed inadequate level energy recovery from the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Future work includes changing the operating parameters of the gasification unit. - Abstract: The current article focuses on gasification as a primary disposal solution for cellulosic wastes derived from chicken farms, and the possibility to recover energy from this process. Wood shavings and chicken litter were characterized with a view to establishing their thermal parameters, compositional natures and calorific values. The main products obtained from the gasification of chicken litter, namely, producer gas, bio-oil and char, were also analysed in order to establish their potential as energy sources. The experimental protocol included bomb calorimetry, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), mineral content analyses and gas chromatography. The mass and energy balances of the gasification unit were also estimated. The results obtained confirmed that gasification is a viable method of chicken litter disposal. In addition to this, it is also possible to recover some energy from the process. However, energy content in the gas-phase was relatively low. This might be due to the low energy efficiency (19.6%) of the gasification unit, which could be improved by changing the operation parameters.

  4. June 2007 gasification technologies workshop papers

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    Topics covered in this workshop are fundamentals of gasification, carbon capture and sequestration, reviews of financial and regulatory incentives, co-production, and focus on gasification in the Western US.

  5. Experimental investigations of biomass gasification with carbon-dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sircar, Indraneel

    A sustainable energy cycle may include enhanced utilization of solar energy and atmospheric CO2 to produce biomass and enhanced utilization of exhaust CO2 from power plants for synthetic gas production. The reaction of carbon with CO2 is potentially one of the important processes in a future sustainable carbon cycle. Reactions involving carbon and CO2 are also relevant to the chemical process and metal industries. Biomass char has been recognized as a present and future alternative to fossil-fuels for energy production and fuel synthesis. Therefore, biomass char gasification with CO2 recycling is proposed as a sustainable and carbon-neutral energy technology. Biomass char is a complex porous solid and its gasification involves heat and mass transfer processes within pores of multiple sizes from nanometer to millimeter scales. These processes are coupled with heterogeneous chemistry at the internal and external surfaces. Rates for the heterogeneous carbon gasification reactions are affected by inorganic content of the char. Furthermore, pore structure of the char develops with conversion and influences apparent gasification rates. Effective modeling of the gasification reactions has relied on the best available understanding of diffusion processes and kinetic rate property constants from state of the art experiments. Improvement of the influences of inorganic composition, and process parameters, such as pressure and temperature on the gasification reaction rates has been a continuous process. Economic viability of gasification relies on use of optimum catalysts. These aspects of the current status of gasification technologies have motivated the work reported in this dissertation. The reactions between biomass chars and CO2 are investigated to determine the effects of temperature and pressure on the reaction rates for large char particles of relevance to practical gasification technologies. An experimental apparatus consisting of a high-pressure fixed-bed reactor with product gas sampling for tracking the reaction progress, supported by independent gravimetric measurements of mass loss, is described. The effects of pressure and temperature on the char-CO2 reaction are investigated at elevated pressures up to 10 atm. Measurements of reaction rates at multiple temperatures and pressures for a low-ash pinewood char are presented. Kinetic rate parameters for the char-CO2 reaction are reported with detailed uncertainty calculations and discussed in the context of the structural changes of the char with mass loss. The effects of pressure and temperature on the internal mass transfer processes and the intrinsic reaction rates are assessed using Thiele analysis for non-isothermal particles with the nth order and the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic rate models. The effects of potassium, calcium and iron catalysts on the CO2 gasification rates of an activated coconut char are investigated. A catalyst treatment method for obtaining high catalyst loadings (~12 wt. %) is described. The effects of the catalysts on the surface reaction rates and the activation energies are reported. The results of this study are encouraging in the context of potential future discovery of a viable low-temperature catalytic gasification process for sustainable use of biomass as a renewable energy resource. Utilization of plant based substances such as citric acid to provide higher catalytic activity and the potential for utilizing the high initial activity of iron by using rust proofing compounds for maintaining high reactivity are recommended for further development.

  6. Gasification characteristics of an activated carbon catalyst during the decomposition of hazardous waste material in supercritical water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukihiko Matsumura; F. W. Nuessle; M. J. Jr. Antal

    1996-01-01

    Recently, carbonaceous materials including activated carbon were proven to be effective catalysts for hazardous waste gasification in supercritical water. Using coconut shell activated carbon catalyst, complete decomposition of industrial organic wastes including methanol and acetic acid was achieved. During this process, the total mass of the activated carbon catalyst changes by two competing processes: a decrease in weight via gasification

  7. Thermophysical models of underground coal gasification and FEM analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.H. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2007-11-15

    In this study, mathematical models of the coupled thermohydromechanical process of coal rock mass in an underground coal gasification panel are established. Combined with the calculation example, the influence of heating effects on the observed values and simulated values for pore water pressure, stress, and displacement in the gasification panel are fully discussed and analyzed. Calculation results indicate that 38, 62, and 96 days after the experiment, the average relative errors for the calculated values and measured values for the temperature and water pressure were between 8.51-11.14% and 3-10%, respectively; with the passage of gasification time, the calculated errors for the vertical stress and horizontal stress gradually declined, but the simulated errors for the horizontal and vertical displacements both showed a rising trend. On the basis of the research results, the calculated values and the measured values agree with each other very well.

  8. Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Arafat, Hassan A., E-mail: harafat@masdar.ac.ae; Jijakli, Kenan

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Study developed a methodology for the evaluation of gasification for MSW treatment. • Study was conducted comparatively for USA, UAE, and Thailand. • Study applies a thermodynamic model (Gibbs free energy minimization) using the Gasify software. • The energy efficiency of the process and the compatibility with different waste streams was studied. - Abstract: Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify®) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration.

  9. Gasification and effect of gasifying temperature on syngas quality and tar generation: A short review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guangul, Fiseha Mekonnen; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Raghavan, Vijay R.

    2012-06-01

    Corrosion, erosion and plugging of the downstream equipments by tar and ash particle and, low energy content of syngas are the main problems of biomass gasification process. This paper attempts to review the findings of literature on the effect of temperature on syngas quality, and in alleviating the tar and ash problems in the gasification process. The review of literature indicates that as the gasification temperature increases, concentration of the resulting H2 and carbon conversion efficiency increase, the amount of tar in the syngas decreases. For the same condition, CH4 and CO concentration do not show consistent trend when the feedstock and gasification process varies. These necessitate the need for conducting an experiment for a particular gasification process and feedstock to understand fully the benefits of controlling the gasification temperature. This paper also tries to propose a method to improve the syngas quality and to reduce the tar amount by using preheated air and superheated steam as a gasifying media for oil palm fronds (OPF) gasification.

  10. Steam decomposition in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Mastalerz, J.; Matyjaszczyk, M.S.; Rauk, J.

    1987-02-01

    An idea for probing the combustion zone temperature (CZT) in underground coal gasification (UCG) by using the hydrogen amount in product gas coming from the steam decomposition (HS) is proposed. It seems, from both experimental and theoretical analyses of three generators, that the increase in CZT results in the increase of HS and vice versa. Experimental results of UCG in single well and multiwell generators, blind and open, constructed in bituminous coal seam by the shaft method with ambient and heated air and oxygen as oxidizing agents are presented, and good agreement with theoretical predictions is reached after taking into account the carbon dioxide trapping and hydrogen burning processes.

  11. Key tests set for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Haggin, J.

    1983-07-18

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is about to undergo some tests. The tests will be conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in a coal seam owned by Washington Irrigation and Development Co. A much-improved UCG system has been developed by Stephens and his associates at LLNL - the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) method. Pritchard Corp., Kansas City, has done some conceptual process design and has further studied the feasibility of using the raw gas from a UCG burn as a feedstock for methanol synthesis and/or MTG gasoline. Each method was described. (DP)

  12. Energy from gasification of solid wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Belgiorno; G. De Feo; C. Della Rocca; R. M. A. Napoli

    2003-01-01

    Gasification technology is by no means new: in the 1850s, most of the city of London was illuminated by “town gas” produced from the gasification of coal. Nowadays, gasification is the main technology for biomass conversion to energy and an attractive alternative for the thermal treatment of solid waste. The number of different uses of gas shows the flexibility of

  13. Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Colt

    2008-12-31

    ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

  14. Advanced coal gasification system for electric power generation. Third quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-07-25

    The operation, maintenance and modifications to the Westinghouse gasification process development unit during the quarter are reviewed. The tests of the gasifier-agglomerator included direct coal feed as well as oxygen-blown gasification of a char or coal bed. Then the whole system was tested in single and double stage operation. Laboratory support involved fluidized bed test facilities at ambient temperature and at design temperature for devolatilization and gasification studies. Other laboratory systems were related to thermal analysis and pressurized high temperature studies of gasification and gas cleaning. (LTN)

  15. Natural restoration of ground water in UCG. [Underground coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Humenick; L. N. Britton; C. F. Mattox

    1982-01-01

    Data collected after underground coal-gasification field tests indicated that the concentrations of organic contaminants in the ground water decrease with time, apparently due to two natural processes - adsorption and biological degradation. Batch isotherm tests of the adsorption mechanism showed that 1) low-molecular-weight phenolic materials (the most prevalent contaminants) are the least likely to be adsorbed from the ground water,

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF LOW/MEDIUM BTU GASIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes completed and on-going work performed by Radian Corporation for the EPA in the area of environmental assessment of low- and medium-Btu gasification of coal and its utilization. Main areas discussed are the current process technology background, environmental...

  17. COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: SULFUR AND NITROGEN SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes data on sulfur and nitrogen species from the source test and environmental assessment studies of low- and medium-Btu gasification processes which were sponsored by the EPA between 1977 and 1981. The data are focused on the composition and distribution of the...

  18. Characteristics of cardboard and paper gasification with CO 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Ahmed; A. K. Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary behavior of syngas chemical composition and yield have been examined for paper and cardboard at three different temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000°C using CO2 as the gasifying agent at constant flow rate. Specifically the evolution of syngas chemical composition with time has been investigated. Pyrolysis of the sample was dominant at the beginning of the gasification process as

  19. Evaluation of treated gasification wastewater as cooling tower makeup

    SciTech Connect

    Galegher, S.J.; Mann, M.D.; Johnson, M.D.

    1985-04-01

    The principal goal of gasification research at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC) is to develop process and environmental data on the treatability and reuse of aqueous effluents from the fixed-bed gasification of lignite. It is the objective of the UNDERC wastewater research program to define the extent of treatment required to produce a gas liquor for use as cooling tower makeup that will have no adverse effects on operating equipment or on the environment. The UNDERC pilot wastewater treatment scheme was designed to simulate the wastewater reuse process being used at the Great Plains Gasification Associates (GPGA) lignite gasification facility near Beulah, North Dakota. At GPGA, aqueous gasifier waste streams are treated via the Phenosolvan and Phosam-W processes to remove the bulk of the wastewater organics as well as ammonia and acid gases. This minimally treated wastewater, referred to as stripped gas liquor (SGL), is fed to the process cooling towers. At UNDERC, SGL was produced from a pilot slagging fixed-bed gasifier (SFBG) followed by extraction and steam-stripping treatment. UNDERC wastewater was used initially to determine the effects of cooling tower wastewater reuse before GPGA wastewater became available. An additional cooling tower reuse test was performed with water from GPGA. This work addresses the comparative effects of wastewater from the UNDERC slagging gasifier and the GPGA dry-ash gasifier on cooling system operation. 14 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Effect of Microwave Pre-Processing of Pelletized Biomass on its Gasification and Combustion / Mikrovi?nu Priekšapstr?des Ietekme Uz Granul?tas Biomasas Gazifik?cijas Un Degšanas Procesiem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmina, I.; L?ckrasti?a, A.; Valdmanis, J.; Valdmanis, R.; Za?e, M.; Arshanitsa, A.; Telysheva, G.; Solodovnik, V.

    2013-08-01

    To effectively produce clean heat energy from biomass, microwave (mw) pre-processing of its different types - pelletized wood (spruce), herbaceous biomass (reed canary grass) and their mixture (50:50) - was carried out at the 2.45 GHz frequency with different durations of biomass exposure to high-frequency oscillations. To estimate the mw pre-processing effect on the structure, composition and fuel characteristics of biomass, its thermogravimetric (TG), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements and elemental analysis were made. The pre-processing is shown to enhance the release of moisture and low-calorific volatiles and the partial destruction of biomass constituents (hemicelluloses, cellulose), promoting variations in the elemental composition and heating values of biomass. The field-enhanced variations of biomass characteristics and their influence on its gasification and combustion were studied using an integrated system of a biomass gasifier and a combustor with swirl-enhanced stabilization of the flame reaction zone. The results show that the mw pre-processing of biomass pellets provides a faster weight loss at the gasification, and, therefore, faster ignition and combustion of the activated pellets along with increased output of heat energy at their burnout Veikti kompleksi eksperiment?lie p?t?jumi par mikrovi??u (2,45 GHz) priekšapstr?des ietekmi uz daž?das izcelsmes biomasas granulu (egles, miežabr??a un to mais?jumu 50:50) gazifik?cijas un degšanas procesiem. P?t?jumi apvieno granul?t?s biomasas element?r? sast?va un termogravimetriskos m?r?jumus, k? ar? granul?t?s biomasas gazifik?cijas un degšanas procesu kompleksu izp?ti, apvienojot biomasas svara izmai?u kin?tiskos m?r?jumus ar degšanas zonas temperat?ras, iek?rtas jaudas un degšanas produktu sast?va kin?tiskiem m?r?jumiem. P?t?jumiem izmantota mazas jaudas eksperiment?l? iek?rta (l?dz 2,5 kW), kuru veido integr?ts gazifik?tors un degšanas kamera. P?t?jumu rezult?t? konstat?ts, ka mikrovi??u priekšapstr?de nodrošina intens?v?ku biomasas gazifik?ciju, ?tr?ku gaistošo savienojumu veidošanos, uzliesmošanu un piln?g?ku sadedzin?šanu ar sekojošu saražot?s ?patn?j? siltuma ener?ijas pieaugumu

  1. ENCOAL mild coal gasification project. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July--September 1993) and the 1993 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, has completed the construction of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). ENCOAL submitted an application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project was selected by DOE in December, 1989 and the Cooperative Agreement approved in September, 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL mild coal gasification facility was completed in June of 1992, and the project is currently in the operations phase. Some plant modifications have been required and are discussed in this report.

  2. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products via the catalytic gasification of biomass. This report presents the results of research conducted from December 1977 to October 1980. The study was comprised of laboratory studies, process development, and economic analyses. The laboratory studies were conducted to develop operating conditions and catalyst systems for generating methane-rich gas, synthesis gases, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide; these studies also developed techniques for catalyst recovery, regeneration, and recycling. A process development unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to evaluate laboratory systems at conditions approximating commercial operations. The economic analyses, performed by Davy McKee, Inc. for PNL, evaluated the feasibility of adapting the wood-to-methane and wood-to-methanol processes to full-scale commercial operations. Plants were designed in the economic analyses to produce fuel-grade methanol from wood and substitute natural gas (SNG) from wood via catalytic gasification with steam.

  3. Supercritical water gasification of biomass: Thermodynamic constraints.

    PubMed

    Castello, Daniele; Fiori, Luca

    2011-08-01

    In the present work, the supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of biomass is analyzed with a view to outlining the possible thermodynamic constraints that must be taken into account to develop this new process. In particular, issues concerning the formation of solid carbon and the process heat duty are discussed. The analysis is conducted by means of a two-phase non-stoichiometric thermodynamic model, based on Gibbs free energy minimization. Results show that char formation at equilibrium only occurs at high biomass concentrations, with a strong dependence on biomass composition. As regards the process heat duty, SCWG is mostly endothermic when biomass concentration is low, although a very small amount of oxidizing agent is able to make the process exothermic, with only a small loss in the heating value of the syngas produced. PMID:21640582

  4. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  5. Status of health and environmental research relative to coal gasification 1976 to the present

    SciTech Connect

    Wilzbach, K.E.; Reilly, C.A. Jr. (comps.)

    1982-10-01

    Health and environmental research relative to coal gasification conducted by Argonne National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under DOE sponsorship is summarized. The studies have focused on the chemical and toxicological characterization of materials from a range of process streams in five bench-scale, pilot-plant and industrial gasifiers. They also address ecological effects, industrial hygiene, environmental control technology performance, and risk assessment. Following an overview of coal gasification technology and related environmental concerns, integrated summaries of the studies and results in each area are presented and conclusions are drawn. Needed health and environmental research relative to coal gasification is identified.

  6. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC22

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2008-11-01

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC22, the first test campaign using a high moisture lignite from Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC22 was conducted from March 24 to April 17, 2007. The gasification process was operated for 543 hours, increasing the total gasification operation at the PSDF to over 10,000 hours. The PSDF gasification process was operated in air-blown mode with a total of about 1,080 tons of coal. Coal feeder operation was challenging due to the high as-received moisture content of the lignite, but adjustments to the feeder operating parameters reduced the frequency of coal feeder trips. Gasifier operation was stable, and carbon conversions as high as 98.9 percent were demonstrated. Operation of the PCD and other support equipment such as the recycle gas compressor and ash removal systems operated reliably.

  7. BIMOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  8. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

    2007-09-30

    While thermochemical syngas production facilities for biomass utilization are already employed worldwide, exploitation of their potential has been inhibited by technical limitations encountered when attempting to obtain real-time syngas compositional data required for process optimization, reliability, and syngas quality assurance. To address these limitations, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) carried out two companion projects (under US DOE Cooperative Agreements DE-FC36-03GO13175 and DE-FC36-02GO12024) to develop and demonstrate the equipment and methods required to reliably and continuously obtain accurate and representative on-line syngas compositional data. These objectives were proven through a stepwise series of field tests of biomass and coal gasification process streams. GTI developed the methods and hardware for extractive syngas sample stream delivery and distribution, necessary to make use of state-of-the-art on-line analyzers to evaluate and optimize syngas cleanup and conditioning. This multi-year effort to develop methods to effectively monitor gaseous species produced in thermochemical process streams resulted in a sampling and analysis approach that is continuous, sensitive, comprehensive, accurate, reliable, economical, and safe. The improved approach for sampling thermochemical processes that GTI developed and demonstrated in its series of field demonstrations successfully provides continuous transport of vapor-phase syngas streams extracted from the main gasification process stream to multiple, commercially available analyzers. The syngas stream is carefully managed through multiple steps to successfully convey it to the analyzers, while at the same time bringing the stream to temperature and pressure conditions that are compatible with the analyzers. The primary principle that guides the sample transport is that throughout the entire sampling train, the temperature of the syngas stream is maintained above the maximum condensation temperature of the vapor phase components of the conveyed sample gas. In addition, to minimize adsorption or chemical changes in the syngas components prior to analysis, the temperature of the transported stream is maintained as hot as is practical, while still being cooled only as much necessary prior to entering the analyzer(s). The successful transport of the sample gas stream to the analyzer(s) is accomplished through the managed combination of four basic gas conditioning methods that are applied as specifically called for by the process conditions, the gas constituent concentrations, the analyzer requirements, and the objectives of the syngas analyses: 1) removing entrained particulate matter from the sample stream; 2) maintaining the temperature of the sample gas stream; 3) lowering the pressure of the sample gas stream to decrease the vapor pressures of all the component vapor species in the sample stream; and 4) diluting the gas stream with a metered, inert gas, such as nitrogen. Proof-of-concept field demonstrations of the sampling approach were conducted for gasification process streams from a black liquor gasifier, and from the gasification of biomass and coal feedstocks at GTI’s Flex-Fuel Test Facility. In addition to the descriptions and data included in this Final Report, GTI produced a Special Topical Report, Design and Protocol for Monitoring Gaseous Species in Thermochemical Processes, that explains and describes in detail the objectives, principles, design, hardware, installation, operation and representative data produced during this successful developmental effort. Although the specific analyzers used under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024 were referenced in the Topical Report and this Final Report, the sampling interface design they present is generic enough to adapt to other analyzers that may be more appropriate to alternate process streams or facilities.

  9. Polk power station syngas cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the site development and construction phase of the new Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology. The unit will utilize Texaco`s oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle power generation, to produce nominal 260MW. Integral to the gasification process is the syngas cooling system. The design, integration, fabrication, transportation, and erection of this equipment have provided and continue to provide major challenges for this project.

  10. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  11. Underground coal gasification: the state-of-the-art

    SciTech Connect

    Krantz, W.B.; Gunn, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper serves to introduce the subject of this symposium volume, underground coal gasification (UCG), to the reader. In addition, it places the papers to this symposium volume in persepective with respect to their contributions to our understanding of large scale testing of the UCG process, instrumentation for these tests as well as commercial scale operations, modeling studies of various aspects of the process technology, environmental effect of UCG operations, and possible uses of the UCG product gas.

  12. Energy recovery from solid waste fuels using advanced gasification technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Morris; L. Waldheim

    1998-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, TPS Termiska Processer AB has been working on the development of an atmospheric-pressure gasification process. A major aim at the start of this work was the generation of fuel gas from indigenous fuels to Sweden (i.e. biomass). As the economic climate changed and awareness of the damage to the environment caused by the use of fossil fuels

  13. Underground coal gasification: a preliminary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) offers the promise of being more economically attractive, safer, less socially and less environmentally disruptive than other forms of coal-based synthetic fuel development. These advantages may outweigh some process uncertainties which - similar to most mining processes - are largely specific to the site under development and must be addressed on a site specific basis. Recent announcements by ARCO and Gulf indicate that serious development is underway with significant financial commitments to be made. DOE also projects a joint pilot plant program with industry in 1981. UCG appears to have strong development potential in Colorado because of the State's great coal resource base (fourth largest in the US, more than 90% recoverable by underground mining) and because Gulf's initial site choice for its steeply-dipping-bed test program was in Weld County. A continuing effort to define specific site characteristics will be required within the state in areas showing potential for UCG development.

  14. Coal char reactivity as a fuel selection criterion for coal-based hydrogen-rich gas production in the process of steam gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Smoli?ski

    2011-01-01

    The fuel’s reactivity can be defined as a parameter determining its processability in thermochemical processes applied to convert them into energy and\\/or energy carriers. It depends on many factors, like chemical composition and physical properties of a fuel as well as process parameters. As such it may provide important information on the process results in terms of product output and

  15. Pyrolysis and gasification of food waste: Syngas characteristics and char gasification kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. I. Ahmed; A. K. Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of syngas from the pyrolysis and gasification of food waste has been investigated. Characteristic differences in syngas properties and overall yields from pyrolysis and gasification were determined at two distinct high temperatures of 800 and 900°C. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior were evaluated in terms of syngas flow rate, hydrogen flow rate, output power, total syngas yield, total hydrogen yield,

  16. Gasification world database 2007. Current industry status

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    Information on trends and drivers affecting the growth of the gasification industry is provided based on information in the USDOE NETL world gasification database (available on the www.netl.doe.gov website). Sectors cover syngas production in 2007, growth planned through 2010, recent industry changes, and beyond 2010 - strong growth anticipated in the United States. A list of gasification-based power plant projects, coal-to-liquid projects and coal-to-SNG projects under consideration in the USA is given.

  17. Biomass gasification for gas turbine-based power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, M.A.; Anson, D. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The Biomass Power Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has as a major goal the development of cost-competitive technologies for the production of power from renewable biomass crops. The gasification of biomass provides the potential to meet this goal by efficiently and economically producing a renewable source of a clean gaseous fuel suitable for use in high-efficiency gas turbines. This paper discusses the development and first commercial demonstration of the Battelle high-throughput gasification process for power generation systems. Projected process economics are presented along with a description of current experimental operations coupling a gas turbine power generation system to the research scale gasifier and the process scaleup activities in Burlington, Vermont.

  18. Underground coal gasification field experiment in the high-dipping coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.H.; Liu, S.Q.; Yu, L.; Zhang, W. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources & Geoscience

    2009-07-01

    In this article the experimental conditions and process of the underground gasification in the Woniushan Mine, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province are introduced, and the experimental results are analyzed. By adopting the new method of long-channel, big-section, and two-stage underground coal gasification, the daily gas production reaches about 36,000 m{sup 3}, with the maximum output of 103,700 m{sup 3}. The daily average heating value of air gas is 5.04 MJ/m{sup 3}, with 13.57 MJ/m{sup 3} for water gas. In combustible compositions of water gas, H{sub 2} contents stand at over 50%, with both CO and CH{sub 4} contents over 6%. Experimental results show that the counter gasification can form new temperature conditions and increase the gasification efficiency of coal seams.

  19. Recent regulatory experience of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume III. Supporting case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, E.; Hart, D.; Lethi, M.; Park, W.; Rifkin, S.

    1980-02-01

    The MITRE Corporation conducted a five-month study for the Office of Resource Applications in the Department of Energy on the regulatory requirements of low-Btu coal gasification. During this study, MITRE interviewed representatives of five current low-Btu coal gasification projects and regulatory agencies in five states. From these interviews, MITRE has sought the experience of current low-Btu coal gasification users in order to recommend actions to improve the regulatory process. This report is the third of three volumes. It contains the results of interviews conducted for each of the case studies. Volume 1 of the report contains the analysis of the case studies and recommendations to potential industrial users of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume 2 contains recommendations to regulatory agencies.

  20. Development of water slurry gasification systems for high-moisture biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1985-05-01

    The development of a new biomass gasification system by Pacific Northwest Laboratory is described. The system promises to allow the efficient thermochemical conversion of high-moisture biomass feedstocks. The reactor operates at 400 to 450/sup 0/C and 4000 to 5000 psig to allow the gasification of water-biomass slurries containing up to 95% moisture. Initial results of gasification studies are presented. Raw product gases containing up to 95% moisture. Initial results of gasification studies are presented. Raw product gases containing up to 40% methane have been obtained with carbon conversions in excess of 95%. Feedstocks being studied include aquatic plants, agricultural residues, food processing waste and effluent from an anaerobic methane digestor. 11 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Fuel Flexibility in Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    McLendon, T. Robert; Pineault, Richard L.; Richardson, Steven W.; Rockey, John M.; Beer, Stephen K. (U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory); Lui, Alain P.; Batton, William A. (Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group, Inc.)

    2001-11-06

    In order to increase efficiencies of carbonizers, operation at high pressures is needed. In addition, waste biomass fuels of opportunity can be used to offset fossil fuel use. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Fluidized Bed Gasifier/Combustor (FBG/C) was used to gasify coal and mixtures of coal and biomass (sawdust) at 425 psig. The purpose of the testing program was to generate steady state operating data for modeling efforts of carbonizers. A test program was completed with a matrix of parameters varied one at a time in order to avoid second order interactions. Variables were: coal feed rate, pressure, and varying mixtures of sawdust and coal types. Coal types were Montana Rosebud subbituminous and Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous. The sawdust was sanding waste from a furniture manufacturer in upstate New York. Coal was sieved from -14 to +60 mesh and sawdust was sieved to -14 mesh. The FBG/C operates at a nominal 425 psig, but pressures can be lowered. For the tests reported it was operated as a jetting, fluidized bed, ash-agglomerating gasifier. Preheated air and steam are injected into the center of the bottom along with the solid feed that is conveyed with cool air. Fairly stable reactor internal flow patterns develop and temperatures stabilize (with some fluctuations) when steady state is reached. At nominal conditions the solids residence time in the reactor is on the order of 1.5 to 2 hours, so changes in feed types can require on the order of hours to equilibrate. Changes in operating conditions (e.g. feed rate) usually require much less time. The operating periods of interest for these tests were only the steady state periods, so transient conditions were not monitored as closely. The test matrix first established a base case of operations to which single parameter changes in conditions could be compared. The base case used Montana Rosebud at a coal feed rate of 70 lbm/hr at 425 psig. The coal sawdust mixtures are reported as percent by weight coal to percent by weight sawdust. The mixtures of interest were: 65/35 subbituminous, 75/25 subbituminous, 85/15 subbituminous, and 75/25 bituminous. Steady state was achieved quickly when going from one subbituminous mixture to another, but longer when going from subbituminous to bituminous coal. The most apparent observation when comparing the base case to subbituminous coal/sawdust mixtures is that operating conditions are nearly the same. Product gas does not change much in composition and temperatures remain nearly the same. Comparisons of identical weight ratios of sawdust and subbituminous and bituminous mixtures show considerable changes in operating conditions and gas composition. The highly caking bituminous coal used in this test swelled up and became about half as dense as the comparable subbituminous coal char. Some adjustments were required in accommodating changes in solids removal during the test. Nearly all the solids in the bituminous coal sawdust were conveyed into the upper freeboard section and removed at the mid-level of the reactor. This is in marked contrast to the ash-agglomerating condition where most solids are removed at the very bottom of the gasifier. Temperatures in the bottom of the reactor during the bituminous test were very high and difficult to control. The most significant discovery of the tests was that the addition of sawdust allowed gasification of a coal type that had previously resulted in nearly instant clinkering of the gasifier. Several previous attempts at using Pittsburgh No. 8 were done only at the end of the tests when shutdown was imminent anyway. It is speculated that the fine wood dust somehow coats the pyrolyzed sticky bituminous coal particles and prevents them from agglomerating quickly. As the bituminous coal char particles swell, they are carried to the cooler upper regions of the reactor where they re-solidify. Other interesting phenomena were revealed regarding the transport (rheological) properties of the coal sawdust mixtures. The coal sawdust mixtures segregate quickly when transported. This is visi

  2. Chemometric Study of the Ex Situ Underground Coal Gasification Wastewater Experimental Data.

    PubMed

    Smoli?ski, Adam; Sta?czyk, Krzysztof; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Howaniec, Natalia

    2012-11-01

    The main goal of the study was the analysis of the parameters of wastewater generated during the ex situ underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments on lignite from Belchatow, and hard coal from Ziemowit and Bobrek coal mines, simulated in the ex situ reactor. The UCG wastewater may pose a potential threat to the groundwater since it contains high concentrations of inorganic (i.e., ammonia nitrogen, nitrites, chlorides, free and bound cyanides, sulfates and trace elements: As, B, Cr, Zn, Al, Cd, Co, Mn, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Hg, Se, Ti, Fe) and organic (i.e., phenolics, benzene and their alkyl derivatives, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants. The principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis enabled to effectively explore the similarities and dissimilarities between the samples generated in lignite and hard coal oxygen gasification process in terms of the amounts and concentrations of particular components. The total amount of wastewater produced in lignite gasification process was higher than the amount generated in hard coal gasification experiments. The lignite gasification wastewater was also characterized by the highest contents of acenaphthene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene, whereas hard coal gasification wastewater was characterized by relatively higher concentrations of nitrites, As, Cr, Cu, benzene, toluene, xylene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene. PMID:23136453

  3. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  4. Biological treatment of underground coal gasification wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, C.W. Jr.; Humenick, M.J.; Cawein, C.C.; Nolan, B.T. III

    1985-05-01

    Biotreatability studies using underground coal gasification (UCG) wastewaters were performed by the University of Arizona and the University of Wyoming. The University of Arizona researchers found that UCG condensate could be effectively treated by activated sludge, using feed wastewaters of up to 50% strength. Total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals approached 90% during this research. The University of Wyoming researchers found that solvent extraction and hot-gas stripping were effective pretreatments for undiluted UCG condensate and that addition of powdered activated carbon enhanced the biotreatment process. TOC and COD removals resulting from the combination of pretreatments and biotreatment were 91% and 95%, respectively. The yield, decay, and substrate removal rate coefficients were greater in the University of Wyoming study than in the University of Arizona study. This was possibly caused by removing bioinhibitory substances, such as ammonia, with pretreatment. 18 refs., 25 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Gasification Studies Task 4 Topical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitty, Kevin; Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald; Smith, Philip; Sutherland, James; Thornock, Jeremy; Boshayeshi, Babak; Hunsacker, Isaac; Lewis, Aaron; Waind, Travis; Kelly, Kerry

    2014-02-01

    A key objective of the Task 4 activities has been to develop simulation tools to support development, troubleshooting and optimization of pressurized entrained-flow coal gasifiers. The overall gasifier models (Subtask 4.1) combine submodels for fluid flow (Subtask 4.2) and heat transfer (Subtask 4.3) with fundamental understanding of the chemical processes (Subtask 4.4) processes that take place as coal particles are converted to synthesis gas and slag. However, it is important to be able to compare predictions from the models against data obtained from actual operating coal gasifiers, and Subtask 4.6 aims to provide an accessible, non-proprietary system, which can be operated over a wide range of conditions to provide well-characterized data for model validation. Highlights of this work include: • Verification and validation activities performed with the Arches coal gasification simulation tool on experimental data from the CANMET gasifier (Subtask 4.1). • The simulation of multiphase reacting flows with coal particles including detailed gas-phase chemistry calculations using an extension of the one-dimensional turbulence model’s capability (Subtask 4.2). • The demonstration and implementation of the Reverse Monte Carlo ray tracing (RMCRT) radiation algorithm in the ARCHES code (Subtask 4.3). • Determination of steam and CO{sub 2} gasification kinetics of bituminous coal chars at high temperature and elevated pressure under entrained-flow conditions (Subtask 4.4). In addition, attempts were made to gain insight into the chemical structure differences between young and mature coal soot, but both NMR and TEM characterization efforts were hampered by the highly reacted nature of the soot. • The development, operation, and demonstration of in-situ gas phase measurements from the University of Utah’s pilot-scale entrained-flow coal gasifier (EFG) (Subtask 4.6). This subtask aimed at acquiring predictable, consistent performance and characterizing the environment within the gasifier.

  6. Biomass-gasification system for 5-hp irrigation pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Gaur, S.; Anuradha, N.; Rao, T.R.; Iyer, P.V.R.; Grover, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    The increasing per capita energy demands and limited stocks of fossil fuels necessitate the exploration of alternative energy resources to meet energy requirements. In India, which is predominantly an agricultural country, major attention should be paid to fulfilling the energy demands of farmers. India is concerned with both meeting the energy needs of farmers and conservation of traditional fuels (such as wood) and crop land. Biomass-gasification, a process which may satisfy both of India's needs is discussed.

  7. Materials Challenges for Advanced Combustion and Gasification Fossil Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, S.; Rozzelle, P.; Morreale, B.; Alman, D.

    2011-04-01

    This special section of Metallurgical and Materials Transactions is devoted to materials challenges associated with coal based energy conversion systems. The purpose of this introductory article is to provide a brief outline to the challenges associated with advanced combustion and advanced gasification, which has the potential of providing clean, affordable electricity by improving process efficiency and implementing carbon capture and sequestration. Affordable materials that can meet the demanding performance requirements will be a key enabling technology for these systems.

  8. Stagewise gasification in a multiple hearth furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1978-01-01

    The gasification of sewage sludge and\\/or the combustible fraction of refuse in a multiple-hearth furnace is discussed. The furnace has a drying zone at the top, a pyrolysis zone in the middle, and a gasification zone at the bottom. The charge is fed into the top of the furnace, air and steam are fed into the bottom, the fuel gas

  9. Trace element partitioning during coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph J. Helble; Wahab Mojtahedi; Jussi Lyyränen; Jorma Jokiniemi; Esko Kauppinen

    1996-01-01

    The fate of trace element pollutants in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems is closely tied to their volatilization in the gasifier and subsequent condensation or reaction with fine fly ash particles. The results of an experimental bench-scale programme to measure the partitioning of selected trace elements during atmospheric pressure entrained flow gasification of Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal are presented.

  10. Iron sulfide deposition during coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Duane Brooker; Myongsook S. Oh

    1995-01-01

    Previous analysis of ash generated during coal gasification using a high calcium coal (SUFCo) suggested that iron sulfide was the dominant sulfide species in the system. During a recent analysis of ash material removed from a gasification pilot unit using Pittsburgh No. 8, a high iron coal, sub-?m to 5 ?m euhedral iron sulfide crystals were identified on the outer

  11. COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: TRACE ELEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes trace element measurements made at several coal gasification facilities. Most of the measurements were made as part of EPA's source testing and evaluation program on low- and medium-Btu gasification. The behavior of trace elements is discussed in light of th...

  12. An Underground Coal Gasification Experiment, Hanna, Wyoming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leo Schrider; James Jennings; C. F. Brandenburg; D. F. Fischer

    1974-01-01

    In the fall of 1972, the U.S. Bureau of Mines began an experiment to investigate the technologic, economic, and environmental considerations of underground gasification of a W. subbituminous coal. The gasification site is near the town of Hanna, Wyo., approx. 70 miles northwest of Laramie. The test results indicate that gas volumes and gas heating values have fluctuated over a

  13. Reactivity of coal gasification with steam and CO 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Molina; Fanor Mondragón

    1998-01-01

    A description of the main parameters affecting char gasification, as well as an evaluation of the kinetic models used for describing the char gasification reaction, are presented. By reviewing literature on char gasification reactivity it is shown that of all the parameters involved in char gasification, the thermal history of the char, the pore structure and the coal chemical composition

  14. Gasification of New Zealand coals: a comparative simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Smitha V. Nathen; Robert D. Kirkpatrick; Brent R. Young [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2008-07-15

    The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary feasibility assessment of gasification of New Zealand (NZ) lignite and sub-bituminous coals, using a commercial simulation tool. Gasification of these coals was simulated in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) application and associated preliminary economics compared. A simple method of coal characterization was developed for simulation purposes. The carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen content of the coal was represented by a three component vapor solid system of carbon, methane, and water, the composition of which was derived from proximate analysis data on fixed carbon and volatile matter, and the gross calorific value, both on a dry, ash free basis. The gasification process was modeled using Gibb's free energy minimization. Data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Shell Gasifier base cases using Illinios No. 6 coal was used to verify both the gasifier and the IGCC flowsheet models. The H:C and O:C ratios of the NZ coals were adjusted until the simulated gasifier output composition and temperature matched the values with the base case. The IGCC power output and other key operating variables such as gas turbine inlet and exhaust temperatures were kept constant for study of comparative economics. The results indicated that 16% more lignite than sub-bituminous coal was required. This translated into the requirement of a larger gasifier and air separation unit, but smaller gas and steam turbines were required. The gasifier was the largest sole contributor (30%) to the estimated capital cost of the IGCC plant. The overall cost differential associated with the processing of lignite versus processing sub-bituminous coal was estimated to be of the order of NZ $0.8/tonne. 13 refs., 9 tabs.

  15. Underground coal gasification research

    SciTech Connect

    Harloff, G.J.

    1983-06-01

    Recent, successful UCG field tests have demonstrated the commercialization potential of the process. Analysts have developed single- and multi-cavity growth models to investigate resource recovery, gas composition and subsidence. From the test results it was concluded that sufficient knowledge exists to begin UCG commercialization in the appropriate geological and economic environments: continued research is needed to improve predictive and control abilities.

  16. Toxicity studies of mild gasification products

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, T.M.; Whong, W.Z.; Ma, J.; Zhong, B.Z.; Bryant, D.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to perform mutagenicity studies with the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system on coal liquids produced by mild gasification from different coals and/or processing conditions, (2) to determine whether coal liquids which are mutagenic to bacteria are also genotoxic to mammalian cells, (3) to establish correlations between mutagenicity, aromaticity, and boiling point range of coal liquids, and (4) to identify the chemical classes which are likely to be responsible for the mutagenic activity of gasification products. Four of the seven samples tested so far failed to demonstrate any mutagenic activity under any conditions tested. Those samples were SHELL[number sign]830331, MG-122IBP-420[degree]F, MG-122 420--720[degree]F, and MG-122 720[degree]F+. Table 1 summarizes the results from all samples tested in DMSO and Tween 80. When solvated in DMSO, MG-119 and MG-120 composite materials displayed slight, but ultimately insignificant, genotoxic activity on TA98 and TA1OO in the presence of S9. When Tween 80 was used as the solvent, MG-119 and MG-120 displayed slight, but significant, geno-toxic activity on TA98 with S9 (Figure 4). CTC[number sign]11 in DMSO displayed significant genotoxic activity on both TA98 and TA1OO with and without S9. The activity was higher on TA98 than TA100, and higher with S9 than without, primarily indicating the presence of indirect-acting frameshift mutagen. The results of the testing on CTC[number sign]11 were similar for both solvents, DMSO and Tween 80 (Table 2).

  17. Toxicity studies of mild gasification products

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, T.M.; Whong, W.Z.; Ma, J.; Zhong, B.Z.; Bryant, D.

    1992-11-01

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to perform mutagenicity studies with the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system on coal liquids produced by mild gasification from different coals and/or processing conditions, (2) to determine whether coal liquids which are mutagenic to bacteria are also genotoxic to mammalian cells, (3) to establish correlations between mutagenicity, aromaticity, and boiling point range of coal liquids, and (4) to identify the chemical classes which are likely to be responsible for the mutagenic activity of gasification products. Four of the seven samples tested so far failed to demonstrate any mutagenic activity under any conditions tested. Those samples were SHELL{number_sign}830331, MG-122IBP-420{degree}F, MG-122 420--720{degree}F, and MG-122 720{degree}F+. Table 1 summarizes the results from all samples tested in DMSO and Tween 80. When solvated in DMSO, MG-119 and MG-120 composite materials displayed slight, but ultimately insignificant, genotoxic activity on TA98 and TA1OO in the presence of S9. When Tween 80 was used as the solvent, MG-119 and MG-120 displayed slight, but significant, geno-toxic activity on TA98 with S9 (Figure 4). CTC{number_sign}11 in DMSO displayed significant genotoxic activity on both TA98 and TA1OO with and without S9. The activity was higher on TA98 than TA100, and higher with S9 than without, primarily indicating the presence of indirect-acting frameshift mutagen. The results of the testing on CTC{number_sign}11 were similar for both solvents, DMSO and Tween 80 (Table 2).

  18. Potential of underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Burwell, E.L.

    1984-02-01

    The results of underground coal gasification tests carried out in the US and sponsored by the Federal Government during the past 10 years are shown. The author considers that the technology shows great promise. Small-scale UCG plants would allow close matching of plant size to local market need, with lower economic risks. The use of otherwise unusable coals could quadruple US coal reserves. Due to the modular nature of UCG, only the 10 - 20 million dollars necessary for the first module of the UCG portion of a plant is at high risk, making it a viable option where development capital is limited.

  19. Proceedings of the eleventh annual underground coal gasification symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    The Eleventh Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was sponsored by the Laramie Project Office of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, US Department of Energy, and hosted by the Western Research Institute, University of Wyoming research Corporation, in Denver, Colorado, on August 11 to 14, 1985. The five-session symposium included 37 presentations describing research on underground coal gasification (UCG) being performed throughout the world. Eleven of the presentations were from foreign countries developing UCG technology for their coal resources. The papers printed in the proceedings have been reproduced from camera-ready manuscripts furnished by the authors. The papers have not been refereed, nor have they been edited extensively. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  20. Large-block experiments in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    A major objective of the nation's energy program is to develop processes for cleanly producing fuels from coal. One of the more promising of these is underground coal gasification (UCG). If successful, UCG would quadruple recoverable U.S. coal reserves. Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) performed an early series of UCG field experiments from 1976 through 1979. The Hoe Creek series of tests were designed to develop the basic technology of UCG at low cost. The experiments were conducted in a 7.6-m thick subbituminous coal seam at a relatively shallow depth of 48 m at a site near Gillette, Wyoming. On the basis of the Hoe Creek results, more extensive field experiments were designed to establish the feasibility of UCG for commercial gas production under a variety of gasification conditions. Concepts and practices in UCG are described, and results of the field tests are summarized.

  1. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC14

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2004-02-28

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details test campaign TC14 of the PSDF gasification process. TC14 began on February 16, 2004, and lasted until February 28, 2004, accumulating 214 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. The gasifier operating temperatures varied from 1760 to 1810 F at pressures from 188 to 212 psig during steady air blown operations and approximately 160 psig during oxygen blown operations.

  2. From waste to energy -- Catalytic steam gasification of broiler litter

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.A.; Sheth, A.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1996, the production of broiler chickens in the US was approximately 7.60 billion head. The quantity of litter generated is enormous. In 1992, the Southeast region alone produced over five million tons of broiler litter. The litter removed from the broiler houses is rich in nutrients and often spread over land as a fertilizer. Without careful management, the associated agricultural runoff can cause severe environmental damage. With increasing broiler litter production, the implementation of alternative disposal technologies is essential to the sustainable development of the poultry industry. A process originally developed for the conversion of coals to clean gaseous fuel may provide an answer. Catalytic steam gasification utilities an alkali salt catalyst and steam to convert a carbonaceous feedstock to a gas mixture composed primarily of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and methane. The low to medium energy content gas produced may be utilized as an energy source or chemical feedstock. Broiler litter is an attractive candidate for catalytic steam gasification due to its high potassium content. Experiments conducted in UTSI's bench-scale high-pressure fixed bed gasifier have provided data for technical and economic feasibility studies of the process. Experiments have also been performed to examine the effects of temperature, pressure, and additional catalysts on the gasification rate.

  3. Underground Coal Gasification Program: FY84 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Tyner, C.E. (ed.)

    1985-03-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's Underground Coal Gasification research program, activities at Sandia National Laboratories during FY84 have included cornering water jet drill development, subsidence and cavity growth modeling in support of the Tono PSC field experiments, field testing of the CSAMT remote monitoring technique, and laboratory experimentation and site characterization planning in support of the Eastern bituminous UCG program. Accomplishments for the year include completion of the cornering water jet drill program, including a field proof-of-concept demonstration; comparisons of cavity growth and subsidence model calculations with results of the Tono field experiments, demonstrating the ability of these models to predict cavity/overburden interactions affecting the gasification process; remote CSAMT monitoring of the Tono field experiment and demonstration of the ability of the technique to detect process effects remotely and in real time; development and testing of a laboratory gasification system to investigate early cavity growth and other phenomena in swelling Eastern bituminous coals; and detailed site characterization planning for the upcoming Eastern UCG field program. 40 references.

  4. Long-term operation of biomass-to-liquid systems coupled to gasification and Fischer-Tropsch processes for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangsu; Kim, Youngdoo; Yang, Changwon; Moon, Jihong; Kim, Beomjong; Lee, Jeongwoo; Lee, Uendo; Lee, Seehoon; Kim, Jaeho; Eom, Wonhyun; Lee, Sangbong; Kang, Myungjin; Lee, Yunje

    2013-01-01

    Long-term operation of the biomass-to-liquid (BTL) process was conducted with a focus on the production of bio-syngas that satisfies the purity standards for the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process. The integrated BTL system consisted of a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) gasifier (20 kW(th)), gas cleaning unit, syngas compression unit, acid gas removing unit, and an FT reactor. Since the raw syngas from the gasifier contains different types of contaminants, such as particulates, condensable tars, and acid gases, which can cause various mechanical problems or deactivate the FT catalyst, the syngas was purified by passing through cyclones, a gravitational dust collector, a two-stage wet scrubber (packing-type), and a methanol absorption tower. The integrated system was operated for 500 h over several runs, and stable operating conditions for each component were achieved. The cleaned syngas contained no sulfur compounds (under 1 ppmV) and satisfied the requirements for the FT process. PMID:23138062

  5. THE PRODUCTION OF SYNGAS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS AND BIOMASS GASIFICATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. McKellar; G. L. Hawkes; J. E. OBrien

    2008-01-01

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to improve the hydrogen production efficiency of the steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in

  6. Initial environmental test plan for source assessment of coal gasification. Final report, Jun 1973Dec 1974

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Attari; M. Mensinger; J. Pau

    1976-01-01

    An initial source assessment environmental test plan, developed to investigate the fate of various constituents during coal gasification is described. The plan is an approach to the problems associated with sampling point selection, sample collection, and sample analysis which is based on a HYGAS-type process. The report includes a general process description, process steps, effects of operating conditions, sampling, analytical

  7. Hydrogen production by high-temperature steam gasification of biomass and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Kriengsak, S.N.; Buczynski, R.; Gmurczyk, J.; Gupta, A.K. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-04-15

    High-temperature steam gasification of paper, yellow pine woodchips, and Pittsburgh bituminous coal was investigated in a batch-type flow reactor at temperatures in the range of 700 to 1,200{sup o}C at two different ratios of steam to feedstock molar ratios. Hydrogen yield of 54.7% for paper, 60.2% for woodchips, and 57.8% for coal was achieved on a dry basis, with a steam flow rate of 6.3 g/min at steam temperature of 1,200{sup o}C. Yield of both the hydrogen and carbon monoxide increased while carbon dioxide and methane decreased with the increase in gasification temperature. A 10-fold reduction in tar residue was obtained at high-temperature steam gasification, compared to low temperatures. Steam and gasification temperature affects the composition of the syngas produced. Higher steam-to-feedstock molar ratio had negligible effect on the amount of hydrogen produced in the syngas in the fixed-batch type of reactor. Gasification temperature can be used to control the amounts of hydrogen or methane produced from the gasification process. This also provides mean to control the ratio of hydrogen to CO in the syngas, which can then be processed to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel since the liquid fuel production requires an optimum ratio between hydrogen and CO. The syngas produced can be further processed to produce pure hydrogen. Biomass fuels are good source of renewable fuels to produce hydrogen or liquid fuels using controlled steam gasification.

  8. Coal gasification. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods and processes for the gasification of coals. Included are patents for a variety of processes, including fluidized beds, alkali-metal catalytic systems, fixed beds, hot inert heat transfer; and in-situ, pressurized, and steam-iron processes. Topics also include catalyst recovery, desulfurization during gasification, heating methods, pretreatment of coals, heat recovery, electrical power generation, byproduct applications, and pollution control. Liquefaction of coal is examined in a related published bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Coal gasification. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods and processes for the gasification of coals. Included are patents for a variety of processes, including fluidized beds, alkali-metal catalytic systems, fixed beds, hot inert heat transfer; and in-situ, pressurized, and steam-iron processes. Topics also include catalyst recovery, desulfurization during gasification, heating methods, pretreatment of coals, heat recovery, electrical power generation, byproduct applications, and pollution control. Liquefaction of coal is examined in a related published bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Coal gasification. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods and processes for the gasification of coals. Included are patents for a variety of processes, including fluidized beds, alkali-metal catalytic systems, fixed beds, hot inert heat transfer; and in-situ, pressurized, and steam-iron processes. Topics also include catalyst recovery, desulfurization during gasification, heating methods, pretreatment of coals, heat recovery, electrical power generation, byproduct applications, and pollution control. Liquefaction of coal is examined in a related published bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Advanced coal-gasification system for electric-power generation. First quarterly progress report, Fiscal Year 1981, October 1December 31, 1980

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Arthurs; E. J. Chelen; P. Cherish; G. B. Haldipur; D. L. Keairns; L. K. Rath

    1981-01-01

    The overall objective of the Westinghouse Coal Gasification Program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized fluidized bed gasification system for production of low- and intermediate-Btu fuel gas for electric power generation, syngas, feedstocks or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scale-up data for the process and hardware.

  12. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2004-06-01

    This final report describes the objectives, technical approach, results and conclusions for a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept is a configuration of CrystaTech, Inc.'s CrystaSulf{reg_sign} process which utilizes a direct oxidation catalyst upstream of the absorber tower to oxidize a portion of the inlet hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and elemental sulfur. This hybrid configuration of CrystaSulf has been named CrystaSulf-DO and represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day and more. This hybrid process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both onshore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf is a nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes H{sub 2}S from gas streams and converts it to elemental sulfur. In CrystaSulf, H{sub 2}S in the inlet gas is reacted with SO{sub 2} to make elemental sulfur according to the liquid phase Claus reaction: 2H{sub 2}S + SO{sub 2} {yields} 2H{sub 2}O + 3S. The SO{sub 2} for the reaction can be supplied from external sources by purchasing liquid SO{sub 2} and injecting it into the CrystaSulf solution, or produced internally by converting a portion of the inlet gas H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} or by burning a portion of the sulfur produced to make SO{sub 2}. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, the needed SO{sub 2} is produced by placing a bed of direct oxidation catalyst in the inlet gas stream to oxidize a portion of the inlet H{sub 2}S. Oxidation catalysts may also produce some elemental sulfur under these conditions, which can be removed and recovered prior to the CrystaSulf absorber. The CrystaSulf-DO process can utilize direct oxidation catalyst from many sources. Numerous direct oxidation catalysts are available from many suppliers worldwide. They have been used for H{sub 2}S oxidation to sulfur and/or SO{sub 2} for decades. It was believed at the outset of the project that TDA Research, Inc., a subcontractor, could develop a direct oxidation catalyst that would offer advantages over other commercially available catalysts for this CrystaSulf-DO process application. This project involved the development of several of TDA's candidate proprietary direct oxidation catalysts through laboratory bench-scale testing. These catalysts were shown to be effective for conversion of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} and to elemental sulfur under certain operating conditions. One of these catalysts was subsequently tested on a commercial gas stream in a bench-scale reactor at CrystaTech's pilot plant site in west Texas with good results. However, commercial developments have precluded the use of TDA catalysts in the CrystaSulf-DO process. Nonetheless, this project has advanced direct oxidation catalyst technology for H{sub 2}S control in energy industries and led to several viable paths to commercialization. TDA is commercializing the use of its direct oxidation catalyst technology in conjunction with the SulfaTreat{reg_sign} solid scavenger for natural gas applications and in conjunction with ConocoPhillips and DOE for gasification applications using ConocoPhillips gasification technology. CrystaTech is commercializing its CrystaSulf-DO process in conjunction with Gas Technology Institute for natural gas applications (using direct oxidation catalysts from other commercial sources) and in conjunction with ChevronTexaco and DOE for gasification applications using ChevronTexaco's gasification technology.

  13. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro, E-mail: tanigaki.nobuhiro@nsc-eng.co.jp [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan); Manako, Kazutaka [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd., 46-59, Nakabaru, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8505 (Japan); Osada, Morihiro [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling.

  14. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, April-June 1979

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-04-01

    In DOE's program for the conversion of coal to gaseous fuels both high-and low-Btu gasification processes are being developed. High-Btu gas can be distributed economically to consumers in the same pipeline systems now used to carry natural gas. Low-Btu gas, the cheapest of the gaseous fuels produced from coal, can be used economically only on site, either for electric power generation or by industrial and petrochemical plants. High-Btu natural gas has a heating value of 950 to 1000 Btu per standard cubic foot, is composed essentially of methane, and contains virtually no sulfur, carbon monoxide, or free hydrogen. The conversion of coal to High-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. Coals have widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where they are mined, and are difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, DOE, together with the American Gas Association (AGA), is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, each of the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high-Btu gas have reached the pilot plant Low-Btu gas, with a heating value of up to 350 Btu per standard cubic foot, is an economical fuel for industrial use as well as for power generation in combined gas-steam turbine power cycles. Because different low-Btu gasification processes are optimum for converting different types of coal, and because of the need to provide commercially acceptable processes at the earliest possible date, DOE is sponsoring the concurrent development of several basic types of gasifiers (fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, and entrained-flow).

  15. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, January--March, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, G.W.

    1996-04-01

    Determination of the best furnace for a commercial coke plant is underway. A shuttle or tunnel kiln has economic advantage over a rotary hearth design. Production of 20 tons of coke in a small shuttle kiln is near completion which will provide experience for this design. Twenty tons of CTC continuous coke are being produced for testing at a General Motors` foundry. The production is approximately 75 percent complete. During this production, variables of the process are being studied to aid in design of a commercial coke plant. Raw material composition, blending, briquetting variables, and calcining heat profile are the major areas of interest. Western SynCoal Company produces a dried coal product from sub-bituminous coal. This upgraded product was evaluated for producing coke products by blending char from this coal product with the coal product along with suitable binders. The green briquettes were then calcined to produce coke. The resulting coke was judged to be usable as part of a cupola coke charge or as a fuel in cement kilns and sugar beet furnaces.

  16. Crystalline structure transformation of carbon anodes during gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Kien N. Tran; Adam J. Berkovich; Alan Tomsett; Suresh K. Bhatia [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Division of Chemical Engineering

    2008-05-15

    The crystalline structure transformation of five carbon anodes during gasification in air and carbon dioxide was studied using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD analysis and HRTEM observations confirmed that anodes have a highly ordered graphitic structure. The examination of partially gasified samples indicated that crystalline structure transformation occurred in two stages during gasification. The first stage involved the consumption of disorganized carbon matter in the initial 15% conversion. Oxygen was found to be more reactive toward disorganized carbon at this stage of the gasification process compared to carbon dioxide. Following this stage, as more carbon was consumed, especially with the removal of smaller crystallites, it was found that the crystalline structure became more ordered with increasing conversion levels. This is due to the merging of neighboring crystallites, required to maintain the minimum energy configuration. In addition, the interaction between the pitch and the coke components was found to be strongly linked to the initial coke structure. 'Stress graphitization' occurred at the pitch-coke interface, which helps to enhance the structural development of the anodes. 26 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Method for using fast fluidized bed dry bottom coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Snell, George J. (Fords, NJ); Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1983-01-01

    Carbonaceous solid material such as coal is gasified in a fast fluidized bed gasification system utilizing dual fluidized beds of hot char. The coal in particulate form is introduced along with oxygen-containing gas and steam into the fast fluidized bed gasification zone of a gasifier assembly wherein the upward superficial gas velocity exceeds about 5.0 ft/sec and temperature is 1500.degree.-1850.degree. F. The resulting effluent gas and substantial char are passed through a primary cyclone separator, from which char solids are returned to the fluidized bed. Gas from the primary cyclone separator is passed to a secondary cyclone separator, from which remaining fine char solids are returned through an injection nozzle together with additional steam and oxygen-containing gas to an oxidation zone located at the bottom of the gasifier, wherein the upward gas velocity ranges from about 3-15 ft/sec and is maintained at 1600.degree.-200.degree. F. temperature. This gasification arrangement provides for increased utilization of the secondary char material to produce higher overall carbon conversion and product yields in the process.

  18. Underground Coal Gasification Program: FY85 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Tyner, C.E. (ed.)

    1986-02-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) research program, activities at Sandia National Laboratories during FY85 have included laboratory and modeling studies of UCG in Eastern bituminous coals, planning and subsidence studies in support of upcoming Eastern field tests, and post-burn roof stability analyses of the Tono CRIP test. Accomplishments for the year include completion of a preliminary series of laboratory gasification experiments in an Eastern bituminous coal demonstrating that high mechanical strength and low char consumption effects dominate the gasification process in these coals; designing a series of small-scale field tests intended to determine the feasibility of UCG in Eastern coals; evaluating the suitability of proposed field test sites in terms of roof stability/cavity size relationships as a function of overburden strength and thickness; and roof stability calculations (using field measurements as input) for the Tono CRIP test, results of which bracket the observed roof fall. 20 refs., 33 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Transient kinetics study of catalytic char gasification in carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lizzio, A.A.; Radovic, L.R. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1991-08-01

    In this paper, the deactivation behavior of K, Ca, and Ni catalysts during carbon (char) gasification in CO{sub 2} is investigated. Correlations were sought between gasification rates and reactive surface areas (RSA) of the chars. In addition, the results allowed some speculation on recently proposed mechanisms of catalysis. An excellent correlation was found in the case of K catalysis, suggesting the rate-determining step in the overall mechanism to be the same as in the uncatalyzed reaction, i.e., desorption of the reactive C(O) intermediate. For the Ca-catalyzed reaction, the quality of the correlation depended on catalyst dispersion, suggesting that an additional process, besides the direct decomposition of the reactive C(O) intermediate, contributed to the transient evolution of CO (e.g., oxygen spillover). No correlation was found for Ni-catalyzed gasification; an oxygen-transfer mechanism is proposed to explain these findings. Mixed catalyst systems (Ca/K, K/Ni, Ca/Ni) were also studied. An excellent correlation between reactivity and RSA was observed in cases where the K-catalyzed reaction was dominant.

  20. UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS

    SciTech Connect

    Vas Choudhry; Stephen Kwan; Steven R. Hadley

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the project entitled ''Utilization of Lightweight Materials Made from Coal Gasification Slags'' was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of manufacturing low-unit-weight products from coal gasification slags which can be used as substitutes for conventional lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates. In Phase I, the technology developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates from slag (termed SLA) was applied to produce a large batch (10 tons) of expanded slag using pilot direct-fired rotary kilns and a fluidized bed calciner. The expanded products were characterized using basic characterization and application-oriented tests. Phase II involved the demonstration and evaluation of the use of expanded slag aggregates to produce a number of end-use applications including lightweight roof tiles, lightweight precast products (e.g., masonry blocks), structural concrete, insulating concrete, loose fill insulation, and as a substitute for expanded perlite and vermiculite in horticultural applications. Prototypes of these end-use applications were made and tested with the assistance of commercial manufacturers. Finally, the economics of expanded slag production was determined and compared with the alternative of slag disposal. Production of value-added products from SLA has a significant potential to enhance the overall gasification process economics, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are considered.

  1. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC17

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2004-11-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR (formerly Kellogg Brown & Root) Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results gasification operation with Illinois Basin bituminous coal in PSDF test campaign TC17. The test campaign was completed from October 25, 2004, to November 18, 2004. System startup and initial operation was accomplished with Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal, and then the system was transitioned to Illinois Basin coal operation. The major objective for this test was to evaluate the PSDF gasification process operational stability and performance using the Illinois Basin coal. The Transport Gasifier train was operated for 92 hours using PRB coal and for 221 hours using Illinois Basin coal.

  2. Underground Coal Gasification at Tennessee Colony 

    E-print Network

    Garrard, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Tennessee Colony In Situ Coal Gasification Project conducted by Basic Resources Inc. is the most recent step in Texas Utilities Company's ongoing research into the utilization of Texas lignite. The project, an application of the Soviet...

  3. Underground Coal Gasification at Tennessee Colony

    E-print Network

    Garrard, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Tennessee Colony In Situ Coal Gasification Project conducted by Basic Resources Inc. is the most recent step in Texas Utilities Company's ongoing research into the utilization of Texas lignite. The project, an application of the Soviet...

  4. Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips

    2007-09-01

    This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating, maintenance, and management costs for the reference plant. To perform these assessments, detailed models of the gasification and lime kiln processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The material and energy balance outputs from the Aspen Plus model were used as inputs to both the material and economic evaluations.

  5. Fluidized bed gasification of agricultural residue

    E-print Network

    Groves, John David

    1979-01-01

    advances in gasification technology have occurred. Among these are the use of oxygen, operation at elevated pressures, operation in a molten suspension, and use of' fluid beds (Rase, 1977). Fixed Bed Gasifiers Fixed bed gasifiers are currently being... and Horsfield (1977). The fuel gas obtained from the producer was used to power a small internal combustion engine attached to a ten kilowatt generator. Fluidized Bed Gasifiers One of the first systems to use a fluidized bed unit for gasification...

  6. Partial Gasification for CO 2 Emissions Reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirmal V. Gnanapragasam; Bale V. Reddy; Marc A. Rosen

    \\u000a From the perspective of energy security and environmental sustainability, highly effective uses for fossil fuel in energy\\u000a industries are demanded. Power plants having integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with advanced configurations are\\u000a being developed worldwide to use coal and biomass more efficiently and thus cleanly. Gasification forms the major component\\u000a within the IGCC systems and has the best fuel flexibility

  7. Combination of thermochemical recuperative coal gasification cycle and fuel cell for power generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prapan Kuchonthara; Sankar Bhattacharya; Atsushi Tsutsumi

    2005-01-01

    An integrated power generation cycle combining thermochemical recuperation, brown coal gasification and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was proposed based on the concept of thermochemical recuperative energy. Process simulation combining the coal gasifier, gas turbine cycle, and SOFC module was conducted using the ASPEN Plus process simulation tool. The simulation indicated that the cycle efficiency increases from 39.5% (HHV)

  8. The solar thermal gasification of coal — energy conversion efficiency and CO 2 mitigation potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Steinfeld

    2003-01-01

    The steam-gasification of coal (peat, lignite, bituminous, and anthracite) into syngas is investigated using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat. The advantages of the solar- driven process are threefold: (1) the discharge of pollutants is avoided; (2) the gaseous products are not contaminated by combustion byproducts; and (3) the calorific value of the fuel is upgraded.

  9. Underground coal gasification: the state-of-the-art

    SciTech Connect

    Krantz, W.B.; Gunn, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    This symposium volume includes the papers presented in two special technical sessions reviewing the state-of-the-art in underground coal gasification that were part of the 1982 Spring National Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers held in Anaheim, CA, on June 6-10, 1982. The papers contribute to the understanding of large-scale testing of the UCG process, instrumentation for these tests as well as for commercial-scale operations, modeling studies of the process technology, environmental effect of UCG operations, and possible uses of the product gas.

  10. Black liquor gasification phase 2D final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, A.L.; Stewart, A.E.

    1988-06-01

    This report covers work conducted by Rockwell International under Amendment 5 to Subcontract STR/DOE-12 of Cooperative Agreement DE-AC-05-80CS40341 between St. Regis Corporation (now Champion International) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The work has been designated Phase 2D of the overall program to differentiate it from prior work under the same subcontract. The overall program is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of and providing design data for the Rockwell process for gasifying Kraft black liquor. In this process, concentrated black liquor is converted into low-Btu fuel gas and reduced melt by reaction with air in a specially designed gasification reactor.

  11. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  12. Underground coal gasification: status and proposed program

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.; Hill, R.W.; Borg, I.Y.

    1984-08-13

    Technical uncertainties remaining in the UCG technology include specific criteria for site selection, large-scale burn interactions, details of process control, multiple well operation, overall system reliability, subsidence, and water quality effects. Considerable effort has been expended on understanding and controlling the process, on predicting and mitigating subsidence, and on maintaining water quality. Some data are available on site acceptability, but as yet information from large-scale field tests are not in the public domain. Commercialization of UCG will not be possible until such data become available. A program plan to commercialize UCG in an orderly, paced manner has been developed. The program would cost $200 million over seven years, some of which could be cost-shared with industry. The proposed program includes development of a more detailed program plan. The laboratory component of the program, although only a small fraction of the budget, is crucial. It contains environmental research, modeling, experimental studies, economic and system studies, instrumentation development, and materials studies. The field component includes UCG of both flat and steeply dipping coal beds as well as of less tractable bituminous coal. The field projects involve development of criteria for site selection and characterization, large block tests in bituminous coal, simple, small-scale field tests, subsequent more complex and longer-running tests, and finally large scale, or pilot tests. Steam-oxygen gasification would probably be used. 48 references, 11 figures, 6 tables.

  13. Simulations and modeling of biomass gasification processes

    E-print Network

    Tarud, Joan

    2005-01-01

    Available, low-cost, energy supplies are vital for the world's economy and stability. The current sources of energy harm our environment and are not renewable. Therefore, technology must accommodate new sustainable sources ...

  14. Science and Technology Gaps in Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R; Burton, E; Friedmann, J

    2006-06-27

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an appropriate technology to economically access the energy resources in deep and/or unmineable coal seams and potentially to extract these reserves through production of synthetic gas (syngas) for power generation, production of synthetic liquid fuels, natural gas, or chemicals. India is a potentially good area for underground coal gasification. India has an estimated amount of about 467 billion British tons (bt) of possible reserves, nearly 66% of which is potential candidate for UCG, located at deep to intermediate depths and are low grade. Furthermore, the coal available in India is of poor quality, with very high ash content and low calorific value. Use of coal gasification has the potential to eliminate the environmental hazards associated with ash, with open pit mining and with greenhouse gas emissions if UCG is combined with re-injection of the CO{sub 2} fraction of the produced gas. With respect to carbon emissions, India's dependence on coal and its projected rapid rise in electricity demand will make it one of the world's largest CO{sub 2} producers in the near future. Underground coal gasification, with separation and reinjection of the CO{sub 2} produced by the process, is one strategy that can decouple rising electricity demand from rising greenhouse gas contributions. UCG is well suited to India's current and emerging energy demands. The syngas produced by UCG can be used to generate electricity through combined cycle. It can also be shifted chemically to produce synthetic natural gas (e.g., Great Plains Gasification Plant in North Dakota). It may also serve as a feedstock for methanol, gasoline, or diesel fuel production and even as a hydrogen supply. Currently, this technology could be deployed in both eastern and western India in highly populated areas, thus reducing overall energy demand. Most importantly, the reduced capital costs and need for better surface facilities provide a platform for rapid acceleration of coal-gas-fired electric power and other high value products. In summary, UCG has several important economic and environmental benefits relevant to India's energy goals: (1) It requires no purchase of surface gasifiers, reducing capital expense substantially. (2) It requires no ash management, since ash remains in the subsurface. (3) It reduces the cost of pollution management and emits few black-carbon particulates. (4) It greatly reduces the cost of CO2 separation for greenhouse gas management, creating the potential for carbon crediting through the Kyoto Clean Development Mechanism. (5) It greatly reduces the need to mine and transport coal, since coal is used in-situ.

  15. Interaction and kinetic analysis for coal and biomass co-gasification by TG-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chaofen; Hu, Song; Xiang, Jun; Zhang, Liqi; Sun, Lushi; Shuai, Chao; Chen, Qindong; He, Limo; Edreis, Elbager M A

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the interaction and kinetic behavior of CO2 gasification of coal, biomass and their blends by thermogravimetry analysis (TG). The gas products evolved from gasification were measured online with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled with TG. Firstly, TG experiments indicated that interaction between the coals and biomasses mainly occurred during co-gasification process. The most significant synergistic interaction occurred for LN with SD at the blending mass ratio 4:1. Furthermore, thermal kinetic analysis indicated that the activation energy involved in co-gasification decreased as the SD content increased until the blending ratio of SD with coal reached 4:1. The rise of the frequency factor indicated that the increase of SD content favored their synergistic interaction. Finally, FTIR analysis of co-gasification of SD with LN indicated that except for CO, most gases including CH3COOH, C6H5OH, H2O, etc., were detected at around 50-700°C. PMID:24412857

  16. A review of the factors influencing the physicochemical characteristics of underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Jiangsu (China)

    2008-07-01

    In this article, the physicochemical characteristics of the oxidation zone, the reduction zone, and the destructive distillation and dry zone in the process of underground coal gasification (UCG) were explained. The effect of such major factors as temperature, coal type, water-inrush or -intake rate, the quantity and quality of wind blasting, the thickness of coal seams, operational pressure, the length, and the section of gasification gallery on the quality of the underground gas and their interrelationship were discussed. Research showed that the temperature conditions determined the underground gas compositions; the appropriate water-inrush or -intake rate was conducive to the improvement in gas heat value; the properties of the gasification agent had an obvious effect on the compositions and heat value of the product gas. Under the cyclically changing pressure, heat losses decreased by 60%, with the heat efficiency and gasification efficiency being 1.4 times and 2 times those of constant pressure, respectively. The test research further proved that the underground gasifier with a long channel and a big cross-section, to a large extent, improved the combustion-gasification conditions.

  17. Environmental impacts of underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.A.

    1982-09-01

    Investigations of underground coal gasification (UCG) have been actively pursued by the U.S. Department of Energy since the early 1970s; the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted its first field experiment in 1976. In conjunction with field and laboratory studies of the process of recovering energy in the form of combustible gases from the burning of coal deposits in situ, an extensive environmental program has been conducted at LLNL under the auspices of both the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This program has focused on groundwater contamination and ground surface subsidence caused by UCG. The material presented in this paper is a summary of results from the environmental studies of UCG activities conducted by LLNL as described by Mead, et al. (1981) and supplemented by the author's experience with this program in 1980 and 1981. The following sections describe specific groundwater contamination and surface subsidence problems encountered during field experiments in northeastern Wyoming, and will discuss implications of preliminary findings from geohydrological investigations of a site in southwestern Washington. Finally, possible environmental control technologies that are most likely to be effective in mitigating environmental impacts are discussed.

  18. Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate.

    PubMed

    Sivula, Leena; Oikari, Aimo; Rintala, Jukka

    2012-06-01

    Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate from landfill lysimeters (112 m(3)) was studied over three years. The leachate of grate incineration bottom ash from a parallel setup was used as reference material. Three aquatic organisms (bioluminescent bacteria, green algae and water flea) were used to study acute toxicity. In addition, an ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay was performed with mouse hepatoma cells to indicate the presence of organic contaminants. Concentrations of 14 elements and 15 PAH compounds were determined to characterise leachate. Gasification ash leachate had a high pH (9.2-12.4) and assays with and without pH adjustment to neutral were used. Gasification ash leachate was acutely toxic (EC(50) 0.09-62 vol-%) in all assays except in the algae assay with pH adjustment. The gasification ash toxicity lasted the entire study period and was at maximum after two years of disposal both in water flea (EC(50) 0.09 vol-%) and in algae assays (EC(50) 7.5 vol-%). The grate ash leachate showed decreasing toxicity during the first two years of disposal in water flea and algae assays, which then tapered off. Both in the grate ash and in the gasification ash leachates EROD-activity increased during the first two years of disposal and then tapered off, the highest inductions were observed with the gasification ash leachate. The higher toxicity of the gasification ash leachate was probably related to direct and indirect effects of high pH and to lower levels of TOC and DOC compared to the grate ash leachate. The grate ash leachate toxicity was similar to that previously reported in literature, therefore, confirming that used setup was both comparable and reliable. PMID:22285871

  19. Numerical study on convection diffusion for gasification agent in underground coal gasification. Part I: establishment of mathematical models and solving method

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.H.; Ding, Y.M. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources and Geoscience

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the distribution law of the gasification agent concentration in a deep-going way during underground coal gasification and the new method of solving the problem for the convection diffusion of the gas. In this paper, the basic features of convection diffusion for the gas produced in underground coal gasification are studied. On the basis of the model experiment, through the analysis of the distribution and patterns of variation for the fluid concentration field in the process of the combustion and gasification of the coal seams within the gasifier, the 3-D non-linear unstable mathematical models on the convection diffusion for oxygen are established. In order to curb such pseudo-physical effects as numerical oscillation and surfeit which frequently occurred in the solution of the complex mathematical models, the novel finite unit algorithm, the upstream weighted multi-cell balance method is advanced in this article, and its main derivation process is introduced.

  20. Catalytic upgrading of syngas from fluidized bed air gasification of sawdust.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bing-Shun; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Kuo, Jia-Hong; Chang, Chu-Hsuan; Wey, Ming-Yen

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of various gasification temperatures in a fluidized bed gasifier on biomass-derived products and to evaluate the efficiency of syngas upgraded by a secondary catalytic reactor. The results indicated that biomass vaporization was clearly affected by gasification temperature, resulting in the obtained products having different composition ratios. Additionally, the hydrogen promotion ratios were found to be strongly dependent on the condensable products, indicating that the products were upgraded via the use of a catalyst in the secondary reactor. If biomass vaporized at suitable gasification temperatures can produce a large amount of condensable products, the products could be effectively upgraded for hydrogen production by the secondary catalytic reactor under very mild conditions (250°C). Overall, the process not only upgraded hydrogen production, but also degraded contaminants; therefore, its implementation should reduce the cost of operation and pollution control in the biomass-to-energy industry. PMID:22330594

  1. An Experimental Investigation of Sewage Sludge Gasification in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, L. F.; García, A. I.; Otero, M.

    2013-01-01

    The gasification of sewage sludge was carried out in a simple atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. Flow and fuel feed rate were adjusted for experimentally obtaining an air mass?:?fuel mass ratio (A/F) of 0.2 < A/F < 0.4. Fuel characterization, mass and power balances, produced gas composition, gas phase alkali and ammonia, tar concentration, agglomeration tendencies, and gas efficiencies were assessed. Although accumulation of material inside the reactor was a main problem, this was avoided by removing and adding bed media along gasification. This allowed improving the process heat transfer and, therefore, gasification efficiency. The heating value of the produced gas was 8.4?MJ/Nm, attaining a hot gas efficiency of 70% and a cold gas efficiency of 57%. PMID:24453863

  2. Solid fuel gasification in the global energy sector (a review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ol'khovskii, G. G.

    2015-07-01

    In the review of the Conference on Gasification of Solid Fuels, which was held on October 2013 by the United States, the commercial use of the most advanced coal gasification systems in the chemical and power industry is considered. Data on the projects of integrated solid fuel gasification combined-cycle plants, either being developed or exploited in the United States, as well as the nature and results performed in specialized organizations to improve the existing gasification equipment and systems, are presented.

  3. Demonstration plant for pressurized gasification of biomass feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Trenka, A.R. (Pacific International Center for High Technology Research, Honolulu, HI (United States)); Kinoshita, C.M.; Takahashi, P.K.; Phillips, V.D. (Hawaii Natural Energy Inst., Honolulu, HI (United States)); Caldwell, C. (Parsons (Ralph M.) Co., Pasadena, CA (United States)); Kwok, R. (Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Co., HI (United States)); Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P. (Institute of Gas Technology

    1991-01-01

    A project to design, construct, and operate a pressurized biomass gasification plant in Hawaii will begin in 1991. Negotiations are underway with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) which is co-funding the project with the state of Hawaii and industry. The gasifier is a scale-up of the pressurized fluidized-bed RENUGAS process developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project team consists of Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR), Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii, Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company (HC S), The Ralph M. Parsons Company, and IGT. The gasifier will be designed for 70 tons per day of sugarcane fiber (bagasse) and will be located at the Paia factory of HC S on the island of Maui. In addition to bagasse, other feedstocks such as wood, biomass wastes, and refuse-derived-fuel may be evaluated. The demonstration plant will ultimately supply part of the process energy needs for the sugar factory. The operation and testing phase will provide process information for both air- and oxygen-blown gasification, and at both low and high pressures. The process will be evaluated for both fuel gas and synthesis gas production, and for electrical power production with advanced power generation schemes. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and procurement of facility upgrades. Chemrec AB is also operating a pressurized, O2-blown gasifier pilot facility in Piteaa, Sweden. There was an exchange of knowledge with the pressurized projects including utilization of the experimental results from facilities in Piteaa, Sweden. Resources at the Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC, a.k.a., the Institute of Paper Science and Technology) were employed primarily to conduct the fundamental investigations on scaling and plugging mechanisms and characterization of green liquor dregs. The project also tapped GTRC expertise in the development of the critical underlying black liquor gasification rate subroutines employed in the CFD code. The actual CFD code development and application was undertaken by Process Simulation, Ltd (PSL) and Simulent, Ltd. PSL focused on the overall integrated gasifier CFD code, while Simulent focused on modeling the black liquor nozzle and description of the black liquor spray. For nozzle development and testing Chemrec collaborated with ETC (Energy Technology Centre) in Piteae utilizing their test facility for nozzle spray investigation. GTI (Gas Technology Institute), Des Plains, IL supported the team with advanced gas analysis equipment during the gasifier test period in June 2005.

  5. The Public Perceptions of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG)

    E-print Network

    Watson, Andrew

    The Public Perceptions of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG): A Pilot Study Simon Shackley #12;The Public Perceptions of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG): A Pilot Study Dr Simon Shackley of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) in the United Kingdom. The objectives were to identify the main dangers

  6. Numerical simulation of coal gasification in entrained flow coal gasifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Watanabe; M. Otaka

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents modeling of a coal gasification reaction, and prediction of gasification performance for an entrained flow coal gasifier. The purposes of this study are to develop an evaluation technique for design and performance optimization of coal gasifiers using a numerical simulation technique, and to confirm the validity of the model. The coal gasification model suggested in this paper

  7. From coal to biomass gasification: Comparison of thermodynamic efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark J. Prins; Krzysztof J. Ptasinski; Frans J. J. G. Janssen

    2007-01-01

    The effect of fuel composition on the thermodynamic efficiency of gasifiers and gasification systems is studied. A chemical equilibrium model is used to describe the gasifier. It is shown that the equilibrium model presents the highest gasification efficiency that can be possibly attained for a given fuel. Gasification of fuels with varying composition of organic matter, in terms of O\\/C

  8. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  9. Underground Coal Gasification Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    The Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Program is directed toward the development of advanced technologies for recovering gas from large, currently unrecoverable coal resources. The overall goal of the UCG Program is to foster development within the private sector of an environmentally acceptable UCG industry whose products can compete with other electric utility fuels and as a chemical feedstock for liquid fuel production by the late 1990s. This goal includes appropriate environmental research to establish the information base required to identify and cost effectively mitigate potential problems. The objective of this environmental research is to characterize potential impacts and the performance of new and developmental systems in controlling these impacts so that more efficient solutions to environmental concerns are available on a schedule consistent with the development of advanced technology. To achieve this goal, a series of interrelated technology development steps must take place, some sponsored by DOE, some by other government agencies, and some by other governments and/or the private sector. These include basic and applied research and development, proof-of-concept activities, first-of-a-kind field tests, and associated commercial scale activity. This publication presents: (1) background and program goal; (2) technology description; (3) technology status and research needs; (4) program strategy; and (5) program management. 3 figs.

  10. The Mansfield Two-Stage, Low BTU Gasification System: Report of Operations

    E-print Network

    Blackwell, L. T.; Crowder, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    The least expensive way to produce gas from coal is by low Btu gasification, a process by which coal is converted to carbon monoxide and hydrogen by reacting it with air and steam. Low Btu gas, which is used near its point of production, eliminates...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA BASE FOR LOW/MEDIUM-BTU GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY: VOLUME I. TECHNICAL DISCUSSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report represents the current data base for the environmental assessment of low- and medium-Btu gasification technology. Purpose of the report is to determine: processes that can be used to produce low/medium-Btu gas from coal, uses of the product gas, multimedia discharge st...

  12. Elimination of ammonia from coal gasification streams by using a catalytic membrane reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward N. Gobina; Jaafar S. Oklany; Ronald Hughes

    1995-01-01

    The application of a catalytic membrane process for the removal of dilute concentrations of ammonia resulting from the gasification of coal has been investigated. Mathematical simulations have been conducted for an experimental reactor comprising a thin but continuous layer of a Pd-Ag alloy deposited on a porous substrate. Data for the permeation of hydrogen through the composite membrane were determined

  13. Trace element evaporation during coal gasification based on a thermodynamic equilibrium calculation approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D??az-Somoano; M. R. Mart??nez-Tarazona

    2003-01-01

    Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations using the HSC-Chemistry program were performed to determine the distribution and mode of occurrence of potentially toxic and corrosive trace elements in gases from coal gasification processes. The influence of temperature, pressure and gas atmospheres on equilibrium composition was evaluated. In these reducing conditions, the behaviour of the trace elements is complex, but some form of organization

  14. The role of a coal gasification fly ash as clay additive in building ceramic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mónica Aineto; Anselmo Acosta; Isabel Iglesias

    2006-01-01

    The clean coal integrated gasification in combined cycle (IGCC) technology of electrical power generation is different than conventional process in combustible treatment which generates inorganic wastes in the form of glassy slag and fly ash with singular properties. We have studied the fly ash coming from ELCOGAS IGCC power plant as additive to clays for building ceramic fabrication.The addition of

  15. Postburn evaluation of the Hanna IV A and B UCG (underground coal gasification) experiments, Wyoming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Oliver; D. J. Sinks; G. Berdan

    1986-01-01

    Data from process monitoring, geophysical surveys, and postburn core studies were integrated to delineate the extent of affected coal and overburden at the Hanna IV A and B underground coal gasification experiment sites in southeastern Wyoming. The experiments were conducted from December 1977 to September 1979 in the Hanna No. 1 coal bed of the Eocene Hanna Formation. A postburn

  16. A techno-economic comparison of power production by biomass fast pyrolysis with gasification and combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Bridgwater; A. J. Toft; J. G. Brammer

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the technical and economic performance of thermal processes to generate electricity from a wood chip feedstock by combustion, gasification and fast pyrolysis. The scope of the work begins with the delivery of a wood chip feedstock at a conversion plant and ends with the supply of electricity to the grid, incorporating wood chip preparation,

  17. Instrumentation for in situ coal gasification: an assessment of techniques evaluated on the Hanna II experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Northrop; S. G. Beard; L. C. Bartel; L. W. Beckham; P. J. Hommert

    1977-01-01

    The Hanna II in-situ coal gasification experiment was conducted by the Laramie Energy Research Center during 1975 to 76. Sandia Laboratories designed, fielded, and evaluated variations of seven instrumentation techniques belonging to two general classes: (a) diagnostic techniques (thermal, in-seam gas sampling and pressure, and overburden tilt and displacement) to obtain data for process characterization and (b) remote monitoring techniques

  18. Production of hydrogen by direct gasification of coal with steam using nuclear heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Problems related to: (1) high helium outlet temperature of the reactor, and (2) gas generator design used in hydrogen production are studied. Special attention was given to the use of Oklahoma coal in the gasification process. Plant performance, operation, and environmental considerations are covered.

  19. Chemical and toxicological studies of coal gasification wastewater circulated through a cooling tower

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Stetter; V. C. Stamoudis; R. D. Flotard; Reilly C. A. Jr; K. E. Wilzbach

    1984-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is studying health and environmental issues related to coal gasification, using data and samples from the oxygen-blown slagging fixed-bed gasifier at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC). The pilot study reported here developed preliminary chemical and toxicological data needed to evaluate the health and environmental, as well as the process, implications of using partially

  20. VAPOR-PHASE CRACKING AND WET OXIDATION AS POTENTIAL POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR COAL GASIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of two techniques (hydrocracking of heavy organics in the raw gas prior to quency, and wet oxidation of the gasifier condensate) for pollutant control in coal gasification processes. Bench-scale experiments were used to determine rates...

  1. Almond residues gasification plant for generation of electric power. Preliminary study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. González; J. Gañán; A. Ramiro; C. M. González-García; J. M. Encinar; E. Sabio; S. Román

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the results of the gasification process of almond residues (almond shell, almond tree pruning, and almond shell peel) generated by an industry (PASAT SAT) are presented. This study was performed in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. The objective was the obtaining of low\\/medium heating value gases, which could be burnt in a gas engine to generate electric energy.

  2. Steam-gasification of biomass in a fluidised-bed of olivine particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rapagnà; N. Jand; A. Kiennemann; P. U. Foscolo

    2000-01-01

    Naturally occurring catalytic substances are employed in biomass steam-gasification processes to enhance the yield of fuel gas and reduce its tar content by cracking and reforming the high molecular weight organic components. Calcined dolomite is widely used for this purpose; it exhibits good catalytic activity under the operating conditions of the gasifier. However, due to its poor mechanical strength, it

  3. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 15. Gasification of ''fresh'' Rosebud subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-09-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and government agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the fifteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Rosebud subbituminous coal, from June 17, 1985 to June 24, 1985. 4 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment: Consolidated Report

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, M.; Yale, J.

    2012-11-01

    Harris Group Inc. (HGI) was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to assess gasification and tar reforming technologies. Specifically, the assessments focused on gasification and tar reforming technologies that are capable of producing a syngas suitable for further treatment and conversion to liquid fuels. HGI gathered sufficient information to analyze three gasification and tar reforming systems. This report summarizes the equipment, general arrangement of the equipment, operating characteristics, and operating severity for each technology. The order of magnitude capital cost estimates are supported by a basis-of-estimate write-up, which is also included in this report. The report also includes Microsoft Excel workbook models, which can be used to design and price the systems. The models can be used to analyze various operating capacities and pressures. Each model produces a material balance, equipment list, capital cost estimate, equipment drawings and preliminary general arrangement drawings. Example outputs of each model are included in the Appendices.

  5. Natural pyrometamorphism: relevance to underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, D.J.; Stevenson, R.F.; McCarthy, G.J.

    1988-07-01

    Although 28 underground coal gasification (UCG) tests have been conducted since the early 1970s in the US, only limited information is available concerning the nature and formation of high-temperature, low-pressure alteration products in adjacent noncoal geologic materials - information basic to the evaluation of key process and environmental questions. A comprehensive literature search, conducted as part of the Gas Research Institute's program to develop an understanding of UCG-related thermal effects, was initiated to determine the relevance of natural fuel-combustion products and events to UCG. Natural fuel-combustion events, typically associated with high-volatile fuel deposits, are confined to the unsaturated zone and require oxygen, typically supplied from the surface through fractures, for combustion. Noncoal materials overlying the burn undergo physical and mineralogical alteration through pyrometamorphism, a type of metamorphism characterized by elevated temperatures, low pressures (up to a few atmospheres), and essentially anhydrous conditions. With increasing temperatures, materials undergo calcination (decarbonation, oxidation, and dehydration), sintering, and fusion. Although differences in setting and reaction dynamics exist between UCG and natural fuel-combustion pyrometamorphism (e.g., UCG is typically conducted under saturated conditions at depths of a few hundred feet and combustion rates are generally higher and more uniform), the character of the UCG alteration products is similar to that found in nature. Such deposits, therefore, represent an important source of data for the development of predictive models for cavity growth, development, and stability; geothermometry of the process; and the potential for adverse impacts on ground water flow and quality.

  6. Transformation of alkali metals during pyrolysis and gasification of a lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaofang Wei; Jiejie Huang; Tiefeng Liu; Yitian Fang; Yang Wang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    2008-05-15

    Transformation of Na and K in a lignite was investigated during pyrolysis and gasification in a fixed-bed by using a serial dissolution method with H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4}, and HCl solutions. The evolution of the fractions of four forms in solid and alkali volatilization during pyrolysis and gasification was determined. The results show that a different mode of occurrence between Na and of K in coal existed. Na in coal can be nearly completely dissolved by H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4}, and HCl solution. However, K in coal exists almost in the stable forms. Both H{sub 2}O soluble and CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4} soluble Na and K fractions decline during pyrolysis and early gasification stage and increase a little with the process of char gasification. The stable form Na in the char produced during pyrolysis is transferred to other forms during char gasification via the pore opening and a series of chemical reactions. Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) may play an important role in producing stable forms such as Na{sub 2}O.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}2SiO{sub 2} and K{sub 2}O.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.2SiO{sub 2} during pyrolysis. The fraction of HCl soluble K increases during pyrolysis but decreases markedly during the early gasification stage. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tabs.

  7. Production of Hydrogen from Underground Coal Gasification

    DOEpatents

    Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2008-10-07

    A system of obtaining hydrogen from a coal seam by providing a production well that extends into the coal seam; positioning a conduit in the production well leaving an annulus between the conduit and the coal gasification production well, the conduit having a wall; closing the annulus at the lower end to seal it from the coal gasification cavity and the syngas; providing at least a portion of the wall with a bifunctional membrane that serves the dual purpose of providing a catalyzing reaction and selectively allowing hydrogen to pass through the wall and into the annulus; and producing the hydrogen through the annulus.

  8. Catalytic gasification studies in a pressurized fluid-bed unit

    SciTech Connect

    Mudge, L.K.; Baker, E.G.; Mitchell, D.H.; Robertus, R.J.; Brown, M.D.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of the project is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products via the catalytic gasification of biomass. This report presents the results of research conducted from October 1980 to November 1982. In the laboratory scale studis, active catalysts were developed for generation of synthesis gases from wood by steam gasification. A trimetallic catalyst, Ni-Co-Mo on silica-alumina doped with 2 wt % Na, was found to retain activity indefinitely for generation of a methanol synthesis gas from wood at 1380/sup 0/F (750/sup 0/C) and 1 atm (100 kPa) absolute pressure. Catalysts for generation of a methane-rich gas were deactivated rapidly and could not be regenerated as required for economic application. Sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate were effective as catalysts for conversion of wood to synthesis gases and methane-rich gas and should be economically viable. Catalytic gasification conditions were found to be suitable for processing of alternative feedstocks: bagasse, alfalfa, rice hulls, and almond hulls. The PDU was operated successfully at absolute pressures of up to 10 atm (1000 kPa) and temperatures of up to 1380/sup 0/F (750/sup 0/C). Yields of synthesis gases at elevated pressure were greater than those used for previous economic evaluations. A trimetallic catalyst, Ni-Cu-Mo on silica-alumina, did not display a long life as did the doped trimetallic catalyst used in laboratory studies. A computer program for a Radio Shack TRS-80 Model I microcomputer was developed to evaluate rapidly the economics of producing either methane or methanol from wood. The program is based on economic evaluations reported in previous studies. Improved yields from the PDU studies were found to result in a reduction of about 9 cents/gal in methanol cost.

  9. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 6. Gasification of delayed petroleum coke

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the sixth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of delayed petroleum coke from Pine Bend, MN. The period of the gasification test was June 1-17, 1983. 2 refs., 15 figs., 22 tabs.

  10. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 4. Gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the fourth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal from Sweetwater County, Wyoming. The period of the gasification test was April 11-30, 1983. 4 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  11. Clean coal technology—Study on the pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lanhe Yang; Jie Liang; Li Yu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the gasification conditions, the gasifier structure, the measuring system and the gasification rationale of a pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification (UCG) in the Liuzhuang Colliery, Tangshan, are illustrated. The technique of two-phase underground coal gasification is proposed. The detection of the moving speed and the length of the gasification working face is made using radon

  12. Comparison of coal gasification and combustion residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph R. Turner; Philip D. Lowry

    1983-01-01

    Slags produced from the entrained flow gasification and cyclone furnace combustion of Pittsburgh seam coal are morphologically similar and exhibit similar leaching behavior. Both wastes consist predominantly of dense glassy shards with low specific surface area (<1 m²\\/g). Based on aqueous extraction and inorganic analyses according to the extraction procedure specified under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), none

  13. Comparison of coal gasification and combustion residues

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.R.; Lowry, P.D.

    1983-04-01

    Slags produced from the entrained flow gasification and cyclone furnace combustion of Pittsburgh seam coal are morphologically similar and exhibit similar leaching behavior. Both wastes consist predominantly of dense glassy shards with low specific surface area (<1 m/sup 2//g). Based on aqueous extraction and inorganic analyses according to the extraction procedure specified under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), none of the combustion or gasification solid wastes examined in this study would be classified as hazardous under current federal regulations. The concentrations of most trace elements in RCRA and other batch extracts of the gasification slag and combustion bottom wastes were below current or proposed drinking water levels. In contrast, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, selenium, zinc, manganese, copper, and sulfate in batch extracts of two combustion fly ashes from Pittsburgh coal exceeded drinking water criteria. These results suggest that slags from entrained flow coal gasification should not require solid waste management practices substantially different from those currently used for coal combustion solid wastes.

  14. EFFECT OF UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION ON GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effect of underground coal gasification on groundwater has been examined in a laboratory study. The study was directed at Fruitland Formation subbituminous coal of the San Juan Basin and at the groundwater found in this coal seam. Two wells were drilled into the coa...

  15. Market opportunities for coal gasification in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Attwood; V. Fung; W. W. Clark

    2003-01-01

    Coal gasification is a technology that has been around for 200 yr. With the recent technology advances in the past 20 yr, it has become an option for the clean production of power and other energy forms. China will continue to be the largest user of coal in the world. Coal is the source of energy in almost every area

  16. BIOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT STUDY PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  17. Novel gas turbine cycles with coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Lehman

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study to devise efficient gas turbine cycles without steam bottoming for use with coal gasification. Substitution of other forms of heat recovery in place of steam bottoming offers a potential cost saving. A novel form of the intercooled-reheat-regenerative cycle was devised with thermal efficiency nearly as high as that of combined cycles. As

  18. Environmental effects of in situ coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Humenick; R. J. Charbeneau; T. F. Edgar

    1983-01-01

    A study of the literature has evaluated the environmental impact of underground coal gasification (UCG) on the air, land, and water. Current knowledge on air pollutants, lend subsidence, potential ground and surface water pollutants is summarized. Evaluations of the dispersion of pollutant species and the application of mathematical models to predict pollutant transport and dispersion in ground water are also

  19. HR 160 performance in coal gasification equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, G.S. [Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An alloy 825 water-cooled component failed by sulfidation enhanced thermal fatigue in a commercial coal gasification system. In an attempt to improve component life the material of construction was changed to Haynes HR-160. After several years of operating experience the HR-160 has not provided the desired improvement. Analysis shows the failure mechanism has remained the same.

  20. Environmental aspects of coal gasification using the slagging gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, J.A.; Timmins, C.; Scott, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The BGL gasifier has been developed at Westfield, Sctoland, using plants with coal throughputs of up to 500 tonnes/day. It has been shown that the gasifier has the potential for using commercial coal feedstocks by agglomerating some of the fines present and mixing with the lump coal. Environmental aspects of the process have been investigated: tar and oils can be completely consumed in the process; aqueous liqours can be processed to a standard suitable for discharge; slag produced from the coal ash is inert and suitable for landfill. Gasification offers an attractive route towards the clean use of coal. In the light of environmental requirements commercial scale studies on two major potential applications of the BGL gasifier viz combined cycle power and SNG production are reviewed.

  1. Corrosion performance of alumina scales in coal gasification environments

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1997-02-01

    Corrosion of metallic structural materials in complex gas environments of coal gasification is a potential problem. The corrosion process is dictated by concentrations of two key constituents: sulfur as H{sub 2}S and Cl as HCl. This paper examines the corrosion performance of alumina scales that are thermally grown on Fe-base alloys during exposure to O/S mixed-gas environments. The results are compared with the performance of chromia-forming alloys in similar environments. The paper also discusses the available information on corrosion performance of alloys whose surfaces were enriched with Al by the pack-diffusion process, by the electrospark deposition process, or by weld overlay techniques.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: SOURCE TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT - RECTISOL ACID GAS REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests of a Rectisol acid gas removal unit at a Texaco refinery. The primary goal was to provide a data base for evaluation of Rectisol performance in entrained coal gasification applications. This Rectisol unit processes gases from the partial oxidatio...

  3. Rawlins UCG (underground coal gasification) Demonstration Project site characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The US Department of Energy and Energy International, Inc. have entered into a Cooperative Agreement to conduct a cost-shared UCG field test demonstrating the operation of commercial scale underground coal gasification (UCG) on steeply dipping bed modules to provide synthesis gas for a small scale commercial ammonia plant. The field test and the commercial ammonia plant will be located at the North Knobs site near Rawlins, Wyoming. During this demonstration test, two or more UCG modules will be operated simultaneously until one module is completely consumed and an additional module is brought on line. During this period, the average coal gasification rate will be between 500 and 1200 tons per day. A portion of the raw UCG product gas will be cleaned and converted into a synthesis gas, which will be used as feedstock to a 400--500 ton per day ammonia plant. The UCG facility will continue to operate subsequent to the test demonstration to provide feedstock for the commercial plant. The objective of the geologic site characterization program is to provide a descriptive model that accurately represents the geologic environment of the coal resource that is to be gasified. This model is to be used as an aid in understanding the hydrology of the coal bearing sequence, as a framework for installation of the process wells and the subsequent exploitation of the coal resources. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Rawlins UCG (underground coal gasification) Demonstration Project site characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy and Energy International, Inc. have entered into a Cooperative Agreement to conduct a cost-shared UCG field test demonstrating the operation of commercial scale Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) on steeply dipping bed modules to provide synthesis gas for a small scale commercial ammonia plant. The field test and the commercial ammonia plant will be located at the North Knobs site near Rawlins, Wyoming. During this demonstration test, two or more UCG modules will be operated simultaneously until one module is completely consumed and an additional module is brought on line. During this period, the average coal gasification rate will be between 500 and 1200 tons per day. A portion of the raw UCG product gas will be cleaned and converted into a synthesis gas, which will be used as feedstock to a 400--500 ton per day ammonia plant. The UCG facility will continue to operate subsequent to the test demonstration to provide feedstock for the commercial plant. The objective of the hydrologic site characterization program is to provide an accurate representation of the hydrologic environment within the area to be gasified. This information will aid in the placement and operation of the process wells in relation to the ground water source. 21 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Air-blown Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Clean Power Cogeneration, Inc. (CPC) has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design construction, and operation of a normal 1270 ton-per-day (120-MWe), air-blown integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) demonstration plant. The demonstration plant would produce both power for the utility grid and steam for a nearby industrial user. The objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate air-blown, fixed-bed Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology. The integrated performance to be demonstrated will involve all the subsystems in the air-blown IGCC system to include coal feeding; a pressurized air-blown, fixed-bed gasifier capable of utilizing caking coal; a hot gas conditioning systems for removing sulfur compounds, particulates, and other contaminants as necessary to meet environmental and combustion turbine fuel requirements; a conventional combustion turbine appropriately modified to utilize low-Btu coal gas as fuel; a briquetting system for improved coal feed performance; the heat recovery steam generation system appropriately modified to accept a NO{sub x} reduction system such as the selective catalytic reduction process; the steam cycle; the IGCC control systems; and the balance of plant. The base feed stock for the project is an Illinois Basin bituminous high-sulfur coal, which is a moderately caking coal. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Underground Coal Gasification project

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C.B.; Britten, J.A.

    1989-10-15

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been actively developing Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) technology for 15 years. The goal of the project has been to develop a fundamental technological understanding of UCG and foster the commercialization of the process. In striving to achieve this goal the LLNL project has carried out laboratory experiments, developed mathematical models, actively participated in technology transfer programs, and conducted field test experiments. As a result of this work the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) concept was developed which helps insure optimum performance of an underground gasifier in a flat seam, and provides a means to produce multiple gasification cavities. The LLNL field work culminated in the Rocky Mountain I field test in which a gasifier using the CRIP technology generated gas of a quality equal to that of surface gasifiers. This last test and others preceding it have demonstrated beyond any reasonable doubt, that UCG is technically feasible in moderately thick coal seams at modest depths. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Catalytic gasification of wet biomass in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Xu, Xiaodong [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Wet biomass (water hyacinth, banana trees, cattails, green algae, kelp, etc.) grows rapidly and abundantly around the world. As a biomass crop, aquatic species are particularly attractive because their cultivation does not compete with land-based agricultural activities designed to produce food for consumption or export. However, wet biomass is not regarded as a promising feed for conventional thermochemical conversion processes because the cost associated with drying it is too high. This research seeks to address this problem by employing water as the gasification medium. Prior work has shown that low concentrations of glucose (a model compound for whole biomass) can be completely gasified in supercritical water at 600{degrees}C and 34.5 Wa after a 30 s reaction time. Higher concentrations of glucose (up to 22% by weight in water) resulted in incomplete conversion under these conditions. The gas contained hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane, propane, and traces of other hydrocarbons. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are easily converted to hydrogen by commercial technology available in most refineries. This prior work utilized capillary tube reactors with no catalyst. A larger reactor system was fabricated and the heterogeneous catalytic gasification of glucose and wet biomass slurry of higher concentration was studied to attain higher conversions.

  8. Current experiences in applied underground coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Justyn

    2010-05-01

    The world is experiencing greater stress on its ability to mine and exploit energy resources such as coal, through traditional mining methods. The resources available by extraction from traditional mining methods will have a finite time and quantity. In addition, the high quality coals available are becoming more difficult to find substantially increasing exploration costs. Subsequently, new methods of extraction are being considered to improve the ability to unlock the energy from deep coals and improve the efficiency of the exploitation of the resources while also considering the mitigation of global warming. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a leading commercial technology that is able to maximize the exploitation of the deep coal through extraction of the coal as a syngas (CO and H2) in situ. The syngas is then brought to the surface and efficiently utilized in any of combined cycle power generation, liquid hydrocarbon transport fuel production, fertilizer production or polymer production. Commercial UCG has been successfully operating for more than 50 years at the Yerostigaz facility in Angren, Uzbekistan. Yerostigaz is the only remaining UCG site in the former Soviet Union. Linc Energy currently owns 91.6% of this facility. UCG produces a high quality synthetic gas (syngas), containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. UCG produced syngas can be economically used for a variety of purposes, including: the production of liquid fuels when combined with Gas to Liquids (GTL) technology power generation in gas turbine combined cycle power stations a feedstock for different petrochemical processes, for example producing chemicals or other gases such as hydrogen, methane, ammonia, methanol and dimethyl ether Linc Energy has proven the combined use of UCG to Gas to Liquids (GTL) technologies. UCG to GTL technologies have the ability to provide energy alternatives to address increasing global demand for energy products. With these technologies, Linc Energy is set to become the leading producer of cleaner liquid fuels and other associated products. UCG has now been developed to a point where the commercialisation of the process is no longer questioned, the economics of the process are compelling, and is now seen as a method that resolves energy security for countries that have access to deep coal previously thought to have no economic value.

  9. The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-03-15

    This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL{reg_sign} Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL{reg_sign} was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL{reg_sign} was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of $90,664,000. ENCOAL{reg_sign} operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL{trademark}). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall objective, the following goals were established for the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Project: Provide sufficient quantity of products for full-scale test burns; Develop data for the design of future commercial plants; Demonstrate plant and process performance; Provide capital and O&M cost data; and Support future LFC{trademark} technology licensing efforts. Each of these goals has been met and exceeded. The plant has been in operation for nearly 5 years, during which the LFC{trademark} process has been demonstrated and refined. Fuels were made, successfully burned, and a commercial-scale plant is now under contract for design and construction.

  10. Imperium/Lanzatech Syngas Fermentation Project - Biomass Gasification and Syngas Conditioning for Fermentation Evaluation: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-474

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, E.

    2014-09-01

    LanzaTech and NREL will investigate the integration between biomass gasification and LanzaTech's proprietary gas fermentation process to produce ethanol and 2,3-butanediol. Using three feed materials (woody biomass, agricultural residue and herbaceous grass) NREL will produce syngas via steam indirect gasification and syngas conditioning over a range of process relevant operating conditions. The gasification temperature, steam-to-biomass ratio of the biomass feed into the gasifier, and several levels of syngas conditioning (based on temperature) will be varied to produce multiple syngas streams that will be fed directly to 10 liter seed fermenters operating with the Lanzatech organism. The NREL gasification system will then be integrated with LanzaTech's laboratory pilot unit to produce large-scale samples of ethanol and 2,3-butanediol for conversion to fuels and chemicals.

  11. Experimental and predicted approaches for biomass gasification with enriched air-steam in a fluidised bed.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qirang; Huang, Yaji; Niu, Miaomiao; Yang, Gaoqiang; Shao, Zhiwei

    2014-10-01

    Thermo-chemical gasification of sawdust refuse-derived fuel was performed on a bench-scale fluidised bed gasifier with enriched air and steam as fluidising and oxidising agents. Dolomite as a natural mineral catalyst was used as bed material to reform tars and hydrocarbons. A series of experiments were carried out under typical operating conditions for gasification, as reported in the article. A modified equilibrium model, based on equilibrium constants, was developed to predict the gasification process. The sensitivity analysis of operating parameters, such as the fluidisation velocity, oxygen percentage of the enriched air and steam to biomass ratios on the produced gas composition, lower heating value, carbon conversion and cold gas efficiency was investigated. The results showed that the predicted syngas composition was in better agreement with the experimental data compared with the original equilibrium model. The higher fluidisation velocity enhanced gas-solid mixing, heat and mass transfers, and carbon fines elutriation, simultaneously. With the increase of oxygen percentage from 21% to 45%, the lower heating value of syngas increased from 5.52?MJ?m(-3) to 7.75?MJ?m(-3) and cold gas efficiency from 49.09% to 61.39%. The introduction of steam improved gas quality, but a higher steam to biomass ratio could decrease carbon conversion and gasification efficiency owing to a low steam temperature. The optimal value of steam to biomass ratio in this work was 1.0. PMID:25265865

  12. Laboratory support for in situ gasification: reaction kinetics. Annual report October 1977-September 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.E.; Wong, S.H.; Johnson, J.E.; Sikand, N.; Jonke, A.A.

    1980-02-01

    This work is directed toward support studies for the national program for the development and demonstration of in situ coal gasification processes. The objective of this work is to determine the reaction-controlling variables and reaction kinetics for the gasification of chars obtained by pyrolyzing coal in simulated underground gasification conditions. The reactions being studied and to be studied include steam-char, CO/sub 2/-char, H/sub 2/-char, the water-gas shift reaction, and the methanation reaction. In this report are presented data regarding the kinetics of the reaction of steam with chars prepared from Pittsburgh seam high-volatile bituminous coal. In addition, a reaction model is described correlating the steam-char reaction rates measured earlier for Hanna subbituminous coal with operating conditions including temperature, partial pressures of steam and hydrogen, and extent of carbon gasification. Partial results are presented and discussed for an investigation of structural parameters of Hanna char as a function of pyrolysis conditions and extent of carbon gasified.

  13. Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.

    PubMed

    Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste. PMID:23444152

  14. Woody biomass and RPF gasification using reforming catalyst and calcium oxide.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Jun; Kawamoto, Katsuya; Fukushima, Ryutaro; Tanaka, Shingo

    2011-05-01

    This study focused on steam gasification and reforming of waste biomass using a reforming catalyst. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the durability of a commercial Ni reforming catalyst and the effect of CaO on the reforming behavior, and to clarify detailed factors of catalytic performance, as well as the effect of operating parameters on the characteristics of produced gas composition. Moreover, catalyst regeneration was carried out and the behavior of catalytic activity based on gas composition was investigated. Using a fluidized bed gasifier and a fixed bed reformer, gasification and reforming of waste biomass were carried out. Commercial Ni-based catalyst and calcined limestone (CaO) were applied to the reforming reaction. Temperature of the gasifier and reformer was almost 1023K. Ratio of steam to carbon in the feedstock [molmol(-1)] and equivalence ratio (i.e., ratio of actual to theoretical amount of oxygen) [-] were set at about 2 and 0.3, respectively. The feed rate of the feedstock into the bench-scale gasifier was almost 15kgh(-1). The results of waste biomass gasification confirmed the improvement in H(2) composition by the CO(2) absorption reaction using the reforming catalyst and CaO. In addition, CaO proved to be especially effective in decreasing the tar concentration in the case of woody biomass gasification. Catalytic activity was maintained by means of catalyst regeneration processing by hydrogen reduction after air oxidation when woody biomass was used as feedstock. PMID:21459406

  15. Gasification of refuse derived fuel in a fixed bed reactor for syngas production

    SciTech Connect

    Dalai, Ajay K. [Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada)], E-mail: ajay.dalai@usask.ca; Batta, Nishant [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada); Eswaramoorthi, I. [Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada); Schoenau, Greg J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Steam gasification of two different refuse derived fuels (RDFs), differing slightly in composition as well as thermal stability, was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure. The proximate and ultimate analyses reveal that carbon and hydrogen are the major components in RDFs. The thermal analysis indicates the presence of cellulose and plastic based materials in RDFs. H{sub 2} and CO are found to be the major products, along with CO{sub 2} and hydrocarbons resulting from gasification of RDFs. The effect of gasification temperature on H{sub 2} and CO selectivities was studied, and the optimum temperature for better H{sub 2} and CO selectivity was determined to be 725 deg. C. The calorific value of product gas produced at lower gasification temperature is significantly higher than that of gas produced at higher process temperature. Also, the composition of RDF plays an important role in distribution of products gas. The RDF with more C and H content is found to produce more amounts of CO and H{sub 2} under similar experimental conditions. The steam/waste ratio showed a notable effect on the selectivity of syngas as well as calorific value of the resulting product gas. The flow rate of carrier gas did not show any significant effect on products yield or their distribution.

  16. Effect of ash circulation in gasification melting system on concentration and leachability of lead in melting furnace fly ash.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Suzuki, Masaru

    2013-11-30

    In some gasification-melting plants, generated melting furnace fly ash is returned back to the melting furnace for converting the ash to slag. This study investigated the effect of such ash circulation in the gasification-melting system on the concentration and leachability of lead in the melting furnace fly ash. The ash circulation in the melting process was simulated by a thermodynamic calculation, and an elemental analysis and leaching tests were performed on a melting furnace fly ash sample collected from the gasification-melting plant with the ash circulation. It was found that by the ash circulation in the gasification-melting, lead was highly concentrated in the melting furnace fly ash to the level equal to the fly ash from the ash-melting process. The thermodynamic calculation predicted that the lead volatilization by the chlorination is promoted by the ash circulation resulting in the high lead concentration. In addition, the lead extraction from the melting furnace fly ash into a NaOH solution was also enhanced by the ash circulation, and over 90% of lead in the fly ash was extracted in 5 min when using 0.5 mol l(-1) NaOH solution with L/S ratio of 10 at 100 °C. Based on the results, a combination of the gasification-melting with the ash circulation and the NaOH leaching method is proposed for the high efficient lead recovery. PMID:24121545

  17. CO2 co-gasification of lower sulphur petroleum coke and sugar cane bagasse via TG-FTIR analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Edreis, Elbager M A; Luo, Guangqian; Li, Aijun; Chao, Chen; Hu, Hongyun; Zhang, Sen; Gui, Ben; Xiao, Li; Xu, Kai; Zhang, Pingan; Yao, Hong

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates the non-isothermal mechanism and kinetic behaviour of gasification of a lower sulphur petroleum coke, sugar cane bagasse and blends under carbon dioxide atmosphere conditions using the thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The gas products were measured online with coupled Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The achieved results explored that the sugar cane bagasse and blend gasification happened in two steps: at (<500 °C) the volatiles are released, and at (>700 °C) char gasification occurred, whereas the lower sulphur petroleum coke presented only one char gasification stage at (>800 °C). Significant interactions were observed in the whole process. Some solid-state mechanisms were studied by the Coats-Redfern method in order to observe the mechanisms responsible for the gasification of samples. The results show that the chemical first order reaction is the best responsible mechanism for whole process. The main released gases are CO2, CO, CH4, HCOOH, C6H5OH and CH3COOH. PMID:23567736

  18. Operating and environmental performances of commercial-scale waste gasification and melting technology.

    PubMed

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Fujinaga, Yasuka; Kajiyama, Hirohisa; Ishida, Yoshihiro

    2013-11-01

    Gasification technologies for waste processing are receiving increased interest. A lot of gasification technologies, including gasification and melting, have been developed in Japan and Europe. However, the flue gas and heavy metal behaviors have not been widely reported, even though those of grate furnaces have been reported. This article reports flue gas components of gasification and melting technology in different flue gas treatment systems. Hydrogen chloride concentrations at the inlet of the bag filter ranged between 171 and 180 mg Nm(-3) owing to de-acidification by limestone injection to the gasifier. More than 97.8% of hydrogen chlorides were removed by a bag filter in both of the flue gas treatment systems investigated. Sulfur dioxide concentrations at the inlet of the baghouse were 4.8 mg Nm(-3) and 12.7 mg Nm(-3), respectively. Nitrogen oxides are highly decomposed by a selective catalytic reduction system. Owing to the low regenerations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, and the selective catalytic reduction system, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans at the stacks were significantly lower without activated carbon injection. More than 99% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 97.6% and 96.5%, respectively. Most high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that the slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals, such as lead. The heavy metal distribution behaviors are almost the same regardless of the compositions of the processed waste. These results indicate that the gasification of municipal solid waste constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling. PMID:24019383

  19. Wastewater treatment train for fixed bed coal gasification. Semi-annual progress report, May 1October 31, 1980

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Neufeld; C. Muretti; F. Ali

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a series of procedures that enable wastewater from a stirred fixed bed gasification process to be treated in an environmentally acceptable manner. Experiments are conducted on a laboratory scale using samples of gasifier wastewater. The linkage of processes used include sulfide stripping, pH adjustment followed by free and fixed ammonia removal, pH

  20. Plasma assisted spectroscopic monitoring of alkali metals in pressurised combustion and gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Haeyrinen, V.T.; Hernberg, R.G. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1995-07-01

    The paper describes an instrument for on-line concentration measurement of vaporised alkali compounds in pressurised industrial combustion and gasification processes. The measurement is based on Plasma Excited Alkali Resonance Line Spectroscopy (PEARLS) at the elevated pressure (1-3 MPa) of the process. Results are presented from laboratory calibration measurements and test measurements of sodium and potassium vapours resulting from the combustion of coal powder in a pressurised entrained flow reactor.