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1

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS TEXACO, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

The Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) has operated commercially for nearly 45 years on feeds such as natural gas, liquid petroleum fractions, coal, and petroleum coke. More than 45 plants are either operational or under development in the United States and abroad. Texaco has dev...

2

TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the evaluation of the Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The Texaco Gasification Process was developed by Texaco Inc. The TGP is a comm...

3

Texaco gasification process: Innovative technology evaluation report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the evaluation of the Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The TGP is a commercial gasification process which converts organic materials into syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The feed reacts with a limited amount of oxygen (partial oxidaton) in a refractory-lined reactor at temperatures between 2,200 degrees and 2,650 degrees F and at pressures above 250 pounds per square inch gauge (psig). Texaco reports that the syngas can be processed into high-purity hydrogen, ammonia, methanol, and other chemicals, as well as clean fuel for electric power. The TGP was evaluated under the EPA SITE Program in January 1994 at Texaco`s Montebello Research Laboratory (MRL) in South El Monte, California, located in the greater Los Angeles area. The Demonstration used a soil feed mixture consisting of approximately 20 weight-percent waste soil from the Purity Oil Sales Superfund Site, Fresno, California and 80 weight-percent clean soil. The slurry included coal as a support fuel and was spiked with lead and barium compounds (inorganic heavy metals) and chlorobenzene (volatile organic compound) as the Principal Organic Hazardous Constituent (POHC).

NONE

1995-07-01

4

Coal gasification: Kellogg's coal gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification of coal in a bath of molten sodium carbonate through which ; steam is passed is the basis of the Kellogg Coal Gasification process. The bath ; of moiten salt strongly catalyzes the basic steam- coal reaction permi tting ; essentially complete gasificntion of coal at reduced temperature. The molten ; salt can be used to supply heat to

W. C. Schreiner; G. T. Skaperdas

1973-01-01

5

Coal-gasification-process concepts. [Dependence on gasifier pressure  

SciTech Connect

First Generation coal gasification continues to grow with the expansion of Lurgi process to make gasoline in South Africa and SNG in the United States. This moving-bed gasifier is no doubt the leading commercial application of coal gasification. This can probably be attributed to its operation at the elevated pressure that simultaneously increases coal throughput and broadens the utility of the raw Syngas product by lowering its coal. Other Second Generation processes also strive to achieve high pressure operation: Ruhrgas 100 to improve moving-bed gasification at 100 bars; Texaco, Shell, Koppers, and Saarberg-Otto to improve entrained-bed gasification at 20 to 40 bars; and U-GAS and Westinghouse and the pressurized Winkler to improve fluidized-bed operation at 10 to 40 bars. Operation at 20 to 40 bars greatly improves gasifier productivity and significantly broadens the use of the raw Syngas produced by all types of gasifiers. Future commercial trends will include the entrained- and fluidized-bed concepts at 20 to 40 bars while even higher operating pressures will be used for the Lurgi moving-bed concept.

Miller, C.L.; Tarman, P.B.

1982-01-01

6

Catalytic coal gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carbonaceous feed material, a potassium compound having a relatively poor catalytic activity as compared to that of potassium carbonate, and a sodium or lithium salt are introduced into a gasification reactor. The carbonaceous material is then gasified in the presence of the added potassium and sodium or lithium constituents. The added sodium or lithium salt apparently activates the relatively

R. J. Lang; J. K. Pabst

1982-01-01

7

Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process single stage high mass flux (HMF) process (CS\\/R) hydrogasification process and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each

John McCarthy; Joseph Ferrall; Thomas Charng; John Houseman

1981-01-01

8

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

1987-11-01

9

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Williams, S.W.

1989-01-01

10

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1-Test Plan; Task 2-Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3-Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4-Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

1988-02-01

11

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Derting, T.M.

1988-07-01

12

Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CSR process; and Exxon Gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service\\/Rockwell (CS\\/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the

J. McCarthy; J. Ferrall; T. Charng; J. Houseman

1981-01-01

13

Coking and gasification process  

DOEpatents

An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

Billimoria, Rustom M. (Houston, TX); Tao, Frank F. (Baytown, TX)

1986-01-01

14

Process for separating catalytic coal gasification chars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A catalytic coal gasification process is described including the separation of chars containing soluble catalysts produced by the catalytic coal gasification process comprising the steps of: (a) separating the chars by size into three portions, a first char portion having the largest average diameter, a second char portion having the middle average diameter, and a third char portion having the

W. K. Lee; H. W. Wong

1987-01-01

15

Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this research is to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible “syngas” in a high temperature (above 700 °C), oxygen deficient environmen...

16

Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

1981-01-01

17

Coal gasification in a process development unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results obtained from operation of a 40kg\\/h Process Development Unit (PDU) of the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) process are reported. The unit was operated at commercial design conditions feeding bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal catalyzed with KOH. All reactions necessary to convert coal to methane and COâ, the major reaction products, are carried out in a single reactor. Alkali

C. A. Jr. Euker; R. D. Wesselhoft

1981-01-01

18

Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

1981-01-01

19

ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD RANKINGS OF POLLUTANTS GENERATED IN COAL GASIFICATION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation and ranking of environmental hazards associated with coal gasification. Applied chemical analytical data were provided by (1) research with an experimental gasifier, and (2) sampling of four commercial gasification processes. Gas, liquid,...

20

Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible "syngas" in a high temperature (above 700 degrees C), oxygen deficient environment. Syngas can be combusted to generate power, which recycles energy from waste products. At 66% to 79% moisture, raw salmon waste streams are too wet to undergo pyrolysis and combustion. Ground raw or de-oiled salmon whole fish, heads, viscera, or frames were therefore "dried" by mixing with wood pellets to a final moisture content of 20%. Ground whole salmon with moisture reduced to 12% moisture was gasified without a drying agent. Gasification tests were performed in a small-scale, fixed-bed, updraft gasifer. After an initial start-up period, the gasifier was loaded with 1.5 kg of biomass. Temperature was recorded at 6 points in the gasifier. Syngas was collected during the short steady-state period during each gasifier run and analyzed. Percentages of each type of gas in the syngas were used to calculate syngas heating value. High heating value (HHV) ranged from 1.45 to 1.98 MJ/kg. Bomb calorimetry determined maximum heating value for the salmon by-products. Comparing heating values shows the efficiency of gasification. Cold gas efficiencies of 13.6% to 26% were obtained from the various samples gasified. Though research of gasification as a means of salmon waste disposal and energy production is ongoing, it can be concluded that pre-dried salmon or relatively low moisture content mixtures of waste with wood are gasifiable. PMID:19799663

Rowland, Sarah; Bower, Cynthia K; Patil, Krushna N; DeWitt, Christina A Mireles

2009-10-01

21

Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process  

SciTech Connect

This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

1981-06-01

22

Dynamic simulation of Exxon's Catalytic Coal-Gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic simulation of the Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) process was done to determine whether the process interactions presented any controllability problems as well as to help design a control scheme for the process. While there were previous dynamic simulation of both fixed and fluidized bed coal gasifiers, these simulations were all performed for noncatalytic gasification processes, and thus would

H. D. Franklin; R. S. Parnas; C. D. Kahn; N. Y. Gaitonde

1982-01-01

23

Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process  

DOEpatents

The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

Wilson, M.W.

1987-03-23

24

Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process  

DOEpatents

The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

Wilson, Marvin W. (Fairview, WV)

1988-01-01

25

BIOMASS REACTIVITY IN GASIFICATION BY THE HYNOL PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

A thermobalance reactor was used to evaluate the reactivity of poplar wood in gasification under the operating conditions specific for the Hynol process where biomass is gasified at 30 atm and 800E C with a hydrogen-rich gas recycled from methane synthesis. The gasification invol...

26

Dynamic simulation of Exxon's Catalytic Coal-Gasification process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamic simulation of the Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) process was done to determine whether the process interactions presented any controllability problems as well as to help design a control scheme for the process. While there were previous dynamic simulation of both fixed and fluidized bed coal gasifiers, these simulations were all performed for noncatalytic gasification processes, and thus would not show the process dynamics implications resulting from the unique features of the CCG process. Unique features of closed control loop responses are given. The Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification process is a novel method for producing methane directly from coal. Its key features from a process dynamics standpoint are use of a catalyst which causes both the highly endothermic gasification and exothermic methanation reactions to occur in the same reactor, separation of product gas in a highly heat-integrated cryogenic section, and recycle of product carbon monoxide and hydrogen back into the reactor.

Franklin, H. D.; Parnas, R. S.; Kahn, C.; Gaitonde, N. Y.

1982-11-01

27

Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at

Euker Jr. Charles A; Robert D. Wesselhoft; John J. Dunkleman; Dolores C. Aquino; Toby R. Gouker

1984-01-01

28

Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50° C. and 250° C. in an oxidation zone and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone at an elevated pressure.

C. A. Jr. Euker; D. C. Aquino; J. J. Dunkleman; T. R. Gouker; R. D. Wesselhoft

1984-01-01

29

Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process  

DOEpatents

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

Euker, Jr., Charles A. (15163 Dianna La., Houston, TX 77062); Wesselhoft, Robert D. (120 Caldwell, Baytown, TX 77520); Dunkleman, John J. (3704 Autumn La., Baytown, TX 77520); Aquino, Dolores C. (15142 McConn, Webster, TX 77598); Gouker, Toby R. (5413 Rocksprings Dr., LaPorte, TX 77571)

1984-01-01

30

Coal gasification and the Phenosolvan process  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of commercial coal gasification projects under design in the USA. By 1976-77, two such projects may be coming onstream in New Mexico, each producing 250 million standard cubic feet per day of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG). The gasification of coal produces large amounts of by-product phenol. The New Mexico projects will each involve about 25,000 tons

Beychok

1974-01-01

31

Process for fixed bed coal gasification  

DOEpatents

The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

1992-01-01

32

An equilibrium model for biomass gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy conversion systems based on biomass utilisation are particularly interesting because of their contribution to the limitation of global CO2 emissions; within the possible methods for energy-based biomass utilisation, thermal gasification appears as the most mature technology. In the first design stage, the designer of these systems, or the user looking for performance predictions under different operating conditions, has advantages

M. Ruggiero; G. Manfrida

1999-01-01

33

A summary report on combustion and gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

Six poster papers regarding combustion and gasification were reviewed. These six papers address various different technology subjects: (1) underground coal gasification modeling, (2) wood gasification kinetics, (3) heat transfer surface pretreatment by iron implantation, (4) coal water slurry stabilization technology, (5) coal log pipeline technology, and (6) nuclear reactor decontamination. Summaries and comments of the following papers are presented: Characterization of Flow and Chemical Processes in an Underground Gasifier at Great Depth; Model for Reaction Kinetics in Pyrolysis of Wood; Development of a Stainless Steel Heat Transfer Surface with Low Scaling Tendency; Storage and Transportation of Coal Water Mixtures; Coal Log Pipeline: Development Status of the First Commercial System; and Decontamination of Nuclear Systems at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station.

Rath, L.K.; Lee, G.T.

1996-08-01

34

Heat exchanger for coal gasification process  

DOEpatents

This invention provides a heat exchanger, particularly useful for systems requiring cooling of hot particulate solids, such as the separated fines from the product gas of a carbonaceous material gasification system. The invention allows effective cooling of a hot particulate in a particle stream (made up of hot particulate and a gas), using gravity as the motive source of the hot particulate. In a preferred form, the invention substitutes a tube structure for the single wall tube of a heat exchanger. The tube structure comprises a tube with a core disposed within, forming a cavity between the tube and the core, and vanes in the cavity which form a flow path through which the hot particulate falls. The outside of the tube is in contact with the cooling fluid of the heat exchanger.

Blasiole, George A. (Greensburg, PA)

1984-06-19

35

Mechanisms of Thermochemical Biomass Conversion Processes. Part 2: Reactions of Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification as a thermochemical process is defined and limited to combustion and pyrolysis. The gasification of biomass is a thermal treatment which results in a high proportion of gaseous products and small quantities of char (solid product) and ash. Biomass gasification technologies have historically been based upon partial oxidation or partial combustion principles, resulting in the production of a hot,

M. Balat

2008-01-01

36

Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program  

SciTech Connect

The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H[sub 2] mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO[sub x] (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

1992-01-01

37

Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program  

SciTech Connect

The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H{sub 2} mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO{sub x} (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

1992-11-01

38

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Phase 2, Process optimization: Volume 1, Program summary and PDU operations  

SciTech Connect

This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

1991-09-01

39

Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification Process Predevelopment Program. Final project report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results of work conducted on Predevelopment Research for the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification Process. The eighteen-month effort (July 1976-December 1977) was a coordinated program which included operation of a continuous fluidized-bed gasifier, parallel bench-scale research, and engineering studies leading to the preparation of a commercial-scale plant study design and economics for producing SNG from Illinois coal.

T. Kalina; N. C. Nahas

1978-01-01

40

Understanding of phenolic compound production in coal gasification processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of phenolic compound production in coal gasification processing was achieved by bench-scale study of the decomposition characteristics of select phenolic compounds in the homogeneous gas phase and over fixed beds of coal char and limestone-derived solids; experiments in a pilot-scale Synthane gasifier to assess the effects of changing initial devolatilization conditions on the formation of phenols from coal;

Fillo

1979-01-01

41

Separation of products from mild coal gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

The primary mild coal gasification product mixture containing noncondensible gas, high-boiling hydrocarbon vapors and entrained fines is difficult to process into the desired pure products: gas, liquids, and dry solids. This challenge for mild coal gasification process development has been studied by surveying the technical literature for suitable separations processes and for similar issues in related processes. The choice for a first-stage solids separation step is standard cyclones, arranged in parallel trains for large-volume applications in order to take advantage of the higher separation efficiency of smaller cyclones. However, mild gasification pilot-plant data show entrainment of ultrafine particles for which standard cyclones have poor separation efficiency. A hot secondary solids separation step is needed for the ultrafine entrainment in order to protect the liquid product from excessive amounts of contaminating solids. The secondary solids separation step is similar to many high-temperature flue-gas applications with an important complicating condition: Mild gasifier vapors form coke on surfaces in contact with the vapors. Plugging of the filter medium by coke deposition is concluded to be the main product separation problem for mild gasification. Three approaches to solution of this problem are discussed in the order of preference: (1) a barrier filter medium made of a perforated foil that is easy to regenerate, (2) a high-efficiency cyclone coupled with recycle of a solids-containing tar fraction for coking/cracking in the gasifier, and (3) a granular moving bed filter with regeneration of the bed material. The condensation of oil vapors diluted by noncondensible gas is analyzed thermodynamically, and the conclusion is that existing commercial oil fractionator designs are adequate as long as the vapor stream does not contain excessive amounts of solids. 34 refs., 4 figs.

Wallman, P.H.

1991-09-11

42

Multiphysics modeling of carbon gasification processes in a well-stirred reactor with detailed gas-phase chemistry  

E-print Network

Multiphysics modeling of carbon gasification processes in a well-stirred reactor with detailed gas: Coal gasification Carbon gasification Detailed chemistry Heterogeneous surface reactions Radiation Multi-physics numerical modeling a b s t r a c t Fuel synthesis through coal and biomass gasification

Qiao, Li

43

A novel biomass air gasification process for producing tar-free higher heating value fuel gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is a promising sustainable energy source. A tar-free fuel gas can be obtained in a properly designed biomass gasification process. In the current study, a tar-free biomass gasification process by air was proposed. This concept was demonstrated on a lab-scale fluidized bed using sawdust under autothermic conditions. This lab-scale model gasifier combined two individual regions of pyrolysis, gasification, and

Yan Cao; Yang Wang; John T. Riley; Wei-Ping Pan

2006-01-01

44

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

2001-12-01

45

Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process  

DOEpatents

Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ)

1980-01-01

46

Texaco looks at magnetic resonance logs vs. coring in GOM  

SciTech Connect

The latest generation of magnetic resonance wireline tools allows explorationists to obtain accurate values for formation permeability, moveable and bound-fluid volumes, irreducible water saturation and formation fluid types in one continuous pass under a wide range of borehole conditions. These petrophysical formation parameters were previously attainable only by going through the expensive process of taking a conventional core, or extensive sidewall cores on wireline. This article details how Texaco Exploration and Production Inc. examined this concept in one of its recent exploration wells in the Gulf of Mexico. The company combined data from Schlumberger Well Service`s Combinable Magnetic Resonance (CMR) and Formation MicroImager (FMI) tools to obtain accurate reserve figures for a submarine canyon-fill play, and reduced the need for extensive sidewall cores in future wells in the field. Texaco now uses magnetic resonance technology as an integral part of its formation package. They have found it highly reliable for predicting the production potential of an exploration well--a critical step when allocating resources for a new platform or subsea development project.

Smith, S. [Texaco Exploration and Production Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States); Pickens, T. [Schlumberger Wireline and Testing, New Orleans, LA (United States)

1997-11-01

47

Assessment of the SRI Gasification Process for Syngas Generation with HTGR Integration -- White Paper  

SciTech Connect

This white paper is intended to compare the technical and economic feasibility of syngas generation using the SRI gasification process coupled to several high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) with more traditional HTGR-integrated syngas generation techniques, including: (1) Gasification with high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE); (2) Steam methane reforming (SMR); and (3) Gasification with SMR with and without CO2 sequestration.

A.M. Gandrik

2012-04-01

48

Gas processing handbook  

SciTech Connect

Brief details are given of processes including: BGC-Lurgi slagging gasification, COGAS, Exxon catalytic coal gasification, FW-Stoic 2-stage, GI two stage, HYGAS, Koppers-Totzek, Lurgi pressure gasification, Saarberg-Otto, Shell, Texaco, U-Gas, W-D.IGI, Wellman-Galusha, Westinghouse, and Winkler coal gasification processes; the Rectisol process; the Catacarb and the Benfield processes for removing CO/SUB/2, H/SUB/2s and COS from gases produced by the partial oxidation of coal; the selectamine DD, Selexol solvent, and Sulfinol gas cleaning processes; the sulphur-tolerant shift (SSK) process; and the Super-meth process for the production of high-Btu gas from synthesis gas.

Not Available

1982-04-01

49

Use of the melting-gasification process for processing metallurgical sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ingitec Leipzig have been successful in developing, in co-operation with partner firms, the IMeGa- S ¨C process (Ingitec-Melting-Gasification\\u000a with Special Solutions). This process represents a fixed-bed melting-gasification in parallel flow, injecting industrial quality\\u000a pure oxygen. The process is applied to produce synthesis gas for power and heat generation from waste materials and\\/or biomasses.\\u000a The synthesis gas analysis ranges from 40-55%

Renate Lahr; Klaus Scheidig; Hans Ulrich Feustel; Joachim Mallon; Michael Schaaf

50

The BGL coal gasification process -- Applications and status  

SciTech Connect

In 1991 British Gas completed a 15 year program for the development and demonstration of the BGL gasification process for Substitute Natural Gas and power generation. The final two objectives in this program at the Westfield Development Centre of British Gas were to demonstrate the suitability of the BGL gasifier for power generation under utility load requirements using typical UK power station coals and to operate the gasifier at pressures up to 65 bar. The first part of the program was an $18 million joint demonstration with National Power and PowerGen and supported by British Coal, the UK Department of Energy and the European Community which confirmed conclusively in tests spanning 40 days of operation that the full range of available UK power station coals can be gasified at very high efficiency in the BGL Gasifier. The development program then concluded with tests on a new, purpose designed, high pressure gasifier to determine the effect of pressure on gasification performance and operability. The use of the new ABB GT 24/26 gas turbines in BGL IGCC plant is explored and the BGL IGCC project in the US Clean Coal Technology Programme (CCTV) is described briefly.

Davies, H.S.; Vierrath, H.E.; Johnson, K.S.; Kluttz, D.E.

1994-12-31

51

Co-gasification of tire and biomass for enhancement of tire-char reactivity in CO2 gasification process.  

PubMed

In this investigation, palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and almond shell (AS) were implemented as two natural catalysts rich in alkali metals, especially potassium, to enhance the reactivity of tire-char through co-gasification process. Co-gasification experiments were conducted at several blending ratios using isothermal Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under CO2. The pronounced effect of inherent alkali content of biomass-chars on promoting the reactivity of tire-char was proven when acid-treated biomass-chars did not exert any catalytic effect on improving the reactivity of tire-char in co-gasification experiments. In kinetic studies of the co-gasified samples in chemically-controlled regime, modified random pore model (M-RPM) was adopted to describe the reactive behavior of the tire-char/biomass-char blends. By virtue of the catalytic effect of biomass, the activation energy for tire-char gasification was lowered from 250 kJ/mol in pure form 203 to 187 kJ/mol for AS-char and EFB-char co-gasified samples, respectively. PMID:23612170

Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

2013-06-01

52

Study on Extra Heavy Oil Gasification Reaction Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the viewpoints of global environment and energy security, raising the thermal efficiency of a thermal power plant and the diversification of fuel are issues that must be resolved as soon as possible. As to resolving these two issues, it is very effective that extra heavy oil is used in a gas-steam combined cycle power generation system. Accordingly, in order to establish technology for supporting to rationally design and operate a gasifier using extra heavy oil, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) targeted at clarifying significant phenomena in a gasifier, improving the accuracy of numerical analytical technique under development and verifying the technique. This report describes the major specifications of “Research Gasifier for Liquid Fuel” constructed in 1999 and the results of studies in respect to the reaction process in the gasifier based on OrimulsionTM (Trademark of BITOR) gasification tests in 2000.

Kidoguchi, Kazuhiro; Hara, Saburo; Ashizawa, Masami; Inumaru, Jun

53

Mathematical Modeling of Coal Gasification Processes in a Well-Stirred Reactor: Effects of Devolatilization and Moisture Content  

E-print Network

Mathematical Modeling of Coal Gasification Processes in a Well- Stirred Reactor: Effects in coal and biomass play an important role on the gasification performance of these fuels to simulate the gasification processes in a well-stirred reactor. This model is a first

Qiao, Li

54

Integration of stripping of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process  

DOEpatents

In an integrated fluid coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a wet scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped to remove acidic gases, the stripped vapors of the stripping zone are sent to the gas cleanup stage of the gasification product gas. The improved stripping integration is particularly useful in the combination coal liquefaction process, fluid coking of bottoms of the coal liquefaction zone and gasification of the product coke.

DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

1980-01-01

55

Instrumentation for optimizing an underground coal-gasification process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the United States has a coal resource base of 6.4 trillion tons, only seven percent is presently recoverable by mining. The process of in-situ gasification can recover another twenty-eight percent of the vast resource, however, viable technology must be developed for effective in-situ recovery. The key to this technology is system that can optimize and control the process in real-time. An instrumentation system is described that optimizes the composition of the injection gas, controls the in-situ process and conditions the product gas for maximum utilization. The key elements of this system are Monsanto PRISM Systems, a real-time analytical system, and a real-time data acquisition and control system. This system provides from complete automation of the process but can easily be overridden by manual control. The use of this cost effective system can provide process optimization and is an effective element in developing a viable in-situ technology.

Seabaugh, W.; Zielinski, R. E.

1982-06-01

56

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products: Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Research on mild gasification is discussed. The report is divided into three sections: literature survey of mild gasification processes; literature survey of char, condensibles, and gas upgrading and utilization methods; and industrial market assessment of products of mild gasification. Recommendations are included in each section. (CBS) 248 refs., 58 figs., 62 tabs.

Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.; Breault, R.W.

1988-06-01

57

Integrated Process Configuration for High-Temperature Sulfur Mitigation during Biomass Conversion via Indirect Gasification  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur present in biomass often causes catalyst deactivation during downstream operations after gasification. Early removal of sulfur from the syngas stream post-gasification is possible via process rearrangements and can be beneficial for maintaining a low-sulfur environment for all downstream operations. High-temperature sulfur sorbents have superior performance and capacity under drier syngas conditions. The reconfigured process discussed in this paper is comprised of indirect biomass gasification using dry recycled gas from downstream operations, which produces a drier syngas stream and, consequently, more-efficient sulfur removal at high temperatures using regenerable sorbents. A combination of experimental results from NREL's fluidizable Ni-based reforming catalyst, fluidizable Mn-based sulfur sorbent, and process modeling information show that using a coupled process of dry gasification with high-temperature sulfur removal can improve the performance of Ni-based reforming catalysts significantly.

Dutta. A.; Cheah, S.; Bain, R.; Feik, C.; Magrini-Bair, K.; Phillips, S.

2012-06-20

58

Methodology for technology evaluation under uncertainty and its application in advanced coal gasification processes  

E-print Network

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has attracted interest as a cleaner alternative to conventional coal-fired power generation processes. While a number of pilot projects have been launched to ...

Gong, Bo, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

59

Advanced hot gas cleaning system for coal gasification processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States electric industry is entering a period where growth and the aging of existing plants will mandate a decision on whether to repower, add capacity, or do both. The power generation cycle of choice, today, is the combined cycle that utilizes the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The combustion turbine in a combined cycle can be used in a repowering mode or in a greenfield plant installation. Today's fuel of choice for new combined cycle power generation is natural gas. However, due to a 300-year supply of coal within the United States, the fuel of the future will include coal. Westinghouse has supported the development of coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past thirty years. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other organizations, Westinghouse is actively pursuing the development and commercialization of several coal-fueled processes. To protect the combustion turbine and environment from emissions generated during coal conversion (gasification/combustion) a gas cleanup system must be used. This paper reports on the status of fuel gas cleaning technology and describes the Westinghouse approach to developing an advanced hot gas cleaning system that contains component systems that remove particulate, sulfur, and alkali vapors. The basic process uses ceramic barrier filters for multiple cleaning functions.

Newby, R. A.; Bannister, R. L.

1994-04-01

60

Exxon catalytic coal gasification process: predevelopment program. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1September 30, 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predevelopment Program activities for the Exxon Catalytic Gasification Process include: recommissioning of the existing 20 lbs\\/hr Fluid Bed Gasifier (FBG); modifications to the FBG data acquisition system including the on-line computer program for the calculation of unit material balances from process variable data; start-up and initial operations of the 1-3 lbs\\/hr Continuous Gasification Unit (CGU); and computer programs development for

Kalina

1976-01-01

61

Geochemical Proxies for Enhanced Process Control of Underground Coal Gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underground coal gasification (UCG) represents a strategy targeting at syngas production for fuel or power generation from in-situ coal seams. It is a promising technique for exploiting coal deposits as an energy source at locations not allowing conventional mining under economic conditions. Although the underlying concept has already been suggested in 1868 and has been later on implemented in a number of field trials and even at a commercial scale, UCG is still facing technological barriers, impeding its widespread application. Field UCG operations rely on injection wells enabling the ignition of the target seam and the supply with oxidants (air, O2) inducing combustion (oxidative conditions). The combustion process delivers the enthalpy required for endothermic hydrogen production under reduction prone conditions in some distance to the injection point. The produced hydrogen - usually accompanied by organic and inorganic carbon species, e.g. CH4, CO, and CO2 - can then be retrieved through a production well. In contrast to gasification of mined coal in furnaces, it is difficult to measure the combustion temperature directly during UCG operations. It is already known that geochemical parameters such as the relative production gas composition as well as its stable isotope signature are related to the combustion temperature and, consequently, can be used as temperature proxies. However, so far the general applicability of such relations has not been proven. In order to get corresponding insights with respect to coals of significantly different rank and origin, four powdered coal samples covering maturities ranging from Ro= 0.43% (lignite) to Ro= 3.39% (anthracite) have been gasified in laboratory experiments. The combustion temperature has been varied between 350 and 900 Ë? C, respectively. During gasification, the generated gas has been captured in a cryo-trap, dried and the carbon containing gas components have been catalytically oxidized to CO2. Thereafter, the generated CO2 has been analyzed with respect to its stable carbon isotope composition by mass spectrometry. All samples exhibited a similar trend: The ^13C signatures of initially produced CO2 revealed to be relatively light and linearly increasing with temperature until approaching the bulk stable carbon isotope composition of the coal at a certain temperature, where the isotope signature kept virtually constant during further temperature increase. The temperature introducing the range of constant isotope compositions of the produced gas increased with coal rank. Additionally, all coal samples were treated by Rock Eval pyrolysis up to 550 Ë? C in order to investigate temperature dependent generation of CO and CO2. The results exhibited a linear decrease of the CO2/CO ratio at increasing temperature. Both experimental approaches demonstrated dependencies between the qualitative and the isotope composition of the generated syngas on the one hand and the applied combustion temperature on the other hand and, consequently, the principal applicability of the considered geochemical parameters as temperature proxies for coals of significantly different rank and origin. Although the investigated samples revealed similar trends, the absolute characteristics of the correlation functions (e.g. linear gradients) between geochemical parameters and combustion temperatures differed on an individual sample base, implying a significant additional dependence of the considered geochemical parameters on the coal composition. As a consequence, corresponding experimental approaches are currently continued and refined by involving multi component compound specific isotope analysis, high temperature Rock Eval pyrolysis as well as an enforced consideration of initial coal and oxidant compositions.

Kronimus, A.; Koenen, M.; David, P.; Veld, H.; van Dijk, A.; van Bergen, F.

2009-04-01

62

Supplemental studies for anthracite coal gasification to produce fuels and chemicals: NEPGAS Project  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 contains: (1) comparative evaluations of several coal gasification processes (Westinghouse, Saarberg/Otto, KGN/PVC, Lurgi, Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Shell-Koppers, BGC Slagging Lurgi, KT/KBW); (2) site conditions, coal sources and characteristics, recommendations for tests with the coal and gasifier selected, and evaluation of other engineering and environmental uncertainties; (3) continuation and update of environmental assessment and information needed for licensing application; (4) commercialization including market assessment, raw material supplies, water requirements, socio-economic factors, recommended plant capacity, economics and financial incentives needed, etc. (LTN)

Not Available

1981-08-24

63

Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

1997-02-01

64

Large pilot plant alternatives for scaleup of the catalytic coal gasification process. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the final report for US Department of Energy Contract No. EX-76-C-01-2480, Scaleup Requirements of the Exxon Catalyzed Coal Gasification Process. The objective was to develop the information necessary to determine if an existing DOE large pilot plant could be used to obtain the scaleup data necessary to design and construct a Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) pioneer plant with

1979-01-01

65

The potential for adding plastic waste fuel at a coal gasification power plant.  

PubMed

Plastics wastes from a municipal solid waste plant have a high energy content which make it an interesting option for co-processing with coal. The potential for adding plastic waste to a coal fired Texaco IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power station is examined. The resulting efficiency increases due to the improved gasification qualities of plastic over coal. For the overall economics to be the same as the coal only case, the maximum amount that the power station can afford to spend on preparing the plastic waste for use is similar to the assumed coal cost, plus the avoided landfill cost, minus the transport cost. The location of the power station plays a key role, since this has an effect on the transport costs as well as on the landfill charges. The sensitivity of the economics of co-processing plastic waste with coal for a variety of power station operational parameters is presented. PMID:12201682

Campbell, P E; Evans, R H; McMullan, J T; Williams, B C

2001-12-01

66

The study of reactions influencing the biomass steam gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steam gasification studies were carried out in an atmospheric fluidised bed. The gasifier was operated over a temperature range of 700–900°C whilst varying a steam\\/biomass ratio from 0.4 to 0.85w\\/w. Three types of forestry biomass were studied: Pinus pinaster (softwood), Eucalyptus globulus and holm-oak (hardwood). The energy conversion, gas composition, higher heating value and gas yields were determined and correlated

C Franco; F Pinto; I Gulyurtlu; I Cabrita

2003-01-01

67

Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process  

DOEpatents

In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

1984-12-04

68

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of food processing wastes. 1995 topical report  

SciTech Connect

The catalytic gasification system described in this report has undergone continuing development and refining work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for over 16 years. The original experiments, performed for the Gas Research Institute, were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous stirred-tank reactor tests provided useful design information for evaluating the preliminary economics of the process. This report is a follow-on to previous interim reports which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with batch and continuous-feed reactor systems from 1989 to 1994, including much work with food processing wastes. The discussion here provides details of experiments on food processing waste feedstock materials, exclusively, that were conducted in batch and continuous- flow reactors.

Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.

1996-08-01

69

IN-PROCESS CONTROL OF NITROGEN AND SULFUR IN ENTRAINED-BED GASIFERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of theoretical aspects and engineering considerations of in-process pollutant control of the entrained-bed slagging coal gasification process, as applied to combined cycle operation or to the retrofit of existing boilers. The pollutants o...

70

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a continuous mild gasification process to convert highly caking coals to coal liquids, char and coke for near term commercial application. Task 3, Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study, has been underway since September 1989. In char upgrading studies, ``green`` uncured char briquettes have been prepared and calcined in 20-pound batches to evaluate the effects of char, binders, and heating conditions on final coke properties. A total of 150. formulations have been tested thus far in this work. Work on Task 4, Process Development Unit (PDU) Mild Gasification Study, has been in progress since February 1991, with the completion of a Continuous Mild Gasification Unit (CMGU) with a design rate of 1000 lb./hr. Since start-up of the CMGU, there have been 72 runs with a variety of operating conditions and coal types.

Wolfe, R.A.; Wright, R.E.; Im, C.J.; Henkelman, M.R.; O`Neal, G.W.

1992-11-01

71

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

1991-09-01

72

Gasification of low-rank coals: technology status and recent research  

SciTech Connect

Technology for gasification of low-rank coals includes processes that are commercially available as well as some that are being developed. Commercial Lurgi technology is being utilized by the Great Plains Gasification Associates (GPGA) to convert North Dakota lignite to high-Btu pipeline gas. Technically, this project has been quite successful in its design, construction, startup and initial operating phases. An advanced version of the Lurgi fixed bed gasifier, which operates in a slagging mode rather than dry bottom, is being offered commercially by British Gas Corporation (BGC). Independently, the US Department of Energy (DOE), at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC), has successfully operated a 24-ton/day slagging fixed-bed gasifier on lignite. One key aspect of this fixed-bed gasification technology - wastewater treatment - has been the subject of significant recent research sponsored by DOE. As part of this program, UNDERC has conducted pilot and bench scale studies on treatment of process water from fixed-bed gasification of lignite, and on reuse of the treated water in a cooling tower. With DOE funding, UNDERC has developed a process that can produce concentrated fuel slurries from low-rank coals by hydrothermal treatment. In a project funded by the Electric Power Research Institute, UNDERC is adapting this process for use with the Texaco gasifier. Another low-rank coal gasification research project being conducted at UNDERC with DOE funding aims to take advantage of the high reactivity, moisture content, and alkali content of these coals to produce hydrogen in a low-cost catalytic gasification process. UNDERC's kinetic studies of steam/char gasification in the presence of sodium or potassium catalysts have shown that conversion rates for lignites are significantly higher than those reported for high-rank coal. 28 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

Wiltsee, G.A.; Willson, W.G.

1985-01-01

73

Simultaneous removal of HâS and NHâ in coal gasification processes. [Quarterly] report, September 2, 1993December 31, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (Nâ) occurs in coal in the form of tightly bound organic ring compounds typically at levels of 1 to 2 wt % on a dry-ash-free basis. During, coal gasification, this fuelbound nitrogen is released principally as ammonia and nitrogen, with smaller levels of HCN. The formation of NHâ in a coal gasification processes is a function of the fuel

K. Jothimurugesan; A. A. Adeyiga; S. K. Gangwal; C. Lewis; A. Bunch

1993-01-01

74

A review of the primary measures for tar elimination in biomass gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar formation is one of the major problems to deal with during biomass gasification. Tar condenses at reduced temperature, thus blocking and fouling process equipments such as engines and turbines. Considerable efforts have been directed on tar removal from fuel gas. Tar removal technologies can broadly be divided into two approaches; hot gas cleaning after the gasifier (secondary methods), and

Lopamudra Devi; Krzysztof J Ptasinski; Frans J. J. G Janssen

2003-01-01

75

Clean catalytic combustion of low heat value fuels from gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of biomass, coal and some waste materials by gasification offers an opportunity to utilise such fuel sources cleanly. Many of the aggressive species inherent in the fuel precursors can be retained in process, but one exception is nitrogen, which appears in the derived fuel gas generally as ammonia. Amounts of ammonia can be large, up to 3–4000vppm from

J. J. Witton; E. Noordally; J. M. Przybylski

2003-01-01

76

CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID BED PROCESS FOR SULPHUR REMOVAL DURING GASIFICATION OF CARBONACEOUS FUELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report covers the final 3 years of a 9-year program to evaluate the Chemically Active Fluid Bed (CAFB) process for gasification and desulfurization of liquid and solid fuels in a fluidized bed of hot lime. A range of alternative fuels, including three coals and a lignite, wer...

77

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project is to develop a continuous mild gasification process to convert highly caking coals to coal liquids, char and coke for near term commercial application. Coal liquids after fractionation can be blended with petroleum and used interchangeably with conventional fuels without modifications in gasoline and diesel engines. Char can be used as a carbon source in

R. E. Wright; R. A. Wolfe; C. J. Im; M. R. Henkelman; D. A. McKinney

1993-01-01

78

Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

Arena, Umberto, E-mail: umberto.arena@unina2.it [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via A. Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

2012-04-15

79

Continuous in-line gasification\\/vitrification process for thermal waste treatment: process technology and current status of projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Thermoselect High Temperature Recycling process has been developed in order to make available a thermal waste treatment technology avoiding major problems as known from traditional techniques like landfills or ashes, filter dust and emission producing processes. It combines slow degassing with fixed bed oxygen blown gasification and mineral and metal residue melting in a closed loop system. Municipal, industrial

Bernd Calaminus; R. Stahlberg

1998-01-01

80

Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process  

DOEpatents

In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

1981-01-01

81

Handbook of gasifiers and gas-treatment systems. [39 gasification processes and 40 gas processing systems  

SciTech Connect

In February 1976, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) published the Handbook of Gasifiers and Gas Treatment Systems. The intent of this handbook was to provide a ready reference to systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. That handbook was well received by users and was subsequently reprinted many times. The Department of Energy (successor agency to the ERDA) expands, revises and updates the Handbook in this volume. This new Handbook is not intended as a comparative evaluation, but rather as an impartial reference on recent and current technology. The Handbook now presents 39 gasification technologies and 40 gas processing systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. The information presented has been approved or supplied by the particular licensor/developer.

Parekh, R.D.

1982-09-01

82

Release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during biomass pyrolysis and steam gasification process.  

PubMed

Investigating the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs) is of potential interest because of AAEM's possible useful service as catalysts in biomass thermal conversion. In this study, three kinds of typical Chinese biomass were selected to pyrolyse and their chars were subsequently steam gasified in a designed quartz fixed-bed reactor to investigate the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs). The results indicate that 53-76% of alkali metal and 27-40% of alkaline earth metal release in pyrolysis process, as well as 12-34% of alkali metal and 12-16% of alkaline earth metal evaporate in char gasification process, and temperature is not the only factor to impact AAEMs emission. The releasing characteristics of AAEMs during pyrolysis and char gasification process of three kinds of biomass were discussed in this paper. PMID:22525260

Long, Jiang; Song, Hu; Jun, Xiang; Sheng, Su; Lun-Shi, Sun; Kai, Xu; Yao, Yao

2012-07-01

83

Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process  

SciTech Connect

Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

Not Available

1980-01-01

84

Concepts of fundamental processes related to gasification of coal. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981  

SciTech Connect

The research projects are described: (1) single stage catalytic coal gasification is an attractive concept as a direct method of producing high BTU gas from coal. This process involves the introduction of a coal-solvent slurry and hydrogen gas into a fixed bed catalytic reactor, which employs a catalyst high in hydrogenation and cracking activity. Steam may also be added to the system. The gas produced will be principally methane. Thermodynamic calculations indicate that this process is essentially autothermal. Since this process utilizes the heat of methanation to a maximum extent, significant overall energy savings can be achieved over the more conventional multi-stage gasification systems. The primary objective of this research is to optimize the process variables to maximize methane yields. Initially, a sulfided Ni-W/SiO/sub 2/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst will be used; (2) the demand for molecular hydrogen and for synthesis gas is rapidly increasing. Therefore, an extensive program on steam reforming of aromatic compounds such as benzene, substituted benzenes, naphthalene and other aromatics found in coal and coal-derived liquids (CDL) is being carried out. The combination of coal liquefaction-steam reforming of CDL could prove to be an important alternative to coal gasification for the production of SNG and hydrogen. An objective of this project is to assess the feasibility of this alternative. Potentially, coal liquids could be reformed directly in a single step to high BTU gas.

Wiser, W.H.

1981-12-01

85

Instrumentation and process control development for in situ coal gasification. Quarterly report, April-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the results of modeling efforts by Sandia National Laboratories in in-situ coal gasification. The main areas addressed are (1) flow characteristics and (2) initial cavity growth. The flow characteristics problem has been addressed using both a single phase finite element model and a two phase finite difference model. The initial cavity growth problem has been addressed using a finite element structural model. These models are useful for providing insight into the processes and for determining the characteristics needed to insure successful in-situ coal gasification. Also to be discussed is the development of the controlled source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT) electromagnetic geophysical prospecting technique. This technique is being evaluated for use in mapping in-situ processes. The application discussed is the LETC tar sands project near Vernal, Utah.

Glass, R.E. (ed.)

1980-10-01

86

Development of mild gasification process. Quarterly report, October--December 1988  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Williams, S.W.

1989-01-01

87

Development of mild gasification process. Quarterly report, October--December, 1987  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1-Test Plan; Task 2-Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3-Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4-Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

1988-02-01

88

Development of mild gasification process. Quarterly report, July--September 1987  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

1987-11-01

89

Development of mild gasification process. Quarterly report, April--June 1988  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Derting, T.M.

1988-07-01

90

Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review.  

PubMed

The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option. PMID:22035903

Arena, Umberto

2012-04-01

91

Evaluating the status of the Texaco gasifier  

SciTech Connect

Conclusions after a series of runs at steady state conditions in the pilot plant are: (1) Western Kentucky No. 9 coal (either run-of-mine or washed) can be gasified without pretreatment; (2) other coking bituminous coal may also be able to be gasified without pretreatment; (3) pretreatment is not required to achieve satisfactory ash agglomeration; (4) balanced ash agglomeration with satisfactory removal of the agglomerates has been achieved and stable operation of ash agglomeration is possible during periods of short upset; (5) solutions appear to have been found for prevention of clinkering and sintering by alternative venturi design, modification in the oxygen feed system and increasing the superficial velocity of the gas; (6) under certain circumstances fines recycle has been achieved with stable operation and fluidization; (7) the process can be operated at pressures up to 60 psig without adversely affecting other process parameters; (8) a wide range of operating conditions can be used while maintaining system operability; and (9) in a single test water cooling of the cyclone appears to prevent ash deposition on the cooled surfaces which confirms the experience of Westinghouse with ash deposition prevention in their fluidized bed gasifier. 11 references, 12 tables.

Perry, H.

1981-01-01

92

Process for gasification using a synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor  

DOEpatents

A gasification process is disclosed using a synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor consisting essentially of at least one compound selected from the group consisting of calcium oxide and calcium carbonate supported in a refractory carrier matrix, the carrier having the general formula Ca.sub.5 (SiO.sub.4).sub.2 CO.sub.3. A method for producing the synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor is also disclosed.

Lancet, Michael S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Curran, George P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1980-01-01

93

Fluid bed gasification – Plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: Experimental assessment of sulphur species  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: • We investigate gaseous sulphur species whilst gasifying sulphur-enriched wood pellets. • Experiments performed using a two stage fluid bed gasifier – plasma converter process. • Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels were identified. • Oxygen-rich regions of the bed are believed to facilitate SO{sub 2}, with a delayed release. • Gas phase reducing regions above the bed would facilitate more prompt COS generation. - Abstract: Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO{sub 2}’s generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO{sub 2} was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO{sub 2} generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS – hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling.

Morrin, Shane, E-mail: shane.morrin@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Lettieri, Paola, E-mail: p.lettieri@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Chapman, Chris, E-mail: chris.chapman@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Taylor, Richard, E-mail: richard.taylor@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom)

2014-01-15

94

Differences in gasification behaviors and related properties between entrained gasifier fly ash and coal char  

SciTech Connect

In the study, two fly ash samples from Texaco gasifiers were compared to coal char and the physical and chemical properties and reactivity of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption method, and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The main results were obtained. The carbon content of gasified fly ashes exhibited 31-37%, which was less than the carbon content of 58-59% in the feed coal. The fly ashes exhibited higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, richer meso- and micropores, more disordered carbon crystalline structure, and better CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity than coal char. Ashes in fly ashes occurred to agglomerate into larger spherical grains, while those in coal char do not agglomerate. The minerals in fly ashes, especial alkali and alkaline-earth metals, had a catalytic effect on gasification reactivity of fly ash carbon. In the low-temperature range, the gasification process of fly ashes is mainly in chemical control, while in the high-temperature range, it is mainly in gas diffusion control, which was similar to coal char. In addition, the carbon in fly ashes was partially gasified and activated by water vapor and exhibited higher BET surface area and better gasification activity. Consequently, the fact that these carbons in fly ashes from entrained flow gasifiers are reclaimed and reused will be considered to be feasible. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Jing Gu; Shiyong Wu; Youqing Wu; Ye Li; Jinsheng Gao [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources and Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education

2008-11-15

95

Mathematical modelling of some chemical and physical processes in underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Underground coal gasification normally involves two vertical wells which must be linked by a channel having low resistance to gas flow. There are several ways of establishing such linkage, but all leave a relatively open horizontal hole with a diameter on the order of a meter. To increase our understanding of the chemical and physical processes governing underground coal gasification LLNL has been conducting laboratory scale experiments accompanied by mathematical modelling. Blocks of selected coal types are cut to fit 55 gallon oil drums and sealed in place with plaster. A 1 cm. diameter hole is drilled the length of the block and plumbing attached to provide a flow of air or oxygen/steam mixture. After an instrumented burn the block is sawed open to examine the cavity. Mathematical modelling has been directed towards predicting the cavity shape. This paper describes some sub-models and examines their impact on predicted cavity shapes.

Creighton, J. R.

1981-08-01

96

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

2002-04-01

97

Catalytic coal gasification process and large pilot plant development program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exxon Research and Engineering and Esso Steenkool Technologie B.V. believe that, in the longer term, CCG offers an efficient route to SNG from coal, particularly from bituminous coals. More than a decade of development work has brought the process from an early concept to a point where process feasibility has been demonstrated. The Department of Energy and the Gas Research

H. A. Marshall; F. C. R. M. Smits

1982-01-01

98

Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit  

SciTech Connect

The work performed during the second quarterly reporting period (February 21 through May 20, 1992) on the research program, Scale-Up of Mild Gasification to a Process Development Unit'' is presented in this report. The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: (1) design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup. (2) obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation. (3) prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit. (4) develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300[degrees]F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The PDU to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of char, coal liquids, and gases; a thermal cracker for upgrading of the coal liquids; and a hot briquetting unit for the production of form coke and smokeless fuel briquettes. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Foster, H.

1992-06-01

99

Low/medium-Btu coal-gasification assessment program for specific sites of two New York utilities  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this study is to investigate the technical and economic aspects of coal gasification to supply low- or medium-Btu gas to the two power plant boilers selected for study. This includes the following major studies (and others described in the text): investigate coals from different regions of the country, select a coal based on its availability, mode of transportation and delivered cost to each power plant site; investigate the effects of burning low- and medium-Btu gas in the selected power plant boilers based on efficiency, rating and cost of modifications and make recommendations for each; and review the technical feasibility of converting the power plant boilers to coal-derived gas. The following two coal gasification processes have been used as the basis for this Study: the Combustion Engineering coal gasification process produces a low-Btu gas at approximately 100 Btu/scf at near atmospheric pressure; and the Texaco coal gasification process produces a medium-Btu gas at 292 Btu/scf at 800 psig. The engineering design and economics of both plants are described. Both plants meet the federal, state, and local environmental requirements for air quality, wastewater, liquid disposal, and ground level disposal of byproduct solids. All of the synthetic gas alternatives result in bus bar cost savings on a yearly basis within a few years of start-up because the cost of gas is assumed to escalate at a lower rate than that of fuel oil, approximately 4 to 5%.

Not Available

1980-12-01

100

Proler Syngas Process for gasification of waste organic materials  

SciTech Connect

The Proler Syngas Process has undergone six years of process and equipment development; and the demonstration plant has gasified millions of pounds of combined ASR, MSW, Recycled Cardboard Residue, and chipped tires. The operating thermal balance of the process is easy to control, and the syngas product quality is uniform with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gases comprising between 70% and 80% of the total volume of the gas. The quantity of syngas produced is relative to the richness of the raw feedstock. The addition of vitrification to the syngas process does not add significantly to the capital or operating cost; and the combined processes are able to accept a wider range of organic as well as inorganic feedstocks, including materials classified as hazardous. The combined technologies are capable of processing a wide variety of both non-hazardous and hazardous waste organic materials, as well as fine inorganic materials and baghouse dust. The combined technologies consume almost 100% of all fuel value contained in the waste organic feedstocks and convert it to syngas and glass.

Bishop, N. [Proler International Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

101

Wastewater treatment manual for coal gasification-combined-cycle power plants  

SciTech Connect

The three-volume Wastewater Treatment Manual for GCC Power Plants presents a programmed methodology for the informed user to conceive and develop, size, and cost a wastewater treatment system for the gasification and gas cleanup areas of an integrated gasification-combined cycle (GCC) power plant. Based on the limited information likely to be available at the conceptual level of GCC project development (e.g., gasifier type and coal analysis), the manual first provides information on how to characterize gasification wastewaters from moving-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes. It then provides information on applicable wastewater discharge standards and effluent reuse criteria as a means of establishing the treatment system performance goals. Given these data, the user is guided through a series of worksheets and examples in the development of one or more conceptual-level process flowsheets for an appropriate wastewater treatment system. Detailed information is provided for 28 wastewater treatment processes that may have applicability in a variety of flowsheet configurations. Another series of worksheets allows the calculation of flow and material balances that permit the conceptual-level sizing of treatment equipment. Order-of-magnitude capital and operating costs are calculated from cost curves based on these sizing criteria. Worksheets also are provided for the calculation of levelized revenue requirements, which affords a relatively fast and easy means by which to compare the costs of altemative process flowsheets. Two annotated examples are provided for the Texaco and Shell gasification processes as a means of fully conveying the manual's methodology. Each example illustrates the characterization of wastewater sources, the development of a treatment process flowsheet, sizing of the necessary equipment, and the development of cost estimates

Rosain, R.M.; Davis, M.W.; York, R.J.; Craveiro de Sa, F.A.; Peterson, D.L.; Eis, B.J. (CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA (United States))

1992-12-01

102

Wastewater treatment manual for coal gasification-combined-cycle power plants  

SciTech Connect

The three-volume Wastewater Treatment Manual for GCC Power Plants presents a programmed methodology for the informed user to conceive and develop, size, and cost a wastewater treatment system for the gasification and gas cleanup areas of an integrated gasification-combined cycle (GCC) power plant. Based on the limited information likely to be available at the conceptual level of GCC project development (e.g., gasifier type and coal analysis), the manual first provides information on how to characterize gasification wastewaters from moving-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes. It then provides information on applicable wastewater discharage standards and effluent reuse criteria as a means of establishing the treatment system performance goals. Given these data, the user is guided through a series of worksheets and examples in the development of one or more conceptual-level process flowsheets for an appropriate wastewater treatment system. Detailed information is provided for 28 wastewater treatment processes that may have applicability in a variety of flowsheet configurations. Another series of worksheets allows the calculation of flow and material balances that permit the conceptual-level sizing of treatment equipment. Order-of-magnitude capital and operating costs are calculated from cost curves based on these sizing criteria. Worksheets also are provided for the calculation of levelized revenue requirements, which affords a relatively fast and easy means by which to compare the costs of alternative process flowsheets. Two annotated samples are provided for the Texaco and Shell gasification processes as a means of fully conveying the manual's methodology. Each sample illustrates the characterization of wastewater sources, the development of a treatment process flowsheet, sizing of the necessary equipment, and the development of cost estimates.

Rosain, R.M.; Davis, M.W.; York, R.J.; Craveoro de Sa, F.A.; Peterson, D.L.; Eis, B.J. (CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA (United States))

1992-12-01

103

Coal gasification: molten salt processes for sulfur emission control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two molten salt desulfurization processes are illustrated. ; Precombustion desulfurization of coal takes place in a single vessel. Pulverized ; coal, slurried with molten salt, is allowed to react with a melt that contains an ; agent with an affinity for the sulfurous compounds. The coal collects at the ; top, being less dense than the melt, and is drawn

Glueck

1973-01-01

104

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)  

SciTech Connect

In order for the coal biogasification process to be economically feasible, an inexpensive nutrient amendment must be found to replace the Difco[trademark] yeast extract and tryptic soy broth (YE/TSB) used in the current medium formulation. Five products have been identified which support greater methane production from Texas lignite than YE/TSB.

Not Available

1992-04-30

105

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process)  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory scale studies examining biogasification of Texas lignite at various coal solids loadings have been completed. Bench scale bioreactors are currently being used to scale up the biogasification process to higher coal solids loadings (5% and 10%) Specific observations reported this quarter are that methane production was not curtailed when B-vitamin solution was not added to the biogasification medium and that aeration of Mic-1 did not sufficiently oxidize the medium to eliminate strict anaerobic bacteria including methanogens.

Not Available

1992-10-30

106

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification (MicGAS) Process. The objectives of the research during FY 1993--94 were to: (1) enhance kinetics of methane production (biogasification, biomethanation) from Texas lignite (TxL) by the Mic-1 consortium isolated and developed at ARCTECH, (2) increase coal solids loading, (3) optimize medium composition, and (4) reduce retention time. A closer analysis of the results described here indicate that biomethanation of TxL at >5% solids loading is feasible through appropriate development of nutrient medium and further adaptation of the microorganisms involved in this process. Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably. Results are discussed on the following: products of biomethanation and enhance of methane production including: bacterial adaptation; effect of nutrient amendment substitutes; effects of solids loading; effect of initial pH of the culture medium; effect of hydrogen donors and carbon balance.

Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.

1994-10-01

107

Energy from biomass: the simplex process for the gasification of coal and forest pulp  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective for this effort was to investigate the adaptation of the developing Simplex process to the gasification of wood waste and forest pulp. Several specific objectives had to be met to achieve this overall objective: wood supply and wood comminution requirements had to be determined, a briquette formulation procedure has to be developed and tested, and sample briquettes had to be successfully gasified in the small scale Columbia University gasification facility. The study was successful in developing an acceptable sylvan-simplex briquette using a low energy wood comminution technique and commercial briquette manufacturing process. The briquettes exhibited satisfactory performance in the Simplex prototype gasifier at Columbia University and the conclusion follows that the Simplex process has been successfully adapted to forest pulp and wood waste feedstocks. Further development efforts for both the Simplex and Sylvan-Simplex options should be directed at pilot scale testing in a 10 to 20 ton per day gasifier. This magnitude of scale-up is now appropriate as a further step toward eventual commercialization of this renewable resource fueled technology.

Arbo, J.C.

1980-04-01

108

Probabilistic Modeling and Evaluation of the Performance, Emissions, and Cost of Texaco Gasifier-  

E-print Network

- Based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Systems Using ASPEN Prepared by: H. Christopher Frey Naveen................................................................................................. 1 1.1 Overview of Gasification Systems.............................................................. 2 1.1.1 Gasification

Frey, H. Christopher

109

Gasification. 2nd. ed.  

SciTech Connect

This book covers gasification as a comprehensive topic, covering its many uses, from refining, to natural gas, to coal. It provides an overview of commercial processes and covers applications relevant to today's demands. The new edition is expanded and provides more detail on the integration issues for current generation, state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC); CO{sub 2} capture in the IGCC context addressing the issues of pre-investment and retrofitting as well as defining what the term 'CO{sub 2} capture ready' might mean in practice; issues of plant reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) including as evaluation of feedback from existing plants; implementation of fuel cell technology in IGCC concepts. Contents are: Introduction; The Thermodynamics of Gasification; The Kinetics of Gasification and Reactor Theory; Feedstocks and Feedstock Characteristics; Gasification Processes; Practical Issues; Applications; Auxiliary Technologies; Economics, environmental, and Safety Issues; Gasification and the Future. 5 apps.

Christopher Higman; Maarten van der Burgt [Lurgi Oel Gas Chemie (Germany)

2008-02-15

110

Industrial application of C-E's coal-gasification process. Final report, January 1979-August 1980  

SciTech Connect

The technical and economic feasibility of Combustion Engineering's atmospheric pressure, entrained coal gasifier was studied in four specific applications. Selection of the four applications was based on a general analysis of industrial energy requirements. Plant designs were developed and costs estimated for each of the four cases to determine the potential of a clean fuel gas produced from a C-E gasifier as a cost effective substitute for present energy sources or feedstocks. The gasification potential for industry was determined by reviewing the literature for energy demand and how energy is used. It is estimated that the potential for coal gasification in industry is about 5 x 10/sup 15/ Btu per year. This potential represents about 500 gasification plants at an average capacity of 30 x 10/sup 9/ Btu per day. Those industries which were identified as having the largest potential are the petroleum, chemical, steel, and paper industries with a combined estimated potential of 4.5 x 10/sup 15/ Btu/year. Other industries with a sizable potential are the stone, glass, food and metal mining industries. An analysis of the uses of energy indicates that low and medium Btu gas (LBG and MBG) may be used in several ways in industry. In addition to its application in the generation of electrical power, LBG or MBG can be used as alternate fuels for a conventional steam boiler, to produce a clean hotflue gas or supply heat directly in a chemical process. Under certain conditions, MBG can be used as a chemical feedstock in the production of other products.

Atabay, K.; Baldassari, M.; Thibeault, P.R.

1981-01-01

111

CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID-BED PROCESS FOR SULPHUR REMOVAL DURING GASIFICATION OF HEAVY FUEL OIL - THIRD PHASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the third phase of studies on the CAFB process for desulfurization/gasification of heavy fuel oil in a bed of hot lime. Major conclusions relating to process performance and operability are: (1) water, either in the fuel or in the fluidizing air, has a strong...

112

Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

Kohl, A.L.

1980-05-01

113

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1991-09-01

114

Texaco cranks up new tank cars and TOPS program in concerted LPG push  

SciTech Connect

Texaco has embarked upon two major, yet distinct, projects that should have a significant impact on propane shipping, supply, pricing, and contractual relationships. The first program involves Texaco's expanded tank car leasing arrangements that should broaden the company's railroad transportation capability. The second program, which was unveiled at the NPGA Convention in Nashville, is known as TOPS (Texaco Optimum Propane supply). It is designed to solidify contractual relationships while providing reassurance against a repetition of last winter's supply/price crunch. In this article, both programs are explored.

Prowler, S.

1990-08-01

115

Gasification system  

DOEpatents

A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA); Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA); Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA)

1983-01-01

116

Gasification system  

DOEpatents

A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA); Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA); Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA)

1985-01-01

117

Advanced coal-gasification technical analyses. Appendix 1: technology reviews. Final report, December 1982-September 1985  

SciTech Connect

This document is a result of KRSI's activities to support the GRI/Advisors Committee thru the duration of the contract. It provides an overview of the gasification, shift/methanation, acid-gas removal, and sulfur-recovery technologies for use in coal-to SNG plant design. For selected processes in each technology area, Status Summary reports are presented. The non-proprietary information contained in these reports was utilized to assess the characteristics, efficiencies, and other performance variables of each process relative to criteria developed for each ssess the characteristics, efficiencies and other performance variables of each process relative to criteria developed for each technology area. The results of the assessment are presented in tables that can be utilized for selection of a process best suited for a given application. In the coal-gasification area, status summaries were prepared for Lurgi, GKT, Texaco, BGC/Lurgi, Westinghouse (now KRW), Exxon CCG, Shell and U-Gas processes. The Conventional Shift/Methanation, Combined Shift/Methanation, Direct Methanation and Comflux Methanation processes were selected for review of shift/methanation technology. In the acid-gas-removal technology area, evaluation of Selexol, Rectisol, Benfield and CNG processes is presented. For the sulfur-recovery technology area, Claus, Amoco Direct Oxidation, LO-CAT, Selectox, Stretford and Unisulf processes, were selected for assessment.

Cover, A.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Jain, S.K.; Shah, K.V.

1986-01-01

118

Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1996-08-01

119

Wastewater treatment manual for coal gasification-combined-cycle power plants  

SciTech Connect

The three-volume Wastewater Treatment Manual for GCC Power Plants presents a programmed methodology for the informed user to conceive and develop, size, and cost a wastewater treatment system for the gasification and gas cleanup areas of an integrated gasification-combined cycle (GCC) power plant. Based on the limited information likely to be available at the conceptual level of GCC project development (e.g., gasifier type and coal analysis), the manual first provides information on how to characterize gasification wastewaters from moving-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes. It then provides information on applicable wastewater discharge standards and effluent reuse criteria as a means of establishing the treatment system performance goals. Given these data, the user is guided through a series of worksheets and examples in the development of one or more conceptual-level process flowsheets for an appropriate wastewater treatment system. Detailed information is provided for 28 wastewater treatment processes that may have applicability in a variety of flowsheet configurations. Another series of worksheets allows the calculation of flow and material balances that permit the conceptual-level sizing of treatment equipment. Order-of-magnitude capital and operating costs are calculated from cost curves based on these sizing criteria. Worksheets also are provided for the calculation of levelized revenue requirements, which affords a relatively fast and easy means by which to compare the costs of alternative process flowsheets. Two annotated examples are provided for the Texaco and Shell gasiflcation processes as a means of fully conveying the manual's methodology. Each example illustrates the characterization of wastewater sources, the development of a treatment process flowsheet, sizing of the necessary equipment, and the development of cost estimates.

Rosain, R.M.; Davis, M.W.; York, R.J.; Craveiro de Sa, F.A.; Peterson, D.L.; Eis, B.J. (CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA (United States))

1992-12-01

120

Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ˘/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit operations, utilizing high sulfidity green liquor pretreatment, PSAQ with auto-causticization, or converting the process to mini-sulfide sulfite-AQ.

Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

121

CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID-BED PROCESS FOR SULPHUR REMOVAL DURING GASIFICATION OF HEAVY FUEL OIL - FOURTH PHASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of Phase 4 of a study on the CAFB process for gasification/desulfurization of liquid and solid fuels in a bed of hot lime. A new pilot unit was designed and constructed, incorporating such novel features as: a new fluidizing air distributor, high-flow/low...

122

CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID-BED PROCESS FOR SULPHUR REMOVAL DURING GASIFICATION OF HEAVY FUEL OIL - SECOND PHASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the second phase of studies on the CAFB process for desulfurizing gasification of heavy fuel oil in a bed of hot lime. The first continuous pilot plant test with U.S. limestone BCR 1691 experienced local stone sintering and severe production of sticky dust du...

123

Process modeling and supply chain design for advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a potential substitute for petroleum-based fuel, second generation biofuels are playing an increasingly important role due to their economic, environmental, and social benefits. With the rapid development of biofuel industry, there has been an increasing literature on the techno-economic analysis and supply chain design for biofuel production based on a variety of production pathways. A recently proposed production pathway of advanced biofuel is to convert biomass to bio-oil at widely distributed small-scale fast pyrolysis plants, then gasify the bio-oil to syngas and upgrade the syngas to transportation fuels in centralized biorefinery. This thesis aims to investigate two types of assessments on this bio-oil gasification pathway: techno-economic analysis based on process modeling and literature data; supply chain design with a focus on optimal decisions for number of facilities to build, facility capacities and logistic decisions considering uncertainties. A detailed process modeling with corn stover as feedstock and liquid fuels as the final products is presented. Techno-economic analysis of the bio-oil gasification pathway is also discussed to assess the economic feasibility. Some preliminary results show a capital investment of 438 million dollar and minimum fuel selling price (MSP) of $5.6 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. The sensitivity analysis finds that MSP is most sensitive to internal rate of return (IRR), biomass feedstock cost, and fixed capital cost. A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to solve the supply chain design problem considering uncertainties in biomass availability, technology advancement, and biofuel price. The first-stage makes the capital investment decisions including the locations and capacities of the decentralized fast pyrolysis plants and the centralized biorefinery while the second-stage determines the biomass and biofuel flows. The numerical results and case study illustrate that considering uncertainties can be pivotal in this supply chain design and optimization problem. Also, farmers' participation has a significant effect on the decision making process.

Li, Qi

124

Integrated coal gasification combined cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Features of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants are described against the backdrop of the development and first commercial application of the shell coal gasification process. Focus is on the efficiency and excellent environmental performance of the integrated coal gasification combined power plants. Current IGCC projects are given together with an outline of some of the options for integrating coal gasification with combined cycles and also other applications of synthesis gas.

Richards, P. C.; Wijffels, J.-B.; Zuideveld, P. L.

125

Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology  

SciTech Connect

NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

Gary Stiegel

2008-03-26

126

Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology  

ScienceCinema

NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

Gary Stiegel

2010-01-08

127

Brazing as a Means of Sealing Ceramic Membranes for use in Advanced Coal Gasification Processes  

SciTech Connect

Coal is potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Rice, Joseph P.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.

2006-01-02

128

Brazing as a Means of Sealing Ceramic Membranes for Use in Advanced Coal Gasification Processes  

SciTech Connect

Coal is a potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Rice, Joseph P.; Kim, Jin Yong

2006-01-31

129

Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Topical report, Process analysis, FY 1983  

SciTech Connect

KRW Energy Systems, Inc., is engaged in the continuing development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally-acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized carbonaceous feedstocks and industrial fuels. This report presents process analysis of the 24 ton-per-day Process Development Unit (PDU) operations and is a continuation of the process analysis work performed in 1980 and 1981. Included is work performed on PDU process data; gasification; char-ash separation; ash agglomeration; fines carryover, recycle, and consumption; deposit formation; materials; and environmental, health, and safety issues. 63 figs., 43 tabs.

None

1987-07-31

130

Fluidized-bed catalytic coal-gasification process. [US patent; pretreatment to minimize agglomeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 vol % and 21 vol % oxygen at a temperature between 50 and 250°C in an oxidation zone and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone at an elevated pressure. The oxidation

C. A. Jr. Euker; R. D. Wesselhoft; J. J. Dunkleman; D. C. Aquino; T. R. Gouker

1981-01-01

131

ANALYSES OF GRAB SAMPLES FROM FIXED-BED COAL GASIFICATION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an analytical screening of selected effluent samples from operating coal gasification units. The work was done to aid in planning for future more comprehensive environmental test programs which will be conducted at gasification units both in the U.S. a...

132

Hydrothermal gasification of waste biomass: process design and life cycle asessment.  

PubMed

A process evaluation methodology is presented that incorporates flowsheet mass and energy balance modeling, heat and power integration, and life cycle assessment Environmental impacts are determined by characterizing and weighting (using CO2 equivalents, Eco-indicator 99, and Eco-scarcity) the flowsheet and inventory modeling results. The methodology is applied to a waste biomass to synthetic natural gas (SNG) conversion process involving a catalytic hydrothermal gasification step. Several scenarios are constructed for different Swiss biomass feedstocks and different scales depending on logistical choices: large-scale (155 MW(SNG)) and small-scale (5.2 MW(SNG)) scenarios for a manure feedstock and one scenario (35.6 MW(SNG))for a wood feedstock. Process modeling shows that 62% of the manure's lower heating value (LHV) is converted to SNG and 71% of wood's LHV is converted to SNG. Life cycle modeling shows that, for all processes, about 10% of fossil energy use is imbedded in the produced renewable SNG. Converting manure and replacing it, as a fertilizer, with the process mineral byproduct leads to reduced N20 emissions and an improved environmental performance such as global warming potential: -0.6 kg(CO2eq)/MJ(SNG) vs. -0.02 kg(CO2eq)/MJ(SNG) for wood scenarios. PMID:19350938

Luterbacher, Jeremy S; Fröling, Morgan; Vogel, Frederic; Maréchal, François; Tester, Jefferson W

2009-03-01

133

NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work performed, accomplishments and conclusion obtained from the project entitled ''Novel Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation in Gasification Processes in Vision 21 Energy Plants'' under the United States Department of Energy Contract DE-FC26-01NT40973. ITN Energy Systems was the prime contractor. Team members included: the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory; Nexant Consulting; Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair. The objective of the program was to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The separation technology module is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. The program developed and evaluated composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules were fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed Ion Conducting Ceramic Membrane (ICCM) approach, including system integration issues, were also assessed. This resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of integration schemes of ICCM hydrogen separation technology within Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Several results and conclusion were obtained during this program. In the area of materials synthesis, novel pyrochlore-based proton conductors were identified, synthesized and characterized. They exhibited conductivity as high as 0.03 S/cm at 900 C. Long-term stability under CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} atmospheres was also demonstrated. In the area of membrane fabrication by plasma spray processing, the initial results showed that the pyrochlore materials could be processed in a spray torch. Although leak-tight membranes were obtained, cracking, most likely due to differences in thermal expansion, remained a problem. More modeling and experimental work can be used to solve this problem. Finally the techno-economic analyses showed that the ITN ICCM approach for separating H{sub 2} is comparable to conventional pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technology in efficiency and economics. Enhanced membrane flux and lower operating temperatures may make the ICCM approach superior to PSA.

Michael Schwartz

2004-12-01

134

Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER = 0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV = 3.15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950 Degree-Sign C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream.

Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Karel, E-mail: svoboda@icpf.cas.cz [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri [D.S.K. Ltd., Ujezdecek - Dukla 264, 415 01 Teplice I (Czech Republic); Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr [Dept. of Gas, Coke and Air protection, Institute of Chemical Technol., Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2012-04-15

135

Fluidized-bed catalytic coal-gasification process. [US patent; pretreatment to minimize agglomeration  

DOEpatents

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 vol % and 21 vol % oxygen at a temperature between 50 and 250/sup 0/C in an oxidation zone and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

Euker, C.A. Jr.; Wesselhoft, R.D.; Dunkleman, J.J.; Aquino, D.C.; Gouker, T.R.

1981-09-14

136

Optimization of Biomass Gasification Process for F-T Bio-Diesel Synthesys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of biomass steam gasification were investigated to make an optimum syngas for Fischer Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of bio-diesel. Korean pine wood chip was used as a fuel and the experiment was conducted in a lab scale bubbling fluidized bed (0.1m LD. x 3.Omheight). Gas composition was evaluated by changing operating parameters such as gasifier temperature, and steam to fuel ratio. Major syngas was monitored by on-line gas analyzer (ND-IR spectroscopy) and gas chromatography (GC). As the temperature of gasifier increases hydrogen in the syngas increases while CO in the product gas decreases. The low concentration of sulfur compound and nitrogen in the product gas shows the potential advantages in the purification process of the syngas for F-T process. Optimum operating condition of the gasifier was found concerning the following gas cleaning and F-T process; H2-CO ratio and total gas yield increase while decreasing methane and CO2 concentrations in the syngas.

Song, Jae Hun; Sung, Yeon Kyung; Yu, Tae U.; Choi, Young Tae; Lee, Uen Do

137

Gasification Technologie: Opportunities & Challenges  

SciTech Connect

This course has been put together to provide a single source document that not only reviews the historical development of gasification but also compares the process to combustion. It also provides a short discussion on integrated gasification and combined cycle processes. The major focus of the course is to describe the twelve major gasifiers being developed today. The hydrodynamics and kinetics of each are reviewed along with the most likely gas composition from each of the technologies when using a variety of fuels under different conditions from air blown to oxygen blown and atmospheric pressure to several atmospheres. If time permits, a more detailed discussion of low temperature gasification will be included.

Breault, R.

2012-01-01

138

Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

Wiser, W. H.

1980-09-01

139

Exxon catalytic coal gasification process predevelopment program. Monthly report, December, 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solids analyses for all FBG yield periods have been completed. The off-line material balance computer program has been used to reconcile the data from 11 of the 18 FBG yield periods. Bench scale fixed bed gasification studies indicated that KOH is equivalent to KâCOâ as a gasification catalyst. However, KâS shows lower catalytic activity than KâCOâ. Also, Wyodak coal catalyzed

Nahas

1978-01-01

140

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems  

SciTech Connect

This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

1991-09-01

141

Scale-up requirements of the Exxon catalytic coal gasification process. Monthly report, September 1September 30, 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

As reported in previous Monthly Summaries, the size of the grass-roots large pilot plant for the Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process was set to allow scaleup to a pioneer commercial plant with acceptable risk (no demonstration plant). It was determined that the gasifier diameter should be 3.5' I.D., and that the feed rate of Illinois Bituminous Coal would be 92

1978-01-01

142

1170MW(t) HTGR-PS\\/C plant application study report: Exxon catalytic coal gasification process application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes a study to apply the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor - process steam\\/cogeneration (HTGR-PS\\/C) to Exxon catalytic coal gasification. The industry is currently strongly interested in developing and commercializing plants producing liquid and gaseous synthetic fuels derived from coal, based on the national objective to reduce foreign oil imports and to use the abundant US coal. Exxon catalytic coal

R. Rao; A. T. Jr. McMain; D. D. Peterman

1981-01-01

143

Novel Low-Cost Process for the Gasification of Biomass and Low-Rank Coals  

SciTech Connect

Farm Energy envisaged a phased demonstration program, in which a pilot-scale straw gasifier will be installed on a farm. The synthesis gas product will be used to initially (i) generate electricity in a 300 kW diesel generator, and subsequently (ii) used as a feedstock to produce ethanol or mixed alcohols. They were seeking straw gasification and alcohol synthesis technologies that may be implemented on farm-scale. The consortium, along with the USDA ARS station in Corvallis, OR, expressed interest in the dual-bed gasification concept promoted by WRI and Taylor Energy, LLC. This process operated at atmospheric pressure and employed a solids-circulation type oxidation/reduction cycle significantly different from traditional fluidized-bed or up-draft type gasification reactors. The objectives of this project were to perform bench-scale testing to determine technical feasibility of gasifier concept, to characterize the syngas product, and to determine the optimal operating conditions and configuration. We used the bench-scale test data to complete a preliminary design and cost estimate for a 1-2 ton per hour pilot-scale unit that is also appropriate for on-farm scale applications. The gasifier configuration with the 0.375-inch stainless steel balls recirculating media worked consistently and for periods up to six hours of grass feed. The other principle systems like the boiler, the air pump, and feeder device also worked consistently during all feeding operations. Minor hiccups during operation tended to come from secondary systems like the flare or flammable material buildup in the exit piping. Although we did not complete the extended hour tests to 24 or 48 hours due to time and budget constraints, we developed the confidence that the gasifier in its current configuration could handle those tests. At the modest temperatures we operated the gasifier, slagging was not a problem. The solid wastes were dry and low density. The majority of the fixed carbon from the grass ended up in the solid waste collected in the external cyclone. The volatiles were almost all removed in the gasifier. While the average gas heating value of the collected gas products was 50 BTUs/scf or less, addition a of the second gas exit for combustion gases would increase that value by a factor of two or three. Other changes to the current design such as shortening the gasifier body and draft tube would lead to lower air use and shorter heating times. There was no evidence of steam reforming at the current operating temperature. Likewise there was no indication of significant tar production. Reconfiguration of the gasifier at the on farm site may yet yield more significant results that would better qualify this gasifier for small scale biomass operations.

Thomas Barton

2009-03-05

144

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products  

SciTech Connect

During this quarter the work on Task 3, char upgrading, was in two areas; upgrading Penelec char made from Penelec filter cake to blast furnace formed coke, and evaluating various bituminous pitch binders. The formed coke from Penelec filter cake was of good quality with a high crush strength of 3000 pounds. The reactivity was not equal to that of conventional coke but it is felt that it could be made to equal conventional coke with further study, specifically by adding binder coal to the raw material recipe. The work evaluating bituminous pitch binders confirmed earlier thinking that will be valuable to a commercial scale-up. Asphalt binders are compatible with coal tar binders and produce a coke of equal quality. Hence asphalt binders can be used to supply deficiencies of tar production in units employing coals with insufficient volatile matter to supply enough tar for the coking process. Asphalt binders have about a 50% savings from coal tar pitch. During the 4th Quarter of 1991, a total of 15 Continuous Mild Gasification Unit (CMGU) test runs were made. Efforts continued to determine the optimum forward/reverse ratio to maximize coal feed rate. The success of these efforts has been limited with a maximum coal feed rate of 400 lbs/hr obtainable with a caking coal. The handicap of not having screw shaft heaters cannot be overcome by adjustment of the forward/reverse ratio.

O'Neal, G.W.

1991-01-01

145

The water footprint of biofuel produced from forest wood residue via a mixed alcohol gasification process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest residue has been proposed as a feasible candidate for cellulosic biofuels. However, the number of studies assessing its water use remains limited. This work aims to analyze the impacts of forest-based biofuel on water resources and quality by using a water footprint approach. A method established here is tailored to the production system, which includes softwood, hardwood, and short-rotation woody crops. The method is then applied to selected areas in the southeastern region of the United States to quantify the county-level water footprint of the biofuel produced via a mixed alcohol gasification process, under several logistic systems, and at various refinery scales. The results indicate that the blue water sourced from surface or groundwater is minimal, at 2.4 liters per liter of biofuel (l/l). The regional-average green water (rainfall) footprint falls between 400 and 443 l/l. The biofuel pathway appears to have a low nitrogen grey water footprint averaging 25 l/l at the regional level, indicating minimal impacts on water quality. Feedstock mix plays a key role in determining the magnitude and the spatial distribution of the water footprint in these regions. Compared with other potential feedstock, forest wood residue shows promise with its low blue and grey water footprint.

Chiu, Yi-Wen; Wu, May

2013-09-01

146

Assessment of integrated gasification combined cycle power generation  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a comparative study of various selected technologies for coal-fired electric power generation with emphasis on the generation of power using the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Concept. All of the power plant conceptual designs were prepared as grassroots plants with a nominal output of 500 MWe, located in the east-central region of the United States. The designs were based upon a uniform set of design, performance, economic criteria and a 1990 state-of-the-art reference frame. Three IGCC power plant concepts were studied (Texaco, BGC/Lurgi, and Westinghouse gasification processes) and compared with conventional pulverized coal-fired power plants. Each of the IGCC plant concepts were designed to produce a medium-Btu fuel gas which was treated in a SELEXOL processing facility to remove sulfur from the fuel gas in order to meet NSPS SO/sub 2/ emission control requirements. The IGCC power generation facilities for each concept used advanced gas turbines with a rotor inlet temperature of 2150/sup 0/F. Conventional heat recovery steam generators produced high pressure superheated steam which was expanded through a non-reheat steam turbine exhausting to a conventional condenser. The basic designs, estimated performance, and economics for the IGCC plants are presented for both eastern and western coals with varying sulfur removals and are compared with conventional power plants of the same outputs. A consistent set of technical and economic ground rules was employed in making the comparisons. Each of the base case concepts that were studied were found to be cost competitive under the economic ground rules. 8 figures, 12 tables.

Huber, D.A.; Kirk, R.J.; Pietruszkiewicz, J.; Smith, R.S.

1983-01-01

147

''An assessment of integrated gasification combined cycle power generation''  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a comparative study of various selected technologies for coal-fired electric power generation with emphasis on the generation of power using the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Concept. This study was managed by Argonne National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Coal Utilization. All of the power plant conceptual designs were prepared as grassroots plants with a nominal output of 500 MWe, located in the east-central region of the United States. The designs were based upon a uniform set of design, performance, economic criteria and a 1990 state-of-the-art reference frame. Three IGCC power plant concepts were studied (Texaco, BGC/Lurgi, and Westinghouse gasification processes) and compared with conventional pulverized coal-fired power plants. Each of the IGCC plant concepts were designed to produce a medium-Btu fuel gas which was treated in a SELEXOL processing facility to remove sulfur from the fuel gas in order to meet NSPS SO/sub 2/ emission control requirements. The IGCC power generation facilities for each concept used advanced gas turbines with a rotor inlet temperature of 2,150/sup 0/F. Conventional heat recovery steam generators produced high pressure superheated steam which was expanded through a non-reheat steam turbine exhausting to a conventional condenser. The basic designs, estimated performance, and economics for the IGCC plants are presented for both eastern and western coals with varying sulfur removals and are compared with conventional power plants of the same outputs. A consistent set of technical and economic ground rules was employed in making the comparisons. Each of the base case concepts that were studied were found to be cost competitive under the economic ground rules.

Hauber, D.A.; Kirk, R.J.; Pietruszkiewicz, J.; Smith, R.S.

1983-11-01

148

Phase-equilibria for design of coal-gasification processes: dew points of hot gases containing condensible tars. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This research is concerned with the fundamental physical chemistry and thermodynamics of condensation of tars (dew points) from the vapor phase at advanced temperatures and pressures. Fundamental quantitative understanding of dew points is important for rational design of heat exchangers to recover sensible heat from hot, tar-containing gases that are produced in coal gasification. This report includes essentially six contributions toward establishing the desired understanding: (1) Characterization of Coal Tars for Dew-Point Calculations; (2) Fugacity Coefficients for Dew-Point Calculations in Coal-Gasification Process Design; (3) Vapor Pressures of High-Molecular-Weight Hydrocarbons; (4) Estimation of Vapor Pressures of High-Boiling Fractions in Liquefied Fossil Fuels Containing Heteroatoms Nitrogen or Sulfur; and (5) Vapor Pressures of Heavy Liquid Hydrocarbons by a Group-Contribution Method.

Prausnitz, J.M.

1980-05-01

149

Fluid bed gasification--plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: experimental assessment of sulphur species.  

PubMed

Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO2 and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO2's generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO2 was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO2 generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS--hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling. PMID:24176239

Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Taylor, Richard

2014-01-01

150

Chemical Processing in High-Pressure Aqueous Environments. 9. Process Development for Catalytic Gasification of Algae Feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

Through the use of a metal catalyst, gasification of wet algae slurries can be accomplished with high levels of carbon conversion to gas at relatively low temperature (350 C). In a pressurized-water environment (20 MPa), near-total conversion of the organic structure of the algae to gases has been achieved in the presence of a supported ruthenium metal catalyst. The process is essentially steam reforming, as there is no added oxidizer or reagent other than water. In addition, the gas produced is a medium-heating value gas due to the synthesis of high levels of methane, as dictated by thermodynamic equilibrium. As opposed to earlier work, biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties in the fixed catalyst bed tubular reactor system. As a result, the algae feedstocks, even those with high ash contents, were much more reliably processed. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations. Consistent catalyst operation in these short-term tests suggested good stability and minimal poisoning effects. High methane content in the product gas was noted with significant carbon dioxide captured in the aqueous byproduct in combination with alkali constituents and the ammonia byproduct derived from proteins in the algae. High conversion of algae to gas products was found with low levels of byproduct water contamination and low to moderate loss of carbon in the mineral separation step.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.

2012-07-26

151

Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 3: Gasification, process fuels, and balance of plant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of an investigation of gasification and clean fuels from coal. Factors discussed include: coal and coal transportation costs; clean liquid and gas fuel process efficiencies and costs; and cost, performance, and environmental intrusion elements of the integrated low-Btu coal gasification system. Cost estimates for the balance-of-plant requirements associated with advanced energy conversion systems utilizing coal or coal-derived fuels are included.

Boothe, W. A.; Corman, J. C.; Johnson, G. G.; Cassel, T. A. V.

1976-01-01

152

An evaluaton of integrated-gasification-combined-cycle and pulverized-coal-fired steam plants: Volume 2, Sensitivity studies and appendixes: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Electric Power Research Institute contracted with Bechtel Group, Inc., to provide an evaluation of the performance and costs for a Texaco-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant as compared to a conventional pulverized coal-fired steam (PCFS) power plant with flue gas desulfurization (FGD). A general set of groundrules was used within which each plant design was optimized. The

J. Pietruszkiewicz; R. J. Milkavich; G. S. Booras; G. O. Thomas; H. Doss

1988-01-01

153

Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Progress report, February 21, 1992--May 20, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The work performed during the second quarterly reporting period (February 21 through May 20, 1992) on the research program, ``Scale-Up of Mild Gasification to a Process Development Unit`` is presented in this report. The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: (1) design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup. (2) obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation. (3) prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit. (4) develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300{degrees}F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The PDU to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of char, coal liquids, and gases; a thermal cracker for upgrading of the coal liquids; and a hot briquetting unit for the production of form coke and smokeless fuel briquettes. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Foster, H.

1992-06-01

154

Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feasibility analyses and systems engineering studies for a 20,000 tons per day medium Btu (MBG) coal gasification plant to be built by TVA in Northern Alabama were conducted. Major objectives were as follows: (1) provide design and cost data to support the selection of a gasifier technology and other major plant design parameters, (2) provide design and cost data to support alternate product evaluation, (3) prepare a technology development plan to address areas of high technical risk, and (4) develop schedules, PERT charts, and a work breakdown structure to aid in preliminary project planning. Volume one contains a summary of gasification system characterizations. Five gasification technologies were selected for evaluation: Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Lurgi Dry Ash, Slagging Lurgi, and Babcock and Wilcox. A summary of the trade studies and cost sensitivity analysis is included.

1980-01-01

155

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products  

SciTech Connect

Prior to disassembly of the CFBR, accumulated tar residue must be removed from the reactor, piping and tubing lines, and the condenser vessels. Based on experience from the CFBR mild gasification tests, lacquer thinner must be pumped through the unit for at least one hour to remove the residual tar. The lacquer thinner wash may be followed by a water wash. The CFBR will be disassembled after the system has been thoroughly flushed out. The following equipment must be disassembled and removed for storage: Superheater; Water supply pump; Coal feed system (hopper, auger, ball feeder, valves); Reactor; Cyclone and fines catch pot; Condensers (water lines, glycol bath, condenser pots, valves); and Gas meter. After the process piping and reactor have been disassembled, the equipment will be inspected for tar residues and flushed again with acetone or lacquer thinner, if necessary. All solvent used for cleaning the system will be collected for recycle or proper disposal. Handling and disposal of the solvent will be properly documented. The equipment will be removed and stored for future use. Equipment contaminated externally with tar (Level 4) will be washed piece by piece with lacquer thinner after disassembly of the PRU. Proper health and safety practices must be followed by the personnel involved in the cleanup operation. Care must be taken to avoid ingestion, inhalation, or prolonged skin contact of the coal tars and lacquer thinner. Equipment contaminated internally by accumulation of residual tar or oil (Level 5) will be flushed section by section with lacquer thinner. The equipment will be washed with solvent both before and after disassembly to ensure that all tar has been removed from the piping, pumps, gas quench condensers, light tar condensers, and drain lines. The coal tars wig be separated from the solvent and incinerated.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Li, Y.; Heidt, M.

1992-09-01

156

Process simulation of biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell stack  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (BG-SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) systems are of major interest in the context of climate change mitigation, energy security and increasing energy efficiency. Aspen Plus is employed to simulate various BG-SOFC CHP systems. The aim of the research work is to investigate the technical feasibility of these systems and to study the influence of important operating parameters and examine integration options. Systems based on dual fluidised bed steam gasification and tubular SOFC technologies are modelled. The cathode recycle and electric heater integration options are not attractive in comparison to the base case anode recycle system. Thermal integration, i.e. using SOFC flue gas as gasifier oxidant, is desirable. Lowering the syngas preheat temperature (prior to SOFC anodes) is highly recommended and is more practical than lowering the cathode air preheat temperature. Results of the parametric study indicate that: steam to carbon ratio and biomass moisture content should be as low as possible; fuel utilisation factor can change the mode of operation of the plant (focus on electricity or heat); high temperature syngas cleaning is very attractive; gasification air preheating is more attractive than gasification steam superheating. High efficiencies are predicted, proving the technical feasibility of BG-SOFC CHP systems.

Doherty, Wayne; Reynolds, Anthony; Kennedy, David

2015-03-01

157

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for gasification integrated power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50+% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with the Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but direct test data from coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This research effort evaluates

Gregory A. Hackett; Kirk R. Gerdes; Xueyan Song; Yun Chen; V. Shutthanandan; Mark H. Engelhard; Zihua Zhu; Suntharampillai Thevuthasan; Randall Gemmen

2012-01-01

158

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operaated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are being developed for integrated gasification power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but test data from direct coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This effort evaluates the significance of

G. Hackett; K. Gerdes; X. Song; Y. Chen; V. Shutthanandan; M. Englehard; Z. Zhu; S. Thevuthasan; R. Gemmen

2012-01-01

159

Exergy analysis of biomass-to-synthetic natural gas (SNG) process via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an exergy analysis of SNG production via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock, including virgin (woody) biomass as well as waste biomass (municipal solid waste and sludge). In indirect gasification heat needed for endothermic gasification reactions is produced by burning char in a separate combustion section of the gasifier and subsequently the heat is transferred to the

Caecilia R. Vitasari; Martin Jurascik; Krzysztof J. Ptasinski

2011-01-01

160

Pressure-swinging underground gasification. Theoretical and experimental investigations of gasification, phase 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation experiments were run in order to determine the form of the combustion front, the combustion front velocity, the different type of gases liberated, the effect on quality of steam\\/oxygen ratio, the efficiency of gasification process, and data for regulating and conducting from the surface the channel gasification process. The simulation of the channel gasification process was performed in coal

M. Mohtadi; P. Breidung; F. Fuhrmann; K. Guntermann; M. Kurth; M. Paersch; G. Ropertz; G. Subklew

1982-01-01

161

Understanding of phenolic-compound production in coal-gasification processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this report is to delineate the relationships that govern the production of phenols during coal gasification. Experimental efforts include: (1) bench-scale investigation of the decomposition characteristics of select phenolic compounds in the homogeneous gas phase and over fixed beds of coal char and limestone-derived solids; (2) PDU-scale experimentation on the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center's Synthane PDU gasifier

Fillo

1979-01-01

162

Performance of a semi-industrial scale gasification process for the destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls.  

PubMed

A semi-industrial scale test was conducted to thermally treat mixtures of spent oil and askarels at a concentration of 50,000 ppm and 100,000 ppm of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) under a reductive atmosphere. In average, the dry-basis composition of the synthesis gas (syngas) obtained from the gasification process was: hydrogen 46%, CO 34%, CO2 18%, and CH4 0.8%. PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) in the gas stream were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry. The coplanar PCBs congeners 77, 105, 118, 156/ 157, and 167 were detected in the syngas at concentrations < 2 x 10(-7) mg/m3 (at 298 K, 1 atm, dry basis, 7% O2). The chlorine released in the destruction of the PCBs was transformed to hydrogen chloride and separated from the gas by an alkaline wet scrubber. The concentration of PCBs in the water leaving the scrubber was below the detection limit of 0.002 mg/L, whereas the destruction and removal efficiency was > 99.9999% for both tests conducted. The concentration of PCDDs/PCDFs in the syngas were 8.1 x 10(-6) ng-toxic equivalent (TEQ)/m3 and 7.1 x 10(-6) ng-TEQ/m3 (at 298 K, 1 atm, dry basis, 7% O2) for the tests at 50,000 ppm and 100,000 ppm PCBs, respectively. The only PCDD/F congener detected in the gas was the octachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin, which has a toxic equivalent factor of 0.001. The results obtained for other pollutants (e.g., metals and particulate matter) meet the maximum allowed emission limits according to Mexican, U.S., and European regulations for the thermal treatment of hazardous waste (excluding CO, which is a major component of the syngas, and total hydrocarbons, which mainly represent the presence of CH4). PMID:17117746

Mendoza, Alberto; Caballero, Porfirio; Villarreal, Juan A; Viramontes, Ricardo

2006-11-01

163

Two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process for solid waste valorisation: technical review and preliminary thermodynamic modelling of sulphur emissions.  

PubMed

Gasification of solid waste for energy has significant potential given an abundant feed supply and strong policy drivers. Nonetheless, significant ambiguities in the knowledge base are apparent. Consequently this study investigates sulphur mechanisms within a novel two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process. This paper includes a detailed review of gasification and plasma fundamentals in relation to the specific process, along with insight on MSW based feedstock properties and sulphur pollutant therein. As a first step to understanding sulphur partitioning and speciation within the process, thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage has been performed. Preliminary findings, supported by plant experience, indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur species (as opposed to H(2)S) - Na and K based species in particular. Work is underway to further investigate and validate this. PMID:21982278

Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Mazzei, Luca

2012-04-01

164

Synthesis gas production with an adjustable H{sub 2}/CO ratio through the coal gasification process: effects of coal ranks and methane addition  

SciTech Connect

Direct production of synthesis gas using coal as a cheap feedstock is attractive but challenging due to its low H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas. Three typical U.S. coals of different ranks were tested in a 2.5 in. coal gasifier to investigate their gasification reactivity and adjustability on H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas with or without the addition of methane. Tests indicated that lower-rank coals (lignite and sub-bituminous) have higher gasification reactivity than bituminous coals. The coal gasification reactivity is correlated to its synthesis-gas yield and the total percentage of H{sub 2} and CO in the synthesis gas, but not to the H{sub 2}/CO ratio. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio of coal gasification was found to be correlated to the rank of coals, especially the H/C ratio of coals. Methane addition into the dense phase of the pyrolysis and gasification zone of the cogasification reactor could make the best use of methane in adjusting the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the generated synthesis gas. The maximum methane conversion efficiency, which was likely correlated to its gasification reactivity, could be achieved by 70% on average for all tested coals. The actual catalytic effect of generated coal chars on methane conversion seemed coal-dependent. The coal-gasification process benefits from methane addition and subsequent conversion on the adjustment of the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of synthesis gas. The methane conversion process benefits from the use of coal chars due to their catalytic effects. This implies that there were likely synergistic effects on both. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3

Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jing Jin; Hongchang Zhou; Marten Cohron; Houying Zhao; Hongying Liu; Weiping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

2008-05-15

165

Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

1982-06-01

166

Molten salt coal gasification process development unit, Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, July-September 1980  

SciTech Connect

This represents the first quarterly progress report on Phase 2 of the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit (PDU) Program. Phase 1 of this program started in March 1976 and included the design, construction, and initial operation of a PDU to test the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process. On July 24, 1980, Phase 2 of the program was initiated. It covers a 1-year operations program utilizing the existing PDU and is planned to include five runs with a targeted total operating time of 9 weeks. The primary activities during the period covered by this report related to preparations for PDU Run 6, the initial run of the Phase 2 program. These activities included restaffing the PDU operations group, reactivation of the facility, and effecting plant modifications and improvements based on an evaluation of previous operation experience. The Melt Withdrawal System which had proven unreliable during the previous runs, was completely redesigned; thermal and flow analyses were performed; new components procured; and assembly initiated. Run 6 which is scheduled for the next report period, is aimed primarily at verifying the adequacy of the redesigned Melt Withdrawal System.

Slater, M.H.

1980-10-01

167

Techno-economic assessment of gasification as a process step within biomass-to-liquid (BtL) fuel and chemicals production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the gasification process step which converts a biomass derived intermediate called slurry into synthesis gas (syngas) for subsequent synthesis of fuel and chemicals. The slurry is produced by fast pyrolysis plants and is then processed in a pressurized entrained flow gasifier. The resulting syngas has to be conditioned and cleaned before it is converted in a Fischer–Tropsch

Frederik Trippe; Magnus Fröhling; Frank Schultmann; Ralph Stahl; Edmund Henrich

2011-01-01

168

Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation and biological process.  

PubMed

Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW) was investigated employing heterogeneous catalytic ozonation integrated with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process. The results indicated that catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalyst (i.e. MnOx/SBAC, sewage sludge was converted into sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded manganese oxides) significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal by generated hydroxyl radicals. The effluent of catalytic ozonation process was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. Meanwhile, ANMBBR-BAF showed efficient capacity of pollutants removal in treatment of the effluent of catalytic ozonation at a shorter reaction time, allowing the discharge limits to be met. Therefore, the integrated process with efficient, economical and sustainable advantages was suitable for advanced treatment of real biologically pretreated CGW. PMID:24928270

Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Hou, Baolin; Zhao, Qian

2014-08-01

169

ASPEN simulation of a fixed-bed integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant  

SciTech Connect

A fixed-bed integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant has been modeled using the Advanced System for Process ENgineering (ASPEN). The ASPEN simulation is based on a conceptual design of a 509-MW IGCC power plant that uses British Gas Corporation (BGC)/Lurgi slagging gasifiers and the Lurgi acid gas removal process. The 39.3-percent thermal efficiency of the plant that was calculated by the simulation compares very favorably with the 39.4 percent that was reported by EPRI. The simulation addresses only thermal performance and does not calculate capital cost or process economics. Portions of the BGC-IGCC simulation flowsheet are based on the SLAGGER fixed-bed gasifier model (Stefano May 1985), and the Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) iGCC, and the Texaco-IGCC simulations (Stone July 1985) that were developed at the Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The simulation runs in 32 minutes of Central Processing Unit (CPU) time on the VAX-11/780. The BGC-IGCC simulation was developed to give accurate mass and energy balances and to track coal tars and environmental species such as SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ for a fixed-bed, coal-to-electricity system. This simulation is the third in a series of three IGCC simulations that represent fluidized-bed, entrained-flow, and fixed-bed gasification processes. Alternate process configurations can be considered by adding, deleting, or rearranging unit operation blocks. The gasifier model is semipredictive; it can properly respond to a limited range of coal types and gasifier operating conditions. However, some models in the flowsheet are based on correlations that were derived from the EPRI study, and are therefore limited to coal types and operating conditions that are reasonably close to those given in the EPRI design. 4 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Stone, K.R.

1986-03-01

170

The BTL2 process of biomass utilization entrained-flow gasification of pyrolyzed biomass slurries.  

PubMed

Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe has developed a concept for the utilization of cereal straw and other thin-walled biomass with high ash content. The concept consists of a regional step (drying, chopping, flash-pyrolysis, and mixing) and a central one (pressurized entrained-flow gasification, gas cleaning, synthesis of fuel, and production of byproducts). The purpose of the regional plant is to prepare the biomass by minimizing its volume and producing a stable and safe storage and transport form. In the central gasifier, the pyrolysis products are converted into syngas. The syngas is tar-free and can be used for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis after gas cleaning. PMID:16915637

Raffelt, Klaus; Henrich, Edmund; Koegel, Andrea; Stahl, Ralph; Steinhardt, Joachim; Weirich, Friedhelm

2006-01-01

171

Assessment of the chemical, microbiological and toxicological aspects of post-processing water from underground coal gasification.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive characterisation (including chemical, microbiological and toxicological parameters) of water after the underground coal gasification (UCG) process. This is the first report in which these parameters were analysed together to assess the environmental risk of the water generated during the simulation of the underground coal gasification (UCG) process performed by the Central Mining Institute (Poland). Chemical analysis of the water indicated many hazardous chemical compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Additionally, large quantities of inorganic compounds from the coal and ashes produced during the volatilisation process were noted. Due to the presence of refractory and inhibitory compounds in the post-processing water samples, the microbiological and toxicological analyses revealed the high toxicity of the UCG post-processing water. Among the tested microorganisms, mesophilic, thermophilic, psychrophilic, spore-forming, anaerobic and S-oxidizing bacteria were identified. However, the number of detected microorganisms was very low. The psychrophilic bacteria dominated among tested bacteria. There were no fungi or Actinomycetes in any of the water samples. Preliminary study revealed that hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria were metabolically active in the water samples. The samples were very toxic to the biotests, with the TU50 reaching 262. None of biotests was the most sensitive to all samples. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity testing of the water samples in Vicia uncovered strong cytotoxic and clastogenic effects. Furthermore, TUNEL indicated that all of the water samples caused sporadic DNA fragmentation in the nuclei of the roots. PMID:25108176

Pankiewicz-Sperka, Magdalena; Sta?czyk, Krzysztof; P?aza, Gra?yna A; Kwa?niewska, Jolanta; Na??cz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

2014-10-01

172

Two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process for solid waste valorisation: Technical review and preliminary thermodynamic modelling of sulphur emissions  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate sulphur during MSW gasification within a fluid bed-plasma process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We review the literature on the feed, sulphur and process principles therein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The need for research in this area was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We perform thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial findings indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur. - Abstract: Gasification of solid waste for energy has significant potential given an abundant feed supply and strong policy drivers. Nonetheless, significant ambiguities in the knowledge base are apparent. Consequently this study investigates sulphur mechanisms within a novel two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process. This paper includes a detailed review of gasification and plasma fundamentals in relation to the specific process, along with insight on MSW based feedstock properties and sulphur pollutant therein. As a first step to understanding sulphur partitioning and speciation within the process, thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage has been performed. Preliminary findings, supported by plant experience, indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur species (as opposed to H{sub 2}S) - Na and K based species in particular. Work is underway to further investigate and validate this.

Morrin, Shane, E-mail: shane.morrin@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Advanced Plasma Power, South Marston Business park, Swindon, SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Lettieri, Paola, E-mail: p.lettieri@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Chapman, Chris, E-mail: chris.chapman@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, South Marston Business park, Swindon, SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Mazzei, Luca, E-mail: l.mazzei@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

2012-04-15

173

Process aspects in combustion and gasification Waste-to-Energy (WtE) units.  

PubMed

The utilisation of energy in waste, Waste to Energy (WtE), has become increasingly important. Waste is a wide concept, and to focus, the feedstock dealt with here is mostly municipal solid waste. It is found that combustion in grate-fired furnaces is by far the most common mode of fuel conversion compared to fluidized beds and rotary furnaces. Combinations of pyrolysis in rotary furnace or gasification in fluidized or fixed bed with high-temperature combustion are applied particularly in Japan in systems whose purpose is to melt ashes and destroy dioxins. Recently, also in Japan more emphasis is put on WtE. In countries with high heat demand, WtE in the form of heat and power can be quite efficient even in simple grate-fired systems, whereas in warm regions only electricity is generated, and for this product the efficiency of boilers (the steam data) is limited by corrosion from the flue gas. However, combination of cleaned gas from gasification with combustion provides a means to enhance the efficiency of electricity production considerably. Finally, the impact of sorting on the properties of the waste to be fed to boilers or gasifiers is discussed. The description intends to be general, but examples are mostly taken from Europe. PMID:24846797

Leckner, Bo

2014-05-17

174

A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation.The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to

D. R. McIlveen-Wright; F. Pinto; L. Armesto; M. A. Caballero; M. P. Aznar; A. Cabanillas; Y. Huang; C. Franco; I. Gulyurtlu; J. T. McMullan

2006-01-01

175

Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2008-05-06

176

Products of wood gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing problem of pollution from wood-burning stoves has prompted this examination of the basic gasification process of wood under conditions encompassing those in stoves. Other variables were sample grain orientation, thickness, exposure time, and moisture content. Sample weight was followed in some tests; sample temperature (5 thermocouples) was followed in others. In all tests, all evolved products were either

T. J. Ohlemiller; T. Kashiwagi; K. Werner

1985-01-01

177

Treatment of sewage sludge in supercritical water and evaluation of the combined process of supercritical water gasification and oxidation.  

PubMed

Influences of temperature and oxidation coefficient (n) on sewage sludge treatment in supercritical water and its corresponding reaction mechanism were studied. Moreover, the combined process of supercritical water gasification (SCWG) and supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was also investigated. The results show that ammonia nitrogen, phenols and pyridines are main refractory intermediates. The weight of solid products at 873K and n=4 is only 3.5wt.% of the initial weight, which is lower than that after combustion. Volatile organics in solid phase have almost released at 723K and n=0. Highest yield of combustible gases was obtained at n=0, and H2 yield can reach 11.81mol/kg at 873K. Furthermore, the combination of SCWG at 723K and SCWO at 873K with a total n=1 is feasible for its good effluent quality and low operation costs. PMID:25461006

Qian, Lili; Wang, Shuzhong; Xu, Donghai; Guo, Yang; Tang, Xingying; Wang, Longfei

2015-01-01

178

Coal gasification combined-cycle system analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a study involving combustion turbine power plants using coal gasification. The study concentrated on systems integration and the optimization of power plant conceptual designs. In order of importance, the objectives of the study were to: (1) determine potential levels of thermal efficiency for well integrated gasified coal combined cycle (GCC) systems employing current technology combustion turbines and near-commercial, oxygen-blown Texaco gasifiers. (2) Quantify the effects of varying key design parameters of various components on overall plant performance. (3) Project potential levels of performance made possible by using advanced, combustion turbines and advanced gasifiers in well-integrated gasification power plants. To meet these objectives emphasis was placed on effective waste heat management and practicality in synthesizing overall power plant arrangements. Evaluations were confined to thermodynamic analysis and did not include equipment cost estimation. Current technology systems were defined which yielded thermal efficiencies in the range of 35 to 37%. It was found that approximately one percentage point in thermal efficiency could be realized by using either the British Gas Corporation (BGC) slagging, fixed-bed gasifier or the air-blown Texaco gasifier in place of the oxygen-blown Texaco gasifier. Two percentage points were gained by increasing the gas turbine combustor exit temperature about 300/sup 0/F. These results suggest the possibility of approaching 40% in practical future power plants. Cost-effective configurations with such performance levels are expected to offer a more than competitive alternative to conventional coal-fired steam power plants equipped to meet emission standards.

Hamilton, S.; Garow, J.; Lehman, S.J.

1980-04-01

179

Co-processing methane in high temperature steam gasification of biomass.  

PubMed

High temperature steam gasification/reforming of biomass-methane mixtures was carried out in an indirectly heated entrained flow reactor to analyze the feasibility of controlling the output composition of the major synthesis gas products: H(2), CO, CO(2), CH(4). A 2(3) factorial experimental design was carried out and compared to thermodynamic equilibrium predictions. Experiments demonstrated the product gas composition is mostly dependent on temperature and that excess steam contributes to CO(2) formation. Results showed that with two carbon-containing reactants it is possible to control the gas composition of the major products. At 1500 °C, the equilibrium results accurately predicted the syngas composition and can be used to guide optimization of the syngas for downstream liquid fuel synthesis technologies. PMID:23208181

Palumbo, Aaron W; Jorgensen, Erica L; Sorli, Jeni C; Weimer, Alan W

2013-01-01

180

Scale-up requirements of the Exxon catalytic coal gasification process. Monthly report, November 1November 30, 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study design and cost estimate have been completed for a major revamp of the Synthane Coal gasification pilot plant which would allow it to be operated as a catalytic coal gasification (CCG) large pilot plant. The study design was based upon modifying the Synthane Unit so that it would duplicate as closely as possible the size and capabilities of

1978-01-01

181

Analysis of the organic contaminants in the condensate produced in the in situ underground coal gasification process.  

PubMed

Addressing the environmental risks related to contamination of groundwater with the phenolics, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which might be potentially released from the underground coal gasification (UCG) under adverse hydrogeological and/or operational conditions, is crucial in terms of wider implementation of the process. The aim of this study was to determine the main organic pollutants present in the process condensate generated during the UCG trial performed on hard coal seam in the Experimental Mine 'Barbara', Poland; 8,933 L of condensate was produced in 813 h of experiment duration (including 456 h of the post-process stage) with average phenolics, BTEX and PAH concentrations of 576,000, 42.3 and 1,400.5 ?g/L, respectively. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis was used to explore the differences and similarities between the samples. The sample collected during the first 48 h of the process duration was characterized by the lowest phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene contents, high xylene content and the highest concentrations of phenolics, benzene, toluene and ethyl benzene. The samples collected during the stable operation of the UCG process were characterized by higher concentrations of naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, while in the samples acquired in the post-process stage the lowest concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, acenaphthene and fluorene were observed. PMID:23202571

Smoli?ski, Adam; Sta?czyk, Krzysztof; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Howaniec, Natalia

2013-01-01

182

Integrated mild gasification processing at the Homer City Electric Power Generating Station site. Final report, July 1989--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

A new process for the production of commercial grade coke, char, and carbon products has been evaluated by Penelec/NYSEG. The process, developed by Coal Technology Corporation, CTC, utilizes a unique screw reactor to produce a devolatilized char from a wide variety of coals for the production of commercial grade coke for use in blast furnaces, foundries, and other processes requiring high quality coke. This process is called the CTC Mild Gasification Process (MGP). The process economics are significantly enhanced by integrating the new technology into an existing power generating complex. Cost savings are realized by the coke producer, the coke user, and the electric utility company. Site specific economic studies involving the Homer City Generating Station site in Western Pennsylvania, confirmed that an integrated MGP at the Homer City site, using coal fines produced at the Homer City Coal Preparation Plant, would reduce capital and operating costs significantly and would enable the HC Owners to eliminate thermal dryers, obtain low cost fuel in the form of combustible gases and liquids, and obtain lower cost replacement coal on the spot market. A previous report, identified as the Interim Report on the Project, details the technical and economic studies.

Battista, J.J.; Zawadzki, E.A. [Pennsylvania Electric Co., Johnstown, PA (United States)

1993-07-01

183

Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants  

SciTech Connect

Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

2008-12-15

184

Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energyâ??s Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process â?? High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

Howard Meyer

2010-11-30

185

Mineralization of integrated gasification combined-cycle power-station wastewater effluent by a photo-Fenton process.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the mineralization of wastewater effluent from an integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power station sited in Spain to meet the requirements of future environmental legislation. This study was done in a pilot plant using a homogeneous photo-Fenton oxidation process with continuous addition of H(2)O(2) and air to the system. The mineralization process was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics. Experimental kinetic constants were fitted using neural networks (NNs). The NNs model reproduced the experimental data to within a 90% confidence level and allowed the simulation of the process for any values of the parameters within the experimental range studied. At the optimum conditions (H(2)O(2) flow rate=120 mL/h, [Fe(II)]=7.6 mg/L, pH=3.75 and air flow rate=1 m(3)/h), a 90% mineralization was achieved in 150 min. Determination of the hydrogen peroxide consumed and remaining in the water revealed that 1.2 mol of H(2)O(2) was consumed per each mol of total organic carbon removed from solution. This result confirmed that an excess of dissolved H(2)O(2) was needed to achieve high mineralization rates, so continuous addition of peroxide is recommended for industrial application of this process. Air flow slightly improved the mineralization rate due to the formation of peroxo-organic radicals which enhanced the oxidation process. PMID:20510498

Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; San Martín, I; Aguirre, M

2010-09-01

186

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are being developed for integrated gasification power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50+% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but test data from direct coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This effort evaluates the significance of performance losses associated with exposure to direct coal syngas. Specimen are operated in a unique mobile test skid that is deployed to the research gasifier at NCCC in Wilsonville, AL. The test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas to a parallel array of twelve SOFCs. During the 500 h test period, all twelve cells are monitored for performance at four current densities. Degradation is attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that is accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that are operated at 0 and 125 mA cm-2 degrade at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 h, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA cm-2 degrade at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 h, respectively. Spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

Hackett, Gregory A.; Gerdes, Kirk; Song, Xueyan; Chen, Yun; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Engelhard, Mark; Zhu, Zihua; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Gemmen, Randall

2012-09-01

187

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operaated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are being developed for integrated gasification power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but test data from direct coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This effort evaluates the significance of performance losses associated with exposure to direct coal syngas. Specimen are operated in a unique mobile test skid that is deployed to the research gasifier at NCCC in Wilsonville, AL. The test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas to a parallel array of twelve SOFCs. During the 500 h test period, all twelve cells are monitored for performance at four current densities. Degradation is attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that is accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that are operated at 0 and 125 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 h, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 h, respectively. Spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

Hackett, G.; Gerdes, K.; Song, X.; Chen, Y.; Shutthanandan, V.; Englehard, M.; Zhu, Z.; Thevuthasan, S.; Gemmen, R.

2012-01-01

188

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for gasification integrated power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50+% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with the Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but direct test data from coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This research effort evaluates the significance of SOFC performance losses associated with exposure of a SOFC anode to direct coal syngas. SOFC specimen of industrially relevant composition are operated in a unique mobile test skid that was deployed to the research gasifier at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. The mobile test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas (up to 300°C) directly to a parallel array of 12 button cell specimen, each of which possesses an active area of approximately 2 cm2. During the 500 hour test period, all twelve cells were monitored for performance at four discrete operating current densities, and all cells maintained contact with a data acquisition system. Of these twelve, nine demonstrated good performance throughout the test, while three of the cells were partially compromised. Degradation associated with the properly functioning cells was attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that was accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that were operated at 0 and 125 mA/cm˛ degraded at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 hours, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA/cm˛ degraded at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 hours, respectively. Post-trial spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

Hackett, Gregory A.; Gerdes, Kirk R.; Song, Xueyan; Chen, Yun; Shutthanandan, V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Gemmen, Randall

2012-09-15

189

Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Quarterly report, February 1994--May 1994  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: (1) design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup; (2) obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; (3) prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; (4) develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the NMDGAS process. The project team that is performing the initial phases of the PDU development are: Kerr-McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal), the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel), and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300{degrees}F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The 1 ton/hr PDU facility that is to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of gases, coal liquids, and char; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid products; and coal feeding and char handling equipment. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste. This quarter, the bids from Bateman Engineering and Kilborn Engineering were analyzed and Kilborn appeared to be the successful bidder. Negotiations with Kilborn Engineering to finalize the exact scope and cost of their bid were undertaken but Kilborn is unwilling to assume the standard flowdown liability clause. Because of this impasse, alternatives to Kilborn are being explored.

Doane, E.P.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

1994-11-01

190

Economics of synfuel and gasification systems  

SciTech Connect

The performance characteristics of several gasification systems are discussed. Cost estimates of various synthetic fuels are presented. The lowest cost synthetic fuel is significantly above the current natural gas price of about $2.75/MMBtu and about equivalent to present oil prices at the plant gate. Gas prices for the Welman-Galusha gasifier would have to be increased significantly if the plant ran on two shifts only or if the gasifiers were not fully loaded. For industrial application the lowest cost fuel is probably the direct use of low sulfur coal with some post combustion pollution control. This is followed by the atmospheric fluidized bed combustor. Coal/oil mixtures and solvent refined coal liquids (SRC I or SRC II) are the next options. High Btu gas from a large coal gasification plant will be more competitive for industrial use. Large industrial uses in the range of 1000 tons of coal a day may find reduced costs with an entrained coal conversion unit such as a Texaco or the Saarberg-Otto Gasifiers. However, before 1985 when the gas price decontrol has been felt, it is unlikely that low Btu gas, medium Btu gas and methanol will be an economical choice for industrial users.

Hahn, O.J.

1981-01-01

191

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930{degree} and 1470{degree}F (500{degree}and 800{degree}C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a ``coal refinery`` system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R&D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

1992-11-01

192

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930[degree] and 1470[degree]F (500[degree]and 800[degree]C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a coal refinery'' system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

1992-11-01

193

Catalytic coal gasification: an emerging technology for SNG  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been known that salts of alkali metals catalyze the gasification of coal. In 1971, Exxon Research and Engineering Company discovered that potassium salts added to coal also promote the methanation of coal gasification products. This discovery led to Exxon's Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) process. In the CCG process, coal with added potassium salts is gasified in a

R. R. Lessard; R. A. Reitz

1981-01-01

194

Fifth annual EPRI contractors' conference on coal gasification: proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The Fifth Annual EPRI Contractors' Conference on Coal Gasification was held in Palo Alto October 30 and 31, 1985. Papers were presented in four general areas: utility engineering economic studies; pilot and demonstration plant results; raw-gas cleanup; and environmental and engineering scoping studies. Substantial progress in the commercial implementation of coal gasification occurred during 1984. The 100-MW Texaco integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) plant at Southern California Edison's Cool Water site continued to operate extremely well in 1985 following the successful startup in June 1984 (EPRI report AP-4177, the fourth conference proceedings). An average capacity factor of 50% was achieved in 1985. There was also considerable progress in 1985 on commercial coal gasification projects outside the utility industry. The Great Plains Associates 125 M-scfd substitute natural gas plant in Beulah, North Dakota (based on Lurgi dry ash technology) achieved a high operational capacity factor. The plant was taken over by DOE and is continuing to operate well. Nineteen papers have been entered individually into ERA and EDB. (LTN)

Not Available

1986-07-01

195

Investigation of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air/steam and oxygen/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal. Numerical simulation showed that the plasma oxygen/steam gasification of coal is a more preferable process in comparison with the plasma air/steam coal gasification. On the numerical experiments, a plasma vortex fuel reformer is designed.

Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (United States)

2009-04-15

196

Coal gasification with internal recirculation catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the primary economic penalties of many catalytic coal gasification processes is recovery of the added catalysts from the spent char. For example, the EXXON catalytic coal gasification process as presently conceived, requires several stages of digestion with calcium hydroxide to recover potassium from the converted char and then the digestion only recovers between 65 and 85% of the

A. H. Hill; G. L. Anderson; M. R. Ghate; W. Liou

1986-01-01

197

Catalytic coal gasification for SNG production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic coal gasification process of Exxon for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) is described. The alkali carbonate catalyst increases the rate of steam gasification, prevents agglomeration when gasifying caking coals, and promotes gas phase methanation equilibrium. The process uses a low gasifier temperature of 650-750 C along with separation of synthesis gas (CO and H2) from the

W. R. Epperly; H. M. Siegel

1976-01-01

198

An evaluation of integrated-gasification-combined-cycle and pulverized-coal-fired steam plants: Volume 1, Base case studies: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of the performance and costs for a Texaco-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant as compared to a conventional pulverized coal-fired steam (PCFS) power plant with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is provided. A general set of groundrules was used within which each plant design was optimized. The study incorporated numerous sensitivity cases along with up-to-date operating and

J. Pietruszkiewicz; R. J. Milkavich; G. S. Booras; G. O. Thomas; H. Doss

1988-01-01

199

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1988  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is investigating a process concept called Mild Gasification in which rapid devolatilization of coal under mild conditions of temperature and pressure would yield three product slates: a low- or medium-BTU gas, a valuable hydrocarbon condensate, and a reactive char. The ongoing objective of this program is to develop a continuous mild gasification process which will produce a product mix that optimizes process economics. In order to provide the incentive for private industry to commercialize the process, it is necessary to demonstrate yields and qualities in a versatile continuous process development unit (PDU). This unit must be capable of assessing both coal- and process-specific effects in a cost-effective and timely manner. Based on literature reviews and experimental verification, a data base will be developed correlating coal and process parameters with product characteristics. This will provide process developers with the information necessary to derive site-specific economics which will be crucial for the commercialization of the mild gasification process. The literature review and market assessment has been completed under Task 1 of the program. Under Task 2, coal-specific tests are being conducted on three AMAX coals: Chinook, an Indiana {number_sign}3 bituminous coal; Delta, an Illinois {number_sign}6 bituminous coal; and Eagle Butte, a Wyodak subbituminous coal. Various methods of char upgrading are being conducted by AMAX R&D of Golden, Colorado. The upgraded char is then combined with iron ore and tested for pig iron production under an AMAX subcontract to Pellet Technology Corporation of Marquette, Michigan. In addition to the test program, process development and scaleup information is being developed for a 1 ton/hr pilot plant unit. Plans for Tasks 2 and 3, equipment modifications, and report. Results include: char analysis, condensable analysis, waste water analysis, and gas analysis.

Ness, R.O. Jr.

1988-07-01

200

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

SciTech Connect

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co--product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases: Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase 2 is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase 3 updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase 2, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report is WMPI's third quarterly technical progress report. It covers the period performance from October 1, 2001 through December 31, 2001.

John W. Rich

2001-03-01

201

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.8, Decontamination and disassembly of the mild gasification process research unit and disposal of co-products  

SciTech Connect

Prior to disassembly of the CFBR, accumulated tar residue must be removed from the reactor, piping and tubing lines, and the condenser vessels. Based on experience from the CFBR mild gasification tests, lacquer thinner must be pumped through the unit for at least one hour to remove the residual tar. The lacquer thinner wash may be followed by a water wash. The CFBR will be disassembled after the system has been thoroughly flushed out. The following equipment must be disassembled and removed for storage: Superheater; Water supply pump; Coal feed system (hopper, auger, ball feeder, valves); Reactor; Cyclone and fines catch pot; Condensers (water lines, glycol bath, condenser pots, valves); and Gas meter. After the process piping and reactor have been disassembled, the equipment will be inspected for tar residues and flushed again with acetone or lacquer thinner, if necessary. All solvent used for cleaning the system will be collected for recycle or proper disposal. Handling and disposal of the solvent will be properly documented. The equipment will be removed and stored for future use. Equipment contaminated externally with tar (Level 4) will be washed piece by piece with lacquer thinner after disassembly of the PRU. Proper health and safety practices must be followed by the personnel involved in the cleanup operation. Care must be taken to avoid ingestion, inhalation, or prolonged skin contact of the coal tars and lacquer thinner. Equipment contaminated internally by accumulation of residual tar or oil (Level 5) will be flushed section by section with lacquer thinner. The equipment will be washed with solvent both before and after disassembly to ensure that all tar has been removed from the piping, pumps, gas quench condensers, light tar condensers, and drain lines. The coal tars wig be separated from the solvent and incinerated.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Li, Y.; Heidt, M.

1992-09-01

202

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2009-07-01

203

Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

D. W. McKee; C. L. Spiro; P. G. Kosky

1984-01-01

204

Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

1984-05-25

205

Chemical processing in high-pressure aqueous environments. 2. Development of catalysts for gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid water processing environment was used at 20 MPa and 350 C to convert organic compounds to methane and carbon dioxide in the presence of catalysts. This paper describes the evaluation of various types of base and noble metal catalysts and numerous support compositions for the process. The feedstock used in these tests was a mixture of p-cresol and

Douglas C. Elliott; L. John Sealock; Eddie G. Baker

1993-01-01

206

ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR HAZARDOUS ORGANICS IN LIQUID WASTES FROM COAL GASIFICATION AND LIQUEFACTION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted by the University of Southern California group to provide methods for the analysis of coal liquefaction wastes from coal conversion processing plants. Several methods of preliminary fractionation prior to analysis were considered. The most satisfactory me...

207

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process). Seventh quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

In order for the coal biogasification process to be economically feasible, an inexpensive nutrient amendment must be found to replace the Difco{trademark} yeast extract and tryptic soy broth (YE/TSB) used in the current medium formulation. Five products have been identified which support greater methane production from Texas lignite than YE/TSB.

Not Available

1992-04-30

208

Catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Phase 3: Biomass Process Development Unit (PDU) construction and initial operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and construction of the process development unit (PDU) are described in detail, examining each system and component in order. Siting, the chip handling system, the reactor feed system, the reactor, the screw conveyor, the ash dump system, the PDU support equipment, control and information management, and shakedown runs are described.

Healey, J. J.; Hooverman, R. H.

1981-12-01

209

Syngas chemical looping gasification process: oxygen carrier particle selection and performance  

SciTech Connect

The syngas chemical looping (SCL) process coproduces hydrogen and electricity. The process involves reducing metal oxides with syngas followed by regeneration of reduced metal oxides with steam and air in a cyclic manner. Iron oxide is determined to be a desired oxygen carrier for hydrogen production considering overall properties including oxygen carrying capacity, thermodynamic properties, reaction kinetics, physical strength, melting points, and environmental effects. An iron oxide based particle can maintain good reactivity for more than 100 reduction-oxidation (redox) cycles in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The particle exhibits a good crushing strength (>20 MPa) and low attrition rate. Fixed bed experiments are carried out which reaffirm its reactivity. More than 99.75% of syngas is converted during the reduction stage. During the regeneration stage, hydrogen with an average purity of 99.8% is produced. 23 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

Fanxing Li; Hyung Ray Kim; Deepak Sridhar; Fei Wang; Liang Zeng; Joseph Chen; L.-S. Fan [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

2009-08-15

210

Exxon Catalytic Coal-Gasification Process development program. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalyst recovery studies indicate that Ca(OH)â digestion in dilute KOH (0.1 M) solutions may be as effective as in concentrated solutions (1.0 M). The lack of adequate mixing of char, lime, and process solution prior to digestion was found to increase the amount of inactive potassium silicates in the recovered catalyst solution. This result may be due to agglomeration of

Euker; C. A. Jr

1979-01-01

211

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Nineth quarterly report, [July--September 1992  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory scale studies examining biogasification of Texas lignite at various coal solids loadings have been completed. Bench scale bioreactors are currently being used to scale up the biogasification process to higher coal solids loadings (5% and 10%) Specific observations reported this quarter are that methane production was not curtailed when B-vitamin solution was not added to the biogasification medium and that aeration of Mic-1 did not sufficiently oxidize the medium to eliminate strict anaerobic bacteria including methanogens.

Not Available

1992-10-30

212

Development of Biological Coal Gasification (MicGAS Process). Topical report, July 1991--February 1993  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory and bench scale reactor research carried out during the report period confirms the feasibility of biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL) and some other low-rank coals to methane by specifically developed unique anaerobic microbial consortia. The data obtained demonstrates specificity of a particular microbial consortium to a given lignite. Development of a suitable microbial consortium is the key to the success of the process. The Mic-1 consortium was developed to tolerate higher coal loadings of 1 and 5% TxL in comparison to initial loadings of 0.01% and 0.1% TxL. Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic-1 consortium. Four different bench scale bioreactor configurations, namely Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), Upflow Fluidized Bed Reactor (UFBR), Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR), and Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) were evaluated for scale up studies. Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic-1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor. However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC.

Srivastava, K.C.

1993-06-01

213

Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system.  

PubMed

Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays (CHO/HGPRT and Ames). The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. Coke oven main extract produced fewer revertants in bacteria than the raw gas sample. However, the coke oven main extract was more genotoxic in the two eukaryotic systems (CHL/SCE and CHO/HGPRT) than was the raw gas sample. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems. PMID:6389110

Shimizu, R W; Benson, J M; Li, A P; Henderson, R F; Brooks, A L

1984-01-01

214

Gasification: redefining clean energy  

SciTech Connect

This booklet gives a comprehensive overview of how gasification is redefining clean energy, now and in the future. It informs the general public about gasification in a straight-forward, non-technical manner.

NONE

2008-05-15

215

2010 Worldwide Gasification Database  

DOE Data Explorer

The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

216

Four stage, fluidized bed gasification process minimizes NO{sub x}  

SciTech Connect

In 1981, after a long and thorough study of alternative methods of sewage sludge (biosolids) disposal, the City of Los Angeles (CLA) embarked on a pilot test program to incinerate dried sewage sludge from its Hyperion Wastewater Treatment Plant. This dried sludge is typically 47% ash, 53% combustible, and has an average higher heating value (HHV), moisture, ash-free (MAF) of 10,675 Btu/Lbm. The dried sludge is called sludge derived fuel (SDF). Approximately 8% of the MAF fraction of SDF is fuel-bound nitrogen. When SDF, with its extremely high fuel-bound nitrogen, was combusted in conventional multiple hearth and fluidized bed pilot plant furnaces, NO{sub x} emissions were extremely high ({gt}1,000 ppm). Faced with this dilemma, the CLA initiated an R and D program to reduce NO{sub x}. The pilot tests with a sub-stoichiometric fluid bed and an excess air afterburner (two-stages) reduced NO{sub x} to 400--600 ppm. With one intermediate stage added (three-stage), NO{sub x} was reduced to 130--150 ppm. However, when the following four-stage process was developed and tested, NO{sub x} was reduced to 50--75 ppm. Stage 1: Sub-stoichiometric fluidized bed operating at a nominal 30% stoichiometric air (SA). Stage 2:Sub-stoichiometric zone operating at a nominal 80% SA. Stage 3: Stoichiometric zone operating at a nominal 100% SA. Stage 4: Excess air zone (Afterburner) operating at a nominal 135% SA (35% excess air). After pilot testing was complete and design parameters established, three full-size, fluid bed gasifiers (two operational--one standby) were designed, constructed and operated until 1996. This paper describes the design, operation, and emission testing of these four-stage fluid bed gasifiers with special emphasis on the problems of (a) pneumatic feeding of SDF powder into the pressurized bed and (b) baghouse fabrics (expanded PTEE membrane on PTFE scrim). Final emission test results for NO{sub x} and other criteria pollutants are also presented.

Lewis, F.M.; Haug, R.T.

1999-07-01

217

Scale-up requirements of the Exxon catalytic coal gasification process. Monthly report, October 1October 31, 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operating cost for the 92 T\\/D grass roots Catalytic Coal Gasification large pilot plant (LPP) was estimated to be $73M. This estimate is based on escalated costs for LPP operation over a 2Âą\\/â year period from January 1, 1983 to July 1, 1985. The direct costs for modifications to the synthane pilot plant have been completed and the total

1978-01-01

218

Equilibrium analysis of hydrogen production using the steam-plasma gasification process of the used car tires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with the treatment of used car tires. The method of used tires plasma gasification is proposed. The investigation of the syngas composition was carried out according to the temperature and plasma flow rate variation. The method of the steam catalytic conversion of CO, which is a part of the syngas, and CaO usage are suggested. The results of the calculation modeling at various temperatures, pressures, and steam flow rates are presented.

Kuznetsov, V. A.; Kumkova, I. I.; Lerner, A. S.; Popov, V. E.

2012-12-01

219

Coal-gasification systems: a guide to status, applications, and economics. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification has been the subject of a great deal of study and development worldwide over the past decade. The open literature currently contains bewildering and often inconsistent information concerning the development status and economic viability of coal gasification systems. The Advanced Power Systems Division of EPRI has devoted considerable resources to the development and demonstration of coal gasification technology for ultimate use in electric-power-generation systems. The primary objective of this Guide is to provide current and consistent information concerning the status of commercial development, potential utility applications and EPRI-developed capital and operating costs for coal-gasification technologies that have already been demonstrated at commercial scale as well as for those that are close to commercial practice. Current commercial/developmental status of Lurgi, Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Shell, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi, KILnGAS, Westinghouse and High Temperature Winkler is discussed. Environmental aspects, thermal performance, reliabiilty and cost information are provided for medium-Btu gas production; retrofitting and repowering existing steam plants; integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems; low-water-consumption IGCC systems; methanol from coal; once-through methanol production in an IGCC system; and IGCC systems employing advanced, molten-carbonate fuel cells. Finally, for comparison purposes, performance and cost estimates on a consistent basis are provided for coal-fired steam plants; oil-fired steam plants; oil- and gas-fired combined-cycle and combustion-turbine plants. 88 figures, 86 tables.

Simbeck, D.R.; Dickenson, R.L.; Oliver, E.D.

1983-06-01

220

Prediction and measurement of entrained flow coal gasification processes. Interim report, September 8, 1981-September 7, 1983  

SciTech Connect

This volume reports interim experimental and theoretical results of the first two years of a three year study of entrained coal gasification with steam and oxygen. The gasifier facility and testing methods were revised and improved. The gasifier was also modified for high pressure operation. Six successful check-out tests at elevated pressure were performed (55, 75, 100, 130, 170, and 215 psig), and 8 successful mapping tests were performed with the Utah bituminous coal at an elevated pressure of 137.5 psig. Also, mapping tests were performed at atmospheric pressure with a Utah bituminous coal (9 tests) and with a Wyoming subbituminous coal (14 tests). The LDV system was used on the cold-flow facility to make additional nonreactive jets mixing measurements (local mean and turbulent velocity) that could be used to help validate the two-dimensional code. The previously completed two-dimensional entrained coal gasification code, PCGC-2, was evaluated through rigorous comparison with cold-flow, pulverized coal combustion, and entrained coal gasification data. Data from this laboratory were primarily used but data from other laboratories were used when available. A complete set of the data used has been compiled into a Data Book which is included as a supplemental volume of this interim report. A revised user's manual for the two-dimensional code has been prepared and is also included as a part of this interim report. Three technical papers based on the results of this study were published or prepared. 107 references, 57 figures, 35 tables.

Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Fletcher, T.H.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.

1984-01-31

221

Process for the production of a coal-water suspension which is suitable for use in coal gasification under elevated pressure  

SciTech Connect

A coal-water suspension containing 50 to 75 percent by weight coal is disclosed based on the weight of the suspension. The bulk of the coal has a particle size of 50 to 500 ..mu..m, the proportion of the particles have a diameter greater than 0.5 mm in the coal being less than 15 percent by weight and the particle size distribution curve of the coal in the Rosin-rammler particle size distribution grid according to DIN 4190 has a slope of greater than or equal to 1; a process for the production of such water-coal suspension which is suitable for use in coal gasification under elevated pressure by mixing lump coal with water directly, the water being added in a concentration just sufficient to form a water-coal dust suspension suitable for the gasification reaction and grinding the resultant suspension in a disc attrition mill, a toothed disc attrition mill or a toothed colloid mill.

Lusch, J.; Heinen, H.; Kolodzey, W.; Schmidt, V.

1985-07-02

222

EMERY BIOMASS GASIFICATION POWER SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Emery Recycling Corporation (now Emery Energy Company, LLC) evaluated the technical and economical feasibility of the Emery Biomass Gasification Power System (EBGPS). The gasifier technology is owned and being developed by Emery. The Emery Gasifier for this project was an oxygen-blown, pressurized, non-slagging gasification process that novelly integrates both fixed-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes into a single vessel. This unique internal geometry of the gasifier vessel will allow for tar and oil destruction within the gasifier. Additionally, the use of novel syngas cleaning processes using sorbents is proposed with the potential to displace traditional amine-based and other syngas cleaning processes. The work scope within this project included: one-dimensional gasifier modeling, overall plant process modeling (ASPEN), feedstock assessment, additional analyses on the proposed syngas cleaning process, plant cost estimating, and, market analysis to determine overall feasibility and applicability of the technology for further development and commercial deployment opportunities. Additionally, the project included the development of a detailed technology development roadmap necessary to commercialize the Emery Gasification technology. Process modeling was used to evaluate both combined cycle and solid oxide fuel cell power configurations. Ten (10) cases were evaluated in an ASPEN model wherein nine (9) cases were IGCC configurations with fuel-to-electricity efficiencies ranging from 38-42% and one (1) case was an IGFC solid oxide case where 53.5% overall plant efficiency was projected. The cost of electricity was determined to be very competitive at scales from 35-71 MWe. Market analysis of feedstock availability showed numerous market opportunities for commercial deployment of the technology with modular capabilities for various plant sizes based on feedstock availability and power demand.

Benjamin Phillips; Scott Hassett; Harry Gatley

2002-11-27

223

Update of the Texaco mortality study 1947-93: Part I. Analysis of overall patterns of mortality among refining, research, and petrochemical workers  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To update information on the workers of the Texaco mortality study to determine if the patterns of mortality have changed with 16 additional years of follow up. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: All workers were employed for > or = 5 years at company refineries, petrochemical plants, and research laboratories from 1947-93. The cohort now consists of 28,480 employees with an average of > or = 20 years of follow up. RESULTS: The overall mortality, and most cause specific mortalities were lower than or similar to those for the general population of the United States. For white men (86% of the cohort), there were 8873 observed deaths and 11,181 expected resulting in a significantly lower standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 79. There were significant deficits for all the leading causes of death in the United States including all cancers, cancer of the lung, stroke, heart disease, respiratory disease, and accidents. Slightly increased mortality was found for cancer of the pancreas, cancer of the brain and central nervous system, leukaemia, and cancer of other lymphatic tissue. For cancer of the bone, the SMR was 162 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 86 to 278), and for benign and unspecified neoplasms, it was 152 (95% CI 109 to 206). Overall mortality patterns for non-white men and women were similar to those for white men. Mortality patterns for white men were also examined by duration of employment, time first employed, location, and by job and process unit. There were significantly increased SMRs for brain cancer for those people employed as laboratory workers and on units with motor oil and for cancer of other lymphatic tissue for people employed on the fluid catalytic cracking unit. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the updated study showed a favourable mortality experience for employees in the Texaco mortality study compared with the United States population. There were a few increases found consistently including, but not limited to, brain cancer and cancer of other lymphatic tissue. These increases led to additional analyses that will be discussed in the accompanying paper.   PMID:10448325

Divine, B. J.; Hartman, C. M.; Wendt, J. K.

1999-01-01

224

POLLUTANTS FROM SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION: SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS FOR COAL GASIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes sampling and analysis methods involving a laboratory-scale coal gasification facility used to study the generation, sampling, chemical analysis, process evaluation, and environmental assessment of pollutants from coal gasification. It describes methods for pa...

225

Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

Yang, L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2008-07-01

226

Proceedings of the fifth advanced coal gasification symposium  

SciTech Connect

The Fifth Advanced Coal Gasification Symposium, held in Taiyuan, Shanxi, China in September 1987, was sponsored by the Shanxi Provincial Government, Shanxi Science and Technology Association, Shanxi Energy Research Association, and the Taiyuan Coal Gasification Corporation. Opening and closing speeches, summaries of the technical sessions, and lists of delegates are included. Thirteen papers presented by the international delegation of specialists discuss current coal gasification processes and research and development activities. Papers have been indexed separately.

Flowers, A.; Alpert, S.; Beck, B.; Chen, C.; Dalrymple, D.; Gummel, P.; Henley, J.; Hileman, E.; Holmgren, J.; Lau, F.

1987-01-01

227

Biothermal gasification of biomass  

SciTech Connect

The BIOTHERMGAS Process is described for conversion of biomass, organic residues, and peat to substitute natural gas (SNG). This new process, under development at IGT, combines biological and thermal processes for total conversion of a broad variety of organic feeds (regardless of water or nutrient content). The process employs thermal gasification for conversion of refractory digester residues. Ammonia and other inorganic nutrients are recycled from the thermal process effluent to the bioconversion unit. Biomethanation and catalytic methanation are presented as alternative processes for methanation of thermal conversion product gases. Waste heat from the thermal component is used to supply the digester heat requirements of the bioconversion component. The results of a preliminary systems analysis of three possible applications of this process are presented: (1) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with catalytic methanation; (2) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with biomethanation; and (3) 1000 ton/day municipal solid waste (MSW) sewage sludge plant with biomethanation. The results indicate that for these examples, performance is superior to that expected for biological or thermal processes used separately. The results of laboratory studies presented suggest that effective conversion of thermal product gases can be accomplished by biomethanation.

Chynoweth, D.P.; Srivastava, V.J.; Henry, M.P.; Tarman, P.B.

1980-01-01

228

Coal gasification vessel  

DOEpatents

A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

Loo, Billy W. (Oakland, CA)

1982-01-01

229

Materials of Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to accumulate and establish a database of construction materials, coatings, refractory liners, and transitional materials that are appropriate for the hardware and scale-up facilities for atmospheric biomass and coal gasification processes. Cost, fabricability, survivability, contamination, modes of corrosion, failure modes, operational temperatures, strength, and compatibility are all areas of materials science for which relevant data would be appropriate. The goal will be an established expertise of materials for the fossil energy area within WRI. This would be an effort to narrow down the overwhelming array of materials information sources to the relevant set which provides current and accurate data for materials selection for fossil fuels processing plant. A significant amount of reference material on materials has been located, examined and compiled. The report that describes these resources is well under way. The reference material is in many forms including texts, periodicals, websites, software and expert systems. The most important part of the labor is to refine the vast array of available resources to information appropriate in content, size and reliability for the tasks conducted by WRI and its clients within the energy field. A significant has been made to collate and capture the best and most up to date references. The resources of the University of Wyoming have been used extensively as a local and assessable location of information. As such, the distribution of materials within the UW library has been added as a portion of the growing document. Literature from recent journals has been combed for all pertinent references to high temperature energy based applications. Several software packages have been examined for relevance and usefulness towards applications in coal gasification and coal fired plant. Collation of the many located resources has been ongoing. Some web-based resources have been examined.

None

2005-09-15

230

Exergetic evaluation of biomass gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass has great potential as a clean, renewable feedstock for producing modern energy carriers. This paper focuses on the process of biomass gasification, where the synthesis gas may subsequently be used for the production of electricity, fuels and chemicals. The gasifier is one of the least-efficient unit operations in the whole biomass-to-energy technology chain and an analysis of the efficiency

Krzysztof J. Ptasinski; Mark J. Prins; Anke Pierik

2007-01-01

231

GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly

Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

2000-01-01

232

Catalytic performance of limonite in the decomposition of ammonia in the coexistence of typical fuel gas components produced in an air-blown coal gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic decomposition of 2000 ppm NH{sub 3} in different atmospheres with an Australian {alpha}-FeOOH-rich limonite ore at 750-950{sup o}C under a high space velocity of 45000 h{sup -1} has been studied with a cylindrical quartz reactor to develop a novel hot gas cleanup method of removing NH{sub 3} from fuel gas produced in an air-blown coal gasification process for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology. The limonite shows very high catalytic activity for the decomposition of NH{sub 3} diluted with inert gas at 750{sup o}C, regardless of whether the catalyst material is subjected to H{sub 2} reduction before the reaction or not. Conversion of NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2} over the reduced limonite reaches {ge}99% at 750-950{sup o}C, and the catalyst maintains the high performance for about 40 h at 750{sup o}C. When the decomposition reaction is carried out in the presence of fuel gas components, the coexistence of syngas (20% CO/10% H{sub 2}) causes not only the serious deactivation of the limonite catalyst but also the appreciable formation of deposited carbon and CO{sub 2}. On the other hand, the addition of 10% CO{sub 2} or 3% H{sub 2}O to the syngas improves the catalytic performance and concurrently suppresses the carbon deposition almost completely, and the NH{sub 3} conversion in the 3% H{sub 2}O-containing syngas reaches about 90% and almost 100% at 750 and 850 {sup o}C, respectively. Influential factors controlling the catalytic activity of the limonite ore in the coexistence of fuel gas components are discussed on the basis of the results of the powder X-ray diffraction measurements, thermodynamic calculations, and some model experiments. 16 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Naoto Tsubouchi; Hiroyuki Hashimoto; Yasuo Ohtsuka [Tohoku University, Katahira, Sendai (Japan). Research Center for Sustainable Materials Engineering

2007-12-15

233

An overview of peat gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal and biological peat gasification processes are reviewed, with research showing that peat is high in both oxygen and hydrogen, and also nitrogen, which can be used to form ammonia as a byproduct. The hydrogen-carbon ratio of peat has been shown to exceed that of subbituminous coal, indicating less of a need to supply more hydrogen in the formation of gaseous fuels. The gasification process involves crushing the peat into particles smaller than 2 mm, which cascade through drying air into a gasifier, where gases from the hydrogasifier induce hydropyrolysis. The char then flows into a reactor with steam and oxygen to make synthesis gas. Minnesota peat has shown the highest hydrocarbon yields in the U.S., and economic comparisons show peak gasification has economic parity with other means of producing SNG. Experiments have also shown the feasibility of wet peat conversion using a peat-water slurry in an anaerobic digestor to produce methane. Building of pilot plants is suggested as necessary to verify existing processes.

Punwani, D. V.

234

2006 gasification technologies conference papers  

SciTech Connect

Sessions covered: business overview, industry trends and new developments; gasification projects progress reports; industrial applications and opportunities; Canadian oil sands; China/Asia gasification markets - status and projects; carbon management with gasification technologies; gasification economics and performance issues addressed; and research and development, and new technologies initiatives.

NONE

2006-07-01

235

Coal gasification and the power production market  

SciTech Connect

The US electric power production market is experiencing significant changes sparking interest in the current and future alternatives for power production. Coal gasification technology is being marketed to satisfy the needs of the volatile power production industry. Coal gasification is a promising power production process in which solid coal is burned to produce a synthesis gas (syn gas). The syn gas may be used to fuel combustion integrated into a facility producing electric power. Advantages of this technology include efficient power production, low flue gas emissions, flexible fuel utilization, broad capability for facility integration, useful process byproducts, and decreased waste disposal. The primary disadvantages are relatively high capital costs and lack of proven long-term operating experience. Developers of coal gasification intend to improve on these disadvantages and lop a strong position in the power generation market. This paper is a marketing analysis of the partial oxidation coal gasification processes emerging in the US in response to the market factors of the power production industry. A brief history of these processes is presented, including the results of recent projects exploring the feasibility of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) as a power production alternative. The current power generation market factors are discussed, and the status of current projects is presented including projected performance.

Howington, K.; Flandermeyer, G. [Burns and McDonnell Engineering Co., Kansas City, MO (United States)

1995-09-01

236

Simulation of municipal solid waste gasification for syngas production in fixed bed reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes a model of syngas production from municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification with air in fixed bed reactors.\\u000a The model (using Aspen plus simulator) is used to predict the results of MSW gasification and to provide some process fundamentals\\u000a concerning syngas production from MSW gasification. The effects of gasification temperature, air equivalence ratio and moisture\\u000a concentration on the

Chong Chen; Yu-qi Jin; Jian-hua Yan; Yong Chi

2010-01-01

237

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF BIOMASS GASIFICATION IN A FIXED BED GASIFIER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper there are presented results of experimental investigation of biomass gasification process in a fixed bed gasifier. Gasification was carried out with atmospheric pressure and air was used as oxidizer. Parameters taken into consideration were the air flow rate, amounts of biomass supplied into a gasifier, parameters of raw biomass- elemental composition and initial moisture content. Two kinds

R. K. WILK; P. PLIS

238

WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

Unknown

2000-09-01

239

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, October 30, 1991--January 2, 1992  

SciTech Connect

During this quarter the work on Task 3, char upgrading, was in two areas; upgrading Penelec char made from Penelec filter cake to blast furnace formed coke, and evaluating various bituminous pitch binders. The formed coke from Penelec filter cake was of good quality with a high crush strength of 3000 pounds. The reactivity was not equal to that of conventional coke but it is felt that it could be made to equal conventional coke with further study, specifically by adding binder coal to the raw material recipe. The work evaluating bituminous pitch binders confirmed earlier thinking that will be valuable to a commercial scale-up. Asphalt binders are compatible with coal tar binders and produce a coke of equal quality. Hence asphalt binders can be used to supply deficiencies of tar production in units employing coals with insufficient volatile matter to supply enough tar for the coking process. Asphalt binders have about a 50% savings from coal tar pitch. During the 4th Quarter of 1991, a total of 15 Continuous Mild Gasification Unit (CMGU) test runs were made. Efforts continued to determine the optimum forward/reverse ratio to maximize coal feed rate. The success of these efforts has been limited with a maximum coal feed rate of 400 lbs/hr obtainable with a caking coal. The handicap of not having screw shaft heaters cannot be overcome by adjustment of the forward/reverse ratio.

O`Neal, G.W.

1991-12-31

240

Evaluation of coal-gasification - combustion-turbine power plants emphasizing low water consumption  

SciTech Connect

A cost and performance study was made of several integrated power plants using coal gasification technology now in advanced development and combustion turbines for power generation. The principal emphasis was placed on studying plants using air cooling and comparing costs and performance of those plants with water-cooled coal gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) and conventional coal-fired power plants. The major objective was to determine whether cost and performance penalties would be prohibitive for air-cooled plants that use yet-to-be-developed coal gasifiers and commercially available combustion turbines for topping cycle power. The results indicate the following: air-cooled GCC plants using conceptual designs of either the Texaco or the British Gas Corporation (BGC) slaging gasifier could have coal-to-net electric power efficiencies equivalent to that of a water-cooled conventional coal-fired plant; the air-cooled GCC plants could produce electricity at busbar cost 1 to 3 mills per kWh (1980 dollars) less than busbar cost in a water-cooled conventional plant and only up to 2 mills per kWh higher than busbar cost in a water-cooled Texaco GCC plant; and even a simple-cycle regenerative combustion turbine plant fueled with gas from the BGC gasifier could have a coal-to-net electric power efficiency of over 30% and a busbar cost competitive with that in a water cooled conventional plant. The principal reason that air-cooled power plants using combustion turbines could be competitive with conventional water-cooled, coal-fired steam plants is that a majority of net power is produced by the combustion turbines, which require no cooling water. This, in turn, leads to a reduced cost and performance penalty when bottoming steam-cycle condensers are air-cooled.

Cavazo, R.; Clemmer, A.B.; de la Mora, J.A.; Grisso, J.R.; Klumpe, H.W.; Meissner, R.E.; Musso, A.; Roszkowski, T.R.

1982-01-01

241

Continuous Removal of Coal-Gasification Residue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous-flow hopper processes solid residue from coal gasification, converting it from ashes, cinders, and clinkers to particles size of sand granules. Unit does not require repeated depressurization of lockhopper to admit and release materials. Therefore consumes less energy. Because unit has no airlock valves opened and closed repeatedly on hot, abrasive particles, subjected to lesser wear. Coal-gasification residue flows slowly through pressure-letdown device. Material enters and leaves continuously. Cleanout door on each pressure-letdown chamber allows access for maintenance and emergencies.

Collins, Earl R., Jr.; Suitor, J.; Dubis, D.

1986-01-01

242

A big leap forward for biomass gasification  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the McNeil Generating Station in Vermont, the first industrial scale-up of Battelle Columbus Laboratory`s biomass gasification process. The plant is part of a major US DOE initiative to demonstrate gasification of renewable biomass for electricity production. The project will integrate the Battelle high-through-put gasifier with a high-effiency gas turbine. The history of the project is described, along with an overview of the technology and the interest and resources available in Vermont that will help insure a successful project.

Moon, S.

1995-12-31

243

Catalytic coal gasification for SNG manufacture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predevelopment phase of research on the Exxon catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process was completed in early 1978 and included bench-scale research on catalyst recovery and kinetics, the operation of a 6 in. diameter times 30 ft long fluid bed gasifier, and supporting engineering studies. As part of the engineering program, a conceptual design has been developed for a pioneer

J. E. Gallagher Jr.; C. A. Euker Jr.

1980-01-01

244

More efficient biomass gasification via torrefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood torrefaction is a mild pyrolysis process that improves the fuel properties of wood. At temperatures between 230 and 300°C, the hemicellulose fraction of the wood decomposes, so that torrefied wood and volatiles are formed. Mass and energy balances for torrefaction experiments at 250 and 300°C are presented. Advantages of torrefaction as a pre-treatment prior to gasification are demonstrated. Three

Mark J. Prins; Krzysztof J. Ptasinski; Frans J. J. G. Janssen

2006-01-01

245

COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the organics data from environmental assessments of several low- and medium-Btu coal gasification processes conducted between 1977 and 1981 under the sponsorship of the U.S. EPA. The data summary focuses on the concentration, composition, and mass flow of or...

246

Gasification Product Improvement Facility status  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded a two phase contract for the construction of a Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) to develop an innovative air blown, dry bottom, pressurized fixed bed gasifier based on the patented PyGas{trademark} fixed bed process. The objective of the project is to provide a test site to support early commercialization of the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology. The GPIF will be capable of processing run of mine high swelling coals that comprise 87% of all Eastern US coals. This program will generate useful scale up data that will be utilized to develop commercial size designs. The project will also support the development of a hot gas clean up subsystem and the gasifier infrastructure consisting of controls, special instrumentation and interconnects with Allegheny Power System`s host power plant, Fort Martin Station in Maidesville, West Virginia. This paper presents the status of the GPIF project. It describes the work performed in the past year on the PyGas process development, gasifier design, plant engineering/layout, tie in with the existing Fort Martin facility, procurement, site permitting and project scheduling.

Carson, R.D.; Dixit, V.B.; Sadowski, R.S.; Thamaraichelvan, P.; Culberson, H.

1995-11-01

247

International energy technology assessment: status of materials for coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The difficulties in obtaining information on foreign technologies lead to serious limitations on the level of detail in the technology assessment. The extensive commercial operating experience with gasifiers of the Lurgi and Koppers-Totzek varieties has no counterpart in the US. This situation translates into a great deal of engineering data on the operating envelopes of ceramics and alloys. This type of information is crucial to the operation of a Lurgi gasifier, and some of it is translatable to other types of gasifiers. However, the emerging technologies envisaged for the US gasification programs and the developmental foreign programs require a much higher level of materials technology than is represented in current commercial practice. In the area of new materials for coal gasification applications, we find a rough equivalence between the levels of US and foreign technologies. In fact, our assessment indicates that the US holds a lead in the development and testing of alloys for high-temperature service in corrosive environments. However, a few significant technical developments have occurred in foreign countries without comparable domestic advances. These include the pilot-plant experience on refractories for slagging gasifiers (Shell-Koppers, Texaco, and BGC); the development of corrosion-resistant alloys based on refractory metals (BGC); and the long-term high-temperature creep tests (Karslruhe). Foreign organizations can almost always present the disclosure of large amounts of detailed technical information, if they so desire. Information-exchange agreements with the foreign organizations identified in this report may prove fruitful in providing the type of information needed for the US program.

Gehl, S.M.; Natesan, K.

1981-11-01

248

Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic Gasification Process for Synthetic Natural Gas and Hydrogen Coproduction Year 6 - Activity 1.14 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology  

SciTech Connect

The GreatPoint Energy (GPE) concept for producing synthetic natural gas and hydrogen from coal involves the catalytic gasification of coal and carbon. GPE’s technology “refines” coal by employing a novel catalyst to “crack” the carbon bonds and transform the coal into cleanburning methane (natural gas) and hydrogen. The GPE mild “catalytic” gasifier design and operating conditions result in reactor components that are less expensive and produce pipeline-grade methane and relatively high purity hydrogen. The system operates extremely efficiently on very low cost carbon sources such as lignites, subbituminous coals, tar sands, petcoke, and petroleum residual oil. In addition, GPE’s catalytic coal gasification process eliminates troublesome ash removal and slagging problems, reduces maintenance requirements, and increases thermal efficiency, significantly reducing the size of the air separation plant (a system that alone accounts for 20% of the capital cost of most gasification systems) in the catalytic gasification process. Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale gasification facilities were used to demonstrate how coal and catalyst are fed into a fluid-bed reactor with pressurized steam and a small amount of oxygen to “fluidize” the mixture and ensure constant contact between the catalyst and the carbon particles. In this environment, the catalyst facilitates multiple chemical reactions between the carbon and the steam on the surface of the coal. These reactions generate a mixture of predominantly methane, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Product gases from the process are sent to a gas-cleaning system where CO{sub 2} and other contaminants are removed. In a full-scale system, catalyst would be recovered from the bottom of the gasifier and recycled back into the fluid-bed reactor. The by-products (such as sulfur, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2}) would be captured and could be sold to the chemicals and petroleum industries, resulting in near-zero hazardous air or water pollution. This technology would also be conducive to the efficient coproduction of methane and hydrogen while also generating a relatively pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or sequestration. Specific results of bench-scale testing in the 4- to 38-lb/hr range in the EERC pilot system demonstrated high methane yields approaching 15 mol%, with high hydrogen yields approaching 50%. This was compared to an existing catalytic gasification model developed by GPE for its process. Long-term operation was demonstrated on both Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and on petcoke feedstocks utilizing oxygen injection without creating significant bed agglomeration. Carbon conversion was greater than 80% while operating at temperatures less than 1400°F, even with the shorter-than-desired reactor height. Initial designs for the GPE gasification concept called for a height that could not be accommodated by the EERC pilot facility. More gas-phase residence time should allow the syngas to be converted even more to methane. Another goal of producing significant quantities of highly concentrated catalyzed char for catalyst recovery and material handling studies was also successful. A Pd–Cu membrane was also successfully tested and demonstrated to produce 2.54 lb/day of hydrogen permeate, exceeding the desired hydrogen permeate production rate of 2.0 lb/day while being tested on actual coal-derived syngas that had been cleaned with advanced warm-gas cleanup systems. The membranes did not appear to suffer any performance degradation after exposure to the cleaned, warm syngas over a nominal 100-hour test.

Swanson, Michael; Henderson, Ann

2012-04-01

249

Underground coal gasification. Presentations  

SciTech Connect

The 8 presentations are: underground coal gasification (UCG) and the possibilities for carbon management (J. Friedmann); comparing the economics of UCG with surface gasification technologies (E. Redman); Eskom develops UCG technology project (C. Gross); development and future of UCG in the Asian region (L. Walker); economically developing vast deep Powder River Basin coals with UCG (S. Morzenti); effectively managing UCG environmental issues (E. Burton); demonstrating modelling complexity of environmental risk management; and UCG research at the University of Queensland, Australia (A.Y. Klimenko).

NONE

2007-07-01

250

Methane Production from Catalytic Wet Gasification of Animal Manure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research investigates the technical and economical viability of a proprietary catalytic wet gasification process in treating animal wastewater, capturing nutrients, destroying pharmaceutically active compounds (PACs) and estrogens, and producing methane. This study reviews and analyzes physicoc...

251

Coal gasification: New challenge for the Beaumont rotary feeder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of rotary feeders in the coal gasification process is described with emphasis on the efficient conversion of coal to clean gaseous fuels. Commercial applications of the rotary feeder system are summarized.

Stelian, J.

1977-01-01

252

Gasification and combustion modeling for porous char particles  

E-print Network

Gasification and combustion of porous char particles occurs in many industrial applications. Reactor-scale outputs of importance depend critically on processes that occur at the particle-scale. Because char particles often ...

Singer, Simcha Lev

2012-01-01

253

Single-stage fluidized-bed gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The single-stage fluidized-bed gasification process, in addition to being a simple system, maximizes gas production and allows the economic exploitation of small peat deposits. The objective of this gasification project is to conduct experiments in order to obtain data for designing a single-stage fluidized-bed gasifier, and to evaluate the economics of converting peat to synthesis gas and to SNG by this process. An existing high-temperature and high-pressure process development unit (PDU) was modified to permit the direct feeding of peat to the fluidized bed. Peat flows by gravity from the feed hopper through a 6-inch line to the screw-feeder conveyor. From there, it is fed to the bottom tee section of the reactor and transported into the gasification zone. Oxygen and steam are fed through a distributing ring into the reactor. Gasification reactions occur in the annulus formed by the reactor tube and a central standpipe. Peat ash is discharged from the reactor by overflowing into the standpipe and is collected in a solids receiver.

Lau, F. S.; Rue, D. M.; Weil, S. A.; Punwani, D. V.

1982-04-01

254

GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION  

SciTech Connect

A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

2000-05-01

255

Modelling and simulation of energy conversion in combined gas-steam power plant integrated with coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the modelling and simulation of energy conversion in technological systems of combined gas-steam power plants integrated with coal gasification. The energy analysis of technological systems of gas-steam power plants is connected with energy analysis of various technologies of coal gasification. The base of the performed energy analysis are the elaborate mathematical models of coal gasification process, and

B. Zaporowski

1996-01-01

256

Fabrication of Pd/Pd-Alloy Films by Surfactant Induced Electroless Plating for Hydrogen Separation from Advanced Coal Gasification Processes  

SciTech Connect

Dense Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag composite membranes on microporous stainless steel substrate (MPSS) were fabricated by a novel electroless plating (EP) process. In the conventional Pd-EP process, the oxidation-reduction reactions between Pd-complex and hydrazine result in an evolution of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} gas bubbles. When adhered to the substrate surface and in the pores, these gas bubbles hinder uniform Pd-film deposition which results in dendrite growth leading to poor film formation. This problem was addressed by introducing cationic surfactant in the electroless plating process known as surfactant induced electroless plating (SIEP). The unique features of this innovation provide control of Pd-deposition rate, and Pd-grain size distribution. The surfactant molecules play an important role in the EP process by tailoring grain size and the process of agglomeration by removing tiny gas bubbles through adsorption at the gas-liquid interface. As a result surfactant can tailor a nanocrystalline Pd, Cu and Ag deposition in the film resulting in reduced membrane film thickness. Also, it produces a uniform, agglomerated film structure. The Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes on MPSS support were fabricated by sequential deposition using SIEP method. The pre- and post-annealing characterizations of these membranes (Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag on MPSS substrate) were carried out by SEM, EDX, XRD, and AFM studies. The SEM images show significant improvement of the membrane surface morphology, in terms of metal grain structures and grain agglomeration compared to the membranes fabricated by conventional EP process. The SEM images and helium gas-tightness studies indicate that dense and thinner films of Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes can be produced with shorter deposition time using surfactant. H{sub 2} Flux through the membranes fabricated by SIEP shows large improvement compared to those by CEP with comparable permselectivity. Pd-MPSS composite membrane was subjected to test for long term performance and thermal cycling (573 - 723 - 573 K) at 15 psi pressure drop for 1200 hours. Pd membranes showed excellent hydrogen permeability and thermal stability during the operational period. Under thermal cycling (573 K - 873 K - 573 K), Pd-Cu-MPSS membrane was stable and retained hydrogen permeation characteristics for over three months of operation. From this limited study, we conclude that SIEP is viable method for fabrication of defect-free, robust Pd-alloy membranes for high-temperature H{sub 2}-separation applications.

Ilias, Shamsuddin; Kumar, Dhananjay

2012-07-31

257

Gasification of black liquor  

DOEpatents

A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1987-07-28

258

Gasification of black liquor  

DOEpatents

A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

Kohl, A.L.

1987-07-28

259

Chemistry of coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is a complex solid material containing a mixture of substances that chemically consist mostly of carbon with lesser amounts of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and ash. Gasification is the conversion of solid coal to combustible gases by combining the carbon with additional oxygen and\\/or hydrogen. Although thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) can produce gaseous fuels, they are usually produced by reaction

Vorres

1982-01-01

260

Start-up method for coal gasification plant  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for initiating operation of a coal gasification plant which includes a gasification reactor and gas cleansing apparatus fabricated in part from materials susceptible to chloride induced stress corrosion cracking the presence of oxygen. The reactor is preheated by combusting a stoichiometric mixture of air and fuel to produce an exhaust gas which is then diluted with steam to produce product gas which contains essentially no free oxygen. The product gas heats the reactor to a temperature profile necessary to maintain autothermic operation of the gasification process while maintaining air oxygen-free environment within the plant apparatus while chlorine is liberated from coal being gasified.

Farnia, K.; Petit, P.J.

1983-04-05

261

Plasma gasification of waste as a method of energy saving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several versions of the organizations of the process of plasma-chemical gasification with the use of air, carbon dioxide, steam and their mixtures as the plasma-forming gas are considered in the presentation. The results of the calculation-theoretical evaluations of the quality of synthesis gas and efficiency of gasification, and also the results of experiments on plasma gasification of wood waste carried out on the experimental IEE RAS test-bench are given. The results of calculations are compared with experimental data.

Popov, V. E.; Bratsev, A. N.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Shtengel, S. V.; Ufimtsev, A. A.

2011-01-01

262

Design of advanced fossil-fuel systems (DAFFS): a study of three developing technologies for coal-fired, base-load electric power generation. Integrated coal-gasification/combined power plant with BGC/Lurgi gasification process  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to present the facility description, plant layouts and additional information which define the conceptual engineering design, and performance and cost estimates for the BGC/Lurgi Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant. Following the introductory comments, the results of the British Gas Corporation (BGC)/Lurgi IGCC power plant study are summarized in Section 2. In Secion 3, a description of plant systems and facilities is provided. Section 4 includes pertinent performance information and assessments of availability, natural resource requirements and environmental impact. Estimates of capital costs, operating and maintenance costs and cost of electricity are presented in Section 5. A Bechtel Group Inc. (BGI) assessment and comments on the designs provided by Burns and Roe-Humphreys and Glasgow Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (BRHG) are included in Section 6. The design and cost estimate reports which were prepared by BRHG for those items within their scope of responsibility are included as Appendices A and B, respectively. Apendix C is an equipment list for items within the BGI scope. The design and cost estimate classifications chart referenced in Section 5 is included as Appendix D. 8 references, 18 figures, 5 tables.

Not Available

1983-06-01

263

Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the microorganisms used to deal with tars are selected and pre-conditioned to the tar environment. Overall, the results provided a basis for operational and design strategy for a combined gasification system but further study is recommended such as determination of the impacts in terms of emissions, power, efficiency and costs associated with the use of producer gas-enriched biogas taking advantage of hydrogen enrichment to reduce NOx and other pollutants in reciprocating engines and other energy conversion systems.

Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

264

Apparatus for solar coal gasification  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats through a window onto the surface of a moving bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam in one embodiment at the rear surface of a secondary mirror used to redirect the focused sunlight. Another novel feature of the invention is the location and arrangement of the array of mirrors on an inclined surface (e.g., a hillside) to provide for direct optical communication of said mirrors and the carbonaceous feed without a secondary redirecting mirror.

Gregg, D.W.

1980-08-04

265

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGas process): 13th Quarterly report, [July 1--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

In examining methods for enhancing the biomethanation of TxL, several experiments were conducted to study the mechanisms of lowering the pH during biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL) at higher solids loadings. Results indicated that: Treatment of TxL with different pH solutions did not influence the biomethanation process; The decrease in methane production at higher solids loadings still needs further investigations; Anaerobic conditions containing deoxygenated nitrogen:carbon dioxide provide better methanation of TxL; The most promising combination between the isolates from Mic-1 and Mic-4 was found to be combination D (KS14RMK8-1458); The KS14RMK8 shows the highest accumulation of acetate in the cell-free culture broth from this consortium.

Not Available

1993-10-28

266

Modeling and optimization of a modified claus process as part of an integrted gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture  

SciTech Connect

The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Due to these criteria, modifications are often required to the conventional process, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO2 capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant such as rapid change in the feed flowrates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus furnace, a four-stage method was devised so as to determine which set of linearly independent reactions would best describe the product distributions from available plant data. Various approaches are taken to derive the kinetic rate expressions which are either missing in the open literature or found to be inconsistent. A set of plant data is used for optimal estimation of the kinetic parameters. The final model agrees well with the published plant data. Using the developed kinetics models of the Claus reaction furnace, WHB, and catalytic stages, two optimization studies are carried out. The first study shows that there exists an optimal steam pressure generated in the WHB that balances hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In the second study, it is shown that an optimal H2S/SO2 ratio exists that balances single-pass conversion, hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In addition, an operability study has been carried out to examine the operating envelope in which both H2S/SO2 ratio and adiabatic flame temperature can be controlled in the face of disturbances typical for the operation of an IGCC power plant with CO2 capture. Impact of CO2 capture on the Claus process has also been discussed.

Jones, D.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

2011-01-01

267

Conceptual design report -- Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)  

SciTech Connect

The problems heretofore with coal gasification and IGCC concepts have been their high cost and historical poor performance of fixed-bed gasifiers, particularly on caking coals. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is being developed to solve these problems through the development of a novel coal gasification invention which incorporates pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification (fixed-bed). It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration caused in the conventional process of gradually heating coal through the 400 F to 900 F range. In so doing, the coal is rapidly heated sufficiently such that the coal tar exists in gaseous form rather than as a liquid. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can become chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NH{sub 3} and HCN from fuel born nitrogen, steam injection is minimized, and residual nitrogen compounds are partially chemically reduced in the cracking stage in the upper gasifier region. Assuming testing confirms successful deployment of all these integrated processes, future IGCC applications will be much simplified, require significantly less mechanical components, and will likely achieve the $1,000/kWe commercialized system cost goal of the GPIF project. This report describes the process and its operation, design of the plant and equipment, site requirements, and the cost and schedule. 23 refs., 45 figs., 23 tabs.

Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; House, L.S.; Duck, R.R. [CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Lisauskas, R.A.; Dixit, V.J. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States); Morgan, M.E.; Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States). PowerServe Div.; Boni, A.A. [PSI-Environmental Instruments Corp., Andover, MA (United States)

1994-09-01

268

HIGH TEMPERATURE REMOVAL OF H{sub 2}S FROM COAL GASIFICATION PROCESS STREAMS USING AN ELECTROCHEMICAL MEMBRANE SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

A bench scale set-up was constructed to test the cell performance at 600-700 C and 1 atm. The typical fuel stream inlet proportions were 34% CO, 22% CO{sub 2}, 35% H{sub 2}, 8% H{sub 2}O, and 450-2000 ppm H{sub 2}S. The fundamental transport restrictions for sulfur species in an electrochemical cell were examined. Temperature and membrane thickness were varied to examine how these parameters affect the maximum flux of H{sub 2}S removal. It was found that higher temperature allows more sulfide species to enter the electrolyte, thus increasing the sulfide flux across the membrane and raising the maximum flux of H{sub 2}S removal. The results identify sulfide diffusion across the membrane as the rate-limiting step in H{sub 2}S removal. The maximum H{sub 2}S removal flux of 1.1 x 10-6 gmol H{sub 2}S min{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (or 3.5 mA cm{sup -2}) was obtained at 650 C, with a membrane that was 0.9 mm thick, 36% porous, and had an estimated tortuosity of 3.6. Another focus of this thesis was to examine the stability of cathode materials in full cell trials. A major hurdle that remains in process scale-up is cathode selection, as the lifetime of the cell will depend heavily on the lifetime of the cathode material, which is exposed to very sour gas. Materials that showed success in the past (i.e. cobalt sulfides and Y{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3}) were examined but were seen to have limitations in operating environment and temperature. Therefore, other novel metal oxide compounds were studied to find possible candidates for full cell trials. Gd{sub 2}TiMoO{sub 7} and La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}VO{sub 3} were the compounds that retained their structure best even when exposed to high H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O concentrations.

Jack Winnick; Meilin Liu

2003-06-01

269

High temperature steam gasification of solid wastes: Characteristics and kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greater use of renewable energy sources is of pinnacle importance especially with the limited reserves of fossil fuels. It is expected that future energy use will have increased utilization of different energy sources, including biomass, municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes, agricultural wastes and other low grade fuels. Gasification is a good practical solution to solve the growing problem of landfills, with simultaneous energy extraction and nonleachable minimum residue. Gasification also provides good solution to the problem of plastics and rubber in to useful fuel. The characteristics and kinetics of syngas evolution from the gasification of different samples is examined here. The characteristics of syngas based on its quality, distribution of chemical species, carbon conversion efficiency, thermal efficiency and hydrogen concentration has been examined. Modeling the kinetics of syngas evolution from the process is also examined. Models are compared with the experimental results. Experimental results on the gasification and pyrolysis of several solid wastes, such as, biomass, plastics and mixture of char based and plastic fuels have been provided. Differences and similarities in the behavior of char based fuel and a plastic sample has been discussed. Global reaction mechanisms of char based fuel as well polystyrene gasification are presented based on the characteristic of syngas evolution. The mixture of polyethylene and woodchips gasification provided superior results in terms of syngas yield, hydrogen yield, total hydrocarbons yield, energy yield and apparent thermal efficiency from polyethylene-woodchips blends as compared to expected weighed average yields from gasification of the individual components. A possible interaction mechanism has been established to explain the synergetic effect of co-gasification of woodchips and polyethylene. Kinetics of char gasification is presented with special consideration of sample temperature, catalytic effect of ash, geometric changes of pores inside char and diffusion limitations inside and outside the char particle.

Gomaa, Islam Ahmed

270

Gasification and shell characteristics in slurry droplet burning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the gasification process of the liquid component of freely falling carbon slurry droplets in a hot oxidizing environment is studied both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical model formulated describes droplet gasification as consisting of two periods: An initial period of regressing droplet size governed by the classical d²-law, and a subsequent d³-law period which the droplet size

A. Lee; C. K. Law

1991-01-01

271

Synthesis gas production with an adjustable H\\/CO ratio through the coal gasification process: effects of coal ranks and methane addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct production of synthesis gas using coal as a cheap feedstock is attractive but challenging due to its low H\\/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas. Three typical U.S. coals of different ranks were tested in a 2.5 in. coal gasifier to investigate their gasification reactivity and adjustability on H\\/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas with or without the addition of

Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jing Jin; Hongchang Zhou; Marten Cohron; Houying Zhao; Hongying Liu; Weiping Pan

2008-01-01

272

Process development studies in coal gasification. Volume I. Single stage catalytic hydrogenation of coal to high-Btu gas. Final report, August 1, 1979November 30, 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of single stage gasification of coal to high-Btu gas has been successfully demonstrated, both in the batch autoclave and continuous flow systems. High-volatile bituminous coals, a Wyoming subbituminous coal and Texas lignite have all performed well and produced high hydrocarbon gas yields at temperatures in the range 440 and 500°C and pressures in the range 1500 to 2000

1984-01-01

273

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project, Polk Power Station -- Unit No. 1. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994  

SciTech Connect

This describes the Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project which will use a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,300 tons per day of coal (dry basis) coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 Btu/scf (LHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product.

NONE

1995-05-01

274

Advanced Biomass Gasification Projects  

SciTech Connect

DOE has a major initiative under way to demonstrate two high-efficiency gasification systems for converting biomass into electricity. As this fact sheet explains, the Biomass Power Program is cost-sharing two scale-up projects with industry in Hawaii and Vermont that, if successful, will provide substantial market pull for U.S. biomass technologies, and provide a significant market edge over competing foreign technologies.

Not Available

1997-08-01

275

Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle  

SciTech Connect

Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

Judith A. Kieffer

2000-07-01

276

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

The project, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the project are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal; evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (e.g., temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. The eutectic catalysts increased gasification rate significantly. The methods of catalyst preparation and addition had significant effect on the catalytic activity and coal gasification. The incipient wetness method gave more uniform catalyst distribution than that of physical mixing for the soluble catalysts resulting in higher gasification rates for the incipient wetness samples. The catalytic activity increased by varying degrees with catalyst loading. The above results are especially important since the eutectic catalysts (with low melting points) yield significant gasification rates even at low temperatures. Among the ternary eutectic catalysts studied, the system 39% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-38.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-22.5% Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} showed the best activity and will be used for further bench scale fixed-bed gasification reactor in the next period. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies in the previous reporting period, the project team selected the 43.5% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed-bed studies at UTSI during this reporting period. Temperature was found to have a significant effect on the rate of gasification of coal. The rate of gasification increased up to 1400 F. Pressure did not have much effect on the gasification rates. The catalyst loading increased the gasification rate and approached complete conversion when 10 wt% of catalyst was added to the coal. Upon further increasing the catalyst amount to 20-wt% and above, there was no significant rise in gasification rate. The rate of gasification was lower for a 2:1 steam to char molar ratio (60%) compared to gasification rates at 3.4:1 molar ratio of steam-to-char where the conversion approached 100%. The characterization results of Georgia Tech are very preliminary and inconclusive and will be made available in the next report.

Unknown

1999-04-01

277

Coal to electricity - Integrated gasification combined cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An advanced energy conversion system - the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) - has been identified as an efficient and economical means of converting coal to electricity for utility application. Several demonstration projects on a near-commercial scale are approaching the construction stage. A coal conversion facility has been constructed to simulate the operational features of an IGCC. This process evaluation facility (PEF-scale) performs a dual function: (1) acquiring and processing data on the performance of the individual components - coal gasifier, gas clean up, and turbine simulator - that comprise the IGCC concept and (2) simulating the total system in an operational control mode that permits evaluation of system response to imposed load variations characteristic of utility operation. The results to date indicate that an efficient, economical IGCC can be designed so that the gasification/gas clean up plant and the power generation system operate compatibly to meet utility requirements in an environmentally acceptable manner.

Corman, J. C.

1982-04-01

278

The Use of Catalysts in Coal Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing and projected shortages of natural gas in the United States have stimulated extensive research to develop the technology for commercial production of synthetic high-Btu gases of pipeline quality. In this general effort, coal gasification has been given particular emphasis because of the extensive availability of coal as a natural re source in this country, and several large-scale process-development programs

James L. Johnson

1976-01-01

279

Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification  

DOEpatents

A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA); Salvador, Louis A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1981-01-01

280

Fundamental studies of catalytic gasification  

SciTech Connect

The major purpose of this project was to finding catalysts which will permit steam gasification of carbonaceous material at reasonable rates and at lower temperatures than currently practiced. This quarter, experiments with steam gasification of graphite were performed. Catalysts studied were potassium, calcium, and nickel oxides. Reaction kinetics are discussed. 28 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs.

Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

1991-06-01

281

Biomass thermochemical gasification: Experimental studies and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall goals of this research were to study the biomass thermochemical gasification using experimental and modeling techniques, and to evaluate the cost of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation. This dissertation includes an extensive review of progresses in biomass thermochemical gasification. Product gases from biomass gasification can be converted to biopower, biofuels and chemicals. However, for its viable commercial applications, the study summarizes the technical challenges in the gasification and downstream processing of product gas. Corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstocks. One of the objectives was to determine selected physical and chemical properties of corn stover related to thermochemical conversion. The parameters of the reaction kinetics for weight loss were obtained. The next objective was to investigate the effects of temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition and efficiencies. DDGS gasification was performed on a lab-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents and efficiencies. A model was developed to simulate the performance of a lab-scale gasifier using Aspen Plus(TM) software. Mass balance, energy balance and minimization of Gibbs free energy were applied for the gasification to determine the product gas composition. The final objective was to optimize the process by maximizing the net energy efficiency, and to estimate the cost of industrial gas, and combined heat and power (CHP) at a biomass feedrate of 2000 kg/h. The selling price of gas was estimated to be 11.49/GJ for corn stover, and 13.08/GJ for DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were 37 and 86%, respectively for corn stover, and 34 and 78%, respectively for DDGS. For corn stover, the selling price of electricity was 0.1351/kWh. For DDGS, the selling price of electricity was 0.1287/kWh.

Kumar, Ajay

282

Modeling of contaminant transport in underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

In order to study and discuss the impact of contaminants produced from underground coal gasification on groundwater, a coupled seepage-thermodynamics-transport model for underground gasification was developed on the basis of mass and energy conservation and pollutant-transport mechanisms, the mathematical model was solved by the upstream weighted multisell balance method, and the model was calibrated and verified against the experimental site data. The experiment showed that because of the effects of temperature on the surrounding rock of the gasification panel the measured pore-water-pressure was higher than the simulated one; except for in the high temperature zone where the simulation errors of temperature, pore water pressure, and contaminant concentration were relatively high, the simulation values of the overall gasification panel were well fitted with the measured values. As the gasification experiment progressed, the influence range of temperature field expanded, the gradient of groundwater pressure decreased, and the migration velocity of pollutant increased. Eleven months and twenty months after the test, the differences between maximum and minimum water pressure were 2.4 and 1.8 MPa, respectively, and the migration velocities of contaminants were 0.24-0.38 m/d and 0.27-0.46 m/d, respectively. It was concluded that the numerical simulation of the transport process for pollutants from underground coal gasification was valid. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Lanhe Yang; Xing Zhang [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources and Geosciences

2009-01-15

283

Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle  

DOEpatents

Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

Aiman, William R. (Livermore, CA); Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

1983-01-01

284

Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

Luche, J.; Falcoz, Q.; Bastien, T.; Leninger, J. P.; Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J. M.; Lédé, J.

2012-02-01

285

PNNL Coal Gasification Research  

SciTech Connect

This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

2010-07-28

286

Scientific breakthrough cuts coal gasification costs  

SciTech Connect

An Illinois scientist believes he has found a way to help coal gasification power plants like the Wabash River plant in Terre Haute, Ind., remove sulfur emissions while significantly cutting capital costs and increasing power plant revenues. Jim Swisher, E&A Associates chief scientist and partner, expects to know for sure very soon when seven tons of his zinc titanate pellets-a sulfur absorber that can be cleaned and reused perhaps 1,000 times-receive long-term performance testing at a General Electric coal gasifier in Schenectady, NY. Coal gasification, one of the nation`s most promising clean coal technologies, turns high-sulfur coal into low-sulfur coal gas. The problem with the process is that the coal gas, which is produced at temperatures that exceed 2,300 F, must be cooled to room temperature (about 70 F) before the sulfur can be removed.

Swisher, J.

1996-10-01

287

Supercritical droplet gasification experiments with forced convection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results of a comprehensive experimental program are presented which offer the first direct observations of suspended n-heptane droplet gasifications in pure nitrogen with forced convection without the interference to optical probing associated with a flame. Measurements show attainment of a wet-bulb temperature until reduced pressures exceed about 1.0 under supercritical gas temperatures. Thereafter, temperature measurements indicate fully transient heat-up through the critical temperature. The surface is found to regress in a continuous manner with the measured temperature approaching the critical value at the end of the droplet lifetime under supercritical conditions with very mild level of convection. At increased level of convection for the same ambient conditions, similar sized droplets will undergo significant deformation during the gasification process until partially convected away as a dense vapor cloud as the critical temperature is approached.

Litchford, Ron; Parigger, Chris; Jeng, San-Mou

1992-01-01

288

Apparatus and method for solar coal gasification  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called "synthesis gas", which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

Gregg, David W. (Moraga, CA)

1980-01-01

289

Solar heated fluidized bed gasification system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar-powered fluidized bed gasification system for gasifying carbonaceous material is presented. The system includes a solar gasifier which is heated by fluidizing gas and steam. Energy to heat the gas and steam is supplied by a high heat capacity refractory honeycomb which surrounds the fluid bed reactor zone. The high heat capacity refractory honeycomb is heated by solar energy focused on the honeycomb by solar concentrator through solar window. The fluid bed reaction zone is also heated directly and uniformly by thermal contact of the high heat capacity ceramic honeycomb with the walls of the fluidized bed reactor. Provisions are also made for recovering and recycling catalysts used in the gasification process. Back-up furnace is provided for start-up procedures and for supplying heat to the fluid bed reaction zone when adequate supplies of solar energy are not available.

Qader, S. A. (inventor)

1981-01-01

290

Supercritical droplet gasification experiments with forced convection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary results of a comprehensive experimental program are presented which offer the first direct observations of suspended n-heptane droplet gasifications in pure nitrogen with forced convection without the interference to optical probing associated with a flame. Measurements show attainment of a wet-bulb temperature until reduced pressures exceed about 1.0 under supercritical gas temperatures. Thereafter, temperature measurements indicate fully transient heat-up through the critical temperature. The surface is found to regress in a continuous manner with the measured temperature approaching the critical value at the end of the droplet lifetime under supercritical conditions with very mild level of convection. At increased level of convection for the same ambient conditions, similar sized droplets will undergo significant deformation during the gasification process until partially convected away as a dense vapor cloud as the critical temperature is approached.

Litchford, Ron; Parigger, Chris; Jeng, San-Mou

1992-07-01

291

Gasification in Fluidized Beds — Present Status & Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass has made great in-roads in its use in energy and chemical industries. Gasification is one of the major means for its conversion. For thermo-chemical conversion of biomass three major gas-solid contacting processes, fixed bed, entrained bed and fluidized bed are used. Various versions of fixed bed gasifier (up-draft, down-draft, and side-draft) proved successful but primarily in small capacity units while entrained bed reactors found favour in very large capacity units. Fluidized bed gasifier fills the important intermediate size range. A review of the current commercial use of fluidized bed gasifier shows that it is yet to take the centre stage in the gasification market. This paper examines the issues preventing wider scale use of fluidized bed gasifier and what is the current state of research in those issues.

Basu, Prabir; Acharya, Bishnu; Dutra, Animesh

292

Recovery of zinc and lead from fly ash from ash-melting and gasification-melting processes of MSW--comparison and applicability of chemical leaching methods.  

PubMed

Fly ash generated from MSW ash-melting and gasification-melting plants, known as Melting Furnace Fly Ash (MFA), contains considerable amounts of heavy metals such as Pb and Zn. These metals can be recovered using a smelting furnace after "pre-treatment" for removal of unnecessary elements such as Cl, Sn and Si. Chemical methods have been studied for pretreatment in the past. However, they have been discussed only with regard to treatment cost and the concentration of Pb and Zn recovered, but neither applicability to various types of MFA nor the environmental impact have been considered. In this study, acid, alkaline and ammonia/chloride leaching methods were compared from the standpoints of: (1) applicability to MFA, (2) concentration of Pb and Zn recovered, (3) treatment cost, and (4) environmental impact. Twenty-three samples of MFAs were collected and classified into 4 types based on element contents. A Pb and Zn recovery experiment was conducted for the representative MFA of those types. The results showed: (1) MFA from gasification-melting plants cannot be treated by chemical methods; (2) the other MFA can be treated to an acceptable quality by existing smelting furnaces; (3) only MFA from electric resistance ash-melting plants can be treated easily by the water washing method; and (4) alkaline and ammonia/chloride leaching methods were more effective than acid leaching. PMID:16488594

Okada, T; Tojo, Y; Tanaka, N; Matsuto, T

2007-01-01

293

Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production.  

PubMed

Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H(2)) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify(®)) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration. PMID:23726119

Arafat, Hassan A; Jijakli, Kenan

2013-08-01

294

Hydrogen manufacture by Lurgi gasification of Oklahoma coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advantages and disadvantages of using the Lurgi gasification process to produce hydrogen from Oklahoma coal are listed. Special attention was given to the production of heat for the process; heat is generated by burning part of pretreated coal in the steam generator. Overall performance of the Lurgi process is summarized in tabular form.

1975-01-01

295

Gasification of refuse derived fuel in the Battelle high throughput gasification system  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an experimental program to demonstrate the suitability of the Battelle High Throughput Gasification Process to non-wood biomass fuels. An extensive data base on wood gasification was generated during a multi-year experimental program. This data base and subsequent design and economic analysis activities led to the discussion to study the gasification character of other fuels. The specific fuel studied was refuse derived fuel (RDF) which is a prepared municipal solid waste (MSW). The use of RDF, while providing a valuable fuel, can also provide a solution to MSW disposal problems. Gasification of MSW provides advantages over land fill or mass burn technology since a more usable form of energy, medium Btu gas, is produced. Land filling of wastes produces no usable products and mass burning while greatly reducing the volume of wastes for disposal can produce only steam. This steam must be used on site or very nearby this limiting the potential locations for mass burn facilities. Such a gas, if produced from currently available supplies of MSW, can contribute 2 quads to the US energy supply. 3 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

Paisley, M.A.; Creamer, K.S.; Tweksbury, T.L.; Taylor, D.R. (Battelle Columbus Div., Washington, DC (USA))

1989-07-01

296

Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix A: Coal gasification catalog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scope of work in preparing the Coal Gasification Data Catalog included the following subtasks: (1) candidate system subsystem definition, (2) raw materials analysis, (3) market analysis for by-products, (4) alternate products analysis, (5) preliminary integrated facility requirements. Definition of candidate systems/subsystems includes the identity of and alternates for each process unit, raw material requirements, and the cost and design drivers for each process design.

1980-01-01

297

Co-gasification of solid waste and lignite - a case study for Western Macedonia.  

PubMed

Co-gasification of solid waste and coal is a very attractive and efficient way of generating power, but also an alternative way, apart from conventional technologies such as incineration and landfill, of treating waste materials. The technology of co-gasification can result in very clean power plants using a wide range of solid fuels but there are considerable economic and environmental challenges. The aim of this study is to present the available existing co-gasification techniques and projects for coal and solid wastes and to investigate the techno-economic feasibility, concerning the installation and operation of a 30MW(e) co-gasification power plant based on integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, using lignite and refuse derived fuel (RDF), in the region of Western Macedonia prefecture (WMP), Greece. The gasification block was based on the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) gasifier, while the gas clean-up block was based on cold gas purification. The competitive advantages of co-gasification systems can be defined both by the fuel feedstock and production flexibility but also by their environmentally sound operation. It also offers the benefit of commercial application of the process by-products, gasification slag and elemental sulphur. Co-gasification of coal and waste can be performed through parallel or direct gasification. Direct gasification constitutes a viable choice for installations with capacities of more than 350MW(e). Parallel gasification, without extensive treatment of produced gas, is recommended for gasifiers of small to medium size installed in regions where coal-fired power plants operate. The preliminary cost estimation indicated that the establishment of an IGCC RDF/lignite plant in the region of WMP is not profitable, due to high specific capital investment and in spite of the lower fuel supply cost. The technology of co-gasification is not mature enough and therefore high capital requirements are needed in order to set up a direct co-gasification plant. The cost of electricity estimated was not competitive, compared to the prices dominating the Greek electricity market and thus further economic evaluation is required. The project would be acceptable if modular construction of the unit was first adopted near operating power plants, based on parallel co-gasification, and gradually incorporating the remaining process steps (gas purification, power generation) with the aim of eventually establishing a true direct co-gasification plant. PMID:17631995

Koukouzas, N; Katsiadakis, A; Karlopoulos, E; Kakaras, E

2008-01-01

298

MODELLING THE LOW-TAR BIG GASIFICATION CONCEPT Lars Andersen, Brian Elmegaard, Bjrn Qvale, Ulrik Henriksen  

E-print Network

and gasification chamber are bubbling fluid beds, fluidised with steam. For moist fuels, the gasifier can be integrated with a steam drying process, where the produced steam is used in the pyrolysis plant systems: Gas engine, Simple cycle gas turbine, Recuperated gas turbine and Integrated Gasification

299

Catalytic effects in coal gasification. Quarterly report, January-March 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

This summarizes the activities of Sandia National Laboratories' program on mineral matter effects in coal gasification. The objective of this program is to deverop a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of the catalytic effects of mineral matter on coal gasification, and to use this knowledge for future process improvements. We have performed experiments to ascertain the mechanism of the catalytic

T. D. Padrick; D. D. Dees

1981-01-01

300

Catalytic effects in coal gasification. Quarterly report, October-December 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

This quarterly report summarizes the activities of Sandia National Laboratories' program on mineral matter effects in coal gasification. The objective of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of the catalytic effects of mineral matter on coal gasification, and to use this knowledge as the impetus for future process improvements. We have identified reduced iron as

T. D. Padrick; D. D. Dees

1981-01-01

301

Catalytic effects in coal gasification. Quarterly report, April-June 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

This quarterly report, for the period April through June 1981, summarizes the activities of Sandia National Laboratories' program on mineral matter effects in coal gasification. The objective of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of the catalytic effects of mineral matter in coal gasification, and to use this knowledge for future process improvements. Experiments using

T. D. Padrick; D. E. Trudell

1982-01-01

302

Coal gasification. Quarterly report, January-March 1979. [US DOE supported  

SciTech Connect

Progress in DOE-supported coal gasification pilot plant projects is reported: company, location, contract number, funding, process description, history and progress in the current quarter. Two support projects are discussed: preparation of a technical data book and mathematical modeling of gasification reactors. (LTN)

None

1980-01-01

303

COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: LOW- AND MEDIUM-BTU WASTEWATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a compilation of environmental characterization data for wastewaters from low- and medium-Btu coal gasification facilities. Fixed-bed, entrained-bed, and ash-agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification processes were examined. The fixed-bed gasifiers are the Chapm...

304

Distributed optical fiber temperature sensor applied in underground coal gasification system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed optical fiber temperature sensor (DTS) for underground coal gasification (UCG) system using is studied in this paper. By measuring temperature of reacting mine gasification process can be controlled. Calibration of DTS and experiment result are introduced. The results show that, DTS can play an important role in UCG systems.

Wang, Jianfeng; Hu, Chuanlong; Zhang, Zaixuan; Gong, Huaping; Jin, Yongxing; Shen, Changyu

2010-12-01

305

Separating hydrogen from coal gasification gases with alumina membranes  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis gas produced in coal gasification processes contains hydrogen, along with carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, water, nitrogen, and other gases, depending on the particular gasification process. Development of membrane technology to separate the hydrogen from the raw gas at the high operating temperatures and pressures near exit gas conditions would improve the efficiency of the process. Tubular porous alumina membranes with mean pore radii ranging from about 9 to 22 {Angstrom} have been fabricated and characterized. Based on hydrostatic tests, the burst strength of the membranes ranged from 800 to 1600 psig, with a mean value of about 1300 psig. These membranes were evaluated for separating hydrogen and other gases. Tests of membrane permeabilities were made with helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. Measurements were made at room temperature in the pressure range of 15 to 589 psi. Selected membranes were tested further with mixed gases simulating a coal gasification product gas. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Egan, B.Z. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E.; White, D.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA))

1991-01-01

306

Hydrogen recovery from the thermal plasma gasification of solid waste.  

PubMed

Thermal plasma gasification has been demonstrated as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization in many of studies. Therefore, the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification (paper mill waste, 1.2 ton/day) was applied for the recovery of high purity H(2) (>99.99%). Gases emitted from a gasification furnace equipped with a nontransferred thermal plasma torch were purified using a bag-filter and wet scrubber. Thereafter, the gases, which contained syngas (CO+H(2)), were introduced into a H(2) recovery system, consisting largely of a water gas shift (WGS) unit for the conversion of CO to H(2) and a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit for the separation and purification of H(2). It was successfully demonstrated that the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification, combined with the WGS and PSA, produced high purity H(2) (20 N m(3)/h (400 H(2)-Nm(3)/PMW-ton), up to 99.99%) using a plasma torch with 1.6 MWh/PMW-ton of electricity. The results presented here suggest that the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification for the production of high purity H(2) may provide a new approach as a future energy infrastructure based on H(2). PMID:21497018

Byun, Youngchul; Cho, Moohyun; Chung, Jae Woo; Namkung, Won; Lee, Hyeon Don; Jang, Sung Duk; Kim, Young-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Carg-Ro; Hwang, Soon-Mo

2011-06-15

307

Coproduction of peaking fuels in IGCC power plants: a process-screening study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated and compared various options for processing a portion of the medium BTU gas (MBG) produced in a coal gasification combined cycle (GCC) power plant to produce a fuel which might be suitable for peaking or intermediate load use. Two alternate objectives were investigated in separate phases of the study. The first phase examined options for processing and storing a fuel which could be withdrawn and used in absorbing daily load swings in power generation demand. The second phase investigated options for meeting the seasonal peaks in gas demand of a joint gas/electric utility by converting a portion of the MBG to substitute natural gas (SNG) during the months of peak gas demand. For each phase, process designs and cost estimates were completed for several cases, based on both Texaco and BGC-Lurgi Slagging Gasification Technology. For the purposes of this screening study, it was assumed that the peaking fuel production facilities are incremental to the base GCC plant. The costs to produce and store the peaking fuel, excluding the cost of the MBG feed, were calculated by the revenue requirement method. Various sensitivities were evaluated on case assumptions, including a sensitivity to MBG feed value. For daily peaking use, the co-production of methanol and electricity by the ''once-through'' scheme (as studied in EPRI Report AP-2212) proved the most attractive option. Other options which produced gaseous fuels (hydrogen or SNG) for on-site storage were at least 30% more costly. Storage of SNG in an existing natural gas pipeline system was at least 10% higher, excluding pipeline charges. For seasonal SNG production there was little difference between the options studied, within the accuracy of the estimates. 13 refs., 72 tabs.

Shenoy, T.A.; Solomon, J.; O'Brien, V.J.

1986-07-01

308

Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF). Final report  

SciTech Connect

The gasifier selected for development under this contract is an innovative and patented hybrid technology which combines the best features of both fixed-bed and fluidized-bed types. PyGas{trademark}, meaning Pyrolysis Gasification, is well suited for integration into advanced power cycles such as IGCC. It is also well matched to hot gas clean-up technologies currently in development. Unlike other gasification technologies, PyGas can be designed into both large and small scale systems. It is expected that partial repowering with PyGas could be done at a cost of electricity of only 2.78 cents/kWh, more economical than natural gas repowering. It is extremely unfortunate that Government funding for such a noble cause is becoming reduced to the point where current contracts must be canceled. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project was initiated to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology at a cost approaching $1,000 per kilowatt for electric power generation applications. The project was to include an innovative, advanced, air-blown, pressurized, fixed-bed, dry-bottom gasifier and a follow-on hot metal oxide gas desulfurization sub-system. To help defray the cost of testing materials, the facility was to be located at a nearby utility coal fired generating site. The patented PyGas{trademark} technology was selected via a competitive bidding process as the candidate which best fit overall DOE objectives. The paper describes the accomplishments to date.

NONE

1995-09-01

309

Gasification behavior of carbon residue in bed solids of black liquor gasifier  

SciTech Connect

Steam gasification of carbon residue in bed solids of a low-temperature black liquor gasifier was studied using a thermogravimetric system at 3 bar. Complete gasification of the carbon residue, which remained unreactive at 600 C, was achieved in about 10 min as the temperature increased to 800 C. The rate of gasification and its temperature dependence were evaluated from the non-isothermal experiment results. Effects of particle size and adding H{sub 2} and CO to the gasification agent were also studied. The rate of steam gasification could be taken as zero order in carbon until 80% of carbon was gasified, and for the rest of the gasification process the rate appeared to be first order in carbon. The maximum rate of carbon conversion was around 0.003/s and the activation energy was estimated to be in the range of 230-300 kJ/mol. The particle size did not show significant effect on the rate of gasification. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide appeared to retard the onset of the gasification process. (author)

Preto, Fernando; Zhang, Xiaojie (Frank); Wang, Jinsheng [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources (Canada)

2008-07-15

310

Fossil fuel gasification technical evaluation services. Topical report 1978-80  

SciTech Connect

The Exxon, Mountain Fuel, Cities Service/Rockwell, Westinghouse, BGC slagging Lurgi and Peatgas processes for fossil fuel gasification were evaluated. The Lurgi and HYGAS processes had been evaluated in earlier studies. For producing SNG from coal, only the Westinghouse conceptual design appeared competitive with HYGAS on eastern coal. All coal gasification processes were competitive with or better than Lurgi on eastern coal. The Mountain Fuel process was more costly than Lurgi or HYGAS on a western coal.

Detman, R.F.

1982-12-30

311

Solar gasification of biomass: design and characterization of a molten salt gasification reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and implementation of a prototype molten salt solar reactor for gasification of biomass is a significant milestone in the development of a solar gasification process. The reactor developed in this work allows for 3 kWth operation with an average aperture flux of 1530 suns at salt temperatures of 1200 K with pneumatic injection of ground or powdered dry biomass feedstocks directly into the salt melt. Laboratory scale experiments in an electrically heated reactor demonstrate the benefits of molten salt and the data was evaluated to determine the kinetics of pyrolysis and gasification of biomass or carbon in molten salt. In the presence of molten salt overall gas yields are increased by up to 22%; pyrolysis rates double due to improved heat transfer, while carbon gasification rates increase by an order of magnitude. Existing kinetic models for cellulose pyrolysis fit the data well, while carbon gasification in molten salt follows kinetics modeled with a 2/3 order shrinking-grain model with a pre-exponential factor of 1.5*106 min-1 and activation energy of 158 kJ/mol. A reactor concept is developed based around a concentric cylinder geometry with a cavity-style solar receiver immersed within a volume of molten carbonate salt. Concentrated radiation delivered to the cavity is absorbed in the cavity walls and transferred via convection to the salt volume. Feedstock is delivered into the molten salt volume where biomass gasification reactions will be carried out producing the desired product gas. The features of the cavity receiver/reactor concept are optimized based on modeling of the key physical processes. The cavity absorber geometry is optimized according to a parametric survey of radiative exchange using a Monte Carlo ray tracing model, resulting in a cavity design that achieves absorption efficiencies of 80%-90%. A parametric survey coupling the radiative exchange simulations to a CFD model of molten salt natural convection is used to size the annulus containing the molten salt to maximize utilization of absorbed solar energy, resulting in a predicted utilization efficiency of 70%. Finite element analysis was used to finalize the design to achieve acceptable thermal stresses less than 34.5 MPa to avoid material creep.

Hathaway, Brandon Jay

312

Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping  

SciTech Connect

For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2} separation, and also syngas production from coal with the calcium sulfide (CaS)/calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) loop utilizing the PDU facility. The results of Phase I were reported in Reference 1, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase I Report' The objective for Phase II was to develop the carbonate loop--lime (CaO)/calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) loop, integrate it with the gasification loop from Phase I, and ultimately demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen production from the combined loops. The results of this program were reported in Reference 3, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase II Report'. The objective of Phase III is to operate the pilot plant to obtain enough engineering information to design a prototype of the commercial Chemical Looping concept. The activities include modifications to the Phase II Chemical Looping PDU, solids transportation studies, control and instrumentation studies and additional cold flow modeling. The deliverable is a report making recommendations for preliminary design guidelines for the prototype plant, results from the pilot plant testing and an update of the commercial plant economic estimates.

Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

2009-01-07

313

Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research  

SciTech Connect

This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

None

1980-04-01

314

Thermodynamics Analysis of Refinery Sludge Gasification in Adiabatic Updraft Gasifier  

PubMed Central

Limited information is available about the thermodynamic evaluation for biomass gasification process using updraft gasifier. Therefore, to minimize errors, the gasification of dry refinery sludge (DRS) is carried out in adiabatic system at atmospheric pressure under ambient air conditions. The objectives of this paper are to investigate the physical and chemical energy and exergy of product gas at different equivalent ratios (ER). It will also be used to determine whether the cold gas, exergy, and energy efficiencies of gases may be maximized by using secondary air injected to gasification zone under various ratios (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5) at optimum ER of 0.195. From the results obtained, it is indicated that the chemical energy and exergy of producer gas are magnified by 5 and 10 times higher than their corresponding physical values, respectively. The cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies of DRS gasification are in the ranges of 22.9–55.5%, 43.7–72.4%, and 42.5–50.4%, respectively. Initially, all 3 efficiencies increase until they reach a maximum at the optimum ER of 0.195; thereafter, they decline with further increase in ER values. The injection of secondary air to gasification zone is also found to increase the cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies. A ratio of secondary air to primary air of 0.5 is found to be the optimum ratio for all 3 efficiencies to reach the maximum values. PMID:24672368

Ahmed, Reem; Sinnathambi, Chandra M.; Eldmerdash, Usama; Subbarao, Duvvuri

2014-01-01

315

Characterization of cellulosic wastes and gasification products from chicken farms  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The gas chromatography indicated the variable quality of the producer gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The char had appreciable NPK values, and can be used as a fertiliser. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bio-oil produced was of poor quality, having high moisture content and low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mass and energy balances showed inadequate level energy recovery from the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Future work includes changing the operating parameters of the gasification unit. - Abstract: The current article focuses on gasification as a primary disposal solution for cellulosic wastes derived from chicken farms, and the possibility to recover energy from this process. Wood shavings and chicken litter were characterized with a view to establishing their thermal parameters, compositional natures and calorific values. The main products obtained from the gasification of chicken litter, namely, producer gas, bio-oil and char, were also analysed in order to establish their potential as energy sources. The experimental protocol included bomb calorimetry, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), mineral content analyses and gas chromatography. The mass and energy balances of the gasification unit were also estimated. The results obtained confirmed that gasification is a viable method of chicken litter disposal. In addition to this, it is also possible to recover some energy from the process. However, energy content in the gas-phase was relatively low. This might be due to the low energy efficiency (19.6%) of the gasification unit, which could be improved by changing the operation parameters.

Joseph, Paul, E-mail: p.joseph@ulster.ac.uk [School of the Built Environment and the Built Environment Research Institute, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, County Antrim, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana; McKenna, Siobhan [School of the Built Environment and the Built Environment Research Institute, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, County Antrim, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

2012-04-15

316

June 2007 gasification technologies workshop papers  

SciTech Connect

Topics covered in this workshop are fundamentals of gasification, carbon capture and sequestration, reviews of financial and regulatory incentives, co-production, and focus on gasification in the Western US.

NONE

2007-06-15

317

Technology Assessment Report: Aqueous Sludge Gasification Technologies  

EPA Science Inventory

The study reveals that sludge gasification is a potentially suitable alternative to conventional sludge handling and disposal methods. However, very few commercial operations are in existence. The limited pilot, demonstration or commercial application of gasification technology t...

318

Evaluation of gasification and gas-cleanup processes for use in molten-carbonate fuel-cell power plants. Task D topical report summary analyses  

SciTech Connect

In previous tasks, ten coal gas system configurations were chosen for fuel supply to MCFC power plants. In this report, we have ranked configurations by efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effects. The ranking shows that, for MCFC power plants, air-blown, low-Btu, fluidized-bed or entrained-bed gasification systems with hot gas cleanup have cost, operability, efficiency, and environmental advantages over other systems. The cost of electricity, for example, from a hot-gas cleanup, low-Btu, fluidized-bed fuel supply system is 12 percent less than from a medium-Btu system with hot cleanup, and is about 20 percent less than a medium-Btu system with conventional wet, low-temperature cleanup. Additional development of hot cleanup systems is required. Hot halogen removal costs used in this report need to have experimental verification, as does the effectiveness of ZnO for removing H/sub 2/S/COS to below 1 ppM at 650/sup 0/C. Also, the availability of a more effective hot bulk desulfurization system, such as the zinc ferrite system now under development by DOE/METC, would have additional benefits in cost and efficiency for MCFC power plants.

Vidt, E.J.

1982-06-08

319

Biodesulfurization of mild gasification liquid products. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The mild gasification of coal, as being developed at IGT and elsewhere, is a promising new technology that can convert coal to multiple products: gas, solid, and liquids. Mild gasification liquids can be used as feedstock to make transportation fuels and chemicals. However, the sulfur content and aromaticity of mild gasification liquids limits their usefulness and biodesulfurization can potentially decrease both sulfur content and aromaticity. The objective of this project is to investigate the feasibility of using biodesulfurization to upgrade the quality of mild gasification liquids. During the current quarter a laboratory-scale mild gasification reactor was used to produce additional liquid derived from IBC-105 coal. The liquid has an organic sulfur content of 2.88%. The biocatalyst is apparently inhibited by chemical constituents in the light oil fraction of mild coal gasification liquids, but functions quite well in other liquid fractions or in unfractionated mild coal gasification liquid. Even when excess biocatalyst is used, approximately 12% of the organosulfur compounds appear to be recalcitrant to biodesulfurization. Biodesulfurization tests utilizing membrane fragments purified from IGTS8 and freeze-dried IGTS8 cell preparations added directly to mild coal gasification liquids have been performed. The processing and analysis of those samples is currently under way.

Kilbanes, J.J. II [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ho, K. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

1993-05-01

320

Coal gasification: Direct applications and syntheses of chemicals and fuels: A research needs assessment  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Working Group for an Assessment of Coal-Gasification Research Needs (COGARN - coal gasification advanced research needs) has reviewed and evaluated US programs dealing with coal gasification for a variety of applications. Cost evaluations and environmental-impact assessments formed important components of the deliberations. We have examined in some depth each of the following technologies: coal gasification for electricity generation in combined-cycle systems, coal gasification for the production of synthetic natural gas, coal gasifiers for direct electricity generation in fuel cells, and coal gasification for the production of synthesis gas as a first step in the manufacture of a wide variety of chemicals and fuels. Both catalytic and non-catalytic conversion processes were considered. In addition, we have constructed an orderly, long-range research agenda on coal science, pyrolysis, and partial combustion in order to support applied research and development relating to coal gasification over the long term. The COGARN studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research needs in fuel utilization that involves coal gasification as the dominant or an important component. The findings and research recommendations of COGARN are summarized in this publication.

Penner, S.S.; Alpert, S.B.; Beer, J.M.; Denn, M.; Haag, W.; Magee, R.; Reichl, E.; Rubin, E.S.; Solomon, P.R.; Wender, I.

1987-06-01

321

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3% KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

2000-04-01

322

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures,'' covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3%KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

1998-10-01

323

Thermophysical models of underground coal gasification and FEM analysis  

SciTech Connect

In this study, mathematical models of the coupled thermohydromechanical process of coal rock mass in an underground coal gasification panel are established. Combined with the calculation example, the influence of heating effects on the observed values and simulated values for pore water pressure, stress, and displacement in the gasification panel are fully discussed and analyzed. Calculation results indicate that 38, 62, and 96 days after the experiment, the average relative errors for the calculated values and measured values for the temperature and water pressure were between 8.51-11.14% and 3-10%, respectively; with the passage of gasification time, the calculated errors for the vertical stress and horizontal stress gradually declined, but the simulated errors for the horizontal and vertical displacements both showed a rising trend. On the basis of the research results, the calculated values and the measured values agree with each other very well.

Yang, L.H. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2007-11-15

324

Gasification in Fluidized Beds — Present Status & Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biomass has made great in-roads in its use in energy and chemical industries. Gasification is one of the major means for its\\u000a conversion. For thermo-chemical conversion of biomass three major gas-solid contacting processes, fixed bed, entrained bed\\u000a and fluidized bed are used. Various versions of fixed bed gasifier (up-draft, down-draft, and side-draft) proved successful\\u000a but primarily in small capacity units

Prabir Basu; Bishnu Acharya; Animesh Dutra

2010-01-01

325

Effect of Microwave Pre-Processing of Pelletized Biomass on its Gasification and Combustion / Mikrovi?nu Priekšapstr?des Ietekme Uz Granul?tas Biomasas Gazifik?cijas Un Degšanas Procesiem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To effectively produce clean heat energy from biomass, microwave (mw) pre-processing of its different types - pelletized wood (spruce), herbaceous biomass (reed canary grass) and their mixture (50:50) - was carried out at the 2.45 GHz frequency with different durations of biomass exposure to high-frequency oscillations. To estimate the mw pre-processing effect on the structure, composition and fuel characteristics of biomass, its thermogravimetric (TG), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements and elemental analysis were made. The pre-processing is shown to enhance the release of moisture and low-calorific volatiles and the partial destruction of biomass constituents (hemicelluloses, cellulose), promoting variations in the elemental composition and heating values of biomass. The field-enhanced variations of biomass characteristics and their influence on its gasification and combustion were studied using an integrated system of a biomass gasifier and a combustor with swirl-enhanced stabilization of the flame reaction zone. The results show that the mw pre-processing of biomass pellets provides a faster weight loss at the gasification, and, therefore, faster ignition and combustion of the activated pellets along with increased output of heat energy at their burnout Veikti kompleksi eksperiment?lie p?t?jumi par mikrovi??u (2,45 GHz) priekšapstr?des ietekmi uz daž?das izcelsmes biomasas granulu (egles, miežabr??a un to mais?jumu 50:50) gazifik?cijas un degšanas procesiem. P?t?jumi apvieno granul?t?s biomasas element?r? sast?va un termogravimetriskos m?r?jumus, k? ar? granul?t?s biomasas gazifik?cijas un degšanas procesu kompleksu izp?ti, apvienojot biomasas svara izmai?u kin?tiskos m?r?jumus ar degšanas zonas temperat?ras, iek?rtas jaudas un degšanas produktu sast?va kin?tiskiem m?r?jumiem. P?t?jumiem izmantota mazas jaudas eksperiment?l? iek?rta (l?dz 2,5 kW), kuru veido integr?ts gazifik?tors un degšanas kamera. P?t?jumu rezult?t? konstat?ts, ka mikrovi??u priekšapstr?de nodrošina intens?v?ku biomasas gazifik?ciju, ?tr?ku gaistošo savienojumu veidošanos, uzliesmošanu un piln?g?ku sadedzin?šanu ar sekojošu saražot?s ?patn?j? siltuma ener?ijas pieaugumu

Barmina, I.; L?ckrasti?a, A.; Valdmanis, J.; Valdmanis, R.; Za?e, M.; Arshanitsa, A.; Telysheva, G.; Solodovnik, V.

2013-08-01

326

Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: • Study developed a methodology for the evaluation of gasification for MSW treatment. • Study was conducted comparatively for USA, UAE, and Thailand. • Study applies a thermodynamic model (Gibbs free energy minimization) using the Gasify software. • The energy efficiency of the process and the compatibility with different waste streams was studied. - Abstract: Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify®) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration.

Arafat, Hassan A., E-mail: harafat@masdar.ac.ae; Jijakli, Kenan

2013-08-15

327

Gasification and effect of gasifying temperature on syngas quality and tar generation: A short review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion, erosion and plugging of the downstream equipments by tar and ash particle and, low energy content of syngas are the main problems of biomass gasification process. This paper attempts to review the findings of literature on the effect of temperature on syngas quality, and in alleviating the tar and ash problems in the gasification process. The review of literature indicates that as the gasification temperature increases, concentration of the resulting H2 and carbon conversion efficiency increase, the amount of tar in the syngas decreases. For the same condition, CH4 and CO concentration do not show consistent trend when the feedstock and gasification process varies. These necessitate the need for conducting an experiment for a particular gasification process and feedstock to understand fully the benefits of controlling the gasification temperature. This paper also tries to propose a method to improve the syngas quality and to reduce the tar amount by using preheated air and superheated steam as a gasifying media for oil palm fronds (OPF) gasification.

Guangul, Fiseha Mekonnen; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Raghavan, Vijay R.

2012-06-01

328

Coal gasification: A multiple talent  

SciTech Connect

Coal Gasification is on a pressurized route to commercial application. Ground breaking was performed by the Cool Water, Tennessee Eastman and UBE plants. Now several technical and commercial demonstrations are underway not only to show the readiness of the technology for commercial application. Another goal is further developed to reduce costs and to rise efficiency. The main feature of coal gasification is that it transforms a difficult-to-handle fuel into an easy-to-handle one. Through a high efficient gas-turbine cycle-power production becomes easy, efficient and clean. Between gasification and power production several more or less difficult hurdles have to be taken. In the past several studies and R and D work have been performed by Novem as by others to get insight in these steps. Goals were to develop easier, more efficient and less costly performance of the total combination for power production. This paper will give an overview of these studies and developments to be expected. Subjects will be fuel diversification, gas treating and the combination of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle with several cycle and production of chemical products. As a conclusion a guide will be given on the way to a clean, efficient and commercial acceptable application of coal gasification. A relation to other emerging technologies for power production with coal will be presented.

Schreurs, H.

1996-12-31

329

Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER  

SciTech Connect

ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

Steve Colt

2008-12-31

330

Energy from gasification of solid wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification technology is by no means new: in the 1850s, most of the city of London was illuminated by “town gas” produced from the gasification of coal. Nowadays, gasification is the main technology for biomass conversion to energy and an attractive alternative for the thermal treatment of solid waste. The number of different uses of gas shows the flexibility of

V. Belgiorno; G. De Feo; C. Della Rocca; R. M. A. Napoli

2003-01-01

331

Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.  

PubMed

Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward. PMID:12046301

Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

2002-04-01

332

COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: SULFUR AND NITROGEN SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes data on sulfur and nitrogen species from the source test and environmental assessment studies of low- and medium-Btu gasification processes which were sponsored by the EPA between 1977 and 1981. The data are focused on the composition and distribution of the...

333

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF LOW/MEDIUM BTU GASIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes completed and on-going work performed by Radian Corporation for the EPA in the area of environmental assessment of low- and medium-Btu gasification of coal and its utilization. Main areas discussed are the current process technology background, environmental...

334

Characteristics of cardboard and paper gasification with CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary behavior of syngas chemical composition and yield have been examined for paper and cardboard at three different temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000°C using CO2 as the gasifying agent at constant flow rate. Specifically the evolution of syngas chemical composition with time has been investigated. Pyrolysis of the sample was dominant at the beginning of the gasification process as

I. Ahmed; A. K. Gupta

2009-01-01

335

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July--September 1993) and the 1993 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, has completed the construction of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). ENCOAL submitted an application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project was selected by DOE in December, 1989 and the Cooperative Agreement approved in September, 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL mild coal gasification facility was completed in June of 1992, and the project is currently in the operations phase. Some plant modifications have been required and are discussed in this report.

Not Available

1993-10-01

336

Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products via the catalytic gasification of biomass. This report presents the results of research conducted from December 1977 to October 1980. The study was comprised of laboratory studies, process development, and economic analyses. The laboratory studies were conducted to develop operating conditions and catalyst systems for generating methane-rich gas, synthesis gases, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide; these studies also developed techniques for catalyst recovery, regeneration, and recycling. A process development unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to evaluate laboratory systems at conditions approximating commercial operations. The economic analyses, performed by Davy McKee, Inc. for PNL, evaluated the feasibility of adapting the wood-to-methane and wood-to-methanol processes to full-scale commercial operations. Plants were designed in the economic analyses to produce fuel-grade methanol from wood and substitute natural gas (SNG) from wood via catalytic gasification with steam.

Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

1981-01-01

337

Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix D: Cost and economic studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detailed cost estimate documentation for the designs prepared in this study are presented. The include: (1) Koppers-Totzek, (2) Texaco (3) Babcock and Wilcox, (4) BGC-Lurgi, and (5) Lurgi. The alternate product cost estimates include: (1) Koppers-Totzek and Texaco single product facilities (methane, methanol, gasoline, hydrogen), (2) Kopers-Totzek SNG and MBG, (3) Kopers-Totzek and Texaco SNG and MBG, and (4) Lurgi-methane and Lurgi-methane and methanol.

1980-01-01

338

Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary eutectic salt mixture consisting of Li- Na- and K- carbonates has the potential as gasification catalyst. To verify the literature reported, melting points for various compositions consisting of these three salts and the temperature range over which the mixture remained molten were determined in the lab. For mixtures with different concentrations of the three salts, the temperatures at which the mixtures were found to be in complete molten state were recorded. By increasing the amount of Li2CO3, the melting temperature range was reduced significantly. In the literature, the eutectic mixtures of Li- Na- and K-carbonates are claimed to have a lower activation energy than that of K2CO3 alone and they remain molten at a lower temperature than pure K2CO3. The slow increase in the gasification rates with eutectics reported in the literature is believed to be due to a gradual penetration of the coals and coal char particles by the molten and viscous catalyst phase. The even spreading of the salt phase seems to increase the overall carbon conversion rate. In the next reporting period, a number of eutectic salts and methods of their application on the coal will be identified and tested.

Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

1998-12-04

339

High temperature air-blown woody biomass gasification model for the estimation of an entrained down-flow gasifier.  

PubMed

A high temperature air-blown gasification model for woody biomass is developed based on an air-blown gasification experiment. A high temperature air-blown gasification experiment on woody biomass in an entrained down-flow gasifier is carried out, and then the simple gasification model is developed based on the experimental results. In the experiment, air-blown gasification is conducted to demonstrate the behavior of this process. Pulverized wood is used as the gasification fuel, which is injected directly into the entrained down-flow gasifier by the pulverized wood banner. The pulverized wood is sieved through 60 mesh and supplied at rates of 19 and 27kg/h. The oxygen-carbon molar ratio (O/C) is employed as the operational condition instead of the air ratio. The maximum temperature achievable is over 1400K when the O/C is from 1.26 to 1.84. The results show that the gas composition is followed by the CO-shift reaction equilibrium. Therefore, the air-blown gasification model is developed based on the CO-shift reaction equilibrium. The simple gasification model agrees well with the experimental results. From calculations in large-scale units, the cold gas is able to achieve 80% efficiency in the air-blown gasification, when the woody biomass feedrate is over 1000kg/h and input air temperature is 700K. PMID:18653324

Kobayashi, Nobusuke; Tanaka, Miku; Piao, Guilin; Kobayashi, Jun; Hatano, Shigenobu; Itaya, Yoshinori; Mori, Shigekatsu

2009-01-01

340

BIMOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT PLANT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

341

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC22  

SciTech Connect

In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC22, the first test campaign using a high moisture lignite from Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC22 was conducted from March 24 to April 17, 2007. The gasification process was operated for 543 hours, increasing the total gasification operation at the PSDF to over 10,000 hours. The PSDF gasification process was operated in air-blown mode with a total of about 1,080 tons of coal. Coal feeder operation was challenging due to the high as-received moisture content of the lignite, but adjustments to the feeder operating parameters reduced the frequency of coal feeder trips. Gasifier operation was stable, and carbon conversions as high as 98.9 percent were demonstrated. Operation of the PCD and other support equipment such as the recycle gas compressor and ash removal systems operated reliably.

Southern Company Services

2008-11-01

342

Main routes for the thermo-conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals. Part 2: Gasification systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification as a thermo-chemical process is defined and limited to combustion and pyrolysis. The gasification of biomass is a thermal treatment, which results in a high production of gaseous products and small quantities of char and ash. The solid phase usually presents a carbon content higher than 76%, which makes it possible to use it directly for industrial purposes. The

Mustafa Balat; Mehmet Balat; Elif K?rtay; Havva Balat

2009-01-01

343

In Situ XAFS studies of catalyzed pyrolysis and gasification reactions of lignite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient catalytic processes are recognized as the key to successful and economical coal gasification. In particular, much attention has been given to the gasification of lignites employing as catalysts highly-dispersed alkali and alkaline-earth cations bound to the lignite by carboxyl groups (1,2). In situ XAFS experiments have revealed how these species transform from their initial state as a function of pyrolysis pretreatment (which further promotes the catalytic effect) and gasification conditions. These experiments were performed in a specially designed furnace (3) that enables the K edges of calcium and potassium, the elements of greatest practical interest in these reactions, to be examined at temperatures up to 500°.

Huggins, F. E.; Huffman, G. P.; Shah, N.; Lytle, F. W.; Greegor, R. B.; Jenkins, R. G.

1989-06-01

344

Green Production of Hydrogen from Excess Biosolids Originating from Municipal Waste Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical and economic aspects of equivalent hydrogen (moles of H2+moles of CO potentially converted to H2) production from biosolids produced in wastewater treatment are evaluated in this paper. ASPEN+ simulation of the gasification of biosolids and coal provides the basis for the analysis of the technical performance of a gasification process. The General Electric (GE, formerly Texaco) Gasifier was chosen

B. Bagchi; J. Rawlston; R. M. Counce; J. M. Holmes; P. R. Bienkowski

2006-01-01

345

Studies of ChemChar cocurrent flow gasification of hazardous wastes using radiolabeled compounds  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes investigations of the ChemChar thermal process using radiolabeled compounds. The process uses triple reverse-burn (TRB) char as the waste carrier. Production weight/volume loss and adsorption characteristics of TRB char were investigated. Batch mode laboratory scale gasification systems were developed to study the fate of radiolabeled organic compounds at low and high loadings. The following conclusions were drawn from experimental results: (1) TRB char sorbs pollutants, independent of their being in the aqueous phase or gase phase, (2) TRB char incorporates carbon during cocurrent gasification of hydrocarbons and organohalides, (3) none of the compounds tested (benzoic acid; chlorobenzene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; hexachlorobenzene; 3,3`,4,4`-tetrachlorobiphenyl; and dibenzofuran) produced oxygenated organic byproducts during cocurrent gasification, (4) strong reductive destruction mechanisms are predominant during cocurrent gasification in a batch mode reactor, and (5) none of the chlorinated compounds tested formed byproducts with a higher number of chlorine atoms than the parent compounds.

Gorman, M.K.; Velagaleti, R.R.; Larsen, D.W. [Analytical Bio-Chemistry Labs., Inc., Columbia, MO (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

346

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC20  

SciTech Connect

In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coal. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of the first demonstration of the Transport Gasifier following significant modifications of the gasifier configuration. This demonstration took place during test campaign TC20, occurring from August 8 to September 23, 2006. The modifications proved successful in increasing gasifier residence time and particulate collection efficiency, two parameters critical in broadening of the fuel operating envelope and advancing gasification technology. The gasification process operated for over 870 hours, providing the opportunity for additional testing of various gasification technologies, such as PCD failsafe evaluation and sensor development.

Southern Company Services

2006-09-30

347

Hydrogen production from algal biomass via steam gasification.  

PubMed

Algal biomasses were tested as feedstock for steam gasification in a dual-bed microreactor in a two-stage process. Gasification experiments were carried out in absence and presence of catalyst. The catalysts used were 10% Fe?O?-90% CeO? and red mud (activated and natural forms). Effects of catalysts on tar formation and gasification efficiencies were comparatively investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of algae gasification was dependent on its components and the catalysts used. The main role of the catalyst was reforming of the tar derived from algae pyrolysis, besides enhancing water gas shift reaction. The tar reduction levels were in the range of 80-100% for seaweeds and of 53-70% for microalgae. Fe?O?-CeO? was found to be the most effective catalyst. The maximum hydrogen yields obtained were 1036 cc/g algae for Fucus serratus, 937 cc/g algae for Laminaria digitata and 413 cc/g algae for Nannochloropsis oculata. PMID:24880809

Duman, Gozde; Uddin, Md Azhar; Yanik, Jale

2014-08-01

348

Assessment of plasma gasification of high caloric waste streams.  

PubMed

Plasma gasification is an innovative technology for transforming high calorific waste streams into a valuable synthesis gas and a vitrified slag by means of a thermal plasma. A test program has been set up to evaluate the feasibility of plasma gasification and the impact of this process on the environment. RDF (refuse derived fuel) from carpet and textile waste was selected as feed material for semi-pilot gasification tests. The aim of the tests was: (1) to evaluate the technical feasibility of making a stable synthesis gas; (2) to characterize the composition of this synthesis gas; (3) to define a suitable after-treatment configuration for purification of the syngas and (4) to characterize the stability of the slag, i.e., its resistance to leaching for use as a secondary building material. The tests illustrate that plasma gasification can result in a suitable syngas quality and a slag, characterized by an acceptable leachability. Based on the test results, a further scale-up of this technology will be prepared and validation tests run. PMID:17134888

Lemmens, Bert; Elslander, Helmut; Vanderreydt, Ive; Peys, Kurt; Diels, Ludo; Oosterlinck, Michel; Joos, Marc

2007-01-01

349

Utilization of char from biomass gasification in catalytic applications  

E-print Network

Utilization of char from biomass gasification in catalytic applications Naomi Klinghoffer Submitted Utilization of char from biomass gasification in catalytic applications Naomi Klinghoffer Utilization biomass is via gasification, which enables the production of electricity, heat, chemicals, or fuels

350

October 2005 Gasification-Based Fuels and Electricity Production from  

E-print Network

October 2005 Gasification-Based Fuels and Electricity Production from Biomass, without......................................................................... 9 3.1.1 Biomass Gasification, and production cost estimates for gasification-based thermochemical conversion of switchgrass into Fischer

351

Energy recovery from solid waste fuels using advanced gasification technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1980s, TPS Termiska Processer AB has been working on the development of an atmospheric-pressure gasification process. A major aim at the start of this work was the generation of fuel gas from indigenous fuels to Sweden (i.e. biomass). As the economic climate changed and awareness of the damage to the environment caused by the use of fossil fuels

M. Morris; L. Waldheim

1998-01-01

352

Pyrolysis and gasification of food waste: Syngas characteristics and char gasification kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of syngas from the pyrolysis and gasification of food waste has been investigated. Characteristic differences in syngas properties and overall yields from pyrolysis and gasification were determined at two distinct high temperatures of 800 and 900°C. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior were evaluated in terms of syngas flow rate, hydrogen flow rate, output power, total syngas yield, total hydrogen yield,

I. I. Ahmed; A. K. Gupta

2010-01-01

353

Gasification world database 2007. Current industry status  

SciTech Connect

Information on trends and drivers affecting the growth of the gasification industry is provided based on information in the USDOE NETL world gasification database (available on the www.netl.doe.gov website). Sectors cover syngas production in 2007, growth planned through 2010, recent industry changes, and beyond 2010 - strong growth anticipated in the United States. A list of gasification-based power plant projects, coal-to-liquid projects and coal-to-SNG projects under consideration in the USA is given.

NONE

2007-10-15

354

Polk power station syngas cooling system  

SciTech Connect

Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the site development and construction phase of the new Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology. The unit will utilize Texaco`s oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle power generation, to produce nominal 260MW. Integral to the gasification process is the syngas cooling system. The design, integration, fabrication, transportation, and erection of this equipment have provided and continue to provide major challenges for this project.

Jenkins, S.D.

1995-01-01

355

Fuel Flexibility in Gasification  

SciTech Connect

In order to increase efficiencies of carbonizers, operation at high pressures is needed. In addition, waste biomass fuels of opportunity can be used to offset fossil fuel use. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Fluidized Bed Gasifier/Combustor (FBG/C) was used to gasify coal and mixtures of coal and biomass (sawdust) at 425 psig. The purpose of the testing program was to generate steady state operating data for modeling efforts of carbonizers. A test program was completed with a matrix of parameters varied one at a time in order to avoid second order interactions. Variables were: coal feed rate, pressure, and varying mixtures of sawdust and coal types. Coal types were Montana Rosebud subbituminous and Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous. The sawdust was sanding waste from a furniture manufacturer in upstate New York. Coal was sieved from -14 to +60 mesh and sawdust was sieved to -14 mesh. The FBG/C operates at a nominal 425 psig, but pressures can be lowered. For the tests reported it was operated as a jetting, fluidized bed, ash-agglomerating gasifier. Preheated air and steam are injected into the center of the bottom along with the solid feed that is conveyed with cool air. Fairly stable reactor internal flow patterns develop and temperatures stabilize (with some fluctuations) when steady state is reached. At nominal conditions the solids residence time in the reactor is on the order of 1.5 to 2 hours, so changes in feed types can require on the order of hours to equilibrate. Changes in operating conditions (e.g. feed rate) usually require much less time. The operating periods of interest for these tests were only the steady state periods, so transient conditions were not monitored as closely. The test matrix first established a base case of operations to which single parameter changes in conditions could be compared. The base case used Montana Rosebud at a coal feed rate of 70 lbm/hr at 425 psig. The coal sawdust mixtures are reported as percent by weight coal to percent by weight sawdust. The mixtures of interest were: 65/35 subbituminous, 75/25 subbituminous, 85/15 subbituminous, and 75/25 bituminous. Steady state was achieved quickly when going from one subbituminous mixture to another, but longer when going from subbituminous to bituminous coal. The most apparent observation when comparing the base case to subbituminous coal/sawdust mixtures is that operating conditions are nearly the same. Product gas does not change much in composition and temperatures remain nearly the same. Comparisons of identical weight ratios of sawdust and subbituminous and bituminous mixtures show considerable changes in operating conditions and gas composition. The highly caking bituminous coal used in this test swelled up and became about half as dense as the comparable subbituminous coal char. Some adjustments were required in accommodating changes in solids removal during the test. Nearly all the solids in the bituminous coal sawdust were conveyed into the upper freeboard section and removed at the mid-level of the reactor. This is in marked contrast to the ash-agglomerating condition where most solids are removed at the very bottom of the gasifier. Temperatures in the bottom of the reactor during the bituminous test were very high and difficult to control. The most significant discovery of the tests was that the addition of sawdust allowed gasification of a coal type that had previously resulted in nearly instant clinkering of the gasifier. Several previous attempts at using Pittsburgh No. 8 were done only at the end of the tests when shutdown was imminent anyway. It is speculated that the fine wood dust somehow coats the pyrolyzed sticky bituminous coal particles and prevents them from agglomerating quickly. As the bituminous coal char particles swell, they are carried to the cooler upper regions of the reactor where they re-solidify. Other interesting phenomena were revealed regarding the transport (rheological) properties of the coal sawdust mixtures. The coal sawdust mixtures segregate quickly when transported. This is visi

McLendon, T. Robert; Pineault, Richard L.; Richardson, Steven W.; Rockey, John M.; Beer, Stephen K. (U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory); Lui, Alain P.; Batton, William A. (Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group, Inc.)

2001-11-06

356

Underground coal gasification field experiment in the high-dipping coal seams  

SciTech Connect

In this article the experimental conditions and process of the underground gasification in the Woniushan Mine, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province are introduced, and the experimental results are analyzed. By adopting the new method of long-channel, big-section, and two-stage underground coal gasification, the daily gas production reaches about 36,000 m{sup 3}, with the maximum output of 103,700 m{sup 3}. The daily average heating value of air gas is 5.04 MJ/m{sup 3}, with 13.57 MJ/m{sup 3} for water gas. In combustible compositions of water gas, H{sub 2} contents stand at over 50%, with both CO and CH{sub 4} contents over 6%. Experimental results show that the counter gasification can form new temperature conditions and increase the gasification efficiency of coal seams.

Yang, L.H.; Liu, S.Q.; Yu, L.; Zhang, W. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources & Geoscience

2009-07-01

357

Feasibility study of wood biomass gasification\\/molten carbonate fuel cell power system—comparative characterization of fuel cell and gas turbine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of biomass by means of gasification into a fuel suitable for a high-temperature fuel cell has recently received more attention as a potential substitute for fossil fuels in electric power production. However, combining biomass gasification with a high-temperature fuel cell raises many questions with regard to efficiency, feasibility and process requirements. In this study, a biomass gasification\\/molten carbonate

H. Morita; F. Yoshiba; N. Woudstra; K. Hemmes; H. Spliethoff

2004-01-01

358

Plasma chemical gasification of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The possibility for plasma gasification of sewage sludge is investigated. Water steam is used as the plasma generating gas and as a chemical reagent. The experiments are carried out at a sludge to water steam ratio of 1 to 1.5 by weight, and at a plasma torch temperature of up to 2600 degrees C. The calculated average temperature in the reactor after mixing with the sludge particles is up to 1700 degrees C. Proximate and ultimate analyses of the sludge are given. The resulting gases are analysed by gas chromatography. High calorific gas containing mainly carbon monoxide (48% volume) and hydrogen (46% volume), as well as glass-like slag, is obtained. No water-soluble substances are detected within it. The amount of carbon dioxide produced is under 4% mass. No hydrocarbons are observed within the gas. The investigated process is environmentally safe, compact and shows a high rate of conversion. PMID:12667017

Balgaranova, Janetta

2003-02-01

359

Chemometric Study of the Ex Situ Underground Coal Gasification Wastewater Experimental Data.  

PubMed

The main goal of the study was the analysis of the parameters of wastewater generated during the ex situ underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments on lignite from Belchatow, and hard coal from Ziemowit and Bobrek coal mines, simulated in the ex situ reactor. The UCG wastewater may pose a potential threat to the groundwater since it contains high concentrations of inorganic (i.e., ammonia nitrogen, nitrites, chlorides, free and bound cyanides, sulfates and trace elements: As, B, Cr, Zn, Al, Cd, Co, Mn, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Hg, Se, Ti, Fe) and organic (i.e., phenolics, benzene and their alkyl derivatives, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants. The principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis enabled to effectively explore the similarities and dissimilarities between the samples generated in lignite and hard coal oxygen gasification process in terms of the amounts and concentrations of particular components. The total amount of wastewater produced in lignite gasification process was higher than the amount generated in hard coal gasification experiments. The lignite gasification wastewater was also characterized by the highest contents of acenaphthene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene, whereas hard coal gasification wastewater was characterized by relatively higher concentrations of nitrites, As, Cr, Cu, benzene, toluene, xylene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene. PMID:23136453

Smoli?ski, Adam; Sta?czyk, Krzysztof; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Howaniec, Natalia

2012-11-01

360

Gasification Studies Task 4 Topical Report  

SciTech Connect

A key objective of the Task 4 activities has been to develop simulation tools to support development, troubleshooting and optimization of pressurized entrained-flow coal gasifiers. The overall gasifier models (Subtask 4.1) combine submodels for fluid flow (Subtask 4.2) and heat transfer (Subtask 4.3) with fundamental understanding of the chemical processes (Subtask 4.4) processes that take place as coal particles are converted to synthesis gas and slag. However, it is important to be able to compare predictions from the models against data obtained from actual operating coal gasifiers, and Subtask 4.6 aims to provide an accessible, non-proprietary system, which can be operated over a wide range of conditions to provide well-characterized data for model validation. Highlights of this work include: • Verification and validation activities performed with the Arches coal gasification simulation tool on experimental data from the CANMET gasifier (Subtask 4.1). • The simulation of multiphase reacting flows with coal particles including detailed gas-phase chemistry calculations using an extension of the one-dimensional turbulence model’s capability (Subtask 4.2). • The demonstration and implementation of the Reverse Monte Carlo ray tracing (RMCRT) radiation algorithm in the ARCHES code (Subtask 4.3). • Determination of steam and CO{sub 2} gasification kinetics of bituminous coal chars at high temperature and elevated pressure under entrained-flow conditions (Subtask 4.4). In addition, attempts were made to gain insight into the chemical structure differences between young and mature coal soot, but both NMR and TEM characterization efforts were hampered by the highly reacted nature of the soot. • The development, operation, and demonstration of in-situ gas phase measurements from the University of Utah’s pilot-scale entrained-flow coal gasifier (EFG) (Subtask 4.6). This subtask aimed at acquiring predictable, consistent performance and characterizing the environment within the gasifier.

Whitty, Kevin; Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald; Smith, Philip; Sutherland, James; Thornock, Jeremy; Boshayeshi, Babak; Hunsacker, Isaac; Lewis, Aaron; Waind, Travis; Kelly, Kerry

2014-02-01

361

Analysis of energy recovery potential using innovative technologies of waste gasification  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy recovery from waste by gasification was simulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two processes: high temperature gasification and gasification associated to plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two types of feeding waste: Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) and pulper residues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different configurations for the energy cycles were considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison with performances from conventional Waste-to-Energy process. - Abstract: In this paper, two alternative thermo-chemical processes for waste treatment were analysed: high temperature gasification and gasification associated to plasma process. The two processes were analysed from the thermodynamic point of view, trying to reconstruct two simplified models, using appropriate simulation tools and some support data from existing/planned plants, able to predict the energy recovery performances by process application. In order to carry out a comparative analysis, the same waste stream input was considered as input to the two models and the generated results were compared. The performances were compared with those that can be obtained from conventional combustion with energy recovery process by means of steam turbine cycle. Results are reported in terms of energy recovery performance indicators as overall energy efficiency, specific energy production per unit of mass of entering waste, primary energy source savings, specific carbon dioxide production.

Lombardi, Lidia, E-mail: lidia.lombardi@unifit.it [Dipartimento di Energetica, University of Florence, via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Florence (Italy); Carnevale, Ennio [Dipartimento di Energetica, University of Florence, via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Florence (Italy); Corti, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, University of Siena, via Roma 56, 56100 Siena (Italy)

2012-04-15

362

Corrosion performance of alumina scales in coal gasification environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion of metallic structural materials in complex gas environments of coal gasification is a potential problem. The corrosion process is dictated by concentrations of two key constituents: sulfur as HâS and Cl as HCl. This paper examines the corrosion performance of alumina scales that are thermally grown on Fe-base alloys during exposure to O\\/S mixed-gas environments. The results are compared

Natesan

1997-01-01

363

Trace element partitioning during coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of trace element pollutants in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems is closely tied to their volatilization in the gasifier and subsequent condensation or reaction with fine fly ash particles. The results of an experimental bench-scale programme to measure the partitioning of selected trace elements during atmospheric pressure entrained flow gasification of Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal are presented.

Joseph J. Helble; Wahab Mojtahedi; Jussi Lyyränen; Jorma Jokiniemi; Esko Kauppinen

1996-01-01

364

COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: TRACE ELEMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes trace element measurements made at several coal gasification facilities. Most of the measurements were made as part of EPA's source testing and evaluation program on low- and medium-Btu gasification. The behavior of trace elements is discussed in light of th...

365

Long-term operation of biomass-to-liquid systems coupled to gasification and Fischer-Tropsch processes for biofuel production.  

PubMed

Long-term operation of the biomass-to-liquid (BTL) process was conducted with a focus on the production of bio-syngas that satisfies the purity standards for the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process. The integrated BTL system consisted of a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) gasifier (20 kW(th)), gas cleaning unit, syngas compression unit, acid gas removing unit, and an FT reactor. Since the raw syngas from the gasifier contains different types of contaminants, such as particulates, condensable tars, and acid gases, which can cause various mechanical problems or deactivate the FT catalyst, the syngas was purified by passing through cyclones, a gravitational dust collector, a two-stage wet scrubber (packing-type), and a methanol absorption tower. The integrated system was operated for 500 h over several runs, and stable operating conditions for each component were achieved. The cleaned syngas contained no sulfur compounds (under 1 ppmV) and satisfied the requirements for the FT process. PMID:23138062

Kim, Kwangsu; Kim, Youngdoo; Yang, Changwon; Moon, Jihong; Kim, Beomjong; Lee, Jeongwoo; Lee, Uendo; Lee, Seehoon; Kim, Jaeho; Eom, Wonhyun; Lee, Sangbong; Kang, Myungjin; Lee, Yunje

2013-01-01

366

Gasification technologies 2005. Conference papers and presentations  

SciTech Connect

A total of 43 papers and two keynote addresses were presented at the conference in eight sessions entitled Four perspectives on gasification industry trends and new developments; Federal gasification incentives: opportunities and challenges; Carbon sequestration ready: What does it mean and who can do it?; Experience with gasifying low rank coals (panel discussion); What are current gasification-based offerings in the energy marketplace?; Coal to liquids and chemicals: prospects and challenges; Gasification market drivers panel; and Gasification technologies advancements continue. The CD-ROM contains 43 presentations plus on keynote address, all in slide/overview form as pdfs. In addition, the text of four presentations is included. These have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

NONE

2005-07-01

367

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC18  

SciTech Connect

In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details Test Campaign TC18 of the PSDF gasification process. Test campaign TC18 began on June 23, 2005, and ended on August 22, 2005, with the gasifier train accumulating 1,342 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Some of the testing conducted included commissioning of a new recycle syngas compressor for gasifier aeration, evaluation of PCD filter elements and failsafes, testing of gas cleanup technologies, and further evaluation of solids handling equipment. At the conclusion of TC18, the PSDF gasification process had been operated for more than 7,750 hours.

Southern Company Services

2005-08-31

368

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, January--March, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Determination of the best furnace for a commercial coke plant is underway. A shuttle or tunnel kiln has economic advantage over a rotary hearth design. Production of 20 tons of coke in a small shuttle kiln is near completion which will provide experience for this design. Twenty tons of CTC continuous coke are being produced for testing at a General Motors` foundry. The production is approximately 75 percent complete. During this production, variables of the process are being studied to aid in design of a commercial coke plant. Raw material composition, blending, briquetting variables, and calcining heat profile are the major areas of interest. Western SynCoal Company produces a dried coal product from sub-bituminous coal. This upgraded product was evaluated for producing coke products by blending char from this coal product with the coal product along with suitable binders. The green briquettes were then calcined to produce coke. The resulting coke was judged to be usable as part of a cupola coke charge or as a fuel in cement kilns and sugar beet furnaces.

O`Neal, G.W.

1996-04-01

369

TREATMENT OF AQUEOUS WASTE STREAMS FROM KRW ENERGY SYSTEMS COAL GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a bench-scale evaluation to determine the extent to which process wastewaters from the KRW Energy Systems coal gasification process are treatable using commercially proven wastewater treatment technology. (NOTE: The process--formerly called the Westingh...

370

Hydrogen production by high-temperature steam gasification of biomass and coal  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature steam gasification of paper, yellow pine woodchips, and Pittsburgh bituminous coal was investigated in a batch-type flow reactor at temperatures in the range of 700 to 1,200{sup o}C at two different ratios of steam to feedstock molar ratios. Hydrogen yield of 54.7% for paper, 60.2% for woodchips, and 57.8% for coal was achieved on a dry basis, with a steam flow rate of 6.3 g/min at steam temperature of 1,200{sup o}C. Yield of both the hydrogen and carbon monoxide increased while carbon dioxide and methane decreased with the increase in gasification temperature. A 10-fold reduction in tar residue was obtained at high-temperature steam gasification, compared to low temperatures. Steam and gasification temperature affects the composition of the syngas produced. Higher steam-to-feedstock molar ratio had negligible effect on the amount of hydrogen produced in the syngas in the fixed-batch type of reactor. Gasification temperature can be used to control the amounts of hydrogen or methane produced from the gasification process. This also provides mean to control the ratio of hydrogen to CO in the syngas, which can then be processed to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel since the liquid fuel production requires an optimum ratio between hydrogen and CO. The syngas produced can be further processed to produce pure hydrogen. Biomass fuels are good source of renewable fuels to produce hydrogen or liquid fuels using controlled steam gasification.

Kriengsak, S.N.; Buczynski, R.; Gmurczyk, J.; Gupta, A.K. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2009-04-15

371

HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes the objectives, technical approach, results and conclusions for a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept is a configuration of CrystaTech, Inc.'s CrystaSulf{reg_sign} process which utilizes a direct oxidation catalyst upstream of the absorber tower to oxidize a portion of the inlet hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and elemental sulfur. This hybrid configuration of CrystaSulf has been named CrystaSulf-DO and represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day and more. This hybrid process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both onshore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf is a nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes H{sub 2}S from gas streams and converts it to elemental sulfur. In CrystaSulf, H{sub 2}S in the inlet gas is reacted with SO{sub 2} to make elemental sulfur according to the liquid phase Claus reaction: 2H{sub 2}S + SO{sub 2} {yields} 2H{sub 2}O + 3S. The SO{sub 2} for the reaction can be supplied from external sources by purchasing liquid SO{sub 2} and injecting it into the CrystaSulf solution, or produced internally by converting a portion of the inlet gas H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} or by burning a portion of the sulfur produced to make SO{sub 2}. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, the needed SO{sub 2} is produced by placing a bed of direct oxidation catalyst in the inlet gas stream to oxidize a portion of the inlet H{sub 2}S. Oxidation catalysts may also produce some elemental sulfur under these conditions, which can be removed and recovered prior to the CrystaSulf absorber. The CrystaSulf-DO process can utilize direct oxidation catalyst from many sources. Numerous direct oxidation catalysts are available from many suppliers worldwide. They have been used for H{sub 2}S oxidation to sulfur and/or SO{sub 2} for decades. It was believed at the outset of the project that TDA Research, Inc., a subcontractor, could develop a direct oxidation catalyst that would offer advantages over other commercially available catalysts for this CrystaSulf-DO process application. This project involved the development of several of TDA's candidate proprietary direct oxidation catalysts through laboratory bench-scale testing. These catalysts were shown to be effective for conversion of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} and to elemental sulfur under certain operating conditions. One of these catalysts was subsequently tested on a commercial gas stream in a bench-scale reactor at CrystaTech's pilot plant site in west Texas with good results. However, commercial developments have precluded the use of TDA catalysts in the CrystaSulf-DO process. Nonetheless, this project has advanced direct oxidation catalyst technology for H{sub 2}S control in energy industries and led to several viable paths to commercialization. TDA is commercializing the use of its direct oxidation catalyst technology in conjunction with the SulfaTreat{reg_sign} solid scavenger for natural gas applications and in conjunction with ConocoPhillips and DOE for gasification applications using ConocoPhillips gasification technology. CrystaTech is commercializing its CrystaSulf-DO process in conjunction with Gas Technology Institute for natural gas applications (using direct oxidation catalysts from other commercial sources) and in conjunction with ChevronTexaco and DOE for gasification applications using ChevronTexaco's gasification technology.

Dennis Dalrymple

2004-06-01

372

Fundamental studies of catalytic gasification  

SciTech Connect

Studies of the catalytic steam gasification of carbon solids continued. A considerable number of important findings have been made. Recently limited experimentation has been carried out on the production of C{sub 2} hydrocarbons from methane in the presence of Ca/K/Ni oxide catalysts and of oxygen, carbon and water. The main finding thus far has been that C{sub 2} yields of 10--13% can be obtained at about 600{degrees}C or 150{degrees} lower temperature than described in the literature for similar yields. Yields of 7--10% C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at 99+% selectivity have been obtained. The presence of water and small amounts of oxygen is essential. Yields of this magnitude may be attractive since there is no loss of methane to valueless by-products, no purification of the recycle steam is required and no oxygen is used to burn methane. Further improvement in yields by catalyst and operating conditions modification will be investigated. It is also intended to clarify the chemistry which inhibits burning of methane to carbon oxides. Work is discussed on gasification of petroleum cokes and oxidative methane coupling. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

1991-03-01

373

Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling.

Tanigaki, Nobuhiro, E-mail: tanigaki.nobuhiro@nsc-eng.co.jp [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan); Manako, Kazutaka [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd., 46-59, Nakabaru, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8505 (Japan); Osada, Morihiro [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan)

2012-04-15

374

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 10. Gasification of Benton lignite  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the tenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Benton lignite. The period of gasification test was November 1-8, 1983. 16 refs., 22 figs., 19 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

375

Coal gasification - the KILnGAS project  

SciTech Connect

The KILnGAS process, a coal gasification technology that was developed by Allis-Chalmers, and is currently being demonstrated on a commercial scale at East Alton, Illinois. The KILnGAS process is designed to convert large volumes of high-sulfur carbonaceous materials, including bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, into environmentally-clean low Btu gaseous (LBG) fuel. With a heating value of approximately 155 Btu/SCF, LBG is perceived to be best suited as a fuel for combustion in large boilers and combustion turbines, such as those used in the electric utility industry. This industry, therefore, is currently viewed as the primary market for the KILnGAS system, particularly in the Eastern half of the nation where extensive high-sulfur coal reserves exist. This paper describes the process and the status of the program. The application of the KILnGAS technology in the utility industry, and the impact this technology can have on acid rain control and coal usage are also discussed. 8 figs.

Deacon, J.S.

1985-01-01

376

Fuel Nitrogen Evolution during Coal Pyrolysis and Gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphology of fuel nitrogen in coal and its fate during pyrolysis and the nitrogen species including N2, HCN and NH3 during coal pyrolysis and gasification have been investigated to clarify the evolution mechanism of fuel nitrogen in heat treatment process. Experimental results show that the morphology of coal nitrogen in the studied Chinese raw coals generally include pyrrolic nitrogen (N-5), pyridinic nitrogen (N-6), quaternary nitrogen (N-Q) and nitrogen-oxide (N-X). Generally, nitrogen in char is transformed to volatile and more stable components during pyrolysis. Char-N is the major source of NOx precursors during temperature programmed pyrolysis in 600-800° C. N-5 and N-X in char is converted to HCN first, and HCN is then hydrogenated to NH3. N-Q in char is the main source of nitrogen gas. The major nitrogenous gas products during rapid coal pyrolysis are N2, HCN and NH3, amongst which N2 is dominant. The yields of N2 and NOx precursors, such as HCN and NH3, increase with increased pyrolysis temperature. The major gaseous nitrogenous products during coal gasification in steam include HCN, NH3 and N2. H2O is the main source of the groups containing hydrogen, which not only participates in the reaction as a gasification agent, but also has catalysis on the reaction.

Che, Defu; Liu, Yinhe; Lin, Junguang

2010-03-01

377

Crystalline structure transformation of carbon anodes during gasification  

SciTech Connect

The crystalline structure transformation of five carbon anodes during gasification in air and carbon dioxide was studied using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD analysis and HRTEM observations confirmed that anodes have a highly ordered graphitic structure. The examination of partially gasified samples indicated that crystalline structure transformation occurred in two stages during gasification. The first stage involved the consumption of disorganized carbon matter in the initial 15% conversion. Oxygen was found to be more reactive toward disorganized carbon at this stage of the gasification process compared to carbon dioxide. Following this stage, as more carbon was consumed, especially with the removal of smaller crystallites, it was found that the crystalline structure became more ordered with increasing conversion levels. This is due to the merging of neighboring crystallites, required to maintain the minimum energy configuration. In addition, the interaction between the pitch and the coke components was found to be strongly linked to the initial coke structure. 'Stress graphitization' occurred at the pitch-coke interface, which helps to enhance the structural development of the anodes. 26 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Kien N. Tran; Adam J. Berkovich; Alan Tomsett; Suresh K. Bhatia [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Division of Chemical Engineering

2008-05-15

378

Method for using fast fluidized bed dry bottom coal gasification  

DOEpatents

Carbonaceous solid material such as coal is gasified in a fast fluidized bed gasification system utilizing dual fluidized beds of hot char. The coal in particulate form is introduced along with oxygen-containing gas and steam into the fast fluidized bed gasification zone of a gasifier assembly wherein the upward superficial gas velocity exceeds about 5.0 ft/sec and temperature is 1500.degree.-1850.degree. F. The resulting effluent gas and substantial char are passed through a primary cyclone separator, from which char solids are returned to the fluidized bed. Gas from the primary cyclone separator is passed to a secondary cyclone separator, from which remaining fine char solids are returned through an injection nozzle together with additional steam and oxygen-containing gas to an oxidation zone located at the bottom of the gasifier, wherein the upward gas velocity ranges from about 3-15 ft/sec and is maintained at 1600.degree.-200.degree. F. temperature. This gasification arrangement provides for increased utilization of the secondary char material to produce higher overall carbon conversion and product yields in the process.

Snell, George J. (Fords, NJ); Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1983-01-01

379

Simulations and modeling of biomass gasification processes  

E-print Network

Available, low-cost, energy supplies are vital for the world's economy and stability. The current sources of energy harm our environment and are not renewable. Therefore, technology must accommodate new sustainable sources ...

Tarud, Joan

2005-01-01

380

Underground Coal Gasification at Tennessee Colony  

E-print Network

The Tennessee Colony In Situ Coal Gasification Project conducted by Basic Resources Inc. is the most recent step in Texas Utilities Company's ongoing research into the utilization of Texas lignite. The project, an application of the Soviet...

Garrard, C. W.

1979-01-01

381

Catalysts for carbon and coal gasification  

DOEpatents

Catalyst for the production of methane from carbon and/or coal by means of catalytic gasification. The catalyst compostion containing at least two alkali metal salts. A particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used.

McKee, Douglas W. (Burnt Hills, NY); Spiro, Clifford L. (Scotia, NY); Kosky, Philip G. (Schenectady, NY)

1985-01-01

382

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification project  

SciTech Connect

Commissioning of the plant dominated the activities of the ENCOAL field group during this reporting period. The operator training classes were completed, initial plant start-up commenced. On June 17, 1992 all systems were fully integrated and the ENCOAL Mild Gasification Plant became fully operational. The plant operated continuously for 24 hours, and both PDF and CDL were produced. Construction of the project was 100% complete by the end of May. As a result of the construction progress, demobilization of KCI and their subcontractors was concluded. An electrical and instrumentation contract was also awarded during the quarter. This contract, combined with the mechanical maintenance contract awarded earlier, provided excellent assistance for plant commissioning and final construction activities.

Frederick, J.P.

1992-01-01

383

Coal gasification for electric power generation.  

PubMed

The electric utility industry is being severely affected by rapidly escalating gas and oil prices, restrictive environmental and licensing regulations, and an extremely tight money market. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have the potential to be economically competitive with present commercial coal-fired power plants while satisfying stringent emission control requirements. The current status of gasification technology is discussed and the critical importance of the 100-megawatt Cool Water IGCC demonstration program is emphasized. PMID:17788466

Spencer, D F; Gluckman, M J; Alpert, S B

1982-03-26

384

Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production  

SciTech Connect

This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating, maintenance, and management costs for the reference plant. To perform these assessments, detailed models of the gasification and lime kiln processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The material and energy balance outputs from the Aspen Plus model were used as inputs to both the material and economic evaluations.

Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips

2007-09-01

385

Impact of feedstock properties and operating conditions on sewage sludge gasification in a fixed bed gasifier.  

PubMed

This work presents results of experimental studies on the gasification process of granulated sewage sludge in a laboratory fixed bed gasifier. Nowadays, there is a large and pressing need for the development of thermal methods for sewage sludge disposal. Gasification is an example of thermal method that has several advantages over the traditional combustion. Gasification leads to a combustible gas, which can be used for the generation of useful forms of final energy. It can also be used in processes, such as the drying of sewage sludge directly in waste treatment plant. In the present work, the operating parameters were varied over a wide range. Parameters, such as air ratio ? = 0.12 to 0.27 and the temperature of air preheating t = 50 °C to 250 °C, were found to influence temperature distribution and syngas properties. The results indicate that the syngas heating value decreases with rising air ratio for all analysed cases: i.e. for both cold and preheated air. The increase in the concentration of the main combustible components was accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of carbon dioxide. Preheating of the gasification agent supports the endothermic gasification and increases hydrogen and carbon monoxide production. PMID:24938298

Werle, Sebastian

2014-10-01

386

The solar thermal gasification of coal — energy conversion efficiency and CO 2 mitigation potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steam-gasification of coal (peat, lignite, bituminous, and anthracite) into syngas is investigated using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat. The advantages of the solar- driven process are threefold: (1) the discharge of pollutants is avoided; (2) the gaseous products are not contaminated by combustion byproducts; and (3) the calorific value of the fuel is upgraded.

A. Steinfeld

2003-01-01

387

Moving to alternative refrigerants. Ten case histories. Comfort coolers, industrial process, and commercial refrigeration. Stratospheric ozone protection  

SciTech Connect

Table of Contents: Case Histories: Comfort Coolers; Coventry Management Systems - Texaco Heritage Plaza; New York Life Insurance Company; and Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Case Histories: Industrial Process: Eastman Chemical Company; and DuPont. Case Histories: Commercial Refrigeration: Market Basket Supermarkets; Jitney Jungle Stores of America; Furr's Supermarkets; Emil Villa's Hick'ry Pit Restaurants; and Wawa Convenience Stores.

Not Available

1993-11-01

388

Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, September 15--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification technologies are finding increasing commercial applications for power generation or production of chemical feedstocks. The integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) coal conversion process has been demonstrated to be a clean, efficient, and environmentally acceptable method of generating power. However, the gasification process produces relatively large quantities of a solid waste termed slag. Regulatory trends with respect to solid waste disposal, landfill development costs, and public concern make utilization of slag a high-priority issue. Therefore, it is imperative that slag utilization methods be developed, tested, and commercialized in order to offset disposal costs. This project aims to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of the slag utilization technologies developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates (LWA) and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag in a large-scale pilot operation, followed by total utilization of these aggregates in a number of applications.

NONE

1997-07-01

389

Biomass gasification in atmospheric and bubbling fluidized bed: Effect of the type of gasifying agent on the product distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the type of gasifying agent used in biomass gasification on product distribution (gas, char and tar yields) and gas quality (contents in H2, CO, CO2, CH4,…, tars) is analyzed. Gasifying agents taken into account are: air, pure steam, and steam–O2 mixtures. Process considered is biomass gasification in atmospheric and bubbling fluidized bed. Previous results got by Herguido

Javier Gil; José Corella; Mar??a P. Aznar; Miguel A. Caballero

1999-01-01

390

Proceedings of the first annual EPRI contractors' conference on coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The First Annual EPRI Contractors Conference on Coal Gasification was held in Palo Alto, California, on October 28 and 29, 1981. The purpose of this conference was to bring together an invited international audience from EPRI contractors, government laboratories and organizations, utility companies, industry, and academia to participate in a review of the results of the EPRI program. In the years 1979 through 1981, several comprehensive test-run programs were conducted under EPRI sponsorship with US coals on gasification pilot plants. A parallel series of projects examining the dynamic behavior and controllability of gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) systems and their component unit operations also has been conducted. In addition, several supportive research studies on the behavior of coal during the conversion (gasification) process, on materials, on instrumentation, etc., have been undertaken. This work has now reached a point where organizations developing this technology have embarked on major projects based on commercial-sized gasification reactors. Seventeen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

Not Available

1982-05-01

391

A review of the factors influencing the physicochemical characteristics of underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

In this article, the physicochemical characteristics of the oxidation zone, the reduction zone, and the destructive distillation and dry zone in the process of underground coal gasification (UCG) were explained. The effect of such major factors as temperature, coal type, water-inrush or -intake rate, the quantity and quality of wind blasting, the thickness of coal seams, operational pressure, the length, and the section of gasification gallery on the quality of the underground gas and their interrelationship were discussed. Research showed that the temperature conditions determined the underground gas compositions; the appropriate water-inrush or -intake rate was conducive to the improvement in gas heat value; the properties of the gasification agent had an obvious effect on the compositions and heat value of the product gas. Under the cyclically changing pressure, heat losses decreased by 60%, with the heat efficiency and gasification efficiency being 1.4 times and 2 times those of constant pressure, respectively. The test research further proved that the underground gasifier with a long channel and a big cross-section, to a large extent, improved the combustion-gasification conditions.

Yang, L.H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Jiangsu (China)

2008-07-01

392

Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion  

SciTech Connect

Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical requirement for commercial deployment of biomass-based power/heat co-generation and biofuels production. There are several commonly used syngas clean-up technologies: (1) Syngas cooling and water scrubbing has been commercially proven but efficiency is low and it is only effective at small scales. This route is accompanied with troublesome wastewater treatment. (2) The tar filtration method requires frequent filter replacement and solid residue treatment, leading to high operation and capital costs. (3) Thermal destruction typically operates at temperatures higher than 1000oC. It has slow kinetics and potential soot formation issues. The system is expensive and materials are not reliable at high temperatures. (4) In-bed cracking catalysts show rapid deactivation, with durability to be demonstrated. (5) External catalytic cracking or steam reforming has low thermal efficiency and is faced with problematic catalyst coking. Under this program, catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) is being evaluated for syngas tar clean-up in biomass gasification. The CPO reaction is exothermic, implying that no external heat is needed and the system is of high thermal efficiency. CPO is capable of processing large gas volume, indicating a very compact catalyst bed and a low reactor cost. Instead of traditional physical removal of tar, the CPO concept converts tar into useful light gases (eg. CO, H2, CH4). This eliminates waste treatment and disposal requirements. All those advantages make the CPO catalytic tar conversion system a viable solution for biomass gasification downstream gas clean-up. This program was conducted from October 1 2008 to February 28 2011 and divided into five major tasks. - Task A: Perform conceptual design and conduct preliminary system and economic analysis (Q1 2009 ~ Q2 2009) - Task B: Biomass gasification tests, product characterization, and CPO tar conversion catalyst preparation. This task will be conducted after completing process design and system economics analysis. Major milestones include identification of syngas cleaning requirements for proposed system

Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

2011-05-28

393

Development of Foster Wheeler's Vision 21 Partial Gasification Module  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded Foster Wheeler Development Corporation a contract to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The unique aspect of the process is that it utilizes a pressurized circulating fluidized bed partial gasifier and does not attempt to consume the coal in a single step. To convert all the coal to syngas in a single step requires extremely high temperatures ({approx} 2500 to 2800F) that melt and vaporize the coal and essentially drive all coal ash contaminants into the syngas. Since these contaminants can be corrosive to power generating equipment, the syngas must be cooled to near room temperature to enable a series of chemical processes to clean the syngas. Foster Wheeler's process operates at much lower temperatures that control/minimize the release of contaminants; this eliminates/minimizes the need for the expensive, complicated syngas heat exchangers and chemical cleanup systems typical of high temperature gasification. By performing the gasification in a circulating bed, a significant amount of syngas can still be produced despite the reduced temperature and the circulating bed allows easy scale up to large size plants. Rather than air, it can also operate with oxygen to facilitate sequestration of stack gas carbon dioxide gases for a 100% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building block that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This paper describes the test program and pilot plant that will be used to develop the PGM.

Robertson, A.

2001-11-06

394

Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate.  

PubMed

Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate from landfill lysimeters (112 m(3)) was studied over three years. The leachate of grate incineration bottom ash from a parallel setup was used as reference material. Three aquatic organisms (bioluminescent bacteria, green algae and water flea) were used to study acute toxicity. In addition, an ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay was performed with mouse hepatoma cells to indicate the presence of organic contaminants. Concentrations of 14 elements and 15 PAH compounds were determined to characterise leachate. Gasification ash leachate had a high pH (9.2-12.4) and assays with and without pH adjustment to neutral were used. Gasification ash leachate was acutely toxic (EC(50) 0.09-62 vol-%) in all assays except in the algae assay with pH adjustment. The gasification ash toxicity lasted the entire study period and was at maximum after two years of disposal both in water flea (EC(50) 0.09 vol-%) and in algae assays (EC(50) 7.5 vol-%). The grate ash leachate showed decreasing toxicity during the first two years of disposal in water flea and algae assays, which then tapered off. Both in the grate ash and in the gasification ash leachates EROD-activity increased during the first two years of disposal and then tapered off, the highest inductions were observed with the gasification ash leachate. The higher toxicity of the gasification ash leachate was probably related to direct and indirect effects of high pH and to lower levels of TOC and DOC compared to the grate ash leachate. The grate ash leachate toxicity was similar to that previously reported in literature, therefore, confirming that used setup was both comparable and reliable. PMID:22285871

Sivula, Leena; Oikari, Aimo; Rintala, Jukka

2012-06-01

395

Numerical study on convection diffusion for gasification agent in underground coal gasification. Part I: establishment of mathematical models and solving method  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this article is to discuss the distribution law of the gasification agent concentration in a deep-going way during underground coal gasification and the new method of solving the problem for the convection diffusion of the gas. In this paper, the basic features of convection diffusion for the gas produced in underground coal gasification are studied. On the basis of the model experiment, through the analysis of the distribution and patterns of variation for the fluid concentration field in the process of the combustion and gasification of the coal seams within the gasifier, the 3-D non-linear unstable mathematical models on the convection diffusion for oxygen are established. In order to curb such pseudo-physical effects as numerical oscillation and surfeit which frequently occurred in the solution of the complex mathematical models, the novel finite unit algorithm, the upstream weighted multi-cell balance method is advanced in this article, and its main derivation process is introduced.

Yang, L.H.; Ding, Y.M. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources and Geoscience

2009-07-01

396

An Experimental Investigation of Sewage Sludge Gasification in a Fluidized Bed Reactor  

PubMed Central

The gasification of sewage sludge was carried out in a simple atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. Flow and fuel feed rate were adjusted for experimentally obtaining an air mass?:?fuel mass ratio (A/F) of 0.2 < A/F < 0.4. Fuel characterization, mass and power balances, produced gas composition, gas phase alkali and ammonia, tar concentration, agglomeration tendencies, and gas efficiencies were assessed. Although accumulation of material inside the reactor was a main problem, this was avoided by removing and adding bed media along gasification. This allowed improving the process heat transfer and, therefore, gasification efficiency. The heating value of the produced gas was 8.4?MJ/Nm, attaining a hot gas efficiency of 70% and a cold gas efficiency of 57%. PMID:24453863

Calvo, L. F.; García, A. I.; Otero, M.

2013-01-01

397

Catalysis of coal gasification at elevated pressure. [6 references  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various additives were evaluated for their catalytic effect on coal gasification. Steam--coal gasification tests were done in bench-scale units at 850°C and 300 psig with coal containing 5 wt percent additive. Alkali metal compounds increased carbon gasification the most, by 31 to 66 percent. Twenty different metal oxides increased carbon gasification by 20 to 30 percent. Inserts coated with Raney

W. P. Haynes; S. J. Gasior; A. J. Forney

1974-01-01

398

Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology  

SciTech Connect

Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and procurement of facility upgrades. Chemrec AB is also operating a pressurized, O2-blown gasifier pilot facility in Piteaa, Sweden. There was an exchange of knowledge with the pressurized projects including utilization of the experimental results from facilities in Piteaa, Sweden. Resources at the Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC, a.k.a., the Institute of Paper Science and Technology) were employed primarily to conduct the fundamental investigations on scaling and plugging mechanisms and characterization of green liquor dregs. The project also tapped GTRC expertise in the development of the critical underlying black liquor gasification rate subroutines employed in the CFD code. The actual CFD code development and application was undertaken by Process Simulation, Ltd (PSL) and Simulent, Ltd. PSL focused on the overall integrated gasifier CFD code, while Simulent focused on modeling the black liquor nozzle and description of the black liquor spray. For nozzle development and testing Chemrec collaborated with ETC (Energy Technology Centre) in Piteae utilizing their test facility for nozzle spray investigation. GTI (Gas Technology Institute), Des Plains, IL supported the team with advanced gas analysis equipment during the gasifier test period in June 2005.

Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

2008-03-31

399

Caution marks progress in coal-conversion plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contracts let recently by ERDA for the conceptual design of high- and low-Btu gasification projects include the 3800 ton\\/day Conoco Coal Development Co. technology (the slagging Lurgi process); the 2200 ton\\/day Illinois Coal Gasification Group's (COED\\/Cogas process); the 250 million cu ft\\/day Procon Inc. (Hygas process) high-Btu pipeline gas projects; the 1800 ton\\/day W.R. Grance\\/Ebasco ammonia project (Texaco process);

1977-01-01

400

Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

1992-01-01

401

A Review of Fixed Bed Gasification Systems for Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gasification of biomass into useful fuel enhances its potential as a renewable energy resource. The fixed bed gasification systems are classified as updraft, Imbert downdraft, throatless downdraft, crossdraft and two stage gasifiers. Updraft gasifiers are suitable for gasification of biomass containing high ash (up to 15 %) and high moisture content (up to 50 %) and generate producer gas

Sangeeta Chopra; Anil Kr Jain

402

The Public Perceptions of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG)  

E-print Network

The Public Perceptions of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG): A Pilot Study Simon Shackley #12;The Public Perceptions of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG): A Pilot Study Dr Simon Shackley of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) in the United Kingdom. The objectives were to identify the main dangers

Watson, Andrew

403

Energy Optimization of Bioethanol Production via Gasification of Switchgrass  

E-print Network

1 Energy Optimization of Bioethanol Production via Gasification of Switchgrass Mariano MartĂ­n gasification. A superstructure is postulated for optimizing energy use that embeds direct or indirect gasification, followed by steam reforming or partial oxidation. Next, the gas composition is adjusted

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

404

Gasification of woody biomass Tessa Jansen (s0140600)  

E-print Network

1 Gasification of woody biomass Tessa Jansen (s0140600) University of Twente Internship at SINTEF which I was a (small) part of is GasBio (gasification for biofuels). The main objectives of this project costs. So I would be working on biomass gasification and perform thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA

Luding, Stefan

405

Numerical simulation of coal gasification in entrained flow coal gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents modeling of a coal gasification reaction, and prediction of gasification performance for an entrained flow coal gasifier. The purposes of this study are to develop an evaluation technique for design and performance optimization of coal gasifiers using a numerical simulation technique, and to confirm the validity of the model. The coal gasification model suggested in this paper

H. Watanabe; M. Otaka

2006-01-01

406

From coal to biomass gasification: Comparison of thermodynamic efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fuel composition on the thermodynamic efficiency of gasifiers and gasification systems is studied. A chemical equilibrium model is used to describe the gasifier. It is shown that the equilibrium model presents the highest gasification efficiency that can be possibly attained for a given fuel. Gasification of fuels with varying composition of organic matter, in terms of O\\/C

Mark J. Prins; Krzysztof J. Ptasinski; Frans J. J. G. Janssen

2007-01-01

407

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC24  

SciTech Connect

In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC24, the first test campaign using a bituminous coal as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC24 was conducted from February 16, 2008, through March 19, 2008. The PSDF gasification process operated for about 230 hours in air-blown gasification mode with about 225 tons of Utah bituminous coal feed. Operational challenges in gasifier operation were related to particle agglomeration, a large percentage of oversize coal particles, low overall gasifier solids collection efficiency, and refractory degradation in the gasifier solids collection unit. The carbon conversion and syngas heating values varied widely, with low values obtained during periods of low gasifier operating temperature. Despite the operating difficulties, several periods of steady state operation were achieved, which provided useful data for future testing. TC24 operation afforded the opportunity for testing of various types of technologies, including dry coal feeding with a developmental feeder, the Pressure Decoupled Advanced Coal (PDAC) feeder; evaluating a new hot gas filter element media configuration; and enhancing syngas cleanup with water-gas shift catalysts. During TC24, the PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane.

Southern Company Services

2008-03-30

408

CO-GASIFICATION OF DENSIFIED SLUDGE AND SOLID WASTE IN A DOWNDRAFT GASIFIER  

EPA Science Inventory

Thermal gasification, the subject of this report, is a new process for the co-disposal of densified sewage sludge and solid waste in a co-current flow, fixed bed reactor (also called a downdraft gasifier). The advantages of this technology include lower costs than other sewage sl...

409

VAPOR-PHASE CRACKING AND WET OXIDATION AS POTENTIAL POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR COAL GASIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an investigation of two techniques (hydrocracking of heavy organics in the raw gas prior to quency, and wet oxidation of the gasifier condensate) for pollutant control in coal gasification processes. Bench-scale experiments were used to determine rates...

410

Relating catalytic coal or biomass gasification mechanisms to plant capital cost components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection of equipment for hydrogen production from biomass or coal is dominated by whether the process intent is to maximize pyrolysis and subsequent cracking or steam-char gasification. This paper discusses bench scale methods for predicting which approach is best suited to specific coals or biomass materials. Either reaction mode can be greatly enhanced by use of various catalysts, which adds

William B. Hauserman

1997-01-01

411

Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating,

Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips

2007-01-01

412

Biomass pyrolysis\\/gasification for product gas production: the overall investigation of parametric effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional biomass pyrolysis\\/gasification process for production of medium heating value gas for industrial or civil applications faces two disadvantages, i.e. low gas productivity and the accompanying corrosion of downstream equipment caused by the high content of tar vapour contained in the gas phase. The objective of this paper is to overcome these disadvantages, and therefore, the effects of the

G Chen; J Andries; Z Luo; H Spliethoff

2003-01-01

413

Steam-gasification of biomass in a fluidised-bed of olivine particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring catalytic substances are employed in biomass steam-gasification processes to enhance the yield of fuel gas and reduce its tar content by cracking and reforming the high molecular weight organic components. Calcined dolomite is widely used for this purpose; it exhibits good catalytic activity under the operating conditions of the gasifier. However, due to its poor mechanical strength, it

S. Rapagnŕ; N. Jand; A. Kiennemann; P. U. Foscolo

2000-01-01

414

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA BASE FOR LOW/MEDIUM-BTU GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY: VOLUME I. TECHNICAL DISCUSSION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report represents the current data base for the environmental assessment of low- and medium-Btu gasification technology. Purpose of the report is to determine: processes that can be used to produce low/medium-Btu gas from coal, uses of the product gas, multimedia discharge st...

415

Production of hydrogen by direct gasification of coal with steam using nuclear heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems related to: (1) high helium outlet temperature of the reactor, and (2) gas generator design used in hydrogen production are studied. Special attention was given to the use of Oklahoma coal in the gasification process. Plant performance, operation, and environmental considerations are covered.

1975-01-01

416

A detailed chemical kinetic model of high-temperature ethylene glycol gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent experimental investigations, ethylene glycol is used as a model substance for biomass-based pyrolysis oil in an entrained flow gasifier. In order to gain a deeper insight into process sequences and to conduct parametric analysis, this study describes the development and validation of a detailed chemical kinetic model of high-temperature ethylene glycol gasification. A detailed reaction mechanism based on

Simon Hafner; Arash Rashidi; Georgiana Baldea; Uwe Riedel

2011-01-01

417

A techno-economic comparison of power production by biomass fast pyrolysis with gasification and combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an assessment of the technical and economic performance of thermal processes to generate electricity from a wood chip feedstock by combustion, gasification and fast pyrolysis. The scope of the work begins with the delivery of a wood chip feedstock at a conversion plant and ends with the supply of electricity to the grid, incorporating wood chip preparation,

A. V. Bridgwater; A. J. Toft; J. G. Brammer

2002-01-01

418

Gasification of low-grade fuels in a spouted bed for power generation  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data on the autothermal gasification of wastes from the flotation of Kuzbass coal of grade Zh and low-ash coal from the Kansk-Achinsk Basin in a spouted bed of an inert material at atmospheric pressure are presented. Capabilities for the development and use of this process for power generation based on closed-cycle gas turbine plants are analyzed.

A.A. Belyaev [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-12-15

419

Testing Kentucky Coal to Set Design Criteria for a Lurgi Gasification Plant  

E-print Network

commercial scale gasification test with Kentucky 9 coal in a Lurgi Mark IV dry-bottom gasifier at the Sasol One Plant in Sasolburg, Republic of South Africa, in 1981. The test was conducted to confirm the operability of the Lurgi process on Western Kentucky...

Roeger, A., III; Jones, J. E., Jr.

1983-01-01

420

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 13. Gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the thirteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal, from July 31, 1984 to August 11, 1984. 6 refs., 22 figs., 20 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

421

Improved system integration for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems.  

PubMed

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems are a promising technology for power generation. They include an air separation unit (ASU), a gasification system, and a gas turbine combined cycle power block, and feature competitive efficiency and lower emissions compared to conventional power generation technology. IGCC systems are not yet in widespread commercial use and opportunities remain to improve system feasibility via improved process integration. A process simulation model was developed for IGCC systems with alternative types of ASU and gas turbine integration. The model is applied to evaluate integration schemes involving nitrogen injection, air extraction, and combinations of both, as well as different ASU pressure levels. The optimal nitrogen injection only case in combination with an elevated pressure ASU had the highest efficiency and power output and approximately the lowest emissions per unit output of all cases considered, and thus is a recommended design option. The optimal combination of air extraction coupled with nitrogen injection had slightly worse efficiency, power output, and emissions than the optimal nitrogen injection only case. Air extraction alone typically produced lower efficiency, lower power output, and higher emissions than all other cases. The recommended nitrogen injection only case is estimated to provide annualized cost savings compared to a nonintegrated design. Process simulation modeling is shown to be a useful tool for evaluation and screening of technology options. PMID:16568789

Frey, H Christopher; Zhu, Yunhua

2006-03-01

422

ADVANCED GASIFICATION BY-PRODUCT UTILIZATION  

SciTech Connect

The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2003 to August 31, 2004. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

2005-04-01

423

Production of Hydrogen from Underground Coal Gasification  

DOEpatents

A system of obtaining hydrogen from a coal seam by providing a production well that extends into the coal seam; positioning a conduit in the production well leaving an annulus between the conduit and the coal gasification production well, the conduit having a wall; closing the annulus at the lower end to seal it from the coal gasification cavity and the syngas; providing at least a portion of the wall with a bifunctional membrane that serves the dual purpose of providing a catalyzing reaction and selectively allowing hydrogen to pass through the wall and into the annulus; and producing the hydrogen through the annulus.

Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

2008-10-07

424

Beluga coal gasification feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to determine the economic feasibility of developing and siting a coal-based integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant in the Cook Inlet region of Alaska for the co-production of electric power and marketable by-products. The by-products, which may include synthesis gas, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids, fertilizers such as ammonia and urea, alcohols, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, would be manufactured for local use or for sale in domestic and foreign markets. This report for Phase 1 summarizes the investigation of an IGCC system for a specific industrial setting on the Cook Inlet, the Agrium U.S. Inc. ('Agrium') fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska. Faced with an increase in natural gas price and a decrease in supply, the Agrium is investigating alternatives to gas as feed stock for their plant. This study considered all aspects of the installation and infrastructure, including: coal supply and cost, coal transport costs, delivery routes, feedstock production for fertilizer manufacture, plant steam and power, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) uses, markets for possible additional products, and environmental permit requirements. The Cook Inlet-specific Phase 1 results, reported here, provided insight and information that led to the conclusion that the second study should be for an F-T plant sited at the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, Alaska. This Phase 1 case study is for a very specific IGCC system tailored to fit the chemical and energy needs of the fertilizer manufacturing plant. It demonstrates the flexibility of IGCC for a variety of fuel feedstocks depending on plant location and fuel availability, as well as the available variety of gas separation, gas cleanup, and power and steam generation technologies to fit specific site needs. 18 figs., 37 tabs., 6 apps.

Robert Chaney; Lawrence Van Bibber [Research & Development Solutions (RDS), LLC (United States)

2006-07-15

425

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 6. Gasification of delayed petroleum coke  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the sixth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of delayed petroleum coke from Pine Bend, MN. The period of the gasification test was June 1-17, 1983. 2 refs., 15 figs., 22 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

426

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 7. Gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the seventh volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal. The period of the gasification test was July 18-24, 1983. 6 refs., 20 figs., 17 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

427

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 4. Gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the fourth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal from Sweetwater County, Wyoming. The period of the gasification test was April 11-30, 1983. 4 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-03-31

428

Development of Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Partial Gasification Module (PGM)  

SciTech Connect

Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the October 1 - December 31, 2003 time period.

A. Robertson

2003-12-31

429

DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)  

SciTech Connect

Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the July 1--September 30, 2003 time period.

Archie Robertson

2003-10-29

430

DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)  

SciTech Connect

Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the April 1--June 30, 2002 time period.

Archie Robertson

2002-07-10

431

DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)  

SciTech Connect

Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the October 1--December 31, 2002 time period.

Unknown

2003-01-30

432

DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)  

SciTech Connect

Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the April 1--June 30, 2003 time period.

Archie Robertson

2003-07-23

433

Development of Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Partial Gasification Module (PGM)  

SciTech Connect

Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the July 1-September 30, 2002 time period.

A. Robertson

2002-09-30

434

A case-study of landfill minimization and material recovery via waste co-gasification in a new waste management scheme.  

PubMed

This study evaluates municipal solid waste co-gasification technology and a new solid waste management scheme, which can minimize final landfill amounts and maximize material recycled from waste. This new scheme is considered for a region where bottom ash and incombustibles are landfilled or not allowed to be recycled due to their toxic heavy metal concentration. Waste is processed with incombustible residues and an incineration bottom ash discharged from existent conventional incinerators, using a gasification and melting technology (the Direct Melting System). The inert materials, contained in municipal solid waste, incombustibles and bottom ash, are recycled as slag and metal in this process as well as energy recovery. Based on this new waste management scheme with a co-gasification system, a case study of municipal solid waste co-gasification was evaluated and compared with other technical solutions, such as conventional incineration, incineration with an ash melting facility under certain boundary conditions. From a technical point of view, co-gasification produced high quality slag with few harmful heavy metals, which was recycled completely without requiring any further post-treatment such as aging. As a consequence, the co-gasification system had an economical advantage over other systems because of its material recovery and minimization of the final landfill amount. Sensitivity analyses of landfill cost, power price and inert materials in waste were also conducted. The higher the landfill costs, the greater the advantage of the co-gasification system has. The co-gasification was beneficial for landfill cost in the range of 80 Euro per ton or more. Higher power prices led to lower operation cost in each case. The inert contents in processed waste had a significant influence on the operating cost. These results indicate that co-gasification of bottom ash and incombustibles with municipal solid waste contributes to minimizing the final landfill amount and has great possibilities maximizing material recovery and energy recovery from waste. PMID:25182227

Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Osada, Morihiro

2014-08-30

435

Technoeconomic Comparison of Biofuels: Ethanol, Methanol, and Gasoline from Gasification of Woody Residues (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation provides a technoeconomic comparison of three biofuels - ethanol, methanol, and gasoline - produced by gasification of woody biomass residues. The presentation includes a brief discussion of the three fuels evaluated; discussion of equivalent feedstock and front end processes; discussion of back end processes for each fuel; process comparisons of efficiencies, yields, and water usage; and economic assumptions and results, including a plant gate price (PGP) for each fuel.

Tarud, J.; Phillips, S.

2011-08-01

436

Clean coal technology—Study on the pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the gasification conditions, the gasifier structure, the measuring system and the gasification rationale of a pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification (UCG) in the Liuzhuang Colliery, Tangshan, are illustrated. The technique of two-phase underground coal gasification is proposed. The detection of the moving speed and the length of the gasification working face is made using radon

Lanhe Yang; Jie Liang; Li Yu

2003-01-01

437

Novel gas turbine cycles with coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the results of a study to devise efficient gas turbine cycles without steam bottoming for use with coal gasification. Substitution of other forms of heat recovery in place of steam bottoming offers a potential cost saving. A novel form of the intercooled-reheat-regenerative cycle was devised with thermal efficiency nearly as high as that of combined cycles. As

S. J. Lehman

1979-01-01

438

Catalytic Coal Gasification: An Emerging Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic coal gasification is being developed as a more efficient and less costly approach to producing methane from coal. With a potassium catalyst all the reactions can take place at one temperature, so that endothermic and exothermic reactions can be integrated in a single reactor. A key aspect of the concept involves continuous recycling of product carbon monoxide and hydrogen

Robert L. Hirsch; John E. Gallagher; Richard R. Lessard; Robert D. Wesselhoft

1982-01-01

439

Catalytic coal gasification: an emerging technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic coal gasification is being developed as a more efficient and less costly approach to producing methane from coal. With a potassium catalyst all the reactions can take place at one temperature, so that endothermic and exothermic reactions can be integrated in a single reactor. A key aspect of the concept involves continuous recycling of product carbon monoxide and hydrogen

R. R. Lessard; J. E. Jr. Gallagher; R. D. Wesselhoft

1982-01-01

440

BIOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT STUDY PLANT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...