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1

Combining the H-oil and Texaco gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projected market conditions will result in the need for process combinations to upgrade high-sulfur residual fractions and concurrently to produce additional quantities of refinery hydrogen. Simultaneously, the use of natural gas or petroleum fractions for refinery fuel should be minimized, while meeting increasingly stringent environmental standards. Extensive studies by Texaco have resulted in the conclusion that the combination of H-Oil

E. T. Child; A. M. Gray

1981-01-01

2

Ammonia production from coal by utilization of Texaco coal gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operating data will be presented for the coal gasification and gas purification unit which has been retrofitted to the front end of an existing ammonia plant. The plant uses 200 tons per day of coal and produces 135 tons per day of ammonia. The plant uses the Texaco coal gasification process, Haldor-Topsoe catalyst systems, Selexol acid gas removal process, and

J. R. Watson; T. S. McClanhan; R. W. Weatherington

1983-01-01

3

Ammonia production from coal by utilization of Texaco coal gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Operating data will be presented for the coal gasification and gas purification unit which has been retrofitted to the front end of an existing ammonia plant. The plant uses 200 tons per day of coal and produces 135 tons per day of ammonia. The plant uses the Texaco coal gasification process, Haldor-Topsoe catalyst systems, Selexol acid gas removal process, and the Holmes-Stretford sulfur recovery process.

Watson, J.R.; McClanhan, T.S.; Weatherington, R.W.

1983-12-01

4

Conceptual designs and assessments of a coal gasification demonstration plant. Volume III. Texaco process  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains detailed information on the conceptual design and assessment of the facility required to process approximately 20,000 tons per day of coal to produce medium Btu gas using the Texaco gasification process. The report includes process descriptions, flow diagrams and equipment lists for the various subsystems associated with the gasifiers along with descriptions of the overall facility. The facility is analyzed from both an economic and environmental standpoint. Problems of construction are addressed together with an overall design and construction schedule for the total facility. Resource requirements are summarized along with suggested development areas, both process and environmental.

Not Available

1980-10-01

5

Texaco Coal Gasification Wastewater Handling and Treatment Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radian was contracted by the Electric Power Research Institute to collect and analyze water, sludge, and vapor samples associated with the pilot study of the Texaco coal gasification wastewater process. The pilot plant tests, processing grey water produced from the gasification of SUFCO coal, were conducted at the Cool Water Coal Gasification Program (CWCGP) facility during the first four months

Dille

1990-01-01

6

Enriched-Air and Oxygen Gasification of Illinois No. 6 Coal in a Texaco Coal-Gasification Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four runs were made with Illinois No. 6 coal, from Peabody Coal Company River King Mine at Freeburg, Illinois, to demonstrate technology to integrate the Texaco Coal Gasification Process in an environmentally acceptable manner with gas turbines for combin...

W. B. Crouch G. N. Richter E. W. Dillingham

1982-01-01

7

Gasification of residual materials from coal liquefaction. Evaluation of SRC II Vacuum Flash Drum Bottoms from Powhatan coal as a feedstock for the Texaco gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory evaluation of a 20-pound sample of Vacuum Flash Drum Bottoms from the SRC II Plant at Ft. Lewis, Washington was completed. The sample, which was obtained from the liquefaction of Powhatan coal, was judged to be a suitable feedstock for the Texaco Synthesis Gas Generation Process. It can be charged directly to the gasifier at a temperature of

1979-01-01

8

Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, April--June 1976. [Change to Texaco gasification process from Koppers-Totzek  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overall progress on the Clean Boiler Fuel Demonstration Plant was maintained on schedule. A major new development involved the decision to change to the Texaco gasifier from Koppers-Totzek, which required new engineering effort in many sections and a rework of the overall plant heat and mass balances. Coalcon completed a total of nine calibration runs on the coal feed apparatus

P. C. White; G. A. Rial

1976-01-01

9

Enriched-air and oxygen gasification of Illinois No. 6 coal in a Texaco coal-gasification unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four runs were made with Illinois No. 6 coal, from Peabody Coal Company River King Mine at Freeburg, Illinois, to demonstrate technology to integrate the Texaco Coal Gasification Process in an environmentally acceptable manner with gas turbines for combined cycle electric power generation. Operability and response of the gasifier and a Selexol acid gas removal unit were demonstrated during load

W. B. Crouch; G. N. Richter; E. W. Dillingham

1982-01-01

10

IsoTex: Texaco`s olefin skeletal isomerization process  

SciTech Connect

Texaco has developed a new process (IsoTex) for the skeletal isomerization of n-olefins. The IsoTex process can convert normal butenes to isobutylene or normal pentenes to isoamylenes. The resulting product stream is an excellent feed for MTBE, ETBE or TAME units. The process has isomerized an untreated refinery C4 raffinate stream from an MTBE plant. A kinetic model was developed for the butene system. This model accurately predicted IsoTex performance in a one barrel per day skid unit at a Gulf Coast chemical plant. Process economics have been calculated for a once through 54,000 BPD C{sub 4} isomerization plant as well as a 10,000 BPD plant for recycle to an existing MTBE reactor. Economics have also been completed for a 6,800 BPD pentene once through isomerization unit.

Sawicki, R.A.; Pellet, R.J.; Kuhlmann, E.J.; Huang, H.M.; O`Young, C.L.; Kessler, R.V.; Casey, D.G. [Texaco Research and Development, Beacon, NY (United States)

1995-09-01

11

Treatability testing of KILnGAS and Texaco coal gasification wastewaters: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of treatability testing of wastewater from two coal gasification plants: the 600-tpd KILnGAS rotary-kiln gasifier in East Alton, Illinois, and the 1000-tyd Texaco entrained-flow gasifier at the Cool Water facility in Daggett, California. The wastewater was collected during steady-state operation of the gasifiers and shipped in barrels to the testing laboratory for characterization and treatment. Solvent extraction, steam stripping, biological treatment, granular activated carbon adsorption, ozonation, ion exchange, chemical precipitation, cooling tower evaporation, and wet air oxidation were evaluated in terms of their ability to meet the project's effluent quality targets. Preliminary process design criteria were also developed. Two sets of effluent discharge targets as well as a zero effluent discharge condition were established as goals for the testing. All of the effluent targets were met by the combination of processes used in the treatability testing program, with the exception of cyanide and COD for the KILnGAS wastewater and cyanide under one of the discharge conditions for the Texaco wastewater. These targets could likely be met by additional process steps or by further treatment with the processes tested. This test program confirmed that the principal containmants in these coal gasification wastewaters can be reduced to low concentrations by use of commercially proven treatment processes. 15 refs., 50 figs., 93 tabs.

Peterson, D.L.; Eis, B.J.; Zeien, C.T.; Moe, T.A.; Turner, C.D.; Mayer, G.G.; Stephan, D.J.

1988-07-01

12

Conceptual design and assessment of a coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant. Volume 3. Summary. [Texaco; Koppers-Totzek  

SciTech Connect

Objective is a commercial-scale coal gasification facility producing clean medium-Btu gas (300 billion Btu/day) from 20,000 tons/day of bituminous coal. The process was narrowed down to either the Texaco process, the Koppers-Totzek process, or a combination of those two. This document is a summary description of the plants for both processes. Brief summary tables are presented for comparison. (DLC)

Not Available

1980-09-01

13

Design of advanced fossil-fuel systems (DAFFS): a study of three developing technologies for coal-fired, base-load electric power generation. Integrated coal gasification/combined cycle power plant with Texaco gasification process  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to present the facility description, plant layouts and additional information which define the conceptual engineering design, and performance and cost estimates for the Texaco Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant. Following the introductory comments, the results of the Texaco IGCC power plant study are summarized in Section 2. In Section 3, a description of plant systems and facilities is provided. Section 4 includes pertinent performance information and assessments of availability, natural resource requirements and environmental impact. Estimates of capital costs, operation and maintenance costs and cost of electricity are presented in Section 5. A Bechtel Group, Inc. assessment and comments on the designs provided by Burns and Roe-Humphreys and Glasgow Synthetic Fuel, Inc. are included in Section 6. The design and cost estimate reports which were prepared by BRHG for those items within their scope of responsibility are included as Appendices A and B, respectively. Appendix C is an equipment list for items within the BGI scope. The design and cost estimate classifications chart referenced in Section 5 is included as Appendix D. 8 references, 17 figures, 15 tables.

Not Available

1983-06-01

14

Enriched-air and oxygen gasification of Illinois No. 6 coal in a Texaco coal-gasification unit  

SciTech Connect

Four runs were made with Illinois No. 6 coal, from Peabody Coal Company River King Mine at Freeburg, Illinois, to demonstrate technology to integrate the Texaco Coal Gasification Process in an environmentally acceptable manner with gas turbines for combined cycle electric power generation. Operability and response of the gasifier and a Selexol acid gas removal unit were demonstrated during load changes utilizing both oxygen and enriched air as oxidants (transient runs). Steady state performance data on the gasifier, Selexol unit and gas turbine combustor were obtained at a variety of oxygen to coal ratios at different production rates utilizing each oxidant (steady state runs). Essentially no effect of charge rate on the syngas quality was noted. Environmental base line data were gathered for both oxidants. Results of the environmental tests and the turbine combustor tests are reported separately.

Crouch, W.B.; Richter, G.N.; Dillingham, E.W.

1982-02-01

15

Coal-to-Methanol: An Engineering Evaluation of Texaco Gasification and ICI Methanol-Synthesis Route. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a technical and economic evaluation of producing methanol from bituminous coal using Texaco coal gasification and ICI methanol synthesis. The scope of work included the development of an overall configuration for a larg...

P. A. Buckingham D. D. Cobb A. A. Leavitt W. G. Snyder

1981-01-01

16

TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 6. Plant based on Texaco gasifier. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The baseline of a coal gasification plant producing medium Btu gas, based upon the Texaco gasification process is documented in this report. The coal gasification plant consists of four identical modules, each with a capacity of approximately 4800 tons of coal per day dry basis as delivered to the gasifiers. The entire plant (four modules) produces 1195.0 million standard cubic feet per day of gas with a GHV value of approximately 285 Btu/scf for a total heating value of about 341 billion Btu/day. The plant will be designed to meet all federal, state, and local standards and guidelines. A description of the plant by major sections is included as well as flow diagrams, stream balances and lists of major equipment.

Not Available

1980-11-01

17

Texaco environmental tests on a 165-tpd Texaco gasifier. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the commercial development of the Texaco Coal Gasification Process, the Electric Power Research Institute has sponsored studies to evaluate environmental characteristics of the process. The first tests were conducted at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory Pilot Plant (15 tons per day). To verify the favorable data from these tests, EPRI made arrangements for a run on Illinois No.

W. V. Taylor

1983-01-01

18

Texaco T-STAR Process for ebullated bed hydrotreating\\/hydrocracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texaco has developed an ebullated bed hydrotreater\\/hydrocracker process called the T-STAR Process. This process is based upon the well known residuum H-Oil[reg sign] Process and Texaco's fixed bed hydrotreating\\/hydrocracking technology experience. T-STAR is ideally suited for hard to process feedstocks and for difficult processing requirements for the 90's such as FCCU feed pretreating, gas oil hydrocracking, and diesel aromatics reduction.

W. F. Johns; H. Kaufman; G. Clausen; G. Nongbri

1993-01-01

19

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTNG OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

The cooperative agreement between Texaco and Polk Power has been revised by Polk Power and ChevronTexaco several times already. Lawyers from both Polk Power and ChevronTexaco are in the process to include the issues related to the ownership transfer of the Texaco gasification unit in the agreement and finalize the draft. The modification fieldwork and testing will start once the cooperative agreement is signed with Polk Power.

Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

2003-04-01

20

Program plan for development of hot dirty gas compressors\\/expanders for coal gasification systems. [Gasifiers of Texaco, Shell, Koppers-Babcock and Wilcox, Lurgi, Winkle, Westinghouse, U-Gas and Exxon catalytic processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This effort was conducted to provide supporting data for a proposed Department of Energy program for the development of components for hot dirty gas service in gasification systems. This report deals with compressor\\/expander applications, and its scope includes a broad range of gasification systems such as the generic models for entrained-flow, moving-bed, and fluidized-bed gasifiers. The normal isostatic operation of

Lackey

1983-01-01

21

Texaco-Based Gasification-Combined-Cycle System Performance Studies. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of an investigation of the effects on system thermal efficiency of major design variables and configuration options in combined cycle power plants based on air or oxygen-blown Texaco gasifiers. The plants are sized to proc...

J. J. Oliva S. D. Shemo

1980-01-01

22

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained flow gasification for power generation systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To help achieve the goal of clean, low cost power generation from coal, Texaco submitted an unsolicited proposal in July 1986 to develop and demonstrate the integration of high temperature desulfurization with the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). ...

T. F. Leininger A. Robin D. Y. Jung J. S. Kassman J. K. Wolfenbarger

1992-01-01

23

Coal Gasification Environmental Baseline Studies. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In conjunction with the commercial development of the Texaco Coal Gasification Process, environmental baseline studies were considered necessary. Accordingly, tests on oxygen and enriched air gasification of a water slurry of Illinois No. 6 coal were cond...

J. R. Denchfield R. M. Dille H. A. Rhodes W. V. Taylor S. B. Wallon

1982-01-01

24

Texaco environmental tests on a 165-tpd Texaco gasifier. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In support of the commercial development of the Texaco Coal Gasification Process, the Electric Power Research Institute has sponsored studies to evaluate environmental characteristics of the process. The first tests were conducted at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory Pilot Plant (15 tons per day). To verify the favorable data from these tests, EPRI made arrangements for a run on Illinois No. 6 coal at the semi-works (165 tons per day) coal gasification plant of Ruhrchemie in Oberhausen, West Germany. Texaco obtained samples, arranged for analyses, and prepared this report covering the environmental aspects of that run. The test run at Ruhrchemie has confirmed that the Texaco Coal Gasification Process is an environmentally sound method of utilizing coal. Most of the sulfur compounds in the coal are converted to hydrogen sulfide, which can be removed from the gas by an acid gas scrubbing process, such as Selexol. This eliminates the need for stack gas scrubbing to meet SO/sub 2/ emission regulations when the treated gas is used as a boiler or turbine fuel. Volatile metals, particulate matter, and organic compounds other than methane and formate are present at very low levels in the gas. However, the mass balance for some volatile elements has not been closed. The process effluent water composition is such that available water treatment technology will significantly reduce contaminant levels. The slag would be classified as a nonhazardous waste on the basis of EPA RCRA regulations. 1 figure, 47 tables.

W.V. Taylor

1983-10-01

25

Total energy by gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oil gasification plant may be used as a ''total energy'' system for supplying all the various energy needs of a large chemical or refining plant. The plant would produce a low-Btu gas from medium- and high-sulfur crude using either the Shell or Texaco gasification process. Special arrangements can be included in the plant to recycle carbon formed in the

J. B. Fortuin; D. Haag

1974-01-01

26

Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG)...

J. Mccarthy J. Ferrall T. Charng J. Houseman

1981-01-01

27

ASPEN simulations of fluidized-bed and entrained-flow integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants. [KRW and Texaco  

SciTech Connect

A fluidized-bed, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant simulation was developed by METC using the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) process simulator. The ASPEN simulation is based on a conceptual design of a 570 megawatt (MW) IGCC plant using Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) ash agglomerating pressurized fluid-bed gasifiers and conventional cold gas cleanup processes. The conceptual design was completed by Bechtel as part of the Design of Advanced Fossil Fuel Systems (DAFFS) study (Bechtel 1983). In this process, Illinois No. 6 coal is converted into a medium-Btu gas to fuel a combined-cycle power generation system. The system employs advanced gas turbines having a firing temperature of 2150/sup 0/F. Heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) produce high pressure steam for expansion through steam turbines. ASPEN performs a steady-state computer simulation of this process. The simulation flowsheet contains 83 unit operation blocks (models of unit operations, such as pumps, reactors, and compressors), plus user routines to calculate ash enthalpy and to decompose coal. The KRW-IGCC simulation was developed to provide accurate mass and energy balances and to track major environmental species (SOx, NOx, and particulates). This level of detail is appropriate for scoping, sensitivity, and trade-off studies. Operating conditions for any of the unit operation blocks can be modified to conduct sensitivity studies. Simulation results agree well with the Bechtel study. A study was carried out to determine how the overall plant efficiency would be affected by changes in the gas turbine firing temperature. 6 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

Stone, K.R.

1985-07-01

28

Assessment of Advanced Coal-Gasification Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Proces...

J. Ferrall J. Houseman J. McCarthy T. Charng

1981-01-01

29

Westinghouse gasification process  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the coal gasification sytem, which utilizes a single-stage, pressurized, fluidized-bed gasifier, followed by heat recovery and gas cleaning. The gasifier can be fired with air or oxygen to produce a low- or medium-Btu gas, respectively. Byproducts from the gasification sytem include sulfur, ammonia and an agglomerated ash that are projected to be nontoxic and suitable for disposal by landfill. Design and operational design of a pilot plant, which has been tested since 1975, are included, along with operational results. Data are given on the methanol synthesis including economic considerations. Detailed engineering for a 1200 metric ton/d prototype is progressing according to schedule. The commercial prototype will be ready for start-up in 1983.

Schwartz, C.W.; Rath, L.K.; Freier, M.D.

1982-04-01

30

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

Polk Power has decided that the Texaco gasification unit will not be sold to a third party. Therefore, including the ownership transfer of the Texaco gasification unit in the agreement is not an issue any more. The cooperative agreement between Texaco and Polk Power has been revised several times in this quarter. Polk power is making comments on the last draft that Texaco sent to them. The modification fieldwork and testing will start once the cooperative agreement is signed with Polk Power.

Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

2003-07-01

31

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1-Test Plan; Task 2-Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3-Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4-Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

1988-02-01

32

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

1987-11-01

33

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Derting, T.M.

1988-07-01

34

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Williams, S.W.

1989-01-01

35

Coking and gasification process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a coking process wherein a normally solid carbonaceous material is coked at a temperature within the range from about 850/sup 0/ to about 1400/sup 0/F and at a pressure within the range from about 5 to about 150 psig and the coke fluidized during the coking operation. The improvement describes a gaseous ammonia or a gaseous ammonia precursor added to the coker in an amount sufficient to provide from about 1 to about 60wt% gaseous ammonia in the coker based on the weight of carbon in the solid carbonaceous material.

Billimoria, R.M.; Tao, F.F.

1986-07-01

36

Gasification slag rheology and crystallization in titanium-rich, iron–calcium–aluminosilicate glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Texaco Gasification Process employs a high temperature, high pressure slagging gasifier, in which the viscosity of the slag plays a key role in determining operating conditions. Empirical slag viscosity models available in the literature, as well as prior laboratory testing have generally concentrated on low titanium slags\\/ashes. During the gasification of waste materials, titanium dioxide is an important compound

J. C Groen; D. D Brooker; P. J Welch; M. S Oh

1998-01-01

37

Gasification slag rheology in titanium-rich, iron and calcium-aluminosilicate glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) employs a high temperature, high pressure stagging gasifier to produce synthesis gas for power, hydrogen, and chemicals. During gasification most of the ash collects on the refractory wall to form a molten glass or slag. The viscosity of the slag plays a key role in determining operating conditions. Insufficient operating temperatures can cause erratic slag

D. D. Brooker; J. C. Groen; M. S. Oh

1996-01-01

38

Catalytic fluid coking and gasification process  

SciTech Connect

An integrated catalytic fluid coking and gasification process is provided in which a portion of the coke produced in the coker is steam gasified to produce a hydrogen-containing gas and a catalytic partially gasified coke. Subsequently, a portion of the catalytic partially gasified coke is burned to provide heated partially gasified coke which is recycled to the gasification zone. A portion of the catalytic partially gasified coke is passed from the gasification zone to the coker to contact the coker vapor phase product comprising normally liquid hydrocarbons and to crack at least a portion of the normally liquid hydrocarbons. Optionally, solid fines recovered from the gaseous effluent of the gasification zone may be recycled to the carbonaceous chargestock of the coker.

Metrailer, W.J.

1982-04-20

39

Heat recovery process in coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overall process of cooling, dust removal, tar removal and heat recovery of high temperature gas generated in coal gasification furnaces, and apparatuses employed therefor are provided. In this process, specific apparatuses such as fluidized bed-cooler, fluidized bed-combustion furnace for regenerating granules, granular bed filter, gas cooler and, tar scrubber are successively and effectively employed. During the process, high, medium

Arisaki

1984-01-01

40

Heat recovery process in coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overall process of cooling, dust removal, tar removal and heat recovery of high temperature gas generated in coal gasification furnaces, and apparatuses employed therefor are provided. In this process, specific apparatuses such as fluidized bed-cooler, fluidized bed-combustion furnace for regenerating granules, granular bed filter, gas cooler, and tar scrubber are successively and effectively employed. During the process, high, medium

Arisaki

1984-01-01

41

Texaco head forecasts economic outlook, and where he sees the U. S. HPI (hydrocarbon processing industry) going  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bringing inflation under control is a major need if the HPI is to take on new investments, according to J. K. McKinley (Texaco Inc.) at an AIChE engineering construction\\/contracting meeting (San Antonio, Tex. 1978). U.S. petroleum demand in 1979 is forecast to increase by 2.5-3Vertical Bar3<, as compared with 3.5Vertical Bar3< in 1978 and 5.5Vertical Bar3< in 1977. There is

Mckinley

1978-01-01

42

Performance of coal-gasification-reheat combustion-turbine power cycles using dry cooling. Final report. [Texaco oxygen-blown gasifier and British Gas Corporation slagging gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to explore the near-term performance potential of coal-gasification combined cycles that use reheat combustion turbines and dry cooling. The major finding is that these cycles can have coal-to-bus-bar efficiencies close to 40% if the components are properly matched. The study assumes that reheat gas turbines with inlet temperatures of about 2370°F could be developed. The addition

Horazak

1983-01-01

43

ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD RANKINGS OF POLLUTANTS GENERATED IN COAL GASIFICATION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation and ranking of environmental hazards associated with coal gasification. Applied chemical analytical data were provided by (1) research with an experimental gasifier, and (2) sampling of four commercial gasification processes. Gas, liquid,...

44

Biomass Reactivity in Gasification by the Hynol Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses the use of a thermobalance reactor to evaluate the reactivity of popular wood in gasification under the operating conditions specific for the Hynol process (30 atm and 800 C). The gasification involved a rapid devolization and pyrolysi...

Y. Dong R. H. Borgwardt

1995-01-01

45

Heat recovery process in coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

An overall process of cooling, dust removal, tar removal and heat recovery of high temperature gas generated in coal gasification furnaces, and apparatuses employed therefor are provided. In this process, specific apparatuses such as fluidized bed-cooler, fluidized bed-combustion furnace for regenerating granules, granular bed filter, gas cooler, and tar scrubber are successively and effectively employed. During the process, high, medium and low pressure steam, for example, are recovered by heat exchange in these apparatuses.

Arisaki, K.

1984-07-24

46

Heat recovery process in coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

An overall process of cooling, dust removal, tar removal and heat recovery of high temperature gas generated in coal gasification furnaces, and apparatuses employed therefor are provided. In this process, specific apparatuses such as fluidized bed-cooler, fluidized bed-combustion furnace for regenerating granules, granular bed filter, gas cooler and, tar scrubber are successively and effectively employed. During the process, high, medium and low pressure steam, for example, are recovered by heat exchange in these apparatuses.

Arisaki, K.

1984-08-07

47

Process for a coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for producing water gas containing a large ; quantity of hydrogen and involving the formation of a moving quiescent gas-; permeable bed composed of both particles of coal and particles of spent coal or ; ash. The bed is passed through a series of zones in which, in a succession of ; cycles, the bed is

Ban

1974-01-01

48

Separation of products from mild coal gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary mild coal gasification product mixture containing noncondensible gas, high-boiling hydrocarbon vapors and entrained fines is difficult to process into the desired pure products: gas, liquids, and dry solids. This challenge for mild coal gasification process development has been studied by surveying the technical literature for suitable separations processes and for similar issues in related processes. The choice for

Wallman

1991-01-01

49

Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process  

DOEpatents

The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

Wilson, Marvin W. (Fairview, WV)

1988-01-01

50

Evaluation of gasification and gas-cleanup processes for use in molten-carbonate fuel-cell power plants  

SciTech Connect

This interim report satisfies the Task B requirement to define process configurations for systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants. The configurations studied include entrained, fluidized-bed, gravitating-bed, and molten salt gasifiers, both air and oxygen blown. Desulfurization systems utilizing wet scrubbing processes, such as Selexol and Rectisol II, and dry sorbents, such as iron oxide and dolomite, were chosen for evaluation. Cleanup systems not chosen by DOE's MCFC contractors, General Electric and United Technologies, Inc., for their MCFC power plant work by virtue of the resource requirements of those systems for commercial development were chosen for detailed study in Tasks C and D of this contract. Such systems include Westinghouse fluidized-bed gasification, air and oxygen blown, Rockwell molten carbonate air-blown gasification, METC iron oxide desulfurization, and dolomitic desulfurization. In addition, for comparison, gasification systems such as the Texaco entrained and the British Gas/Lurgi slagging units, along with wet scrubbing by Rectisol II, have also been chosen for detailed study.

Vidt, E.J.; Jablonski, G.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

1981-12-01

51

Oxygen Supply for Coal Gasification Power Stations (Combined Cycle Process).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Adaptation of air separation processes to coal gasification plants was investigated. Main points are the start up and the load change behavior of the total process. Air separation processes which put at disposal oxygen most energetically to the combined c...

D. Rottmann E. Schoenpflug

1982-01-01

52

Some process fundamentals of biomass gasification in dual fluidized bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dual fluidised bed gasification technology is prospective because it produces high caloric product gas free of N2 dilution even when air is used to generate the gasification-required endothermic heat via in situ combustion. This study is devoted to providing the necessary process fundamentals for development of a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) biomass gasifier coupled to a pneumatic transported riser

Takahiro Murakami; Guangwen Xu; Toshiyuki Suda; Yoshiaki Matsuzawa; Hidehisa Tani; Toshiro Fujimori

2007-01-01

53

BIOMASS REACTIVITY IN GASIFICATION BY THE HYNOL PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

A thermobalance reactor was used to evaluate the reactivity of poplar wood in gasification under the operating conditions specific for the Hynol process where biomass is gasified at 30 atm and 800E C with a hydrogen-rich gas recycled from methane synthesis. The gasification invol...

54

The Garrett Energy Research biomass gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiple hearth furnace is used for the gasification of biomass materials. Drying, pyrolysis, steam\\/char gasification, and combustion steps are carried out, each on its own hearth. Partially dry biomass feed is contacted on the top hearth of the furnace with hot flue gas from the combustion stage. The steam contained in the flue gas leaving the top hearth is

R. D. Mikesell; D. C. Hoang; D. E. Garrett

1978-01-01

55

Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual carbon, which forms as a deposit on the particle surface, is then gasified by reaction with steam. Heat is supplied from pulse combustor resonance tubes which are immersed within the fluid bed. A portion of the gasifier product gas is returned to the pulse combustors to provide the energy requirements of the reactor. Oxidized sulfur species are partially reduced by reaction with the gasifier products, principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reduced sulfur decomposed to solid sodium carbonate and gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Sodium values are recovered by discharging a dry sodium carbonate product from the gasifier. MTCI's indirectly heated gasification technology for black liquor recovery also relies on the scrubbing of H{sub 2}S for product gases to regenerate green liquor for reuse in the mill circuit. Due to concerns relative to the efficiency of sulfur recovery in the MTCI integrated process, an experimental investigation was undertaken to establish performance and design data for this portion of the system.

Durai-Swamy, K.; Mansour, M.N.; Warren, D.W.

1991-02-01

56

Black liquor gasification. Consequences for pulping process and energy balance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation has been made with the aim to describe black liquor gasification processes and their effects in the kraft mill, the potential for increased electrical power production and requirements for research and development. There are two types of ...

B. Warnquist G. Svedberg N. Ihren P. Ulmgren R. Lindstroem

1992-01-01

57

Coal gasification and the Phenosolvan process  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of commercial coal gasification projects under design in the USA. By 1976-77, two such projects may be coming onstream in New Mexico, each producing 250 million standard cubic feet per day of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG). The gasification of coal produces large amounts of by-product phenol. The New Mexico projects will each involve about 25,000 tons

Beychok

1974-01-01

58

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Volume 1, Final report, September 1987--October 1993  

SciTech Connect

A five-year Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) was awarded to Texaco on September 30, 1987 to develop and demonstrate hot gas clean-up for the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). The program targeted the development and demonstration of a high efficiency integrated power generating system on a pilot plant scale that includes coal-sorbent slurry preparation, Texaco coal gasification, high temperature in-situ and external sulfur removal, particulate removal, advanced instruction, and if available, a gas turbine. To accomplish these goals, a comprehensive research and demonstration program that included theoretical and bench scale experimental studies, pilot scale demonstration runs, and detailed process economic evaluations was coordinated. The pilot scale studies, which were performed in the 20 tpd gasifiers at Texaco`s Montebello Research Laboratory, integrated in-situ desulfurization, external desulfurization, high temperature filtration and advanced instrumentation. Using data from the bench scale experiments and pilot scale demonstrations, the process economics studies compared the overall Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power plant efficiencies and costs for eighteen hot gas cleanup configurations to the efficiencies and costs for two ``base cases`` using commercially available cold gas cleanup technology. Several promising configurations using hot gas cleanup were identified.

Robin, A.M.; Davis, L.A.; Leininger, T.F. [and others

1993-10-01

59

Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. [Lurgi Process  

SciTech Connect

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) is the first commercial coal-to-synthetic natural gas plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input/output diagrams, and stream design data sheets for 161 major GPGP process and effluent streams. This stream design data provides an important base for evaluation of plant and process performance and for verification of the Department of Energy's ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) computer simulation models of the GPGP processes. 8 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

Honea, F.I.

1985-09-01

60

Conceptual design and assessment of a coal-asification commercial demonstration plant. Volume 2: Texaco gasifier. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of Bechtel's conceptual design and techno-economic assessment of a plant producing medium-Btu gas utilizing the Texaco coal gasification process. A large number of alternatives were investigated to determine which combination of technically or commercially proven processes will produce medium-Btu gas at the lowest cost. Comparison of different technologies for the various process steps resulted in a tentative selection of process equipment. These selections were then examined from the standpoint of operational reliability, capital and operating costs, compatibility with the Texaco process, technical suitability, and commercial availability. Once the baseline combination of processes was established, a coal receiving and handling system was devised, and a preliminary plot plan was established for the overall facility, including a suggested layout of the process area. Tradeoff studies were performed to determine the capital and operating cost differences associated with upgrading the coal feed to the plant, utilization of different oxygen purities, changes in the sulfur content of the product gas, changes in the delivery pressure of the product gas, production of sulfur or sulfuric acid as a byproduct, and lowering of the CO/sub 2/ level in the product gas. Other studies examined the sensitivity of the baseline case to variations in coal costs, capital and operating costs, operating stream factor, construction period, and operating life of the plant. Capital and operating cost estimates and corresponding product gas costs were completed for selected process combinations.

Not Available

1980-09-01

61

Coal gasification tests at TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority): Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results obtained from the EPRI cofunded tests conducted at TVA's 200 tpd Texaco coal gasification facility equipped with a water quench gasifier. Four US coals were tested at TVA: (1) Utah coal from the SUFCO mine, (2) Illinois No. 6 coal from the Amax Delta mine, (3) Pittsburgh No. 8 coal from the Blacksville No. 2 mine and (4) a high ash-fusion Maryland coal. The TVA tests were of short term duration totaling approximately 10 to 20 days of cumulative operation on each coal. The gasification behavior of each coal was tested under a wide range of process conditions and feed characteristics. All four coals produced carbon conversion of 92% or higher. Utah and Illinois No. 6 coals achieved carbon conversions of 95 to 97%. The high heating value Pittsburgh No. 8 coal had lower carbon conversion because the maximum allowable gasifier temperature was reached at relatively low O/C ratios. The high-ash fusion Maryland coal was gasified with a fluxing agent at temperatures within the design limit of the TVA gasifier. The gasification behavior of the coals was similar to that observed from tests at other Texaco gasifiers. However, earlier experiments at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratories showed higher values for both carbon conversion and coal gas efficiency. 27 figs., 35 tabs.

Crim, M.C.; Williamson, P.C.

1987-02-01

62

Thermal Gasification of Biomass: The IGT RENUGAS Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Institute of Gas Technology's RENUGAS process is being developed for thermal gasification of biomass to produce medium-calorific value and synthesis gas, with primary support from the US Department of Energy. The process employs a single-stage pressur...

S. P. Babu M. Onischak W. G. Bair

1985-01-01

63

Oxygen Supply for Coal Gasification Power Stations (Combined Cycle Process).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

1. Present status: Final investigation to the problem of adaption of air separation processes to coal gasification plants. Main points are the start up and the load change behaviour of the total process. 2. Aim of the study is the estimation of air separa...

D. Rottmann E. Schoenpflug

1982-01-01

64

A summary report on combustion and gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

Six poster papers regarding combustion and gasification were reviewed. These six papers address various different technology subjects: (1) underground coal gasification modeling, (2) wood gasification kinetics, (3) heat transfer surface pretreatment by iron implantation, (4) coal water slurry stabilization technology, (5) coal log pipeline technology, and (6) nuclear reactor decontamination. Summaries and comments of the following papers are presented: Characterization of Flow and Chemical Processes in an Underground Gasifier at Great Depth; Model for Reaction Kinetics in Pyrolysis of Wood; Development of a Stainless Steel Heat Transfer Surface with Low Scaling Tendency; Storage and Transportation of Coal Water Mixtures; Coal Log Pipeline: Development Status of the First Commercial System; and Decontamination of Nuclear Systems at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station.

Rath, L.K.; Lee, G.T.

1996-08-01

65

Gasification slag rheology in titanium-rich, iron and calcium-aluminosilicate glasses  

SciTech Connect

The Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) employs a high temperature, high pressure stagging gasifier to produce synthesis gas for power, hydrogen, and chemicals. During gasification most of the ash collects on the refractory wall to form a molten glass or slag. The viscosity of the slag plays a key role in determining operating conditions. Insufficient operating temperatures can cause erratic slag flow from the unit, while excessive operating temperatures can result in rapid refractory wear. Waste streams that are high in titanium (e.g. plastics and tires where TiO{sub 2} is used as a pigment) are being tested for gasification by Texaco. Texaco has developed a process to liquify both used plastics and tires with heated oil to produce a pumpable feed referred to as plastic-oil or tire-oil. Other major elements found with the titanium in these feeds include calcium, aluminum, iron, silicon, and zinc. The zinc sublimes during gasification, leaving behind a titanium-rich calcium-aluminosilicate glass with various amounts of iron.

Brooker, D.D.; Groen, J.C. [Texaco, Inc., Beacon, NY (United States); Oh, M.S. [Hongik Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1996-12-31

66

Oxygen supply for coal gasification power stations (combined cycle process)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptation of air separation processes to coal gasification plants was investigated. Main points are the start up and the load change behavior of the total process. Air separation processes which put at disposal oxygen most energetically to the combined cycle process are estimated. The technical feasibility of such a plant is checked. The load change behavior of the plant, the adaptation of the coal gasification and the start up of the total system are investigated. The influence of process parameters on the energy consumption is calculated. The most economical air separation processes are investigated. It is found that a low pressure plant with mixed heat exchangers and a medium pressure plant with molsieves are the most economical processes and that air separation processes and the order of magnitude can be constructed economically.

Rottmann, D.; Schoenpflug, E.

1982-02-01

67

Development of the TRI-GAS Gasification Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes work done to develop the BCR TRI-GAS fluidized-bed gasification process to produce low- to medium-Btu fuel gas. TRI-GAS was designed to gasify all types of coal with no liquids, tars, or residual char as by-products. Preliminary devel...

M. A. Colaluca M. A. Paisley K. Mahajan

1978-01-01

68

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process simulation and optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is an electrical power generation system which offers efficient generation from coal with lower effect on the environment than conventional coal power plants. However, further improvement of its efficiency and thereby lowering emissions are important tasks to achieve a more sustainable energy production. In this paper, a process simulation tool is proposed for simulation

F. Emun; M. Gadalla; Thokozani Majozi; D. Boer

2010-01-01

69

Great Plains Gasification Project Process Stream Design Data. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) in the first commercial coal-to-SNG synthetic fuel plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major ...

F. I. Honea

1985-01-01

70

Heat exchanger for coal gasification process  

DOEpatents

This invention provides a heat exchanger, particularly useful for systems requiring cooling of hot particulate solids, such as the separated fines from the product gas of a carbonaceous material gasification system. The invention allows effective cooling of a hot particulate in a particle stream (made up of hot particulate and a gas), using gravity as the motive source of the hot particulate. In a preferred form, the invention substitutes a tube structure for the single wall tube of a heat exchanger. The tube structure comprises a tube with a core disposed within, forming a cavity between the tube and the core, and vanes in the cavity which form a flow path through which the hot particulate falls. The outside of the tube is in contact with the cooling fluid of the heat exchanger.

Blasiole, George A. (Greensburg, PA)

1984-06-19

71

Application Study of a Nuclear Coal Solution Gasification Process for Oklahoma Coal. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is presented in two parts, both included in one publication. Volume I contains the results of the Nuclear Coal Solution Gasification Study, descriptions of the coal gasification process and the nuclear reactor heat source, and the conclusions ...

1974-01-01

72

Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) in the first commercial coal-to-SNG synthetic fuel plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input/output diagrams and stream design data sheets for 161 major GPGP process and effluent streams. This stream design data provides an important base for evaluation of plant and process performance and for verification of the DOE ASPEN computer simulation models of the GPGP processes. 8 refs.

Honea, F.I.

1985-09-01

73

Comprehensive gasification process for energy recovery from cellulosic wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive, energy- and materials-resource-recovery system (the Biogas Process) capable of processing organic wastes and land- and water-based plant biomass to yield intermediate- or high-Btu gas (SNG), combustible solid fuels, recyclable by-products, and stabilized residues that can be returned to the environment without adverse impact on the biosphere is described. Biological gasification by anaerobic digestion forms the heart of this

S. Ghosh; D. L. Klass; J. R. Conrad; M. P. Henry; K. Griswold; F. Sedzielarz

1977-01-01

74

Conceptual design and assessment of a coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant. Volume 1. Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Objective is to demonstrate the operation of a commercial-scale coal gasification facility producing clean medium-Btu gas (MPB). The facility will convert approx. 20,000 tons/d of bituminous coal into approx. 300 billion Btu/d of MBG. The process choice was narrowed down to the Texaco and Koppers-Totzek processes. This report presents the results of Bechtel's conceptual design and techno-economic assessment of the Koppers-Totzek process. (DLC)

Not Available

1980-09-01

75

Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program  

SciTech Connect

The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H[sub 2] mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO[sub x] (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

1992-01-01

76

Groups win pollution suit against Texaco  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) and the Delaware Audubon Society have won a ruling in federal court against Texaco Refining and Marketing, Inc. for continuous pollution of the Delaware River. Texaco was found to have committed hundreds of violations under the Clean Water Act during a 9 year period from 1983 to 1991, and was ordered to pay a $1.68 million penalty. Texaco must also improve its water pollution investigation practices which were deemed inconsistent and less than thorough, relying on supposition rather than thorough investigation. A court order enjoining Texaco from further violations was deemed necessary to vindicate the public interest. Illegal discharges included chlorine, ammonia, and oil and grease, with some violations exceeding legal limits by as much as 2000%.

Stern, P. (Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-12-01

77

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Phase 2, Process optimization: Volume 1, Program summary and PDU operations  

SciTech Connect

This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

1991-09-01

78

Improved sulfur removal processes evaluated for IGCC  

SciTech Connect

An inherent advantage of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) electric power generation is the ability to easily remove and recover sulfur. During the last several years, a number of new, improved sulfur removal and recovery processes have been commercialized. An assessment is given of alternative sulfur removal processes for IGCC based on the Texaco coal gasifier. The Selexol acid gas removal system, Claus sulfur recovery, and SCOT tail gas treating are currently used in Texaco-based IGCC. Other processes considered are: Purisol, Sulfinol-M, Selefning, 50% MDEA, Sulften, and LO-CAT. 2 tables.

Not Available

1986-12-01

79

DESIGN, FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

Reliable measurement of gasifier reaction chamber temperature is important for the proper operation of slagging, entrained-flow gasification processes. Historically, thermocouples have been used as the main measurement technique, with the temperature inferred from syngas methane concentration being used as a backup measurement. While these have been sufficient for plant operation in many cases, both techniques suffer from limitations. The response time of methane measurements is too slow to detect rapid upset conditions, and thermocouples are subject to long-term drift, as well as slag attack, which eventually leads to failure of the thermocouple. Texaco's Montebello Technology Center (MTC) has developed an infrared ratio pyrometer system for measuring gasifier reaction chamber temperature. This system has a faster response time than both methane and thermocouples, and has been demonstrated to provide reliable temperature measurements for longer periods of time when compared to thermocouples installed in the same MTC gasifier. In addition, the system can be applied to commercial gasifiers without any significant scale-up issues. The major equipment items, the purge system, and the safety shutdown system in a commercial plant are essentially identical to the prototypes at MTC. The desired result of this DOE program is ''a bench-scale prototype, either assembled or with critical components (laboratory) tested in a convincing manner.'' The prototype of the pyrometer system (including gasifier optical access port) that was designed, assembled and tested for this program, has had previous prototypes that have been built and successfully tested under actual coal and coke gasification conditions in three pilot units at MTC. It was the intent of the work performed under the auspices of this program to review and update the existing design, and to fabricate and bench test an updated system that can be field tested in one or more commercial gasifiers during a follow on phase of this program. For all intents and purposes, the development, bench testing and pilot unit testing of this temperature measurement system has already been done, and was mostly a matter of getting the hardware ready for a commercial field test. The benefits of field-testing are (1) Texaco will gain long-term commercial operating experience and (2) commercial gasifier operators will gain confidence that this system can perform reliably under true commercial plant conditions. This work was performed by Texaco at its Montebello Technology Center in South El Monte, California.

Tom Leininger

2001-03-31

80

Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process  

DOEpatents

Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ)

1980-01-01

81

Modeling the underground coal gasification process: part III-subsidence  

SciTech Connect

The cavity created by underground coal gasification (UCG) will be associated with some degree of subsidence in the overburden above the cavity. Subsidence refers to the adjustment in the earth which is made in response to the creation of a subsurface cavity. This subsidence can take a variety of forms, some of which can cause considerable damage both to the environment and to the UCG process and associated equipment. This article reviews the physical and geometrical factors which must be considered in subsidence modeling and the empirical, analytical, numerical, and phenomenological approaches used to model subsidence in UCG. Finally, the results of applying these subsidence models to UCG field tests are reviewed.

Krantz, W.B.; Gunn, R.D.

1983-01-01

82

Scaleup of mild gasification to a process development unit  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. During the first ten months of this project. the NEPA Application for construction and operation of the PDU facility at the SIUC site was written and submitted for approval. In addition, the process design for the PDU was completed, bid packages for the PDU modules were prepared and sent to a slate of prospective bidders, and bids were received from the participating bidders.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Mead, J.; Foster, H.

1992-11-01

83

Fossil fuel gasification technical evaluation services. Final report 1978-83  

SciTech Connect

Technical evaluations performed prior to 1981 were published as a separate document, Topical Reports 1978-1980, by C F Braun and Co, November 1982, Report No. GRI-80/0168. These evaluations include the Cities Service-Rockwell, Exxon Catalytic, Mountain Fuels, Slagging Lurgi, U-Gas, and Westinghouse processes for coal gasification, the Peatgas process for peat gasification, the GE Membrane process for acid gas removal, and an integrated test facility for use in the development of gasification processes. Evaluations performed in the 1981 to 1983 period are included in the present document, the Final Report. These evaluations include the Westinghouse process for coal gasification, the Engelhard, Stone and Webster and Texaco processes for gasification of coal derived liquids, the Catalysis Research Corporation (CRC) process for direct methanation of raw gas streams, and the CNG Research Company process for removal of acid gases from coal gasification process streams. Other recent investigations include the evaluation of materials of construction, fundamental design data, and heat recovery technology for coal gasification processes.

Johnson, C.D.

1983-05-01

84

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Task 4, Mild gasification tests  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI) teamed with the AMAX Research and Development Center and Riley Stoker Corporation on Development of an Advanced, Continuous Mild-Gasification Process for the Production of Coproducts under contract DE-AC21-87MC24268 with the Morgantown Energy Technology of the US Department of Energy. The strategy for this project is to produce electrode binder pitch and diesel fuel blending stock by mild gasification of Wyodak coal. The char is upgraded to produce anode-grade carbon, carbon black, and activated carbon. This report describes results of mild-gasification tests conducted by WRI. Char upgrading tests conducted by AMAX will be described in a separate report.

Merriam, N.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Kang, T.W.; Vaillancourt, M.B.

1990-12-01

85

Designing process wells for an underground coal-gasification environment  

SciTech Connect

Recent large-scale field experiments designed to advance the state of underground coal gasification (UCG) technology have forced the recognition of some critical uncertainties associated with the UCG process. Among the most important of these uncertainties occurs in attempting to define the reaction zone geometry. Batch processing of a flat-lying coal seam between two process wells involves complex flow patterns, any number of separate reaction zones, and interactions with surrounding media. All of these factors have significant impact on the overall efficiency of the UCG process, and all of them in turn are strongly affected by success or failure in maintaining the integrity of the process wells. The reasons why process well integrity is so important are covered here in a review and evaluation of significant data generated from various field tests, including identification of well failure mechanisms. We observe a close relationship between process well behavior and process performance, which leads us to conclude that reliable process well performance is critical in establishing and maintaining control over the UCG process. As a logical extension of this evaluation, we develop design and performance criteria for UCG process wells. Applications to the next generation of field tests are presented in the form of proposed design features for UCG process wells, features intended to prevent the failure modes that have occurred in past field experiments.

Thompson, D.S.

1981-06-01

86

Gas processing handbook  

SciTech Connect

Brief details are given of processes including: BGC-Lurgi slagging gasification, COGAS, Exxon catalytic coal gasification, FW-Stoic 2-stage, GI two stage, HYGAS, Koppers-Totzek, Lurgi pressure gasification, Saarberg-Otto, Shell, Texaco, U-Gas, W-D.IGI, Wellman-Galusha, Westinghouse, and Winkler coal gasification processes; the Rectisol process; the Catacarb and the Benfield processes for removing CO/SUB/2, H/SUB/2s and COS from gases produced by the partial oxidation of coal; the selectamine DD, Selexol solvent, and Sulfinol gas cleaning processes; the sulphur-tolerant shift (SSK) process; and the Super-meth process for the production of high-Btu gas from synthesis gas.

Not Available

1982-04-01

87

Evaluation of pollution control in fossil fuel conversion processes. Gasification: Section 8. Winkler Process. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are given of a review of the Winkler coal gasification process, from the standpoint of its potential for affecting the environment. The quantities of solid, liquid, and gaseous effluents have been estimated where possible, as well as the thermal efficiency of the process. For the purpose of reduced environmental impact, control systems, modifications, and alternatives which could facilitate pollution

Jahnig

1975-01-01

88

Process screening study of alternative gas treating and sulfur removal systems for IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power plant applications: Final report  

SciTech Connect

One of the inherent advantages of the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant (IGCC) over other coal-based electric generation technologies is that the sulfur in the coal is converted into a form which can be removed and recovered. Extremely low sulfur oxide emissions can result. Gas treating and sulfur recovery processes for the control of sulfur emissions are an integral part of the overall IGCC plant design. There is a wide range of commercially proven technologies which are highly efficient for sulfur control. In addition, there are many developing technologies and new concepts for applying established technologies which offer potential improvements in both technical and economic performance. SFA Pacific, Inc. has completed a screening study to compare several alternative methods of removing sulfur from the gas streams generated by the Texaco coal gasification process for use in an IGCC plant. The study considered cleaning the gas made from high and low sulfur coals to produce a low sulfur fuel gas and a severely desulfurized synthesis gas (suitable for methanol synthesis), while maintaining a range of low levels of total sulfur emissions. The general approach was to compare the technical performance of the various processes in meeting the desulfurization specifications laid out in EPRI's design basis for the study. The processing scheme being tested at the Cool Water IGCC facility incorporates the Selexol acid gas removal process which is used in combination with a Claus sulfur plant and a SCOT tailgas treating unit. The study has identified several commercial systems, as well as some unusual applications, which can provide efficient removal of sulfur from the fuel gas and also produce extremely low sulfur emissions - so as to meet very stringent sulfur emissions standards. 29 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

Biasca, F.E.; Korens, N.; Schulman, B.L.; Simbeck, D.R.

1987-12-01

89

Process and technology development activities for in situ coal gasification, FY83  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of DOE's Underground Coal Gasification Program, activities at Sandia National Laboratories have been directed at Process and Technology Development. The project areas include (1) the development of a cornering water jet drill for use in linking vertical wells in Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) tests; (2) the development of a controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) surface geophysical technique for

1983-01-01

90

Concepts of fundamental processes related to gasification of coal. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress reports for the following investigations are presented: (1) single stage catalytic coal gasification; (2) single stage coal gasification to high Btu gas; (3) reaction of aromatic compounds with steam. The objective of the first project is to optimize the process variables and catalyst systems to maximize methane yields. For project two, the objective is to investigate the potential for

1981-01-01

91

Concepts of fundamental processes related to gasification of coal. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress reports are presented for the studies on (1) single stage catalytic coal gasification, and (2) reaction of aromatic compounds with steam. The primary objective of (1) is to optimize the process variables and catalyst systems to maximize methane yields. During this quarter, the gasification system was set up and pressure tested. The electrical system was also completed and is

1981-01-01

92

Study on Extra Heavy Oil Gasification Reaction Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the viewpoints of global environment and energy security, raising the thermal efficiency of a thermal power plant and the diversification of fuel are issues that must be resolved as soon as possible. As to resolving these two issues, it is very effective that extra heavy oil is used in a gas-steam combined cycle power generation system. Accordingly, in order to establish technology for supporting to rationally design and operate a gasifier using extra heavy oil, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) targeted at clarifying significant phenomena in a gasifier, improving the accuracy of numerical analytical technique under development and verifying the technique. This report describes the major specifications of “Research Gasifier for Liquid Fuel” constructed in 1999 and the results of studies in respect to the reaction process in the gasifier based on OrimulsionTM (Trademark of BITOR) gasification tests in 2000.

Kidoguchi, Kazuhiro; Hara, Saburo; Ashizawa, Masami; Inumaru, Jun

93

Early Entrance Co-Production Plant Decentralized Gasification Cogeneration Transportation Fuels and Steam From Available Feedstocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste Processors Management, Inc.(WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE),...

2002-01-01

94

Gasification of residual materials from coal liquefaction: Type II preliminary pilot plant evaluation of SRC-I extruded Kerr McGee mineral ash residue-water slurry  

SciTech Connect

A Type II preliminary pilot plant evaluation of SRC-I Kerr McGee mineral ash residue as a water slurry feed to the Texaco Coal Gasification Process was conducted at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory (MRL). The residue was obtained in the extrudate form directly from the Critical Solvent Deashing process at Wilsonville, Alabama. Approximately 16 tons of residue were gasified during three test runs which were carried out at 950 psig in MRL's High Pressure Solids Gasification Unit I. The runs lasted from 4.8 hours to 7.2 hours, and a total of 19.1 hours of on-stream time was accumulated. This work was authorized by DOE Delivery Order Number 10 under DOE contract EX-76-C-01-2247 and amendment DEAC-01-76ET-10137. It is part of a continuing effort to evaluate residual materials from various DOE sponsored coal liquefaction projects to determine their suitability for conversion to hydrogen using one of the Texaco gasification processes.

Wu, C.M.; Robin, A.M.

1984-05-01

95

Advanced Coal-Gasification and - Liquefaction Process Development at Rockwell International.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rockwell International, through its Energy Systems Group, is involved in the development of several advanced technology processes for the conversion of coal to gaseous and liquid products. These include the Rockgas molten salt gasification process and the...

J. Silverman J. Friedman D. Kahn A. Kohl

1981-01-01

96

Instrumentation for optimizing an underground coal-gasification process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the United States has a coal resource base of 6.4 trillion tons, only seven percent is presently recoverable by mining. The process of in-situ gasification can recover another twenty-eight percent of the vast resource, however, viable technology must be developed for effective in-situ recovery. The key to this technology is system that can optimize and control the process in real-time. An instrumentation system is described that optimizes the composition of the injection gas, controls the in-situ process and conditions the product gas for maximum utilization. The key elements of this system are Monsanto PRISM Systems, a real-time analytical system, and a real-time data acquisition and control system. This system provides from complete automation of the process but can easily be overridden by manual control. The use of this cost effective system can provide process optimization and is an effective element in developing a viable in-situ technology.

Seabaugh, W.; Zielinski, R. E.

1982-06-01

97

Costs and technical characteristics of environmental control processes for low-Btu coal gasification plants  

SciTech Connect

Technical characteristics and costs of 25 individual environmental control processes that can be used for treating low-Btu coal gas are given. These processes are chosen from a much larger array of potential environmental control processes because of their likely applicability to low-Btu coal gasification operations and because of the limited scope of this study. The selected processes cover gas treating, by-product recovery, wastewater treating, and particulate recovery operations that are expected to be encountered in coal gasification operations. Although the existence of the Resource Conservtion and Recovery Act of 1976 is recognized, no treatment schemes for solid wastes are evaluated because of the paucity of information in this area. The potential costs of emission controls (by using eight integrated combinations of these 25 environmental control processes) in conceptual low-Btu coal gasification plants are given in an adjunct report titled Evaluation of Eight Environmental Control Systems for Low-Btu Coal Gasification Plants, ORNL-5481.

Singh, S.P.N.; Salmon, R.; Fisher, J.F.; Peterson, G.R.

1980-06-01

98

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts  

SciTech Connect

This report is a final brief summary of development of a mild-gasification and char conversion process. Morgantown Energy Technology Center developed a concept called mild gasification. In this concept, devolatilization of coal under nonoxidizing and relatively mild temperature and pressure conditions can yield three marketable products: (1) a high-heating-value gas, (2) a high-aromatic coal liquid, and (3) a high-carbon char. The objective of this program is to develop an advanced, continuous, mild-gasification process to produce products that will make the concept economically and environmentally viable. (VC)

Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.

1991-11-01

99

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report is a final brief summary of development of a mild-gasification and char conversion process. Morgantown Energy Technology Center developed a concept called mild gasification. In this concept, devolatilization of coal under nonoxidizing and relatively mild temperature and pressure conditions can yield three marketable products: (1) a high-heating-value gas, (2) a high-aromatic coal liquid, and (3) a high-carbon char. The objective of this program is to develop an advanced, continuous, mild-gasification process to produce products that will make the concept economically and environmentally viable. (VC)

Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.

1991-11-01

100

Environmental Hazard Rankings of Pollutants Generated in Coal Gasification Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of an evaluation and ranking of environmental hazards associated with coal gasification. Applied chemical analytical data were provided by (1) research with an experimental gasifier, and (2) sampling of four commercial gasificatio...

J. G. Cleland

1981-01-01

101

Biochemical Oxidation of Solvent Extracted Coal Gasification Process Wastewater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biochemical oxidation kinetic parameters have been determined for several contaminants in dissolved-gas-stripped, solvent-extracted coal gasification wastewaters. A comparison of these parameters with those for wastewaters pretreated only by dissolved-gas...

J. A. Cook C. J. Drummond R. P. Noceti J. G. Diskin

1984-01-01

102

Process and Technology Development Activities for in Situ Coal Gasification, FY83.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of DOE's Underground Coal Gasification Program, activities at Sandia National Laboratories have been directed at Process and Technology Development. The project areas include (1) the development of a cornering water jet drill for use in linking ve...

R. E. Glass

1983-01-01

103

Process and technology development activities for in-situ coal gasification, FY 82  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of DOE's Underground Coal-Gasification program, activities at Sandia National Laboratories have been directed at Process and Technology Development. The project areas include (1) the development of a cornering water-jet drill for use in linking vertical wells in Underground Coal-Gasification (UCG) tests; (2) the development of a controlled-source audiofrequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) surface geophysical technique for monitoring the process, and

1983-01-01

104

Low Btu Coal Gasification Processes. Vol. 2. Selected Process Descriptions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume 2 contains the detailed descriptions and information on the 21 more promising processes that were selected. The report summarizes work completed from July 1976 through August 1978 and can be used as a source of information for additional comparison...

D. E. Reagan H. F. Hartman J. P. Belk

1978-01-01

105

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained flow gasification for power generation systems. [Zinc titanates  

SciTech Connect

To help achieve the goal of clean, low cost power generation from coal, Texaco submitted an unsolicited proposal in July 1986 to develop and demonstrate the integration of high temperature desulfurization with the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). The main goals of the proposed program were: Develop and demonstrate in-situ desulfurization of synthesis gas in an entrained flow gasifier using both air and oxygen gasification. Develop and demonstrate a high efficiency integrated system on a process development unit (PDU) scale which would include coal preparation, gasification, sulfur removal, particle and trace element removal and a gas turbine. In addition, secondary goals were proposed which would help further major research in which DOE/METC was already involved. These were: Test advanced instruments developed by METC for coal conversion processes. Screen alternative high temperature sulfur removal sorbents that could be used external to the gasifier. Development of these sorbents would provide a backup to the in-situ desulfurization approach. Accomplishments to date are presented.

Leininger, T.F.; Robin, A.; Jung, D.Y.; Kassman, J.S.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Yang, P.P.

1992-01-01

106

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained flow gasification for power generation systems  

SciTech Connect

To help achieve the goal of clean, low cost power generation from coal, Texaco submitted an unsolicited proposal in July 1986 to develop and demonstrate the integration of high temperature desulfurization with the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). The main goals of the proposed program were: Develop and demonstrate in-situ desulfurization of synthesis gas in an entrained flow gasifier using both air and oxygen gasification. Develop and demonstrate a high efficiency integrated system on a process development unit (PDU) scale which would include coal preparation, gasification, sulfur removal, particle and trace element removal and a gas turbine. In addition, secondary goals were proposed which would help further major research in which DOE/METC was already involved. These were: Test advanced instruments developed by METC for coal conversion processes. Screen alternative high temperature sulfur removal sorbents that could be used external to the gasifier. Development of these sorbents would provide a backup to the in-situ desulfurization approach. Accomplishments to date are presented.

Leininger, T.F.; Robin, A.; Jung, D.Y.; Kassman, J.S.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Yang, P.P.

1992-11-01

107

Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

1997-02-01

108

Hydrogen from Various Biomass Species via Pyrolysis and Steam Gasification Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the scientific and engineering advancements of producing hydrogen from biomass via two thermochemical processes: (a) conventional pyrolysis followed by reforming of the carbohydrate fraction of the bio-oil and (b) gasification followed by reforming of the syngas (H2 + CO). The yield from steam gasification increases with increasing water-to-sample ratio. The yields of

M. Fatih Demirbas

2006-01-01

109

Modeling the underground coal gasification process: part III-subsidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cavity created by underground coal gasification (UCG) will be associated with some degree of subsidence in the overburden above the cavity. Subsidence refers to the adjustment in the earth which is made in response to the creation of a subsurface cavity. This subsidence can take a variety of forms, some of which can cause considerable damage both to the

W. B. Krantz; R. D. Gunn

1983-01-01

110

Modeling the underground coal gasification process. Part 3. Subsidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsidence modeling studies attempt to predict vertical subsidence or settlement profiles, horizontal displacement, principal stress contours, horizontal strain profiles, overburden failure and collapse, and collapse zone shape above the cavity. The physical and geometrical factors to consider in subsidence modeling; the empirical, analytical, numerical, and phenomenological approaches used to model subsidence in underground coal gasification; and the results of applying

W. B. Krantz; R. D. Gunn

1983-01-01

111

Advanced coal-gasification and - liquefaction process development at Rockwell International  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rockwell International, through its Energy Systems Group, is involved in the development of several advanced technology processes for the conversion of coal to gaseous and liquid products. These include the Rockgas molten salt gasification process and the CS\\/R Hydrogasification and Hydroliquefaction processes based upon flash hydropyrolysis (FHP) technology. In the Rockgas process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air

J. Silverman; J. Friedman; D. Kahn; A. Kohl

1981-01-01

112

Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification. Progress report, May 7-August 6, 1984  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research program are (1) to determine the technical feasibility of and (2) to prepare preliminary process evaluations for each of two new approaches to coal gasification. The objective of Task 1, CO/sub 2/-Coal Gasification Concept, is to obtain fundamental information on a novel coal gasification process concept that involves pressurized carbon dioxide-coal gasification followed by a high-temperature carbon dioxide removal step that uses a metal oxide sorbent. The objective of Task 2, Internal Recirculation Catalysts Coal Gasification Process Concept, is to explore the use of novel semivolatile materials as internal recirculation catalysts for coal gasification. During this quarter, a detailed test plan was developed and approved for each of the three subtasks in Task 1 involving experimental work: CO/sub 2/-coal devolatilization studies; CO/sub 2/-coal char gasification studies; and CO/sub 2/ adsorption/desorption studies. Two coals were selected for testing: a North Dakota lignite and an Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. These samples were processed for testing and analysis. The high-temperature thermobalance was readied for testing, instruments were calibrated, and some reactor tube components were replaced. Instrumentation for the CO/sub 2/ adsorption/desorption tests was specified; quotations are being requested from vendors. The literature on the effect of CO/sub 2/ on coal devolatilization characteristics was reviewed. A detailed analysis of the literature data is under way. For Task 2 a detailed test plan was developed and approved for each of the two subtasks in this program involving experimental work: laboratory-scale batch screening tests; and bench-scale tests. Construction of the experimental apparatus for batch screening tests was begun. New batch reactors capable of operation at high temperatures and high pressures under conditions of rapid pressure and temperature change have been received. 3 references, 5 figures.

Babu, S.P.

1984-08-01

113

Modeling the underground coal gasification process. Part 3. Subsidence  

SciTech Connect

Subsidence modeling studies attempt to predict vertical subsidence or settlement profiles, horizontal displacement, principal stress contours, horizontal strain profiles, overburden failure and collapse, and collapse zone shape above the cavity. The physical and geometrical factors to consider in subsidence modeling; the empirical, analytical, numerical, and phenomenological approaches used to model subsidence in underground coal gasification; and the results of applying these subsidence models to UCG field tests were reviewed.

Krantz, W.B.; Gunn, R.D.

1983-01-01

114

Correlation between the growth and gasification processes of carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to study the kinetics of the gasification of carbon, preliminarily deposited from the gaseous phase on a diamond dust AM 40\\/28 in the air plasma of a glow discharge. The deposition was carried out from a hexane-helium mixture by the method in [1] at 950~ at a partial pressure of 0.02 tort. The

D. V. Fedoseev; Yu. N. Tolmachev; V. L. Bukhovets; K. S. Uspenskaya

1979-01-01

115

Texaco scores a first in the Baltic  

SciTech Connect

Wells on the first of 2 small concrete platforms designed specifically for the fragile but harsh environment of the Baltic Sea will produce the first oil from that offshore area by late 1984. The consortium of Deutsche Texaco AG and Wintershall AG awarded contracts late last year for the platforms and drilling equipment needed to develop the Schwedeneck-See field in Kiel Bay, off the northern coast of West Germany. Severe winter weather in the area dictated the use of concrete platforms rather than conventional 6-pile steel structures. Ice forces, generated by high winds and moderate waves, demanded heavy-duty structures in spite of the shallow water. A complicating factor in the field development plan is the presence of a German Navy submarine practice area which influenced location of one of the platforms. This means that all wells will be directionally drilled, and the reach will be greater than under more favorable conditions.

Not Available

1983-10-01

116

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of food processing wastes. 1995 topical report  

SciTech Connect

The catalytic gasification system described in this report has undergone continuing development and refining work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for over 16 years. The original experiments, performed for the Gas Research Institute, were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous stirred-tank reactor tests provided useful design information for evaluating the preliminary economics of the process. This report is a follow-on to previous interim reports which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with batch and continuous-feed reactor systems from 1989 to 1994, including much work with food processing wastes. The discussion here provides details of experiments on food processing waste feedstock materials, exclusively, that were conducted in batch and continuous- flow reactors.

Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.

1996-08-01

117

Early Entrance Co-Production Plant Decentralized Gasification Cogeneration Transportation Fuels and Steam From Available Feedstock. Quarterly Technical Progress Report January to March 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE...

2003-01-01

118

Numerical simulation of the pyrolysis zone in a downdraft gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of the gasification process are mostly based on lumped analysis with distinct zones of the process treated as one entity. The study presented here was conducted to develop a more useful model specifically for the pyrolysis zone of the reactor of a downdraft gasifier based on finite computation method. Applying principles of energy and mass conservation, governing equations formed

K. Jaojaruek; S. Kumar

2009-01-01

119

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, Inc., and Bechtel National, Inc., is developing a mild gasification process that uses a fluidized\\/entrained-bed reactor. This reactor is designed to process caking bituminous coals over a wide range of particle sizes without oxidative pretreatment, and also without the use of oxygen or air as reactants. The

R. A. Knight; J. Gissy; S. Kline; M. Onischak; S. P. Babu; R. G. Duthie

1990-01-01

120

Conceptual Designs and Assessments of a Coal Gasification Demonstration Plant. Volume IV. Babcock and Wilcox Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume of the report contains detailed information on the conceptual design and assessment of the facility required to process approximately 20,000 tons per day of coal to produce medium Btu gas using the Babcock and Wilcox gasification process. The ...

1980-01-01

121

Scaleup of mild gasification to a process development unit. [MILDGAS Process  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. During the first ten months of this project. the NEPA Application for construction and operation of the PDU facility at the SIUC site was written and submitted for approval. In addition, the process design for the PDU was completed, bid packages for the PDU modules were prepared and sent to a slate of prospective bidders, and bids were received from the participating bidders.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Mead, J.; Foster, H.

1992-01-01

122

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a continuous mild gasification process to convert highly caking coals to coal liquids, char and coke for near term commercial application. Task 3, Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study, has been underway since September 1989. In char upgrading studies, ``green`` uncured char briquettes have been prepared and calcined in 20-pound batches to evaluate the effects of char, binders, and heating conditions on final coke properties. A total of 150. formulations have been tested thus far in this work. Work on Task 4, Process Development Unit (PDU) Mild Gasification Study, has been in progress since February 1991, with the completion of a Continuous Mild Gasification Unit (CMGU) with a design rate of 1000 lb./hr. Since start-up of the CMGU, there have been 72 runs with a variety of operating conditions and coal types.

Wolfe, R.A.; Wright, R.E.; Im, C.J.; Henkelman, M.R.; O`Neal, G.W.

1992-11-01

123

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

1991-09-01

124

Evaluation of pollution control in fossil fuel conversion processes. Gasification; section I: CO Acceptor Process. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CO Acceptor Coal Gasification Process is reviewed from the standpoint of its effect on the environment. The quantities of solid, liquid, and gaseous effluents were estimated, where possible, as well as the thermal efficiency of the process. For the purpose of reducing environmental impact, a number of possible process modifications or alternatives have been proposed and new technology needs

C. E. Jahnig; E. M. Magee

1974-01-01

125

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI) teamed with the AMAX Research and Development Center and Riley Stoker Corporation on Development of an Advanced, Continuous Mild-Gasification Process for the Production of Coproducts under contract DE-AC21-87MC24268 with the Morgantown Energy Technology of the US Department of Energy. The strategy for this project is to produce electrode binder pitch and diesel fuel blending stock by mild gasification of Wyodak coal. The char is upgraded to produce anode-grade carbon, carbon black, and activated carbon. This report describes results of mild-gasification tests conducted by WRI. Char upgrading tests conducted by AMAX will be described in a separate report.

Merriam, N.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Kang, T.W.; Vaillancourt, M.B.

1990-12-01

126

Engineering evaluation of process heat applications for very high temperature nuclear reactors. [Coal gasification and liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal gasification and liquefaction processes and costs are reviewed. Nuclear-heated processes based on 3000-MWt reactors are compared to the principal fossil-heated coal conversion processes of similar size. The published processes are technically feasible, and costs are consistent with United Engineers' experience. If a 15 percent fixed charge rate and $0.50\\/10 Btu coal can be obtained, and costs published by proponents

D. S. Wiggins; J. J. Williams

1976-01-01

127

Brazing as a means of sealing ceramic membranes for use in advanced coal gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen that will enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes

K. Scott Weil; John S. Hardy; Joseph P. Rice; Jin Yong Y. Kim

2006-01-01

128

Process and Technology Development Activities for in-Situ Coal Gasification, FY 82.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of DOE's Underground Coal-Gasification program, activities at Sandia National Laboratories have been directed at Process and Technology Development. The project areas include (1) the development of a cornering water-jet drill for use in linking ve...

R. E. Glass

1983-01-01

129

Process of purifying gases produced by the gasification of solid or liquid fossil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process of purifying gases produced by a gasification of fossil fuels is described wherein the gas is cooled and scrubbed under superatmospheric pressures at normal temperatures. While the raw gas, at a temperature of 150° to 170°C, is indirectly cooled to ambient temperatures, the condensible hydrocarbons are separated and removed, and the gas is scrubbed with water to remove

K. Bratzler; A. Doerges; M. Kriebel

1977-01-01

130

Concepts of fundamental processes related to gasification of coal. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research projects are described: (1) single stage catalytic coal gasification is an attractive concept as a direct method of producing high BTU gas from coal. This process involves the introduction of a coal-solvent slurry and hydrogen gas into a fixed bed catalytic reactor, which employs a catalyst high in hydrogenation and cracking activity. Steam may also be added to

1981-01-01

131

Fluid coking and gasification process with the addition of cracking catalysts  

SciTech Connect

An integrated fluid coking and gasification process is provided in which a solid cracking catalyst is added to the coker chargestock and in which a partially gasified coke matrix comprising the cracking catalyst is recycled to the coker vapor phase product.

Metrailer, W. J.

1981-05-26

132

CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID BED PROCESS FOR SULPHUR REMOVAL DURING GASIFICATION OF CARBONACEOUS FUELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report covers the final 3 years of a 9-year program to evaluate the Chemically Active Fluid Bed (CAFB) process for gasification and desulfurization of liquid and solid fuels in a fluidized bed of hot lime. A range of alternative fuels, including three coals and a lignite, wer...

133

Engineering support services for the DOE\\/GRI coal-gasification research program. Technical and economic assessment of the Westinghouse fluidized-bed coal gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kellogg was requested by DOE\\/GRI to perform a technical and economic assessment of the Westinghouse fluidized bed coal gasification process as applied to production of SNG equivalent to 250 billion BTU\\/day from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. Based on operating experiences in the PDU, where most of the key variables have been demonstrated during 5+ years of testing, Westinghouse provided process

L. E. Bostwick; D. A. Hubbard; R. W. Laramore; T. R. Ethridge

1981-01-01

134

Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

Arena, Umberto, E-mail: umberto.arena@unina2.it [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via A. Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

2012-04-15

135

Handbook of gasifiers and gas-treatment systems. [39 gasification processes and 40 gas processing systems  

SciTech Connect

In February 1976, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) published the Handbook of Gasifiers and Gas Treatment Systems. The intent of this handbook was to provide a ready reference to systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. That handbook was well received by users and was subsequently reprinted many times. The Department of Energy (successor agency to the ERDA) expands, revises and updates the Handbook in this volume. This new Handbook is not intended as a comparative evaluation, but rather as an impartial reference on recent and current technology. The Handbook now presents 39 gasification technologies and 40 gas processing systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. The information presented has been approved or supplied by the particular licensor/developer.

Parekh, R.D.

1982-09-01

136

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra

2003-01-01

137

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra

John W. Rich

2003-01-01

138

Engineering Support Services for the DOE/GRI Coal-Gasification Research Program. Technical and Economic Assessment of the Westinghouse Fluidized-Bed Coal Gasification Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kellogg was requested by DOE/GRI to perform a technical and economic assessment of the Westinghouse fluidized bed coal gasification process as applied to production of SNG equivalent to 250 billion BTU/day from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. Based on operating ex...

D. A. Hubbard L. E. Bostwick R. W. Laramore T. R. Ethridge

1981-01-01

139

Underground Coal Gasification of Steeply Dipping Beds: A Second Generation Synthetic Fuels Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-situ gasification of steeply dipping coal beds (UCG-SDB) has significant advantages over the more conventional horizontal UCG. In fact, the UCG-SDB process appears to be both technically and operationally competitive with surface gasifiers. The results of the Rawlins UCG-SDB field test program suggest that the process can compete with more conventional sources of synthesis gas on an economic basis. The

Burl Davis; Paul Ahner; A. H. Singelton

1982-01-01

140

High temperature electrochemical separation of H sub 2 S from coal gasification process streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane is being developed. HâS is removed from the syn-gas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the syn-gas, and sulfur, which can be condensed from an inert gas sweep stream. The process allows removal of HâS without cooling the gas stream and with

Winnick

1992-01-01

141

Chemical Processing in High-Pressure Aqueous Environments. 7. Process Development for Catalytic Gasification of Wet Biomass Feedstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the use of a metal catalyst, gasification of wet biomass can be accomplished with high levels of carbon conversion to gas at relatively low temperature (350 C). In the pressurized-water environment (20 MPa) near-total conversion of the organic structure of biomass to gases has been accomplished in the presence of a ruthenium metal catalyst. The process is essentially steam

Douglas C. Elliott; Gary G. Neuenschwander; Todd R. Hart; Scott S. Butner; Alan H. Zacher; Mark H. Engelhard; James S. Young; David E. McCready

2004-01-01

142

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

ChevronTexaco has shipped the pyrometer system to Tampa, Florida. Polk Power is in the process of installing the mechanical, electrical and instrumentation of the pyrometer system as well as integrating the instrumentation to the test site Distributed Control System. The startup and field testing of the system will begin afterwards.

Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

2004-01-01

143

Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process  

SciTech Connect

Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

Not Available

1980-01-01

144

Underground coal gasification of steeply dipping beds: A second generation synthetic fuels process  

SciTech Connect

In-situ gasification of steeply dipping coal beds (UCG-SDB) has significant advantages over the more conventional horizontal UCG. In fact, the UCG-SDB process appears to be both technically and operationally competitive with surface gasifiers. The results of the Rawlins UCG-SDB field test program suggest that the process can compete with more conventional sources of synthesis gas on an economic basis. The SDB process mechanism has several advantages over the horizontal process and performs in a fashion similar to surface packed bed reactors. The oxygen requirements for the process are quite low and the degree of process control observed at Rawlins is very attractive.

Davis, B.E.; Ahner, P.F.

1982-09-01

145

Underground coal gasification of steeply dipping coal beds; a second generation synthetic fuels process  

SciTech Connect

In situ gasification of steeply dipping coal beds (UCG-SDB) has significant advantages over the more conventional horizontal UCG. In fact, the UCG-SDB process appears to be both technically and operationally competitive with surface gasifiers. The results of the Rawlins UCG-SDB field test program suggest that the process can compete with more conventional sources of synthesis gas on an economic basis. The SDB process mechanism has several advantages over the horizontal process and performs in a fashion similar to surface packedbed reactors. The oxygen requirements for the process are quite low and the degree of process control observed at Rawlins is very attractive.

Davis, B.E.; Ahner, P.F.; Singelton, A.H.

1982-08-01

146

Steam gasification of coal, project prototype plant nuclear process heat: Report at the end of the reference phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work carried out in the field of steam gasification of coal is described. On the basis of the status achieved to date, it can be stated that the mode of operation of the gas generator developed, including the direct feeding of caking high volatile coal, is technically feasible. Moreover, throughput can be improved by 65% at minimum by using catalysts. On the whole, industrial application of steam gasification, using nuclear process heat, stays attractive compared with other gasification processes. Not only coal is conserved, but also the costs of the gas manufactured are favorable. As confirmed by recent economic calculations, these are 20 to 25% lower.

Vanheek, K. H.

1982-05-01

147

Assessment of the CRIP (Controlled Retracting Injection Point) Process for Underground Coal Gasification: The Rocky Mountain I Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of the recently completed Rocky Mountain I (RMI) underground coal gasification (UCG) field test have shown that the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) process for UCG is capable of producing consistently high quality gas from a single in...

R. J. Cena C. B. Thorsness J. A. Britten

1988-01-01

148

Corrosion and Degradation of Test Materials in the Mountain Fuel Resources 30 Ton/Day Coal Gasification Process Development Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One period of in-plant exposure (lower section of gasifier and steam superheater) of candidate alloys for gasification applications was completed in the Mountain Fuel Resources, Inc. (MFR) Process Development Unit (PDU). During this brief period of exposu...

R. Yurkewycz

1985-01-01

149

High temperature electrochemical separation of H sub 2 S from coal gasification process streams  

SciTech Connect

An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane is being developed. H{sub 2}S is removed from the syn-gas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the syn-gas, and sulfur, which can be condensed from an inert gas sweep stream. The process allows removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream and with negligible pressure loss through the separator. The process is economically attractive by the lack of adsorbents and the lack of a Claus process for sulfur recovery. Research conducted during the present quarter is highlighted, with an emphasis on progress towards the goal of an economically viable H{sub 2}S removal technology for use in coal gasification facilities providing polished fuel for co-generation coal fired electrical power facilities and Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell electrical power facilities. Polishing application of this technology to coal gasification synthesis gas has been demonstrated with H{sub 2}S removals as high as 89.1% recorded. No successful runs with stainless steel housings have yet been achieved. However, since stoichiometric CO{sub 2} removal with stainless steel housings has been achieved, H{sub 2}S removal is achievable.

Winnick, J.

1992-01-01

150

The effects of gas-turbine characteristics on integrated gasification combined-cycle power-plant performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how gas turbine specifications affect the performance of Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power plants. Three gas turbines characterized as current, advanced, and future technology machines (with turbine firing temperatures of 1985 F, 2300 F, and 2500 F, respectively) were simulated in computer models of IGCC plants based on Texaco coal gasification technology. A gas turbine modeling procedure

Johnson

1990-01-01

151

Development of mild gasification process. Quarterly report, October--December, 1987  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1-Test Plan; Task 2-Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3-Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4-Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

1988-02-01

152

Development of mild gasification process. Quarterly report, July--September 1987  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

1987-11-01

153

Development of mild gasification process. Quarterly report, October--December 1988  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Williams, S.W.

1989-01-01

154

Development of mild gasification process. Quarterly report, April--June 1988  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Derting, T.M.

1988-07-01

155

Gasification of waste?contaminated soil by the chem char process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse?burn gasification (RBG, the ChemChar Process) has been applied to the treatment of soil contaminated with hydrocarbons, poly?chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and thorium. Overall destruction of the PCBs in excess of 99.9999% (six nines) was achieved. No undesirable dibenzo dioxins or furans were produced, and metals and acid gases are retained in the char residue matrix. An overall hazardous waste treatment

Laura L. Kinner; Stanley E. Manahan; David W. Larsen

1993-01-01

156

Concepts of fundamental processes related to gasification of coal. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of the research on single stage catalytic coal gasification is to optimize the process variables and catalyst systems to maximize yields. The -200 mesh coal will be slurried in a hydrogen donor solvent, tetralin in a ratio of 2 parts solvent to 1 part coal by weight, and initially a sulfided Ni-W\\/SiOâ-AlâOâ catalyst will be used. All

1981-01-01

157

Process for gasification using a synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor  

DOEpatents

A gasification process is disclosed using a synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor consisting essentially of at least one compound selected from the group consisting of calcium oxide and calcium carbonate supported in a refractory carrier matrix, the carrier having the general formula Ca.sub.5 (SiO.sub.4).sub.2 CO.sub.3. A method for producing the synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor is also disclosed.

Lancet, Michael S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Curran, George P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1980-01-01

158

NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the work performed, accomplishments and conclusion obtained from the project entitled ''Novel Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation in Gasification Processes in Vision 21 Energy Plants'' under the United States Department of Energy Contract DE-FC26-01NT40973. ITN Energy Systems was the prime contractor. Team members included: the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory; Nexant Consulting; Argonne National Laboratory and

Michael Schwartz

2004-01-01

159

Dew points of hot gases from coal-gasification processes. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent gases from coal-gasification processes often contain high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons (tars) which, upon condensation, may foul heat exchangers needed to recover sensible heat. Efficient design of heat exchangers and separation equipment for the removal of tars requires information about the phase-equilibrium behavior of these systems. A computer program has been written to predict dew points and condensation-versus-temperature behavior of gasifier effluents

A. Monge; A. B. Macknick; C. van de Rostyne; J. M. Prausnitz

1982-01-01

160

Conceptual designs and assessments of a coal gasification demonstration plant. Volume IV. Babcock and Wilcox process  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the report contains detailed information on the conceptual design and assessment of the facility required to process approximately 20,000 tons per day of coal to produce medium Btu gas using the Babcock and Wilcox gasification process. The report includes process descriptions, flow diagrams and equipment lists for the various subsystems associated with the gasifiers along with descriptions of the overall facility. The facility is analyzed from both an economic and environmental standpoint. Problems of construction are addressed together with an overall design and construction schedule for the total facility. Resource requirements are summarized along with suggested development areas, both process and environmental.

Not Available

1980-10-01

161

Conceptual designs and assessments of a coal gasification demonstration plant. Volume II. Koppers-Totzek process  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the report contains detailed information on the conceptual design and assessment of the facility required to process approximately 20,000 tons per day of coal to produce medium Btu gas using the Koppers-Totzek gasification process. The report includes process descriptions, flow diagrams and equipment lists for the various subsystems associated with the gasifiers along with descriptions of the overall facility. The facility is analyzed from both an economic and environmental standpoint. Problems of construction are addressed together with an overall design and construction schedule for the total facility. Resource requirements are summarized along with suggested development areas, both process and environmental.

Not Available

1980-10-01

162

Mathematical modelling of some chemical and physical processes in underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Underground coal gasification normally involves two vertical wells which must be linked by a channel having low resistance to gas flow. There are several ways of establishing such linkage, but all leave a relatively open horizontal hole with a diameter on the order of a meter. To increase our understanding of the chemical and physical processes governing underground coal gasification LLNL has been conducting laboratory scale experiments accompanied by mathematical modelling. Blocks of selected coal types are cut to fit 55 gallon oil drums and sealed in place with plaster. A 1 cm. diameter hole is drilled the length of the block and plumbing attached to provide a flow of air or oxygen/steam mixture. After an instrumented burn the block is sawed open to examine the cavity. Mathematical modelling has been directed towards predicting the cavity shape. This paper describes some sub-models and examines their impact on predicted cavity shapes.

Creighton, J. R.

1981-08-01

163

A Life Cycle Assessment on a Fuel Production Through Distributed Biomass Gasification Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we estimated life cycle inventories (energy intensities and CO2 emissions) on the biomass gasification CGS, Bio-H2, Bio-MeOH (methanol) and Bio-DME (di-methyl ether), using the bottom-up methodology. CO2 emissions and energy intensities on material's chipping, transportation and dryer operation were estimated. Also, the uncertainties on the moisture content of biomass materials and the transportation distance to the plant were considered by the Monte Carlo simulation. The energy conversion system was built up by gasification through the BLUE Tower process, with either CGS, PSA (Pressure Swing Absorption) system or the liquefaction process. In our estimation, the biomass materials were the waste products from Japanese Cedar. The uncertainties of moisture content and transportation distance were assumed to be 20 to 50 wt.% and 5 to 50 km, respectively. The capability of the biomass gasification plant was 10 t-dry/d, that is, an annual throughput of 3,000 t-dry/yr. The production energy in each case was used as a functional unit. Finally, the energy intensities of 1.12 to 3.09 MJ/MJ and CO2 emissions of 4.79 to 88.0 g-CO2/MJ were obtained. CGS case contributes to the environmental mitigation, and Bio-H2 and/or Bio-DME cases have a potential to reduce CO2 emissions, compared to the conventional ones.

Dowaki, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Tsutomu; Ohkubo, Rui; Genchi, Yutaka

164

An environmentally correct drilling effort - Texaco's Taylorsville Basin Exploration Program  

SciTech Connect

Through the early and mid-1980s, Texaco conducted geophysical, geochemical, and stratigraphic test programs along the Mid-Atlantic Coast of the United States. A drilling program was ultimately focused at the Triassic sediments of the Taylorsville basin straddling the Virginia-Maryland border. Three wildcat wells were drilled between 1989 and 1992. All were dry holes. Although the prospect was a geological disappointment to Texaco, the environmental concern and precaution exhibited throughout the effort stand as testament to a major oil company's ability to conduct operations in an environmentally prudent manner. Although the operations involved only inland drill sites, all locations were extremely close to the Chesapeake Bay, one of the world's most fragile esturial ecosystems. Protective techniques employed included the use of closed freshwater mud systems, protective levee and drainage containment, comprehensive backup and emergency plans, and heightened safety awareness. Texaco also embraced an open policy regarding public education and input. By means of town meetings, public hearings, and thousands of rig visits, Texaco believes it has enhanced the public perception and enthusiasm for exploratory drilling in the Tidewater region.

Weaver, D.R. (Texaco Exploration and Production Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States))

1993-08-01

165

Preliminary environmental monitoring results for the Cool Water Coal Gasification Program  

SciTech Connect

The electric utility industry's search for an economic and environmentally sound solution to coal combustion to meet future fuel needs and the nation's decision to reduce its dependence on foreign oil and natural gas have led to the development of new coal-based technologies. In 1979, Texaco Inc. and Southern California Edison Co. (SCE) joined to design, construct, and operate an integrated coal gasification/combined cycle (IGCC) facility that would use Texaco's proprietary coal gasification technology. A major goal of CWCGP is to provide comprehensive data on the environmental acceptability of IGCC technology. Monitoring objectives and preliminary results of the CWCGP Environmental Monitoring Program are presented.

Grover, R.W.; Page, G.C.; Wetherold, R.G.; Wevill, S.L.

1986-01-01

166

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra

John W. Rich

2003-01-01

167

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either

John W. Rich

2001-01-01

168

Physical and numerical modeling results for controlling groundwater contaminants following shutdown of underground coal gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater contamination has resulted from some of in-situ gasification field tests, and concern over groundwater contamination may hamper commercialization. When UCG recovery operations are terminated, energy remains stored as heat in the adjacent masses of rock and coal ash, and this energy is transferred into the coal seam. Coal continues to pyrolyze as a result of the transferred energy; the products of this coal pyrolysis are a source of groundwater contamination resulting from UCG. A laboratory simulator was developed, and six simulations of UCG postburn coal pyrolysis have been completed. The simulations show that the products of coal pyrolysis are the source of most contaminants associated with UCG operations. Injection of water directly into the UCG cavity can limit postburn coal pyrolysis and reduce the production of contaminants by cooling the masses of rubble and coal ash in the cavity. Water flow through the coal towards the cavity also limits postburn pyrolysis and subsequent contaminant generation; however, steam produced in the heated portions of the coal limits the rate of water flow. Simulation results indicate that UCG field tests should be operated so that the flow of pyrolysis liquids and gases into the formation is prevented and that the natural influx of water into the cavity is allowed. This can be accomplished by minimizing gas leakage to the formation during gasification, venting the cavity after the gasification process is complete, and maintaining low postburn cavity pressures. 11 refs., 17 figs., 17 tabs.

Boysen, J.E.; Mones, C.G.; Glaser, R.R.; Sullivan, S.

1987-03-01

169

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

2002-06-01

170

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

2002-04-01

171

Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit  

SciTech Connect

The work performed during the second quarterly reporting period (February 21 through May 20, 1992) on the research program, Scale-Up of Mild Gasification to a Process Development Unit'' is presented in this report. The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: (1) design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup. (2) obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation. (3) prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit. (4) develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300[degrees]F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The PDU to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of char, coal liquids, and gases; a thermal cracker for upgrading of the coal liquids; and a hot briquetting unit for the production of form coke and smokeless fuel briquettes. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Foster, H.

1992-06-01

172

Instrumentation and process control development for in situ coal gasification. Quarterly report, December 1979-March 1980  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of data for the Hanna IV and Hoe Creek in situ coal gasification tests raised questions concerning the fundamental controlling mechanisms of the process. The two main areas of concern are: (1) the air flow patterns; and (2) the initial cavity growth. Sandia National Laboratories is addressing these concerns by developing models of these processes. Results to date are in qualitative agreement with known phenomena. There have also been developments in data handling capability. These include improved data presentation ability and development of routine storage, access and back up methods.

Glass, R.E. (ed.)

1980-06-01

173

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)  

SciTech Connect

In order for the coal biogasification process to be economically feasible, an inexpensive nutrient amendment must be found to replace the Difco[trademark] yeast extract and tryptic soy broth (YE/TSB) used in the current medium formulation. Five products have been identified which support greater methane production from Texas lignite than YE/TSB.

Not Available

1992-04-30

174

Biomass reactivity in gasification by the Hynol process  

SciTech Connect

Methanol has many advantages to be considered as an alternative fuel. About 75% of methanol production uses natural gas as feedstock. Use of biomass as feedstock to produce methanol is of current interest because it offers substantial benefits for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The research and development of biomass-to-methanol processes, one of which is called Hynol, are now in progress.

Dong, Yuanji [Acurex Environmental Corp., Durham, NC (United States); Borgwardt, R.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1996-12-31

175

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification (MicGAS) Process. The objectives of the research during FY 1993--94 were to: (1) enhance kinetics of methane production (biogasification, biomethanation) from Texas lign...

D. S. Walia K. C. Srivastava

1994-01-01

176

Differences in gasification behaviors and related properties between entrained gasifier fly ash and coal char  

SciTech Connect

In the study, two fly ash samples from Texaco gasifiers were compared to coal char and the physical and chemical properties and reactivity of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption method, and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The main results were obtained. The carbon content of gasified fly ashes exhibited 31-37%, which was less than the carbon content of 58-59% in the feed coal. The fly ashes exhibited higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, richer meso- and micropores, more disordered carbon crystalline structure, and better CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity than coal char. Ashes in fly ashes occurred to agglomerate into larger spherical grains, while those in coal char do not agglomerate. The minerals in fly ashes, especial alkali and alkaline-earth metals, had a catalytic effect on gasification reactivity of fly ash carbon. In the low-temperature range, the gasification process of fly ashes is mainly in chemical control, while in the high-temperature range, it is mainly in gas diffusion control, which was similar to coal char. In addition, the carbon in fly ashes was partially gasified and activated by water vapor and exhibited higher BET surface area and better gasification activity. Consequently, the fact that these carbons in fly ashes from entrained flow gasifiers are reclaimed and reused will be considered to be feasible. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Jing Gu; Shiyong Wu; Youqing Wu; Ye Li; Jinsheng Gao [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources and Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education

2008-11-15

177

Hydrogen production by gasification of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

As fossil fuel reserves run lower and lower, and as their continued widespread use leads toward numerous environmental problems, the need for clean and sustainable energy alternatives becomes ever clearer. Hydrogen fuel holds promise as such as energy source, as it burns cleanly and can be extracted from a number of renewable materials such as municipal solid waste (MSW), which can be considered largely renewable because of its high content of paper and biomass-derived products. A computer model is being developed using ASPEN Plus flow sheeting software to simulate a process which produces hydrogen gas from MSW; the model will later be used in studying the economics of this process and is based on an actual Texaco coal gasification plant design. This paper gives an overview of the complete MSW gasification process, and describes in detail the way in which MSW is modeled by the computer as a process material. In addition, details of the gasifier unit model are described; in this unit modified MSW reacts under pressure with oxygen and steam to form a mixture of gases which include hydrogen.

Rogers, R. III

1994-05-20

178

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification (MicGAS) Process. The objectives of the research during FY 1993--94 were to: (1) enhance kinetics of methane production (biogasification, biomethanation) from Texas lignite (TxL) by the Mic-1 consortium isolated and developed at ARCTECH, (2) increase coal solids loading, (3) optimize medium composition, and (4) reduce retention time. A closer analysis of the results described here indicate that biomethanation of TxL at >5% solids loading is feasible through appropriate development of nutrient medium and further adaptation of the microorganisms involved in this process. Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably. Results are discussed on the following: products of biomethanation and enhance of methane production including: bacterial adaptation; effect of nutrient amendment substitutes; effects of solids loading; effect of initial pH of the culture medium; effect of hydrogen donors and carbon balance.

Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.

1994-10-01

179

TVA coal-gasification plant conceptual design. Volume 1. Plant based on Executive overview (Summary). Final report  

SciTech Connect

TVA plans to build a coal gasification plant to demonstrate the operation of a commercial scale coal gasification facility producing a clean medium Btu gas (MBG) for use in various industrial applications in the TVA region. In the Phase I efforts, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation prepared conceptual designs, cost estimates, and trade-off studies of the following gasification systems: Lurgi Dry Bottom, Koppers-Totzek, Babcock and Wilcox, British Gas Slagger, and Texaco.

Not Available

1980-11-01

180

Conversion of Rapid City Pilot Plant, Phase II. Heat and mass balance calculating program for pressurized fluidized bed gasification process; WEGAS User's Manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pressurized fluidized bed coal gasification process has been modeled by a steady-state mass and energy balance program, WEGAS. Two alternative cold-gas desulfurization processes, Benfield and Selexol, have been integrated with the gasification model and are available for use in analyzing both the gasification model and integrated low Btu gas-fired combined cycle power plant. This report contains the User's Manual

E. V. Somers; E. J. Vidt

1978-01-01

181

Biomass waste gasification – Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of

Jind?ich Šulc; Ji?í Štojdl; Miroslav Richter; Jan Popelka; Karel Svoboda; Ji?í Smetana; Ji?í Vacek; Siarhei Skoblja; Petr Buryan

182

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products  

SciTech Connect

The char produced in the 100-lb/hr process development unit has been magnetically cleaned by AMAX and returned to the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). The final calcining step of the process is currently being performed in the 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). The liquid products generated by the PDU have been collected and split into usable fractions and fractions to be discarded. Samples of the coal-derived liquids have been sent to Merichem Corporation of Houston and Koppers Industries of Pittsburgh for determination of their usefulness as chemical feedstock for the production of cresylic acids and anode-grade-binder pitch. The technical and economic assessment performed by Xbi and J.E Sinor Consultants has been completed. The briquette testing being conducted at the EERC has produced high quality briquettes using a number of binder agents. The next step in the test matrix will include the use of coal-derived liquids from the PDU as the binder. An additional coal has been added to the mild gasification test matrix. AMAX recently acquired two eastern low-sulfur bituminous coals and suggested that a limited test schedule be conducted to determine the suitability of these coals for the mild gasification process. The sulfur levels in the raw coals are below the target levels suggested by the steel industry for metallurgical coke use. To date, it has not been possible to reach these goals using the high-sulfur Illinois Basin coals tested.

Runge, B.D.; Ness, R.O. Jr.; Sharp, L.L.; Shockey, R.E.

1992-07-01

183

High Temperature Electrochemical Polishing of H(2)S from Coal Gasification Process Streams.  

SciTech Connect

An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide from coal gasification streams through an electrochemical membrane is being perfected. H{sub 2}S is removed from a synthetic gas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the exiting syngas, and sulfur, which is condensed downstream from an inert sweep gas stream. The process allows for continuous removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream while allowing negligible pressure loss through the separator. Moreover, the process is economically attractive due to the elimination of the need for a Claus process for sulfur recovery. To this extent the project presents a novel concept for improving utilization of coal for more efficient power generation.

Winnick, J.

1997-12-31

184

Scaleup of mild gasification to be a process development. Quarterly report, February 1995--May 1995  

SciTech Connect

The work performed during the Fourteenth quarterly reporting period (February 21 through May 20, 1995) on the research program, {open_quotes}Scale-Up of Mild Gasification to a Process Development Unit{close_quotes} is presented in this report. The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: (1) design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup; (2) obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; (3) prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and (4) develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The project team that is performing the initial phases of the PDU development are: Kerr-McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal), the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel), and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300{degrees}F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The 1 ton/hr PDU facility that is to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of gases, coal liquids, and char; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid products; and coal feeding and char handling equipment. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste. This quarter, the formal HAZOP review was completed and a report detailing action items for resolution by the parties responsible was prepared.

Doane, E.P.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

1995-06-01

185

Process and technology development activities for in situ coal gasification, FY83  

SciTech Connect

As part of DOE's Underground Coal Gasification Program, activities at Sandia National Laboratories have been directed at Process and Technology Development. The project areas include (1) the development of a cornering water jet drill for use in linking vertical wells in Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) tests; (2) the development of a controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) surface geophysical technique for monitoring the process, and (3) the development of models for use in predicting surface subsidence and cavity growth. The accomplishments for the year include (1) the successful completion of the high wall tests of the cornering water jet drill, (2) the start of the down hole tests including completion of the vertical hole and underreamed volume, testing of the sump pump and initial drilling to a hole length of three meters, (3) the preliminary CSAMT survey of the Tono partial seam controlled reacting injection point (CRIP) test area, (4) the development of a data acquisition and analysis system for the CSAMT technique, (5) the development of a predictive model for subsidence and cavity growth and their application to the partial seam CRIP test.

Glass, R.E. (ed.)

1983-12-01

186

Effect of some coal gasification and tar sand process waters on the viability of indicator bacteria of fecal contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was undertaken to determine if a spill of either coal gasification or tar sand process waters could have detrimental effects on the numbers of indicator bacteria in receiving waters. The objectives were (i) to determine the effect of mixing process waters with natural waters on the numbers of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci after storage of these mixtures

2009-01-01

187

Toxicity studies of underground coal gasification and tarsands processes. Progress report, February 1, 1982-January 31, 1983  

SciTech Connect

Process waters were obtained from trial coal gasification experiments at Hanna, Wyoming and Vernal, Utah. Samples were assayed for toxicity using the Ames test and the Paramecium bioassay. Results indicate that both the Paramecium and Ames bioassays show sporadic genotoxic response to the process waters. (DMC)

Not Available

1983-01-01

188

CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID-BED PROCESS FOR SULPHUR REMOVAL DURING GASIFICATION OF HEAVY FUEL OIL - THIRD PHASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the third phase of studies on the CAFB process for desulfurization/gasification of heavy fuel oil in a bed of hot lime. Major conclusions relating to process performance and operability are: (1) water, either in the fuel or in the fluidizing air, has a strong...

189

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1991-09-01

190

Development of an advanced, continuous mild-gasification process for the production of coproducts  

SciTech Connect

This report contains descriptions of mild-gasification and char-to-carbon process research units (PRUS) used by WRI and AMAX R D Center to conduct tests under contract AC21-87MC24268. Descriptions of materials produced during those tests are also contained herein. Western Research Institute proposes to dispose of remaining fines and dried coal by combustion and remaining coal liquids by incineration during mid-1992. The mild-gasification PRU will be used for additional tests until 1993, at which time WRI proposes to decontaminate and disassemble the PRU. AMAX R D Center intends to return the spent char, any remaining feed char, and unusable product carbon to the Eagle Butte Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, from where the coal originally came. The solid products will be added to the mine's coal product stream. Coal liquids collected from condensers will be concentrated and sent to a local oil and solvent recycling company where the liquids will be burned as fuel. The char-to-carbon PRU will be operated periodically until 1993 when the plant will be decontaminated and disassembled.

Merriam, N.W. (Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)); Jha, Mahesh C. (AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States))

1991-11-01

191

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a continuous mild gasification process to convert highly caking coals to coal liquids, char and coke for near term commercial application. Coal liquids after fractionation can be blended with petroleum and used interchangeably with conventional fuels without modifications in gasoline and diesel engines. Char can be used as a carbon source in the production of ferroalloys and in mini-mills. Coke can be produced by upgrading char through briquetting and calcining and for use in the steel industry foundries and blast furnaces. In a step beyond the scope of the project, the plan is to finance, design and construct, in a partnership with others, a plant to produce coal liquid, char and coke in the initial range of 250,000 tons/year. In the Coal Technology Corporation CTC/CLC{reg_sign} Process, coal is continuously moved by interfolded twin screws through a heated retort in the absence of air. The residence time of the coal in the Continuous Mild Gasification Unit (CMGU) is in the range of 20--30 minutes. The coal is heated to controlled temperatures between 800{degree} and 1400{degree}F and is converted into char, condensible hydrocarbon liquids, small quantities of water, and non-condensible fuel gases. The coal derived fuel gases could supply all the required process heat, but for convenience, natural gas is used in the experimental unit. The process concept particularly suitable for highly caking coals which cannot be processed in fluidized bed or moving bed furnaces.

Wright, R.E.; Wolfe, R.A.; Im, C.J.; Henkelman, M.R.; O`Neal, G.W.; McKinney, D.A.

1993-12-31

192

Numerical simulation of the pyrolysis zone in a downdraft gasification process.  

PubMed

Models of the gasification process are mostly based on lumped analysis with distinct zones of the process treated as one entity. The study presented here was conducted to develop a more useful model specifically for the pyrolysis zone of the reactor of a downdraft gasifier based on finite computation method. Applying principles of energy and mass conservation, governing equations formed were solved by implicit finite difference method on the node of 100 throughout the length of the considered pyrolysis range (20 cm). Heat transfer considered convection, conduction, and the influence of solid radiation components. Chemical kinetics concept was also adopted to simultaneously solve the temperature profile and feedstock consumption rate on the pyrolysis zone. The convergence criteria were set at 10(-6) and simulation used Fortran Power Station 4.0. Validation experiments were also conducted resulting in maximum deviation of 24 degrees C and 0.37 kg/h for temperature and feedstock feed rate, respectively. PMID:19631526

Jaojaruek, K; Kumar, S

2009-07-23

193

Gasification. 2nd. ed.  

SciTech Connect

This book covers gasification as a comprehensive topic, covering its many uses, from refining, to natural gas, to coal. It provides an overview of commercial processes and covers applications relevant to today's demands. The new edition is expanded and provides more detail on the integration issues for current generation, state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC); CO{sub 2} capture in the IGCC context addressing the issues of pre-investment and retrofitting as well as defining what the term 'CO{sub 2} capture ready' might mean in practice; issues of plant reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) including as evaluation of feedback from existing plants; implementation of fuel cell technology in IGCC concepts. Contents are: Introduction; The Thermodynamics of Gasification; The Kinetics of Gasification and Reactor Theory; Feedstocks and Feedstock Characteristics; Gasification Processes; Practical Issues; Applications; Auxiliary Technologies; Economics, environmental, and Safety Issues; Gasification and the Future. 5 apps.

Christopher Higman; Maarten van der Burgt [Lurgi Oel Gas Chemie (Germany)

2008-02-15

194

Underground Gasification of Hard Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large-scale underground gasification is at present impracticable, particularly for European conditions. This statement is based on considerations concerning technology, environmental protection, and economy. Control of the gasification process, control of...

J. Stuffken F. J. Wetzels

1974-01-01

195

Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Features of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants are described against the backdrop of the development and first commercial application of the shell coal gasification process. Focus is on the efficiency and excellent environmental ...

P. C. Richards J. Wijffels P. L. Zuideveld

1993-01-01

196

Assessment of the CRIP (Controlled Retracting Injection Point) process for underground coal gasification: The Rocky Mountain I test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of the recently completed Rocky Mountain I (RMI) underground coal gasification (UCG) field test have shown that the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) process for UCG is capable of producing consistently high quality gas from a single injection well for an extended period of time. The RMI CRIP module was in operation for 93 days and gasified over 10,000

R. J. Cena; C. B. Thorsness; J. A. Britten

1988-01-01

197

ASPEN(Advanced System for Process Engineering) Simulation of a Fixed-Bed Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle Power Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fixed-bed integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant has been modeled using the Advanced System for Process ENgineering (ASPEN). The ASPEN simulation is based on a conceptual design of a 509-MW IGCC power plant that uses British Gas Corpo...

K. R. Stone

1986-01-01

198

Instrumentation and Process Control Development for in Situ Coal Gasification. Sixteenth Quarterly Report: September 1978--November 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hanna IV in situ coal gasification test was ignited on January 24, 1978, was interrupted in March to drill two new process wells west of Well 1, was restarted and continued until early June 1978 at which time the test was interrupted due to a high tem...

L. C. Bartel

1979-01-01

199

CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID-BED PROCESS FOR SULPHUR REMOVAL DURING GASIFICATION OF HEAVY FUEL OIL - SECOND PHASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the second phase of studies on the CAFB process for desulfurizing gasification of heavy fuel oil in a bed of hot lime. The first continuous pilot plant test with U.S. limestone BCR 1691 experienced local stone sintering and severe production of sticky dust du...

200

Effect of biomass particle size and air superficial velocity on the gasification process in a downdraft fixed bed gasifier. An experimental and modelling study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-dimensional stationary model of biomass gasification in a fixed bed downdraft gasifier is presented in this paper. The model is based on the mass and energy conservation equations and includes the energy exchange between solid and gaseous phases, and the heat transfer by radiation from the solid particles. Different gasification sub-processes are incorporated: biomass drying, pyrolysis, oxidation of char

Francisco V. Tinaut; Andrés Melgar; Juan F. Pérez; Alfonso Horrillo

2008-01-01

201

Instrumentation and Process Control Development for in Situ Coal Gasification. Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Quarterly Reports, December 1978 Through August 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second phase of the Hanna IV In Situ Coal Gasification Test, Hanna IV-B, was initiated on April 20, 1979. The reverse combustion linking process was completed July 13, 1979, and gasification began July 28, 1979. Sandia Laboratories is providing suppor...

R. E. Glass

1980-01-01

202

New results gained with the GSP process for the gasification of pulverized coal, description of the feeding system and solution of environmental problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both economic analyses and analyses concerning the solution of problems of environmental protection have shown that gasification of coal and the conversion of the produced gas into electrical energy, SNG or syntheses gas is getting more and more attractive. Since 1983 a gasification complex working according to the GSP process has been in operation at Gaskombinat Schwarze Pumpe in the

F. Berger; H. Brandt; H. Kretschmer; H. Richter; M. Schingnitz

1988-01-01

203

Evaluating the status of the Texaco gasifier  

SciTech Connect

Conclusions after a series of runs at steady state conditions in the pilot plant are: (1) Western Kentucky No. 9 coal (either run-of-mine or washed) can be gasified without pretreatment; (2) other coking bituminous coal may also be able to be gasified without pretreatment; (3) pretreatment is not required to achieve satisfactory ash agglomeration; (4) balanced ash agglomeration with satisfactory removal of the agglomerates has been achieved and stable operation of ash agglomeration is possible during periods of short upset; (5) solutions appear to have been found for prevention of clinkering and sintering by alternative venturi design, modification in the oxygen feed system and increasing the superficial velocity of the gas; (6) under certain circumstances fines recycle has been achieved with stable operation and fluidization; (7) the process can be operated at pressures up to 60 psig without adversely affecting other process parameters; (8) a wide range of operating conditions can be used while maintaining system operability; and (9) in a single test water cooling of the cyclone appears to prevent ash deposition on the cooled surfaces which confirms the experience of Westinghouse with ash deposition prevention in their fluidized bed gasifier. 11 references, 12 tables.

Perry, H.

1981-01-01

204

Brazing as a Means of Sealing Ceramic Membranes for Use in Advanced Coal Gasification Processes  

SciTech Connect

Coal is a potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Rice, Joseph P.; Kim, Jin Yong

2006-01-31

205

Brazing as a Means of Sealing Ceramic Membranes for use in Advanced Coal Gasification Processes  

SciTech Connect

Coal is potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Rice, Joseph P.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.

2006-01-02

206

Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Topical report, Process analysis, FY 1983  

SciTech Connect

KRW Energy Systems, Inc., is engaged in the continuing development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally-acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized carbonaceous feedstocks and industrial fuels. This report presents process analysis of the 24 ton-per-day Process Development Unit (PDU) operations and is a continuation of the process analysis work performed in 1980 and 1981. Included is work performed on PDU process data; gasification; char-ash separation; ash agglomeration; fines carryover, recycle, and consumption; deposit formation; materials; and environmental, health, and safety issues. 63 figs., 43 tabs.

None

1987-07-31

207

Advanced coal-gasification technical analyses. Appendix 1: technology reviews. Final report, December 1982-September 1985  

SciTech Connect

This document is a result of KRSI's activities to support the GRI/Advisors Committee thru the duration of the contract. It provides an overview of the gasification, shift/methanation, acid-gas removal, and sulfur-recovery technologies for use in coal-to SNG plant design. For selected processes in each technology area, Status Summary reports are presented. The non-proprietary information contained in these reports was utilized to assess the characteristics, efficiencies, and other performance variables of each process relative to criteria developed for each ssess the characteristics, efficiencies and other performance variables of each process relative to criteria developed for each technology area. The results of the assessment are presented in tables that can be utilized for selection of a process best suited for a given application. In the coal-gasification area, status summaries were prepared for Lurgi, GKT, Texaco, BGC/Lurgi, Westinghouse (now KRW), Exxon CCG, Shell and U-Gas processes. The Conventional Shift/Methanation, Combined Shift/Methanation, Direct Methanation and Comflux Methanation processes were selected for review of shift/methanation technology. In the acid-gas-removal technology area, evaluation of Selexol, Rectisol, Benfield and CNG processes is presented. For the sulfur-recovery technology area, Claus, Amoco Direct Oxidation, LO-CAT, Selectox, Stretford and Unisulf processes, were selected for assessment.

Cover, A.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Jain, S.K.; Shah, K.V.

1986-01-01

208

Coal gasification by pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Garrett Research and Development Co. Inc. process and its development are described; and process economics for a 250 million cu ft\\/day pipeline gas plant are presented and compared with those for the Lurgi coal-gasification process.

D. E. Adam; S. Sack; A. Sass

1974-01-01

209

Costs of Drilling, Completing and Linking Process Wells for Underground Coal Gasification as a Function of Linking Method, Coal Bed Thickness and Depth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Costs in underground coal gasification for drilling, completing and linking process wells are considered. Both row spacing (sweep width) and column spacing for rectangular arrays of process wells were examined: coal bed thickness and depth were varied; li...

D. R. Stephens

1979-01-01

210

Gasification of Chars Produced under Simulated in Situ Processing Conditions. Annual Report, October 1975--September 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this part of the ANL energy program for ERDA is to determine the reaction-controlling variables and reaction kinetics for gasification of chars resulting when coal is pyrolyzed in underground gasification. The reactions to be studied incl...

J. Fischer J. E. Young R. N. Lo D. C. Bowyer J. E. Johnson

1976-01-01

211

Energy efficient production of hydrogen and syngas from biomass: development of low-temperature catalytic process for cellulose gasification.  

PubMed

The Rh/CeO2/M (M = SiO2, Al2O3, and ZrO2) type catalysts with various compositions have been prepared and investigated in the gasification of cellulose, a model compound of biomass, in a fluidized bed reactor at 500-700 degrees C. The conventional nickel and dolomite catalysts have also been investigated. Among the catalysts, Rh/CeO2/SiO2 with 35% CeO2 has been found to be the best catalyst with respect to the carbon conversion to gas and product distribution. The steam addition contributed to the complete conversion of cellulose to gas even at 600 degrees C. Lower steam supply gave the syngas and higher steam supply gave the hydrogen as the major product. Hydrogen and syngas from cellulose or cellulosic biomass gasification are environmentally super clean gaseous fuels for power generation. Moreover, the syngas derived liquid fuels such as methanol, dimethyl ether, and synthetic diesels are also super clean transportation fuels. However, the use of cellulose or cellulosic biomass for energy source through the gasification is challenging because of the formation of tar and char during the gasification process. It is interesting that no tar or char was finally formed in the effluent gas at as low as 500-600 degrees C using Rh/CeO2/SiO2(35) catalyst in this process. PMID:12387426

Asadullah, Mohammad; Ito, Shin-ichi; Kunimori, Kimio; Yamada, Muneyoshi; Tomishige, Keiichi

2002-10-15

212

Chemical Processing in High-Pressure Aqueous Environments. 7. Process Development for Catalytic Gasification of Wet Biomass Feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

Through the use of a metal catalyst, gasification of wet biomass can be accomplished with high levels of carbon conversion to gas at relatively low temperature (350 C). In the pressurized-water environment (20 MPa) near-total conversion of the organic structure of biomass to gases has been accomplished in the presence of a ruthenium metal catalyst. The process is essentially steam reforming as there is no added oxidizer or reagent other than water. In addition, the gas produced is a medium-heating value gas due to the synthesis of high-levels of methane, as dictated by thermodynamic equilibrium. Biomass trace components cause processing difficulties using the fixed catalyst bed tubular reactor system. Results are described for both bench-scale and scaled-up reactor systems.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Butner, Scott S.; Zacher, Alan H.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Young, James S.; McCready, David E.

2004-07-01

213

Characteristics of Temperature Field during the Oxygen-enriched Underground Coal Gasification in Steep Seams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the underground coal gasification model test in steep coal seams, the changing characteristics and effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, moving-point gasification, backward gasification methods on the underground gasification process, and gas quality were discussed. Experiments showed that, under the pure oxygen gasification, the rising rate for the roof temperature of the coal seams to be gasified is

L. H. Yang; X. Zhang; S. Liu

2009-01-01

214

Concentrating-solar biomass gasification process for a 3rd generation biofuel.  

PubMed

A new concept of producing synfuel from biomass using concentrating solar energy as its main energy source is proposed in this paper. The aim of the concept is to obtain an easy to handle fuel with near-zero CO2 emission and reduced land-use requirements compared to first and second generation biofuels. The concept's key feature is the use of high-temperature heat from a solar concentrating tower to drive the chemical process of converting biomassto a biofuel, obtaining a near-complete utilization of carbon atoms in the biomass. H2 from water electrolysis with solar power is used for reverse water gas shift to avoid producing CO2 during the process. In a chemical process simulation, we compare the solar biofuel concept with two other advanced synfuel concepts: second generation biofuel and coal-to-liquid, both using gasification technology and capture and storage of CO2 generated in the fuel production. The solar-driventhird generation biofuel requires only 33% of the biomass input and 38% of total land as the second generation biofuel, while still exhibiting a CO2-neutral fuel cycle. With CO2 capture, second generation biofuel would lead to the removal of 50% of the carbon in the biomass from the atmosphere. There is a trade-off between reduced biomass feed costs and the increased capital requirements for the solar-driven process; it is attractive at intermediate biomass and CO2 prices. PMID:19569353

Hertwich, Edgar G; Zhang, Xiangping

2009-06-01

215

Mineralization of integrated gasification combined-cycle power-station wastewater effluent by a photo-fenton process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to study the mineralization of wastewater effluent from an integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power station sited in Spain to meet the requirements of future environmental legislation. This study was done in a pilot plant using a homogeneous photo-Fenton oxidation process with continuous addition of H2O2 and air to the system.The mineralization process was found to

A. Durán; J. M. Monteagudo; I. San Martín; M. Aguirre

2010-01-01

216

Techno-economic performance of energy-from-waste fluidized bed combustion and gasification processes in the UK context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the technical and economic performance of energy-from-waste (EfW) fluidized bed combustion and gasification processes and reports on the implications of different scales and technologies on costs and efficiencies. Mass and energy balances of the processes were performed and the cost effectiveness of the different waste treatment options, for the generation of electric power, was assessed using a

Liban Yassin; Paola Lettieri; Stefaan J. R. Simons; Antonino Germanà

2009-01-01

217

Test and evaluate the tri-gas low-Btu coal-gasification process. Final report, October 21, 1977October 31, 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the continuation of work done to develop the BCR TRI-GAS multiple fluidized-bed gasification process. The objective is the gasification of all ranks of coals with the only product being a clean, low-Btu fuel gas. Design and construction of a 100 lb\\/h process and equipment development unit (PEDU) was completed on the previous contract. The process consists of

Zabetakis

1980-01-01

218

Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER = 0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV = 3.15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950 Degree-Sign C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream.

Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Karel, E-mail: svoboda@icpf.cas.cz [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri [D.S.K. Ltd., Ujezdecek - Dukla 264, 415 01 Teplice I (Czech Republic); Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr [Dept. of Gas, Coke and Air protection, Institute of Chemical Technol., Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2012-04-15

219

Understanding of Phenolic-Compound Production in Coal-Gasification Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this report is to delineate the relationships that govern the production of phenols during coal gasification. Experimental efforts include: (1) bench-scale investigation of the decomposition characteristics of select phenolic compounds in the ...

J. P. Fillo

1979-01-01

220

Instrumentation and Process Control Development In Situ Coal Gasification. Thirteenth Quarterly Report, December 1977--February 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hanna IV in situ coal gasification test was ignited on January 24, 1978. Sandia Laboratories is providing instrumentation support by fielding and monitoring diagnostic and remote monitoring instrumentation techniques. All techniques are supported by a...

D. A. Northrop

1978-01-01

221

Economic Assessment of the Impact of Plant Size on Coal-Gasification/Combined-Cycle Plants. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This screening study evaluates the impacts on plant performance, capital cost, and cost of electricity of varying the capacity of coal gasification-combined cycle power plants from 1000 MW to 50 MW. Five cases are evaluated using the Texaco coal gasificat...

T. A. Matchak C. H. Lawrence

1983-01-01

222

Biodiesel production by supercritical process with crude bio-methanol prepared by wood gasification.  

PubMed

In order to prepare a genuine biodiesel, it is essential to use methanol prepared from biomass but not natural gas for biodiesel production. Thus, we have proposed to use crude bio-methanol produced by wood gasification for biodiesel production. Since such a bio-methanol contains some impurities, an effect of its impurities was studied on the biodiesel production by supercritical method. In general, impurities in crude bio-methanol are reported to include methyl formate, ethanol, 1-butanol, diisopropyl ether, water, etc. Triglycerides and oleic acids were, thus, treated with these impurities under supercritical conditions. As a result, it was found that methyl formate, ethanol and 1-butanol could convert them to fatty acid alkyl esters (BDF), whereas no conversion was achieved with diisopropyl ether. Thus, crude bio-methanol can be used for BDF production as a substitute for methanol from fossil resources. However, due to more efficient reaction, crude bio-methanol can be more applicable to the two-step supercritical methanol process, consisting of hydrolysis of triglycerides and subsequent esterification of fatty acids, compared with the one-step supercritical methanol process, where transesterification of triglycerides is a major reaction. PMID:17977720

Isayama, Yohei; Saka, Shiro

2007-10-30

223

Chemical and biological characterization of high-Btu coal gasification: (The HYGAS process) I  

SciTech Connect

We have examined the relationships between mutagenic activity and chemical composition for fractions prepared from process stream materials obtained from a high-Btu coal-gasification pilot plant in which the HYGAS process is employed. Fractionation procedures have included fractional distillation; extraction of acidic, basic, and neutral components; liquid/liquid partitioning; and column chromatography on silica gel. A large number of organic compounds in the fractions have been identified by fused-silica, capillary-column gas chromatography, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Some fractions contain components that are mutagenic as indicated by the Ames salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay. Fractionation and GC/MS analysis indicate that the mutagenic components are relatively nonvolatile and that they may include neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as more polar components such as primary aromatic amines (PAAs), azaarenes (AAs), and hydroxy-PAHs. In the basic mutagenic fractions that exhibited the highest specific biological activity, PAAs may be largely responsible for the mutagenicity, as supported by its observed loss subsequent to treatment with nitrous acid. Based on the observation that the recycle oil stream (which has the highest flow of potentially hazardous organic compounds) exhibits a mutagenicity well below 1% that of benz(a)pyrene, we tentatively conclude that the health and environmental risks due to commercialization of the HYGAS would be relatively low.

Stamoudis, V.C.; Bourne, S.; Haugen, D.A.; Peak, M.J.; Reilly, C.A.; Stetter, J.R.; Wilzbach, K.

1980-01-01

224

Modeling of a high-temperature direct coal gasification process in a two-stream reactor  

SciTech Connect

A new scheme for direct gasification of pulverized coal has been analyzed by a mathematical model. Gasification occurs in the annular region of a cylindrical reactor during the cocurrent flow of a steam/coal mixture, with combustion products in the reactor core region serving as an internal heat source. The model incorporates the two equation model for turbulence, mass exchange between phases due to chemical reactions and radiative heat transfer. Detailed calculations are carried out to asses the feasibility of the scheme.

Hanjalic, K.; Sijercic, M. (Univ. of Sarajevo-Energoinvest, Sarajevo (YU)); Crowe, C.T.; Wojcicki, S. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US))

1988-06-01

225

Modeling of a high-temperature direct coal gasification process in a two-stream reactor  

SciTech Connect

A new scheme for direct gasification of pulverized coal has been analyzed by a mathematical model. Gasification occurs in the annular region of a cylindrical reactor during the cocurrent flow of a steam/coal mixture, with combustion products in the reactor core region serving as an internal heat source. The model incorporates the two equation model for turbulence, mass exchange between phases due to chemical reactions and radiative heat transfer. Detailed calculations are carried out to assess the feasibility of the scheme.

Hanjalic, K.; Sijercic, M.; Crowe, C.T.; Wojcicki, S. (Univ. of Sarajevo-Energoinvest (Yugoslavia))

1988-01-01

226

Optimization of electricity-methanol coproduction: Configurations of integrated - gasification - combined - cycle/once-through methanol  

SciTech Connect

An attractive alternative providing considerable flexibility in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant involves plant modification to coproduce methanol and electricity. The methanol, produced continuously and stored during off peak hours, becomes a storable liquid fuel saleable as a by-product or usable as supplemental fuel during peak demand periods. The Once-Through Methanol (OTM) process converts to methanol without shifting into a balanced gas as required by conventional vapor phase. A promising OTM concept involves the liquid-phase methanol (LPMEOH{sup TM}){asterisk} process, particularly suited for use with carbon monoxide (CO) rich coal-derived synthesis gas, which has the potential to produce methanol at lower costs than traditional vapor-phase processes. The purpose of this study was to estimate the cost of methanol coproduced in IGCC/OTM configurations, including baseload and intermediate load following applications. The study developed an OTM design based on the LPMEOH process for a 650 MW Texaco-based IGCC facility load following a design previously developed by Flour. Using a portion of the synthesis gas generated in the gasification plant to coproduce methanol, methanol cost was calculated to maintain the same revenue requirements from power sale (cost of electricity) as the IGCC plant. The report also evaluated incorporation of the LPMEOH unit for load following, and estimated and compared electricity cost with and IGCC-only facility cycled to produce the same base and peak power load for summer and winter ambient conditions. 14 refs., 52 figs., 73 tabs.

Not Available

1990-06-01

227

Coal gasification pilot plant support studies. Subtask 3-3. Improved methods of removal, recovery, or conversion of sulfur and nitrogen compounds in raw product gases from coal gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported from three exploratory programs to improve the processing techniques for the removal, conversion, or recovery of sulfur and nitrogen compounds without gas quenching in coal gasification processes. The areas of investigation were the following: (1) fuel gas desulfurization, (2) catalytic ammonia decomposition in fuel gas streams, and (3) catalytic hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide in fuel gas streams.

Not Available

1980-12-01

228

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 4. 7), Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this task is the preparation of (1) preliminary piping and instrument diagrams (P IDs) and single line electrical diagrams for a site-specific conceptual design and (2) a factored cost estimate for a 24 ton/day (tpd) capacity mild gasification process development unit (PDU) and an associated form coke preparation PDU. The intended site for this facility is the Illinois Coal Development Park at Carterville, Illinois, which is operated by Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. (VC)

Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

1991-09-01

229

Novel Low-Cost Process for the Gasification of Biomass and Low-Rank Coals  

SciTech Connect

Farm Energy envisaged a phased demonstration program, in which a pilot-scale straw gasifier will be installed on a farm. The synthesis gas product will be used to initially (i) generate electricity in a 300 kW diesel generator, and subsequently (ii) used as a feedstock to produce ethanol or mixed alcohols. They were seeking straw gasification and alcohol synthesis technologies that may be implemented on farm-scale. The consortium, along with the USDA ARS station in Corvallis, OR, expressed interest in the dual-bed gasification concept promoted by WRI and Taylor Energy, LLC. This process operated at atmospheric pressure and employed a solids-circulation type oxidation/reduction cycle significantly different from traditional fluidized-bed or up-draft type gasification reactors. The objectives of this project were to perform bench-scale testing to determine technical feasibility of gasifier concept, to characterize the syngas product, and to determine the optimal operating conditions and configuration. We used the bench-scale test data to complete a preliminary design and cost estimate for a 1-2 ton per hour pilot-scale unit that is also appropriate for on-farm scale applications. The gasifier configuration with the 0.375-inch stainless steel balls recirculating media worked consistently and for periods up to six hours of grass feed. The other principle systems like the boiler, the air pump, and feeder device also worked consistently during all feeding operations. Minor hiccups during operation tended to come from secondary systems like the flare or flammable material buildup in the exit piping. Although we did not complete the extended hour tests to 24 or 48 hours due to time and budget constraints, we developed the confidence that the gasifier in its current configuration could handle those tests. At the modest temperatures we operated the gasifier, slagging was not a problem. The solid wastes were dry and low density. The majority of the fixed carbon from the grass ended up in the solid waste collected in the external cyclone. The volatiles were almost all removed in the gasifier. While the average gas heating value of the collected gas products was 50 BTUs/scf or less, addition a of the second gas exit for combustion gases would increase that value by a factor of two or three. Other changes to the current design such as shortening the gasifier body and draft tube would lead to lower air use and shorter heating times. There was no evidence of steam reforming at the current operating temperature. Likewise there was no indication of significant tar production. Reconfiguration of the gasifier at the on farm site may yet yield more significant results that would better qualify this gasifier for small scale biomass operations.

Thomas Barton

2009-03-05

230

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products  

SciTech Connect

During this quarter the work on Task 3, char upgrading, was in two areas; upgrading Penelec char made from Penelec filter cake to blast furnace formed coke, and evaluating various bituminous pitch binders. The formed coke from Penelec filter cake was of good quality with a high crush strength of 3000 pounds. The reactivity was not equal to that of conventional coke but it is felt that it could be made to equal conventional coke with further study, specifically by adding binder coal to the raw material recipe. The work evaluating bituminous pitch binders confirmed earlier thinking that will be valuable to a commercial scale-up. Asphalt binders are compatible with coal tar binders and produce a coke of equal quality. Hence asphalt binders can be used to supply deficiencies of tar production in units employing coals with insufficient volatile matter to supply enough tar for the coking process. Asphalt binders have about a 50% savings from coal tar pitch. During the 4th Quarter of 1991, a total of 15 Continuous Mild Gasification Unit (CMGU) test runs were made. Efforts continued to determine the optimum forward/reverse ratio to maximize coal feed rate. The success of these efforts has been limited with a maximum coal feed rate of 400 lbs/hr obtainable with a caking coal. The handicap of not having screw shaft heaters cannot be overcome by adjustment of the forward/reverse ratio.

O'Neal, G.W.

1991-01-01

231

Development of advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products  

SciTech Connect

The current objective of the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) mild gasification project is to optimize reaction char and marketable liquids production on a 100-lb/hr scale using Wyodak subbituminous and Indiana No. 3 bituminous coals. Tests performed using the EERC 100-lb/hr process development unit (PDU) include a refractory-cure (Test P001), a test using petroleum coke (Test P002), and tests using Wyodak and Indiana coals. The reactor system used for the 11 PDU tests conducted to date consists of a spouted, fluid-bed carbonizer equipped with an on-line condensation train that yields three boiling point fractions of coal liquids ranging in volatility from about (77{degrees}--750{degrees}F) (25{degrees}--400{degrees}C). The September--December 1990 quarterly report described reaction conditions and the bulk of the analytical results for Tests P010 and P011. This report describes further P010 and P011 analytical work, including the generation of simulated distillation curves for liquid samples on the basis of sulfur content, using gas chromatography coupled with atomic emission detection (GC/AED) analysis. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Aulich, T.R.

1991-05-01

232

The water footprint of biofuel produced from forest wood residue via a mixed alcohol gasification process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest residue has been proposed as a feasible candidate for cellulosic biofuels. However, the number of studies assessing its water use remains limited. This work aims to analyze the impacts of forest-based biofuel on water resources and quality by using a water footprint approach. A method established here is tailored to the production system, which includes softwood, hardwood, and short-rotation woody crops. The method is then applied to selected areas in the southeastern region of the United States to quantify the county-level water footprint of the biofuel produced via a mixed alcohol gasification process, under several logistic systems, and at various refinery scales. The results indicate that the blue water sourced from surface or groundwater is minimal, at 2.4 liters per liter of biofuel (l/l). The regional-average green water (rainfall) footprint falls between 400 and 443 l/l. The biofuel pathway appears to have a low nitrogen grey water footprint averaging 25 l/l at the regional level, indicating minimal impacts on water quality. Feedstock mix plays a key role in determining the magnitude and the spatial distribution of the water footprint in these regions. Compared with other potential feedstock, forest wood residue shows promise with its low blue and grey water footprint.

Chiu, Yi-Wen; Wu, May

2013-09-01

233

Texaco-Cities laying pipeline link with LOOP (Louisiana Offshore Oil Port)  

SciTech Connect

Texaco Inc. and Cities Service Pipe Line Co. are building a jointly owned, $50 million, 36 mi, 24 in. pipeline to connect a LOOP storage terminal at the Clovelly salt dome near Galliano, Lafourche Parish, LA, to a Texas pipe Line Co. connection at Houma, LA. The pipeline will be able to move 250,000 bbl/day of crude to Texaco's refineries and other facilities in Louisiana and Texas. At Houma, some of the crude will enter a 22 in. line owned by Texas Pipe Line for delivery to Texaco's Port Arthur, TX, and Port Neches, TX, refineries.

Not Available

1980-06-23

234

Phase-equilibria for design of coal-gasification processes: dew points of hot gases containing condensible tars. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This research is concerned with the fundamental physical chemistry and thermodynamics of condensation of tars (dew points) from the vapor phase at advanced temperatures and pressures. Fundamental quantitative understanding of dew points is important for rational design of heat exchangers to recover sensible heat from hot, tar-containing gases that are produced in coal gasification. This report includes essentially six contributions toward establishing the desired understanding: (1) Characterization of Coal Tars for Dew-Point Calculations; (2) Fugacity Coefficients for Dew-Point Calculations in Coal-Gasification Process Design; (3) Vapor Pressures of High-Molecular-Weight Hydrocarbons; (4) Estimation of Vapor Pressures of High-Boiling Fractions in Liquefied Fossil Fuels Containing Heteroatoms Nitrogen or Sulfur; and (5) Vapor Pressures of Heavy Liquid Hydrocarbons by a Group-Contribution Method.

Prausnitz, J.M.

1980-05-01

235

Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification: Progress report for the period May 7-August 6, 1984  

SciTech Connect

During this quarter, a detailed test plan was developed and approved for each of the three subtasks in this program involving experimental work: CO/sub 2/-Coal Devolatilization Studies; CO/sub 2/-Coal Char Gasification Studies; and CO/sub 2/ Adsorption/Desorption Studies. Two coals were selected for testing: a North Dakota lignite and an Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The high-temperature thermobalance was readied for testing, instruments were calibrated, and some reactor tube components were replaced. Instrumentation for the CO/sub 2/ adsorption/desorption tests was specified. The literature on the effect of CO/sub 2/ on coal devolatilization characteristics was reviewed. A detailed analysis of the literature data is under way. A detailed test plan was developed and approved for the internal recirculation catalysts coal gasification process concept.

Babu, S.P.

1985-04-01

236

Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal-gasification research program. Technical and economic assessment of the Westinghouse fluidized-bed coal gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Kellogg was requested by DOE/GRI to perform a technical and economic assessment of the Westinghouse fluidized bed coal gasification process as applied to production of SNG equivalent to 250 billion BTU/day from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. Based on operating experiences in the PDU, where most of the key variables have been demonstrated during 5+ years of testing, Westinghouse provided process data for the gasifier area. Kellogg selected the overall processing sequence and established design bases for the balance of the plant. This work was subsequent to a previous (1979) screening evaluation of Westinghouse by Kellogg: comparison of the two designs reveals the following: The 1980 gasifier design basis, while more detailed, is almost identical to that of 1979. The gas treatment and sulfur recovery schemes were significantly changed: Combined shift/methanation was substituted for stand-alone reaction units; independent Selexol units for removal of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ replaced a non-selective Benfield unit; and a Claus-SCOT combination replaced Stretford units and significantly improved the flue gas desulfurization. Key results of the current efforts are compared with those of the screening evaluation. The reductions in efficiencies in the new calculations are attributed to a more realistic evaluation of plant energy requirements and to lack of optimization of individual plant section designs. The economic data indicate that a noteworthy reduction in gas cost was accomplished by a reduction in the capital cost of the plant, such that Kellogg concludes, as previously for the screening evaluation, that the Westinghouse process appears to be superior to existing processes (i.e., Lurgi) and at least competitive with other processes evaluated under the DOE/GRI joint program.

Bostwick, L.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Laramore, R.W.; Ethridge, T.R.

1981-04-01

237

Use of methanol as an acid gas removal solvent in coal gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

The results of the experimental program to date clearly show that acid gases can be separated from sour gas streams produced by coal gasification. Furthermore, the acid gases CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S and COS distribute in product streams according to their relative solubilities; there is no unusual accumulation of carbonyl sulfide (COS) in the acid gas removal system. Gasification of devolatilized coal produces a sour gas that does not lead to accumulation of high molecular weight hydrocarbons or sulfur gases in methanol used in an acid gas removal system. However, gasification of a New Mexico subbituminous coal led to significant accumulation of these constituents in circulating methanol. 6 refs.

Rousseau, R.W.; Kelly, R.M.; Ferrell, J.K.

1981-01-01

238

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems  

SciTech Connect

This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

1991-09-01

239

Biomass waste gasification - can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?  

PubMed

A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW(th). The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950°C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER=0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV=3.15 MJ/Nm(3)), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950°C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream. PMID:21925858

Sulc, Jind?ich; Stojdl, Ji?í; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Ji?í; Vacek, Ji?í; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

2011-09-16

240

Conceptual designs and assessments of a coal gasification demonstration plant. Volume I. Summary  

SciTech Connect

This is C. F. Braun and Co's final report concerning conceptual designs and assessments in support of Phase I of TVA's Coal Gasification commercial demonstration plant. The report is organized into five volumes. Volume I is a nonproprietary document and provides a summary of the major technical and financial aspects of all three of the gasification processes assigned to us on this project. It is intended to provide an overview of the work accomplished without reference to the specific gasifier reports. Volumes II, III and IV provide detailed data on the Koppers-Totzek, Texaco and Babcock and Wilcox gasification processes respectively. Each volume contains nonproprietary information pertaining to the specific process documented. Volume V contains the task reports prepared concerning process selection studies and plant studies along with TVA's Design Criteria document that provided the basis for our work. Also included is the Gas Cost Guidelines writing and the Building sketches, that are common to all three processes. We believe that the three conceptual designs developed for this project and detailed in accompanying volumes have several unique features. Examples are the zero liquid effluent and the fact that a coal-fired boiler is not required. Because of the configuration of the site and its limited access, special designs will be required to impound the ash and slag, and special procedures will be needed to circumvent the problems imposed by the site during construction. Such items are addressed. From the Phase II design procurement and construction schedule standpoint, on a fast track basis, it appears possible that all three processes could come close to meeting TVA's target completion date.

Not Available

1980-10-01

241

Simultaneous removal of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} in coal gasification processes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen (N{sub 2}) occurs in coal in the form of tightly bound organic ring compounds, typically at levels of 1 to 2 wt.% on a dry-ash-free basis. During gasification, this fuel-bound nitrogen is released principally as ammonia. The formation of NH{sub 3} in coal gasification processes is a function of the coal N{sub 2} content and the gasifier operating conditions.During the use of coal gas to generate electricity in gas-fired turbines or molten carbonate fuel cells, fuel bound N{sub 2} is converted to nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), which are difficult to remove and are highly undesirable as atmospheric pollutants. Thus it is desirable to remove NH{sub 3} from coal gas in addition to other major contaminants such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and particulates. The objective of this study was to develop a successful sorbent-catalyst combination of an NH{sub 3} decomposition catalyst with a zinc-based mixed-metal oxide H{sub 2}S sorbent with stable NH{sub 3} decomposition and H{sub 2}S removal efficiency under cyclic sulfidation-regeneration conditions in the temperature range of 500 to 700 C. Combining the NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S removal steps is expected to reduce capital and operating costs in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant.

Jothimurugesan, K.; Adeyiga, A.A. [Hampton Univ., VA (United States); Gangwal, S.K. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1996-11-01

242

Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Quarterly report, May 21--August 20, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The work performed during the seventh quarterly reporting period on the research program, ``Scale-up of Mild Gasification to a Process Development Unit`` is presented in this report. The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: (1) design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup. (2) Obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation. (3) Prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit. And (4) develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300{degree}F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The 1 ton/hr PDU facility is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of gases, coal liquids, and char; a thermal cracker for upgrading of the coal liquids; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid products; and coal feeding and char handling equipment. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

1993-09-01

243

Scale-up of Mild Gasification to a process development unit. Quarterly report, February 21--May 20, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The work performed during the sixth quarterly reporting period (February 21, 1992 through May 20, 1993) on the research program, ``Scale-Up of Mild Gasification to a Process Development Unit`` is presented in this report. The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: (1) design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup; (2) obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; (3) prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; (4) develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300{degree}F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The 1 ton/hr PDU facility that is to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of gases, coal liquids, and char; a thermal cracker for upgrading of the coal liquids; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid products; and coal feeding and char handling equipment. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

1993-06-01

244

Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Progress report, February 21, 1992--May 20, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The work performed during the second quarterly reporting period (February 21 through May 20, 1992) on the research program, ``Scale-Up of Mild Gasification to a Process Development Unit`` is presented in this report. The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: (1) design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup. (2) obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation. (3) prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit. (4) develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300{degrees}F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The PDU to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of char, coal liquids, and gases; a thermal cracker for upgrading of the coal liquids; and a hot briquetting unit for the production of form coke and smokeless fuel briquettes. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Foster, H.

1992-06-01

245

Health Hazard Evaluation Determination Report No. HE 80-37-725, Texaco, Incorporated, Casper, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental sampling was conducted and a medical questionnaire was administered on April 30 and May 1, 1980, at Texaco (SIC-2911), Casper, Wyoming, to determine employee exposure to toxic concentration of iron oxide (1309371), manganese (7439965), alumi...

B. J. Gunter

1980-01-01

246

Health Hazard Evaluation Determination Report No. HHE-76-111-410, Texaco, Inc., Port Arthur, Texas,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of a suspected excess of heart disease at the Treating Department, acid area of Texaco, Inc., Port Arthur, Texas, was undertaken. Workers were potentially exposed to various organic compounds, acids, and other agents. Eleven workers were ...

C. R. Meyer T. Meinhardt

1977-01-01

247

Assessment of integrated gasification combined cycle power generation  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a comparative study of various selected technologies for coal-fired electric power generation with emphasis on the generation of power using the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Concept. All of the power plant conceptual designs were prepared as grassroots plants with a nominal output of 500 MWe, located in the east-central region of the United States. The designs were based upon a uniform set of design, performance, economic criteria and a 1990 state-of-the-art reference frame. Three IGCC power plant concepts were studied (Texaco, BGC/Lurgi, and Westinghouse gasification processes) and compared with conventional pulverized coal-fired power plants. Each of the IGCC plant concepts were designed to produce a medium-Btu fuel gas which was treated in a SELEXOL processing facility to remove sulfur from the fuel gas in order to meet NSPS SO/sub 2/ emission control requirements. The IGCC power generation facilities for each concept used advanced gas turbines with a rotor inlet temperature of 2150/sup 0/F. Conventional heat recovery steam generators produced high pressure superheated steam which was expanded through a non-reheat steam turbine exhausting to a conventional condenser. The basic designs, estimated performance, and economics for the IGCC plants are presented for both eastern and western coals with varying sulfur removals and are compared with conventional power plants of the same outputs. A consistent set of technical and economic ground rules was employed in making the comparisons. Each of the base case concepts that were studied were found to be cost competitive under the economic ground rules. 8 figures, 12 tables.

Huber, D.A.; Kirk, R.J.; Pietruszkiewicz, J.; Smith, R.S.

1983-01-01

248

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products  

SciTech Connect

The current objective of the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) Mild Gasification Project is to optimize reactive char and marketable liquids production on a 100-lb/hr scale using Wyodak subbituminous and Indiana No. 3 bituminous coals. Tests performed using the EERC 100-lb/hr process development unit (PDU) include a refractory cure (Test P001), a test using petroleum coke (Test P002), and tests using Wyodak and Indiana coals. The reactor system used for the 11 PDU tests conducted to date consists of a spouted, fluid-bed carbonizer equipped with an on-line condensation train that yields three boiling-point fractions of coal liquids ranging in volatility from about 77--750{degrees}F (25--400{degrees}C). This report describes reaction conditions and results of Tests P010 and P011. Conditions of Test P010 (Wyodak coal) include a reactor temperature of 1100{degrees}F (590{degrees}C), reactor pressure of 14.7 psi, residence time of 30 minutes, and a fluidization gas mixture comprised of the products of natural gas combustion with 80% excess air. Following an 8-hour heat-up period, continuous coal feed was maintained for about 30 hours. Conditions of Test P011 (Indiana No. 3 coal) were similar to those of P010, except that the fluidization gas was comprised of the products of natural gas combustion with stoichiometric amounts of air. Test P011 was terminated ahead of schedule due to the loss of recycle tar coolant in the tar scrubber. 2 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Aulich, T.R.

1991-03-01

249

Gasification Product Improvement Facility status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is to provide a test site to support early commercialization of the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology. The design of this facility will by based on PyGas{trademark}, a patented air blown fixed bed gasification process. The GPIF will be capable of processing run-of-mine high swelling coals that comprise 87%

R. D. Carson; R. S. Sadowski; W. H. Skinner; V. B. Dixit; R. A. Lisauskas; S. A. Johnson

1994-01-01

250

Biodiesel production by supercritical process with crude bio-methanol prepared by wood gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to prepare a genuine biodiesel, it is essential to use methanol prepared from biomass but not natural gas for biodiesel production. Thus, we have proposed to use crude bio-methanol produced by wood gasification for biodiesel production. Since such a bio-methanol contains some impurities, an effect of its impurities was studied on the biodiesel production by supercritical method. In

Yohei Isayama; Shiro Saka

2008-01-01

251

Two-stage integrated coking for chemicals and coke gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Unsaturated light hydrocarbons are produced by coking a heavy hydrocarbonaceous oil in a conventional fluid coking zone and subsequently heating the vaporous coker product to a higher temperature in a gas-solids separation zone, such as the coking reactor's cyclone separator, with hot solids derived from a coke gasification zone.

Blaser, D.E.

1981-10-27

252

Physical and numerical modeling results for controlling groundwater contaminants following shutdown of underground coal gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater contamination has resulted from some of in-situ gasification field tests, and concern over groundwater contamination may hamper commercialization. When UCG recovery operations are terminated, energy remains stored as heat in the adjacent masses of rock and coal ash, and this energy is transferred into the coal seam. Coal continues to pyrolyze as a result of the transferred energy; the

J. E. Boysen; C. G. Mones; R. R. Glaser; S. Sullivan

1987-01-01

253

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for gasification integrated power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50+% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with the Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but direct test data from coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This research effort evaluates

Gregory A. Hackett; Kirk R. Gerdes; Xueyan Song; Yun Chen; V. Shutthanandan; Mark H. Engelhard; Zihua Zhu; Suntharampillai Thevuthasan; Randall Gemmen

2012-01-01

254

Calcium silicate cement sorbent for HâS removal and improved gasification processes. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the studies performed on the agglomerated cement sorbent (ACS) pellet for in-situ desulfurization of gases and for improved gasification, in low and medium Btu fluidized bed coal gasifier (FBG) systems, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) The pelletization method by a drum pelletizer is a good way of agglomerating large sized (>20 US mesh) ACS pellets having

H. J. Yoo; M. Steinberg

1983-01-01

255

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on continuous mild gasification for the production of co-products. Work performed during the quarter included the refractory cure of the carbonizer, and then shakedown of the carbonizer, water quench system, and char removal system. Construction continued on the tar/oil quench system. Sulfur capture tests carried out at AMAX included iron oxide sorbent scouting studies. 3 tabs.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Aulich, T.R.

1990-08-01

256

Hydrogen coproduction with gasification from heavy feeds (pitch and coke)  

SciTech Connect

The refinery of the future will be capable of converting a large portion of any crude oil to higher-value finished products while simultaneously cost-effectively managing expenses. Conversion of relatively low-valued residuals such as pitch and coke to electricity, steam and hydrogen (coproduction) will rapidly become important to these refiners as market demand for residual products declines. But under what conditions does coproduction become attractive To better understand the economics of coproduction of electricity, steam and hydrogen, Texaco and Bonner Moore used the Bonner Moore refinery modeling system, RPMS[reg sign]2000, to model a typical US Gulf Coast (USGC) refinery. The authors then added a coker and associated facilities to the model, while maintaining a fixed crude slate to investigate the addition of a Texaco Gasification Power System (TGPS) coproduction plant to convert the coke. The effects of incremental changes in coke, electricity, steam and hydrogen prices on profitability are also discussed.

Falsetti, J.S.; Wilson, R.F. (Texaco, Inc., White Plains, NY (United States)); Waquespack, K.G. (Bonner and Moore Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-01-01

257

High temperature electrochemical polishing of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification process streams. Quarterly progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Coal may be used to generate electrical energy by any of several processes, most of which involve combustion or gasification. Combustion in a coal-fired boiler and power generation using a steam-cycle is the conventional conversion method; however total energy conversion efficiencies for this type of process are only slightly over 30%. Integration of a gas-cycle in the process (combined cycle) may increase the total conversion efficiency to 40%. Conversion processes based on gasification offer efficiencies above 50% H{sub 2}S is the predominant gaseous contaminant in raw coal gas. This report describes the removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas using an electrochemical membrane.

Winnick, J.

1997-12-31

258

NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

ITN Energy Systems, along with its team members, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair, propose to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is taking a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into fabrication designs; combining functionally graded materials, monolithic module concept and plasma spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing with low costs. This program will develop and evaluate composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules will be fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, will also be assessed. This will result in a complete evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of ICCM hydrogen separation for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner.

Michael Schwartz

2003-10-01

259

Single-Stage Fluidized-Bed Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The single-stage fluidized-bed gasification process, in addition to being a simple system, maximizes gas production and allows the economic exploitation of small peat deposits. The objective of this gasification project is to conduct experiments in order ...

F. S. Lau D. M. Rue S. A. Weil D. V. Punwani

1982-01-01

260

A 50-month gasifier mechanistic study and downstream unit process development program for the pressurized ash-agglomerating fluidized-bed gasification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technology development program scope included studies of those processes and components necessary to convert coal, oxidant and steam into a clean fuel gas. The configuration of the processes and components constitutes a Gasifier Island which is a key concept in the application of the KRW gasification and cleanup technologies. This Gasifier Island typically consists of process units that perform

G. B. Haldipur; D. K. Schmidt; K. J. Smith

1989-01-01

261

Chemistry and mechanism of molten salt catalysts in coal gasification processes. Final report Dec 81Jan 84  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkali metal salts have been recognized as effective catalysts in coal gasification. The way in which these materials promote catalysis of the gasification reactions is largely unknown. Electrochemical methods, including cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry, have been applied to study the solution chemistry of salt catalysts based upon alkali carbonate sulfate and chloride mixtures equilibrated with gaseous components of coal gasification

S. H. White; U. M. Twardoch

1984-01-01

262

Exergy analysis of biomass-to-synthetic natural gas (SNG) process via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an exergy analysis of SNG production via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock, including virgin (woody) biomass as well as waste biomass (municipal solid waste and sludge). In indirect gasification heat needed for endothermic gasification reactions is produced by burning char in a separate combustion section of the gasifier and subsequently the heat is transferred to the

Caecilia R. Vitasari; Martin Jurascik; Krzysztof J. Ptasinski

2011-01-01

263

Catalyst behavior in biomass gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversion of biomass to specific products by steam gasification in the presence of catalysts is the subject of investigations conducted to determine the technical feasibility of catalytic processes for wood gasification to specific products and to evaluate the economic feasibility of the technically feasible processes. Studies focused on producing a methane rich gas and a 2:1 H2 to CO ratio

S. L. Weber; L. J. Sealock Jr.; L. K. Mudge; D. H. Mitchell; R. J. Robertus

1981-01-01

264

SCALE-UP OF THE MILENA GASIFICATION PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BIO-SNG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of Substitute Natural Gas from biomass (Bio-SNG) is an attractive option to reduce CO2 emissions and replace declining fossil natural gas reserves. The Energy research Center of the Netherlands (ECN) is working on the development of a technology to convert a wide range of fuels into Bio-SNG. The ECN Bio-SNG technology is based on indirect gasification of biomass.

Christiaan M. van der Meijden; Berend Vreugdenhil

2011-01-01

265

Study of ammonia removal in coal gasification processes, literature review: Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the combustion and gasification of coal, oxides of nitrogen (NO\\/sub x\\/) are formed from two sources: fixation of atmospheric nitrogen in high-temperature flames, and oxidation of nitrogen compounds that are part of the coal feedstock. Because US coals contain from 0.5 to 2 wt % nitrogen, the possible contribution of this source to NO\\/sub x\\/ emissions is not trivial.

G. N. Krishnan; B. J. Wood; A. Sanjurjo

1987-01-01

266

A pre-heating vaporization technology of coal-water-slurry for the gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pre-heating vaporization technology of coal water slurry, CWS, was developed to increase the efficiency of coal gasification with the reduction of oxygen consumption. A CWS pre-heating experimental unit having a capacity of 2.0 tons-coal\\/day was manufactured. After the CWS was heated to 573 K at about 10 MPa, water in CWS was continuously vaporized in a tube of which the diameter increased

Kosuke Aiuchi; Ryo Moriyama; Shohei Takeda; Shunji Kitada; Masaki Onozaki; Yukuo Katayama

2007-01-01

267

Synthesis gas production with an adjustable H{sub 2}/CO ratio through the coal gasification process: effects of coal ranks and methane addition  

SciTech Connect

Direct production of synthesis gas using coal as a cheap feedstock is attractive but challenging due to its low H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas. Three typical U.S. coals of different ranks were tested in a 2.5 in. coal gasifier to investigate their gasification reactivity and adjustability on H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas with or without the addition of methane. Tests indicated that lower-rank coals (lignite and sub-bituminous) have higher gasification reactivity than bituminous coals. The coal gasification reactivity is correlated to its synthesis-gas yield and the total percentage of H{sub 2} and CO in the synthesis gas, but not to the H{sub 2}/CO ratio. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio of coal gasification was found to be correlated to the rank of coals, especially the H/C ratio of coals. Methane addition into the dense phase of the pyrolysis and gasification zone of the cogasification reactor could make the best use of methane in adjusting the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the generated synthesis gas. The maximum methane conversion efficiency, which was likely correlated to its gasification reactivity, could be achieved by 70% on average for all tested coals. The actual catalytic effect of generated coal chars on methane conversion seemed coal-dependent. The coal-gasification process benefits from methane addition and subsequent conversion on the adjustment of the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of synthesis gas. The methane conversion process benefits from the use of coal chars due to their catalytic effects. This implies that there were likely synergistic effects on both. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3

Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jing Jin; Hongchang Zhou; Marten Cohron; Houying Zhao; Hongying Liu; Weiping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

2008-05-15

268

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification, SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation

2001-01-01

269

Gas turbine effects on integrated-gasification-combined-cycle power plant operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used detailed thermodynamic modeling procedures to assess the influence of different gas turbine characteristics and steam cycle conditions on the design and off-design performance of integrated gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants. IGCC plant simulation models for a base case plant with Texaco gasifiers and both radiant and convective syngas coolers were developed, and three different types of gas turbines

Eustis

1990-01-01

270

Environmental, health, and safety data base for the KRW coal-gasification process development unit. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report, August 1982June 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environmental, health and safety data base was developed for the KRW coal gasification process development unit (PDU) in Madison, Pennsylvania. The study was performed to expand the existing information for most stream flows and compositions for the KRW gasifier. Results were obtained from multiple coal tests conducted in 1983. Process data, along with chemical analyses, were used to prepare

R. M. Mann; G. E. Harris; W. R. Menzies; A. V. Simonson; W. A. Williams

1985-01-01

271

Environmental, health, and safety data base for the KRW coal-gasification process development unit. Volume 1. Final report, August 1982June 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environmental, health and safety data base was developed for the KRW coal gasification process development unit (PDU) in Madison, Pennsylvania. The study was performed to expand the existing information for most stream flows and compositions for the KRW gasifier. Results were obtained from multiple coal tests conducted in 1983. Process data, along with chemical analyses, were used to prepare

R. M. Mann; G. E. Harris; W. R. Menzies; A. V. Simonson; W. A. Williams

1985-01-01

272

Techno-economic assessment of gasification as a process step within biomass-to-liquid (BtL) fuel and chemicals production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the gasification process step which converts a biomass derived intermediate called slurry into synthesis gas (syngas) for subsequent synthesis of fuel and chemicals. The slurry is produced by fast pyrolysis plants and is then processed in a pressurized entrained flow gasifier. The resulting syngas has to be conditioned and cleaned before it is converted in a Fischer–Tropsch

Frederik Trippe; Magnus Fröhling; Frank Schultmann; Ralph Stahl; Edmund Henrich

2011-01-01

273

Assessment of sulfur removal processes for advanced fuel cell systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance characteristics of potential sulfur removal processes were evaluated and four of these processes, the Selexol process, the Benfield process, the Sulfinol process, and the Rectisol process, were selected for detailed technical and economic comparison. The process designs were based on a consistent set of technical criteria for a grass roots facility with a capacity of 10,000 tons per day of Illinois No. 6 coal. Two raw gas compositions, based on oxygen blown and air blown Texaco gasification, were used. The bulk of the sulfur was removed in the sulfur removal unit, leaving a small amount of sulfur compounds in the gas. The remaining sulfur compounds were removed by reaction with zinc oxide in the sulfur polishing unit. The impact of COS hydrolysis pretreatment on sulfur removal was evaluated. Comprehensive capital and O and M cost estimates for each of the process schemes were developed.

Lorton, G. A.

1980-01-01

274

Two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process for solid waste valorisation: Technical review and preliminary thermodynamic modelling of sulphur emissions  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate sulphur during MSW gasification within a fluid bed-plasma process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We review the literature on the feed, sulphur and process principles therein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The need for research in this area was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We perform thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial findings indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur. - Abstract: Gasification of solid waste for energy has significant potential given an abundant feed supply and strong policy drivers. Nonetheless, significant ambiguities in the knowledge base are apparent. Consequently this study investigates sulphur mechanisms within a novel two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process. This paper includes a detailed review of gasification and plasma fundamentals in relation to the specific process, along with insight on MSW based feedstock properties and sulphur pollutant therein. As a first step to understanding sulphur partitioning and speciation within the process, thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage has been performed. Preliminary findings, supported by plant experience, indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur species (as opposed to H{sub 2}S) - Na and K based species in particular. Work is underway to further investigate and validate this.

Morrin, Shane, E-mail: shane.morrin@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Advanced Plasma Power, South Marston Business park, Swindon, SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Lettieri, Paola, E-mail: p.lettieri@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Chapman, Chris, E-mail: chris.chapman@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, South Marston Business park, Swindon, SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Mazzei, Luca, E-mail: l.mazzei@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

2012-04-15

275

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

Polk Power and ChevronTexaco have signed the cooperative agreement at the end of reporting period. ChevronTexaco is shipping the pyrometer system to Tampa, Florida. Polk Power will start the modification fieldwork and installation of the system. The testing will start when the next opportunity is available.

Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

2003-10-01

276

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, July--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

It is important that a mild gasification reactor interface easily with the subsequent product upgrading steps in which the market value of the products is enhanced. Upgrading and marketing of the char are critical to the overall economics of a mild gasification plant because char is the major product (65 to 75% of the coal feedstock). In the past, the char product was sold as a ``smokeless`` fuel, but in today`s competitive markets the best price for char as a fuel for steam generation would be that of the parent coal. Substantially higher prices could be obtained for char upgraded into products such as metallurgical coke, graphite, carbon electrode feedstock or a slurry fuel replacement for No. 6 fuel oil. In this effort, upgrading techniques are being developed to address these premium markets. Liquid products can similarly be upgraded to high market value products such as high-density fuel, chemicals, binders for form coke, and also gasoline and diesel blending stocks. About half of the non-condensable fuel gases produced by the gasification process will be required to operate the process; the unused portion could be upgraded into value-added products or used as fuel either internally or in ``across the fence`` sales. The primary objective of this project is to develop an advanced continuous mild gasification process and product upgrading processes which will be capable of eventual commercialization.

O`Neal, G.W.

1993-12-01

277

Design considerations and systematic operation of an underground coal gasification process. [126 Btu\\/scf (4695 kJ\\/m³)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) process could roughly quadruple the 450 billion tons of US coal reserves which are presently recoverable by mining. An UCG field test in a swelling bituminous coal was successfully completed near Pricetown, West Virginia. Instrumentation and a sample handling system designed for real time analysis and control worked well in capturing all the data

A. K. Agarwal; R. E. Zielinski

1983-01-01

278

A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation.The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to

D. R. McIlveen-Wright; F. Pinto; L. Armesto; M. A. Caballero; M. P. Aznar; A. Cabanillas; Y. Huang; C. Franco; I. Gulyurtlu; J. T. McMullan

2006-01-01

279

Process screening study of alternative gas treating and sulfur removal systems for IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power plant applications: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the inherent advantages of the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant (IGCC) over other coal-based electric generation technologies is that the sulfur in the coal is converted into a form which can be removed and recovered. Extremely low sulfur oxide emissions can result. Gas treating and sulfur recovery processes for the control of sulfur emissions are an integral part

F. E. Biasca; N. Korens; B. L. Schulman; D. R. Simbeck

1987-01-01

280

Coal gasification 2006: roadmap to commercialization  

SciTech Connect

Surging oil and gas prices, combined with supply security and environmental concerns, are prompting power generators and industrial firms to further develop coal gasification technologies. Coal gasification, the process of breaking down coal into its constituent chemical components prior to combustion, will permit the US to more effectively utilize its enormous, low cost coal reserves. The process facilitates lower environmental impact power generation and is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to traditional generation techniques. The study is designed to inform the reader as to this rapidly evolving technology, its market penetration prospects and likely development. Contents include: Clear explanations of different coal gasification technologies; Emissions and efficiency comparisons with other fuels and technologies; Examples of US and global gasification projects - successes and failures; Commercial development and forecast data; Gasification projects by syngas output; Recommendations for greater market penetration and commercialization; Current and projected gasification technology market shares; and Recent developments including proposals for underground gasification process. 1 app.

NONE

2006-05-15

281

Combination air-blown and oxygen-blown underground coal gasification process  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of underground coal gasification in a coal seam between linked injection and production wells comprising igniting coal located between the wells, injecting steam and oxygen into the coal seam through the injection well to maintain combustion between the wells thereby producing a medium-Btu gas. The Btu content of the gas is gradually decreased, switching to air injection into the coal seam through the injection well when the Btu content has reached a predetermined point thereby continuing combustion with the production of a low-Btu content gas suitable for consumption at facilities located on the surface in the vicinity of the seam for the production of utilities required at the seam.

Puri, R.; Arri, L.E.; Gash, W.

1987-05-05

282

Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Progress report, November 21, 1992--February 20, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300{degree}F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The 1 ton/hr PDU facility that is to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of gases, coal liquids, and char; a thermal cracker for upgrading of the coal liquids; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid products; and coal feeding and char handling equipment. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Foster, H.

1993-03-01

283

Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Quarterly report, February--May, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-ton/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1,300 F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. This quarter, the permit to construct was obtained from the state of Illinois EPA. A meeting was held at IGT on February 23, 1994 between IGT and Bechtel to discuss the revisions to the flowsheet and the new timetable for obtaining the revised bids. Bechtel Corp. was reactivated and flowsheet, reactor design details, and heat and material balances were revised. Bechtel Corp. prepared revised PFDs, PIDs, process specifications, and the data sheets for the gasifier for resubmittal to the bidders. The revised bid sheets were submitted to the bidders and the new bids have been received and are being analyzed.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

1994-08-01

284

Assessment of hydrogen and electricity co-production schemes based on gasification process with carbon capture and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through gasification, a solid feedstock is partially oxidized with oxygen and steam to produce syngas which can be used for conversion into different valuable compounds (e.g. hydrogen) or to generate power in a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT). Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is one of power generation technologies having the highest potential for carbon capture with low penalties in

Calin-Cristian Cormos

2009-01-01

285

Comparison of Shell, Texaco, BGL and KRW gasifiers as part of IGCC plant computer simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performances of four IGCC plants employing Shell, Texaco, BGL and KRW gasifiers were simulated using ASPEN Plus software for three different feeds. Performance analyses and comparisons of all four IGCC plants were performed based on the established data bank from the simulation. Discussions were focused on gas compositions, gasifier selection and overall performance.

Ligang Zheng; Edward Furinsky

2005-01-01

286

High temperature electrochemical polishing of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification process streams. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Coal may be used to generate electrical energy by any of several processes, most of which involve combustion or gasification. Combustion in a coal-fired boiler and power generation using a steam-cycle is the conventional conversion method; however total energy conversion efficiencies for this type of process are only slightly over 30%. Integration of a gas-cycle in the process (combined cycle) may increase the total conversion efficiency to 40%. Conversion processes based on gasification offer efficiencies above 50%. H{sub 2}S is the predominant gaseous contaminant in raw coal gas. This process is concerned with the removal of H{sub 2} from coal gas through an electrochemical membrane technology.

Winnick, J.

1996-03-01

287

Catalyst behavior in biomass gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conversion of biomass to specific products by steam gasification in the presence of catalysts is the subject of investigations conducted to determine the technical feasibility of catalytic processes for wood gasification to specific products and to evaluate the economic feasibility of the technically feasible processes. Studies focused on producing a methane rich gas and a 2:1 H2 to CO ratio synthesis gas suitable for hydrocarbon or methanol production via conventional methods. Specific catalysts employed and their behavior for each gasification scheme are discussed.

Weber, S. L.; Sealock, L. J., Jr.; Mudge, L. K.; Mitchell, D. H.; Robertus, R. J.

1981-12-01

288

Variable capacity gasification burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variable capacity burner that may be used in gasification processes, the burner being adjustable when operating in its intended operating environment to operate at two different flow capacities, with the adjustable parts being dynamically sealed within a statically sealed structural arrangement to prevent dangerous blow-outs of the reactants to the atmosphere.

Saxon

1985-01-01

289

Integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant at Sears Island, Maine: feasibility study. Final report. Volume I. [Sears Island, Maine  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a feasibility study to evaluate the use of medium Btu synthesis gas, produced from high-sulfur coal, in an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, as an alternative to a conventional pulverized coal plant with flue gas scrubbers presently planned for the Sears Island, Maine site of Central Maine Power Company. The process configuration is based on the oxygen-blown Texaco Coal Gasification Process and a General Electric Combined Cycle power plant. The plant design includes a 5000 ton per day oxygen plant, four 1200 tons per day gasification trains plus one spare to reduce risk, four gas turbine-generators with heat recovery steam generators, and a reheat steam turbine generator. Plant output at ISO (59/sup 0/F) conditions is 524 MW net. The report includes preliminary design and arrangement drawings, a detailed plant description, detailed cost information, performance data, schedules, and an extensive evaluation of technical, economic, and environmental results. The results of the study indicate that the IGCC power plant is still a rapidly evolving technology. Before Central Maine Power Company can commit to construction of such a plant, several issues raised in the study need to be addressed. These issues deal with refinements in cycle performance, demonstration of various major components, and construction schedule, among others. The IGCC Plant does have less environmental impact than a comparably sized conventional coal plant, while using a high sulfur, high ash, less expensive coal. The life-of-plant levelized busbar cost for the IGCC Plant is estimated to be 5% lower than for the conventional coal-fired plant, although the initial capital cost is approximately 60% higher. Other cycle designs were identified which have the potential for improving plant economics.

Not Available

1983-03-30

290

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operaated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are being developed for integrated gasification power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but test data from direct coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This effort evaluates the significance of performance losses associated with exposure to direct coal syngas. Specimen are operated in a unique mobile test skid that is deployed to the research gasifier at NCCC in Wilsonville, AL. The test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas to a parallel array of twelve SOFCs. During the 500 h test period, all twelve cells are monitored for performance at four current densities. Degradation is attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that is accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that are operated at 0 and 125 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 h, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 h, respectively. Spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

Hackett, G.; Gerdes, K.; Song, X.; Chen, Y.; Shutthanandan, V.; Englehard, M.; Zhu, Z.; Thevuthasan, S.; Gemmen, R.

2012-01-01

291

Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

2011-05-01

292

Assessment of the CRIP (Controlled Retracting Injection Point) process for underground coal gasification: The Rocky Mountain I test  

SciTech Connect

Results of the recently completed Rocky Mountain I (RMI) underground coal gasification (UCG) field test have shown that the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) process for UCG is capable of producing consistently high quality gas from a single injection well for an extended period of time. The RMI CRIP module was in operation for 93 days and gasified over 10,000 tonnes (11,023 tons) of coal, with an average dry product heating value of 253 kJ/mol (287 Btu/scf). The CRIP process, which utilizes a horizontally drilled injection borehole, has the advantage over vertical well process techniques in that it maintains oxidant injection low in the coal seam for optimal resource recovery, and provides a method for reignition of the coal in a different location when gas quality declines as the maturing reactor begins to interact with inert overburden. This report discusses the results of the RMI CRIP module, compares its performance with the simultaneously operated Extended Linked Well (ELW) module, and explains the behavior of the CRIP reactors with the aid of a model developed for describing UCG reactor dynamics for cases in which oxidant injection remains low in the coal. It is shown that both in terms of fundamental understanding and practical application, the CRIP process for UCG in subbituminous and lower ranking coals has reached a level where the remaining technical uncertainties and risk to commercial development have been largely reduced. 6 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Cena, R.J.; Thorsness, C.B.; Britten, J.A.

1988-08-01

293

High temperature electrochemical separation of HâS from coal gasification process streams. Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1992March 31, 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane is being developed. HâS is removed from the syn-gas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the syn-gas, and sulfur, which can be condensed from an inert gas sweep stream. The process allows removal of HâS without cooling the gas stream and with

Winnick

1992-01-01

294

High temperature electrochemical separation of HâS from coal gasification process streams. Quarterly progress report, April 1, 1992June 30, 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane is being developed using the funds from this grant. HâS is removed from the syn-gas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the syn-gas, and sulfur, which can be condensed from an inert gas sweep stream. The process allows removal of HâS without

Winnick

1992-01-01

295

Gasification technology data base  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the background, philosophy, functions served, evolution process, specific results, and current status of the gasification technology data base activity at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). METC has lead reponsibility for coal gasification within the US Department of Energy. This responsibility includes the identification, planning, and execution of coal gasification activities which offer potentially high pay-offs for the National energy future. A well-organized and quantified descriptions of the state of the art (SOA) is a valuable reference tool in carrying out this obligation. The Gasification Technology Data Base (GTDB) will serve as a reference tool and mechanism by which lessons learned during the course of research and development can be captured. The GTDB activity was a significant extension of previous data base activities at METC. It was initiated by the realization that the Alternative Fuels legislation (Public Law 96-126) had created a unique window of technical opportunity; specifically, approximately 20 unusually credible design studies for coal gasification based commercial plants were being performed, and there was a likelihood that some of them would evolve into actual plants. Consequently, a significant fraction of corporate wisdom was being documented in coal gasification studies that could serve as an extraordinarily good input source for the GTDB. The basic objective of the GTDB was to intergrate the results of the various studies and the related METC work to define the SOA. Simultaneously, it was expected to provide a highly workable reference that would facilitate analyses to perform cross comparisons, to quantify the potential value of new approaches, to identify technology gaps, et cetera. In short, with proper integration, the value of the whole could readily exceed the sum of its parts. 5 figures, 8 tables.

Not Available

1983-12-01

296

Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants  

SciTech Connect

Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

2008-12-15

297

Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Quarterly report, November 1993--February 1994  

SciTech Connect

The work performed during the ninth quarterly reporting period (November 21, 1993 through February 20, 1994) is presented in this report. The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mid-Gasification MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The project team that is performing the initial phases of the PDU development are: Kerr-McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal), the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel), and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The 1 ton/hr PDU facility that is to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of gases, coal liquids, and char; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid products; and coal feeding and char handling equipment. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste. A Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) was obtained on our NEPA submittal on February 10, 1994, allowing us to proceed with the project. The permitting documentation for the authority to construct was submitted to the Illinois EPA this quarter. Work to finalize the process design and obtain updated bids on the PDU was begun after the FONSI was obtained.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

1994-05-01

298

Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Quarterly report, February--May 1993  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS Process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300 F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The 1 ton/hr PDU facility that is to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of gases, coal liquids, and char; a thermal cracker for upgrading of the coal liquids; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid products; and coal feeding and char handling equipment. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste. This quarter the authors continued to assist DOE in the preparation of the Environmental Assessment documentation for the NEPA application. Also this quarter, they obtain permission from DOE to pursue the permitting needed to construct the PDU and they have started the preparation of the application document for the Illinois EPA Air Emissions permit.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

1994-03-01

299

Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Quarterly report, February 1994--May 1994  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: (1) design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup; (2) obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; (3) prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; (4) develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the NMDGAS process. The project team that is performing the initial phases of the PDU development are: Kerr-McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal), the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel), and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300{degrees}F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The 1 ton/hr PDU facility that is to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of gases, coal liquids, and char; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid products; and coal feeding and char handling equipment. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste. This quarter, the bids from Bateman Engineering and Kilborn Engineering were analyzed and Kilborn appeared to be the successful bidder. Negotiations with Kilborn Engineering to finalize the exact scope and cost of their bid were undertaken but Kilborn is unwilling to assume the standard flowdown liability clause. Because of this impasse, alternatives to Kilborn are being explored.

Doane, E.P.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

1994-11-01

300

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

SciTech Connect

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002.

Unknown

2003-01-01

301

Advanced hybrid gasification facility  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this procurement is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology for electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas{trademark} staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may react with aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their concentration in the hot raw coal gas passing through the system to the gas turbine. This paper describes a novel, staged, airblown, fixed-bed gasifier designed to solve both through the incorporation of pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification. It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration which occurs in a fixed-bed process when coal is gradually heated through the 400{degrees}F to 900{degrees}F range. In a pyrolyzer, the coal is rapidly heated such that coal tar is immediately vaporized. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can be chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NOx from fuel home nitrogen, moisture is minimized to control ammonia generation, and HCN in the upper gasifier region is partially oxidized to NO which reacts with NH3/HCN to form N2.

Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H. [CRS Sirrine, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States); Dixit, V.B. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States). Riley Research Center

1993-08-01

302

Prediction and Measurement of Entrained Flow Coal Gasification Processes. Interim Report, September 8, 1981-September 7, 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume reports interim experimental and theoretical results of the first two years of a three year study of entrained coal gasification with steam and oxygen. The gasifier facility and testing methods were revised and improved. The gasifier was also ...

P. O. Hedman L. D. Smoot T. H. Fletcher P. J. Smith A. U. Blackham

1984-01-01

303

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930{degree} and 1470{degree}F (500{degree}and 800{degree}C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a ``coal refinery`` system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R&D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

1992-11-01

304

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930[degree] and 1470[degree]F (500[degree]and 800[degree]C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a coal refinery'' system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

1992-11-01

305

Control technology assessment for coal gasification and liquefaction processes, C. F. Braun and Co. , Alhambra, California. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A control technology assessment for the design of synthetic fuel facilities was conducted at C.F. Braun and Company (SIC-1211), Alhambra, California, on September 17, 1981. The company was cognizant of the potentially hazardous components of the coal conversion process. Little or no planning to incorporate controls for occupational health had been done. The process was designed first, then modified to meet existing regulations. Facilities were designed to meet construction and safety standards but had not incorporated health aspects because of a lack of standards regulating worker exposures. The company addressed health related issues at a later stage in the development of the overall gasification system. The author concludes that architectural and engineering firms do not include equipment for occupational health during the conceptual design of facilities for economic reasons. Coal conversion units are designed to meet existing or proposed exposure standards, but have no way of determining synergistic effects of products. Design firms should include existing occupational health standards early in the design phase. Retro-fitting equipment is costly and not necessarily the best means for reducing workplace exposures. Workplace exposure standards for chemicals produced at coal conversion facilities must be determined.

Telesca, D.R.

1982-04-01

306

Engineering-support services for the DOE/GRI (Department of Energy/Gas Research Institute) coal-gasification research program. Topical report: evaluation of the CNG acid gas-removal process. Volume 1. Report for January-May 1986  

SciTech Connect

As part of the technical support services for the DOE/GRI Joint Coal Gasification Research Program, Foster Wheeler conducted an evaluation of the low-temperature acid-gas removal process under development by CNG Research Company. Conceptual designs and cost estimates were developed for commercial-scale acid-gas removal process units based on the CNG technology. Volume 1 of the report summarizes the case study in which the CNG process is applied to treating a raw syngas stream derived from Lurgi fixed-bed gasification of lignite. Two other case studies of the CNG process considered treatment of raw syngas from ash-algommerating fluidized-bed gasification of Wyodak subbituminous coal before conventional methanation and treatment of raw syngas from ash-aglommerating fluidized-bed gasification of Wyodak subbituminous coal after Direct Methanation.

Fu, R.K.; Zahnstecher, L.W.

1986-12-01

307

Engineering-support services for the DOE/GRI (Department of Energy/Gas Research Institute) Coal-Gasification Research Program. Topical report: evaluation of the CNG acid gas removal process. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

As part of the technical-support services for the DOE/GRI Joint Coal-Gasification Research Program, Foster Wheeler conducted an evaluation of the low-temperature acid-gas-removal process under development by CNG Research Company. Conceptual designs and cost estimates were developed for commercial-scale acid-gas-removal process units based on the CNG technology. Volume II of the report summarizes the case study in which the CNG process is applied to treating a raw syngas stream derived from ash-agglomerating fluidized-bed gasification of Wyodak subbituminous coal. Two other case studies of the CNG process, considered treatment of raw syngas from Lurgi fixed-bed gasification of lignite after direct methanation and raw syngas from ash-agglomerating fluidized-bed gasification of Wyodak subbituminous coal after direct methanation. These case studies were summarized in Volumes I and III of the report, respectively.

Fu, R.K.; Zahnstecher, L.W.

1986-12-01

308

High temperature electrochemical separation of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification process streams. Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane is being developed. H{sub 2}S is removed from the syn-gas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the syn-gas, and sulfur, which can be condensed from an inert gas sweep stream. The process allows removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream and with negligible pressure loss through the separator. The process is economically attractive by the lack of adsorbents and the lack of a Claus process for sulfur recovery. Research conducted during the present quarter is highlighted, with an emphasis on progress towards the goal of an economically viable H{sub 2}S removal technology for use in coal gasification facilities providing polished fuel for co-generation coal fired electrical power facilities and Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell electrical power facilities. Polishing application of this technology to coal gasification synthesis gas has been demonstrated with H{sub 2}S removals as high as 89.1% recorded. No successful runs with stainless steel housings have yet been achieved. However, since stoichiometric CO{sub 2} removal with stainless steel housings has been achieved, H{sub 2}S removal is achievable.

Winnick, J.

1992-08-01

309

Industrywide Studies Report of an In-Depth Industrial Hygiene Survey of the Texaco Chemical Company, Port Neches, Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental and breathing zone samples were analyzed for 1,3-butadiene (106990) at the Texaco Chemical Company (SIC-2869), Port Neches, Texas in April, 1985. Company industrial hygiene monitoring data was reviewed. Engineering controls and work practice...

D. Roberts J. M. Fajen L. J. Ungers

1986-01-01

310

Sulfur recovery in a coal gasification plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the most economical combination of processes for removing sulfur compounds from a coal gasification plant's gasifier raw gas and boiler flue gas, C. F. Braun and Co. examined alternatives for a 250 million cu ft\\/day plant using the Bituminous Coal Research Inc. Bi-Gas gasification process. For a western coal feed, the combination of a nonselective Selexol process for

W. S. Chia; F. A. Todd; W. J. Stupin

1978-01-01

311

Combustion engineering two-stage, atmospheric-pressure, entrained-flow coal-gasification process-development-unit program. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program was conducted to design, construct and operate a two-stage, atmospheric-pressure, entrained-flow, low-Btu coal-gasification process-development unit (PDU) having a capacity of 5 tons\\/h of coal. The program was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Combustion Engineering, Inc. The objectives of the program were: (1) to demonstrate the capability and suitability of

S. L. Darling; R. W. Koucky; M. C. Tanca

1983-01-01

312

Combustion Engineering two-stage, atmospheric-pressure, entrained-flow coal-gasification-process development-unit program. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program was conducted to design, construct and operate a two-stage, atmospheric-pressure, entrained-flow, low-Btu coal-gasification-process development unit (PDU) having a capacity of 5 tons\\/h of coal. The program was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Combustion Engineering, Inc. The objectives of the program were: (1) to demonstrate the capability and suitability of

S. L. Darling; R. W. Koucky; M. C. Tanca

1983-01-01

313

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 4.7), Volume 3. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this task is the preparation of (1) preliminary piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs) and single line electrical diagrams for a site-specific conceptual design and (2) a factored cost estimate for a 24 ton/day (tpd) capacity mild gasification process development unit (PDU) and an associated form coke preparation PDU. The intended site for this facility is the Illinois Coal Development Park at Carterville, Illinois, which is operated by Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. (VC)

Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1991-09-01

314

Design considerations and systematic operation of an underground coal gasification process. [126 Btu/scf (4695 kJ/m/sup 3/)  

SciTech Connect

A commercial Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) process could roughly quadruple the 450 billion tons of US coal reserves which are presently recoverable by mining. An UCG field test in a swelling bituminous coal was successfully completed near Pricetown, West Virginia. Instrumentation and a sample handling system designed for real time analysis and control worked well in capturing all the data to accurately analyze the process in spite of the wide variations in the process conditions and product composition. Approximately 702 tons of coal was affected during the test. During the gasification phase, a gas with an average heating valuw of 126 Btu/scf (4695 kJ/m/sup 3/) was produced with only air injection, which resulted in an average energy production of 362 MMBtu/day (382 GJ/d). The percent energy recovery for the gasification phase was 72%. The data obtained from this test have been used to design an effective program that can lead to a commercial demonstration and subsequently, commercial acceptance of this technology for bituminous coals by the early 1990's. 10 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

Agarwal, A.K.; Zielinski, R.E.

1983-01-01

315

Development of an advanced, continuous mild-gasification process for the production of coproducts. Report for Task 4.8, Decontamination and disassembly of the mild-gasification and char-to-carbon PRUs and disposal of products from testing  

SciTech Connect

This report contains descriptions of mild-gasification and char-to-carbon process research units (PRUS) used by WRI and AMAX R&D Center to conduct tests under contract AC21-87MC24268. Descriptions of materials produced during those tests are also contained herein. Western Research Institute proposes to dispose of remaining fines and dried coal by combustion and remaining coal liquids by incineration during mid-1992. The mild-gasification PRU will be used for additional tests until 1993, at which time WRI proposes to decontaminate and disassemble the PRU. AMAX R&D Center intends to return the spent char, any remaining feed char, and unusable product carbon to the Eagle Butte Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, from where the coal originally came. The solid products will be added to the mine`s coal product stream. Coal liquids collected from condensers will be concentrated and sent to a local oil and solvent recycling company where the liquids will be burned as fuel. The char-to-carbon PRU will be operated periodically until 1993 when the plant will be decontaminated and disassembled.

Merriam, N.W. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Jha, Mahesh C. [AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States)

1991-11-01

316

Low Btu Coal Gasification Processes. Vol. 1. Summary, Screening, and Comparisons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey was made of 102 reported processes that produce low and intermediate Btu gas from coal. Volume 1 contains the summary, screening, and comparison material resulting from the survey. Concise summaries are provided for 47 processes and include statu...

D. E. Reagan H. F. Hartman J. P. Belk

1978-01-01

317

Evaluation of Advanced Gas Processing Concepts for Fluidized Bed Gasification. Topical Report November 1985-December 1987,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

First-pass plant designs and cost estimates were prepared to evaluate the CNG H2S removal process, the CNG CO2 removal process, and GRI's direct methanation process in the context of plants that convert western coal to 125 MMM Btu day of pipeline gas usin...

H. S. Tu P. F. Mako P. S. Wong R. H. Ravikumar S. C. Smelser

1989-01-01

318

Char Consumption in the Underground Gasification of Eastern Bituminous Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of small-scale laboratory gasification experiments has been conducted to better understand the gasification process of Eastern bituminous coal constrained in an axisymmetric borehole geometry. It is clear that conditions and char consumption rate...

R. D. Skocypec D. W. Cook B. P. Engler

1986-01-01

319

Research needs for coal gasification and coal liquefaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of coal-gasification and coal-liquefaction technologies is discussed. Consideration is given to applications of coal-gasification technologies, the principal coal-gasification systems, and process-research recommendations. Processing steps in direct and indirect coal liquefaction are outlined, with emphasis placed on past, current, and projected unit sizes of direct coal-liquefaction plants.

Penner, S. S.; Alpert, S. B.; Bendanillo, V.; Clardy, J.; Furlong, L. E.; Leder, F.; Lees, L.; Reichl, E.; Ross, J.; Sieg, R. P.

1980-11-01

320

Large block experiments in underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of in-situ coal gasification, while extremely simple in concept, is complicated in practice because, as the burn proceeds, the reacting volume is constantly changing geometry. In addition, the process takes place underground where it is extremely difficult to observe in detail. The five large block experiments described here were planned as a series of gasification experiments each of

R. W. Mill; C. B. Thorsness

1983-01-01

321

Large block experiments in underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of in-situ coal gasification, while extremely simple in concept, is complicated in practice because, as the burn proceeds, the reacting volume is constantly changing geometry. In addition, the process takes place underground where it is extremely difficult to observe in detail. The five large block experiments described here were planned as a series of gasification experiments, each of

R. W. Hill; C. B. Thorsness

1983-01-01

322

Investigation of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air/steam and oxygen/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal. Numerical simulation showed that the plasma oxygen/steam gasification of coal is a more preferable process in comparison with the plasma air/steam coal gasification. On the numerical experiments, a plasma vortex fuel reformer is designed.

Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (United States)

2009-04-15

323

GRI highlights underground gasification effort  

SciTech Connect

A consortium headed by the Gas Research Institute is supporting major underground coal gasification tests to take place over the next two years at a site near Hanna, Wyoming. About 200 tons of coal will be gasified per day. Directional drilling will be used to form the horizontal gasification pathways linking the injection and production wells. The objectives of the program include a further evaluation of the controlled-retracting-injection-point technology. The technology involves the use of a device that is capable of igniting successive coal zones as it is retracted through a borehole in the coal seam. Comparable data will also be obtained during the test in sections where a linked-vertical-well concept will be used instead of the retracting-injection method. The linked-vertical-well concept, which has been used in most coal gasification tests, involves drilling a series of vertical wells into the coal seam gasification pathway for the ignition of successive coal zones. A parallel program will be conducted to evaluate environmental control technology applicable to underground coal gasification and to define the process requirements that must be satisfied to meet environmental quality standards. The results of these combined programs will provide the process and environmental data bases necessary to assess the economic potential of underground coal gasification from various US locations for a variety of end-product applications.

Not Available

1987-03-01

324

Coal-gasification support studies. Volume III, Task 3. Studies to improve the processing techniques of product and waste streams in coal-gasification processes. Final report, November 19, 1981-August 15, 1982  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes research conducted on several prospective gas- and effluent-handling systems for future coal-gasification plants. Included in the report are results on the resistance of a cobalt-molybdenum water-gas shift catalyst to hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and hydrogen chloride (HC1), which are found in raw fuel gases. HCN was found to have no measurable effect on the catalyst; HCl was found to cause irreversible poisoning. Also presented are data on the vapor-liquid equilibrium behavior of synthesis gas-benzene mixtures and of synthesis gas-water mixtures, including a few ammonia-carbon dioxide-water mixturs that are useful for quench system design. Studies that used a novel, air-regenerable sorbent to remove sulfur compounds from coal-drived fuel gases at elevated temperatures are discussed. In addition, this report discusses exploratory studies that were made on the catalytic properties of silica-supported Group IIA metal oxides toward the hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and HCN. The results suggest that magnesium- and strontium-based catalysts might be competitive with commercial COS hydrolysis catalysts. The ammonia decomposition activities of several materials at temperatures between 1000/sup 0/ and 1200/sup 0/F in the presence of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) were examined. Although previous studies conducted at 1400/sup 0/F indicated good catalytic activity, these studies at the lower temperatures indicated that H/sub 2/S has an inhibitory effect on ammonia decomposition. Finally, experimental studies were made on the separation characteristics of several commercial microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis membrane systems as applied to raw process condensates. The results suggest that membrane separation is a viable option when used in combination with other conventional treatment techniques and that it may offer significant economic benefits. 68 figures, 59 tables.

Not Available

1983-06-01

325

Catalyzed Steam Gasification of Biomass. Phase III. Biomass Process Development Unit (PDU) Construction and Initial Operation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and construction of the process development unit (PDU) are described in detail, examining each system and component in order. The following are covered: siting, the chip handling system, the reactor feed system, the reactor, the screw conveyor,...

J. J. Healey R. H. Hooverman

1981-01-01

326

Environmental and economic analysis of methanol production process via biomass gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have researched and simulated the BTL (biomass to liquid process) in which woody biomass is converted to transportation liquid fuels. In the present study, methanol (MeOH) was considered as a liquid fuel. The BTL-MeOH was designed and the environmental and economic analysis of the process was performed from the viewpoint of CO2 emission and capital and operating costs. A

Kazuhiro Kumabe; Shinji Fujimoto; Takashi Yanagida; Mamoru Ogata; Tetsuhisa Fukuda; Akira Yabe; Tomoaki Minowa

2008-01-01

327

2007 gasification technologies conference papers  

SciTech Connect

Sessions covered: gasification industry roundtable; the gasification market in China; gasification for power generation; the gasification challenge: carbon capture and use storage; industrial and polygeneration applications; gasification advantage in refinery applications; addressing plant performance; reliability and availability; gasification's contribution to supplementing gaseous and liquid fuels supplies; biomass gasification for fuel and power markets; and advances in technology-research and development

NONE

2007-07-01

328

Underground coal gasification review  

SciTech Connect

Underground coal gasification appears to be one of the most attractive sources of feedstock to produce synfuels from coal because the process can produce methanol and substitute natural gas at prices competitive with existing energy sources. Savings in the form of reduced oil and gas imports from the first year of commercial operations would pay for the entire R and D budget necessary to perfect the underground coal gasification process. The technical feasibility of underground coal gasification has been well established by 21 small scale field tests carried out in the US since 1973. Cost estimates based on the resultant data are encouraging. Methanol is estimated to cost $0.52/gal (without tax) and SNG is estimated to cost $5.19/10/sup 6/ Btu, all in 1982 dollars. The environmental effects associated with the technology appear to be acceptable. Successful commercialization of the process would probably triple the proven reserves of US coal, which would be sufficient to last for hundreds of years. At this stage of development, underground coal gasification is a high risk technology and will remain so until large scale field tests are successfully carried out. These tests are recommended by the Gas Research Institute and by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. A seven year program costing about $200 million would permit initial commercial production in ten years. A recent small scale field test, the Centralia Partial Seam CRIP test, was very successful. Steam and oxygen was employed to gasify 2000 tons of coal over a 30 day period, producing 250 Btu/scf gas. A larger scale test is presently being planned for Centralia, Washington, involving the US DOE and an industrial consortium led by the Gas Research Institute. 28 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Stephens, D.R.; Hill, R.W.; Borg, I.Y.

1985-01-01

329

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Phase 2, Process optimization: Volume 2, Study of zinc titanate desulfurization sorbents  

SciTech Connect

The Research Triangle Institute performed four high-temperature desulfurization tests of zinc titanate sorbents for Texaco, Inc. Two zinc titanate sorbents (L-3196 and L-3014) were tested in fixed-bed mode with simulated oxygen-blown (medium Btu) and air-blown (low Btu) Texaco gas. The zinc titanate sorbents were manufactured as 3/16-in. cylindrical extrudates by United Catalysts, Inc. Tests were performed in a high-temperature, high-pressure, fixed-bed sorbent test unit originally constructed and used on Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-AC21-86MC23126, DOE Office of Fossil Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The test unit is described in detail in the December 1988 final report for this contract. Of the four tests conducted, two tests were conducted for the L-3014 sorbent and two tests were conducted for the L-3196 sorbent. The main difference between the two sorbents was their zinc to titanium molar ratio (0.8 for L-3014, 1.5 for L-3196). Properties of these sorbents are described in detail in the Final Report for DOE Contract No. DE-AC2l-86MC23126. Two tests were conducted for each sorbent; one test was conducted with simulated Texaco air-blown gasifier gas and one test was conducted with simulated Texaco oxygen-blown gasifier gas. Each test consisted of five cycles. Each cycle was composed of reductive regeneration, sulfidation, and oxidative regeneration steps. After the fifth sulfidation and after the fifth oxidative regeneration of each test, samples were collected and sent to Texaco. In the following sections, the test procedures are briefly described followed by details of the important results.

Harkins, S.M.; Folsom, G.G.; Gangwal, S.K.

1991-09-01

330

Catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Phase 3: Biomass Process Development Unit (PDU) construction and initial operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and construction of the process development unit (PDU) are described in detail, examining each system and component in order. Siting, the chip handling system, the reactor feed system, the reactor, the screw conveyor, the ash dump system, the PDU support equipment, control and information management, and shakedown runs are described.

Healey, J. J.; Hooverman, R. H.

1981-12-01

331

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process). Seventh quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

In order for the coal biogasification process to be economically feasible, an inexpensive nutrient amendment must be found to replace the Difco{trademark} yeast extract and tryptic soy broth (YE/TSB) used in the current medium formulation. Five products have been identified which support greater methane production from Texas lignite than YE/TSB.

Not Available

1992-04-30

332

Catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Phase III. Biomass process development unit (PDU) construction and initial operation  

SciTech Connect

The design and construction of the process development unit (PDU) are described in detail, examining each system and component in order. The following are covered: siting, the chip handling system, the reactor feed system, the reactor, the screw conveyor, the ash dump system, the PDU support equipment, control and information management, and shakedown runs. (MHR)

Healey, J.J.; Hooverman, R.H.

1981-12-01

333

Low temperature steam-coal gasification catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Shrinking domestic supplies and larger dependence on foreign sources have made an assortment of fossil fuels attractive as possible energy sources. The high sulfur and mineral coals of Illinois would be an ideal candidate as possible gasification feedstock. Large reserves of coal as fossil fuel source and a projected shortage of natural gas (methane) in the US, have made development of technology for commercial production of high Btu pipeline gases from coal of interest. Several coal gasification processes exist, but incentives remain for the development of processes that would significantly increase efficiency and lower cost. A major problem in coal/char gasification is the heat required which make the process energy intensive. Hence, there is a need for an efficient and thermally neutral gasification process. Results are described for the gasification of an Illinois No. 6 coal with transition metal catalysts and added potassium hydroxide.

Hippo, E.J.; Tandon, D. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

334

High temperature electrochemical polishing of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification process streams. Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Coal may be used to generate electrical energy by any of several processes, most of which involve combustion or gasification. Combustion in a coal-fired boiler and power generation using a steam- cycle is the conventional conversion method; however, total energy conversion efficiencies for this type of process are only slightly over 30{percent}. Integration of a gas-cycle in the process (combined cycle) may increase the total conversion efficiency to 40{percent}. Conversion processes based on gasification offer efficiencies above 50{percent}. H{sub 2}S is the predominant gaseous contaminant in raw coal gas. Problems arise due to the corrosive nature of H{sub 2}S on metal components contained in these cycles. Because of this, H{sub 2}S concentrations must be reduced to low levels corresponding to certain power applications. An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane is being developed using funds from this grant. Past experiments using this concept dealt with identifying removal of 1-2{percent} H{sub 2}S from gases containing only H{sub 2}S in N{sub 2}, simulated natural gas, and simulated coal gas. Other goals include optimization of cell materials capable of improving cell performance. Once cell materials are defined, cell experiments determining maximum removal capabilities and current efficiencies will be conducted. Also, a model theoretically describing the preferred reduction of H{sub 2}S, the transport of S{sup 2{minus}}, and the competing transport of CO{sub 2} will be investigated. The model should identify the maximum current efficiency for H{sub 2}S removal, depending on variables such as flow rate, temperature, current application, and the total cell potential. 21 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

Winnick, J.

1996-09-01

335

Development of thermophysical-property data for fossil-fuel gasification processes. Final report. January 1983November 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report presents the results of a program planning effort conducted for Gas Research Institute (GRI). The objective was to prepare a 5-year program plan for GRI for the acquisition of thermophysical property data that are considered important for improving the design and decreasing the cost of future coal-gasification plants. Based on a literature review and input from engineers and

G. L. Anderson; A. H. Hill

1987-01-01

336

Biomass gasification process in a downdraft fixed bed gasifier: a real time diagnosis model based on gas composition analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is focused on the diagnostic technique used in the Thermal Engines Laboratory of the University of Valladolid (Spain), to perform real time calculation, monitoring and recording of gasification physical variables, only from gas composition analysis and some other measurements such as local temperatures and gas flow rate. By assuming some simplifying hypothesis it is possible to calculate the

Andrés Melgara; Juan Pérez; Alfonso Horrillo

337

Instrumentation and Process Control Development for in Situ Coal Gasification. Twentieth Quarterly Report: September-November 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second phase of the Hanna IV in situ coal gasification test, Hanna IV-B, which was initiated on April 20, 1979, was completed on October 4, 1979. Sandia National Laboratories provided support by fielding and monitoring diagnostic and remote monitoring...

R. E. Glass

1980-01-01

338

Phase-equilibria for design of coal-gasification processes: dew points of hot gases containing condensible tars. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is concerned with the fundamental physical chemistry and thermodynamics of condensation of tars (dew points) from the vapor phase at advanced temperatures and pressures. Fundamental quantitative understanding of dew points is important for rational design of heat exchangers to recover sensible heat from hot, tar-containing gases that are produced in coal gasification. This report includes essentially six contributions

Prausnitz

1980-01-01

339

Syngas chemical looping gasification process: oxygen carrier particle selection and performance  

SciTech Connect

The syngas chemical looping (SCL) process coproduces hydrogen and electricity. The process involves reducing metal oxides with syngas followed by regeneration of reduced metal oxides with steam and air in a cyclic manner. Iron oxide is determined to be a desired oxygen carrier for hydrogen production considering overall properties including oxygen carrying capacity, thermodynamic properties, reaction kinetics, physical strength, melting points, and environmental effects. An iron oxide based particle can maintain good reactivity for more than 100 reduction-oxidation (redox) cycles in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The particle exhibits a good crushing strength (>20 MPa) and low attrition rate. Fixed bed experiments are carried out which reaffirm its reactivity. More than 99.75% of syngas is converted during the reduction stage. During the regeneration stage, hydrogen with an average purity of 99.8% is produced. 23 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

Fanxing Li; Hyung Ray Kim; Deepak Sridhar; Fei Wang; Liang Zeng; Joseph Chen; L.-S. Fan [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

2009-08-15

340

Shell coal gasification project: Gasification of eleven diverse feeds  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the gasification of the following feedstocks in the Shell Coal Gasification Process at SCGP-1: Texas Lignite, Pile County-washed, Pike County-run-of-mine, Dotiki, Newlands, El Cerrejon, Skyline, Robinson Creek, R F, Pocahontas No. 3, and Petroleum Coke. These results demonstrate the unique flexibility of the Shell Coal Gasification Process in handling a wide range of feedstocks with significant differences in moisture content, reactivity, ash content, as viscosity, and calcium, chlorine, and sulfur levels. Process results are presented for each feedstock, including gasifier performance and efficiency calculations. Analytical data, including trace element analyses, are provided for the feedstock, the slag and flyslag solids, and the major gas and liquid streams in the plant.

Phillips, J.N.; Mahagaokar, U.; Krewinghaus, A.B. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1992-05-01

341

Development of Biological Coal Gasification (MicGAS Process). Topical report, July 1991--February 1993  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory and bench scale reactor research carried out during the report period confirms the feasibility of biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL) and some other low-rank coals to methane by specifically developed unique anaerobic microbial consortia. The data obtained demonstrates specificity of a particular microbial consortium to a given lignite. Development of a suitable microbial consortium is the key to the success of the process. The Mic-1 consortium was developed to tolerate higher coal loadings of 1 and 5% TxL in comparison to initial loadings of 0.01% and 0.1% TxL. Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic-1 consortium. Four different bench scale bioreactor configurations, namely Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), Upflow Fluidized Bed Reactor (UFBR), Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR), and Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) were evaluated for scale up studies. Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic-1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor. However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC.

Srivastava, K.C.

1993-06-01

342

Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system  

SciTech Connect

Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays (CHO/HGPRT and Ames). The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems.

Shimizu, R.W.; Benson, J.M.; Li, A.P.; Henderson, R.F.; Brooks, A.L.

1984-01-01

343

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

SciTech Connect

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co--product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases: Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase 2 is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase 3 updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase 2, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report is WMPI's third quarterly technical progress report. It covers the period performance from October 1, 2001 through December 31, 2001.

John W. Rich

2001-03-01

344

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one field Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) tests have been carried out in the USA since 1973, along with related theoretical, laboratory and environmental programs. The product gas quality obtained from these field tests is comparable to that of surface gasification, using either air or steam and oxygen. Cost estimates are very favorable. The UCG process is found to be quite

D. R. Stephens; C. B. Thorsness; R. W. Hill

1984-01-01

345

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2009-07-01

346

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products  

SciTech Connect

The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

Cohen, L.R. (Xytel-Bechtel, Inc. (United States)); Hogsett, R.F. (AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States)); Sinor, J.E. (Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States)); Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D. (North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center)

1992-10-01

347

Corrosion and degradation of test materials in the Mountain Fuel Resources 30 ton/day coal gasification Process Development Unit  

SciTech Connect

One period of in-plant exposure (lower section of gasifier and steam superheater) of candidate alloys for gasification applications was completed in the Mountain Fuel Resources, Inc. (MFR) Process Development Unit (PDU). During this brief period of exposure (294 h gasifying coal), temperatures at the test sites were 140/sup 0/F (60/sup 0/C) at the lower section of the gasifier and ranged from 350/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/F (177/sup 0/ to 260/sup 0/C) during steady-state periods in the steam superheater but were sometimes <300/sup 0/F (149/sup 0/C). These lower temperatures, encountered during process upsets, were in many cases lower than the dew point of the product gas. Operating pressures were 300 psi (2.1 MPa) in the gasifier and ranged from 50 to 200 psig (0.4 to 1.4 MPa gauge) in the superheater. Fouling of heat exchanger surfaces was also reported. At the lower section of the gasifier, A515 carbon steel, aluminized carbon steel, 2 1/4Cr-1Mo, 1 1/4Cr-1Mo, 9Cr-1Mo, and 410 SS suffered from heavy corrosion and they cannot be considered for use in this system. Types 304 SS and 316 SS showed acceptable general corrosion resistance, but they suffered from pitting. Incoloy 800 was the only one of the alloys tested that exhibited excellent resistance to overall corrosion and pitting. In the steam superheater, high alloy steels Type 310, 26-1, 18-2, and Type 304 incurred the least amount of corrosion damage; corrosion rates were <10 mpy (0.25 mm/y). Alloy Incoloy 800 performed nominally at 21 mpy (0.53 mm/y). The remaining alloys 1 1/4Cr-1/2Mo, 2 1/4Cr-1Mo, Type 410, 253MA and 9Cr-1Mo(Mod.) experienced unacceptable localized corrosion losses; corrosion rates were >150 mpy (3.81 mm/y). Pack-aluminized carbon steel A515 showed no evidence of diffusion zone penetration and was acceptable in corrosion performance. 14 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

Yurkewycz, R.

1985-01-31

348

Evaluation of pollution control in fossil-fuel conversion processes. Gasification: Section 6. HYGAS process. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of a review of the HYGAS process being developed by the Institute of Gas Technology, from the standpoint of its potential for affecting the environment. The quantities of solid, liquid, and gaseous effluents have been estimated where possible, as well as the thermal efficiency of the process. For the purpose of reduced environmental impact, a number

Jahnig

1975-01-01

349

Evaluation of pollution control in fossil-fuel conversion processes. Gasification: Section 7. U-Gas Process. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of a review of the U-Gas Process being developed by the Institute of Gas Technology, from the standpoint of its effect on the environment. The quantities of solid, liquid, and gaseous effluents have been estimated, where possible, as well as the thermal efficiency of the process. For the purpose of reducing environmental impact, a number of

Jahnig

1975-01-01

350

Mild coal gasification: Product separation  

SciTech Connect

Our general objective is to further the development of efficient continuous mild coal gasification processes. The research this year has been focused on product separation problems and particularly the problem of separating entrained ultra-fine particles from the chemically reactive environment of the product gas stream. Specifically, the objective of the present work has been to study candidate barrier filters for application to mild coal gasification processes. Our approach has been to select the most promising existing designs, to develop a design of our own and to test the designs in our bench-scale gasification apparatus. As a first step towards selection of the most promising barrier filter we have determined coking rates on several candidate filter media.

Wallman, P.H.; Singleton, M.F.

1992-08-04

351

Mild gasification technology development process: Task 3, Bench-scale char upgrading study, February 1988--November 1990  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this program is to develop mild gasification technology and co-product utilization. The objective of Task 3 was to investigate the necessary steps for upgrading the mild gasification char into potential high-market-value solid products. Recommendations of the Task 1 market survey section formed the basis for selecting three value-added solid products from mild gasification char: form coke, smokeless fuel, and activated adsorbent char. The formation and testing for the form coke co-product involved an evaluation of its briquette strength and reactivity. The measured tensile strength and reactivity of the form coke sample briquettes were in the range of commercial coke, and development tests on a larger scale are recommended. The reaction rate of the form coke carbon with carbon dioxide at 1825{degree}F was measured using a standard procedure. A smokeless fuel briquette with limestone added to control sulfur can be made from mild gasification char in a simple manner. Test results have shown that briquettes with limestone have a heating value comparable to other solid fuels and the limestone can retain up to 88% of the sulfur during combustion in a simple bench-scale combustion test, almost all of it as a stable calcium sulfate. Adsorbent chars were prepared with a standard steam activation procedure and tested for a variety of pertinent property and performance values. Such adsorbents may be better suited for use in some areas, such as the adsorption of low-molecular-weight substances, because of the smaller pore sizes measured in the char. 5 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

Carty, R.H.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Knight, R.A.; Wootten, J.M.; Duthie, R.G.

1990-12-01

352

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992  

SciTech Connect

The char produced in the 100-lb/hr process development unit has been magnetically cleaned by AMAX and returned to the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). The final calcining step of the process is currently being performed in the 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). The liquid products generated by the PDU have been collected and split into usable fractions and fractions to be discarded. Samples of the coal-derived liquids have been sent to Merichem Corporation of Houston and Koppers Industries of Pittsburgh for determination of their usefulness as chemical feedstock for the production of cresylic acids and anode-grade-binder pitch. The technical and economic assessment performed by Xbi and J.E Sinor Consultants has been completed. The briquette testing being conducted at the EERC has produced high quality briquettes using a number of binder agents. The next step in the test matrix will include the use of coal-derived liquids from the PDU as the binder. An additional coal has been added to the mild gasification test matrix. AMAX recently acquired two eastern low-sulfur bituminous coals and suggested that a limited test schedule be conducted to determine the suitability of these coals for the mild gasification process. The sulfur levels in the raw coals are below the target levels suggested by the steel industry for metallurgical coke use. To date, it has not been possible to reach these goals using the high-sulfur Illinois Basin coals tested.

Runge, B.D.; Ness, R.O. Jr.; Sharp, L.L.; Shockey, R.E.

1992-07-01

353

Phototype plant for Nuclear Process Heat (NPH), reference phase. R and D work on Hydrogenated Coal Gasification (HCG). Further operation of semi-industrial plant for hydrogenated coal gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of a scale up, leading to a commercial HCG, futher R and D work was performed on the 100 kg C/hr prototype plant. The inclined tube for feeding coal into the fluidized bed, the raw gas/hydrogenation gas heat exchanger, and the modified hydrogen source were tested. Influence on carbon gasification efficiency of dimension of coal particles, humidity of coal, hydrogen content of gasification gas, introduction place of coal in gasifier, height of fluidized bed, and ash content of coal were studied. The plant was operated for 19,400 hr, of which more than 7400 hr under gasification conditions. Carbon gasification rates up to 82% with methane content up to 48% were obtained.

Fladerer, R.; Schrader, L.

1982-07-01

354

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Final report, September 1987--September 1996  

SciTech Connect

Char, the major co-product of mild coal gasification, represents about 70 percent of the total product yield. The only viable use for the char is in the production of formed coke. Early work to develop formed coke used char from a pilot plant sized mild gasification unit (MGU), which was based on commercial units of the COALITE plant in England. Formed coke was made at a bench-scale production level using MGU chars from different coals. An evolutionary formed coke development process over a two-year period resulted in formed coke production at bench-scale levels that met metallurgical industries` specifications. In an ASTM D5341 reactivity test by a certified lab, the coke tested CRI 30.4 and CSR 67.0 which is excellent. The standard is CRI < 32 and CSR > 55. In 1991, a continuous 1000 pounds per hour coal feed mild coal gasification pilot plant (CMGU) was completed. The gasification unit is a heated unique screw conveyor designed to continuously process plastic coal, vent volatiles generated by pyrolysis of coal, and convert the plastic coal to free flowing char. The screw reactor auxiliary components are basic solids materials handling equipment. The screw reactor will convert coal to char and volatile co-products at a rate greater than 1000 pounds per hour of coal feed. Formed coke from CMGU char is comparable to that from the MGU char. In pilot-plant test runs, up to 20 tons of foundry coke were produced. Three formed coke tests at commercial foundries were successful. In all of the cupola tests, the iron temperature and composition data indicated that the formed coke performed satisfactorily. No negative change in the way the cupola performed was noticed. The last 20-ton test was 100 percent CTC/DOE coke. With conventional coke in this cupola charging rates were 10 charges per hour. The formed coke charges were 11 to 12 charges per hour. This equates to a higher melt rate. A 10 percent increase in cupola production would be a major advantage. 13 figs., 13 tabs.

NONE

1996-12-31

355

Scale-up of mild gasification to be a process development unit mildgas 24 ton/day PDU design report. Final report, November 1991--July 1996  

SciTech Connect

From November 1991 to April 1996, Kerr McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal) led a project to develop the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) Mild Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program were to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scale-up; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The project team for the PDU development program consisted of: K-M Coal, IGT, Bechtel Corporation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC), General Motors (GM), Pellet Technology Corporation (PTC), LTV Steel, Armco Steel, Reilly Industries, and Auto Research.

NONE

1996-03-01

356

High temperature electrochemical polishing of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification process streams. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide from coal gasification streams through an electrochemical membrane is being perfected. H{sub 2}S is removed from a synthetic gas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the existing syn-gas, and sulfur, which is condensed downstream from an inert sweep gas stream. The process allows for continuous removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream while allowing negligible pressure loss through the separator. Moreover, the process is economically attractive due to the elimination of the need for a Claus process for sulfur recovery. To this extent the project presents a novel concept for improving utilization of coal for more efficient power generation. This quarter`s research focused on fabricating LiCoO{sub 2} electrodes and then utilizing them in full cell experiments at 650 C. The cathode showed inefficient porosity to allow mass transfer of the extremely dilute hydrogen sulfide to the electrolyte interface.

Winnick, J.

1998-08-01

357

High temperature electrochemical polishing of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification process streams. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane is being developed. H{sub 2}S is removed from the syn-gas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the exiting syn-gas, and sulfur, which is condensed from an inert sweep gas stream. The process allows removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream and with negligible pressure loss through the separator. The process is made economically attractive by the lack of need for a Claus process for sulfur recovery. Membrane manufacturing coupled with full-cell experimentation was the primary focus this quarter. A tape-casted zirconia membrane was developed and utilized in one full-cell experiment (run 25); run 24 utilized a fabricated membrane purchased from Zircar Corporation. Results are discussed.

Winnick, J.

1995-12-31

358

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

On November 6, 1991, a meeting was held at the AMAX Research and Development Center in Golden, Colorado. Those in attendance at the meeting included Brian Runge and Robert Ness of the EERC, Scott McFeely of Xoi, Frank Hogsett and Mahesh Jha of AMAX, and Jerry Sinor and Trevor Ellis of J.E- Sinor Consultants. Items on the agenda included framing the scope of work to be conducted by Sinor on the market assessment for mild gasification products. An attempt was made to draft an integrated time line for the completion of all subcontracts issued under the project. The commercial process flowsheet under development by XBi was presented for review. The goals to be achieved by the technical and economic assessment to be performed by XBi were outlined. Frank Hogsett reported on the progress of the coal cleaning being conducted by AMAX. As soon as sufficient coal has been cleaned, the mild gasification reactors at the EERC will be run to generate sufficient quantities of products to allow testing of product upgrading and utilization methods. The next project review meeting was held on December 12, 1991, in the Houston, Texas, offices of XBi. The major work conducted during this meeting focused on review of the preliminary process flow diagrams (PFOS) prepared by XBi. Several modifications were discussed and will be reflected in the updated PFDs.

Runge, B.D.; Ness, R.O. Jr.

1992-01-01

359

Advanced Thermochemical Biomass Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of advanced biomass gasification systems offers the potential for increasing the industrial use of biomass. An overview of the limitations of thermal gasification systems for producing medium-Btu gas from biomass is presented. The use of an ex...

R. S. Butner D. C. Elliott L. J. Sealock

1986-01-01

360

Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The 'Forest Products Gasification Initiative', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE...

J. A. Kieffer

2000-01-01

361

Coal gasification. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and assessment of coal gasification technology. Combined-cycle gas turbine power plants are reviewed. References also discuss dry-feed gasification, gas turbine interface, coal gasification pilot plants, underground coal gasification, gasification with nuclear heat, and molten bath processes. Clean-coal based electric power generation and environmental issues are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1998-03-01

362

Prediction and measurement of entrained flow coal gasification processes. Interim report, September 8, 1981-September 7, 1983  

SciTech Connect

This volume reports interim experimental and theoretical results of the first two years of a three year study of entrained coal gasification with steam and oxygen. The gasifier facility and testing methods were revised and improved. The gasifier was also modified for high pressure operation. Six successful check-out tests at elevated pressure were performed (55, 75, 100, 130, 170, and 215 psig), and 8 successful mapping tests were performed with the Utah bituminous coal at an elevated pressure of 137.5 psig. Also, mapping tests were performed at atmospheric pressure with a Utah bituminous coal (9 tests) and with a Wyoming subbituminous coal (14 tests). The LDV system was used on the cold-flow facility to make additional nonreactive jets mixing measurements (local mean and turbulent velocity) that could be used to help validate the two-dimensional code. The previously completed two-dimensional entrained coal gasification code, PCGC-2, was evaluated through rigorous comparison with cold-flow, pulverized coal combustion, and entrained coal gasification data. Data from this laboratory were primarily used but data from other laboratories were used when available. A complete set of the data used has been compiled into a Data Book which is included as a supplemental volume of this interim report. A revised user's manual for the two-dimensional code has been prepared and is also included as a part of this interim report. Three technical papers based on the results of this study were published or prepared. 107 references, 57 figures, 35 tables.

Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Fletcher, T.H.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.

1984-01-31

363

Catalysis in biomass gasification  

SciTech Connect

The objective of these studies is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products by catalytic gasification of biomass. Catalyst performance is a key factor in the feasibility of catalytic gasification processes. The results of studies designed to gain a fundamental understanding of catalytic mechanisms and causes of deactivation, and discussion of the state-of-the-art of related catalytic processes are presented. Experiments with primary and secondary catalysts were conducted in a 5-cm-diameter, continuous-wood-feed, fixed-catalyst-bed reactor. The primary catalysts used in the experiments were alkali carbonates mixed with the biomass feed; the secondary catalysts included nickel or other transition metals on supports such as alumina, silica, or silica-alumina. The primary catalysts were found to influence wood pyrolysis as well as the char/steam reaction. Secondary catalysts were used in a fixed-bed configuration to direct gas phase reactions. Results of the performance of these catalysts are presented. Secondary catalysts were found to be highly effective for conversion of biomass to specific gas products: synthesis gases and methane-rich gas. With an active catalyst, equilibrium gas composition are obtained, and all liquid pyrolysis products are converted to gases. The major cause of catalyst deactivation was carbon deposition, or coking. Loss of surface area by sintering was also inportant. Catalyst deactivation by sulfur poisoning was observed when bagasse was used as the feedstock for catalytic gasification. Mechanisms of catalyst activity and deactivation are discussed. Model compounds (methane, ethylene, and phenol) were used to determine coking behavior of catalysts. Carbon deposition is more prevalent with ethylene and phenol than with methane. Catalyst formulations that are resistant to carbon deposition are presented. 60 references, 10 figures, 21 tables.

Baker, E.G.; Mudge, L.K.

1984-06-01

364

Coal gasification using solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic evaluation of conventional and solar thermal coal gasification processes is presented, together with laboratory bench scale tests of a solar carbonization unit. The solar design consists of a heliostat field, a central tower receiver, a gasifier, and a recirculation loop. The synthetic gas is produced in the gasifier, with part of the gas upgraded to CH4 and another

V. K. Mathur; R. W. Breault; S. Lakshmanan

1983-01-01

365

Prediction and measurement of optimum operating conditions for entrained coal gasification processes. Quarterly technical progress report, No. 1, 1 November 1979-31 January 1980  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work completed to predict and measure optimum operating conditions for entrained coal gasifications processes. This study is the third in a series designed to investigate mixing and reaction in entrained coal gasifiers. A new team of graduate and undergraduate students was formed to conduct the experiments on optimum gasification operating conditions. Additional coal types, which will be tested in the gasifier were identified, ordered, and delivered. Characterization of these coals will be initiated. Hardware design modifications to introduce swirl into the secondary were initiated. Minor modifications were made to the gasifier to allow laser diagnostics to be made on an independently funded study with the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The tasks completed on the two-dimensional model included the substantiation of a Gaussian PDF for the top-hat PDF in BURN and the completion of a Lagrangian particle turbulent dispersion module. The reacting submodel is progressing into the final stages of debug. The formulation of the radiation submodel is nearly complete and coding has been initiated. A device was designed, fabricated, and used to calibrate the actual Swirl Number of the cold-flow swirl generator used in the Phase 2 study. Swirl calibrations were obtained at the normal tests flow rates and at reduced flow rates. Two cold-flow tests were also performed to gather local velocity data under swirling conditions. Further analysis of the cold-flow coal-dust and swirl test results from the previous Phase 2 study were completed.

Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Smith, P.J.

1980-02-15

366

Modeling Integrated Biomass Gasification Business Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biomass gasification is an approach to producing energy and/or biofuels that could be integrated into existing forest product production facilities, particularly at pulp mills. Existing process heat and power loads tend to favor integration at existing pu...

E. M. Bilek M. A. Dietenberger P. J. Ince

2011-01-01

367

High temperature electrochemical separation of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification process streams. Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

An electrochemical membrane separation system for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gasification product steams is the subject of this investigation. The high operating temperature, flow-through design, and capability of selective H{sub 2}S removal and direct production of elemental sulfur offered by this process provide several advantages over existing and developmental H{sub 2}S removal technologies. Two experiments (Run {number_sign}17 & {number_sign}18) examining the removal capability of the EMS with cobalt cathode were performed this quarter. The focus dealt with H{sub 2}S removal as well as impeding hydrogen cross-over from the process gas side (cathode) of the membrane to the sweep gas side (anode).

Winnick, J.

1994-07-01

368

Results from the Third LLL Underground Coal Gasification Experiment at Hoe Creek.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major objective of the US Energy Program is the development of processes to produce clean fuels from coal. Underground coal gasification is one of the most promising of these processes. If successful, underground coal gasification (UCG) would quadruple ...

C. B. Thorsness D. R. Stephens R. J. Cena R. W. Hill W. R. Aiman

1980-01-01

369

Test and evaluate the TRI-GAS low-Btu coal gasification process. Quarterly report, April-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

Four tests were conducted in the TRI-GAS PEDU. Test No. 3S-55 was prematurely shut down because of failure of the steam boiler. Steay-state operation was not achieved. Following repairs to the steam boiler Test No. 3S-56 was conducted. This test was also terminated prematurely, due to failure of the power controller for the steam boiler. Repairs were again made. In Test No. 3S-57, bed temperatures in Stages 2 and 3 were lower than required for gasification, although some reaction occurred at the top of the reactors where the temperatures exceeded 1600 F. The test was concluded somewhat prematurely due to plugging of the coal-feed line. PEDU Test No. 3S-58, an integrated three-stage test, was conducted in June. The heating value of the product gas was about 100 Btu per cu ft even though failure of the reactor heaters prevented the Stage 2 temperature from exceeding 1550 F.

Not Available

1980-07-01

370

Engineering analyses for evaluation of gasification and gas-cleanup processes for use in molten-carbonate fuel-cell power plants. Task C  

SciTech Connect

This report satisfies the Task C requirement for DOE contract DE-AC21-81MC16220 to provide engineering analyses of power systems utilizing coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants. The process information and data necessary for this study were extracted from sources in the public domain, including reports from DOE, EPRI, and EPA; work sponsored in whole or in part by Federal agencies; and from trade journals, MCFC developers, and manufacturers. The computer model used by Westinghouse, designated AHEAD, is proprietary and so is not provided in this report. The engineering analyses provide relative power system efficiency data for ten gasifier/gas cleanup fuel supply systems, including air- and oxygen-blown gasification, hot and cold desulfurization, and a range of MCFC operating pressure from 345 kPaa (50 psia) to 2069 kPaa (300 psia).

Hamm, J.R.; Vidt, E.J.

1982-02-01

371

Dynamic simulation models for selective sulfur removal in coal gasification systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted, under EPRI Agreement RP1038-6, to investigate the feasibility of using computer simulation models to predict the steady-state and transient behavior of selective acid gas treating units. One of the prime objectives was to determine whether these models could be used to simulate the acid gas absorption units in coal gasification-combined cycle (GCC) power plants. Two dynamic simulation models were investigated; one model was developed by S-Cubed (formerly Systems, Science and Software) and the other was an in-house program developed by Hyprotech Ltd. These models were tailored specifically for the Norton Co. SELEXOL process for this study and incorporated an empirically fitted property package to represent the solvent. Both models used the same property package and were tested against SELEXOL plant data provided from the Bi-Gas pilot plant in Homer City, Pennsylvania, the Texaco pilot plant in Montebello, California and the TVA pilot plant in Muscle Shoals, Alabama. The results of this study are presented in this report. Although there were inconsistencies in some of the plant data, the models appeared to compare favorably with the plant data. The S-Cubed and Hyprotech model yielded nearly identical results when tested against the Bi-Gas plant data. Overall, the Hyprotech model proved to be faster than the S-Cubed version by about an order of magnitude and therefore offered the more attractive option for general simulation applications. However, further work is still needed to improve the solvent property predictions in the model. 7 refs.

Vysniauskas, T.; Sim, W.D.

1985-07-01

372

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, April--June 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research and development effort was to develop an advanced, continuous ``mild gasification`` process. The relative quantities and properties of the products are appropriate for making the concept economically and environmentally viable. In ``mild gasification,`` coal is converted under relatively mild conditions of temperature and pressure in the absence of air into products which include a high heating value gas, high aromatic condensibles, char and coke all with physical and chemical properties suitable for the anticipated end uses. Two tons of CTC/DOE continuous coke of 6 in. {times} 5 in. {times} 4 in. size was produced in the Pilot Demonstration Unit. This coke was tested under actual foundry conditions in a 96 in. diameter commercial cupola. The test was run on the first shift on April 19, 1995. The coke sample was used as a direct replacement for 25 percent of the coke charge. A total of 51 scrap iron charges were run with the CTC/DOE continuous coke. Results of the test were excellent. The two main indicators improved., Tap temperature increased from an average of 2846{degrees}F to 2890{degrees}F. Carbon pickup improved from 3.49 percent C to 3.59 percent C when the CTC coke, hit the bed. These results are very meaningful because they cannot be measured in the lab. ChemChar Research, Inc. in Columbia, Missouri, is evaluating CTC chars as potential agents for removing pollutants from gas streams. Composite CTC char treated with the ChemChar activation process resulted in promising results. A 11.8 percent toluene adsorption and 13.4 percent monochlorobenzene adsorption were achieved with CTC char after activation.

NONE

1995-08-01

373

Engineering-support services for the DOE/GRI (Department of Energy/Gas Research Institute) Coal-Gasification Research Program. Topical report: evaluation of the CNG acid-gas removal process. Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

As part of the technical-support services for the DOE/GRI Joint Coal-Gasification Research Program, Foster Wheeler conducted an evaluation of the low temperature acid-gas-removal process under development by CNG Research Company. Conceptual designs and cost estimates were developed for commercial-scale acid-gas-removal process units based on the CNG technology. Volume I of the report summarizes the case study in which the CNG process is applied to treating a raw syngas stream derived from Lurgi fixed-bed gasification of lignite. A technical assessment of the CNG acid-gas-removal process was made relative to areas where additional design data and process optimization are needed for commercial scale-up.

Fu, R.K.; Newman, S.A.

1986-12-01

374

Engineering-support services for the DOE/GRI (Department of Energy/Gas Research Institute) Coal-Gasification Research Program. Topical report: evaluation of the CNG acid-gas removal process. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

As part of the technical-support services for the DOE/GRI Joint Coal-Gasification Research Program, Foster Wheeler conducted an evaluation of the low-temperature acid-gas-removal process under development by CNG Research Company. Conceptual designs and cost estimates were developed for commercial-scale acid-gas-removal process units based on the CNG technology. Volume I of the report summarizes the case study in which the CNG process is applied to treating a raw syngas stream derived from Lurgi fixed-bed gasification of lignite. A technical assessment of the CNG acid-gas-removal process was made relative to areas where additional design data and process optimization are needed for commercial scale-up.

Fu, R.K.; Zahnstecher, L.W.

1986-12-01

375

High temperature electrochemical polishing of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification process streams: Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1996-September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Electrochemical Membrane Separator (E.M.S.), the focus of experimental work, purges a fuel gas contaminated with H{sub 2}S. This is done by reducing the most electro-active species in the gas stream. In this case, H{sub 2}S is reduced by the following: H{sub 2}S + 2e{sup -} {yields} H{sub 2} + S{sup 2-}. A membrane which contains sulfide ions in a molten salt electrolyte will act to transport the ions across to the anode. If the membrane is impermeable to H{sub 2} diffusion from the cathode side, an inert sweep gas can be used to carry the vaporous oxidized sulfur downstream to be condensed. S{sup 2-}{yields} 1/2 S{sub 2} +2e{sup -}. Processes to remove H{sub 2}S typically rely on low-to-ambient temperature adsorption, followed by sorbent regeneration and Claus plant treatment for conversion of H{sub 2}S to a salable by-product, sulfur. Although effective, this type of removal is very process- intensive as well as energy-inefficient due to low temperature operation. Gasification streams generally range from 500{degrees}C - 1000{degrees}C, requiring cooling before and reheating after process gas sweetening. Although these technologies have proven capable of meeting H{sub 2}S levels required by molten carbonate fuel cell systems, there are several disadvantages inherent to these processes. Alternative high temperature methods are presently available, but process drawbacks including morphological changes in catalytic beds or inefficient molten salt sorbent processes negate savings incurred through energy efficient removal temperatures. An electrochemical membrane separation system for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gasification product streams is the subject of this investigation. The high operating temperature, flow-through design, and capability of selective H{sub 2}S removal and direct production of elemental sulfur offered by this process provide several advantages over existing and developmental H{sub 2}S removal technologies. 17 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

Winnick, J. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

1997-03-01

376

EMERY BIOMASS GASIFICATION POWER SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Emery Recycling Corporation (now Emery Energy Company, LLC) evaluated the technical and economical feasibility of the Emery Biomass Gasification Power System (EBGPS). The gasifier technology is owned and being developed by Emery. The Emery Gasifier for this project was an oxygen-blown, pressurized, non-slagging gasification process that novelly integrates both fixed-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes into a single vessel. This unique internal geometry of the gasifier vessel will allow for tar and oil destruction within the gasifier. Additionally, the use of novel syngas cleaning processes using sorbents is proposed with the potential to displace traditional amine-based and other syngas cleaning processes. The work scope within this project included: one-dimensional gasifier modeling, overall plant process modeling (ASPEN), feedstock assessment, additional analyses on the proposed syngas cleaning process, plant cost estimating, and, market analysis to determine overall feasibility and applicability of the technology for further development and commercial deployment opportunities. Additionally, the project included the development of a detailed technology development roadmap necessary to commercialize the Emery Gasification technology. Process modeling was used to evaluate both combined cycle and solid oxide fuel cell power configurations. Ten (10) cases were evaluated in an ASPEN model wherein nine (9) cases were IGCC configurations with fuel-to-electricity efficiencies ranging from 38-42% and one (1) case was an IGFC solid oxide case where 53.5% overall plant efficiency was projected. The cost of electricity was determined to be very competitive at scales from 35-71 MWe. Market analysis of feedstock availability showed numerous market opportunities for commercial deployment of the technology with modular capabilities for various plant sizes based on feedstock availability and power demand.

Benjamin Phillips; Scott Hassett; Harry Gatley

2002-11-27

377

Mild gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this initial year's mission-oriented multi-year program is to develop a process chemistry data base for the mild gasification of coal with emphasis on eastern bituminous coal. One important objective of this program was to obtain the trends in product formation from different coals as a function of several process variables which included temperature, pressure, coal particle residence time, coal flow rate, type of additives such as lime, limestone, silica flour and ash in a short period of time. This was achieved by a careful development of a test matrix using a fractional factorial statistical design. The equipment used was the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) combination stirred moving-bed, entrained-tubular reactor which is capable of processing 2 to 3 pounds of coal per hour. A Wellmore Kentucky No. 8 bituminous coal, a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal and a Mississippi lignite with particles having a size of 150 {mu}m or less were selected for this study. The mild gasification experiments were conducted at temperatures from 550{degree} to 650{degree}C at nitrogen sweep gas pressures of 15 to 50 psi and residence times of 0.1 to 2 min. The coal flow rate was 0. 4 to 1.0 lb/hr and the concentration of the lime additives was 0 to 10% by weight of the dry coal feed. All variables were tested at two different levels, low and high, corresponding to the above ranges of the variables. A rapid calculation of the main effects and interactions was made using Yate's algorithm and the significance of the effects was determined from the normal probability plots. 10 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs.

Sundaram, M.S.; Fallon, P.T.; Steinberg, M.

1989-01-01

378

POLLUTANTS FROM SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION: SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS FOR COAL GASIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes sampling and analysis methods involving a laboratory-scale coal gasification facility used to study the generation, sampling, chemical analysis, process evaluation, and environmental assessment of pollutants from coal gasification. It describes methods for pa...

379

Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

Yang, L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2008-07-01

380

Fossil fuel gasification research and development program at the Gas Research Institute  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gas Research Institute is supporting research and development efforts to develop a variety of coal gasification technologies for producing cost-effective substitute natural gas (SNG). The overall objective is to provide improved surface and in situ processes that offer significant technical, economic and environmental advantages over commercially available processes. Elements of the 1984 surface gasification program included support of gasification

H. S. Meyer; D. Leppin; S. P. Barone; V. L. Hill

1985-01-01

381

Assessment of selexolVAcid gas removal powers for use with Lurgi gasification  

SciTech Connect

Selexol acid gas removal as used with entrained-bed gasification is less expensive than the Rectisol process configuration generally used with Lurgi gasification. The objective of this study was to determine whether cost savings could be derived from using the Selexol process with Lurgi gasification or whether the Lurgi gas composition required use of a Rectisol clean-up unit. 5 refs.

Apte, A.J.; Fein, H.L.

1981-01-01

382

Hydrogen recovery from the thermal plasma gasification of solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal plasma gasification has been demonstrated as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization in many of studies. Therefore, the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification (paper mill waste, 1.2 ton\\/day) was applied for the recovery of high purity H2 (>99.99%). Gases emitted from a gasification furnace equipped with a

Youngchul Byun; Moohyun Cho; Jae Woo Chung; Won Namkung; Hyeon Don Lee; Sung Duk Jang; Young-Suk Kim; Jin-Ho Lee; Carg-Ro Lee; Soon-Mo Hwang

2011-01-01

383

High temperature electrochemical polishing of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification process streams. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide H{sub 2}S from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane is developed using funds from this grant. H{sub 2}S is removed from the syngas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the exiting syngas, and sulfur, which is condensed from an inert sweep gas stream. The process allows removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream and with negligible pressure loss through the separator. The process is made economically attractive by the lack of need of a Claus process for sulfur recovery. To this extent the project presents a novel concept for improving utilization of coal for more efficient power generation. This quarter focused on replacing the MACOR cell housings with stainless steel, which is more industrially suitable. Three runs were attempted this quarter, with successful results achieved in Run 34. The purpose of these experiments was: (1) test the electrochemical membrane separator`s ability to concentrate CO{sub 2}, (2) test the electrochemical membrane separator`s ability to remove H{sub 2}S; and (3) test stainless steel as an alternative cell housing to MACOR as well as test nickel cathode performance at the reduced temperature.

Winnick, J.

1996-12-31

384

Large-block experiments in underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of in situ coal gasification, while extremely simple in concept, is complicated in practice because, as the burn proceeds, the reacting volume is constantly changing geometry. In addition, the process takes place underground where it is extremely difficult to observe in detail. The five large block experiments described here were planned as a series of gasification experiments each

R. W. Hill; C. B. Thorsness

1983-01-01

385

Catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of catalytic gasification of bagasse to produce methanol. In previous studies, a catalytic steam gasification process was developed which converted wood to methanol synthesis gas in one step using nickel based catalysts in a fluid-bed gasifier. Tests in a nominal 1 ton\\/day process development unit (PDU) gasifier

E. G. Baker; M. D. Brown; R. J. Robertus

1985-01-01

386

Steam gasification of wood in the presence of catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic steam gasification of wood, including sawdust, chipped forest slash, and mill shavings, is investigated. Results of laboratory, process development unit (PDR), and feasibility studies illustrate attractive processes for conversion of wood to methanol and a substitute natural gas (SNG). Recent laboratory studies developed a long-lived alloy catalyst for generation of a methanol synthesis gas by steam gasification of wood.

L. K. Mudge; D. H. Mitchell; E. G. Baker; R. J. Robertus; M. D. Brown

1982-01-01

387

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

SciTech Connect

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification, SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP designs emphasize on recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from coal clean operations and will assess blends of the culm and coal or petroleum coke as feedstocks. The project is being carried out in three phases. Phase I involves definition of concept and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II consists of an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III involves updating the original EECP design, based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 BPD coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania.

Unknown

2001-12-01

388

Use of coal gasification in compressed-air energy storage systems  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a study conducted by Energy Storage and Power Consultants (ESPC) whose objective was to try to develop a cost effective Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) power plant concept integrated with the Texaco Coal Gasification System (TCGS). The capital cost of a coal gasification system is significantly higher than some other power plant systems and if operated at low capacity factors, the total cost of electricity would not be competitive. One of the main objectives of this study was to try to develop a concept which would provide continuous operation of the gasification system and, as a result, improve the plant economics through better utilization of its expensive components. Five CAES/TCGS concepts have been identified as the most promising, and were optimized using specifically developed computerized procedures. These concepts utilized various configurations of conventional reheat turbomachinery trains specifically developed for CAES application, the GE Frame 7F, Frame 7E and LM5000 gas turbine units as parts of the integrated CAES/TCGS plant concepts. The project resulted in development of integrated CAES/TCGS plant concepts which were optimized to provide TCGS capacity factors up to over 90%. Cursory economics for some of the integrated CAES/TCGS concepts are slightly better than those of a conventional integrated coal gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) plant. 25 figs., 8 tabs.

Nakhamkin, M. (Energy Storage and Power Consultants, Mountainside, NJ (USA))

1989-09-01

389

Materials of Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to accumulate and establish a database of construction materials, coatings, refractory liners, and transitional materials that are appropriate for the hardware and scale-up facilities for atmospheric biomass and coal gasification processes. Cost, fabricability, survivability, contamination, modes of corrosion, failure modes, operational temperatures, strength, and compatibility are all areas of materials science for which relevant data would be appropriate. The goal will be an established expertise of materials for the fossil energy area within WRI. This would be an effort to narrow down the overwhelming array of materials information sources to the relevant set which provides current and accurate data for materials selection for fossil fuels processing plant. A significant amount of reference material on materials has been located, examined and compiled. The report that describes these resources is well under way. The reference material is in many forms including texts, periodicals, websites, software and expert systems. The most important part of the labor is to refine the vast array of available resources to information appropriate in content, size and reliability for the tasks conducted by WRI and its clients within the energy field. A significant has been made to collate and capture the best and most up to date references. The resources of the University of Wyoming have been used extensively as a local and assessable location of information. As such, the distribution of materials within the UW library has been added as a portion of the growing document. Literature from recent journals has been combed for all pertinent references to high temperature energy based applications. Several software packages have been examined for relevance and usefulness towards applications in coal gasification and coal fired plant. Collation of the many located resources has been ongoing. Some web-based resources have been examined.

None

2005-09-15

390

Incentives boost coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Higher energy prices are making technologies to gasify the USA's vast coal reserves attractive again. The article traces the development of coal gasification technology in the USA. IGCC and industrial gasification projects are now both eligible for a 20% investment tax credit and federal loan guarantees can cover up to 80% of construction costs. 4 photos.

Hess, G.

2006-01-16

391

2006 gasification technologies conference papers  

SciTech Connect

Sessions covered: business overview, industry trends and new developments; gasification projects progress reports; industrial applications and opportunities; Canadian oil sands; China/Asia gasification markets - status and projects; carbon management with gasification technologies; gasification economics and performance issues addressed; and research and development, and new technologies initiatives.

NONE

2006-07-01

392

Thermochemical gasification of woody biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of gasification parameters for both catalyzed and raw wood in gasification experiments with hydrogen, hydrogen\\/steam, and steam are described. Calcium oxide, calcium carbonate, and wood ash were used as catalysts. Experimental results indicate that steam is a more effective gasification agent for wood than hydrogen. Steam gasification proceeds at a higher rate resulting in a greater net Btu

H. F. Feldmann; P. S. Choi; H. N. Conkle; S. P. Chauhan

1981-01-01

393

Development of advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current objective of the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) mild gasification project is to optimize reaction char and marketable liquids production on a 100-lb/hr scale using Wyodak subbituminous and Indiana No...

R. O. Ness T. R. Aulich

1991-01-01

394

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research continued on continuous mild gasification for the production of co-products. Work performed during the quarter included the refractory cure of the carbonizer, and then shakedown of the carbonizer, water quench system, and char removal system. Con...

R. O. Ness T. R. Aulich

1990-01-01

395

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, October--December 1995  

SciTech Connect

Efforts continued to obtain financing for a commercial continuous formed coke plant. Discussions were held with two steel companies that are interested in producing coke for their use in steel production and foundry operations. Planning for production of 40 tons of foundry formed coke is underway. This coke will be used in two 20-ton tests at General Motors` foundries. During this production, it is planned to determine if a tunnel kiln can be used as a coking furnace as an alternative for a rotary hearth. A rotary hearth is about three times more costly than a competitive-sized tunnel kiln. Work continued on using Western non-caking coals to produce formed coke. Successful tests were made by using Eastern caking coals and other binders to permit using up to 50% of the cheaper Western non-caking coals in formed coke production. The primary objective of this project is to develop an advanced continuous mild gasification process and product upgrading processes which will be capable of eventual commercialization.

O`Neal, G.W.

1996-01-01

396

Gasification combined-cycle plant configuration studies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a Texaco based coal gasification combined cycle configuration study in which current technology combustion turbines are applied with the ultimate objectives being: (1) determine a plant configuration that yields high efficiency; and (2) determine and quantify the influence of plant configuration and plant operating conditions on performance. Best efficiency, about 39% based on coal HHV (8840 Btu/kWh), is attained by integrating the gasification and gas cleanup system with the combined cycle. A reheat steam turbine operating at highest steam conditions practicable is also required along with a hot fuel gas expander which operates at 1000/sup 0/F inlet temperature. The cycle can be simplified considerably by reducing the steam temperature to 950/sup 0/F and deleting the fuel gas expander. These actions result in a heat rate increase of only about 2%. Further simplification is achieved by replacing the reheat steam turbine with a non-reheat machine which in turn simplifies the heat recovery steam generator configuration. The end result is an increase in heat rate of about 8% over the most efficient configuration, but the resultant heat rate is still lower than that expected for conventional coal fired power plants. One of the most challenging developmental efforts required to achieve a plant configuration that will operate at the highest efficiency relates to the integration of the gasification system with the combined cycle. A raw gas cooler is required which must operate in a hostile atmosphere at temperatures in the 1400/sup 0/F to 2400/sup 0/F range and must superheat and reheat steam to 1000/sup 0/F. The difference in overall plant performance using a simple design gas cooler versus a complicated one amounts to a portion of the 2% increase in heat rate mentioned above.

Foster-Pegg, R.W.; Garland, R.V.

1980-06-01

397

The solid recovered fuel Stabilat®: Characteristics and fluidised bed gasification tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid recovered fuel Stabilat® has a low water content which makes it ideal for thermochemical conversion processes such as gasification. The paper presents fuel characterisation and fluidised bed gasification experiments of the Stabilat® solid waste recovered fuel in two experimental facilities, aiming at assessing the product gas quality and bed agglomeration phenomena. The energy content of the gasification product

G. Dunnu; K. D. Panopoulos; S. Karellas; J. Maier; S. Touliou; G. Koufodimos; I. Boukis; E. Kakaras

398

Behaviors of Char Gasification Based on Two-stage Gasifier of Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop a small-scale gasifier in which biomass can be converted to energy with high efficiency, we planed a gasification process that consists of two parts: pyrolysis part (rotary kiln) and gasification part (downdraft gasifier). We performed fundamental experiments on gasification part and discussed the apropriate conditions such as air supply location, air ratio, air temperature and hearth

Miki Taniguchi; Kenichi Sasauchi; Chulju Ahn; Yusuke Ito; Toshiaki Hayashi; Fumiteru Akamatsu

2010-01-01

399

Reaction mechanism of carbon gasification in CO 2 under non-isothermal conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments of carbon (graphite) gasification in CO2 have been carried out by thermal analysis techniques (TG-DTG-DSC) under non-isothermal conditions. The results indicate that\\u000a the entire carbon gasification process can be divided into an exothermic slow gasification stage during the initial period\\u000a and an endothermic fast gasification later. The analyses of energy conservation and non-isothermal kinetics arrive at the\\u000a following conclusions;

Zhong-Suo Liu; Qi Wang; Zong-Shu Zou; Guang-Lei Tan

2011-01-01

400

Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an

Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

1998-01-01

401

Methane or methanol via catalytic gasification of biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane and methanol synthesis gas can be produced by steam gasification of biomass in the presence of appropriate catalysts. A 5 cm diameter reactor has been used to determine the desired catalysts and operating temperature. A process development unit (PDU) has demonstrated steam gasification of biomass with catalysts at rates up to 35 kg per hour. Methane yields of 0.28

D. H. Mitchell; L. K. Mudge; R. J. Robertus; S. L. Weber; L. J. Jr. Sealock

1980-01-01

402

Catalyzed Steam Gasification of Biomass. Phase II. Final Research Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Wright-Malta gasification process is characterized by low-temperature, catalyzed steam gasification in a pressurized rotary kiln. Fresh biomass moves slowly and continuously through the kiln, where it is gradually heated to around 1200 exp 0 F in an a...

R. H. Hooverman

1979-01-01

403

Evaluation of Treated Gasification Wastewater as Cooling Tower Makeup.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal goal of gasification research at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC) is to develop process and environmental data on the treatability and reuse of aqueous effluents from the fixed-bed gasification of lignite. It is...

M. D. Johnson M. D. Mann S. J. Galegher

1985-01-01

404

Evaluation of treated gasification wastewater as cooling tower makeup  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal goal of gasification research at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC) is to develop process and environmental data on the treatability and reuse of aqueous effluents from the fixed-bed gasification of lignite. It is the objective of the UNDERC wastewater research program to define the extent of treatment required to produce a gas liquor for

S. J. Galegher; M. D. Mann; M. D. Johnson

1985-01-01

405

High temperature electrochemical polishing of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification process stream. Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane is being developed. H{sub 2}S is removed from the syn-gas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the exiting syn-gas, and sulfur, which is condensed from an inert sweep gas stream. The process allows removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream and with negligible pressure loss through the separator. The process is made economically attractive by the lack of need for a Claus process for sulfur recovery. To this extent the project presents a novel concept for improving utilization of coal for more efficient power generation. Past experiments using this concept dealt with identifying removal of 1--2% H{sub 2}S from gases containing only H{sub 2}S in N{sub 2}, simulated natural gas, and simulated coal gas. Data obtained from these experiments resulted in extended studies into electrode kinetics and electrode stability in molten melts. The most recent experiments evaluated the polishing application (removal Of H{sub 2}S below 10 ppm) using the Electrochemical Membrane Separator (EMS). H{sub 2}S removal efficiencies over 90% were achieved at these stringent conditions of low H{sub 2}S concentrations proving the technologies polishing capabilities. Other goals include optimization of cell materials capable of improving cell performance. Once cell materials are defined, cell experiments determining maximum removal capabilities and current efficiencies will be conducted. Also, a model theoretically describing the preferred reduction of H{sub 2}S, the transport of S{sup 2{minus}}, and the competing transport of CO{sub 2} will be investigated. The model should identify the maximum current efficiency for H{sub 2}S removal, depending on variables such as flow rate, temperature, current application, and the total cell potential.

Winnick, J.

1995-08-01

406

Large block experiments in underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The process of in-situ coal gasification, while extremely simple in concept, is complicated in practice because, as the burn proceeds, the reacting volume is constantly changing geometry. In addition, the process takes place underground where it is extremely difficult to observe in detail. The five large block experiments described here were planned as a series of gasification experiments each of which was to be terminated at a fairly early stage of cavity development and examined by postburn excavation. The experiments included 1:1 and 3:1 steam:oxygen injection at two different flow-rate schedules, an air-injection burn, and a test of the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) system. The results indicate that the underground coal gasification process at this location is insensitive to changes in steam:oxygen ratios or flow rate over the range used. The burn cavities were all mostly filled with rubble and thermally altered coal.

Mill, R.W.; Thorsness, C.B.

1983-01-01

407

Large block experiments in underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The process of in-situ coal gasification, while extremely simple in concept, is complicated in practice because, as the burn proceeds, the reacting volume is constantly changing geometry. In addition, the process takes place underground where it is extremely difficult to observe in detail. The five large block experiments described here were planned as a series of gasification experiments, each of which was to be terminated at a fairly early stage of cavity development and examined by postburn excavation. The experiments included 1:1 and 3:1 steam:oxygen injection at two different flow-rate schedules, an air-injection burn, and a test of the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) system. The results indicate that the underground coal gasification process at this location is insensitive to changes in steam:oxygen ratios or flow rate over the range used. The burn cavities were all mostly filled with rubble and thermally altered coal.

Hill, R.W.; Thorsness, C.B.

1983-01-01

408

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, October 30, 1991--January 2, 1992  

SciTech Connect

During this quarter the work on Task 3, char upgrading, was in two areas; upgrading Penelec char made from Penelec filter cake to blast furnace formed coke, and evaluating various bituminous pitch binders. The formed coke from Penelec filter cake was of good quality with a high crush strength of 3000 pounds. The reactivity was not equal to that of conventional coke but it is felt that it could be made to equal conventional coke with further study, specifically by adding binder coal to the raw material recipe. The work evaluating bituminous pitch binders confirmed earlier thinking that will be valuable to a commercial scale-up. Asphalt binders are compatible with coal tar binders and produce a coke of equal quality. Hence asphalt binders can be used to supply deficiencies of tar production in units employing coals with insufficient volatile matter to supply enough tar for the coking process. Asphalt binders have about a 50% savings from coal tar pitch. During the 4th Quarter of 1991, a total of 15 Continuous Mild Gasification Unit (CMGU) test runs were made. Efforts continued to determine the optimum forward/reverse ratio to maximize coal feed rate. The success of these efforts has been limited with a maximum coal feed rate of 400 lbs/hr obtainable with a caking coal. The handicap of not having screw shaft heaters cannot be overcome by adjustment of the forward/reverse ratio.

O`Neal, G.W.

1991-12-31

409

Evaluation of advanced gas processing concepts for fluidized-bed gasification. Topical report, November 1985December 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

First-pass plant designs and cost estimates were prepared to evaluate the CNG HâS removal process, the CNG COâ removal process, and GRI's direct methanation process in the context of plants that convert western coal to 125 MMM Btu day of pipeline gas using KRW gasifiers. Four different plant designs, one prepared earlier and three developed in the study, are compared.

S. C. Smelser; R. H. Ravikumar; P. F. Mako; H. S. Tu; P. S. Wong

1989-01-01

410

A 32-month gasifier mechanistic study and downstream unit process development program for the pressurized ash-agglomerating fluidized-bed gasification system: Quarterly technical progress report, April to June 1987  

SciTech Connect

The external hot gas cleanup system at the PDU was commissioned in July 1986. From July 1986 to April 1987, three tests were completed to develop the zinc ferrite desulfurization process. In this quarter, the in-bed desulfurization system was coupled with the external hot gas cleanup system to study and evaluate PDU performance and the coal gasification and the hot gas cleanup processes while conducting tests with the integrated system. Test Plan TP-037-4 was completed in April 1989 and Test Plan TP-037-5 was initiated in June. During the reporting period, the reactivity of PDU gasifier bed samples (char/limestone or char/dolomite) was determined on the thermogravimetric analyzer. The carbon content of these samples was very low, indicating a high rate of carbon conversion. Test results showed that the gasifier bed samples are very reactive at high carbon conversion levels, thereby showing the effect of sorbent injection on the gasification rate. The effect of various operation parameters on gasifier performance during in-bed desulfurization testing at the PDU was also studied. Performance wa analyzed in terms of gasification rate and product gas composition, using the mechanistic gasifier model. A comparison of the predicted versus the measured is provided herein. Work continued to study and evaluate PDU fines recycle performance. Also included in this report are test data from PDU test TP-037-3. 66 figs., 42 tabs.

Schmidt, D.K.; Datta, S.; Haldipur, G.B.; Katta, S.; Kettering, E.; Lucas, J.L.; Smith, K.J.

1988-11-01

411

Environmental research for underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the environmental impact of underground coal gasification (UCG), conducted at the four UCG test sites at Hanna, Wyo., by the Department of Energy, Laramie Energy Technology Center, included the effects of the process gas cleanup system, the effects of migrating water on the process and the surrounding ground water, and the effects of subsidence. In phase 2 of

Virgona

1978-01-01

412

Environmental research for underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the environmental impact of underground coal gasification (UCG), conducted at the four UCG test sites at Hanna, WY, by the Department of Energy, Laramie Energy Technology Center, included the effects of the process gas cleanup system, the effects of migrating water on the process and the surrounding ground water, and the effects of subsidence. In phase 2 of

Virgona

1978-01-01

413

Coal-Gasification Modeling Workshop Proceedings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stage of development and availability of models and computer codes of gasifier and downstream process modeling efforts in surface gasification were summarized. Experimental efforts in gasification were reviewed. The applicability and availability of data for model testing and validation was determined. A responsive dialogue and feedback loop between modelers and experimentalists to improve the synergism between these complementary efforts was established and information concerning requirements to obtain gasifier and downstream process models and computer codes which are verified and validated over known operating ranges are provided.

Ghate, M.; Martin, J. W.

414

Steam Gasification of Biomass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Construction of experimental equipment for research on basic parameters involved in the steam gasification of biomass was completed. Modifications were made on the equipment to improve performance. Information obtained from preliminary runs indicated that...

1977-01-01

415

Steam Gasification of Biomass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported in the construction of the biogasifier to be used in experiments on basic parameters involved in the steam gasification of biomass. Photographs illustrating various stages in the construction are included. (ERA citation 03:014252)

1977-01-01

416

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

Not Available

1992-02-01

417

Coal gasification with internal recirculation catalysts  

SciTech Connect

One of the primary economic penalties of many catalytic coal gasification processes is recovery of the added catalysts from the spent char. For example, the EXXON catalytic coal gasification process as presently conceived, requires several stages of digestion with calcium hydroxide to recover potassium from the converted char and then the digestion only recovers between 65 and 85% of the potassium. Recently, IGT has been exploring a process concept that might avoid this complex and costly situation. In the IGT process concept, a coal gasification process with an inherent thermal gradient (e.g., Lurgi, staged fluidized-bed processes, etc.) and a catalyst that is semivolatile under gasification conditions are used. The semivolatile catalyst is sufficiently volatile at the highest temperature encountered in the lower section of the gasifier, that it is completely vaporized from the char before the char is discharged. The catalyst, however, is nonvolatile at the lowest temperature encountered in the upper section of the gasifier so that it precipitates on the cold, feed coal. The catalyst, therefore, is automatically recycled from the product char to the fresh coal and the need for catalyst recovery is eliminated. Three different materials have been undergoing testing by IGT as semivolatile catalysts. These materials were selected based on an examination of their vapor pressures and some process assumptions.

Hill, A.H.; Anderson, G.L.; Ghate, M.R.; Liou, W.

1986-01-01

418

Economic Evaluation of Gasification-Combined-Cycle Power Plants Based on the Air-Blown KILNGAS Process. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is an engineering and economic evaluation of the KILnGAS process aimed at: development of overall plant process designs based on a design philosophy consistent with other studies under EPRI RP No. 239-2; preparation of necessary flowsheets, cos...

W. W. Hsu R. E. McFarland G. P. McNamee V. Ramanathan S. J. Siddoway

1981-01-01

419

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was...

1998-01-01

420

Evaluation of Gasification and Gas-Cleanup Processes for Use in Molten-Carbonate Fuel-Cell Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This interim report satisfies the Task B requirement to define process configurations for systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants. The configurations studied include entrained, fluid...

E. J. Vidt G. Jablonski M. A. Alvin R. A. Wenglarz P. Patel

1981-01-01

421

Evaluation of advanced gas processing concepts for fluidized-bed gasification. Topical report, November 1985-December 1987  

SciTech Connect

First-pass plant designs and cost estimates were prepared to evaluate the CNG H/sub 2/S removal process, the CNG CO/sub 2/ removal process, and GRI's direct methanation process in the context of plants that convert western coal to 125 MMM Btu day of pipeline gas using KRW gasifiers. Four different plant designs, one prepared earlier and three developed in the study, are compared. The results of the evaluations indicate: CNG H/sub 2/S removal technology is competitive with Selexol H/sub 2/S removal technology, provided the process matures without significant increase in the capital costs; the concept for CNG CO/sub 2/ removal technology is noncompetitive with Selexol CO/sub 2/ removal technology; and direct methanation is quite attractive compared to conventional methanation.

Smelser, S.C.; Ravikumar, R.H.; Mako, P.F.; Tu, H.S.; Wong, P.S.

1989-01-01

422

Biomass gasification: yesterday, today, and tomorrow  

SciTech Connect

The solid fuels, biomass and coal, can be converted by gasification into clean gaseous fuels that are easier to distribute and required for many technical processes. The simplest method of conversion is air gasification, producing a low-energy gas well suited for direct-heat or engine applications but unsuitable for pipeline use. Oxygen gasification produces a medium-energy gas composed primarily of CO and H/sub 2/, which can be used industrial pipelines for operation of turbines for power and heat cogeneration or for chemical synthesis of methanol or ammonia. Steam or hydrogen gasification are also possible but external heat and energy sources are required. Slow pyrolysis produces a medium-energy gas, charcoal, and oil. Gases resulting from fast pyrolysis contain a high concentration of olefins (primarily ethylene), which are quite useful for synthesis of fuels or chemicals. This paper presents some of the most pertinent material from the three-volume SERI report, A Survey of Biomass Gasification.

Reed, T.B.

1980-03-01

423

Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas[trademark] staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may condense onto aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their exiting with the hot raw coal gas and passing through the system to the gas turbine. The management plan calls for a three phased program. The initial phase (Phase 1), includes the CRS Sinine Engineers, Inc. proprietary gasification invention called PyGas[trademark], necessary coal and limestone receiving/storage/reclaim systems to allow closely metered coal and limestone to be fed into the gasifier for testing. The coal gas is subsequently piped to and combusted in an existing burner of the Monongahela Power Fort Martin Generating Station Unit No. 2. Continuous gasification process steam is generated by a small GPIF packaged boiler using light oil fuel at startup, and by switching from light oil to coal gas after startup. The major peripheral equipment such as foundations, process water system, ash handling, ash storage silo, emergency vent pipe, building, lavatory, electrical interconnect, control room, provisions for Phases II III, and control system are all included in Phase I. A future hot gas cleanup unit conceptualized to be a zinc ferrite based fluidized bed process constitutes the following phase (Phase H). The final phase (Phase III) contemplates the addition of a combustion turbine and generator set sized to accommodate the parasitic load of the entire system.

Sadowski, R.S.; Brooks, K.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Brown, M.J.

1992-01-01

424

Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas{trademark} staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may condense onto aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their exiting with the hot raw coal gas and passing through the system to the gas turbine. The management plan calls for a three phased program. The initial phase (Phase 1), includes the CRS Sinine Engineers, Inc. proprietary gasification invention called PyGas{trademark}, necessary coal and limestone receiving/storage/reclaim systems to allow closely metered coal and limestone to be fed into the gasifier for testing. The coal gas is subsequently piped to and combusted in an existing burner of the Monongahela Power Fort Martin Generating Station Unit No. 2. Continuous gasification process steam is generated by a small GPIF packaged boiler using light oil fuel at startup, and by switching from light oil to coal gas after startup. The major peripheral equipment such as foundations, process water system, ash handling, ash storage silo, emergency vent pipe, building, lavatory, electrical interconnect, control room, provisions for Phases II & III, and control system are all included in Phase I. A future hot gas cleanup unit conceptualized to be a zinc ferrite based fluidized bed process constitutes the following phase (Phase H). The final phase (Phase III) contemplates the addition of a combustion turbine and generator set sized to accommodate the parasitic load of the entire system.

Sadowski, R.S.; Brooks, K.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Brown, M.J.

1992-11-01

425

Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic Gasification Process for Synthetic Natural Gas and Hydrogen Coproduction Year 6 - Activity 1.14 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology  

SciTech Connect

The GreatPoint Energy (GPE) concept for producing synthetic natural gas and hydrogen from coal involves the catalytic gasification of coal and carbon. GPE’s technology “refines” coal by employing a novel catalyst to “crack” the carbon bonds and transform the coal into cleanburning methane (natural gas) and hydrogen. The GPE mild “catalytic” gasifier design and operating conditions result in reactor components that are less expensive and produce pipeline-grade methane and relatively high purity hydrogen. The system operates extremely efficiently on very low cost carbon sources such as lignites, subbituminous coals, tar sands, petcoke, and petroleum residual oil. In addition, GPE’s catalytic coal gasification process eliminates troublesome ash removal and slagging problems, reduces maintenance requirements, and increases thermal efficiency, significantly reducing the size of the air separation plant (a system that alone accounts for 20% of the capital cost of most gasification systems) in the catalytic gasification process. Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale gasification facilities were used to demonstrate how coal and catalyst are fed into a fluid-bed reactor with pressurized steam and a small amount of oxygen to “fluidize” the mixture and ensure constant contact between the catalyst and the carbon particles. In this environment, the catalyst facilitates multiple chemical reactions between the carbon and the steam on the surface of the coal. These reactions generate a mixture of predominantly methane, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Product gases from the process are sent to a gas-cleaning system where CO{sub 2} and other contaminants are removed. In a full-scale system, catalyst would be recovered from the bottom of the gasifier and recycled back into the fluid-bed reactor. The by-products (such as sulfur, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2}) would be captured and could be sold to the chemicals and petroleum industries, resulting in near-zero hazardous air or water pollution. This technology would also be conducive to the efficient coproduction of methane and hydrogen while also generating a relatively pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or sequestration. Specific results of bench-scale testing in the 4- to 38-lb/hr range in the EERC pilot system demonstrated high methane yields approaching 15 mol%, with high hydrogen yields approaching 50%. This was compared to an existing catalytic gasification model developed by GPE for its process. Long-term operation was demonstrated on both Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and on petcoke feedstocks utilizing oxygen injection without creating significant bed agglomeration. Carbon conversion was greater than 80% while operating at temperatures less than 1400°F, even with the shorter-than-desired reactor height. Initial designs for the GPE gasification concept called for a height that could not be accommodated by the EERC pilot facility. More gas-phase residence time should allow the syngas to be converted even more to methane. Another goal of producing significant quantities of highly concentrated catalyzed char for catalyst recovery and material handling studies was also successful. A Pd–Cu membrane was also successfully tested and demonstrated to produce 2.54 lb/day of hydrogen permeate, exceeding the desired hydrogen permeate production rate of 2.0 lb/day while being tested on actual coal-derived syngas that had been cleaned with advanced warm-gas cleanup systems. The membranes did not appear to suffer any performance degradation after exposure to the cleaned, warm syngas over a nominal 100-hour test.

Swanson, Michael; Henderson, Ann

2012-04-01

426

Gasification Product Improvement Facility status.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is to provide a test site to support early commercialization of the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology. The design of this facility will by based on PyGas(...

R. D. Carson R. S. Sadowski W. H. Skinner V. B. Dixit R. A. Lisauskas

1994-01-01

427

Coal gasification for power generation. 2nd ed.  

SciTech Connect

The report gives an overview of the opportunities for coal gasification in the power generation industry. It provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; A description of gasification technology including processes and systems; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; An analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; A discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; An evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; A discussion of IGCC project development options; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; Profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and A description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

NONE

2006-10-15

428

Industrywide Studies Report of Westinghouse Coal Gasification PDU (Process Developing Unit), Madison, Pennsylvania on October 31, 1975. Trip Report,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An on site visit was made to a 15 ton/day process developing unit (PDU) which produces a hot, low Btu fuel gas for power generation using a combined cycle power generating facility. At the facility coal and dolomite were crushed, sized, and dried prior to...

R. J. Young

1976-01-01

429

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-one field Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) tests have been carried out in the USA since 1973, along with related theoretical, laboratory and environmental programs. The product gas quality obtained from these field tests is comparable to that of surface gasification, using either air or steam and oxygen. Cost estimates are very favorable. The UCG process is found to be quite stable: experiments run continuously. Key features of the successful US program include: careful site selection, steam-oxygen gasification, extensive use of in-situ instrumentation, and theoretical modeling. Plans for commercial implementation of the technology are under development by four groups in the USA, all using steam/oxygen injections. 19 references, 13 figures, 6 tables.

Stephens, D.R.; Thorsness, C.B.; Hill, R.W.

1984-01-19

430

A big leap forward for biomass gasification  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the McNeil Generating Station in Vermont, the first industrial scale-up of Battelle Columbus Laboratory`s biomass gasification process. The plant is part of a major US DOE initiative to demonstrate gasification of renewable biomass for electricity production. The project will integrate the Battelle high-through-put gasifier with a high-effiency gas turbine. The history of the project is described, along with an overview of the technology and the interest and resources available in Vermont that will help insure a successful project.

Moon, S.

1995-12-31

431

Fabrication of Pd/Pd-Alloy Films by Surfactant Induced Electroless Plating for Hydrogen Separation from Advanced Coal Gasification Processes  

SciTech Connect

Dense Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag composite membranes on microporous stainless steel substrate (MPSS) were fabricated by a novel electroless plating (EP) process. In the conventional Pd-EP process, the oxidation-reduction reactions between Pd-complex and hydrazine result in an evolution of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} gas bubbles. When adhered to the substrate surface and in the pores, these gas bubbles hinder uniform Pd-film deposition which results in dendrite growth leading to poor film formation. This problem was addressed by introducing cationic surfactant in the electroless plating process known as surfactant induced electroless plating (SIEP). The unique features of this innovation provide control of Pd-deposition rate, and Pd-grain size distribution. The surfactant molecules play an important role in the EP process by tailoring grain size and the process of agglomeration by removing tiny gas bubbles through adsorption at the gas-liquid interface. As a result surfactant can tailor a nanocrystalline Pd, Cu and Ag deposition in the film resulting in reduced membrane film thickness. Also, it produces a uniform, agglomerated film structure. The Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes on MPSS support were fabricated by sequential deposition using SIEP method. The pre- and post-annealing characterizations of these membranes (Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag on MPSS substrate) were carried out by SEM, EDX, XRD, and AFM studies. The SEM images show significant improvement of the membrane surface morphology, in terms of metal grain structures and grain agglomeration compared to the membranes fabricated by conventional EP process. The SEM images and helium gas-tightness studies indicate that dense and thinner films of Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes can be produced with shorter deposition time using surfactant. H{sub 2} Flux through the membranes fabricated by SIEP shows large improvement compared to those by CEP with comparable permselectivity. Pd-MPSS composite membrane was subjected to test for long term performance and thermal cycling (573 - 723 - 573 K) at 15 psi pressure drop for 1200 hours. Pd membranes showed excellent hydrogen permeability and thermal stability during the operational period. Under thermal cycling (573 K - 873 K - 573 K), Pd-Cu-MPSS membrane was stable and retained hydrogen permeation characteristics for over three months of operation. From this limited study, we conclude that SIEP is viable method for fabrication of defect-free, robust Pd-alloy membranes for high-temperature H{sub 2}-separation applications.

Ilias, Shamsuddin; Kumar, Dhananjay

2012-07-31

432

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, July--September 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is important that a mild gasification reactor interface easily with the subsequent product upgrading steps in which the market value of the products is enhanced. Upgrading and marketing of the char are critical to the overall economics of a mild gasifi...

G. W. O'Neal

1993-01-01

433

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

NONE

1998-12-31

434

Biological treatment of Hygas coal gasification wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eight month experimental study was performed to assess biological treatability characteristics of Hygas coal gasification process pilot plant wastewater comprised of cyclone and quench condensates. The study evaluated treatability characteristics of ammonia stripped and unstripped wastewater at full strength and at 1:1 dilution. It was determined that minimum pretreatment required for biological oxidation consisted of reducing wastewater alkalinity, and

R. G. Luthy; J. T. Tallon

1978-01-01

435

Natural pyrometamorphism: relevance to underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although 28 underground coal gasification (UCG) tests have been conducted since the early 1970s in the US, only limited information is available concerning the nature and formation of high-temperature, low-pressure alteration products in adjacent noncoal geologic materials - information basic to the evaluation of key process and environmental questions. A comprehensive literature search, conducted as part of the Gas Research

D. J. Daly; R. F. Stevenson; G. J. McCarthy

1988-01-01

436

Gasification Product Improvement Facility status  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded a two phase contract for the construction of a Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) to develop an innovative air blown, dry bottom, pressurized fixed bed gasifier based on the patented PyGas{trademark} fixed bed process. The objective of the project is to provide a test site to support early commercialization of the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology. The GPIF will be capable of processing run of mine high swelling coals that comprise 87% of all Eastern US coals. This program will generate useful scale up data that will be utilized to develop commercial size designs. The project will also support the development of a hot gas clean up subsystem and the gasifier infrastructure consisting of controls, special instrumentation and interconnects with Allegheny Power System`s host power plant, Fort Martin Station in Maidesville, West Virginia. This paper presents the status of the GPIF project. It describes the work performed in the past year on the PyGas process development, gasifier design, plant engineering/layout, tie in with the existing Fort Martin facility, procurement, site permitting and project scheduling.

Carson, R.D.; Dixit, V.B.; Sadowski, R.S.; Thamaraichelvan, P.; Culberson, H.

1995-11-01

437

Coal gasification. March 1972-January 1990 (A Bibliography from the US Patent data base). Report for March 1972-January 1990  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning devices and processes used in the gasification of coals. Coal-gasification processes, catalysts, and catalyst recovery; desulfurization during gasification; heating methods; pretreatment of coals; process variables; heat recovery; and peripheral equipment are cited. Examples of gasification processes include catalytic systems using alkali metals, stream decomposition, air or oxygen decomposition, thermal cracking, coal-water suspension systems, arc-discharge burning, and fluidized-bed gasification. Liquefaction of coal is examined in a related published bibliography. (Contains 214 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-03-01

438

Development of Highly Durable and Reactive Regenerable Magnesium-Based Sorbents for CO2 Separation in Coal Gasification Process  

SciTech Connect

The specific objective of this project was to develop physically durable and chemically regenerable MgO-based sorbents that can remove carbon dioxide from raw coal gas at operating condition prevailing in IGCC processes. A total of sixty two (62) different sorbents were prepared in this project. The sorbents were prepared either by various sol-gel techniques (22 formulations) or modification of dolomite (40 formulations). The sorbents were prepared in the form of pellets and in granular forms. The solgel based sorbents had very high physical strength, relatively high surface area, and very low average pore diameter. The magnesium content of the sorbents was estimated to be 4-6 % w/w. To improve the reactivity of the sorbents toward CO{sub 2}, The sorbents were impregnated with potassium salts. The potassium content of the sorbents was about 5%. The dolomite-based sorbents were prepared by calcination of dolomite at various temperature and calcination environment (CO{sub 2} partial pressure and moisture). Potassium carbonate was added to the half-calcined dolomite through wet impregnation method. The estimated potassium content of the impregnated sorbents was in the range of 1-6% w/w. In general, the modified dolomite sorbents have significantly higher magnesium content, larger pore diameter and lower surface area, resulting in significantly higher reactivity compared to the sol-gel sorbents. The reactivities of a number of sorbents toward CO{sub 2} were determined in a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) unit. The results indicated that at the low CO{sub 2} partial pressures (i.e., 1 atm), the reactivities of the sorbents toward CO{sub 2} are very low. At elevated pressures (i.e., CO{sub 2} partial pressure of 10 bar) the maximum conversion of MgO obtained with the sol-gel based sorbents was about 5%, which corresponds to a maximum CO{sub 2} absorption capacity of less than 1%. The overall capacity of modified dolomite sorbents were at least one order of magnitude higher than those of the sol-gel based sorbents. The results of the tests conducted with various dolomite-based sorbent indicate that the reactivity of the modified dolomite sorbent increases with increasing potassium concentration, while higher calcination temperature adversely affects the sorbent reactivity. Furthermore, the results indicate that as long as the absorption temperature is well below the equilibrium temperature, the reactivity of the sorbent improves with increasing temperature (350-425 C). As the temperature approaches the equilibrium temperature, because of the significant increase in the rate of reverse (i.e., regeneration) reaction, the rate of CO{sub 2} absorption decreases. The results of cyclic tests show that the reactivity of the sorbent gradually decreases in the cyclic process. To improve long-term durability (i.e., reactivity and capacity) of the sorbent, the sorbent was periodically re-impregnated with potassium additive and calcined. The results indicate that, in general, re-treatment improves the performance of the sorbent, and that, the extent of improvement gradually decreases in the cyclic process. The presence of steam significantly enhances the sorbent reactivity and significantly decreases the rate of decline in sorbent deactivation in the cyclic process.

Javad Abbasian; Armin Hassanzadeh Khayyat; Rachid B. Slimane

2005-06-01

439

Biomass gasification reaction velocities  

SciTech Connect

The propagation of gaseous flames is determined by the flame velocity, V/sub f/ (the rate at which the flame propagates into the unburned fuel/oxidant). In the same way, gasification of solid fuels depends on the gasification reaction velocity (V/sub r), the rate at which the reaction interface can move into the unreacted solid fuel. We have developed a simple laboratory transparent downdraft gasifier for measuring this velocity for a variety of fuels and conditions. Air or oxygen is drawn down through a 5-cm-diameter quartz tube. If the reaction zone remains stationary in the tube, V/sub r/ is simply the volumetric feed rate. For some input conditions, the position of the incandescent reaction zone is quite stable in the quartz tube. This position depends on the relative rates of production of charcoal by pyrolysis of the biomass and gasification of the charcoal by the pyrolysis combustion gases and can move up or down, depending on conditions. In an uninsulated tube the zone may move down indicating that the char gasification rate exceeds the pyrolysis rate. Adding insulation to the tube increases the tendency for the zone to move up, indicating that the pyrolysis rate is faster than the gasification rate. In practical gasifiers it is necessary to stabilize the reaction front such that the propagation rate equals the feed rate. A number of methods of stabilizing this front have been found. We believe the data and observations presented here help form the basis for a model of downdraft biomass gasification which is significantly different from previous models, and we are continuing to gather data for this model.

Reed, T.B.; Markson, M.

1983-09-01

440

Design of advanced fossil-fuel systems (DAFFS): a study of three developing technologies for coal-fired, base-load electric power generation. Integrated coal-gasification/combined power plant with BGC/Lurgi gasification process  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to present the facility description, plant layouts and additional information which define the conceptual engineering design, and performance and cost estimates for the BGC/Lurgi Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant. Following the introductory comments, the results of the British Gas Corporation (BGC)/Lurgi IGCC power plant study are summarized in Section 2. In Secion 3, a description of plant systems and facilities is provided. Section 4 includes pertinent performance information and assessments of availability, natural resource requirements and environmental impact. Estimates of capital costs, operating and maintenance costs and cost of electricity are presented in Section 5. A Bechtel Group Inc. (BGI) assessment and comments on the designs provided by Burns and Roe-Humphreys and Glasgow Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (BRHG) are included in Section 6. The design and cost estimate reports which were prepared by BRHG for those items within their scope of responsibility are included as Appendices A and B, respectively. Apendix C is an equipment list for items within the BGI scope. The design and cost estimate classifications chart referenced in Section 5 is included as Appendix D. 8 references, 18 figures, 5 tables.

Not Available

1983-06-01

441

Single-stage fluidized-bed gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The single-stage fluidized-bed gasification process, in addition to being a simple system, maximizes gas production and allows the economic exploitation of small peat deposits. The objective of this gasification project is to conduct experiments in order to obtain data for designing a single-stage fluidized-bed gasifier, and to evaluate the economics of converting peat to synthesis gas and to SNG by this process. An existing high-temperature and high-pressure process development unit (PDU) was modified to permit the direct feeding of peat to the fluidized bed. Peat flows by gravity from the feed hopper through a 6-inch line to the screw-feeder conveyor. From there, it is fed to the bottom tee section of the reactor and transported into the gasification zone. Oxygen and steam are fed through a distributing ring into the reactor. Gasification reactions occur in the annulus formed by the reactor tube and a central standpipe. Peat ash is discharged from the reactor by overflowing into the standpipe and is collected in a solids receiver.

Lau, F. S.; Rue, D. M.; Weil, S. A.; Punwani, D. V.

1982-04-01

442

Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project  

SciTech Connect

The Destec gasification process features an oxygen-blown, two stage entrained flow gasifier. PSI will procure coal for the Project consistent with the design specification ranges of Destec's coal gasification facility. Destec's plant will be designed to accept coal with a maximum sulfur content of 5.9% (dry basis) and a minimum energy content of 13,5000 BTU/pound (moisture and ash free basis). PSI and Destec will test at least two other coals for significant periods during the demonstration period. In the Destec process, coal is ground with water to form a slurry. It is then pumped into a gasification vessel where oxygen is added to form a hot raw gas through partial combustion. Most of the noncarbon material in the coal melts and flows out the bottom of the vessel forming slag -- a black, glassy, non-leaching, sand-like material. Particulates, sulfur and other impurities are removed from the gas before combustion to make it acceptable fuel for the gas turbine. The synthetic fuel gas (syngas) is piped to a General Electric MS 7001F high temperature combustion turbine generator. A heat recovery steam generator recovers gas turbine exhaust heat to produce high pressure steam. This steam and the steam generated in the gasification process supply an existing steam turbine-generator. The plant will be designed to outperform air emission standards established by the Clean Air Act Amendments for the year 2000.

Amick, P.; Mann, G.J.; Cook, J.J.; Fisackerly, R.; Spears, R.C.

1992-01-01

443

Mathematical-modeling studies of in-situ coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Commercialization of the in-situ or underground coal gasification (UCG) process has been impeded because of uncertainties with respect to its reliability and predictability. Modeling studies when combined with a well-designed field test program are the only avenue to a proper understanding of this technology. This paper reviews the latest developments in four important facets of the UCG process: reverse-combustion linking; gasification and resource recovery; water influx; and subsidence.

Krantz, W.B.; Gunn, R.D.

1983-01-01

444

Westinghouse coal gasification combined cycle system for electric utility application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Westinghouse coal gasification process and its application to combined cycle plants for electric utility use is presented. The process permits the conversion of coal in an efficient, economical and environmentally acceptable manner, to low-or medium-Btu gas for utility and industrial use. Basically, the combined cycle plant design incorporates an air-blown, fluidized bed gasification system, a combustion turbine system and

F. Gigliotti; R. M. Stavsky; M. Carrington

1981-01-01

445

Modeling and optimization of a modified claus process as part of an integrted gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture  

SciTech Connect

The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Due to these criteria, modifications are often required to the conventional process, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO2 capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant such as rapid change in the feed flowrates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus furnace, a four-stage method was devised so as to determine which set of linearly independent reactions would best describe the product distributions from available plant data. Various approaches are taken to derive the kinetic rate expressions which are either missing in the open literature or found to be inconsistent. A set of plant data is used for optimal estimation of the kinetic parameters. The final model agrees well with the published plant data. Using the developed kinetics models of the Claus reaction furnace, WHB, and catalytic stages, two optimization studies are carried out. The first study shows that there exists an optimal steam pressure generated in the WHB that balances hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In the second study, it is shown that an optimal H2S/SO2 ratio exists that balances single-pass conversion, hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In addition, an operability study has been carried out to examine the operating envelope in which both H2S/SO2 ratio and adiabatic flame temperature can be controlled in the face of disturbances typical for the operation of an IGCC power plant with CO2 capture. Impact of CO2 capture on the Claus process has also been discussed.

Jones, D.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

2011-01-01

446

GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION  

SciTech Connect

A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

2000-05-01

447

Control aspects of underground coal gasification: LLL investigations of ground-water and subsidence effects. [Hoe Creek I and II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our investigations are designed to evaluate some of the environmental implications of in situ coal gasification, and to identify appropriate environmental controls. Changes in ground-water quality and the possible effects of subsidence and ground movement induced by the underground gasification cavity represent significant environmental concerns associated with the in situ gasification process. We have measured these effects at the site

S. W. Mead; F. T. Wang; H. C. Ganow

1978-01-01

448

Termisk foergasning och gasrening foer energiproduktion ur avfall. Experimentella studied av gasrening samt process- och miljoestudie. (Thermal gasification and gas cleaning for energy production from refuse. Experimental studies of gas cleaning and study of processes and environment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To generate and improve the understanding of catalysis (tar and ammonia conversion) and of absorbtion (mainly of hydrochloride) when using dolomite as a gas cleaning agent for gas from thermal gasification of RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel), laboratory experime...

C. Ekstroem B. G. Espenaes H. Alden

1990-01-01

449

Plasma gasification of waste as a method of energy saving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several versions of the organizations of the process of plasma-chemical gasification with the use of air, carbon dioxide, steam and their mixtures as the plasma-forming gas are considered in the presentation. The results of the calculation-theoretical evaluations of the quality of synthesis gas and efficiency of gasification, and also the results of experiments on plasma gasification of wood waste carried out on the experimental IEE RAS test-bench are given. The results of calculations are compared with experimental data.

Popov, V. E.; Bratsev, A. N.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Shtengel, S. V.; Ufimtsev, A. A.

2011-01-01

450

Chemistry of coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is a complex solid material containing a mixture of substances that chemically consist mostly of carbon with lesser amounts of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and ash. Gasification is the conversion of solid coal to combustible gases by combining the carbon with additional oxygen and\\/or hydrogen. Although thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) can produce gaseous fuels, they are usually produced by reaction

Vorres

1982-01-01

451

Evaluation of pollution control in fossil fuel conversion processes. Gasification: section 5. BI-GAS process. Final report, Jun 1972Aug 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of a review of the Bituminous Coal Research, Inc. BI-GAS Process, from the standpoint of its effect on the environment. The quantities of solid, liquid, and gaseous effluents were estimated, where possible, as well as the thermal efficiency of the process. For the purpose of reducing environmental impact, a number of possible process modifications or alternatives

Jahnig

1975-01-01

452

Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the microorganisms used to deal with tars are selected and pre-conditioned to the tar environment. Overall, the results provided a basis for operational and design strategy for a combined gasification system but further study is recommended such as determination of the impacts in terms of emissions, power, efficiency and costs associated with the use of producer gas-enriched biogas taking advantage of hydrogen enrichment to reduce NOx and other pollutants in reciprocating engines and other energy conversion systems.

Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

453

GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I  

SciTech Connect

Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

2001-12-01

454

Conceptual design report -- Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)  

SciTech Connect

The problems heretofore with coal gasification and IGCC concepts have been their high cost and historical poor performance of fixed-bed gasifiers, particularly on caking coals. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is being developed to solve these problems through the development of a novel coal gasification invention which incorporates pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification (fixed-bed). It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration caused in the conventional process of gradually heating coal through the 400 F to 900 F range. In so doing, the coal is rapidly heated sufficiently such that the coal tar exists in gaseous form rather than as a liquid. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can become chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NH{sub 3} and HCN from fuel born nitrogen, steam injection is minimized, and residual nitrogen compounds are partially chemically reduced in the cracking stage in the upper gasifier region. Assuming testing confirms successful deployment of all these integrated processes, future IGCC applications will be much simplified, require significantly less mechanical components, and will likely achieve the $1,000/kWe commercialized system cost goal of the GPIF project. This report describes the process and its operation, design of the plant and equipment, site requirements, and the cost and schedule. 23 refs., 45 figs., 23 tabs.

Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; House, L.S.; Duck, R.R. [CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Lisauskas, R.A.; Dixit, V.J. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States); Morgan, M.E.; Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States). PowerServe Div.; Boni, A.A. [PSI-Environmental Instruments Corp., Andover, MA (United States)

1994-09-01

455

Environmental effects of in situ coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of avialable engineering, geological and operating data on underground coal gasification indicates that this process can cause significant air and water pollution and land subsidence. Of the possible impacts, groundwater pollution is the most serious. Modeling studies and large-scale field tests are needed to determine the long-term fate of pollutants and the degree of restoration required before UCG can become a commercial process.

Humenick, M.J.; Edgar, T.F.; Charbeneau, R.J.

1983-01-01

456

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

SciTech Connect

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from January 1, 2003 through March 31, 2003. Phase I Task 6 activities of Preliminary Site Analysis were documented and reported as a separate Topical Report on February 2003. Most of the other technical activities were on hold pending on DOE's announcement of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) awards. WMPI was awarded one of the CCPI projects in late January 2003 to engineer, construct and operate a first-of-kind gasification/liquefaction facility in the U.S. as a continued effort for the current WMPI EECP engineering feasibility study. Since then, project technical activities were focused on: (1) planning/revising the existing EECP work scope for transition into CCPI, and (2) ''jump starting'' all environmentally related work in pursue of NEPA and PA DEP permitting approval.

John W. Rich

2003-06-01

457

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the

Yaw D. Yeboah; Yong Xu; Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal

2001-01-01

458

High temperature steam gasification of solid wastes: Characteristics and kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greater use of renewable energy sources is of pinnacle importance especially with the limited reserves of fossil fuels. It is expected that future energy use will have increased utilization of different energy sources, including biomass, municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes, agricultural wastes and other low grade fuels. Gasification is a good practical solution to solve the growing problem of landfills, with simultaneous energy extraction and nonleachable