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Sample records for theory torsional angular

  1. Can Torsion Play a Role in Angular Momentum Conservation Law ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yishi; Jiang, Ying

    1999-01-01

    In Einstein-Cartan theory, by the use of the general Noether theorem, the general covariant angular-momentum conservation law is obtained with the respect to the local Lorentz transformations. The corresponding conservative Noether current is interpreted as the angular momentum tensor of the gravity-matter system including the spin density. It is pointed out that, assuming the tetrad transformation given by eq. (15), torsion tensor can not play a role in the conservation law of angular momentum.

  2. Can Gravity Probe B usefully constrain torsion gravity theories?

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, Eanna E.; Rosenthal, Eran

    2007-06-15

    In most theories of gravity involving torsion, the source for torsion is the intrinsic spin of matter. Since the spins of fermions are normally randomly oriented in macroscopic bodies, the amount of torsion generated by macroscopic bodies is normally negligible. However, in a recent paper, Mao et al. (arXiv:gr-qc/0608121) point out that there is a class of theories, including the Hayashi-Shirafuji (1979) theory, in which the angular momentum of macroscopic spinning bodies generates a significant amount of torsion. They further argue that, by the principle of action equals reaction, one would expect the angular momentum of test bodies to couple to a background torsion field, and therefore the precession of the Gravity Probe B gyroscopes should be affected in these theories by the torsion generated by the Earth. We show that in fact the principle of action equals reaction does not apply to these theories, essentially because the torsion is not an independent dynamical degree of freedom. We examine in detail a generalization of the Hayashi-Shirafuji theory suggested by Mao et al. called Einstein-Hayashi-Shirafuji theory. There are a variety of different versions of this theory, depending on the precise form of the coupling to matter chosen for the torsion. We show that, for any coupling to matter that is compatible with the spin transport equation postulated by Mao et al., the theory has either ghosts or an ill-posed initial-value formulation. These theoretical problems can be avoided by specializing the parameters of the theory and in addition choosing the standard minimal coupling to matter of the torsion tensor. This yields a consistent theory, but one in which the action equals reaction principle is violated, and in which the angular momentum of the gyroscopes does not couple to the Earth's torsion field. Thus, the Einstein-Hayashi-Shirafuji theory does not predict a detectable torsion signal for Gravity Probe B. There may be other torsion theories which do.

  3. Coupling a small torsional oscillator to large optical angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hao; Bhattacharya, Mishkatul

    2013-05-01

    We propose a new optomechanical system to achieve torsional optomechanics. Our system is composed of a windmill-shaped dielectric optically trapped within a cavity interacting with Laguerre-Gaussian cavity modes with both angular and radial nodes. Compared to existing configurations, our proposal enables small mechanical oscillators to interact with the in-principle unlimited orbital angular momentum that can be carried by a single photon, and therefore allows the generation of scalable optomechanical coupling. Supported by Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

  4. 35. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL MOTION FROM EAST TOWER SHOWING ANGULAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL MOTION FROM EAST TOWER SHOWING ANGULAR DISTORTION APPROACHING 45 DEGREES WITH LAMP POSTS APPEARING TO BE AT EIGHT ANGLES, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MN FILM SHOT BY PROFESSOR F.B. FARQUHARSON, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON. (LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE TACOMA NARROWS BRIDGE, AT UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON SEATTLE: UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 1941) - Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Spanning Narrows at State Route 16, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  5. Angular Momentum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louck, James

    Angular momentum theory is presented from the viewpoint of the group SU(1) of unimodular unitary matrices of order two. This is the basic quantum mechanical rotation group for implementing the consequences of rotational symmetry into isolated complex physical systems, and gives the structure of the angular momentum multiplets of such systems. This entails the study of representation functions of SU(2), the Lie algebra of SU(2) and copies thereof, and the associated Wigner-Clebsch-Gordan coefficients, Racah coefficients, and 1n-j coefficients, with an almost boundless set of inter-relations, and presentations of the associated conceptual framework. The relationship to the rotation group in physical 3-space is given in detail. Formulas are often given in a compendium format with brief introductions on their physical and mathematical content. A special effort is made to inter-relate the material to the special functions of mathematics and to the combinatorial foundations of the subject.

  6. Improving the measurement sensitivity of angular deflection of a torsion pendulum by an electrostatic spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Y. Z.; Fang, L.; Luo, J.; Yin, H.; Zhou, Z. B.

    2015-09-01

    The torsion pendulum is widely employed in gravitational experiments as a weak force sensitive instrument, and its resolution is limited by the thermal noise of the pendulum and detection noise of angular deflection. Different kinds of angular deflection transducers are proposed and realized to improve its resolution. A torsion pendulum combined with an electrostatic spring is proposed here in order to improve the measurement sensitivity of angular deflection. Noise analysis and demonstration experiments show that the electrostatic torsion pendulum can relax the requirement of angular deflection detection, which is useful for gravitational experiments with much higher precision requirements.

  7. The torsion cosmology in Kaluza–Klein theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Songbai; Jing, Jiliang E-mail: jljing@hunnu.edu.cn

    2009-09-01

    We have studied the torsion cosmology model in Kaluza–Klein theory. We considered two simple models in which the torsion vectors are A{sub μ} = (α,0,0,0) and A{sub μ} = a(t){sup 2}(0,β,β,β), respectively. For the first model, the accelerating expansion of the Universe can be not explained without dark energy which is similar to that in the standard cosmology. But for the second model, we find that without dark energy the effect of torsion can give rise to the accelerating expansion of the universe and the alleviation of the well-known age problem of the three old objects for appropriated value of the model parameter β. These outstanding features of the second torsion cosmology model have been supported by the Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) data.

  8. Feedback control of torsion balance in measurement of gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method

    SciTech Connect

    Quan, Li-Di; School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 ; Xue, Chao; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Yang, Shan-Qing; Tu, Liang-Cheng; Luo, Jun; Wang, Yong-Ji

    2014-01-15

    The performance of the feedback control system is of central importance in the measurement of the Newton's gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method. In this paper, a PID (Proportion-Integration-Differentiation) feedback loop is discussed in detail. Experimental results show that, with the feedback control activated, the twist angle of the torsion balance is limited to 7.310{sup ?7} rad /?( Hz ) at the signal frequency of 2?mHz, which contributes a 0.4 ppm uncertainty to the G value.

  9. On discrete symmetries and torsion homology in F-theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayrhofer, Christoph; Palti, Eran; Till, Oskar; Weigand, Timo

    2015-06-01

    We study the relation between discrete gauge symmetries in F-theory compactifications and torsion homology on the associated Calabi-Yau manifold. Focusing on the simplest example of a symmetry, we show that there are two physically distinct ways that such a discrete gauge symmetry can arise. First, compactifications of M-Theory on Calabi-Yau threefolds which support a genus-one fibration with a bi-section are known to be dual to six-dimensional F-theory vacua with a gauge symmetry. We show that the resulting five-dimensional theories do not have a symmetry but that the latter emerges only in the F-theory decompactification limit. Accordingly the genus-one fibred Calabi-Yau manifolds do not exhibit torsion in homology. Associated to the bi-section fibration is a Jacobian fibration which does support a section. Compactifying on these related but distinct varieties does lead to a symmetry in five dimensions and, accordingly, we find explicitly an associated torsion cycle. We identify the expected particle and membrane system of the discrete symmetry in terms of wrapped M2 and M5 branes and present a field-theory description of the physics for both cases in terms of circle reductions of six-dimensional theories. Our results and methods generalise straightforwardly to larger discrete symmetries and to four-dimensional compactifications.

  10. Nonlinear Fierz-Pauli theory from torsion and bigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deffayet, C.; Randjbar-Daemi, S.

    2011-08-01

    The nonlinear aspects of a recently proposed model of massive spin-2 particles with propagating torsion are studied. We obtain a nonlinear equation which reduces at linear order to a generalized Fierz-Pauli equation in any background space-time with or without a vanishing torsion. We contrast those results with properties of a class of bigravity theories in an arbitrary background Einstein manifold. It is known that the nonperturbative spectrum of the bigravity model has 8 propagating physical degrees of freedom. This is identical to the physical propagating degrees of freedom of the massive spin-2 torsion model at the linearized order. The obtained nonlinear version of the Fierz-Pauli field equations, however, contains terms absent in the bigravity case which indicates that the curved space generalization of the unique flat space Fierz-Pauli equation is not unique. Moreover, in the torsion massive gravity model the Fierz-Pauli field appears as a derivative of fundamental fields. This, however, does not generate any unwanted pole once coupled to some external sources.

  11. Can a macroscopic gyroscope feel torsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeger, W. R.; Yasskin, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    We demonstrate that for a large class of Lagrangian-based torsion theories a macroscopic gyroscope is insensitive to the torsion field: there can be no coupling of the torsion to the gyroscope's angular momentum of rotation. To detect torsion a polarized system with a net elementary particle spin is needed. These conclusions are evident from the conservation laws, which form the basis for deriving the equations of motion.

  12. Models and theory for precompound angular distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Pohl, B.A.; Remington, B.A. ); Scobel, W.; Trabandt, M. . 1. Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik); Byrd, R.C. ); Foster, C.C. ); Bonetti, R.; Chiesa, C. . Ist. di Fisica Generale Applicata); Grimes, S.M. (Ohio Univ

    1990-06-06

    We compare angular distributions calculated by folding nucleon- nucleon scattering kernels, using the theory of Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin, and the systematics of Kalbach, with a wide range of data. The data range from (n,xn) at 14 MeV incident energy to (p,xn) at 160 MeV incident energy. The FKK theory works well with one adjustable parameter, the depth of the nucleon-nucleon interaction potential. The systematics work well when normalized to the hybrid model single differential cross section prediction. The nucleon- nucleon scattering approach seems inadequate. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Thermal Properties of SiCp/Al Composites Consolidated by Equal Channel Angular Pressing and Torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Chen-hao; Li, Ping; Xue, Ke-min

    2015-02-01

    Powder mixture of pure Al and oxidized SiC was consolidated into SiCp/Al composites by equal channel angular pressing and torsion (ECAP-T). The influences of several parameters on the thermal expansions, the thermal conductivities, and the recrystallization temperatures of the as-consolidated composites were studied. These parameters are the number of ECAP-T passes (1, 2, and 4), the content of SiC (10, 20, and 40 wt.%), and the fabrication temperature (150, 250, and 350 C). The results show that increasing the number of ECAP-T passes has a positive effect on depressing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the composite within a certain temperature range, since the total variation amplitude of the CTE is enlarged. The CTE can also be decreased by increasing the content of SiC. The number of ECAP-T passes and the contents of SiC in the composites are both positively related with the thermal conductivity of the composites. No direct relationship between the fabrication temperature and the thermal properties was detected. However, the composite fabricated at too low temperature (150 C) can not obtain full densification, leading to the appearance of low CTE and thermal conductivity. Finally, when the number of ECAP-T passes is elevated from 2 to 4, the recrystallization temperature of the composite has an obvious declination.

  14. Hyperscaling violating black holes in scalar-torsion theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofinas, Georgios

    2015-10-01

    We study a gravity theory where a scalar field with potential, beyond its minimal coupling, is also coupled through a nonminimal derivative coupling with the torsion scalar which is the teleparallel equivalent of Einstein gravity. This theory provides second order equations of motion and we find large-distance, nonperturbative, static, spherically symmetric four-dimensional solutions. Among them a general class of black hole solutions is found for some range of the parameters/integration constants with asymptotics of the form of hyperscaling violating Lifshitz spacetime with spherical horizon topology. Although the scalar field diverges at the horizon, its energy density and pressures are finite there. From the astrophysical point of view, this solution provides extra deflection of light compared to the Newtonian deflection.

  15. Constraining torsion with Gravity Probe B

    SciTech Connect

    Mao Yi; Guth, Alan H.; Cabi, Serkan; Tegmark, Max

    2007-11-15

    It is well-entrenched folklore that all torsion gravity theories predict observationally negligible torsion in the solar system, since torsion (if it exists) couples only to the intrinsic spin of elementary particles, not to rotational angular momentum. We argue that this assumption has a logical loophole which can and should be tested experimentally, and consider nonstandard torsion theories in which torsion can be generated by macroscopic rotating objects. In the spirit of action=reaction, if a rotating mass like a planet can generate torsion, then a gyroscope would be expected to feel torsion. An experiment with a gyroscope (without nuclear spin) such as Gravity Probe B (GPB) can test theories where this is the case. Using symmetry arguments, we show that to lowest order, any torsion field around a uniformly rotating spherical mass is determined by seven dimensionless parameters. These parameters effectively generalize the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism and provide a concrete framework for further testing Einstein's general theory of relativity (GR). We construct a parametrized Lagrangian that includes both standard torsion-free GR and Hayashi-Shirafuji maximal torsion gravity as special cases. We demonstrate that classic solar system tests rule out the latter and constrain two observable parameters. We show that Gravity Probe B is an ideal experiment for further constraining nonstandard torsion theories, and work out the most general torsion-induced precession of its gyroscope in terms of our torsion parameters.

  16. String Theory backgrounds with Torsion in the presence of Fermions and implications for Leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Sarben

    2015-07-01

    Fermions couple in a universal way to the the Kalb-Ramond field which occurs in the gravitational multiplet of string theory. The Kalb-Ramond field is a source of torsion and can provide a background for fermion dynamics. Solutions for this background in terms of the string effective action are discussed and are fixed points of conformal invariance conditions. Nonperturbative fixed points for the torsion in the absence of matter are shown to be compatible with perturbative fixed points in the presence of matter. Fermion coupling to such backgrounds can lead to both CP and CPT violation. Hence torsion can give a new mechanism for leptogenesis. The presence of anomalies in the Bianchi identity for the torsion, in the presence of matter, is crucial in giving a background solution for the torsion and dilaton with an acceptable cosmology.

  17. Exaptation and torsion: toward a theory of natural information processing.

    PubMed

    Kirby, K G

    1998-04-01

    Several conundrums are provoked by attempts to provide algorithmic descriptions of natural phenomena. A characteristic feature of natural computation is a breakdown in the formal simulation relation. This is called hermeneutic torsion, and is formally the failure to commute of a diagram describing homomorphisms between dynamical systems. This torsion is a source of computational power. For example, it is deeply involved with phenomena such as exaptation, wherein an existing structure is recruited for a novel function. Exaptation occurs continually at the macromolecular level and is fundamentally nonalgorithmic; our system-theoretic models of computation deal with structural descriptions for which a functional semantics must be assigned in advance, and a natural system continually 'diagonalizes out' of this semantics. This perspective clarifies the nature of computing power and encourages consideration of a new kind of transcomputational complexity. PMID:9648677

  18. REVIEW ARTICLE: Angular selective window coatings: theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbise, G. W.; LeBellac, D.; Niklasson, G. A.; Granqvist, C. G.

    1997-08-01

    This review is devoted to the angular selectivity that can be obtained in thin films prepared under conditions such that they contain inclined absorbing regions of sizes much smaller than the wavelength of visible light. The films are of considerable interest as window coatings for energy-conscious architecture and, potentially, in the automotive sector. The theoretical basis for modelling the optical properties is presented, comprising rigorous bounds on the dielectric function, effective medium theories pertinent to different microgeometries and equations for treating the optics of anisotropic thin films. Experimental data are reported for films made by oblique-angle evaporation of Cr and for reactive and non-reactive oblique-angle sputtering of Cr, Al, Ti and W. The highest angular selectivity was obtained with evaporated Cr, whereas the highest luminous transmittance, combined with some angular selectivity, was found with reactively sputtered Al. Films made from Ti showed angular selectivity mainly in the infrared, whereas films made from W could display angular selective electrochromism. Samples of several types were subjected to elaborate theoretical analysis using effective-medium theories and it was seen that theory and experiment could be reconciled using plausible parameters to specify the microstructures of the films. Thus it appears that the angular, spectral and polarization dependences of obliquely deposited films can be understood, at least approximately, in terms of conceptually simple theoretical models.

  19. Torsional instability of carbon nano-peapods based on the nonlocal elastic shell theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asghari, M.; Rafati, J.; Naghdabadi, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a shell formulation is proposed for analyzing the torsional instability of carbon nano-peapods (CNPs), i.e., the hybrid structures composed of C60 fullerenes encapsulated inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs), based on the nonlocal elasticity theory. The nonlocal elasticity theory, as a well-known non-classical continuum theory, is capable to capture small scale effects which appear due to the discontinuities in nano-structures. Based on the derived formulation, the critical torsional moments for a pristine (10,10) CNT and C60@(10,10) CNP are investigated as case studies. The results for the (10,10) CNT are compared with those of the available molecular dynamics simulations in the literature, and accordingly the appropriate value of the small scale coefficient appearing in the constitutive equations of the nonlocal theory is estimated for CNTs. Then, the critical torsional moment for the C60@(10,10) CNP is predicted. It is observed that the presence of the encapsulated C60 fullerenes inside the (10,10) CNT causes an increase in the torsional instability resistance of the CNT more than 100%.

  20. Standard electroweak interactions in gravitational theory with chameleon field and torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. N.; Wellenzohn, M.

    2015-04-01

    We propose a version of a gravitational theory with a torsion field, induced by the chameleon field. Following Hojman et al. [Phys. Rev. D 17, 3141 (1976)], the results obtained in Phys. Rev. D 90, 045040 (2014) are generalized by extending Einstein gravity to Einstein-Cartan gravity with a torsion field as a gradient of the chameleon field through a modification of the local gauge invariance of minimal coupling in the Weinberg-Salam electroweak model. The contributions of the chameleon (torsion) field to the observables of electromagnetic and weak processes are calculated. Since in our approach the chameleon-photon coupling constant ?? is equal to the chameleon-matter coupling constant ? , i.e., ??=? , the experimental constraints on ? obtained in terrestrial laboratories by T. Jenke et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 115105 (2014)] and by H. Lemmel et al. [Phys. Lett. B 743, 310 (2015)]can be used for the analysis of astrophysical sources of chameleons, proposed by C. Burrage et al. [Phys. Rev. D 79, 044028 (2009)], A.-C. Davis et al. [Phys. Rev. D 80, 064016 (2009)], and in references therein, where chameleons induce photons because of direct chameleon-photon transitions in the magnetic fields.

  1. Gyrokinetic theory and simulation of angular momentum transport

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J.; Hinton, F. L.

    2007-12-15

    A gyrokinetic theory of turbulent toroidal angular momentum transport as well as modifications to neoclassical poloidal rotation from turbulence is formulated starting from the fundamental six-dimensional kinetic equation. The gyro-Bohm scaled transport is evaluated from toroidal delta-f gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code [Candy and Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)]. The simulations recover two pinch mechanisms in the radial transport of toroidal angular momentum: The slab geometry ExB shear pinch [Dominguez and Staebler, Phys. Fluids B 5, 387 (1993)] and the toroidal geometry 'Coriolis' pinch [Peeters, Angioni, and Strintzi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265003 (2007)]. The pinches allow the steady state null stress (or angular momentum transport flow) condition required to understand intrinsic (or spontaneous) toroidal rotation in heated tokamak without an internal source of torque [Staebler, Kinsey, and Waltz, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 46, 221 (2001)]. A predicted turbulent shift in the neoclassical poloidal rotation [Staebler, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1064 (2004)] appears to be small at the finite relative gyroradius (rho-star) of current experiments.

  2. A Modified Theory of Gravity with Torsion and Its Applications to Cosmology and Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Luca; Vignolo, Stefano

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we consider the most general least-order derivative theory of gravity in which not only curvature but also torsion is explicitly present in the Lagrangian, and where all independent fields have their own coupling constant: we will apply this theory to the case of ELKO fields, which is the acronym of the German Eigenspinoren des LadungsKonjugationsOperators designating eigenspinors of the charge conjugation operator, and thus they are a Majorana-like special type of spinors; and to the Dirac fields, the most general type of spinors. We shall see that because torsion has a coupling constant that is still undetermined, the ELKO and Dirac field equations are endowed with self-interactions whose coupling constant is undetermined: we discuss different applications according to the value of the coupling constants and the different properties that consequently follow. We highlight that in this approach, the ELKO and Dirac field's self-interactions depend on the coupling constant as a parameter that may even make these non-linearities manifest at subatomic scales.

  3. Singularity in the Laboratory Frame Angular Distribution Derived in Two-Body Scattering Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The laboratory (lab) frame angular distribution derived in two-body scattering theory exhibits a singularity at the maximum lab scattering angle. The singularity appears in the kinematic factor that transforms the centre of momentum (cm) angular distribution to the lab angular distribution. We show that it is caused in the transformation by the…

  4. Singularity in the Laboratory Frame Angular Distribution Derived in Two-Body Scattering Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The laboratory (lab) frame angular distribution derived in two-body scattering theory exhibits a singularity at the maximum lab scattering angle. The singularity appears in the kinematic factor that transforms the centre of momentum (cm) angular distribution to the lab angular distribution. We show that it is caused in the transformation by the

  5. Semiclassical complex angular momentum theory and Pade reconstruction for resonances, rainbows, and reaction thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolovski, D.; Msezane, A.Z.

    2004-09-01

    A semiclassical complex angular momentum theory, used to analyze atom-diatom reactive angular distributions, is applied to several well-known potential (one-particle) problems. Examples include resonance scattering, rainbow scattering, and the Eckart threshold model. Pade reconstruction of the corresponding matrix elements from the values at physical (integral) angular momenta and properties of the Pade approximants are discussed in detail.

  6. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Al-1080 Processed by a Combination of Equal Channel Angular Pressing and High Pressure Torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Aal, Mohamed Ibrahim Abd; Yoon, Eun Yoo; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2013-06-01

    Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and high pressure torsion (HPT) are the most promising severe plastic deformation (SPD) methods. Both methods impose very high strains, leading to extreme work hardening and microstructural refinement. In this paper, billets of Al-1080 were successfully processed by ECAP conducted for up to 10 passes, HPT at an applied pressure of 8 GPa for 5 revolutions, and a combination of ECAP and HPT (ECAP + HPT) at room temperature. The effects of the different SPD processes (ECAP, HPT, and ECAP + HPT) on the evolution of the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-1080 were investigated. The HPT and ECAP + HPT processes were observed to produce finer grain sizes with greater fractions of high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) than the ECAP alone. Although the grain sizes after HPT and ECAP + HPT were similar, the ECAP + HPT sample had more dislocations than the HPT sample. HPT after ECAP enhanced the mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength, and ductility) of the ECAP-processed Al-1080, showing larger dimple size in the tensile fracture surfaces.

  7. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of an aluminum alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing and high-pressure torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbaghianrad, Shima

    A commercial Al-7075 alloy was processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques, namely equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) and high-pressure torsion (HPT) or a combination of the two processes. After processing, the microstructural properties were examined, microhardness measurements were recorded across the disk diameters, and miniature tensile specimens were pulled to failure at a temperature of 623 K. Using TEM and EBSD techniques, it is demonstrated that the three SPD processing techniques have a potential for producing an ultrafine-grain structure containing reasonably equiaxed grains with high-angle grain boundary misorientations. However, microstructures were refined to different levels depending on the processing operation. It is shown that the most refined grain structure was achieved after processing by a combination of ECAP for 8 passes and HPT. The grain refinement mechanisms are primarily governed by dislocation activities. It is shown that the maximum saturation hardness achieved at high equivalent strains by different processing techniques increases with increasing amounts of deformation and it is the highest after processing by a combination of ECAP for 8 passes and HPT. The saturation hardness values were 231 after processing by HPT, 249 after processing by ECAP for 4 passes + HPT and 273 after processing by ECAP for 8 passes + HPT. Tensile testings show that the elongations to failure increase by increasing the amount of deformation. It is shown that after ECAP for 8 passes + HPT samples of the Al-7075 alloy have lower flow stresses and superplastic elongations up to >1000% when pulling to failure at 623 K. Superplastic elongations were not achieved after processing only by ECAP because of the non-uniform grain size and the presence of many larger grains.

  8. Maxwell Field with Torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fresneda, R.; Baldiotti, M. C.; Pereira, T. S.

    2015-06-01

    We propose a gauge-invariant model of propagating torsion which couples to the Maxwell field and to charged particles. As a result, we have an Abelian gauge-invariant action leading to a theory with nonzero torsion consistent with available experimental data, which can be used to establish a lower bound for our new coupling parameter.

  9. Kerr-Newman-dS/AdS solution and anti-evaporation in higher-order torsion scalar gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashed, Gamal G. L.

    2016-03-01

    We derive a null tetrad from axially-symmetric vierbein field. The f(T)f(T)-Maxwell field equations with cosmological constant, where T is the scalar torsion, are applied to the null tetrad. An exact non-vacuum solution having three constants of integration is derived which is a solution to the f (T) -Maxwell field equations provided that f(T)=T0f(T)=T0 and fT=df(T)dT=1fT=df(T)dT=1, where T0T0 is a constant. The scalar torsion related to this solution is constant, i.e., T=T0T=T0, and differs from the classical general relativity when f(T)≈T0f(T)≈T0. We study the singularities of this solution using curvature and torsion invariants. We consider a slow rotation and show that the derived solution behaves asymptotically as de Sitter spacetime and display the existence of Nariai spacetime as a background solution. We assume a perturbation of Nariai spacetime till the first order and investigate the behavior of the black hole horizon. Finally, we explain that the anti-evaporation occurs on the classical level in the f (T) gravitational theories.

  10. Torsion cosmology of Poincar gauge theory and the constraints of its parameters via SNeIa data

    SciTech Connect

    Ao, Xi-Chen; Li, Xin-Zhou E-mail: kychz@shnu.edu.cn

    2012-02-01

    Poincar gauge theory (PGT) is an alternative gravity theory, which brings the gravity into the gauge-theoretic framework, where the Lagrangian includes both quadratic torsion and curvature terms. Recently, the cosmological models with torsion based on this theory, which explained the cosmic acceleration in a new way, have received much attention. Among these PGT cosmological models, the one with only even parity dynamical modes-SNY model, for its realistic meaning, is very attractive. In this paper, we first analyze the past-time cosmic evolution of SNY model analytically. And based on these results we fit this model to the most comprehensive SNeIa data (Union 2) and thus find the best-fit values of model parameters and initial conditions, whose related ?{sup 2} value is consistent with the one from ?CMD at the 1? level. Also by the ?{sup 2} estimate, we provide certain constraints on these parameters. Using these best-fit values for the Union 2 SNeIa dataset, we are able to predict the evolution of our real universe in late time. From this prediction, we know that the fate of our universe is that it would expand forever, slowly asymptotically to a halt, which is in accordance with the earlier works.

  11. Generalization of Equivalent Crystal Theory to Include Angular Dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Zypman, Fredy R.

    2004-01-01

    In the original Equivalent Crystal Theory, each atomic site in the real crystal is assigned an equivalent lattice constant, in general different from the ground state one. This parameter corresponds to a local compression or expansion of the lattice. The basic method considers these volumetric transformations and, in addition, introduces the possibility that the reference lattice is anisotropically distorted. These distortions however, were introduced ad-hoc. In this work, we generalize the original Equivalent Crystal Theory by systematically introducing site-dependent directional distortions of the lattice, whose corresponding distortions account for the dependence of the energy on anisotropic local density variations. This is done in the spirit of the original framework, but including a gradient term in the density. This approach is introduced to correct a deficiency in the original Equivalent Crystal Theory and other semiempirical methods in quantitatively obtaining the correct ratios of the surface energies of low index planes of cubic metals (100), (110), and (111). We develop here the basic framework, and apply it to the calculation of Fe (110) and Fe (111) surface energy formation. The results, compared with first principles calculations, show an improvement over previous semiempirical approaches.

  12. ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSPORT BY ACOUSTIC MODES GENERATED IN THE BOUNDARY LAYER. I. HYDRODYNAMICAL THEORY AND SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Rafikov, Roman R.; Stone, James M.

    2013-06-10

    The nature of angular momentum transport in the boundary layers of accretion disks has been one of the central and long-standing issues of accretion disk theory. In this work we demonstrate that acoustic waves excited by supersonic shear in the boundary layer serve as an efficient mechanism of mass, momentum, and energy transport at the interface between the disk and the accreting object. We develop the theory of angular momentum transport by acoustic modes in the boundary layer, and support our findings with three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, using an isothermal equation of state. Our first major result is the identification of three types of global modes in the boundary layer. We derive dispersion relations for each of these modes that accurately capture the pattern speeds observed in simulations to within a few percent. Second, we show that angular momentum transport in the boundary layer is intrinsically nonlocal, and is driven by radiation of angular momentum away from the boundary layer into both the star and the disk. The picture of angular momentum transport in the boundary layer by waves that can travel large distances before dissipating and redistributing angular momentum and energy to the disk and star is incompatible with the conventional notion of local transport by turbulent stresses. Our results have important implications for semianalytical models that describe the spectral emission from boundary layers.

  13. Torsion in superstrings

    SciTech Connect

    Bars, I.; Nemeschansky, D.; Yankielowicz, S.

    1985-09-01

    String theories on a background manifold with torsion are discussed. Candidate vacuum configurations are discussed for ten-dimensional superstrings. These are compactified on M/sub 4/ x K, where M/sub 4/ is four-dimensional and K is some compact six-dimensional manifold. Solutions with non-zero torsion on K are emphasized. The compactification problem is approached both from the effective field theory point of view and directly using string considerations. The construction of string theories in curved space with torsion is then discussed. Particular emphasis is put on the constraints on space-time supersymmetry in the Green-Schwarz approach. Two-dimensional non-linear sigma models are used to describe the propagation of strings in background geometries with torsion. (LEW)

  14. Unexpectedly low angular extent of journal bearing pressures: experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nikhil; Vimal, T.; Chatterjee, Anindya

    2015-04-01

    Journal bearings have been studied for a long time. Pressure solutions for the same, as presented in textbooks, typically have angular extents exceeding 150°. Here, for a bearing with a relatively larger clearance ratio (0.01 as opposed to, say, 0.001), our experiments show an angular extent of about 50° only. Such small angular extents cannot be predicted, even approximately, by the existing simple theories for journal bearing pressures. However, such theories are based on assumptions whereby only the relative speed between bearing and journal surfaces enters the governing equations. We discuss how these same assumptions motivate some new combinations of boundary conditions that allow reasonably simple numerical treatment. In this paper, the resulting families of possible solutions are computed semi-numerically using a Fourier series expansion in one direction and finite differences and numerical continuation in the other. We find that one such solution family contains small-extent solutions similar to those observed experimentally.

  15. Second order classical perturbation theory for atom surface scattering: Analysis of asymmetry in the angular distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yun Pollak, Eli; Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2014-01-14

    A second order classical perturbation theory is developed and applied to elastic atom corrugated surface scattering. The resulting theory accounts for experimentally observed asymmetry in the final angular distributions. These include qualitative features, such as reduction of the asymmetry in the intensity of the rainbow peaks with increased incidence energy as well as the asymmetry in the location of the rainbow peaks with respect to the specular scattering angle. The theory is especially applicable to “soft” corrugated potentials. Expressions for the angular distribution are derived for the exponential repulsive and Morse potential models. The theory is implemented numerically to a simplified model of the scattering of an Ar atom from a LiF(100) surface.

  16. Crystal Field Theory and the Angular Overlap Model Applied to Hydrides of Main Group Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    Described is how crystal field theory and the angular overlap model can be applied to very simple molecules which can then be used to introduce such concepts as bonding orbitals, MO diagrams, and Walsh diagrams. The main-group compounds are used as examples and a switch to the transition metal complexes. (KR)

  17. Free torsional vibrations of carbon nanotube based on nonlocal elasticity of bi-Helmholtz type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakaiah, B.; Srihari Rao, A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the theory of nonlocal elasticity of bi-Helmholtz type is applied to analyze the problem of torsional vibrations of single walled carbon nanotube with higher order boundary conditions containing two nonlocal nano scale parameters.The effect of different parameters on the angular frequencies of vibrations are explained.

  18. Appendicular Torsion

    PubMed Central

    Dubhashi, Siddharth Pramod; Khadav, Bharat

    2016-01-01

    Torsion of the vermiform appendix is a rare condition detectable only at operation. It can be primary or secondary. This is a case report of 52-year-old female with 180° anti-clockwise rotation of the appendix. Torsion can further leads to strangulation and infarction of the organ. Appendicular torsion could be included in the differential diagnosis of pain in right iliac fossa. PMID:27013858

  19. Inverse problems for torsional modes.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willis, C.

    1984-01-01

    Considers a spherically symmetric, non-rotating Earth consisting of an isotropic, perfect elastic material where the density and the S-wave velocity may have one or two discontinuities in the upper mantle. Shows that given the velocity throughout the mantle and the crust and given the density in the lower mantle, then the freqencies of the torsional oscillations of one angular order (one torsional spectrum), determine the density in the upper mantle and in the crust uniquely. If the velocity is known only in the lower mantle, then the frequencies of the torsional oscillations of two angular orders uniquely determine both the density and the velocity in the upper mantle and in the crust. In particular, the position and size of the discontinuities in the density and velocity are uniquely determined by two torsional spectra.-Author

  20. Torsion and buckling of open sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, H; Pretschner, W

    1936-01-01

    Following an abstract of the well-known theory of torsion in compression, the writers give directions for the practical calculation of the values of C(sub BT) (resistance to flexure and torsion) and i(sub SP(exp 2)), which determine the torsion. The second part treats the experiments in support of the theory of torsion of plain and flanged angle sections.

  1. The coupling of three angular momenta in the optical NMR and ESR of atoms: quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. W.

    1992-08-01

    A rigorous quantum theory of optical NMR in atoms is developed in the coupling scheme J = L + S; F = J + I, where L, S and I are the orbital, spin electronic and nuclear spin quantum numbers, respectively. The optical NMR Hamiltonian is developed for a coupled state | LSJIFMF> in terms of products of 9 - j symbols, which are evaluated numerically. The optical NMR resonance condition is described in terms of the selection rule ? MF = 0, 1 on the azimuthal quantum number of F, the net angular momentum. The theory shows clearly that the original NMR resonance line is shifted and split into several lines by the applied circularly polarised laser of optical NMR.

  2. Theory for noise of propellers in angular inflow with parametric studies and experimental verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B.; Parzych, David J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the derivation of a frequency domain theory and working equations for radiation of propeller harmonic noise in the presence of angular inflow. In applying the acoustic analogy, integration over the tangential coordinate of the source region is performed numerically, permitting the equations to be solved without approximation for any degree of angular inflow. Inflow angle is specified in terms of yaw, pitch, and roll angles of the aircraft. Since these can be arbitrarily large, the analysis applies with equal accuracy to propellers and helicopter rotors. For thickness and loading, the derivation is given in complete detail with working equations for near and far field. However, the quadrupole derivation has been carried only far enough to show feasibility of the numerical approach. Explicit formulas are presented for computation of source elements, evaluation of Green's functions, and location of observer points in various visual and retarded coordinate systems. The resulting computer program, called WOBBLE has been written in FORTRAN and follows the notation of this report very closely. The new theory is explored to establish the effects of varying inflow angle on axial and circumferential directivity. Also, parametric studies were performed to evaluate various phenomena outside the capabilities of earlier theories, such as an unsteady thickness effect. Validity of the theory was established by comparison with test data from conventional propellers and Prop Fans in flight and in wind tunnels under a variety of operating conditions and inflow angles.

  3. Theory for noise of propellers in angular inflow with parametric studies and experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Donald B.; Parzych, David J.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents the derivation of a frequency domain theory and working equations for radiation of propeller harmonic noise in the presence of angular inflow. In applying the acoustic analogy, integration over the tangential coordinate of the source region is performed numerically, permitting the equations to be solved without approximation for any degree of angular inflow. Inflow angle is specified in terms of yaw, pitch, and roll angles of the aircraft. Since these can be arbitrarily large, the analysis applies with equal accuracy to propellers and helicopter rotors. For thickness and loading, the derivation is given in complete detail with working equations for near and far field. However, the quadrupole derivation has been carried only far enough to show feasibility of the numerical approach. Explicit formulas are presented for computation of source elements, evaluation of Green's functions, and location of observer points in various visual and retarded coordinate systems. The resulting computer program, called WOBBLE has been written in FORTRAN and follows the notation of this report very closely. The new theory is explored to establish the effects of varying inflow angle on axial and circumferential directivity. Also, parametric studies were performed to evaluate various phenomena outside the capabilities of earlier theories, such as an unsteady thickness effect. Validity of the theory was established by comparison with test data from conventional propellers and Prop Fans in flight and in wind tunnels under a variety of operating conditions and inflow angles.

  4. Volume elements and torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosna, Ricardo A.; Saa, Alberto

    2005-11-01

    We reexamine here the issue of consistency of minimal action formulation with the minimal coupling procedure (MCP) in spaces with torsion. In Riemann-Cartan spaces, it is known that a proper use of the MCP requires that the trace of the torsion tensor be a gradient, T?=???, and that the modified volume element ??=e??g dx1?⋯?dxn be used in the action formulation of a physical model. We rederive this result here under considerably weaker assumptions, reinforcing some recent results about the inadequacy of propagating torsion theories of gravity to explain the available observational data. The results presented here also open the door to possible applications of the modified volume element in the geometric theory of crystalline defects.

  5. Adnexal Torsion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Cervix Adnexal torsion is twisting of the ovary and sometimes the fallopian tube, cutting off the ... diagnosis. Surgery is done immediately to untwist the ovary or to remove it. An ovary and sometimes ...

  6. Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves.

    PubMed

    Cabaret, J; Béquin, P; Theocharis, G; Andreev, V; Gusev, V E; Tournat, V

    2015-07-31

    We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters. PMID:26274421

  7. Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabaret, J.; Bquin, P.; Theocharis, G.; Andreev, V.; Gusev, V. E.; Tournat, V.

    2015-07-01

    We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters.

  8. Angular scale expansion theory and the misperception of egocentric distance in locomotor space

    PubMed Central

    Durgin, Frank H.

    2014-01-01

    Perception is crucial for the control of action, but perception need not be scaled accurately to produce accurate actions. This paper reviews evidence for an elegant new theory of locomotor space perception that is based on the dense coding of angular declination so that action control may be guided by richer feedback. The theory accounts for why so much direct-estimation data suggests that egocentric distance is underestimated despite the fact that action measures have been interpreted as indicating accurate perception. Actions are calibrated to the perceived scale of space and thus action measures are typically unable to distinguish systematic (e.g., linearly scaled) misperception from accurate perception. Whereas subjective reports of the scaling of linear extent are difficult to evaluate in absolute terms, study of the scaling of perceived angles (which exist in a known scale, delimited by vertical and horizontal) provides new evidence regarding the perceptual scaling of locomotor space. PMID:25610539

  9. Empirical formula of crustal torsional oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotani, Hajime

    2016-02-01

    Crustal torsional oscillations depend on not only crust properties but also the stellar mass and radius. Thus, one could extract stellar information by identifying the observed frequencies of stellar oscillations with the crustal torsional oscillations. Owing to the confinement of torsional oscillations inside the crust region of neutron stars, we successfully derive an empirical formula for the fundamental crustal torsional oscillations as a function of the stellar mass, radius, the so-called slope parameter of the nuclear symmetry energy, and the angular index of oscillations, with which one can estimate the frequencies with high accuracy. This empirical formula could be valuable in both the astrophysics and nuclear physics communities.

  10. Reconstruction of off-axis lensless Fourier transform digital holograms based on angular spectrum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangjun; Wang, Huaying; Wang, Dayong; Xie, Jianjun; Zhao, Jie

    2007-12-01

    A simple holographic high-resolution imaging system without pre-magnification, which is based on off-axis lensless Fourier transform configuration, has been developed. Experimental investigations are performed on USAF resolution test target. The method based on angular spectrum theory for reconstructing lensless Fourier hologram is given. The reconstructed results of the same hologram at different reconstructing distances are presented for what is to our knowledge the first time. Approximate diffraction limited lateral resolution is achieved. The results show that the angular spectrum method has several advantages over more commonly used Fresnel transform method. Lossless reconstruction can be achieved for any numerical aperture holograms as long as the wave field is calculated at a special reconstructing distance, which is determined by the light wavelength and the chip size and the pixel size of the CCD sensor. This is very important for reconstructing an extremely large numerical aperture hologram. Frequency-domain spectrum filtering can be applied conveniently to remove the disturbance of zero-order. The reconstructed image wave field is accurate so long as the sampling theorem is not violated. The experimental results also demonstrate that for a high quality hologram, special image processing is unnecessary to obtain a high quality image.

  11. Omental Torsion

    PubMed Central

    R., Arora

    2014-01-01

    Torsion of greater omentum is one of the rare causes of acute abdominal pain. It can be primary or secondary. Primary Omental Torsion (POT) occurs because a mobile, thicken segment of omentum rotates around a proximal fixed point in the absence of any associated or secondary intra-abdominal pathology. Secondary omental torsion is associated with a number of pre-existing conditions most common among them is inguinal hernia, other causes include tumours, cysts, internal or external herniation, foci of intra-abdominal inflammation and postsurgical wound or scarring. Torsion of omentum causes twisting of omentum along its long axis resulting in impaired blood supply. This rare condition is more predominant in middle-aged males. It clinically mimics acute appendicitis. It should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis for acute abdomen. Laparoscopy can aid in diagnosis and management but explorative laparotomy is the definitive and therapeutic procedure of choice. However the condition is not life threatening as omentectomy reduces the inflammation and focus of adhesions within the abdomen. PMID:25121029

  12. Study of the sensitivity and resonant frequency of the torsional modes of an AFM cantilever with a sidewall probe based on a nonlocal elasticity theory.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Mohammad; Karami Mohammadi, Ardeshir

    2015-05-01

    A relationship based on a nonlocal elasticity theory is developed to investigate the torsional sensitivity and resonant frequency of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with assembled cantilever probe (ACP). This ACP comprises a horizontal cantilever and a vertical extension, and a tip located at the free end of the extension, which makes the AFM capable of topography at sidewalls of microstructures. First, the governing differential equations of motion and boundary conditions for dynamic analysis are obtained by a combination of the basic equations of nonlocal elasticity theory and Hamilton's principle. Afterward, a closed-form expression for the sensitivity of vibration modes has been obtained using the relationship between the resonant frequency and contact stiffness of cantilever and sample. These analysis accounts for a better representation of the torsional behavior of an AFM with sidewall probe where the small-scale effect are significant. The results of the proposed model are compared with those of classical beam theory. The results show that the sensitivities and resonant frequencies of ACP predicted by the nonlocal elasticity theory are smaller than those obtained by the classical beam theory. PMID:25755027

  13. Calculation of photodetachment cross sections and photoelectron angular distributions of negative ions using density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan; Ning, Chuangang

    2015-10-01

    Recently, the development of photoelectron velocity map imaging makes it much easier to obtain the photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) experimentally. However, explanations of PADs are only qualitative in most cases, and very limited works have been reported on how to calculate PAD of anions. In the present work, we report a method using the density-functional-theory Kohn-Sham orbitals to calculate the photodetachment cross sections and the anisotropy parameter ?. The spherical average over all random molecular orientation is calculated analytically. A program which can handle both the Gaussian type orbital and the Slater type orbital has been coded. The testing calculations on Li-, C-, O-, F-, CH-, OH-, NH2-, O2-, and S2- show that our method is an efficient way to calculate the photodetachment cross section and anisotropy parameter ? for anions, thus promising for large systems.

  14. Coupled mode theory for orbital angular momentum modes transmission in the presence of atmosphere turbulence.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junhe; Zong, Jinbang; Liu, Daoqiang

    2015-12-14

    In this paper, orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes transmission in the presence of atmosphere turbulence is studied via a coupled mode theory. The Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beams with OAM topological charges are emitted into free space and undergo interactions due to the random index variations in the atmosphere. The coupling between the LG beams can be characterized by a set of coupled average power equation, which resembles the Marcuse' coupled power equation (CPE) originally proposed for the optical waveguides. The coupling coefficients and the modal radiation losses for the equation can be evaluated analytically. The accurate solution and the first order approximate solution to the CPE match the published data and the Mont-Carlos simulation results with good accuracy. The CPE and its approximate analytical solution can work as powerful tools for the analysis of the OAM beam evolution with the presence of the atmosphere turbulence. PMID:26698988

  15. Calculation of photodetachment cross sections and photoelectron angular distributions of negative ions using density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Ning, Chuangang

    2015-10-14

    Recently, the development of photoelectron velocity map imaging makes it much easier to obtain the photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) experimentally. However, explanations of PADs are only qualitative in most cases, and very limited works have been reported on how to calculate PAD of anions. In the present work, we report a method using the density-functional-theory Kohn-Sham orbitals to calculate the photodetachment cross sections and the anisotropy parameter ?. The spherical average over all random molecular orientation is calculated analytically. A program which can handle both the Gaussian type orbital and the Slater type orbital has been coded. The testing calculations on Li(-), C(-), O(-), F(-), CH(-), OH(-), NH2 (-), O2 (-), and S2 (-) show that our method is an efficient way to calculate the photodetachment cross section and anisotropy parameter ? for anions, thus promising for large systems. PMID:26472382

  16. Accounting for conformational flexibility and torsional anharmonicity in the H + CH3CH2OH hydrogen abstraction reactions: A multi-path variational transition state theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meana-Paeda, Rubn; Fernndez-Ramos, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    This work reports a detailed theoretical study of the hydrogen abstraction reactions from ethanol by atomic hydrogen. The calculated thermal rate constants take into account torsional anharmonicity and conformational flexibility, in addition to the variational and tunneling effects. Specifically, the kinetics calculations were performed by using multi-path canonical variational transition state theory with least-action path tunneling corrections, to which we have added the two-dimensional non-separable method to take into account torsional anharmonicity. The multi-path thermal rate constant is expressed as a sum over conformational reaction channels. Each of these channels includes all the transition states that can be reached by internal rotations. The results show that, in the interval of temperatures between 250 and 2500 K, the account for multiple paths leads to higher thermal rate constants with respect to the single path approach, mainly at low and at high temperatures. In addition, torsional anharmonicity enhances the slope of the Arrhenius plot in this range of temperatures. Finally, we show that the incorporation of tunneling into the hydrogen abstraction reactions substantially changes the contribution of each of the transition states to the conformational reaction channel.

  17. Multistructural variational transition state theory: kinetics of the hydrogen abstraction from carbon-2 of 2-methyl-1-propanol by hydroperoxyl radical including all structures and torsional anharmonicity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuefei; Yu, Tao; Papajak, Ewa; Truhlar, Donald G

    2012-11-01

    We calculated the forward and reverse rate constants of the hydrogen abstraction reaction from carbon-2 of 2-methyl-1-propanol by hydroperoxyl radical over the temperature range 250-2400 K by using multistructural canonical variational transition state theory (MS-CVT) including both multiple-structure and torsional potential anharmonicity effects by the multistructural torsional anharmonicity (MS-T) method. In these calculations, multidimensional tunneling (MT) probabilities used to compute the tunneling transmission coefficients were evaluated by the small-curvature tunneling (SCT) approximation. Comparison with the rate constants obtained by the single-structural harmonic oscillator (SS-HO) approximation shows that multistructural anharmonicity increases the forward rate constants for all temperatures, but the reverse rate constants are reduced for temperatures lower than 430 K and increased for higher temperatures. The neglect of multistructural torsional anharmonicity would lead to errors of factors of 1.5, 8.8, and 13 at 300, 1000, and 2400 K, respectively, for the forward reaction, and would lead to errors of factors of 0.76, 3.0, and 6.0, respectively, at these temperatures for the reverse reaction. PMID:23020791

  18. Accounting for conformational flexibility and torsional anharmonicity in the H + CH3CH2OH hydrogen abstraction reactions: a multi-path variational transition state theory study.

    PubMed

    Meana-Paeda, Rubn; Fernndez-Ramos, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    This work reports a detailed theoretical study of the hydrogen abstraction reactions from ethanol by atomic hydrogen. The calculated thermal rate constants take into account torsional anharmonicity and conformational flexibility, in addition to the variational and tunneling effects. Specifically, the kinetics calculations were performed by using multi-path canonical variational transition state theory with least-action path tunneling corrections, to which we have added the two-dimensional non-separable method to take into account torsional anharmonicity. The multi-path thermal rate constant is expressed as a sum over conformational reaction channels. Each of these channels includes all the transition states that can be reached by internal rotations. The results show that, in the interval of temperatures between 250 and 2500 K, the account for multiple paths leads to higher thermal rate constants with respect to the single path approach, mainly at low and at high temperatures. In addition, torsional anharmonicity enhances the slope of the Arrhenius plot in this range of temperatures. Finally, we show that the incorporation of tunneling into the hydrogen abstraction reactions substantially changes the contribution of each of the transition states to the conformational reaction channel. PMID:24811637

  19. Torsional locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Bigoni, D.; Dal Corso, F.; Misseroni, D.; Bosi, F.

    2014-01-01

    One edge of an elastic rod is inserted into a friction-less and fitting socket head, whereas the other edge is subjected to a torque, generating a uniform twisting moment. It is theoretically shown and experimentally proved that, although perfectly smooth, the constraint realizes an expulsive axial force on the elastic rod, which amount is independent of the shape of the socket head. The axial force explains why screwdrivers at high torque have the tendency to disengage from screw heads and demonstrates torsional locomotion along a perfectly smooth channel. This new type of locomotion finds direct evidence in the realization of a ‘torsional gun’, capable of transforming torque into propulsive force. PMID:25383038

  20. Torsional vibration isolator and method

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C.A.; Durrett, V.D.

    1986-10-21

    This patent describes a multicylinder internal combustion engine having a rotatable crankshaft and a rotatable flywheel which together define an inertial system rotating about a predetermined axis of rotation. An improvement is described here which facilitates avoiding destructive effects on the crankshaft of stress induced by torsional vibration. The method comprises an elastomeric annulus coupling means operatively interposed between the crankshaft and flywheel for coupling the crankshaft and flywheel together for rotation of the flywheel with the crankshaft. The coupling means has a torsional spring rate of less than 20,000 in lb/radian effective to permit substantial angular displacement between the flywheel and the crankshaft for isolating the rotating inertia of the flywheel from the rotating inertia of the crankshaft after engine startup. The coupling means avoids dampening while preventing torsional vibration from being transferred between the flywheel and the crankshaft.

  1. Optimal control theory applied to rotational control in dissipative media and torsional control with polarization shaped pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelzer, Adam William

    Quantum optimal control calculations were performed that determined the optimal laser pulse shapes for control over quantum mechanical rotation dynamics. This formalism was applied to control over the timing and magnitude of molecular alignment as well as the width of the alignment peak at the target time. The optimizations were then extended to the density matrix formalism where the effects of temperature and a dissipative bath were examined at the multi-level Bloch level of theory. Limits to the timescales of control in both the isolated molecule case and the dissipative case were found. Control for arbitrary rotational state superpositions was then calculated in thermal and dissipative environments and decay timescales for these states were compared to ideal cases. Further quantum optimal control calculations were done to induce uni-directional rotation of one ring relative to the other in a surface affixed bicyclic molecule with the aim of making a molecular motor driven by coherent light. This was done for the cases of linear polarization only and with a polarization shaping method that allowed for an arbitrarily polarized optimal field. It was found that optimal pulses can induce unidirectional rotation with a great deal of angular momentum by switching the direction of polarizations during the pulse from elliptically polarized in one a single direction to another multiple times.

  2. Axions in gravity with torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Felisola, Oscar; Corral, Cristbal; Kovalenko, Sergey; Schmidt, Ivn; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.

    2015-04-01

    We study a scenario allowing a solution of the strong charge parity problem via the Peccei-Quinn mechanism, implemented in gravity with torsion. In this framework there appears a torsion-related pseudoscalar field known as the Kalb-Ramond axion. We compare it with the so-called Barbero-Immirzi axion recently proposed in the literature also in the context of the gravity with torsion. We show that they are equivalent from the viewpoint of the effective theory. The phenomenology of these torsion-descended axions is completely determined by the Planck scale without any additional model parameters. These axions are very light and very weakly interacting with ordinary matter. We briefly comment on their astrophysical and cosmological implications in view of the recent BICEP2 and Planck data.

  3. Testicular Torsion (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... has genital pain, especially in his scrotum or testes. Genital pain is usually nothing more than a ... testicle. About Testicular Torsion Testicular torsion (also called testis torsion) happens when the spermatic cord that provides ...

  4. Estimation of Angular Momentum Transport Coefficients via Extended Kalman Filtering Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chao; Schuster, Eugenio

    2009-11-01

    The accuracy of first-principles predictive models for the evolution of plasma profiles is sometimes limited by the lack of understanding of the plasma transport phenomena. In this work we use the extended Kalman filtering theory to provide real-time estimates of poorly known or totally unknown angular momentum transport coefficients. These estimates are based solely on input-output diagnostic data and limited understanding of the transport physics. We first assume that the plasma dynamics can be governed by a tractable model obtained by first principles but the transport coefficients are considered unknown and to-be-estimated. The partial-differential-equation model is discretized both in space and time to obtain a finite-dimensional discrete-time state-space representation. The system states and to-be-estimated coefficients are then combined into an augmented state vector. The resulting nonlinear state-space model is used for the design of an extended Kalman filter that provides real-time estimations not only of the system states but also of the unknown transport coefficients.

  5. Angular Scattering Dynamics of the CH4 + Cl → CH3 + HCl Reaction Using Nearside-Farside, Local Angular Momentum, and Resummation Theories.

    PubMed

    Totenhofer, A J; Connor, J N L; Nyman, Gunnar

    2016-03-01

    The differential cross section (DCS) for the CH4 + Cl → CH3 + HCl reaction is studied at six total energies where all of the species are in their ground states. The scattering (S) matrix elements have been calculated by the rotating line umbrella method for a dual-level ab initio analytic potential energy surface. We make the first application to this reaction of nearside-farside (NF) and local angular momentum (LAM) techniques, including resummation orders (r) of 0, 1, 2, and 3 for the partial-wave series representation of the full scattering amplitude. We find that resummation usually cleans the NF r = 0 DCSs of unphysical oscillations, especially at small angles. This cleaning effect is typically most pronounced when changing from no resummation (r = 0) to r = 1; further resummations from r = 1 to r = 2 and from r = 2 to r = 3 have smaller effects. The NF DCS analyses show that the reaction is N-dominated at sideward and large angles, whereas at small angles there are oscillations caused by NF interference. The NF LAM analysis provides consistent and complementary information, in particular for the total angular momenta that contribute to the reaction at different scattering angles. The NF analyses also provide justification for simpler N-dominant dynamical theories such as the semiclassical optical model, which provides an explanation for the distorted mirror image effect for the moduli of the S matrix elements and the DCSs, as well as the use of a hard-sphere DCS over limited angular ranges. PMID:26625096

  6. The explicit representation for the angular flux solution in the simplified P{sub N} (SP{sub N}) theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Y. A.; Yamamoto, A.

    2012-07-01

    The current SP{sub n} theory formulation, via either the asymptotic method or the variational method, does not provide an explicit and calculable representation for the corresponding angular flux solution. It is therefore not possible to reconstruct from the SP{sub n} solution the corresponding angular flux solution, or to extract from a reference transport solution the corresponding SP{sub n} solution. This makes it impossible to calculate the necessary surface discontinuity factors to force consistency between the SP{sub n} solution and the higher level transport solution. Without discontinuity factors, the superiority of SP{sub n} over diffusion could be significantly degraded in practical applications. In this paper we present a different SP{sub n} formulation that provides the explicit angular flux solution such that the physical picture for the SP{sub n} approximation is transparent and the SP{sub n} discontinuity factors can be calculated. (authors)

  7. Discrete torsion, de Sitter tunneling vacua and AdS brane: U(1) gauge theory on D 4-brane and an effective curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Abhishek K.; Pandey, K. Priyabrat; Singh, Sunita; Kar, Supriya

    2013-05-01

    The U(1) gauge dynamics on a D 4-brane is revisited, with a two form, to construct an effective curvature theory in a second order formalism. We exploit the local degrees in a two form, and modify its dynamics in a gauge invariant way, to incorporate a non-perturbative metric fluctuation in an effective D 4-brane. Interestingly, the near horizon D 4-brane is shown to describe an asymptotic Anti de Sitter (AdS) in a semi-classical regime. Using Weyl scaling(s), we obtain the emergent rotating geometries leading to primordial de Sitter (dS) and AdS vacua in a quantum regime. Under a discrete transformation, we re-arrange the mixed dS patches to describe a Schwazschild-like dS (SdS) and a topological-like dS (TdS) black holes. We analyze SdS vacuum for Hawking radiations to arrive at Nariai geometry, where a discrete torsion forms a condensate. We perform thermal analysis to identify Nariai vacuum with a TdS. Investigation reveals an AdS patch within a thermal dS brane, which may provide a clue to unfold dS/CFT. In addition, the role of dark energy, sourced by a discrete torsion, in the dS vacua is investigated using Painleve geometries. It is argued that a D-instanton pair is created by a discrete torsion, with a Big Bang/Crunch, at the past horizon in a pure dS. Nucleation, of brane/anti-brane pair(s), is qualitatively analyzed to construct an effective space-time on a D 4-brane and its anti brane. Analysis re-assures the significant role played by a non-zero mode, of NS-NS two form, to generalize the notion of branes within a brane.

  8. Multi-Structural Variational Transition State Theory. Kinetics of the 1,4-Hydrogen Shift Isomerization of the Pentyl Radical with Torsional Anharmonicity

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, T.; Zheng, J.; Truhlar, D. G.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new formulation of variational transition state theory (VTST) called multi-structural VTST (MS-VTST) and the use of this to calculate the rate constant for the 1,4-hydrogen shift isomerization reaction of 1-pentyl radical and that for the reverse reaction. MS-VTST uses a multi-faceted dividing surface and provides a convenient way to include the contributions of many structures (typically conformers) of the reactant and the transition state in rate constant calculations. In this particular application, we also account for the torsional anharmonicity. We used the multi-configuration Shepard interpolation method to efficiently generate a semi-global portion of the potential energy surface from a small number of high-level electronic structure calculations using the M06 density functional in order to compute the energies and Hessians of Shepard points along a reaction path. The M06-2X density functional was used to calculate the multi-structural anharmonicity effect, including all of the structures of the reactant, product and transition state. To predict the thermal rate constant, VTST calculations were performed to obtain the canonical variational rate constant over the temperature range 2002000 K. A transmission coefficient is calculated by the multidimensional small-curvature tunneling (SCT) approximation. The final MS-CVT/SCT thermal rate constant was determined by combining a reaction rate calculation in the single-structural harmonic oscillator approximation (including tunneling) with the multi-structural anharmonicity torsional factor. The calculated forward rate constant agrees very well with experimentally-based evaluations of the high-pressure limit for the temperature range 3001300 K, although it is a factor of 2.53.0 lower than the single-structural harmonic oscillator approximation over this temperature range. We anticipate that MS-VTST will be generally useful for calculating the reaction rates of complex molecules with multiple torsions.

  9. Equal-channel-angular processing (ECAP) of materials: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Grigoreta Mihaela

    Equal Channel-Angular Processing (ECAP), as a severe plastic deformation of metals and composites, is analyzed both theoretically---to describe the ECAP macromechanics---and experimentally---to obtain ultrafine-grained materials with new thermo-mechanical properties---with a focus on hexagonal-closed-packed (HCP) structures such as Mg alloys. Due to their obvious similarity to ECAP, the slip-line - field theories developed for orthogonal cutting are applied to the ECAP deformation for predicting the shear-strain spatial heterogeneities. A theoretical model for predicting the plastic-deformation zone in an ECAP-ed billet with a free surface is provided, and is validated experimentally. A shear-strain-mapping procedure was developed by decomposing the large deformation process into fine steps, and, by analyzing the partially-deformed billets, the strain maps captured the spatio-temporal evolutions of the ECAP-induced plastic shear strains. This approach was later generalized for studying the local behavior of different material parameters, such as textures (texture mapping). The mechanical testing of the as-received and ECAP-deformed Mg-alloys (ZK60 and AZ31) was performed in monotonic and cyclic tests, for three loading orientations. The ECAP-ed samples demonstrate: (a) a good grain refinement from 50--70 mum down to 2.5--7 mum), (b) a superplastic ZK60 alloy, with an elongation to failure of 371% at 3500C and the strain rate of 10-2 s-1, and (c) a longer fatigue life for the AZ31 alloy, relative to the as-received material. The starting and ECAP-deformed materials were characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction using both soft and hard X-rays, and neutron diffraction. The grain sizes, the textures, the coherent-domain sizes, the elastic microstrains, and the dislocation densities were determined for the samples deformed by rolling, extrusion, and ECAP. The synchrotron radiation measurements allowed monitoring the lattice rotation induced by the ECAP deformation in Mg alloys. The grain-orientation dependent deformation is studied relative to the deformation history, and its influence on the mechanical behavior is analyzed relative to the twinning contribution. The results of the present work constitute a valuable benchmark for the understanding and modeling of the deformation mechanisms, such as the dislocations slip, twinning, recovery, or recrystallization in HCP structures.

  10. Torsion and the gravitational interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcos, H. I.; Pereira, J. G.

    2004-11-01

    By using a nonholonomous-frame formulation of the general covariance principle, seen as an active version of the strong equivalence principle, an analysis of the gravitational coupling prescription in the presence of curvature and torsion is made. The coupling prescription implied by this principle is found to be always equivalent to that of general relativity, a result that reinforces the completeness of this theory, as well as the teleparallel point of view according to which torsion does not represent additional degrees of freedom for gravity, but simply an alternative way of representing the gravitational field.

  11. Torsional Oscillations of the Earths's Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hide, Raymond; Boggs, Dale H.; Dickey, Jean O.

    1997-01-01

    Torsional oscillations of the Earth's liquid metallic outer core are investigated by diving the core into twenty imaginary e1qui-volume annuli coaxial with the axis of ratation of the Earth and determining temproal fluctuations in the axial component of angular memonetum of each annulus under the assumption of iso-rotation on cylindrical surfaces.

  12. Theory and imaging applications of the angular correlation of multiply-scattered optical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Brian Gilday

    Through analysis of the field angular correlation the scattering of quasimonochromatic optical fields is considered as a coherence-based process well into the multiple scattering regime. Coherence analysis leads to the prediction of coherent effects in multiply-scattered light that can be applied to perform computed amplitude- phase imaging through turbid media and noninvasive laser material characterization. With the incentive of improved imaging through turbid media an experiment is described that directly compares the degradations, with the number of scattering mean free paths, of the field angular correlation and the correlation of the scattered wave with an unscattered reference wave, both of which can be used to form gates for imaging techniques in scattered light. Results for 20? m polymer spheres show that the former correlation is consistently larger well into the multiple scattering regime (up to 10 mean free paths) for wavevector separations less than at least 50mm -1, and that the two correlations tend to merge in this scattering regime for larger wavevector separations. The implications of the results for imaging applications are considered. Complementary theoretical formulations of coherence effects in multiply-scattered fields are presented. Relations of the spatial coherence properties to the angular characteristics of the scattered field are established. A coherence-based model of multiple scattering processes is derived. The model predicts radiative-transfer-like behavior for restricted observational parameters, but also shows that the coherence-based process is required for an accurate description of the scattered field over an observational parameters. The applicability of the model to noninvasive laser material characterization is emphasized. A wavefront-sensor method is presented for measurement of the complex field angular correlation function of a three-dimensional turbid medium. The angular correlation function is measured at a series of frequencies for transmission through a suspension of 5?m polymer spheres. A wavefront-sensor technique is described for ensemble- averaging the light wave emerging from a turbid medium, which enables the recovery of amplitude and phase information on an obscured object. With the phase estimated an ensemble-average field is constructed, which may be back-projected to form an image of the obscured object. The experimental results of imaging a double slit through a series of ground glass plates suggest that the technique can resolve two object points whose signals are unresolved on the exit surface of the scattering medium with better signal-to-noise ratio than provided by previous ensemble-average imaging techniques. The wavefront-sensor technique is then shown to be a form of angular correlation imaging, and an angular correlation gate is described and demonstrated for further improvement of imaging through turbid media.

  13. Trapped torsional vibrations in elastic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, T.; Kang, M. K.; Huang, R.

    2005-11-01

    We report observation and analysis of trapped torsional vibrations in elastic plates. Each trapping element consists of a circular mesa machined in cast aluminum plate, with an electromagnetic acoustic transducer used to generate oscillatory surface traction. Suitably applied traction induced torsional vibrations trapped in the mesa. The resonant frequencies, relative displacements and Q-values were measured, and an approximate theory was developed to analyze the trapping effect with good agreement between measurements and theory. It was found that these trapped torsional modes have Q-values exceeding 100 000 with pure in-plane motion, which is of practical importance for acoustic sensor applications.

  14. Multi-structural variational transition state theory: kinetics of the 1,5-hydrogen shift isomerization of the 1-butoxyl radical including all structures and torsional anharmonicity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuefei; Papajak, Ewa; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2012-03-28

    We investigate the statistical thermodynamics and kinetics of the 1,5-hydrogen shift isomerization reaction of the 1-butoxyl radical and its reverse isomerization. The partition functions and thermodynamic functions (entropy, enthalpy, heat capacity, and Gibbs free energy) are calculated using the multi-structural torsional (MS-T) anharmonicity method including all structures for three species (reactant, product, and transition state) involved in the reaction. The calculated thermodynamic quantities have been compared to those estimated by the empirical group additivity (GA) method. The kinetics of the unimolecular isomerization reaction was investigated using multi-structural canonical variational transition state theory (MS-CVT) including both multiple-structure and torsional (MS-T) anharmonicity effects. In these calculations, multidimensional tunneling (MT) probabilities were evaluated by the small-curvature tunneling (SCT) approximation and compared to results obtained with the zero-curvature tunneling (ZCT) approximation. The high-pressure-limit rate constants for both the forward and reverse reactions are reported as calculated by MS-CVT/MT, where MT can be ZCT or SCT. Comparison with the rate constants obtained by the single-structural harmonic oscillator (SS-HO) approximation shows the importance of anharmonicity in the rate constants of these reactions, and the effect of multi-structural anharmonicity is found to be very large. Whereas the tunneling effect increases the rate constants, the MS-T anharmonicity decreases them at all temperatures. The two effects counteract each other at temperatures 385 K and 264 K for forward and reverse reactions, respectively, and tunneling dominates at lower temperatures while MS-T anharmonicity has a larger effect at higher temperatures. The multi-structural torsional anharmonicity effect reduces the final reverse reaction rate constants by a much larger factor than it does to the forward ones as a result of the existence of more low-energy structures of the product 4-hydroxy-1-butyl radical than the reactant 1-butoxyl radical. As a consequence there is also a very large effect on the equilibrium constant. The neglect of multi-structural anharmonicity will lead to large errors in the estimation of reverse reaction rate constants. PMID:22354148

  15. Thermoelastic damping in torsion microresonators with coupling effect between torsion and bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Yongpeng; Li, Pu; Fang, Yuming

    2014-02-01

    Predicting thermoelastic damping (TED) is crucial in the design of high Q MEMS resonators. In the past, there have been few works on analytical modeling of thermoelastic damping in torsion microresonators. This could be related to the assumption of pure torsional mode for the supporting beams in the torsion devices. The pure torsional modes of rectangular supporting beams involve no local volume change, and therefore, they do not suffer any thermoelastic loss. However, the coupled motion of torsion and bending usually exists in the torsion microresonator when it is not excited by pure torque. The bending component of the coupled motion causes flexural vibrations of supporting beams which may result in significant thermoelastic damping for the microresonator. This paper presents an analytical model for thermoelastic damping in torsion microresonators with the coupling effect between torsion and bending. The theory derives a dynamic model for torsion microresonators considering the coupling effect, and approximates the thermoelastic damping by assuming the energy loss to occur only in supporting beams of flexural vibrations. The thermoelastic damping obtained by the present model is compared to the measured internal friction of single paddle oscillators. It is found that thermoelastic damping contributes significantly to internal friction for the case of the higher modes at room temperature. The present model is validated by comparing its results with the finite-element method (FEM) solutions. The effects of structural dimensions and other parameters on thermoelastic damping are investigated for the representative case of torsion microresonators.

  16. Nearside-farside, local angular momentum and resummation theories: Useful tools for understanding the dynamics of complex-mode reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankel, Marlies; Connor, J. N. L.

    2015-07-01

    A valuable tool for understanding the dynamics of direct reactions is Nearside-Farside (NF) scattering theory. It makes a decomposition of the (resummed) partial wave series for the scattering amplitude, both for the differential cross section (DCS) and the Local Angular Momentum (LAM). This paper makes the first combined application of these techniques to complex-mode reactions. We ask if NF theory is a useful tool for their identification, in particular, can it distinguish complex-mode from direct-mode reactions? We also ask whether NF theory can identify NF interference oscillations in the full DCSs of complex-mode reactions. Our investigation exploits the fact that accurate quantum scattering matrix elements have recently become available for complex-mode reactions. We first apply NF theory to two simple models for the scattering amplitude of a complex-mode reaction: One involves a single Legendre polynomial; the other involves a single Legendre function of the first kind, whose form is suggested by complex angular momentum theory. We then study, at fixed translational energies, four state-to-state complex-mode reactions. They are: S(1D) + HD ? SH + D, S(1D) + DH ? SD + H, N(2D) +H2 ? NH + H, and H+ + D2 ? HD + D+. We compare the NF results for the DCSs and LAMs with those for a state-to-state direct reaction, namely, F + H2 ? FH + H. We demonstrate that NF theory is a valuable tool for identifying and analyzing the dynamics of complex-mode reactions.

  17. Testicular torsion repair

    MedlinePLUS

    Testicular torsion repair is surgery to untangle a spermatic cord. The spermatic cord is the collection of blood vessels ... the scrotum that lead to the testicles. Testicular torsion develops when the cord twists. This pulling and ...

  18. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (inventor); Polites, Michael E. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

  19. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (inventor); Polites, Michael E. (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

  20. Torsional Magnetic Oscillations in Type I X-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelace, R. V. E.; Kulkarni, A. K.; Romanova, M. M.

    2007-02-01

    Thermonuclear burning on the surface of a neutron star causes the expansion of a thin outer layer of the star, ?R(t). The layer rotates slower than the star due to angular momentum conservation. The shear between the star and the layer acts to twist the star's dipole magnetic field, giving at first a trailing spiral field. The twist of the field acts in turn to ``torque up'' the layer, increasing its specific angular momentum. As the layer cools and contracts, its excess specific angular momentum causes it to rotate faster than the star, which gives a leading spiral magnetic field. The process repeats, giving rise to torsional oscillations. We derive equations for the angular velocity and magnetic field of the layer, taking into account the diffusivity and viscosity that are probably due to turbulence. The magnetic field causes a nonuniformity of the star's photosphere (at the top of the heated layer), and this gives rise to the observed X-ray oscillations. The fact that the layer periodically rotates faster than the star means that the X-ray oscillation frequency may ``overshoot'' the star's rotation frequency. Comparison of the theory is made with observations of Chakrabarty et al. of an X-ray burst of SAX J1808.4-3658.

  1. Including Torsional Anharmonicity in Canonical and Microcanonical Reaction Path Calculations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2013-07-01

    We reformulate multistructural variational transition state theory by removing the approximation of calculating torsional anharmonicity only at stationary points. The multistructural method with torsional anharmonicity is applied to calculate the reaction-path free energy of the hydrogen abstraction from the carbon-1 position in isobutanol by OH radical. The torsional potential anharmonicity along the reaction path is taken into account by a coupled torsional potential. The calculations show that it can be critical to include torsional anharmonicity in searching for canonical and microcanonical variational transition states. The harmonic-oscillator approximation fails to yield reasonable free energy curves along the reaction path. PMID:26583971

  2. Many-Body Theory of Ultrafast Demagnetization and Angular Momentum Transfer in Ferromagnetic Transition Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tws, W.; Pastor, G. M.

    2015-11-01

    Exact calculated time evolutions in the framework of a many-electron model of itinerant magnetism provide new insights into the laser-induced ultrafast demagnetization observed in ferromagnetic (FM) transition metal thin films. The interplay between local spin-orbit interactions and interatomic hopping is shown to be at the origin of the observed postexcitation breakdown of FM correlations between highly stable local magnetic moments. The mechanism behind spin- and angular-momentum transfer is revealed from a microscopic perspective by rigorously complying with all fundamental conservation laws. An energy-resolved analysis of the time evolution shows that the efficiency of the demagnetization process reaches almost 100% in the excited states.

  3. Unified theory for fission path and high angular momentum phenomena of nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, S. S.

    1994-12-01

    A unified approach, involving the two-center picture of the nucleus, is proposed for the description of the behavior of nuclei at high angular momentum. This picture involves nine parameters, fixed by solving the system of nine nonlinear equations, obtained from equilibrium constraints. This shape enables us to calculate the potential energy surfaces. For the calculations of shell effects we adopt the Strutinsky formalism. The shell effects play the dominant role in deciding the fission path and the phenomenon of superdeformation in 236U. The calculated moment of inertia of the isomeric state is close to the observation and hence it supports the theoretical description of its shape.

  4. Study on torsional fretting behavior of UHMWPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jia; Cai, Zhenbing; Zhu, Minhao; Qu, Shuxin; Zhou, Zhongrong

    2008-11-01

    Torsional fretting tests of UHMWPE against titanium alloy ball (TC4) had been carried out. A frictional torque-angular displacement ( T- ?) curve was used to analyze the kinetics behaviors of torsional fretting mode. The wear morphology and damage mechanisms of UHMWPE were studied based on examinations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that the contact stiffness and friction-dissipated energy initially rise and then gradually reach a steady state. The worn surface is characterized by adhesion in the centre zone, while in the outer annulus, ripples, ploughs and delamination appeared. In addition, a transfer film is found on the surface of titanium alloy ball.

  5. Noncontact measurement of angular deflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technique for measuring instantaneous angular deflection of object requires no physical contact. Technique utilizes two flat refractors, converging lens, and different photocell. Distinction of method is its combination of optical and electromechanical components into feedback system in which measurement error is made to approach zero. Application is foreseen in measurement of torsional strain.

  6. Many-Body Theory of Ultrafast Demagnetization and Angular Momentum Transfer in Ferromagnetic Transition Metals.

    PubMed

    Töws, W; Pastor, G M

    2015-11-20

    Exact calculated time evolutions in the framework of a many-electron model of itinerant magnetism provide new insights into the laser-induced ultrafast demagnetization observed in ferromagnetic (FM) transition metal thin films. The interplay between local spin-orbit interactions and interatomic hopping is shown to be at the origin of the observed postexcitation breakdown of FM correlations between highly stable local magnetic moments. The mechanism behind spin- and angular-momentum transfer is revealed from a microscopic perspective by rigorously complying with all fundamental conservation laws. An energy-resolved analysis of the time evolution shows that the efficiency of the demagnetization process reaches almost 100% in the excited states. PMID:26636871

  7. Quantum theory of molecular collisions in a magnetic field: Efficient calculations based on the total angular momentum representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tscherbul, T. V.; Dalgarno, A.

    2010-11-01

    An efficient method is presented for rigorous quantum calculations of atom-molecule and molecule-molecule collisions in a magnetic field. The method is based on the expansion of the wave function of the collision complex in basis functions with well-defined total angular momentum in the body-fixed coordinate frame. We outline the general theory of the method for collisions of diatomic molecules in the ?2 and ?3 electronic states with structureless atoms and with unlike ?2 and ?3 molecules. The cross sections for elastic scattering and Zeeman relaxation in low-temperature collisions of CaH(?+2) and NH(?-3) molecules with H3e atoms converge quickly with respect to the number of total angular momentum states included in the basis set, leading to a dramatic (>10-fold) enhancement in computational efficiency compared to the previously used methods [A. Volpi and J. L. Bohn, Phys. Rev. A 65, 052712 (2002); R. V. Krems and A. Dalgarno, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 2296 (2004)]. Our approach is thus well suited for theoretical studies of strongly anisotropic molecular collisions in the presence of external electromagnetic fields.

  8. Theory of angular-dispersive, imaging hard-x-ray spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2015-05-01

    A spectrograph is an optical instrument that disperses photons of different energies into distinct directions and space locations and that images photon spectra on a position-sensitive detector. Spectrographs consist of collimating, angular dispersive, and focusing optical elements. Bragg reflecting crystals arranged in an asymmetric scattering geometry can be used as the dispersing elements in the hard-x-ray regime. A ray-transfer matrix technique is applied to propagate x-rays through the optical elements. Several optical designs of hard-x-ray spectrographs are proposed and their performance is analyzed. Spectrographs with an energy resolution of 0.1 meV and a spectral window of imaging up to a few tens of meVs are shown to be feasible for inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) spectroscopy applications. In another example, a spectrograph with a 1-meV spectral resolution and 85-meV spectral window of imaging is considered for Cu K -edge resonant IXS.

  9. Quantum field theory treatment of magnetic effects on the spin and orbital angular momentum of a free electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurian, P.; Verzegnassi, C.

    2016-01-01

    We consider in a quantum field theory framework the effects of a classical magnetic field on the spin and orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a free electron. We derive formulae for the changes in the spin and OAM due to the introduction of a general classical background field. We consider then a constant magnetic field, in which case the relevant expressions of the effects become much simpler and conversions between spin and OAM become readily apparent. An estimate of the expectation values for a realistic electron state is also given. Our findings may be of interest to researchers in spintronics and the field of quantum biology, where electron spin has been implicated on macroscopic time and energy scales.

  10. Reassessment of fission fragment angular distributions from continuum states in the context of transition-state theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Louis C.; Alexander, John M.

    1983-07-01

    Fission angular distributions have been studied for years and have been treated as classic examples of trasitions-state theory. Early work involving composite nuclei of relatively low excitation energy E ? (?35 MeV) and spin I (?25?) gave support to theory and delimited interesting properties of the transitions-state nuclei. More recent research on fusion fission and sequential fission after deeply inelastic reactions involves composite nuclei of much higher energies (?200 MeV) and spins (?100?). Extension of the basic ideas developed for low-spin nuclei requires detailed consideration of the role of these high spins and, in particular, the spin window for fussion. We have made empirical correlations of cross sections for evaporation residues and fission in order to get a description of this spin window. A systematic reanalysis has been made for fusion fission induced by H, He and heavier ions. Empirical correlations of K 20 (K 20 = {IeffT }/{h?2}) are presented along with comparisons of Ieff to moments of inertia for saddle-point nuclei from the rotating liquid drop model. This model gives an excellent guide for the intermidiate spin zone (30? I ?65), while strong shell and/or pairing effects are evident for excitations less than ?35 MeV. Observations of strong anisotropies for very high-spin systems signal the demise of certain approximation commonly made in the theory, and suggestions are made toward this end.

  11. Perturbation theory for spin ladders using angular-momentum coupled bases

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarewicz, J.; Shepard, J.R.

    1998-10-01

    We compute bulk properties of Heisenberg spin-1/2 ladders using Rayleigh-Schr{umlt o}dinger perturbation theory in the rung and plaquette bases. We formulate a method to extract high-order perturbative coefficients in the bulk limit from solutions for relatively small finite clusters. For example, a perturbative calculation for an isotropic 2{times}12 ladder yields an eleventh-order estimate of the ground-state energy per site that is within 0.02{percent} of the density-matrix-renormalization-group value. Moreover, the method also enables a reliable estimate of the radius of convergence of the perturbative expansion. We find that for the rung basis the radius of convergence is {lambda}{sub c}{approx_equal}0.8, with {lambda} defining the ratio between the coupling along the chain relative to the coupling across the chain. In contrast, for the plaquette basis we estimate a radius of convergence of {lambda}{sub c}{approx_equal}1.25. Thus, we conclude that the plaquette basis offers the best currently available perturbative approach which can provide a reliable treatment of the physically interesting case of isotropic ({lambda}=1) spin ladders. We illustrate our methods by computing perturbative coefficients for the ground-state energy per site, the gap, and the one-magnon dispersion relation. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. On Angular Momentum

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Schwinger, J.

    1952-01-26

    The commutation relations of an arbitrary angular momentum vector can be reduced to those of the harmonic oscillator. This provides a powerful method for constructing and developing the properties of angular momentum eigenvectors. In this paper many known theorems are derived in this way, and some new results obtained. Among the topics treated are the properties of the rotation matrices; the addition of two, three, and four angular momenta; and the theory of tensor operators.

  13. Accounting for conformational flexibility and torsional anharmonicity in the H + CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH hydrogen abstraction reactions: A multi-path variational transition state theory study

    SciTech Connect

    Meana-Pañeda, Rubén; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio

    2014-05-07

    This work reports a detailed theoretical study of the hydrogen abstraction reactions from ethanol by atomic hydrogen. The calculated thermal rate constants take into account torsional anharmonicity and conformational flexibility, in addition to the variational and tunneling effects. Specifically, the kinetics calculations were performed by using multi-path canonical variational transition state theory with least-action path tunneling corrections, to which we have added the two-dimensional non-separable method to take into account torsional anharmonicity. The multi-path thermal rate constant is expressed as a sum over conformational reaction channels. Each of these channels includes all the transition states that can be reached by internal rotations. The results show that, in the interval of temperatures between 250 and 2500 K, the account for multiple paths leads to higher thermal rate constants with respect to the single path approach, mainly at low and at high temperatures. In addition, torsional anharmonicity enhances the slope of the Arrhenius plot in this range of temperatures. Finally, we show that the incorporation of tunneling into the hydrogen abstraction reactions substantially changes the contribution of each of the transition states to the conformational reaction channel.

  14. Can Torsion BE Treated as Just another Tensor Field?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nester, James M.; Wang, Chih-Hung

    Many alternative gravity theories use an independent connection which leads to torsion in addition to curvature. Some have argued that there is no physical need to use such connections, that one can always use the Levi-Civita connection and just treat torsion as another tensor field. We explore this issue here in the context of the Poincaré Gauge theory of gravity, which is usually formulated in terms of an affine connection for a Riemann-Cartan geometry (torsion and curvature). We compare the equations obtained by taking as the independent dynamical variables: (i) the orthonormal coframe and the connection and (ii) the orthonormal coframe and the torsion (contortion), and we also consider the coupling to a source. From this analysis we conclude that, at least for this class of theories, torsion should not be considered as just another tensor field.

  15. Cyclic torsion testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leese, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    Torsional fatigue testing and data analysis procedures are described. Since there are no standards governing cyclic torsion testing that are generally accepted on a widespread basis by the technical community, the different approaches that dominate current experimental activity, and the ramifications of each are discussed. Particular attention is given to the theoretical and experimental difficulties that have paced refinement and general acceptance of test procedures. Finally, specific quantities and nomenclature modelled after analagous axial fatigue properties are suggested as an effective way to communicate torsional fatigue results until accepted standards are established.

  16. Testicular Torsion (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Varicocele (Scrotal Varices) Hernias Ultrasound: Scrotum Undescended Testicles Male Reproductive System PQ: I have a lump on one of ... How to Perform a Testicular Self-Examination Varicocele Male Reproductive System Testicular Torsion Contact Us Print Resources Send to ...

  17. Torsion pendulum revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassan, Massimo; De Marchi, Fabrizio; Marconi, Lorenzo; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Stanga, Ruggero; Visco, Massimo

    2013-10-01

    We present an analysis of the motion of a simple torsion pendulum and we describe how, with straightforward extensions to the usual basic dynamical model, we succeed in explaining some unexpected features we found in our data, like the modulation of the torsion mode at a higher frequency and the frequency splitting of the swinging motion. Comparison with observed values yields estimates for the misalignment angles and other parameters of the model.

  18. S U (2 ) gauge field theories, gauge-invariant angular momenta, and a Coulomb theorem: A new viewpoint on the resolution of the nucleon spin crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Changyu; Huang, Yong-Chang; Zhou, Bao-Hua

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the inner structure of a general S U (2 ) [naturally including S O (3 )] symmetry system—the fermion-gauge field interaction system—and achieve naturally a set of gauge-invariant spin and orbital angular momentum operators of fermion and gauge fields by Noether's theorem in general field theory. Some new relations concerning non-Abelian field strengths are discovered, e.g., the covariant transverse condition, covariant parallel condition (i.e., non-Abelian divergence, non-Abelian curl), and simplified S U (2 ) Coulomb theorem. And we show that the condition that Chen et al. obtained to construct their gauge-invariant angular momentum operators is a result of some fundamental equations in the general field theory. The results obtained in this paper present a new perspective for looking at the overall structure of the gauge field, and provide a new viewpoint to the final resolution of the nucleon spin crisis in the general field theory. Especially, the achieved theory in this paper can calculate the strong interactions with isospin symmetry and solves the serious problem without gauge-invariant angular momenta in strong interaction systems with isospin symmetry, and then the achieved predictions in the calculations can be exactly measured by particle physics experiments due to their gauge invariant properties.

  19. Isospin-Breaking Corrections to Superallowed Fermi Beta Decay in Isospin- and Angular-Momentum-Projected Nuclear Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Satula, W.; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, Witold

    2012-01-01

    Background: Superallowed -decay rates provide stringent constraints on physics beyond the standard model of particle physics. To extract crucial information about the electroweak force, small isospin-breaking corrections to the Fermi matrix element of superallowed transitions must be applied.

    Purpose: We perform systematic calculations of isospin-breaking corrections to superallowed decays and estimate theoretical uncertainties related to the basis truncation, to time-odd polarization effects related to the intrinsic symmetry of the underlying Slater determinants, and to the functional parametrization.

    Methods: We use the self-consistent isospin- and angular-momentum-projected nuclear density functional theory employing two density functionals derived from the density-independent Skyrme interaction. Pairing correlations are ignored. Our framework can simultaneously describe various effects that impact matrix elements of the Fermi decay: symmetry breaking, configuration mixing, and long-range Coulomb polarization.

    Results: Isospin-breaking corrections to the I=0+, T=1 I=0+, T=1 pure Fermi transitions are computed for nuclei from A=10 to A=98 and, for the first time, to the Fermi branch of the I,T=1/2 I, T=1/2 transitions in mirror nuclei from A=11 to A=49. We carefully analyze various model assumptions impacting theoretical uncertainties of our calculations and provide theoretical error bars on our predictions. Conclusions: The overall agreement with empirical isospin-breaking corrections is very satisfactory. Using computed isospin-breaking corrections we show that the unitarity of the CKM matrix is satisfied with a precision of better than 0.1%.

  20. Structural and torsional vibration analysis of a dry screw compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willie, J.; Sachs, R.

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates torsional vibration and pulsating noise in a dry screw compressor. The compressor is designed at Gardner Denver (GD) and is oil free and use for mounting on highway trucks. They are driven using a Power Take-Off (PTO) transmission and gear box on a truck. Torque peak fluctuation and noise measurements are done and their sources are investigated and reported in this work. To accurately predict the torsional response (frequency and relative angular deflection and torque amplitude), the Holzer method is used. It is shown that the first torsional frequency is manifested as sidebands in the gear train meshing frequencies and this can lead to noise that is the result of amplitude modulation. Sensitivity analysis of the drive train identifies the weakest link in the drive train that limits the first torsional frequency to a low value. Finally, the significance of higher mode shapes on inter-lobe clearance distribution of the rotors is investigated.

  1. Aspects of ABJM orbifolds with discrete torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romo, Mauricio

    2011-09-01

    We analyze orbifolds with discrete torsion of the ABJM theory by a finite subgroup ? of SU(2) SU(2) . Discrete torsion is implemented by twisting the crossed product algebra resulting after orbifolding. It is shown that, in general, the order m of the cocycle we chose to twist the algebra by, enters in a non-trivial way in the moduli space of vacua of the resulting theory. To be more precise, the circle identified with the M-theory fiber is multiplied by a factor of m. Then, the action of the discrete quotient on the fiber is shown to be given by {mathbb{Z}_{{kleft| ? right|}/m}} . This is shown to be in agreement with previously found results in the literature regarding orbifolds of the ABJM theory. We present a general analysis on how this quotient arises along with a detailed analysis of the cases where ? is abelian.

  2. Testicular torsion repair - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Testicular torsion occurs when the testicle, normally attached to the scrotum by a small ligament at its base, becomes ... itself, cutting off its flow of blood. Testicular torsion is considered an emergency. Surgery is usually required, ...

  3. Quantum-mechanical theory including angular momenta analysis of atom-atom collisions in a laser field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devries, P. L.; George, T. F.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of two atoms colliding in the presence of an intense radiation field, such as that of a laser, is investigated. The radiation field, which couples states of different electronic symmetry, is described by the number state representation while the electronic degrees of freedom (plus spin-orbit interaction) are discussed in terms of a diabatic representation. The total angular momentum of the field-free system and the angular momentum transferred by absorption (or emission) of a photon are explicitly considered in the derivation of the coupled scattering equations. A model calculation is discussed for the Xe + F collision system.

  4. Angular Cheilitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of angular cheilitis is usually undertaken with topical antifungals such as nystatin, clotrimazole, or econazole. Combinations of a topical antifungal and a topical steroid such as Mycostatin and ...

  5. Nanomechanical torsional resonators for frequency-shift infrared thermal sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X C; Myers, E B; Sader, J E; Roukes, M L

    2013-04-10

    We investigate use of nanomechanical torsional resonators for frequency-shift-based infrared (IR) thermal sensing. Nanoscale torsion rods, ~1 μm long and 50-100 nm in diameter, provide both extraordinary thermal isolation and excellent angular displacement and torque sensitivities, of order ~10(-7) rad·Hz(-1/2) and ~10(-22) (N·m) Hz(-1/2), respectively. Furthermore, these nanorods act as linear torsional springs, yielding a maximum angular displacement of 3.6° and a dynamic range of over 100 dB; this exceeds the performance of flexural modes by as much as 5 orders of magnitude. These attributes lead to superior noise performance for torsional-mode sensing. We demonstrate the operational principles of torsional-mode IR detection, attaining an uncooled noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 390 mK. By modeling the fundamental noise processes, we project that further reduction of device size can significantly improve thermal responsivity; a room-temperature NETD below 10 mK appears feasible. PMID:23458733

  6. Torsion And Bending Alleviator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doebbler, Thomas R.; Kent, Preston E.

    1994-01-01

    Device couples two shafts while relieving excessive loads between them. Torsion and bending loads between upper and mounting shafts relieved in coupling by ball springs and Belleville springs, respectively. Both sets of springs adjustable so as not to relieve loads below preset limits.

  7. Planar torsion spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A torsion spring comprises an inner mounting segment. An outer mounting segment is located concentrically around the inner mounting segment. A plurality of splines extends from the inner mounting segment to the outer mounting segment. At least a portion of each spline extends generally annularly around the inner mounting segment.

  8. Visual reaction times during prolonged angular acceleration parallel the subjective perception of rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of prolonged angular acceleration on choice reaction time to an accelerating visual stimulus was investigated, with 10 commercial airline pilots serving as subjects. The pattern of reaction times during and following acceleration was compared with the pattern of velocity estimates reported during identical trials. Both reaction times and velocity estimates increased at the onset of acceleration, declined prior to the termination of acceleration, and showed an aftereffect. These results are inconsistent with the torsion-pendulum theory of semicircular canal function and suggest that the vestibular adaptation is of central origin.

  9. Torsional fatigue of aramid fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Kawabata, S.; Sera, M.

    1993-12-31

    An experimental investigation on the shear fatigue process of aramid fibers is presented. Repeated cycles of the torsional deformation are applied on the aramid single fiber and the reduction of the shear modulus of the fiber with an increasing number of the cycles is observed for different strain amplitudes. It has been found that the reduction process of the shear modulus with an increasing number of the repeated cycles depends on the strain amplitude and the effect of the number of cycles is equivalent to that of the strain amplitude on the modulus reduction and they may be superposed like the time-temperature equivalence superposition observed in the viscoelasticity of amorphous polymeric solids. From this relation, the life prediction for the long term use of aramid fibers becomes possible by using this superimposed relation. A simple rate process theory is applied to interpret this fatigue process and to derive the equation for predicting the life cycle number of the loading.

  10. Torsional vibrations of circular poroelastic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, S. Ahmed; Nageswara Nath, C.

    2015-12-01

    Torsional vibrations of annular poroelastic circular plates are studied in the framework of Biot's theory of wave propagation in porous solids. The frequency equation of torsional vibrations is same for pervious and impervious surfaces. The frequency equation of torsional vibrations is obtained by using the traction free boundaries and edges of the annular circular plate. Non-dimensional frequency of annular plate is computed as a function of aspect ratio. The frequency equation is discussed for first two modes. Frequency equation of torsional vibrations of uniform circular poroelastic plate is obtained as a particular case of the annular plate. Resonant frequency of infinite poroelastic plate is obtained as a limiting case of annular plate. The expressions for phase velocity and attenuation are obtained and these are computed for two different poroelastic materials as a function of frequency in presence of dissipation. Phase velocity is almost same for the considered poroelastic materials and dissipations. Results of previous study are obtained as a particular case of the present investigation.

  11. Femtosecond torsional relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J.; Nelson, T.; Tretiak, S.; Cirmi, G.; Lanzani, G.

    2012-03-01

    Molecular conformational reorganization following photon absorption is a fundamental process driving reactions such as the cis-trans isomerization at the heart of the primary step of vision and can be exploited for switching in artificial systems using photochromics. In general, conformational change occurs on a timescale defined by the energy of the main vibrational mode and the rate of energy dissipation. Typically, for a conformational change such as a twist around the backbone of a conjugated molecule, this occurs on the tens of picoseconds timescale. However, here we demonstrate experimentally that in certain circumstances the molecule, in this case an oligofluorene, can change conformation over two orders of magnitude faster (that is sub-100fs) in a manner analogous to inertial solvent reorganization demonstrated in the 1990s. Theoretical simulations demonstrate that non-adiabatic transitions during internal conversion can efficiently convert electronic potential energy into torsional kinetic energy, providing the `kick' that prompts sub-100fs torsional reorganization.

  12. Torsional Ratcheting Actuating System

    SciTech Connect

    BARNES,STEPHEN MATTHEW; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; RODGERS,M. STEVEN; BITSIE,FERNANDO

    2000-01-24

    A new type of surface micromachined ratcheting actuation system has been developed at the Microelectronics Development Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories. The actuator uses a torsional electrostatic comb drive that is coupled to an external ring gear through a ratcheting scheme. The actuator can be operated with a single square wave, has minimal rubbing surfaces, maximizes comb finger density, and can be used for open-loop position control. The prototypes function as intended with a minimum demonstrated operating voltage of 18V. The equations of motion are developed for the torsional electrostatic comb drive. The resonant frequency, voltage vs. displacement and force delivery characteristics are predicted and compared with the fabricated device's performance.

  13. Torsion in box wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheatley, John B

    1931-01-01

    Logical analysis of a box wing necessitates the allowance for the contribution of the drag spars to the torsional strength of the structure. A rigorous analysis is available in the use of the Method of Least Work. The best logical method of analysis is that applying Prandtl's Membrane Analogy. The results so obtained vary by a negligible amount from those obtained by the rigorous method.

  14. Constraining spacetime torsion with the Moon and Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    March, Riccardo; Bellettini, Giovanni; Tauraso, Roberto; Dell'Agnello, Simone

    2011-05-15

    We report a search for new gravitational physics phenomena based on Riemann-Cartan theory of general relativity including spacetime torsion. Starting from the parametrized torsion framework of Mao, Tegmark, Guth, and Cabi, we analyze the motion of test bodies in the presence of torsion, and, in particular, we compute the corrections to the perihelion advance and to the orbital geodetic precession of a satellite. We consider the motion of a test body in a spherically symmetric field, and the motion of a satellite in the gravitational field of the Sun and the Earth. We describe the torsion field by means of three parameters, and we make use of the autoparallel trajectories, which in general differ from geodesics when torsion is present. We derive the specific approximate expression of the corresponding system of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved with methods of celestial mechanics. We calculate the secular variations of the longitudes of the node and of the pericenter of the satellite. The computed secular variations show how the corrections to the perihelion advance and to the orbital de Sitter effect depend on the torsion parameters. All computations are performed under the assumptions of weak field and slow motion. To test our predictions, we use the measurements of the Moon's geodetic precession from lunar laser ranging data, and the measurements of Mercury's perihelion advance from planetary radar ranging data. These measurements are then used to constrain suitable linear combinations of the torsion parameters.

  15. Torsional Splitting in the Degenerate Vibrational States of (70)Ge(2)H(6): Rotation-Torsion Analysis of the nu(7) and nu(9) Fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Lattanzi; di Lauro C; Brger; Mkadmi

    2000-09-01

    The rotational and torsional structure of the nu(7) and nu(9) degenerate fundamentals of (70)Ge(2)H(6) has been analyzed under high resolution. The torsional structure of both v(7) = 1 and v(9) = 1 states can be fitted by a simple one-parameter formula. The x,y-Coriolis interaction with the parallel nu(5) fundamental was accounted for in the analysis of nu(7). A strong perturbation of the J structure of the E(3s) torsional component of the KDeltaK = -2 subbranches of nu(9) can be explained by the resonance with an E(3s) excited level of the pure torsional manifold. The perturber is centered at 361.58 cm(-1), very close to the value estimated with a barrier height of 285 cm(-1). This confirms that the fundamental torsional wavenumber is close to 103 cm(-1), in good agreement with the "ab initio" prediction. The torsional splittings of all the infrared active degenerate fundamentals, nu(7), nu(8), and nu(9), follow the trend predicted by theory, and have been fitted by exploratory calculations accounting only for the torsional Coriolis-coupling mechanism of all degenerate vibrational fundamentals in several torsional states. This confirms that torsional Coriolis coupling is the dominant mechanism responsible for the decrease of the torsional splitting in the degenerate vibrational states. A higher value of the barrier had to be used for the nu(9) mode. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10930338

  16. Photon- and electron-impact ionization and ejected-electron angular distributions from molecules including retardation effects: Nonrelativistic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonham, R. A.; Lively, M. L.

    1984-03-01

    The nonrelativistic first-Born-approximation matrix element for the photoionization and electron impact of a single electron from a molecule with no restriction on its shape, including retardation effects and with rotational energy resolution, is evaluated within the framework of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Angular distributions of ejected electrons are cylindrically symmetric about the propagation direction of the photon or electron source if the light is circularly polarized or if no attempt is made to simultaneously measure the scattered and ejected electrons in electron-impact ionization. If plane polarized light is used, retardation effects destroy the cylindrical symmetry about the light propagation direction. If the scattered electron in electron-impact ionization is detected in coincidence with the ejected electron then the angular distribution of ejected electrons shows cylindrical symmetry about the momentum-transfer direction. Use of an LCAO-MO (linear combination of atomic orbitals representation of molecular orbitals) basis for both bound and continuum one-electron orbitals leads to selection and propensity rules for rotational excitation.

  17. Segmental ischemia in testicular torsion

    PubMed Central

    Tavasl?, Binnur; evik, Halime

    2016-01-01

    Testicular torsion is a rare but important entity in the discipline of urology, as urgent action is required to save the testicle anatomically and functionally. Occurring mainly in the young prepubertal or pubertal male, testicular torsion is also seen in young adults. The annual incidence has been estimated to be 4.5 cases per 100,000 male subjects. The outcome of testicular torsion, in cases of unsuccessful emergent intervention, is total or partial infarction of the testicular tissue. We present a case of partial testicular ischemia due to testicular torsion. PMID:26722172

  18. Torsion as a source of expansion in a Bianchi type-I universe in the self-consistent Einstein-Cartan theory of a perfect fluid with spin density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradas, James C.; Fennelly, Alphonsus J.; Smalley, Larry L.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that a generalized (or 'power law') inflationary phase arises naturally and inevitably in a simple (Bianchi type-I) anisotropic cosmological model in the self-consistent Einstein-Cartan gravitation theory with the improved stress-energy-momentum tensor with the spin density of Ray and Smalley (1982, 1983). This is made explicit by an analytical solution of the field equations of motion of the fluid variables. The inflation is caused by the angular kinetic energy density due to spin. The model further elucidates the relationship between fluid vorticity, the angular velocity of the inertially dragged tetrads, and the precession of the principal axes of the shear ellipsoid. Shear is not effective in damping the inflation.

  19. Induced Angular Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses, classically and quantum mechanically, the angular momentum induced in the bound motion of an electron by an external magnetic field. Calculates the current density and its magnetic moment, and then uses two methods to solve the first-order perturbation theory equation for the required eigenfunction. (Author/GA)

  20. Development of Torsional and Linear Piezoelectrically Driven Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Khanh; Newton, David; Garcia, Ephrahim

    1996-01-01

    The development of rotary and linear inchworm-motors using piezoelectric actuators is presented. The motors' design has the advantage of a macro and micro stepper motor with high load and speed. The torsional design is capable of fast angular positioning with micro level accuracy. Additionally, the rotary motor, as designed, can be used as a clutch/brake mechanism. Constructed prototype motors of both types along with their characteristics are presented. The torsional motor consists of a torsional section that provides angular displacement and torque, and two alternating clamping sections which provide the holding force. The motor relies on the principal piezoelectric coupling coefficient (d33) with no torsional elements, increasing its torque capability. The linear motor consists of a longitudinal vibrator that provides displacement and load, and two alternating clamping sections which provide the holding force. This design eliminates bending moment, tension and shear applied to the actuator elements, increase its load capability and life. Innovative flexure designs have been introduced for both motor types. Critical issues that affect the design and performance of the motors are explored and discussed. Experiments are performed demonstrating the motor prototypes based on the aforementioned design considerations.

  1. A Cryogenic Torsion Balance for Tests of the Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischer, Frank; Adelberger, Eric; Bassan, Massimo; Heckel, Blayne

    2010-02-01

    Almost all theories of physics ``beyond the standard model'' predict the existence of new, weak interactions that violate the equivalence principle (EP) at some level. Consequently, precise tests of the EP are a sensitive probe for new physics. The best limits on EP violations currently come from torsion balance experiments, where the dominant contribution to the error budgets are due to thermal noise. To achieve a higher sensitivity to extremely weak forces, we have built a cryostat designed to operate a torsion balance near liquid helium temperature. For cooling, we employ a commercially available pulse tube cooler. The extreme sensitivity of torsion balances to seismic noise required special attention to isolating the vibrations of the pulse-tube cooler from the torsion balance. Results from first tests of the noise performance of the apparatus will be presented. )

  2. Randall-Sundrum scenario with bulk dilaton and torsion

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Sen, Somasri; SenGupta, Soumitra

    2009-06-15

    We consider a string-inspired torsion-dilaton-gravity action in a Randall-Sundrum braneworld scenario and show that, in an effective four-dimensional theory on the visible brane, the rank-2 antisymmetric Kalb-Ramond field (source of torsion) is exponentially suppressed. The result is similar to our earlier result in [B. Mukhopadhyaya, S. Sen, and S. SenGupta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 121101 (2002); Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 259902(E) (2002)], where no dilaton was present in the bulk. This offers an explanation of the apparent invisibility of torsion in our space-time. However, in this case the trilinear couplings {approx}TeV{sup -1} between the dilaton and torsion may lead to new signals in TeV-scale experiments, bearing the stamp of extra warped dimensions.

  3. Torsional vibration analysis of bars including secondary torsional shear deformation effect by the boundary element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapountzakis, E. J.; Tsipiras, V. J.; Argyridi, A. K.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a boundary element method (BEM) is developed for the torsional vibration problem of bars of arbitrary doubly symmetric constant cross section, taking into account the nonuniform warping and secondary torsional shear deformation effects (STSDE). The bar is subjected to arbitrarily distributed or concentrated dynamic torsional loading along its length, while its edges are subjected to the most general torsional and warping boundary conditions. Apart from the angle of twist, the primary angle of twist per unit length is considered as an additional 1-D degree of freedom in order to account for the STSDE in the equations of motion of the bar. The warping shear stress distribution and the pertinent secondary torsional rigidity are computed by satisfying local equilibrium considerations under dynamic conditions without adhering to assumptions of Thin Tube Theory (TTT). By employing a distributed mass model system accounting for rotatory and warping inertia, an initial boundary value and two boundary value problems with respect to the variable along the bar time-dependent 1-D kinematical components, to the primary and secondary warping functions, respectively, are formulated. The latter are solved employing a pure BE method, requiring exclusively boundary discretization of the bar's cross section. The numerical solution of the aforementioned initial boundary value problem is performed through a BE method leading to a system of differential equations with displacement only unknowns, which is solved using an efficient direct time integration technique. Additionally, for the free vibrations case, a generalized eigenvalue problem is formulated through a similar BE technique. The accuracy and reliability of the results is assessed by FEM solutions employing solid or shell modelling. Both open- and closed-shaped cross section bars are examined and the necessity to include nonuniform torsional and STSD effects in the dynamic analysis of bars is demonstrated.

  4. The Dynamics and Excitation of Torsional Waves in Geodynamo Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. A.; Teed, R.; Tobias, S.

    2013-12-01

    The predominant force balance in rapidly rotating planetary cores is between Coriolis, pressure, buoyancy and Lorentz forces. This magnetostrophic balance leads to a Taylor state where the spatially averaged azimuthal Lorentz force is compelled to vanish on cylinders aligned with the rotation axis. Any deviation from this state leads to a torsional oscillation, signatures of which have been observed in the Earth's secular variation and are thought to influence length of day variations via angular momentum conservation. In order to investigate the dynamics of torsional oscillations, we perform several three-dimensional dynamo simulations in a spherical shell. We find torsional oscillations, identified by their propagation at the correct Alfven speed, in many of our simulations. We find that the frequency, location and direction of propagation of the waves are influenced by the choice of parameters. Torsional waves are observed within the tangent cylinder and also have the ability to pass through it. Several of our simulations display waves with core travel times of 4 to 6 years. We calculate the driving terms for these waves and find that both the Reynolds force and ageostrophic convection acting through the Lorentz force are important in driving torsional oscillations.

  5. Autoparallel vs. Geodesic Trajectories in a Model of Torsion Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acedo, Luis

    2015-11-01

    We consider a parametrized torsion gravity model for Riemann-Cartan geometry around a rotating axisymmetric massive body. In this model, the source of torsion is given by a circulating vector potential following the celestial parallels around the rotating object. Ours is a variant of the Mao, Tegmark, Guth and Cabi (MTGC model) in which the total angular momentum is proposed as a source of torsion. We study the motion of bodies around the rotating object in terms of autoparallel trajectories and determine the leading perturbations of the orbital elements by using standard celestial mechanics techniques. We find that this torsion model implies new gravitational physical consequences in the Solar system and, in particular, secular variations of the semi-major axis of the planetary orbits. Perturbations on the longitude of the ascending node and the perihelion of the planets are already under discussion in the astronomical community, and if confirmed as truly non-zero effects at a statistically significant level, we might be at the dawn of an era of torsion phenomenology in the Solar system.

  6. Regular and anomalous torsional splitting patterns: a trend in ethane-like molecules and general perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattanzi, F.; di Lauro, C.

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that torsional Coriolis coupling can alter the torsional splittings in molecules with hindered internal rotation. Splitting patterns that would occur in the absence of any vibrational contribution to the torsional angular momentum, with reference to a molecular axis system (IAM), are called regular. It is shown that different sets of vibrational coordinates, corresponding to vibrational states with different splitting patterns, can be defined for modes normal to the internal rotation axis. The forms of normal coordinates appropriate to basis vibrational states with regular and inverted splitting patterns are identified. It is found that in normal coordinates appropriate to vibrational states with regular torsional splitting patterns, the relative orientation of the displacements of pairs of atoms belonging to different molecular moieties is independent of the internal rotation angle, and relative displacements normal to the internal rotation axis can be cis or trans at any conformation. On the contrary, in normal coordinates appropriate to vibrational states with inverted torsional splitting patterns the relative orientation of such displacements changes by ?(cis-trans interchange) upon half the internal rotation converting two neighbor equivalent conformations (as in a staggered-eclipsed conformational conversion). The formation of the actual torsional splitting patterns in degenerate vibrational states of CH3CH3-type molecules depends on the joint effect of torsional Coriolis and head-tail coupling. The torsional Coriolis operator can tune pairs of levels to resonance for the action of typical head-tail coupling operators (torsion-dependent vibrational operators), depending on the values of the torsional Coriolis coefficients, generating vibrational states with either regular or inverted torsional splitting patterns and affecting the splitting magnitude. It is shown that operators with a sin3?-type torsional dependence favor the formation of inverted splitting patterns. In less symmetric molecules torsional Coriolis coupling affects the torsional splitting patterns by the same mechanism as in CH3CH3-type molecules, but the torsion-dependent operators are different and their action is expected to be less effective. Typical anomalous perpendicular splitting patterns can be predicted for non-degenerate modes localized in a single molecular moiety, normal or with a component normal to the internal rotation axis, having fixed orientation in that moiety (as the C=O or C-H stretchings of acetaldehyde). Adopting a barrier-hindered torsional basis, where the lower torsional levels can be seen as vibrational states with quantum numbers v? exhibiting tunneling splitting, one finds that all operators generating matrix elements with ?v?=+/-1, or in general odd, work toward the formation of inverted splitting patterns, generating anomalous patterns.

  7. Performance of an angular flange aeroelastic wind energy converter

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadi, G.

    1983-05-01

    ALL conventional wind turbines operate on the principles of turbomachinaries, with wind being made to flow over a set of rotating vanes. Recently, a new concept for wind energy conversion based on aeroelastic instability was introduced. It is well known that couplings between the vibration of an elastic structure and fluid stream may lead to aeroelastic instability. Energy then is transferred from the airstream into the elastic structure, which results in a destructive monotonic increase of the vibration amplitude of the structure. The failure of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge is one of the well-known examples of such a disaster. The use of an aeroelastic instability (or flutter) mechanism for constructing a wind energy converter was suggested. The theory for a torsional wind energy converter and the results of some model tests were also presented. Recently, some studies on similar types of wind energy converters using oscillating airfoils were reported. In the present study an angular flange H-section model of a torsional aeroelastic wind energy converter is constructed, and its performances under various conditions are investigated. The effects of the variations of the flange angle and the flange width on the performance of the model are studied. The weight of the pendulum is also varied, and its effects on the power coefficient of the model are investigated. It is observed that the efficiency of energy conversion decreases with an increase in wind speed. A method for possible improvement of the theoretical prediction is suggested and discussed.

  8. Angular Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in

  9. Angular Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in…

  10. Testicular torsion: A surgical emergency

    SciTech Connect

    Prater, J.M.; Overdorf, B.S. )

    1991-09-01

    Testicular torsion is caused by twisting of the spermatic cord, which results in compromised testicular blood flow. The degree of ischemic injury is determined by the severity of arterial compression and the interval between the onset of symptoms and surgical intervention. Torsion usually occurs at puberty, and an anatomic defect known as bell-clapper deformity is usually present. Typical symptoms include acute scrotal pain with associated nausea and vomiting. Up to one-half of patients report previous similar episodes. On examination, the testis is high-riding, tender, swollen and firm. Testicular scan or Doppler ultrasound examination can be helpful in distinguishing torsion from acute epididymitis. Prompt surgical treatment is indicated to reduce the torsion, and bilateral orchiopexy is performed to prevent recurrence. Exocrine function, as determined by semen analysis, is often abnormal after unilateral torsion. 25 references.

  11. Theoretical-experimental correlation for buckling of composite cylinders under combined compression and torsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herakovich, C. T.

    1978-01-01

    Comparison between theory and experiment for buckling of laminated graphite-epoxy and boron-epoxy cylinders under combined compression and torsion are presented. The experimental results are compared to a theory by Wu. It is shown that there is excellent agreement between theory and experiment for pure torsional loading (positive and negative), experimental buckling loads for pure compression are well below the predicted values, and good correlation is exhibited between theory and experiment for buckling under combined loading when compared in the form of normalized buckling interaction diagrams in axial-torsional load space.

  12. Torsion-rotation intensities in methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, John

    Methanol exists in numerous kinds of astronomical objects featuring a wide range of local conditions. The light nature of the molecule coupled with the internal rotation of the methyl group with respect to the hydroxyl group results in a rich, strong spectrum that spans the entire far-infrared region. As a result, any modest size observational window will have a number of strong methanol transitions. This has made it the gas of choice for testing THz receivers and to extract the local physical conditions from observations covering small frequency windows. The latter has caused methanol to be dubbed the Swiss army knife of astrophysics. Methanol has been increasingly used in this capacity and will be used even more for subsequent investigations into the Herschel archive, and with SOFIA and ALMA. Interpreting physical conditions on the basis of a few methanol lines requires that the molecular data, line positions, intensities, and collision rates, be complete, consistent and accurate to a much higher level than previously required for astrophysics. The need for highly reliable data is even more critical for modeling the two classes of widespread maser action and many examples of optical pumping through the torsional bands. Observation of the torsional bands in the infrared will be a unique opportunity to directly connect JWST observations with those of Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA. The theory for the intensities of torsion-rotation transitions in a molecule featuring a single internally rotating methyl group is well developed after 70 years of research. However, other than a recent very preliminary and not completely satisfactory investigation of a few CH3OH torsional bands, this theory has never been experimentally tested for any C3V internal rotor. More alarming is a set of recent intensity calibrated microwave measurements that showed deviations relative to calculations of up to 50% in some ground state rotational transitions commonly used by astronomers to extract local conditions. We propose a comprehensive study of the intensities of methanol involving both the pure rotation bands and the torsional bands to serve as a benchmark for the theory used to calculate the infrared activity of all single methyl internal rotation molecules.

  13. Big bounce from spin and torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop?awski, Nikodem J.

    2012-04-01

    The Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity naturally extends general relativity to account for the intrinsic spin of matter. Spacetime torsion, generated by spin of Dirac fields, induces gravitational repulsion in fermionic matter at extremely high densities and prevents the formation of singularities. Accordingly, the big bang is replaced by a bounce that occurred when the energy density {? ? gT^4} was on the order of {n^2/m_Pl^2} (in natural units), where {n ? gT^3} is the fermion number density and g is the number of thermal degrees of freedom. If the early Universe contained only the known standard-model particles ( g ? 100), then the energy density at the big bounce was about 15 times larger than the Planck energy. The minimum scale factor of the Universe (at the bounce) was about 1032 times smaller than its present value, giving ? 50 ?m. If more fermions existed in the early Universe, then the spin-torsion coupling causes a bounce at a lower energy and larger scale factor. Recent observations of high-energy photons from gamma-ray bursts indicate that spacetime may behave classically even at scales below the Planck length, supporting the classical spin-torsion mechanism of the big bounce. Such a classical bounce prevents the matter in the contracting Universe from reaching the conditions at which a quantum bounce could possibly occur.

  14. Torsion Tests of Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stang, Ambrose H; Ramberg, Walter; Back, Goldie

    1937-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests of 63 chromium-molybdenum steel tubes and 102 17st aluminum-alloy tubes of various sizes and lengths made to study the dependence of the torsional strength on both the dimensions of the tube and the physical properties of the tube material. Three types of failure are found to be important for sizes of tubes frequently used in aircraft construction: (1) failure by plastic shear, in which the tube material reached its yield strength before the critical torque was reached; (2) failure by elastic two-lobe buckling, which depended only on the elastic properties of the tube material and the dimensions of the tube; and (3) failure by a combination of (1) and (2) that is, by buckling taking place after some yielding of the tube material.

  15. Torsional oscillations in dynamo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicht, Johannes; Christensen, Ulrich R.

    2010-06-01

    Cylinders aligned with the planetary rotation axis have a special significance in the dynamics of planetary dynamo regions. The azimuthal Lorentz forces on these geostrophic cylinders is expected to cancel to a large degree, establishing the so-called Taylor state. Deviations from this state take the form of torsional oscillations (TOs) that are supposed to represent important fast flow variations. These oscillations have reportedly been identified in the secular variation signal from the top of Earth's core. We have performed several dynamo simulations at different parameters to check whether Taylor state and TOs can also be identified in a numerical model. Taylor states are approached when viscous effects are small at Ekman numbers of E = 3 10-5 or below and Reynolds stresses are kept low by choosing moderate Rayleigh numbers. One-dimensional magnetic Alfvn waves that travel towards the boundaries then become prominent in the motion of the geostrophic cylinders. These waves obey the TO theory but are also damped and modified by other effects. For example, fast variations of likely convective origin remain important in all our simulations. Reynolds stresses may play a more sizable role for the dynamics in Earth's dynamo region than commonly assumed. They may also contribute to the motions of geostrophic cylinders and severely reduce the significance of TOs for the fast core dynamics. The amplitude of TOs amounts to not more than a few percent of the total flow amplitude in the simulations, which renders these motions insignificant for the long-term dynamo process.

  16. Angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor

    2013-12-01

    The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in the physics laboratory. Many traditional physics experiments can now be performed very conveniently in a pedagogically enlightening environment while simultaneously reducing the laboratory budget substantially by using student-owned smartphones.

  17. Torsional osteotomies of the femur.

    PubMed

    Dickschas, Jrg; Harrer, Jrg; Reuter, Benoit; Schwitulla, Judith; Strecker, Wolf

    2015-03-01

    Various pathologies of the hip or knee, such as patellofemoral malalignment or femoroacetabular impingement may be caused by a femoral torsional deformity. When diagnosed and analyzed, it is treated by femoral torsional osteotomy. Thirty femoral torsional osteotomies in 25 patients were included, the principal symptoms were patellar dislocation in 15 patients, anterior knee pain in 17, and femoroacetabular impingement in two. A computed-tomography-based measurement of the torsional angle was performed in all patients. Japanese Knee Society score, Tegner activity score, Lysholm score, and visual analog scale score were determined before surgery and at follow-up after 41 (6-113) months. Femoral internal torsion was on average 40.9 (29?-?66; normal 24). Surgical treatment consisted of a femoral external torsional osteotomy of on average 13.8 (5?-?26). Tegner activity score increased non-significantly (p-value 0.326) from 3.57 to 3.71. Japanese Knee Society score improved significantly from 72 to 87 (p-value 0.004) while Lysholm score rose significantly from 66 to 84 points (p-value 0.004). Pain relief was demonstrated by a significant decrease in the VAS score from 5.6 to 2.4 (p-value 0.007). No further patellar dislocation was reported. Torsional deformities of the femur frequently cause symptoms in the knee or hip joint. After thorough assessment and diagnostic investigation, a femoral external torsional osteotomy provides significant pain relief as well as patellofemoral stability. PMID:25399673

  18. Isolated penile torsion in newborns

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Egemen; Gundogdu, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We reported on the incidence of isolated penile torsion among our healthy children and our approach to this anomaly. Methods: Between 2011 and 2014, newborn babies with penile torsion were classified according to the angle of torsion. Surgical correction (penile degloving and reattachment for moderate cases and dorsal dartos flap technique in case of resistance) after 6 months was advised to the babies with rotations more than 45. Results: Among 1000 newborn babies, 200 isolated penile torsions were found, and among these, 43 had torsions more than 45, and 4 of these had angles greater than 90. The mean angle of the rotations was found 30.45 (median: 20). In total, 8 children with 60 torsions were previously circumcised. Surgery was performed on 19 patients, with a mean patient age of 12 2 months. Of these 19, 13 babies were corrected with degloving and reattachment. This technique was not enough on the remaining 6 patients; therefore, derotational dorsal dartos flap was added to correct the torsion. After a mean of 15.6 9.8 months, residual penile rotation, less than 15, was found only in 2 children. Conclusion: The incidence of isolated penile torsion is 20% in newborns. However, rotation more than 45 angles are seen in 4.3% of male babies. Correction is not necessary in mild degrees, and penile degloving with reattachment is enough in most cases. If the initial correction is insufficient, dorsal dartos flap rotation is easy and effective. Prior circumcision neither disturbs the operative procedure nor affects the outcomes. PMID:26600889

  19. Torsion and bending periodic boundary conditions for modeling the intrinsic strength of nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wei; Fong, William; Elsen, Erich; Weinberger, Christopher R.

    We present a unified approach for atomistic modeling of torsion and bending of nanowires that is free from artificial end effects. Torsional and bending periodic boundary conditions (t-PBC and b-PBC) are formulated by generalizing the conventional periodic boundary conditions (PBC) to cylindrical coordinates. The approach is simpler than the more general objective molecular dynamics formulation because we focus on the special cases of torsion and bending. A simple implementation of these boundary conditions is presented and correctly conserves linear and angular momenta. We also derive the virial expressions for the average torque and bending moment under these boundary conditions that are analogous to the virial expression for the average stress in PBC. The method is demonstrated by molecular dynamics simulation of Si nanowires under torsion and bending, which exhibit several modes of failure depending on their diameters.

  20. Torsional elastic deformations of microtubules within continuous sheet model.

    PubMed

    Che?miniak, P; Dixon, J M; Tuszy?ski, J A

    2010-02-01

    This paper develops a rigorous analysis of the microtubule elastic deformations in terms of the torsional degrees of freedom using the helix-based cylindrical structure of this biopolymer. Methods of differential geometry and the theory of elasticity are employed in our analysis. We find equilibrium conditions and constitutive equations in the linear regime. We estimate the value of torsional rigidity for microtubules based on their structure and some experimentally known elastic properties. The paper concludes with the derivation of a bulk modulus formula for a microtubule in solution. Both the entropy change and the fluctuation of the twist angle are obtained. PMID:20221665

  1. New supersymmetric index of heterotic compactifications with torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isral, Dan; Sarkis, Matthieu

    2015-12-01

    We compute the new supersymmetric index of a large class of N=2 heterotic compactifications with torsion, corresponding to principal two-torus bundles over warped K3 surfaces with H-flux. Starting from a UV description as a (0,2) gauged linear sigma-model with torsion, we use supersymmetric localization techniques to provide an explicit expression of the index as a sum over the Jeffrey-Kirwan residues of the one-loop determinant. We finally propose a geometrical formula that gives the new supersymmetric index in terms of bundle data, regardless of any particular choice of underlying two-dimensional theory.

  2. Plastic Behavior and Fracture of Aluminum and Copper in Torsion Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bressan, Jose Divo

    2007-04-07

    Present work investigates the plastic behavior, work hardening and the beginning of plastic instabilities, of cylindrical specimens deformed by high speed cold plastic torsion tests and at low speed tensile test. The tests were carried out in a laboratory torsion test equipment and an universal tensile test machine. The tensile tests were performed at room temperature in an universal testing machine at low strain rate of 0.034/s. Experimental torsion tests were carried out at constant angular speed that imposed a constant shear strain rate to the specimen. In the tests, the rotation speed were set to 62 rpm and 200 rpm which imposed high strain rates of about 2/s and 6.5/s respectively. The torsion tests performed at room temperature on annealed commercial pure copper and aluminum. Two types of torsion specimen for aluminum were used: solid and tubular. The solid aluminum specimen curves presented various points of maximum torque. The tubular copper specimens showed two points of maximum. Shear bands or shear strain localization at specimen were possibly the mechanism of maximum torque points formation. The work hardening coefficient n and the strain rate sensitivity parameter m were evaluated from the equivalent stress versus strain curve from tensile and torsion tests. The n-value remained constant whereas the m-value increased ten folds for aluminum specimens: from tensile test m= 0.027 and torsion test m= 0.27. However, the hardening curves were sigmoidal.

  3. On the interpretation of combined torsion and tension tests of thin-wall tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prager, W

    1948-01-01

    General ways of testing thin-wall tubes under combined tension and torsion as a means of checking the various theories of plasticity are discussed. Suggestions also are given for the interpretation of the tests.

  4. Blade root torsional dampers to reduce hub loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottapalli, Sesi

    1992-01-01

    A new method of reducing helicopter rotor hub loads and marginally improving rotor performance by the introduction of large values of blade root torsional damping is presented. Basic theoretical considerations imply that these benefits in hub loads can come about by changes to the blade elastic torsional deflection. This basic theory was analytically verified by using a fully coupled aeroelastic rotorcraft analysis as applied to a modern, articulated rotor blade, namely that of the Sikorsky S-76. From an implementation standpoint, a rotor-based torsional damping device may be more practical than one that involves a major portion of the blade span. Also, a root-based device may allow for the retrofitting of existing helicopter rotor blade/hub configurations.

  5. Torsional wave propagation in multiwalled carbon nanotubes using nonlocal elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arda, Mustafa; Aydogdu, Metin

    2016-03-01

    Torsional wave propagation in multiwalled carbon nanotubes is studied in the present work. Governing equation of motion of multiwalled carbon nanotube is obtained using Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory. The effect of van der Waals interaction coefficient is considered between inner and outer nanotubes. Dispersion relations are obtained and discussed in detail. Effect of nonlocal parameter and van der Waals interaction to the torsional wave propagation behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotubes is investigated. It is obtained that torsional van der Waals interaction between adjacent tubes can change the rotational direction of multiwalled carbon nanotube as in-phase or anti-phase. The group and escape velocity of the waves converge to a limit value in the nonlocal elasticity approach.

  6. Nonlinear inelastic uniform torsion of bars by BEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapountzakis, E. J.; Tsipiras, V. J.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper the elastic plastic uniform torsion analysis of simply or multiply connected cylindrical bars of arbitrary cross-section taking into account the effect of geometric nonlinearity is presented employing the boundary element method. The stress strain relationship for the material is assumed to be elastic plastic strain hardening. The incremental torque rotation relationship is computed based on the finite displacement (finite rotation) theory, that is the transverse displacement components are expressed so as to be valid for large rotations and the longitudinal normal strain includes the second-order geometric nonlinear term often described as the Wagner strain. The proposed formulation does not stand on the assumption of a thin-walled structure and therefore the cross-sections torsional rigidity is evaluated exactly without using the so-called Saint-Venants torsional constant. The torsional rigidity of the cross-section is evaluated directly employing the primary warping function of the cross-section depending on both its shape and the progress of the plastic region. A boundary value problem with respect to the aforementioned function is formulated and solved employing a BEM approach. The influence of the second Piola Kirchhoff normal stress component to the plastic/elastic moment ratio in uniform inelastic torsion is demonstrated. The developed procedure retains most of the advantages of a BEM solution over a pure domain discretization method, although it requires domain discretization, which is used only to evaluate integrals.

  7. Simple torsion test for shear moduli determination of orthotropic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumsion, H. T.; Rajapakse, Y. D. S.

    1978-01-01

    By means of torsion tests performed on test specimens of the same material having a minimum of two different cross sections (flat sheet of different widths), the effective in-plane (G13) and out-of-plane (G23) shear moduli were determined for two composite materials of uniaxial and angleply fiber orientations. Test specimens were 16 plies (nominal 2 mm) thick, 100 mm in length, and in widths of 6.3, 9.5, 12.5, and 15.8 mm. Torsion tests were run under controlled deflection (constant angle of twist) using an electrohydraulic servocontrolled test system. In-plane and out-of-plane shear moduli were calculated from an equation derived in the theory of elasticity which relates applied torque, the torsional angle of twist, the specimen width/thickness ratio, and the ratio of the two shear moduli G13/G23. Results demonstrate that torsional shear moduli, G23 as well as G13, can be determined by simple torsion tests of flat specimens of rectangular cross section. Neither the uniaxial nor angleply composite material were transversely isotropic.

  8. Contribution to the theory of propeller vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebers, F

    1930-01-01

    This report presents a calculation of the torsional frequencies of revolving bars with allowance for the air forces. Calculation of the flexural or bonding frequencies of revolving straight or tapered bars in terms of the angular velocity of revolution. Calculation on the basis of Rayleigh's principle of variation. There is also a discussion of error estimation and the accuracy of results. The author then provides an application of the theory to screw propellers for airplanes and the discusses the liability of propellers to damage through vibrations due to lack of uniform loading.

  9. Torsional waves excited by electromagnetic-acoustic transducers during guided-wave acoustic inspection of pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murav'eva, O. V.; Len'kov, S. V.; Murashov, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    A theory of propagation of torsional waves excited by an electromagnetic-acoustic transducer in a pipe is proposed. This theory takes into account the excitation parameters, geometry, viscosity, and the elastic characteristics of an object. The main testing parameters (the frequency and geometry of the transducer) that determine the possibilities of guided-wave testing of pipelines of various dimensions using torsional waves are theoretically substantiated.

  10. Detecting torsion from massive electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia de Andrade, L.C.; Lopes, M. )

    1993-11-01

    A new method of detecting torsion in the case of massive electrodynamics is proposed. The method is based on the study of spectral lines of hydrogen-like atoms placed in a torsion field, where the interaction energy between the torsion vector field Q and an electric dipole is given by [epsilon] [approximately] p [center dot] Q. All the methods designed so far have been based on spinning test particles interacting with magnetic fields in which the energy splitting is given by [epsilon] [approximately] S [center dot] B on a Stern-Gerlach type experiment. The authors arrive at an energy splitting of order of [epsilon] [approximately] 10[sup [minus]21]erg[approximately]10[sup [minus]9]eV, which is within the frequency band of radio waves. 15 refs.

  11. Torsion of a wandering spleen

    PubMed Central

    Jude, Nwashilli N.; Onochie, Nwajei C.

    2015-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition that accounts for less than 0.25% of all indications for splenectomy. It is characterized by ectopic localization of the spleen owing to the lack or weakening of its ligaments. Torsion is the most common complication due to its long pedicle and high mobility, which may result in acute abdomen. We report a case of torsion in a wandering spleen in a 28-year-old male presenting with an acute abdomen that was treated by splenectomy. PMID:26620993

  12. Ovarian Torsion: Multimodality Review of Imaging Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Smolinski, Sara E; Kreychman, Alena; Catanzano, Tara

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of ovarian torsion in pregnancy with demonstration of vascular flow on sequential Doppler ultrasonography. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated ovarian enlargement and edema. Mild symptoms and low clinical suspicion, in addition to risks associated with pregnancy prevented early laparoscopic examination, though torsion was considered. Progressive ovarian enlargement supported surgical intervention, which confirmed the presence of torsion. This case report reviews multimodality imaging characteristics of ovarian torsion, re-emphasizing the significance of ovarian morphology. PMID:26484959

  13. Torsional waves operating in geodynamo and magnetoconvection simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teed, Robert; Jones, Chris; Tobias, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Torsional waves are a principal feature of the dynamics of the fluid outer core where the Earth's magnetic field is generated. These oscillations are Alfvn waves operating about an equilibrium known as a Taylor state (Taylor, 1963) and they propagate in the cylindrical radial direction. The change in core angular momentum inferred from geomagnetic observations has a measurable impact on the length of the day, and the small decadal variations in the length-of-day signal confirm the existence of torsional oscillations (Holme & de Viron, 2013). Many questions remain unanswered about the exact nature of these waves and this presentation will attempt to address some of these. In order to gain insight we perform three-dimensional spherical dynamo and magnetoconvection simulations in parameter regimes where Earth-like magnetic fields are produced. Many of our simulations produce the desired torsional oscillations, identified by their movement at the correct Alfvn speed, and several show Earth-like core travel times of around 4 years. Our dynamo simulations (Teed et al., 2014) show torsional waves within the tangent cylinder region that also have the ability to pass through this theoretical cylinder. By calculating the driving terms for these waves we find that both the Reynolds force and ageostrophic convection acting through the Lorentz force can be important in driving torsional oscillations. Driven by a desire to reach smaller Ekman numbers and larger magnetic field strengths, which are computationally unattainable in dynamo simulations, we perform, in our follow up work, magnetoconvection simulations (Teed et al., 2015) by imposing a dipolar field on the core-mantle boundary. Under this configuration we find a transition, at low Ekman numbers, to regimes where excitation is found only at the tangent cylinder, is delivered by the Lorentz force and gives rise to a periodic Earth-like wave pattern. This pattern is approximately operating on a 4 to 5 year timescale, similar to the 6 year period expected of the waves in the Earth. References Holme, R. & de Viron, O., 2013. Characterization and implications of intradecadal variations in length of day. Nature 499 (7457), 202-204. Taylor, J., 1963. The magneto-hydrodynamics of a rotating fluid and the Earth's dynamo problem. Proc. Roy. Soc. A 274, 274-283. Teed, R., Jones, C., Tobias, S., 2014. The dynamics and excitation of torsional waves in geodynamo simulations. Geophys. J. Int. 196 (2), 724-735. Teed, R., Jones, C., Tobias, S., 2015. The transition to Earth-like torsional oscillations in magnetoconvection simulations. Submitted

  14. An explanation of forms of planetary orbits and estimation of angular shift of the Mercury' perihelion using the statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, A. M.

    2013-09-01

    This work develops a statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies to calculate the orbits of planets and explore forms of planetary orbits with regard to the Alfvn oscillating force [1] in the Solar system and other exoplanetary systems. The statistical theory of formation of gravitating spheroidal bodies has been proposed in [2]-[5]. Starting the conception for forming a spheroidal body inside a gas-dust protoplanetary nebula, this theory solves the problem of gravitational condensation of a gas-dust protoplanetary cloud with a view to planetary formation in its own gravitational field [3] as well as derives a new law of the Solar system planetary distances which generalizes the wellknown laws [2], [3]. This work also explains an origin of the Alfvn oscillating force modifying forms of planetary orbits within the framework of the statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies [5]. Due to the Alfvn oscillating force moving solid bodies in a distant zone of a rotating spheroidal body have elliptic trajectories. It means that orbits for the enough remote planets from the Sun in Solar system are described by ellipses with focus in the origin of coordinates and with small eccentricities. The nearby planet to Sun named Mercury has more complex trajectory. Namely, in case of Mercury the angular displacement of a Newtonian ellipse is observed during its one rotation on an orbit, i.e. a regular (century) shift of the perihelion of Mercury' orbit occurs. According to the statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies [2]-[5] under the usage of laws of celestial mechanics in conformity to cosmogonic bodies (especially, to stars) it is necessary to take into account an extended substance called a stellar corona. In this connection the stellar corona can be described by means of model of rotating and gravitating spheroidal body [5]. Moreover, the parameter of gravitational compression ? of a spheroidal body (describing the Sun, in particular) has been estimated on the basis of the linear size of its kernel, i.e. the thickness of a visible part of the solar corona. Really, NASA' astronomer S. Odenwald in his notice How thick is the solar corona? wrote: "The corona actually extends throughout the entire solar system as a "wind" of particles, however, the densist parts of the corona is usually seen not more than about 1-2 solar radii from the surface or about 690,000 to 1.5 million kilometers at the equator. Near the poles, it seems to be a bit flatter..." [6]. In the fact, as mentioned in [5], a recession of plots of dependences of relative brightness of components of spectrum of the Solar corona occurs on distance of 3-3.5 radii from the center, i.e. on 2-2.5 radii from the edge of the solar disk. Thus, accepting thickness of a visible part of the solar corona equal to ? = 2R (here R is radius of the solar disk) we find that r* = R + ? = 3R , where r* =1/ ? . In other words, the parameter of gravitational compression 2 ? =1/ r* of a spheroidal body in case of the Sun with its corona (for which the equatorial radius ofdisk R = 6.955?108 m) can be estimated by the value [2]-[5]: 2.29701177718 10 (m ) (3 ) 1 19 2 2 = ? ? - - R ? . (1) So, the procedure of finding ? is based on the known 3? -rule in the statistical theory. Really, as shown in the monograph [5], namely the solar corona accounting under calculation of perturbed orbit of the planet of Mercury allows to find the estimation of a displacement of perihelion of Mercury' orbit for the one period within the framework of the statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies. As it is known, on a way of specification of the law of Newton using the general relativity theory the Mercury problem solving was found [5]. Nevertheless, from a common position of the statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies the points of view as Leverrier (about existence of an unknown matter) and Einstein (about insufficiency of the theory of Newton) practically differ nothing. Really, there exist plasma as well as gas-dust substance

  15. Pancreatic torsion in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Brabson, Tamera L.; Maki, Lynn C.; Newell, Susan M.; Ralphs, S. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A 6-month-old male intact Cane Corso mastiff dog was presented for a recent history of vomiting, abdominal pain, and lethargy. A diagnosis of pancreatic torsion was made during abdominal exploratory surgery and was confirmed with histopathology. The dog underwent partial pancreatectomy and recovered with no complications. PMID:25969579

  16. Les torsions sur testicules cryptorchides

    PubMed Central

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Amri, Najmeddine; Chambeh, Wahib; Braiek, Salem; Kamel, Rafik El

    2010-01-01

    Rsum But : La cryptorchidie est une pathologie assez frquente en urologie. Elle est associe un risque lev dinfertilit et de dgnrescence. Elle semble aussi tre associe un risque important de torsion. Cette entit est trs peu aborde dans la littrature. Nous rapportons tous les cas de torsion sur testicule cryptorchide observs notre service dans le but de mieux caractriser cette pathologie et de rduire ainsi le taux dorchidectomies. Mthodologie : Il sagit dune tude rtrospective portant sur tous les cas de torsion sur testicule cryptorchide oprs dans notre service durologie entre 1999 et 2007. Les patients ont fait lobjet dune description base sur le rsum de leurs observations. Rsultats : Les patients taient gs de 7 mois 39 ans. La torsion touchait le testicule droit dans 53 % des cas. Le tableau clinique comportait une douleur au niveau de la rgion inguinale dapparition soudaine avec une masse sous-cutane inflammatoire et douloureuse ce niveau et surtout un hmiscrotum homolatral vide. Dans 60 % des cas, le diagnostic tait tardif et une orchidectomie a t ralise. Dans les autre cas, un abaissement du testicule a t ralis avec orchidopexie controlatral dans le mme temps opratoire. Conclusion : Bien quil sagisse dune pathologie peu courante, la torsion sur testicule cryptorchide doit tre tudie davantage. Le diagnostic prcoce permettra de sauver et dabaisser le testicule et faciliter ainsi le dpistage dune ventuelle dgnrescence. PMID:21191497

  17. Optical activity caused by torsion stresses: the case of NaBi(MoO4)2 crystals.

    PubMed

    Vasylkiv, Yuriy; Kvasnyuk, Oleksiy; Shopa, Yaroslav; Vlokh, Rostyslav

    2013-05-01

    We have found that torsion mechanical stresses induce the optical rotation effect in centrosymmetric NaBi(MoO4)2 crystals. We have suggested a description of the effect on the basis of nonlocal linear elasticity theory. It has been shown that the induced optical gyration is proportional to the stress gradient appearing due to the torsion. PMID:23695320

  18. Novel torsion balance based on a spherical superconducting suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Giles D.; Pulido-Paton, Antonio; Speake, Clive C.; Trenkel, Christian

    2004-04-01

    We report on the progress that has been made on the development of a spherical superconducting torsion balance in which the traditional fiber is replaced with a Meissner effect suspension operating at 4.2 K. The instrument can levitate a mass of 18 g in persistent mode and currently operates in a helium exchange gas pressure of a few mTorr. A superconducting rotation detector incorporating a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer has been developed to interrogate the angular position of the torsion balance and provide its natural period. The natural period can be programmed from 25 s to 150 s by varying the current stored in the detector. The detector also offers the possibility of applying external torques onto the torsion balance for the purpose of servocontrol, and a simple derivative control has been developed. The properties of the rotation detector can be predicted from measurements of the inductances of the circuit components. The total measured torque noise is 210-13 Nm/?Hz at around 0.02 Hz. This is two orders of magnitude higher than the intrinsic thermal noise and we are currently investigating possible sources of this excess noise. The highest quality factor that has been observed is 4104 at a period of 40 s, and this corresponds to an ultimate sensitivity of 210-16 Nm/?Hz.

  19. The dynamics and excitation of torsional waves in geodynamo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teed, R. J.; Jones, C. A.; Tobias, S. M.

    2014-02-01

    The predominant force balance in rapidly rotating planetary cores is between Coriolis, pressure, buoyancy and Lorentz forces. This magnetostrophic balance leads to a Taylor state where the spatially averaged azimuthal Lorentz force is compelled to vanish on cylinders aligned with the rotation axis. Any deviation from this state leads to a torsional oscillation, signatures of which have been observed in the Earth's secular variation and are thought to influence length of day variations via angular momentum conservation. In order to investigate the dynamics of torsional oscillations (TOs), we perform several 3-D dynamo simulations in a spherical shell. We find TOs, identified by their propagation at the correct Alfvn speed, in many of our simulations. We find that the frequency, location and direction of propagation of the waves are influenced by the choice of parameters. Torsional waves are observed within the tangent cylinder and also have the ability to pass through it. Several of our simulations display waves with core traveltimes of 4-6 yr. We calculate the driving terms for these waves and find that both the Reynolds force and ageostrophic convection acting through the Lorentz force are important in driving TOs.

  20. Electrothermally-Actuated Micromirrors with Bimorph ActuatorsBending-Type and Torsion-Type

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Cheng-Hua; Tsai, Chun-Wei; Chang, Hsu-Tang; Liu, Shih-Hsiang; Tsai, Jui-Che

    2015-01-01

    Three different electrothermally-actuated MEMS micromirrors with Cr/Au-Si bimorph actuators are proposed. The devices are fabricated with the SOIMUMPs process developed by MEMSCAP, Inc. (Durham, NC, USA). A silicon-on-insulator MEMS process has been employed for the fabrication of these micromirrors. Electrothermal actuation has achieved a large angular movement in the micromirrors. Application of an external electric current 0.04 A to the bending-type, restricted-torsion-type, and free-torsion-type mirrors achieved rotation angles of 1.69, 3.28, and 3.64, respectively. PMID:26110409

  1. Excitation and dissipation of torsional modes in solar photospheric magnetic flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Q. Y.; Wei, F. S.; Feng, X. S.

    2002-11-01

    The turbulent excitation of torsional Alfvn waves is presented on the basis of Lighthill-Stein theory. Due to the special properties of torsional modes, we can apply the theory to the inhomogeneous magnetic flux tube embedded in the solar photosphere, to evaluate the wave energy generated from the turbulent source in the convection zone. Torsional wave spectrum distribution along the r coordinate is achieved. In order to estimate the net wave energy transported to the chromosphere, we investigate the wave propagation and dissipation in the photospheric flux tube by simple phase mixing due to the inhomogeneity. Results for several cases with different model parameters are compared. Conclusions are drawn on the significant role of the energy carried by torsional Alfvn waves in the chromospheric and coronal heating, and the wave spectrum may be helpful in understanding the problem of footpoint azimuthal motion of coronal loops.

  2. Combined bending-torsion fatigue reliability. III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kececioglu, D.; Chester, L. B.; Nolf, C. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Results generated by three, unique fatigue reliability research machines which can apply reversed bending loads combined with steady torque are presented. AISI 4340 steel, grooved specimens with a stress concentration factor of 1.42 and 2.34, and Rockwell C hardness of 35/40 were subjected to various combinations of these loads and cycled to failure. The generated cycles-to-failure and stress-to-failure data are statistically analyzed to develop distributional S-N and Goodman diagrams. Various failure theories are investigated to determine which one represents the data best. The effects of the groove, and of the various combined bending-torsion loads, on the S-N and Goodman diagrams are determined. Two design applications are presented which illustrate the direct useability and value of the distributional failure governing strength and cycles-to-failure data in designing for specified levels of reliability and in predicting the reliability of given designs.

  3. Orbital angular momentum in phase space

    SciTech Connect

    Rigas, I.; Sanchez-Soto, L.L.; Klimov, A.B.; Rehacek, J.; Hradil, Z.

    2011-02-15

    Research Highlights: > We propose a comprehensive Weyl-Wigner formalism for the canonical pair angle-angular momentum. > We present a simple and useful toolkit for the practitioner. > We derive simple evolution equations in terms of a star product in the semiclassical limit. - Abstract: A comprehensive theory of the Weyl-Wigner formalism for the canonical pair angle-angular momentum is presented. Special attention is paid to the problems linked to rotational periodicity and angular-momentum discreteness.

  4. Design and validation of a testing system to assess torsional cancellous bone failure in conjunction with time-lapsed micro-computed tomographic imaging.

    PubMed

    Nazarian, Ara; Bauernschmitt, Michael; Eberle, Christian; Meier, Diego; Mller, Ralph; Snyder, Brian D

    2008-12-01

    When compressed axially, cancellous bone often fails at an oblique angle along well-defined bands, highlighting the importance of cancellous bone shear properties. Torsion testing to determine shear properties of cancellous bone has often been conducted under conditions appropriate only for axis-symmetric specimens comprised of homogeneous and isotropic materials. However, most cancellous bone specimens do not meet these stringent test conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to design and validate a uniaxial, incremental torsional testing system for non-homogeneous orthotropic or non-axis-symmetric specimens. Precision and accuracy of the newly designed torsion system was validated by using Plexiglas rods and beams, where obtained material properties were compared to those supplied by the manufacturer. Additionally, the incremental step-wise application of angular displacement and simultaneous time-lapsed microCT imaging capability of the system was validated using whale cancellous bone specimens, with step-wise application of angular displacement yielding similar torsional mechanical properties to continuous application of angular displacement in a conventional torsion study. In conclusion, a novel torsion testing system for non-homogeneous, orthotropic materials using the incremental step-wise application of torsion and simultaneous time-lapsed microCT imaging was designed and validated. PMID:18990395

  5. Shaft instantaneous angular speed for blade vibration in rotating machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubran, Ahmed A.; Sinha, Jyoti K.

    2014-02-01

    Reliable blade health monitoring (BHM) in rotating machines like steam turbines and gas turbines, is a topic of research since decades to reduce machine down time, maintenance costs and to maintain the overall safety. Transverse blade vibration is often transmitted to the shaft as torsional vibration. The shaft instantaneous angular speed (IAS) is nothing but the representing the shaft torsional vibration. Hence the shaft IAS has been extracted from the measured encoder data during machine run-up to understand the blade vibration and to explore the possibility of reliable assessment of blade health. A number of experiments on an experimental rig with a bladed disk were conducted with healthy but mistuned blades and with different faults simulation in the blades. The measured shaft torsional vibration shows a distinct difference between the healthy and the faulty blade conditions. Hence, the observations are useful for the BHM in future. The paper presents the experimental setup, simulation of blade faults, experiments conducted, observations and results.

  6. Angular momentum in subbarrier fusion

    SciTech Connect

    DiGregorio, D.E.; Lesko, K.T.; Harmon, B.A.; Norman, E.B.; Pouliot, J.; Sur, B.; Chan, Y.D.; Stokstad, R.G.

    1990-05-01

    We have measured the ratio of the isomer to ground-state yields of {sup 137}Ce produced in the fusion reactions {sup 128}Te({sup 12}C,3n), {sup 133}Cs({sup 7}Li,3n), {sup 136}Ba({sup 3}He,2n), {sup 136}Ba({sup 4}He,3n), and {sup 137}Ba({sup 3}He,3n), from energies above the Coulomb barrier to energies typically 20--30% below the barrier by observing the delayed x- and {gamma}-ray emission. We deduce the average angular momentum, {lt}J{gt}, from the measured isomer ratios with a statistical model. In the first three reactions we observe that the values of {lt}J{gt} exhibit the behavior predicted for low energies and the expected variation with the reduced mass of the entrance channel. We analyze these data and the associated cross sections with a barrier penetration model that includes the coupling of inelastic channels. Measurements of average angular momenta and cross sections made on other systems using the {gamma}-multiplicity and fission-fragment angular correlation techniques are then analyzed in a similar way with this model. The discrepancies with theory for the {gamma}-multiplicity data show correlations in cross section and angular momentum that suggest a valid model can be found. The measurements of angular momentum using the fission fragment angular correlation technique, however, do not appear reconcilable with the energy dependence of the cross sections. This systematic overview suggests, in particular, that our current understanding of the relationship of angular momentum and anisotropy in fission fragment angular correlations is incomplete. 26 refs.

  7. Torsion and attractors in the Kolmogorov hydrodynamical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasini, Antonello; Pelino, Vinicio; Potestà, Sergio

    1998-04-01

    The geometrical structure of the Kolmogorov system is studied. Considering a divergence-free geodesic motion on a Riemann-Cartan manifold, it is shown that the torsion tensor is related via group theory to the quadratic part of this system. Kolmogorov equations can be considered as the dissipative Euler-Poincaré equations on the Lie algebra of the associated group manifold. The relationship with Navier-Stokes equations and their truncated models is discussed.

  8. Electric field in 3D gravity with torsion

    SciTech Connect

    Blagojevic, M.; Cvetkovic, B.

    2008-08-15

    It is shown that in static and spherically symmetric configurations of the system of Maxwell field coupled to 3D gravity with torsion, at least one of the Maxwell field components has to vanish. Restricting our attention to the electric sector of the theory, we find an interesting exact solution, corresponding to the azimuthal electric field. Its geometric structure is to a large extent influenced by the values of two different central charges, associated to the asymptotic AdS structure of spacetime.

  9. Influence of friction dampers on torsional blade flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, A.; Griffin, J. H.; Kielb, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with the stabilizing effects of dry friction on torsional blade flutter. A lumped parameter model with single degree of freedom per blade has been used to represent the rotor stage. The well-known cascade theories for incompressible and supersonic flows have been used to determine the allowable increase in fluid velocity relative to the blade. It has been found that the effectiveness of friction dampers in controlling flutter can be substantial.

  10. Stability of Thin-Walled Tubes Under Torsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnell, L H

    1935-01-01

    In this report a theoretical solution is developed for the torsion on a round thin-walled tube for which the walls become unstable. The results of this theory are given by a few simple formulas and curves which cover all cases. The differential equations of equilibrium are derived in a simpler form than previously found, it being shown that many items can be neglected.

  11. Modeling slender viscoelastic jets and fibers with torsion

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, J.

    1992-01-01

    All thin-filament models to date are torsionless and consider only leading-order approximations in a slender asymptotic sense. This dissertation first presents a higher-order perturbation theory for slender viscoelastic jets and fibers, which allows full consideration of axisymmetric torsion. It then illustrates the practical applications of this higher-order perturbation theory through four practical examples. The steady equations through three orders for all four examples are solved to illustrate several points: (1) it is necessary to go to the higher-order corrections in order to check the leading-order approximation or to consider the torsional coupling; (2) many leading-order steady solutions are asymptotically valid and robust to neglected higher-order physical effects (the higher-order corrections are computed and found being small); (3) other leading-order solutions are invalid in the presence of higher-order effects; specifically, it is shown that corrections due to weak elastic relaxation can be as large as the Newtonian leading-order approximation; (4) it is straightforward using this higher-order perturbation theory to determine if a particular leading-order solution is a valid approximation of physical behavior; (5) torsion can have effect on both the mathematical structure of the model and higher-order corrections of the leading-order approximations.

  12. Effective coarse-grained simulations of super-thick multi-walled carbon nanotubes under torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jian; Huang, Xu; Arroyo, Marino; Zhang, Sulin

    2009-02-01

    Under torsion and beyond the buckling point, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) develop a periodic wave-like rippling morphology. Here, we show that torsional rippling deformations can be accurately described by a simple sinusoidal shape function. Combining this observation with the geometry optimization, we develop an effective coarse-grained model that reproduces the complex nonlinear mechanical responses of thick MWCNTs under torsion predicted by large-scale atomistic simulations. Furthermore, the model allows us to simulate super-thick tubes, inaccessible by other coarse-grained methods. With this effective coarse-grained model, we show from an energetic analysis that the rippling deformation is a result of in-plane strain energy relaxation, penalized by the increase in the interlayer van der Waals interaction energy. Our simulations reveal that the torsional response of MWCNTs with up to 100 layers approximately follows a simple bilinear law, and the ratio of the torsional rigidities in the pre- and post-buckling regimes is nearly a constant, independent of the tube radius. In contrast, the bifurcation torsional strain powerly scales with the tube radius. We also find that the wave number in the circumferential direction linearly increases with tube radius, while the wavelength monotonically increases with tube radius, and approaches a constant in the limit of bulk graphite. The bilinear constitutive relation, together with the scaling law of the bifurcation torsional strain, furnishes a simple nonlinear beam theory, which facilitates the analysis of MWCNT bundles and networks.

  13. External and internal coupling effects of rotor's bending and torsional vibrations under unbalances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhenwei; Chu, Fulei; Lin, Yanli

    2007-01-01

    External and internal bending-torsion coupling effects of a rotor system with comprehensive unbalances are studied by analytical analysis and numerical simulations. Based on Lagrangian approach, a full-degree-of-freedom dynamic model of a Jeffcott rotor is developed. The harmonic balance method and the Floquet theory are combined to analyze the stability of the system equations. Numerical simulations are conducted to observe the bending-torsion coupling effects. In the formulation of rotordynamic model, two bending-torsion coupling patterns, external coupling and internal coupling, are suggested. By analytical analysis, it is concluded that the periodic solution of the system is asymptotically stable. From numerical simulations, three bending-torsion coupling effects are observed in three cases. Under static unbalance, synchronous torsional response is observed, which is the result of external coupling under unbalanced force. Under dynamic unbalance, two-time synchronous frequency torsional response is observed, which is the result of internal coupling under unbalanced moment. Under comprehensive unbalance, synchronous and two-time synchronous frequency torsional components are observed, which are the results of both external and internal couplings under unbalanced force and moment. These observations agree with the analytical analysis. It is believed that these observed phenomena should make sense in the dynamical design and fault diagnostics of a rotor system.

  14. Spin precession of slow neutrons in Einstein-Cartan gravity with torsion, chameleon, and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. N.; Wellenzohn, M.

    2016-02-01

    We analyze a spin precession of slow neutrons in the Einstein-Cartan gravity with torsion, chameleon and magnetic field. For the derivation of the Heisenberg equation of motion of the neutron spin we use the effective low-energy potential, derived by Ivanov and Wellenzohn [Phys. Rev. D 92, 125004 (2015)] for slow neutrons, coupled to gravitational, chameleon, and torsion fields to order 1 /m , where m is the neutron mass. In addition to these low-energy interactions we switch on the interaction of slow neutrons with a magnetic field. We show that to linear order approximation with respect to gravitational, chameleon, and torsion fields the Dirac Hamilton operator for fermions (neutrons), moving in spacetimes created by rotating coordinate systems, contains the anti-Hermitian operators of torsion-fermion (neutron) interactions, caused by torsion scalar and tensor space-space-time and time-space-space degrees of freedom. Such anti-Hermitian operators violate C P and T invariance. In the low-energy approximation the C P and T violating torsion-fermion (neutron) interactions appear only to order O (1 /m ). One may assume that in the rotating Universe and galaxies the obtained anti-Hermitian torsion-fermion interactions might be an origin of (i) violation of C P and T invariance in the Universe and (ii) of baryon asymmetry. We show that anti-Hermitian torsion-fermion interactions of relativistic fermions, violating C P and T invariance, (i) cannot be removed by nonunitary transformations of the Dirac fermion wave functions and (ii) are conformal invariant. According to general requirements of conformal invariance of massive particle theories in gravitational fields [see R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 125, 2163 (1962) and A. J. Silenko, Phys. Rev. D 91, 065012 (2015)], conformal invariance of anti-Hermitian torsion-fermion interactions is valid only if the fermion mass is changed by a conformal factor.

  15. The Angular Momentum of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, David L.; Babiker, Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    Preface D. L. Andrews and M. Babiker; 1. Light beams carrying orbital angular momentum J. B. Gtte and S. M. Barnett; 2. Vortex transformation and vortex dynamics in optical fields G. Molina-Terriza; 3. Vector beams in free space E. J. Galvez; 4. Optical beams with orbital angular momentum in nonlinear media A. S. Desyatnikov and Y. S. Kivshar; 5. Ray optics, wave optics and quantum mechanics G. Nienhuis; 6. Quantum formulation of angle and orbital angular momentum J. B. Gtte and S. M. Barnett; 7. Dynamic rotational frequency shift I. Bialynicki-Birula and Z. Bialynicka-Birula; 8. Spin-orbit interactions of light in isotropic media K. Y. Bliokh, A. Aiello and M. A. Alonso; 9. Quantum electrodynamics, angular momentum and chirality D. L. Andrews and M. Babiker; 10. Trapping of charged particles by Bessel beams I. Bialynicki-Birula, Z. Bialynicka-Birula and N. Drozd; 11. Theory of atoms in twisted light M. Babiker, D. L. Andrews and V. E. Lembessis; 12. An experimentalist's introduction to orbital angular momentum for quantum optics J. Romero, D. Giovannini, S. Franke-Arnold and M. J. Padgett; 13. Measurement of light's orbital angular momentum M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial and M. J. Padgett; 14. Efficient generation of optical twisters using helico-conical beams V. R. Daria, D. Palima and J. Glckstad; 15. Self similar modes of coherent diffusion with orbital angular momentum O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, R. Pugatch and N. Davidson; 16. Dimensionality of azimuthal entanglement M. van Exter, E. Eliel and H. Woerdman; Index.

  16. Premotor neurons encode torsional eye velocity during smooth-pursuit eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, Dora E.; Dickman, J. David

    2003-01-01

    Responses to horizontal and vertical ocular pursuit and head and body rotation in multiple planes were recorded in eye movement-sensitive neurons in the rostral vestibular nuclei (VN) of two rhesus monkeys. When tested during pursuit through primary eye position, the majority of the cells preferred either horizontal or vertical target motion. During pursuit of targets that moved horizontally at different vertical eccentricities or vertically at different horizontal eccentricities, eye angular velocity has been shown to include a torsional component the amplitude of which is proportional to half the gaze angle ("half-angle rule" of Listing's law). Approximately half of the neurons, the majority of which were characterized as "vertical" during pursuit through primary position, exhibited significant changes in their response gain and/or phase as a function of gaze eccentricity during pursuit, as if they were also sensitive to torsional eye velocity. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant contribution of torsional eye movement sensitivity to the responsiveness of the cells. These findings suggest that many VN neurons encode three-dimensional angular velocity, rather than the two-dimensional derivative of eye position, during smooth-pursuit eye movements. Although no clear clustering of pursuit preferred-direction vectors along the semicircular canal axes was observed, the sensitivity of VN neurons to torsional eye movements might reflect a preservation of similar premotor coding of visual and vestibular-driven slow eye movements for both lateral-eyed and foveate species.

  17. Solar neutrinos, helicity effects and new affine gravity with torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirilo-Lombardo, Diego Julio

    2013-12-01

    New f(R, T) model of gravitation, introduced previously by the author, is considered. It is based on an affine geometrical construction in which the torsion is a dynamical field, the coupling is minimal and the theory is Lorentz invariant by construction. It was shown that the Dirac equation emerges from the same space time and acquires a modification (coupling-like) of the form ?? j 1-d/d ?5h? , with h? the torsion axial vector, j a parameter of pure geometrical nature and d, the spacetime dimension. In the present work it is shown that this interaction produces a mechanism of spin (helicity) flipping, with its consequent weak symmetry violation. The cross section of this process is explicitly calculated and a logarithmic energy dependence (even at high energies) is found. This behavior is reminiscent of similar computations made by Hans Bethe in the context of neutrino astrophysics. These results are applied to the solar neutrino case and compared with similar results coming from a gravitational model with torsion of string theory type and within the standard model context respectively.

  18. A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s−2). Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability. PMID:26151217

  19. A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s(-2)). Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability. PMID:26151217

  20. Bending stresses due to torsion in cantilever box beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Paul

    1935-01-01

    The paper beings with a brief discussion on the origin of the bending stresses in cantilever box beams under torsion. A critical survey of existing theory is followed by a summary of design formulas; this summary is based on the most complete solution published but omits all refinements considered unnecessary at the present state of development. Strain-gage tests made by NACA to obtained some experimental verification of the formulas are described next. Finally, the formulas are applied to a series of box beams previously static-tested by the U.S. Army Air Corps; the results show that the bending stresses due to torsion are responsible to a large extent for the free-edge type of failure frequently experienced in these tests.

  1. Gauge invariant coupling of fields to torsion: A string inspired model

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Chatterjee, Ayan

    2011-05-15

    In a consistent heterotic string theory, the Kalb-Ramond field, which is the source of space-time torsion, is augmented by Yang-Mills and gravitational Chern-Simons terms. When compactified to 4 dimensions and in the field theory limit, such additional terms give rise to interactions with interesting astrophysical predictions like rotation of plane of polarization for electromagnetic and gravitational waves. On the other hand, if one is also interested in coupling 2- or 3-form (Abelian or non-Abelian) gauge fields to torsion, one needs another class of interaction. In this paper, we shall study this interaction and offer some astrophysical and cosmological predictions. We explicitly calculate the Coleman-Weinberg potential for this theory. We also comment on the possibility of such terms in loop quantum gravity where, if the Barbero-Immirzi parameter is promoted to a field, acts as a source for torsion.

  2. Torsion of Noncircular Composite Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Marshall; Hyer, Michael W.; Haynie, Waddy T.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a brief overview of the predicted deformation and failure characteristics of noncircular composite cylinders subjected to torsion. Using a numerical analysis, elliptical cylinders with a minor-to-major diameter ratio of 0.7 are considered. Counterpart circular cylinders with the same circumference as the elliptical cylinders are included for comparison. The cylinders are constructed of a medium-modulus graphite-epoxy material in a quasi-isotropic lay-up. Imperfections generated from the buckling mode shapes are included in the initial cross-sectional geometry of the cylinders. Deformations until first fiber failure, as predicted using the maximum stress failure criterion and a material degradation scheme, are presented. For increasing levels of torsion, the deformations of the elliptical cylinders, in the form of wrinkling of the cylinder wall, occur primarily in the flatter regions of the cross section. By comparison the wrinkling deformations of the circular cylinders are more uniformly distributed around the circumference. Differences in the initial failure and damage progression and the overall torque vs. twist relationship between the elliptical and circular cylinders are presented. Despite differences in the response as the cylinders are being loaded, at first fiber failure the torque and twist for the elliptical and circular cylinders nearly coincide.

  3. Optically probing torsional superelasticity in spider silks

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Thakur, Ashish; Panda, Biswajit; Singh, Kamal P.

    2013-11-11

    We investigate torsion mechanics of various spider silks using a sensitive optical technique. We find that spider silks are torsionally superelastic in that they can reversibly withstand great torsion strains of over 10{sup 2−3} rotations per cm before failure. Among various silks from a spider, we find the failure twist-strain is greatest in the sticky capture silk followed by dragline and egg-case silk. Our in situ laser-diffraction measurements reveal that torsional strains on the silks induce a nano-scale transverse compression in its diameter that is linear and reversible. These unique torsional properties of the silks could find applications in silk-based materials and devices.

  4. Transverse and longitudinal angular momenta of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y.; Nori, Franco

    2015-08-01

    We review basic physics and novel types of optical angular momentum. We start with a theoretical overview of momentum and angular momentum properties of generic optical fields, and discuss methods for their experimental measurements. In particular, we describe the well-known longitudinal (i.e., aligned with the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta in polarized vortex beams. Then, we focus on the transverse (i.e., orthogonal to the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta, which were recently actively discussed in theory and observed in experiments. First, the recently-discovered transverse spin angular momenta appear in various structured fields: evanescent waves, interference fields, and focused beams. We show that there are several kinds of transverse spin angular momentum, which differ strongly in their origins and physical properties. We describe extraordinary features of the transverse optical spins and overview recent experiments. In particular, the helicity-independent transverse spin inherent in edge evanescent waves offers robust spin-direction coupling at optical interfaces (the quantum spin Hall effect of light). Second, we overview the transverse orbital angular momenta of light, which can be both extrinsic and intrinsic. These two types of the transverse orbital angular momentum are produced by spatial shifts of the optical beams (e.g., in the spin Hall effect of light) and their Lorentz boosts, respectively. Our review is underpinned by a unified theory of the angular momentum of light based on the canonical momentum and spin densities, which avoids complications associated with the separation of spin and orbital angular momenta in the Poynting picture. It allows us to construct a comprehensive classification of all known optical angular momenta based on their key parameters and main physical properties.

  5. Communication: Direct comparison between theory and experiment for correlated angular and product-state distributions of the ground-state and stretching-excited O(3P) + CH4 reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czak, Gbor

    2014-06-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment [H. Pan and K. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 191101 (2014)], we report a quasiclassical trajectory study of the O(3P) + CH4(vk = 0, 1) ? OH + CH3 [k = 1 and 3] reactions on an ab initio potential energy surface. The computed angular distributions and cross sections correlated to the OH(v = 0, 1) + CH3(v = 0) coincident product states can be directly compared to experiment for O + CH4(v3 = 0, 1). Both theory and experiment show that the ground-state reaction is backward scattered, whereas the angular distributions shift toward sideways and forward directions upon antisymmetric stretching (v3) excitation of the reactant. Theory predicts similar behavior for the O + CH4(v1 = 1) reaction. The simulations show that stretching excitation enhances the reaction up to about 15 kcal/mol collision energy, whereas the O + CH4(vk = 1) reactions produce smaller cross sections for OH(v = 1) + CH3(v = 0) than those of O + CH4(v = 0) ? OH(v = 0) + CH3(v = 0). The former finding agrees with experiment and the latter awaits for confirmation. The computed cold OH rotational distributions of O + CH4(v = 0) are in good agreement with experiment.

  6. Communication: Direct comparison between theory and experiment for correlated angular and product-state distributions of the ground-state and stretching-excited O({sup 3}P) + CH{sub 4} reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Czakó, Gábor

    2014-06-21

    Motivated by a recent experiment [H. Pan and K. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 191101 (2014)], we report a quasiclassical trajectory study of the O({sup 3}P) + CH{sub 4}(v{sub k} = 0, 1) → OH + CH{sub 3} [k = 1 and 3] reactions on an ab initio potential energy surface. The computed angular distributions and cross sections correlated to the OH(v = 0, 1) + CH{sub 3}(v = 0) coincident product states can be directly compared to experiment for O + CH{sub 4}(v{sub 3} = 0, 1). Both theory and experiment show that the ground-state reaction is backward scattered, whereas the angular distributions shift toward sideways and forward directions upon antisymmetric stretching (v{sub 3}) excitation of the reactant. Theory predicts similar behavior for the O + CH{sub 4}(v{sub 1} = 1) reaction. The simulations show that stretching excitation enhances the reaction up to about 15 kcal/mol collision energy, whereas the O + CH{sub 4}(v{sub k} = 1) reactions produce smaller cross sections for OH(v = 1) + CH{sub 3}(v = 0) than those of O + CH{sub 4}(v = 0) → OH(v = 0) + CH{sub 3}(v = 0). The former finding agrees with experiment and the latter awaits for confirmation. The computed cold OH rotational distributions of O + CH{sub 4}(v = 0) are in good agreement with experiment.

  7. A reduced dimensionality model of torsional vibrations in star molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtin, Evan M.; Sohlberg, Karl

    2016-03-01

    The torsional vibrations of star molecules are studied with a reduced dimensionality model. In this model, the molecule is described by two equivalent sets of lumped inertial cylinders and vibrational frequencies are predicted by solution of the coupled equations of motion. Force constants are determined by including them as free parameters in the model and fitting the computed frequencies to their analogs as determined using full normal coordinate analysis at the HFSCF level of theory. Best agreement between the methods occurs when torsional force constants are included for the first two layers of the molecule. This reveals that non-bonded torsional interactions are important in the vibrational dynamics of these systems. Further insight is afforded by an analysis of why simple harmonic oscillator models are sufficient for modeling some related systems but fail to reproduce the trend in global mode frequencies for saturated aliphatic star molecules. The analysis reveals that the origin of this failure lies in backbone flexibility in these branched polymeric systems.

  8. Oligothiophene wires: impact of torsional conformation on the electronic structure.

    PubMed

    Kislitsyn, D A; Taber, B N; Gervasi, C F; Zhang, L; Mannsfeld, S C B; Prell, J S; Briseno, A L; Nazin, G V

    2016-02-01

    Charge transport in polymer- and oligomer-based semiconductor materials depends strongly on the structural ordering of the constituent molecules. Variations in molecular conformations influence the electronic structures of polymers and oligomers, and thus impact their charge-transport properties. In this study, we used Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy (STM/STS) to investigate the electronic structures of different alkyl-substituted oligothiophenes displaying varied torsional conformations on the Au(111) surface. STM imaging showed that on Au(111), oligothiophenes self-assemble into chain-like structures, binding to each other via interdigitated alkyl ligands. The molecules adopted distinct planar conformations with alkyl ligands forming cis- or trans- mutual orientations. For each molecule, by using STS mapping, we identify a progression of particle-in-a-box-like states corresponding to the LUMO, LUMO+1 and LUMO+2 orbitals. Analysis of STS data revealed very similar unoccupied molecular orbital energies for different possible molecular conformations. By using density functional theory calculations, we show that the lack of variation in molecular orbital energies among the different oligothiophene conformers implies that the effect of the Au-oligothiophene interaction on molecular orbital energies is nearly identical for all studied torsional conformations. Our results suggest that cis-trans torsional disorder may not be a significant source of electronic disorder and charge carrier trapping in organic semiconductor devices based on oligothiophenes. PMID:26804474

  9. Magnetic Torsional Oscillations in Magnetars

    SciTech Connect

    Sotani, Hajime; Kokkotas, Kostas D.; Stergioulas, Nikolaos

    2009-05-01

    We investigate torsional Alfven oscillations of relativistic stars with a global dipole magnetic field, via 2D numerical simulations. We find that a) there exist two families of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with harmonics at integer multiples of the fundamental frequency, b) the QPOs are long-lived, c) for the chosen form of dipolar magnetic field, the frequency ratio of the lower to upper fundamental QPOs is about 0.6, independent of the equilibrium model or of the strength of the magnetic field, and d) within a representative sample of EOS and of various magnetar masses, the Alfven QPO frequencies are given by accurate empirical relations that depend only on the compactness of the star and on the magnetic field strength. Compared to the observational frequencies, we also obtain an upper limit on the strength of magnetic field of SGR 1806-20 (if is dominated by a dipolar component) between {approx}3 and 7x10{sup 15} Gauss.

  10. Torsional oscillations of strange stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannarelli, Massimo

    2014-11-01

    Strange stars are one of the hypothetical compact stellar objects that can be formed after a supernova explosion. The existence of these objects relies on the absolute stability of strange collapsed quark matter with respect to standard nuclear matter. We discuss simple models of strange stars with a bare quark matter surface, thus standard nuclear matter is completely absent. In these models an electric dipole layer a few hundreds Fermi thick should exist close to the star surface. Studying the torsional oscillations of the electrically charged layer we estimate the emitted power, finding that it is of the order of 1045 erg/s, meaning that these objects would be among the brightest compact sources in the heavens. The associated relaxation times are very uncertain, with values ranging between microseconds and minutes, depending on the crust thickness. Although part of the radiated power should be absorbed by the electrosphere surrounding the strange star, a sizable fraction of photons should escape and be detectable.

  11. A spinning finite beam element of general orientation analyzed with Rayleigh/Timoshenko/Saint-Venant theory

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamsson, T.J.S.; Saellstroem, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Linear vibrations are studied for a straight uniform finite beam element of general orientation spinning at a constant angular speed about a fixed axis in the inertial space. The gyroscopic and circulatory matrices and also the geometric stiffness matrix of the beam element are presented. The effect of the centrifugal static axial load on the bending and torsional dynamic stiffnesses is thereby accounted for. The Rayleigh/Timoshenko/Saint-Venant theory is applied, and polynomial shape functions are used in the construction of the deformation fields. Nonzero off-diagonal elements in the gyroscopic and circulatory matrices indicate coupled bending/shearing/torsional/tensional free and forced modes of a generally oriented spinning beam. Two numerical examples demonstrate the use and performance of the beam element.

  12. Four-dimensional model calculation of torsional levels of cyclic water tetramer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabo, Dubravko; Ba?i?, Zlatko; Graf, Stephan; Leutwyler, Samuel

    1998-10-01

    Quantum four-dimensional model calculations of the coupled intermolecular torsional vibrations of the cyclic homodromic water tetramers (H2O)4 and D2O)4 are presented, based on the analytical modEPEN4B potential energy surface [S. Graf and S. Leutwyler, J. Chem. Phys. 109, 5393 (1998), preceding paper] and a four-dimensional discrete variable representation approach. The lowest 50 torsional levels were calculated up to 420 and 500 cm-1 for (D2O)4 and (H2O)4, respectively. For both clusters, the torsional ground state is split by a synchronous O-H torsional inversion process, similar to inversion tunneling in ammonia, with calculated tunnel splittings of 21.8 and 0.000 12 MHz for (H2O)4 and (D2O)4, respectively. As for the cyclic water trimer and pentamer, the four torsional fundamentals of the tetramer lie above the torsional interconversion barriers, between 185-200 cm-1 for (D2O)4 and 229-242 cm-1 for (H2O)4, but also lie below the one-dimensional torsionally adiabatic barriers. The anharmonic fundamental frequencies lie both above and below the normal-mode frequencies, by up to 33%. Slightly above the fundamental torsional excitations, at 257-260 and 280-281 cm-1 for (H2O)4 and (D2O)4, respectively, lie four states corresponding to four versions of the {uudd} isomer, which form a pseudorotational manifold; the torsional interconversion occurs by a sequence of double O-H flips. Higher excited pseudorotational states are calculated up to a vibrational angular momentum of k=3. At ?295 and ?300 cm-1, a further group of eight states is found, corresponding to the eight permutationally equivalent versions of yet another isomer, the {uuud} structure. The four {uudd} and eight {uuud} states of (H2O)4 exhibit inverse isotope effects, and lie at lower energy than their (D2O)4 counterparts.

  13. Variation of the resonance width of HOCl(6{nu}{sub OH}) with total angular momentum: Comparison between {ital ab initio} theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Skokov, S.; Bowman, J.M.

    1999-05-01

    Complex L{sup 2} calculations of the variation of (very narrow) resonance widths of the 6{nu}{sub OH} state of HOCl with total angular momentum are reported, using a recently developed, accurate {ital ab initio} potential energy surface [S. Skokov, J. M. Bowman, and K. A. Peterson, J. Chem. Phys. {bold 109}, 2662 (1998)]. The calculations are carried out within the adiabatic rotation approximation for the overall rotation and a truncation/recoupling method for the vibrational states. Comparisons with recent double-resonance experiments of the Rizzo and Sinha groups are made. The variation of resonance width with {ital J} for {ital K}=0 is shown to be due to rotation-induced coupling of the 6{nu}{sub OH} state with a dense set of states with large excitation in the dissociative coordinate. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Modification of gravity due to torsion

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, V. P.; Nikiforova, V.; Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Rubakov, V.

    2010-01-01

    Modifications of general relativity have been considered as one of the possible ways of addressing some of the outstanding problems related to the large scale gravitational physics. In this contribution we review some of the recent results which are due to the inclusion of dynamical torsion. More specifically we shall discuss the propagation of massive spin-2 particles in flat and curved space times. We shall show that, contrary to what is generally believed, spinning matter is not the sole source of torsion field. A symmetric energy momentum tensor can also couple to torsion degrees of freedom. The massive and massless spin-2 particles mix giving rise to an infrared modification of gravity.

  15. Observation of coronal loop torsional oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaqarashvili, T. V.

    2003-02-01

    We suggest that the global torsional oscillation of solar coronal loop may be observed by the periodical variation of a spectral line width. The amplitude of the variation must be maximal at the velocity antinodes and minimal at the nodes of the torsional oscillation. Then the spectroscopic observation as a time series at different heights above the active region at the solar limb may allow to determine the period and wavelength of global torsional oscillation and consequently the Alfvén speed in corona. From the analysis of early observation (Egan & Schneeberger \\cite{egan}) we suggest the value of coronal Alfvén speed as ~ 500 km s-1.

  16. Angular and axial deformities of the legs of children.

    PubMed

    McDonough, M W

    1984-12-01

    Age is often a determining factor in establishing a treatment program for these axial and angular problems. As can be seen, the deformities of torsion are noticeable from early life. Any tibial torsion should be treated early, but an excessive medial range of motion in the infant leg with a corresponding adequate lateral range of motion of the limb may be cautiously observed. Medial femoral torsion is a normal early finding in the infant thigh. The problem becomes evident as the child matures without the corresponding reduction in femoral torsion, leading to a persistence of fetal or infantile alignment. The gait consequences are usually noticed at 4 to 8 years of age. The angular changes generally are a delayed finding noticed in stance. The bowleg may be associated with marked tibial torsion and picked up early but the Blount's patient has been traditionally definable at 2 years of age. Levin and Drennan may hasten the time of diagnosis with their radiographic criteria. Knock-knee is an alignment disturbance noticed during the early to mid-childhood years, age 4 to 8 years. The diagnosis is important, differentiating physiologic from torsion-related deformities, and treatment, if warranted, should not be delayed. Generally the earlier these problems are discovered, the more optimistic the prognosis. Since the pediatric limb is in a constant state of transition, there will be a perpetual argument as to the need or efficacy of various approaches to the problems of knock-knee and bowleg. If observation is the treatment of choice, the percentage of cases which go on to osteotomies and epiphyseal stapling will continue. For those with axial or angular deformities, degenerative arthritis of the knee may be forthcoming. Swanson, Greene, and Allis warned of problems becoming "unphysiologic." If we consider the epiphyseal malleability, not only to deformity but to correction, we can appreciate Lenoir's comment of "every day the problem goes untreated is a golden opportunity lost forever." Early, gentle conservative therapy, using splints and casting, is an approach which should be considered in appropriate early problems. PMID:6536411

  17. Inevitable inflation in Einstein-Cartan theory with improved energy-momentum tensor with spin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennelly, A. J.; Bradas, James C.; Smalley, Larry L.

    1988-01-01

    Generalized, or power-law, inflation is shown to necessarily exist for a simple, anisotropic, (Bianchi Type-1) cosmology in the Einstein-Cartan gravitational theory with the Ray-Smalley improved energy momentum tensor with spin. Formal solution of the EC field equations with the fluid equations of motion explicitly shows inflation caused by the RS spin angular kinetic energy density. Shear is not effective in preventing inflation in the ECRS model. The relation between fluid vorticity, torsion, reference axis rotation, and shear ellipsoid precession shows through clearly.

  18. Torsion-induced effects in magnetic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheka, Denis D.; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Yershov, Kostiantyn V.; Gaididei, Yuri

    2015-08-01

    A magnetic helix wire is one of the simplest magnetic systems which manifests properties of both curvature and torsion. Possible equilibrium magnetization states in the helix wire with different anisotropy directions are studied theoretically. There exist two equilibrium states in the helix wire with easy-tangential anisotropy: a quasitangential magnetization distribution in the case of relatively small curvatures and torsions, and an onion state in the opposite case. The curvature and torsion also essentially influence the spin-wave dynamics in the helix wire, acting as an effective magnetic field. Originated from a geometry-induced effective Dzyaloshinskii interaction, this magnetic field leads to a coupling between the helix chirality and the magnetochirality and breaks mirror symmetry in the spin-wave spectrum: the modification of magnon dispersion relation is linear with respect to the torsion and quadratic with respect to the curvature. All analytical predictions on magnetization statics and dynamics are well confirmed by direct spin-lattice simulations.

  19. Quantum gravity with torsion and non-metricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, C.; Percacci, R.

    2015-10-01

    We study the renormalization of theories of gravity with an arbitrary (torsional and non-metric) connection. The class of actions we consider is of the Palatini type, including the most general terms with up to two derivatives of the metric, but no derivatives of the connection. It contains 19 independent parameters. We calculate the one-loop beta functions of these parameters and find their fixed points. The Holst subspace is discussed in some detail and found not to be stable under renormalization. Some possible implications for ultraviolet and infrared gravity are discussed.

  20. Torsion and geometrostasis in covariant superstrings

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.

    1985-01-01

    The covariant action for freely propagating heterotic superstrings consists of a metric and a torsion term with a special relative strength. It is shown that the strength for which torsion flattens the underlying 10-dimensional superspace geometry is precisely that which yields free oscillators on the light cone. This is in complete analogy with the geometrostasis of two-dimensional sigma-models with Wess-Zumino interactions. 13 refs.

  1. Stepping-Motor Drive Suppresses Torsional Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Mahabaleshwar K. P.

    1995-01-01

    Excitation in stepping-motor drive differs from conventional excitation in that each step is divided into two equal smaller steps separated by small interval, tau. Interval chosen to equal half period of torsional oscillation, so second step excitation equal in amplitude but opposite in phase to first step excitation. Thus, although first step unavoidably excites torsional oscillation, second step deexcites oscillation at end of first half cycle.

  2. Investigation of fluctuations in angular velocity in magnetic memory devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkis, Y. A.; Potsyus, Z. Y.

    1973-01-01

    The fluctuations in the angular velocity of individual assemblies of a precision mechanical system were analyzed. The system was composed of an electric motor and a magnetic drum which were connected by a flexible coupling. A dynamic model was constructed which took into account the absence of torsion in the rigid shafts of the electric motor drive rotor and the magnetic drum. The motion was described by Lagrange differential equations of the second kind. Curves are developed to show the nature of amplitude fluctuation of the magnetic drum angular velocity at a specific excitation frequency. Additional curves show the amplitudes of fluctuation of the magnetic drum angular velocity compared to the quantity of damping at specific frequencies.

  3. Angular distribution of different vibrational components of the X and B states reached after resonant Auger decay of core-excited H2O: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjelte, I.; Karlsson, L.; Svensson, S.; De Fanis, A.; Carravetta, V.; Saito, N.; Kitajima, M.; Tanaka, H.; Yoshida, H.; Hiraya, A.; Koyano, I.; Ueda, K.; Piancastelli, M. N.

    2005-02-01

    Vibrationally resolved spectra have been obtained for the lowest-lying cationic states XB12,AA12, and BB22 of the water molecule reached after participator resonant Auger decay of core-excited states. The angular distribution has been measured of the first four vibrational components of the X state in the photon energy regions including the O 1s ?4a1 and the O 1s?2b2 core excitations, and for different portions of the vibrational envelope of the B state in the photon energy region including the O 1s?2b2 core excitation. For the X state, a large relative spread in ? values of the different vibrational components is observed across both resonances. For the B state, a very different trend is observed for the high binding energy side and the low binding energy side of the related spectral feature as a function of photon energy. A theoretical method based on the scattering K matrix has been used to calculate both the photoabsorption spectrum and the ? values, by taking both interference between direct and resonant photoemission and vibrational/lifetime interference into account. The numerical results show qualitative agreement with the trends detected in the experimental values and explain the conspicuous variations of the ? values primarily in terms of coupling between direct and resonant photoemission by interaction terms of different sign for different final vibrational states.

  4. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

  5. Ocular torsion on earth and in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.; Lichtenberg, B. K.; Arrott, A. P.; Crites, T. A.; Oman, C. M.; Edelman, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    Otolith function is studied by means of measurements of ocular torsion under various acceleration environments on earth and in weightlessness. Photographic measurements of ocular torsion as indicated by the rotation of landmarks on the iris with respect to head-fixed fiducial marks were obtained in subjects undergoing horizontal linear acceleration in a ground-based version of the space sled, lateral acceleration from weightlessness during pullout from the free-fall portion of parabolic flight, and optokinetic stimulation about the roll axis in the supine position in the laboratory and during weightlessness. The responses of ocular torsion to horizontal acceleration are in agreement with a simple low-order linear system with a dominant time constant of 0.33 sec, with a transfer function fit by a model with a pure delay of 0 to 400 msec and a first-order lag. In the pullout experiment, torsion was not observed in response to the onset of acceleration in the right-ear-down position, although it was present in response to the lateral stimulus. Results of the roll vection experiments indicate the independence of ocular torsion and visually induced tilt. In addition, an automatic video system using a soft contact lens target is presented which has been developed for ocular torsion measurements.

  6. MSTor version 2013: A new version of the computer code for the multi-structural torsional anharmonicity, now with a coupled torsional potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jingjing; Meana-Paeda, Rubn; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2013-08-01

    We present an improved version of the MSTor program package, which calculates partition functions and thermodynamic functions of complex molecules involving multiple torsions; the method is based on either a coupled torsional potential or an uncoupled torsional potential. The program can also carry out calculations in the multiple-structure local harmonic approximation. The program package also includes seven utility codes that can be used as stand-alone programs to calculate reduced moment of inertia matrices by the method of Kilpatrick and Pitzer, to generate conformational structures, to calculate, either analytically or by Monte Carlo sampling, volumes for torsional subdomains defined by Voronoi tessellation of the conformational subspace, to generate template input files for the MSTor calculation and Voronoi calculation, and to calculate one-dimensional torsional partition functions using the torsional eigenvalue summation method. Restrictions: There is no limit on the number of torsions that can be included in either the Voronoi calculation or the full MS-T calculation. In practice, the range of problems that can be addressed with the present method consists of all multitorsional problems for which one can afford to calculate all the conformational structures and their frequencies. Unusual features: The method can be applied to transition states as well as stable molecules. The program package also includes the hull program for the calculation of Voronoi volumes, the symmetry program for determining point group symmetry of a molecule, and seven utility codes that can be used as stand-alone programs to calculate reduced moment-of-inertia matrices by the method of Kilpatrick and Pitzer, to generate conformational structures, to calculate, either analytically or by Monte Carlo sampling, volumes of the torsional subdomains defined by Voronoi tessellation of the conformational subspace, to generate template input files, and to calculate one-dimensional torsional partition functions using the torsional eigenvalue summation method. Additional comments: The program package includes a manual, installation script, and input and output files for a test suite. Running time: There are 26 test runs. The running time of the test runs on a single processor of the Itasca computer is less than 2 s. References: [1] MS-T(C) method: Quantum Thermochemistry: Multi-Structural Method with Torsional Anharmonicity Based on a Coupled Torsional Potential, J. Zheng and D.G. Truhlar, Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 9 (2013) 1356-1367, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ct3010722. [2] MS-T(U) method: Practical Methods for Including Torsional Anharmonicity in Thermochemical Calculations of Complex Molecules: The Internal-Coordinate Multi-Structural Approximation, J. Zheng, T. Yu, E. Papajak, I, M. Alecu, S.L. Mielke, and D.G. Truhlar, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 13 (2011) 10885-10907.

  7. Cross-shaped torsional spring

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Matthew M. (Boston, MA); Pratt, Gill A. (Lexington, MA)

    1999-06-08

    The invention provides an elastic actuator consisting of a motor and a motor drive transmission connected at an output of the motor. An elastic element is connected in series with the motor drive transmission, and this elastic element is positioned to alone support the full weight of any load connected at an output of the actuator. A single force transducer is positioned at a point between a mount for the motor and an output of the actuator. This force transducer generates a force signal, based on deflection of the elastic element, that indicates force applied by the elastic element to an output of the actuator. An active feedback force control loop is connected between the force transducer and the motor for controlling the motor. This motor control is based on the force signal to deflect the elastic element an amount that produces a desired actuator output force. The produced output force is substantially independent of load motion. The invention also provides a torsional spring consisting of a flexible structure having at least three flat sections each connected integrally with and extending radially from a central section. Each flat section extends axially along the central section from a distal end of the central section to a proximal end of the central section.

  8. Cross-shaped torsional spring

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, M.M.; Pratt, G.A.

    1999-06-08

    The invention provides an elastic actuator consisting of a motor and a motor drive transmission connected at an output of the motor. An elastic element is connected in series with the motor drive transmission, and this elastic element is positioned to alone support the full weight of any load connected at an output of the actuator. A single force transducer is positioned at a point between a mount for the motor and an output of the actuator. This force transducer generates a force signal, based on deflection of the elastic element, that indicates force applied by the elastic element to an output of the actuator. An active feedback force control loop is connected between the force transducer and the motor for controlling the motor. This motor control is based on the force signal to deflect the elastic element an amount that produces a desired actuator output force. The produced output force is substantially independent of load motion. The invention also provides a torsional spring consisting of a flexible structure having at least three flat sections each connected integrally with and extending radially from a central section. Each flat section extends axially along the central section from a distal end of the central section to a proximal end of the central section. 30 figs.

  9. Complex angular momentum theory of state-to-state integral cross sections: resonance effects in the F + HD ? HF(v' = 3) + D reaction.

    PubMed

    Sokolovski, D; Akhmatskaya, E; Echeverra-Arrondo, C; De Fazio, D

    2015-07-28

    State-to-state reactive integral cross sections (ICSs) are often affected by quantum mechanical resonances, especially near a reactive threshold. An ICS is usually obtained by summing partial waves at a given value of energy. For this reason, the knowledge of pole positions and residues in the complex energy plane is not sufficient for a quantitative description of the patterns produced by resonance. Such description is available in terms of the poles of an S-matrix element in the complex plane of the total angular momentum. The approach was recently implemented in a computer code ICS_Regge, available in the public domain [Comput. Phys. Commun., 2014, 185, 2127]. In this paper, we employ the ICS_Regge package to analyse in detail, for the first time, the resonance patterns predicted for integral cross sections (ICSs) of the benchmark F + HD ? HF(v' = 3) + D reaction. The v = 0, j = 0, ? = 0 ? v' = 3, j' = 0, 1, 2, and ?' = 0, 1, 2 transitions are studied for collision energies from 58.54 to 197.54 meV. For these energies, we find several resonances, whose contributions to the ICS vary from symmetric and asymmetric Fano shapes to smooth sinusoidal Regge oscillations. Complex energies of metastable states and Regge pole positions and residues are found by Pad reconstruction of the scattering matrix elements. The accuracy of the ICS_Regge code, relation between complex energies and Regge poles, various types of Regge trajectories, and the origin of the J-shifting approximation are also discussed. PMID:26112337

  10. Strong field coherent control of molecular torsions--Analytical models.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Benjamin A; Ramakrishna, S; Seideman, Tamar

    2015-08-14

    We introduce analytical models of torsional alignment by moderately intense laser pulses that are applicable to the limiting cases of the torsional barrier heights. Using these models, we explore in detail the role that the laser intensity and pulse duration play in coherent torsional dynamics, addressing both experimental and theoretical concerns. Our results suggest strategies for minimizing the risk of off-resonant ionization, noting the qualitative differences between the case of torsional alignment subject to a field-free torsional barrier and that of torsional alignment of a barrier-less system (equivalent to a 2D rigid rotor). We also investigate several interesting torsional phenomena, including the onset of impulsive alignment of torsions, field-driven oscillations in quantum number space, and the disappearance of an alignment upper bound observed for a rigid rotor in the impulsive torsional alignment limit. PMID:26277138

  11. Modified teleparallel theories of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian; Bhmer, Christian G.; Wright, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    We investigate modified theories of gravity in the context of teleparallel geometries. It is well known that modified gravity models based on the torsion scalar are not invariant under local Lorentz transformations while modifications based on the Ricci scalar are. This motivates the study of a model depending on the torsion scalar and the divergence of the torsion vector. We derive the teleparallel equivalent of f (R ) gravity as a particular subset of these models and also show that this is the unique theory in this class that is invariant under local Lorentz transformation. Furthermore one can show that f (T ) gravity is the unique theory admitting second-order field equations.

  12. DVL Angular Velocity Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Wolfgang

    1944-01-01

    In many studies, especially of nonstationary flight motion, it is necessary to determine the angular velocities at which the airplane rotates about its various axes. The three-component recorder is designed to serve this purpose. If the angular velocity for one flight attitude is known, other important quantities can be derived from its time rate of change, such as the angular acceleration by differentiations, or - by integration - the angles of position of the airplane - that is, the angles formed by the airplane axes with the axis direction presented at the instant of the beginning of the motion that is to be investigated.

  13. No Effect of Steady Rotation on Solid ^4 He in a Torsional Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fear, M. J.; Walmsley, P. M.; Zmeev, D. E.; Mkinen, J. T.; Golov, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    We have measured the response of a torsional oscillator containing polycrystalline hcp solid 4 He to applied steady rotation in an attempt to verify the observations of several other groups that were initially interpreted as evidence for macroscopic quantum effects. The geometry of the cell was that of a simple annulus, with a fill line of relatively narrow diameter in the centre of the torsion rod. Varying the angular velocity of rotation up to 2 rad s^{-1} showed that there were no step-like features in the resonant frequency or dissipation of the oscillator and no history dependence, even though we achieved the sensitivity required to detect the various effects seen in earlier experiments on other rotating cryostats. All small changes during rotation were consistent with those occurring with an empty cell. We thus observed no effects on the samples of solid ^4 He attributable to steady rotation.

  14. Combined bending and torsional fatigue of woven roving GRP

    SciTech Connect

    Aboul Wafa, M.N.; Hamdy, A.H.; El-Midany, A.A.

    1997-04-01

    A study of biaxial fatigue of woven roving glass reinforced polyester (GRP) subjected to in-phase and out-of-phase cyclic bending and torsional moments is presented. To evaluate failure theories for this material, tests were conducted on two fiber orientations [0, 90] and [45, {minus}45] tubes. The results showed that for [0, 90] composites the S-N curves in pure bending and in pure torsion are sufficient to predict life. For [45, {minus}45] tubes, the value of the normal stress interaction component of the strength tensor, H{sub 12}, has to be obtained. If the ratio of the global flexural stress amplitude, A, to the accompanied global shear stress, B, is less than 2, the value of H{sub 12} may be taken as presented by Tsai-Hahn theory. But, if A/B {ge} 2, the value of H{sub 12} has to be obtained from [45, {minus}45] pure bending S-N curve, since the failure mode is a combination of interfacial shear and matrix failure. The out-of-phase loading results showed that the life of the specimens at high stress levels is less than that for the in-phase loading with the same peak values A and B.

  15. Torsion-Mediated Interaction between Adjacent Genes

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Sam; Beslon, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    DNA torsional stress is generated by virtually all biomolecular processes involving the double helix, in particular transcription where a significant level of stress propagates over several kilobases. If another promoter is located in this range, this stress may strongly modify its opening properties, and hence facilitate or hinder its transcription. This mechanism implies that transcribed genes distant of a few kilobases are not independent, but coupled by torsional stress, an effect for which we propose the first quantitative and systematic model. In contrast to previously proposed mechanisms of transcriptional interference, the suggested coupling is not mediated by the transcription machineries, but results from the universal mechanical features of the double-helix. The model shows that the effect likely affects prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes, but with different consequences owing to their different basal levels of torsion. It also depends crucially on the relative orientation of the genes, enhancing the expression of eukaryotic divergent pairs while reducing that of prokaryotic convergent ones. To test the in vivo influence of the torsional coupling, we analyze the expression of isolated gene pairs in the Drosophila melanogaster genome. Their orientation and distance dependence is fully consistent with the model, suggesting that torsional gene coupling may constitute a widespread mechanism of (co)regulation in eukaryotes. PMID:25188032

  16. Anisotropic bending-torsion coupling for warping in a non-linear beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkel, S.; Govindjee, S.

    MEMS devices made from single crystal silicon often contain rod-like structures that are operated in bending and/or torsion. The design of these devices usually relies upon simple mechanical theories that ignore the coupling between these two modes of operation. In this paper, we develop a theory that is capable of accounting for the material coupling in the bending and twisting of single crystal beams which arises from anisotropic elastic properties and apply it in selected examples to the case of silicon. The generalized Saint-Venant torsion theory, which is valid for isotropic materials, is extended to arbitrary anisotropic linear elastic materials. The anisotropic material behavior couples the bending and torsion behavior. Thus, for the geometrically linear case, we find two warping functions associated with the bending moments and one warping function which is associated with the torsion moment. These warping patterns or functions are then taken as inputs to a geometrically non-linear formulation. Due to the presence of the additional warping functions, we find the existence of non-standard bi-moment and bi-shears which play an important role under certain conditions of extreme deformations. The final complexity of the non-linear formulation dictates the usage of a numerical solution procedure for practical computations. Here we employ a finite element scheme to solve the governing equations. Example computations elucidate the importance of the coupling effects by examining beams cut from (1 0 0) type silicon wafers.

  17. Angular velocity discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  18. The metric on field space, functional renormalization, and metric-torsion quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Martin; Schollmeyer, Gregor M.

    2016-04-01

    Searching for new non-perturbatively renormalizable quantum gravity theories, functional renormalization group (RG) flows are studied on a theory space of action functionals depending on the metric and the torsion tensor, the latter parameterized by three irreducible component fields. A detailed comparison with Quantum Einstein-Cartan Gravity (QECG), Quantum Einstein Gravity (QEG), and "tetrad-only" gravity, all based on different theory spaces, is performed. It is demonstrated that, over a generic theory space, the construction of a functional RG equation (FRGE) for the effective average action requires the specification of a metric on the infinite-dimensional field manifold as an additional input. A modified FRGE is obtained if this metric is scale-dependent, as it happens in the metric-torsion system considered.

  19. Step-response of a torsional device with multiple discontinuous non-linearities: Formulation of a vibratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krak, Michael D.; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    A vehicle clutch damper is intentionally designed to contain multiple discontinuous non-linearities, such as multi-staged springs, clearances, pre-loads, and multi-staged friction elements. The main purpose of this practical torsional device is to transmit a wide range of torque while isolating torsional vibration between an engine and transmission. Improved understanding of the dynamic behavior of the device could be facilitated by laboratory measurement, and thus a refined vibratory experiment is proposed. The experiment is conceptually described as a single degree of freedom non-linear torsional system that is excited by an external step torque. The single torsional inertia (consisting of a shaft and torsion arm) is coupled to ground through parallel production clutch dampers, which are characterized by quasi-static measurements provided by the manufacturer. Other experimental objectives address physical dimensions, system actuation, flexural modes, instrumentation, and signal processing issues. Typical measurements show that the step response of the device is characterized by three distinct non-linear regimes (double-sided impact, single-sided impact, and no-impact). Each regime is directly related to the non-linear features of the device and can be described by peak angular acceleration values. Predictions of a simplified single degree of freedom non-linear model verify that the experiment performs well and as designed. Accordingly, the benchmark measurements could be utilized to validate non-linear models and simulation codes, as well as characterize dynamic parameters of the device including its dissipative properties.

  20. Mechanical behavior of twinned SiC nanowires under combined tension-torsion and compression-torsion strain

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhijie; Wang, Shengjie; Wang, Zhiguo; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

    2010-07-01

    The mechanical behavior of twinned silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires under combined tension-torsion and compression-torsion is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations with an empirical potential. The simulation results show that both the tensile failure stress and buckling stress decrease under combined tension-torsional and combined compression-torsional strain, and they decrease with increasing torsional rate under combined loading. The torsion rate has no effect on the elastic properties of the twinned SiC nanowires. The collapse of the twinned nanowires takes place in a twin stacking fault of the nanowires.

  1. Angular orientation of nanorods using nanophotonic tweezers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Pilgyu; Serey, Xavier; Chen, Yih-Fan; Erickson, David

    2012-12-12

    Near-field optical techniques have enabled the trapping, transport, and handling of nanoscopic materials much smaller than what can be manipulated with traditional optical tweezers. Here we extend the scope of what is possible by demonstrating angular orientation and rotational control of both biological and nonbiological nanoscale rods using photonic crystal nanotweezers. In our experiments, single microtubules (diameter 25 nm, length 8 ?m) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (outer diameter 110-170 nm, length 5 ?m) are rotated by the optical torque resulting from their interaction with the evanescent field emanating from these devices. An angular trap stiffness of ? = 92.8 pNnm/rad(2)mW is demonstrated for the microtubules, and a torsional spring constant of 22.8 pNnm/rad(2)mW is measured for the nanotubes. We expect that this new capability will facilitate the development of high precision nanoassembly schemes and biophysical studies of bending strains of biomolecules. PMID:23145817

  2. Active structures to reduce torsional vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthias, M.; Schlote, D.; Atzrodt, H.

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the development of different active measures to reduce torsional vibrations in power trains. The measures are based on concepts developed for active mounts to reduce the transmission of structure-borne sound. To show the potential of these active measures and investigate their mode of operation to influence torsional vibrations, numerical simulations of powertrains with different active measures were done. First experimental results from tests on an experimental (reduced size) power train were used to align the numerical models. The work was done within the project 'LOEWE-Zentrum AdRIA: Adaptronik - Research, Innovation, Application' funded by the German federal state of Hessen, and the Project AKTos: 'Active control of torsional vibrations by coupling elements' placed in the research Framework program 'Navigation and Maritime Technology for the 21st Century' funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology.

  3. Torsional oscillator for high magnetic field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Hikota; Okuda, Tetsuji; Ishimoto, Hidehiko

    1995-11-01

    A new type of torsional oscillator for experiments in the high magnetic field of 12 Tesla is reported. A beryllium copper alloy (BeCu25) was chosen as a torsion rod for its reliable mechanical properties. Two non-metallic materials were tested for a torsion head except a small amount of silver paste for the electrode. For a quartz glass head, liquid3He was successfully cooled down below 0.5 mK at 12 Tesla. The quality factor was 2 104 even at the highest field. On the other hand, a Stycast 1266 head in a field of 12 Tesla caused a large temperature difference between the liquid in the head and in the open space, in spite of a comparable quality factor with the quartz head.

  4. Untreated Isolated Torsion of the Epididymis in an Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Birkan, Zulfu; Kalayci, Tugce Ozlem; Karakeci, Ahmet; Sonmezgoz, Fitnet; Albayrak, Eda; Bozdag, Pinar Gundogan

    2015-01-01

    Although torsion of epididymis is extremely rare, it should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of acute scrotal pain in adolescents. We report here a very rare cause of acute scrotum: torsion of the epididymis. PMID:26793586

  5. Primary omental torsion as presentation of acute abdomen. Case report.

    PubMed

    Mendoza Moreno, Fernando; Dez Gago, Mara Del Roco; Crdova Garca, Diego Martn; Pedraza Muoz, Antonio; Dez Alonso, Manuel; Noguerales Fraguas, Fernando; Granell Vicent, Francisco Javier

    2016-02-01

    Primary torsion of the greater omentum (TGO) is an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain. We report a case of primary omental torsion in a woman of 60 years old with no relevant medical history. PMID:26838496

  6. Untreated Isolated Torsion of the Epididymis in an Adolescent.

    PubMed

    Birkan, Zulfu; Kalayci, Tugce Ozlem; Karakeci, Ahmet; Sonmezgoz, Fitnet; Albayrak, Eda; Bozdag, Pinar Gundogan

    2016-03-01

    Although torsion of epididymis is extremely rare, it should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of acute scrotal pain in adolescents. We report here a very rare cause of acute scrotum: torsion of the epididymis. PMID:26793586

  7. Cracked shells under skew-symmetric loading. [Reissner theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.

    1981-01-01

    The general problem of a shell containing a through crack in one of the principal planes of curvature and under general skew-symmetric loading is considered. By employing a Reissner type shell theory which takes into account the effect of transverse shear strains, all boundary conditions on the crack surfaces are satisfied separately. Consequently, unlike those obtained from the classical shell theory, the angular distributions of the stress components around the crack tips are shown to be identical to the distributions obtained from the plane and anti-plane elasticity solutions. Results are given for axially and circumferentially cracked cylindrical shells, spherical shells, and toroidal shells under uniform in-plane shearing, out of plane shearing, and torsion. The problem is formulated for specially orthostropic materials, therefore, the effect of orthotropy on the results is also studied.

  8. The Angular Momentum Dichotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teklu, Adelheid; Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Dolag, Klaus; Burkert, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    In the context of the formation of spiral galaxies the evolution and distribution of the angular momentum of dark matter halos have been discussed for more than 20 years, especially the idea that the specific angular momentum of the halo can be estimated from the specific angular momentum of its disk (e.g. Fall & Efstathiou (1980), Fall (1983) and Mo et al. (1998)). We use a new set of hydrodynamic cosmological simulations called Magneticum Pathfinder which allow us to split the galaxies into spheroidal and disk galaxies via the circularity parameter ?, as commonly used (e.g. Scannapieco et al. (2008)). Here, we focus on the dimensionless spin parameter ? = J |E|1/2 / (G M5/2) (Peebles 1969, 1971), which is a measure of the rotation of the total halo and can be fitted by a lognormal distribution, e.g. Mo et al. (1998). The spin parameter allows one to compare the relative angular momentum of halos across different masses and different times. Fig. 1 reveals a dichotomy in the distribution of ? at all redshifts when the galaxies are split into spheroids (dashed) and disk galaxies (dash-dotted). The disk galaxies preferentially live in halos with slightly larger spin parameter compared to spheroidal galaxies. Thus, we see that the ? of the whole halo reflects the morphology of its central galaxy. For more details and a larger study of the angular momentum properties of disk and spheroidal galaxies, see Teklu et al. (in prep.).

  9. Cosmological and astrophysical consequences from the magnetic dynamo equation in torsioned spacetime and teleparallel gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrade, L. C. G.

    2016-01-01

    A generalized dynamo equation in the first order torsion Garcia de Andrade L C (2012 Phys. Lett. B 711 143) has previously been derived. From this equation it is shown that for the 10 kpc scale, torsion gravity is not able to help seed galactic dynamos since the dynamo time is not long enough to take into account structure formation. In this paper, the dynamo equation is extended to second-order torsion terms—but unfortunately, the situation is even worse and the torsion does not seem to help dynamo efficiency. Nevertheless, in the intergalactic magnetic field scale of 1 mpc, the efficiency of the self-induction equation with torsion changes, and even in the first-order torsion case, one obtains large-scale magnetic fields with 109 yr dynamo efficiency. Dynamo efficiency in the case of interstellar matter (ISM) reaches a diffusion time of 1013 yr. This seems to be in contrast with a recent investigation by Bamba et al (2012 J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. JCAP05(2010)08) where they obtained, from another type of torsion theory called teleparallelism (A Einstein, Math Annalen (1922)), a large scale intergalactic magnetic field of 10-9 G. If this is not a model-dependent result, there is an apparent contradiction that has to be addressed. It is shown that for dynamo efficiency in astrophysical flow without shear, a strong seed field of 10-11 G is obtained, which is suitable for seeding galactic dynamos. As an example of a non-parity-violating dynamo equation, a magnetic field of the order of 10-27G is obtained as a seed field for the galactic dynamo from the theory of Einstein’s unified teleparallelism. This shows that in certain gravity models, torsion is able to enhance cosmological magnetic fields in view of obtaining better dynamo efficiency. To better compare our work with Bamba et al (2012 J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. JCAP05(2010)08), we consider the slow decay of magnetic fields in the teleparallel model. This observation is due to an anonymous referee who found this mistake in the first draft of the paper.

  10. Torsion d'annexe aprs hystrectomie abdominale: une premire observation

    PubMed Central

    Elhjouji, Abderrahman; Zahdi, Othman; Baba, Hicham; Belhamidi, Said; Bounaim, Ahmed; Aitali, Abdelmounaim; Sair, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    La torsion d'annexes survient classiquement sur ovaires kystiques ou tumoraux. De rares cas de torsion ont t rapports dans la littrature aprs hystrectomie laparoscopique. Nous rapportons la premire observation de torsion d'annexe survenant sur annexe normale aprs hystrectomie abdominale et dcrivons les particularits de cette forme clinique. PMID:26759694

  11. A new method for torsional critical speed calculation of practical industrial rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Oh-Sung; Kim, Paul Y.

    1993-07-01

    A new approach to calculating the torsional critical speed of rotors is presented. The governing equations for these speeds and the method of solutions differ from existing methods such as Holzer's, and the theory and numerical algorithm are straight forward, without any change in the field variables. The rotor studied has a distributed mass and rigid disks, and consists of many shaft segments of different diameters. The exact solution for undamped torsional motion of a uniform shaft segment is applied to a practical rotor-bearing system to generate the simultaneous governing equations for the torsional critical speeds. Within the framework of the theory, the set of governing equations is completely analytical and explicit, and it does not include any approximations, such as discretization of shaft mass and polynomial approximations. A computer program for the torsional critical speeds and the related mode shapes is developed by introducing a simple recurring numerical algorithm for a 3 by 4 submatrix in calculating the determinant generated by the simultaneous equations. The numerical algorithm essentially eliminates the necessity of constructing a huge matrix. The effectiveness of the new method is demonstrated in analyses of three rotors.

  12. Evidence for the distribution of angular velocity inside the sun and stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A round table discussion of problems of solar and stellar spindown and theory is presented. Observational evidence of the angular momentum of the solar wind is included, emphasizing the distribution of angular velocity inside the sun and stars.

  13. Fluidic angular velocity sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M. (inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A fluidic sensor providing a differential pressure signal proportional to the angular velocity of a rotary input is described. In one embodiment the sensor includes a fluid pump having an impeller coupled to a rotary input. A housing forming a constricting fluid flow chamber is connected to the fluid input of the pump. The housing is provided with a fluid flow restrictive input to the flow chamber and a port communicating with the interior of the flow chamber. The differential pressure signal measured across the flow restrictive input is relatively noise free and proportional to the square of the angular velocity of the impeller. In an alternative embodiment, the flow chamber has a generally cylindrical configuration and plates having flow restrictive apertures are disposed within the chamber downstream from the housing port. In this embodiment, the differential pressure signal is found to be approximately linear with the angular velocity of the impeller.

  14. Matter-antimatter asymmetry and dark matter from torsion

    SciTech Connect

    Poplawski, Nikodem J.

    2011-04-15

    We propose a simple scenario which explains the observed matter-antimatter imbalance and the origin of dark matter in the Universe. We use the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity which naturally extends general relativity to include the intrinsic spin of matter. Spacetime torsion produced by spin generates, in the classical Dirac equation, the Hehl-Datta term which is cubic in spinor fields. We show that under a charge-conjugation transformation this term changes sign relative to the mass term. A classical Dirac spinor and its charge conjugate therefore satisfy different field equations. Fermions in the presence of torsion have higher energy levels than antifermions, which leads to their decay asymmetry. Such a difference is significant only at extremely high densities that existed in the very early Universe. We propose that this difference caused a mechanism, according to which heavy fermions existing in such a Universe and carrying the baryon number decayed mostly to normal matter, whereas their antiparticles decayed mostly to hidden antimatter which forms dark matter. The conserved total baryon number of the Universe remained zero.

  15. Angular shear plate

    DOEpatents

    Ruda, Mitchell C. (Tucson, AZ); Greynolds, Alan W. (Tucson, AZ); Stuhlinger, Tilman W. (Tucson, AZ)

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  16. Angular Scaling In Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.

  17. On some features of possible torsion effects on observables at Hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syromyatnikov, A. G.

    2015-08-01

    I give a geometrical description of conformal gauge gravitational theory (CGTG) from the viewpoint of symmetries and affine structure. In the frames of the CGTG incorporating gravitation with torsion space-time into Standard Model of electro-weak interaction (EWI) the multi-muon events produced at the Fermilab Tevatron collider were studied. The CGTG gives the value of the torsion pseudotrace-spinor (muon) universal coupling fT = 4.388 ? 10-17 GF, and with limits from known experiments torsion mass mT = 0.4700 ? 10-7 eV or mT = 0.445 ? 10-15 muon mass. So the value of the constant of effective four-fermions interaction fT/mT = 0.988, indeed may lead to multi-muon events production. The model of interaction of quantum oscillator with the tensor potential W?? of traceless part of the torsion lead to 2 cm displacement of quark-lepton system as a whole in the magnetic field of collider in accordance with a significant sample of events related to b\\bar {b} production and decay in which at least one of the muon candidates is produced outside of the beam pipe of radius 1.5 cm. A traceless part of the torsion in CGTG does not vanish in the Newtonian limit of nonzero mass. Torsion gravity potential W?? gives conservation of a special conformal current and may be produced in the condition of a spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetry where the gravitation mass MX defect is 1-3 Tev ? c-2 or 10-13MX. This effect may be possible at known effects on top pair asymmetries at the Tevatron and LHC and takes place as the known energy dissipation above 3 TeV of the Galaxy gamma-ray and neutrino spectrum from two bubbles outside the Galaxy plane.

  18. Test particle acceleration in torsional fan reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinpour, M.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is understood to be a potential mechanism for particle acceleration in astrophysical and space plasmas, especially in solar flares. Torsional fan reconnection is one of the proposed mechanisms for steady-state three-dimensional (3D) magnetic reconnection. By using the magnetic and electric fields for `torsional fan reconnection', the features of test particle acceleration with input parameters for the solar corona are investigated numerically. We show that torsional fan reconnection is potentially an efficient particle accelerator and a proton can gain up to tens of MeV of kinetic energy within only a few milliseconds. Although the final kinetic energy of the accelerated particle depends on the injection position but there exists only one scenario for the particle's trajectory with different initial positions in which the particle is accelerated on the fan plane. Moreover, adopting either spatially uniform or non-uniform localized plasma resistivity does not much influence the features of trajectory. These results are compared with those of torsional spine reconnection.

  19. Hepatic lobe torsion in a horse

    PubMed Central

    Bentz, Kristin J.; Burgess, Brandy A.; Lohmann, Katharina L.; Shahriar, Farshid

    2009-01-01

    A 4-year-old Belgian mare was presented with a 1-week history of fever, suspected of being caused by peritonitis. The mare died before the diagnostic procedures had been completed; postmortem examination revealed torsion of the left medial lobe of the liver, resulting in diffuse necrosis of liver tissue and severe peritoneal effusion. PMID:19436480

  20. Joining and forming using torsional ultrasonic principles.

    PubMed

    Frost, M

    2009-10-01

    Developments in torsional ultrasonic joining mean that it is now used in a diverse range of joining, forming, selective weakening and "break-off" applications in the medical device industry.The principles and benefits of the technique are described together with application examples. PMID:20302140

  1. TORSION ANALYSIS OF FRESH AND AGED CHEESES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Torsion gelometry is a fundamental rheological test that can be performed on cheese to provide values of shear stress and shear strain. Six cheese varieties encompassing a wide compositional and age range were analyzed fresh and after aging to determine correlations between casein proteolysis produ...

  2. Torsional ultrasound mode versus combined torsional and conventional ultrasound mode phacoemulsification for eyes with hard cataract

    PubMed Central

    Fakhry, Mohamed A; Shazly, Malak I El

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare torsional versus combined torsional and conventional ultrasound modes in hard cataract surgery regarding ultrasound energy and time and effect on corneal endothelium. Settings Kasr El Aini hospital, Cairo University, and International Eye Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. Methodology Ninety-eight eyes of 63 patients were enrolled in this prospective comparative randomized masked clinical study. All eyes had nuclear cataracts of grades III and IV using the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III). Two groups were included, each having an equal number of eyes (49). The treatment for group A was combined torsional and conventional US mode phacoemulsification, and for group B torsional US mode phacoemulsification only. Pre- and post-operative assessments included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), slit-lamp evaluation, and fundoscopic evaluation. Endothelial cell density (ECD) and central corneal thickness (CCT) were measured preoperatively, 1 day, 7 days, and 1 month postoperatively. All eyes were operated on using the Alcon Infiniti System (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX) with the quick chop technique. All eyes were implanted with AcrySof SA60AT (Alcon) intraocular lens (IOL). The main phaco outcome parameters included the mean ultrasound time (UST), the mean cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), and the percent of average torsional amplitude in position 3 (%TUSiP3). Results Improvement in BCVA was statistically significant in both groups (P < 0.001). Comparing UST and CDE for both groups revealed results favoring the pure torsional group (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001 for UST; P = 0.058 and P = 0.009 for CDE). As for %TUSiP3, readings were higher for the pure torsional group (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01). All changes of CCT, and ECD over time were found statistically significant using one-way ANOVA testing (P < 0.001). Conclusion Both modes are safe in hard cataract surgery, however the pure torsional mode showed less US energy used. PMID:21792288

  3. Torsion of a Large Appendix Testis Misdiagnosed as Pyocele

    PubMed Central

    Meher, Susanta; Rath, Satyajit; Sharma, Rakesh; Sasmal, Prakash Kumar; Mishra, Tushar Subhadarshan

    2015-01-01

    Torsion of the appendix testis is not an uncommon cause of acute hemiscrotum. It is frequently misdiagnosed as acute epididymitis, orchitis, or torsion of testis. Though conservative management is the treatment of choice for this condition, prompt surgical intervention is warranted when testicular torsion is suspected. We report a case of torsion of a large appendix testis misdiagnosed as pyocele. Emergency exploration of it revealed a large appendix testis with torsion and early features of gangrene. After excision of the appendix testis, the wound was closed with an open drain. The patient had an uneventful and smooth postoperative recovery. PMID:25861514

  4. Design and analysis of a torsion braid pendulum displacement transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, E.; Bryant, E. L.

    1981-01-01

    The dynamic properties at various temperatures of braids impregnated with polymer can be measured by using the braid as the suspension of a torsion pendulum. This report describes the electronic and mechanical design of a torsional braid pendulum displacement transducer which is an advance in the state of the art. The transducer uses a unique optical design consisting of refracting quartz windows used in conjunction with a differential photocell to produce a null signal. The release mechanism for initiating free torsional oscillation of the pendulum has also been improved. Analysis of the precision and accuracy of the transducer indicated that the maximum relative error in measuring torsional amplitude was approximately 0. A serious problem inherent in all instruments which use a torsional suspension was analyzed: misalignment of the physical and torsional axes of the torsional member which results in modulation of the amplitude of the free oscillation.

  5. 6H-SiC microdisk torsional resonators in a "smart-cut" technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui; Wang, Zenghui; Lee, Jaesung; Ladhane, Kalyan; Young, Darrin J.; Feng, Philip X.-L.

    2014-03-01

    We report on experimental demonstration of high frequency torsional resonators based on microdisk structures enabled by a "smart-cut" 6H-silicon carbide (6H-SiC) technology. Circular microdisks axially supported by pairs of thin tethers, with diameters of 5-15 ?m, exhibit torsional-mode micromechanical resonances with frequency of 1-60 MHz, and quality (Q) factors up to 1280 at room temperature in moderate vacuum (10 mTorr). Measured intrinsic thermomechanical vibrations of a microdisk with diameter d ? 15.9 ?m (and triangular cross-section tethers with width wT ? 1.5 ?m, length LT ? 2 ?m, and thickness tT ? 0.4 ?m) demonstrate a torque resolution of ST1/2 ? 3.7 10-20 (N m)/?Hz, a force sensitivity of SF1/2 ? 5.7fN/?Hz, and an angular displacement sensitivity of S?1/2 ? 4.0 10-8 rad/?Hz. By examining devices with varying disk size, different tether shape, width, and length, and by combining experimental data and theoretical calculations, we depict the scaling pathways for ultrasensitive torsional resonant sensors based on this smart-cut 6H-SiC platform.

  6. Development of a second generation torsion balance based on a spherical superconducting suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Giles D.; Speake, Clive C.; Matthews, Anthony J.; Rocco, Emanuele; Peña-Arellano, Fabian

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a second generation superconducting torsion balance to be used for a precision measurement of the Casimir force and a short range test of the inverse square law of gravity at 4.2K. The instrument utilizes niobium (Nb) as the superconducting element and employs passive damping of the parasitic modes of oscillation. Any contact potential difference between the torsion balance and its surroundings is nulled to within ≈50mV by applying known DC biases and fitting the resulting parabolic relationship between the measured torque and the applied voltage. A digital proportional-integral-derivative servo system has been developed and characterized in order to control the azimuthal position of the instrument. The angular acceleration and displacement noise are currently limited by the capacitive sensor at the level 3×10-8rads-2/√Hz and 30nm/√Hz at 100mHz. The possibility of lossy dielectric coatings on the surface of the torsion balance test masses is also investigated. Our measurements show that the loss angles δ are (1.5±2.3)×10-4 and (2.0±2.2)×10-4 at frequencies of 5 and 10mHz, respectively. These values of loss are not significant sources of error for measurements of the Casimir force using this experimental setup.

  7. Comparisons Between Integral Equation Theory and Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Atomistic Models of Polyethylene Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Curro, John G.; Webb III, Edmund B.; Grest, Gary S.; Weinhold, Jeffrey D.; Putz, Mathias; McCoy, John D.

    1999-07-21

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed on dense liquids of polyethylene chains of 24 and 66 united atom CH{sub 2} units. A series of models was studied ranging in atomistic detail from coarse-grained, freely-jointed, tangent site chains to realistic, overlapping site models subjected to bond angle restrictions and torsional potentials. These same models were also treated with the self-consistent, polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theory. The intramolecular and total structure factors, as well as, the intermolecular radial distribution functions g(r) and direct correlation functions C(r) were obtained from theory and simulation. Angular correlation functions were also simulation obtained from the MD simulations. Comparisons between theory and reveal that PRISM theory works well for computing the intermolecular structure of coarse-grained chain models, but systematically underpredicts the extent of intermolecular packing as more atomistic details are introduced into the model. A consequence of g(r) having insufficient structure is that the theory yields an isothermal compressibility that progressively becomes larger, relative to the simulations, as overlapping the PRISM sites and angular restrictions are introduced into the model. We found that theory could be considerably improved by adding a tail function to C(r) beyond the effective hard core diameter. The range of this tail function was determined by requiring the theory to yield the correct compressibility.

  8. Torsional stiffness of thin-walled shells having reinforcing cores and rectangular, triangular, or diamond cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomb, Harvey G , Jr

    1957-01-01

    A theoretical investigation has been made of the Saint-Venant torsion of certain composite bars. These bars are composed of two materials -- one material in the form of a thin-walled cylindrical shell and the other material in the form of a core which fills the interior of the shell and is bonded to it. An approximate boundary-value problem is formulated on assumptions similar to those of the theory of torsion of hollow thin-walled shells (Bredt theory). This boundary-value problem is solved exactly for a rectangular cross section and approximately for slender triangular and diamond cross sections. Results for the torsional stiffness constants are presented graphically.

  9. N= 4 mechanics with diverse (4, 4, 0) multiplets: Explicit examples of hyper-Khler with torsion, Clifford Khler with torsion, and octonionic Khler with torsion geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Fedoruk, Sergey Ivanov, Evgeny; Smilga, Andrei

    2014-05-15

    We present simple models of N= 4 supersymmetric mechanics with ordinary and mirror linear (4, 4, 0) multiplets that give a transparent description of Hyper-Khler with Torsion (HKT), Clifford Khler with Torsion (CKT), and Octonionic Khler with Torsion (OKT) geometries. These models are treated in the N= 4 and N=2 superfield approaches, as well as in the component approach. Our study makes manifest that the CKT and OKT supersymmetric sigma models are distinguished from the more simple HKT models by the presence of extra holomorphic torsion terms in the supercharges.

  10. Angular analysis of the decay ? b ? ?(? N?) ? + ? -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ber, Philipp; Feldmann, Thorsten; van Dyk, Danny

    2015-01-01

    We study the differential decay rate for the rare ? b ? ?(? N?) ? + ? - transition, including a determination of the complete angular distribution, assuming unpolarized ? b baryons. On the basis of a properly chosen parametrization of the various helicity amplitudes, we provide expressions for the angular observables within the Standard Model and a subset of new physics models with chirality-flipped operators. Hadronic effects at low recoil are estimated by combining information from lattice QCD with (improved) form-factor relations in Heavy Quark Effective Theory. Our estimates for large hadronic recoil at this stage are still rather uncertain because the baryonic input functions are not so well known, and non-factorizable spectator effects have not been worked out systematically so far. Still, our phenomenological analysis of decay asymmetries and angular observables for ? b ? ?(? N?) ? + ? - reveals that this decay mode can provide new and complementary constraints on the Wilson coefficients in radiative and semileptonic b ? s transitions compared to the corresponding mesonic modes.

  11. Torsional oscillations of a sphere in a Stokes flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Box, F.; Thompson, A. B.; Mullin, T.

    2015-12-01

    The results of an experimental investigation into a sphere performing torsional oscillations in a Stokes flow are presented. A novel experimental set-up was developed, which enabled the motion of the sphere to be remotely controlled through application of an oscillatory magnetic field. The response of the sphere to the applied field was characterised in terms of the viscous, magnetic and gravitational torques acting on the sphere. A mathematical model of the system was developed, and good agreement was found between experimental, numerical and theoretical results. The flow resulting from the motion of the sphere was measured, and the fluid velocity was found to have an inverse square dependence on radial distance from the sphere. The good agreement between measurements and the analytical solutions for both fluid velocity and angular displacement of the sphere indicates that the flow may be considered Stokesian, thus providing an excellent basis for experimental and theoretical characterisation of hydrodynamic interactions between multiple oscillating spheres at low Reynolds number.

  12. Influence of the Earth's Rotation on Measurement of Newton's Constant by using the Angular Acceleration Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Wang, Dian-Hong; Tian, Yuan

    2012-06-01

    Using the relativistic Lagrangian expression, we develop a method to derive the equation of motion of the torsion balance in a non-inertial reference frame, which is used to analyze the gravitational experiment in measuring Newton's constant G with the angular acceleration method. Our calculation shows that the Earth's rotation couples with the vibration, which should be considered in the high-accuracy experiments of determining the gravitational constant G.

  13. Torsional Pendulum Studies of HELIUM-4 in Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Satoru

    In this dissertation, experimental results are presented on the torsion pendulum studies of ^4 He adsorbed in chabazite, whose pore is 13 A in diameter, and in silica with 25 A diameter pores. The objective of this work was to search for superfluidity in extremely confined ^4He. A novel technique for dehydrating chabazite crystals has been developed for this work. As we found out, chabazite crystals of millimeter sizes cannot be dehydrated simply by heating them in vacuum as commonly done for zeolite powders, since the heating results in pulverization of the crystals. To dehydrate the crystals without damage, a high pressure dehydration technique has been developed. In this method, chabazite crystals are heated in a high pressure helium atomosphere at pressures over 10,000 psi in a furnace attached to a sorption pump filled with activated charcoal. The pump removes water selectively under high pressure. Using a crystal prepared with this method, the experiment down to 100 mK found no superfluidity in ^4He adsorbed in chabazite crystal with the torsion pendulum technique. In porous silica, superfluid transition was observed with the transition temperature ranging from 0.12 K to 0.82 K depending on the ^4He coverage. Near the full pore coverage, the temperature dependence of the superfluid density was found to arise entirely from the phonon excitation, with no evidence for other mechanisms such as vortex-pair unbinding. The superfluid density for lower ^4He coverages are compared with the Kosterlitz-Thouless theory adopted by Kotsubo and Williams for a small sphere. The fitting parameters obtained from the comparison are examined to address the applicability of the Kosterlitz-Thouless theory to ^4He films in extreme confinement.

  14. Galactic dynamos and slow decay of magnetic fields from torsion modes of Lorentz violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia de Andrade, L. C.

    2011-01-01

    Campanelli et al. (2009) [9] have recently shown that electromagnetic fluctuations in Lorentz violation theories Colladay and Kostelecky (1998) [8] along differential rotation may induce galactic dynamo amplification of magnetic fields from primordial seeds. In this Letter, instead of using the Maxwell-Chern-Simmons-Lagrangian used in their paper, one adopts the Lagrangean of the type RFiFk, where R represent the torsion modes, without dynamical curvature. This so-called Minkowski-Cartan spacetime M4 torsion modes, allows us to handle QED vacuum in any Ricci scalar electrodynamics Lagrangean. It is shown that axial-torsion modes electrodynamics allows us to obtain a slow decay of magnetic fields. Thus primordial seed fields are amplified from differential rotation and protogalaxy turbulence as galactic dynamo action. This is mainly due to the fact that the collapse of the protogalaxy induces a strong suppression of the magnetic field decay. Magnetic field anisotropies are also considered. To resume, photon-torsion axial coupling in the quantum electrodynamics (QED) framework in Riemann flat contortioned spacetime may induce galactic dynamos. Fourier space transformation are used to compute electrodynamic equations.

  15. Quasi-steady prediction of coupled bending-torsion flutter under rotating stall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, S. M.; Kushari, A.; Venkatesan, C.

    2013-11-01

    A method is presented in this paper to predict cascade flutter under subsonic stalled flow condition in a quasi-steady manner. The ability to predict the occurrence of aeroelastic flutter is highly important from the compressor design point of view. In the present work, the well known Moore-Greitzer compression system model is used to evaluate the flow under rotating stall and the linearized aerodynamic theory of Whitehead is used to estimate the blade loading. The cascade stability is then predicted by solving the structural model, which is posed as a complex eigenvalue problem. The possibility of occurrence of flutter in both bending and torsional modes is considered and the latter is found to be the dominant one, under subsonic stalled flow, for a large range of frequency ratios examined. It is also shown that the design of compressor blades at frequency ratios close to unity may result in rapid initiation of torsional flutter in the presence of stalled flow. A frequency ratio of 0.9 is primarily emphasized for most part of the study as many interesting features are revealed and the results are physically interpreted. Roughly a pitchfork pattern of energy distribution appears to occur between bending mode and torsional mode which ensures that only one flutter mode is possible at any instant in time. A bifurcation from bending flutter to torsional flutter is shown to occur during which the frequency of the two vibrating modes appear to coalesce for a very short period of time.

  16. Effects of warping and pretwist on torsional vibration of rotating beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaza, K. R. V.; Kielb, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of pretwist and warping on the torsional vibration of short-aspect-ratio rotating beams is examined for application to the modeling of turbofan, turboprop, and compressor blades. The equations of motion and the associated boundary conditions by using both Wagner's hypothesis and Washizu's theory are derived and a few minor limitations of the Wagner's hypothesis, as applied to thick blades, are pointed out and discussed. The equations for several special cases are solved in a closed form. Results are presented indicating the effect of warping, pretwist, and rotation on torsional vibration of beams as aspect ratio is varied. The results show that the structural warping and pretwist terms have a significant effect on torsional frequency and mode shapes of short-aspect-ratio blades whereas the inertial warping terms have negligible effect. Since the torsional frequencies and mode shapes are very important in aeroelastic analyses by using modal methods, the structural warping terms should be included in modeling turbofan, turboprop, compressor, and turbine blades.

  17. Benchmark Torsional Potentials of Building Blocks for Conjugated Materials: Bifuran, Bithiophene, and Biselenophene.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Jacob W G; Wheeler, Steven E

    2014-09-01

    The utility of π-conjugated oligomers and polymers continues to grow, and oligofurans, oligothiophenes, and oligoselenophenes have shown great promise in the context of organic electronic materials. Vital to the performance of these materials is the maintenance of planarity along the conjugated backbone. Consequently, there has been a great deal of work modeling the torsional behavior of these prototypical components of conjugated organic materials both in the gas and condensed phases. Such simulations generally rely on classical molecular mechanics force fields or density functional theory (DFT) potentials. Unfortunately, there is a lack of benchmark quality, converged ab initio torsional potentials for bifuran, bithiophene, and biselenophene against which these lower level theoretical methods can be calibrated. To remedy this absence, we present highly accurate torsional potentials for these three molecules based on focal point analyses. These potentials will enable the benchmarking and parametrization of DFT functionals and classical molecular mechanics force fields. Here, we provide an initial assessment of the performance of common DFT functional and basis set combinations, to identify methods that provide robust descriptions of the torsional behavior of these prototypical building blocks for conjugated systems. PMID:26588510

  18. Modeling and analysis of a cracked composite cantilever beam vibrating in coupled bending and torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kaihong; Inman, Daniel J.; Farrar, Charles R.

    2005-06-01

    The coupled bending and torsional vibration of a fiber-reinforced composite cantilever with an edge surface crack is investigated. The model is based on linear fracture mechanics, the Castigliano theorem and classical lamination theory. The crack is modeled with a local flexibility matrix such that the cantilever beam is replaced with two intact beams with the crack as the additional boundary condition. The coupling of bending and torsion can result from either the material properties or the surface crack. For the unidirectional fiber-reinforced composite, analysis indicates that changes in natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes depend on not only the crack location and ratio, but also the material properties (fiber orientation, fiber volume fraction). The frequency spectrum along with changes in mode shapes may help detect a possible surface crack (location and magnitude) of the composite structure, such as a high aspect ratio aircraft wing. The coupling of bending and torsion due to a surface crack may serve as a damage prognosis tool of a composite wing that is initially designed with bending and torsion decoupled by noting the effect of the crack on the flutter speed of the aircraft.

  19. Mangle: Angular Mask Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Molly; Tegmark, Max; Hamilton, Andrew; Hill, Colin

    2012-02-01

    Mangle is a suite of software designed to deal accurately and efficiently with complex angular masks, such as occur typically in galaxy surveys. Mangle performs the following tasks: converts masks between many handy formats (including HEALPix),rapidly finds the polygons containing a given point on the sphere,rapidly decomposes a set of polygons into disjoint parts,expands masks in spherical harmonics,generates random points with weights given by the mask, and implements computations for correlation function analysis.To mangle, a mask is an arbitrary union of arbitrarily weighted angular regions bounded by arbitrary numbers of edges. The restrictions on the mask are only (1) that each edge must be part of some circle on the sphere (but not necessarily a great circle), and (2) that the weight within each subregion of the mask must be constant. Mangle is complementary to and integrated with the HEALPix package; mangle works with vector graphics whereas HEALPix works with pixels.

  20. Angular Momentum Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormer, Paul E. S.; Paldus, Josef

    Starting from the simplest possible building blocks--a ket, a bra, a time-reversed ket, and a time-reversed bra--a diagrammatic formalism is developed for angular momentum coupling problems. The formalism comprises Clebsch-Gordan coefficients as well as 3jm-symbols. The idea of constructing invariants (internal lines) by contracting contragredient pairs of quantities is emphasized throughout. The Clebsch-Gordan series, and its extension to the coupling of more than two angular momenta, is introduced algebraically and diagrammatically. Recoupling between bases obtained in different coupling schemes is introduced and the connection between recoupling coefficients and irreducible 3nj-symbols is derived diagrammatically. The well-known diagrammatic rules due to Jucys and co-workers are derived by group theoretical means and simple rules for their practical exploitation are presented.

  1. Biothermal sensing of a torsional artificial muscle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Ho; Kim, Tae Hyeob; Lima, Mrcio D; Baughman, Ray H; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-02-01

    Biomolecule responsive materials have been studied intensively for use in biomedical applications as smart systems because of their unique property of responding to specific biomolecules under mild conditions. However, these materials have some challenging drawbacks that limit further practical application, including their speed of response and mechanical properties, because most are based on hydrogels. Here, we present a fast, mechanically robust biscrolled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn as a torsional artificial muscle through entrapping an enzyme linked to a thermally sensitive hydrogel, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), utilizing the exothermic catalytic reaction of the enzyme. The induced rotation reached an equilibrated angle in less than 2 min under mild temperature conditions (25-37 C) while maintaining the mechanical properties originating from the carbon nanotubes. This biothermal sensing of a torsional artificial muscle offers a versatile platform for the recognition of various types of biomolecules by replacing the enzyme, because an exothermic reaction is a general property accompanying a biochemical transformation. PMID:26806884

  2. Torsion and transverse bending of cantilever plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reissner, Eric; Stein, Manuel

    1951-01-01

    The problem of combined bending and torsion of cantilever plates of variable thickness, such as might be considered for solid thin high-speed airplane or missile wings, is considered in this paper. The deflections of the plate are assumed to vary linearly across the chord; minimization of the potential energy by means of the calculus of variations then leads to two ordinary linear differential equations for the bending deflections and the twist of the plate. Because the cantilever is analyzed as a plate rather than as a beam, the effect of constraint against axial warping in torsion is inherently included. The application of this method to specific problems involving static deflection, vibration, and buckling of cantilever plates is presented. In the static-deflection problems, taper and sweep are considered.

  3. Quantum Heuristics of Angular Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy-Leblond, Jean-Marc

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the quantization of angular momentum components, Heisenberg-type inequalities for their spectral dispersions, and the quantization of the angular momentum modulus, without using operators or commutation relations. (MLH)

  4. Torsional Tribological Behavior and Torsional Friction Model of Polytetrafluoroethylene against 1045 Steel

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shibo; Niu, Chengchao

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the plane-on-plane torsional fretting tribological behavior of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was studied. A model of a rigid, flat-ended punch acting on an elastic half-space was built according to the experimental conditions. The results indicate that the shape of T–θ curves was influenced by both the torsional angle and the normal load. The torsion friction torque and wear rate of PTFE exponentially decreased when the torsion angle rose. The torsional torque increased from 0.025 N·m under a normal load of 43 N to 0.082 N·m under a normal load of 123 N. With sequentially increasing normal load, the value of torque was maintained. With rising normal load, the wear mass loss of PTFE disks was increased and the wear rate was decreased. Good agreement was found with the calculated torque according to the model and the experimental torque except for that under a normal load of 163 N. The difference under a normal load of 163 N was caused by the coefficient of friction. Usually the coefficient of friction of a polymer decreases with increasing normal load, whereas a constant coefficient of friction was applied in the model. PMID:26799324

  5. Torsional Tribological Behavior and Torsional Friction Model of Polytetrafluoroethylene against 1045 Steel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shibo; Niu, Chengchao

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the plane-on-plane torsional fretting tribological behavior of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was studied. A model of a rigid, flat-ended punch acting on an elastic half-space was built according to the experimental conditions. The results indicate that the shape of T-θ curves was influenced by both the torsional angle and the normal load. The torsion friction torque and wear rate of PTFE exponentially decreased when the torsion angle rose. The torsional torque increased from 0.025 N·m under a normal load of 43 N to 0.082 N·m under a normal load of 123 N. With sequentially increasing normal load, the value of torque was maintained. With rising normal load, the wear mass loss of PTFE disks was increased and the wear rate was decreased. Good agreement was found with the calculated torque according to the model and the experimental torque except for that under a normal load of 163 N. The difference under a normal load of 163 N was caused by the coefficient of friction. Usually the coefficient of friction of a polymer decreases with increasing normal load, whereas a constant coefficient of friction was applied in the model. PMID:26799324

  6. Fluid driven torsional dipole seismic source

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A compressible fluid powered oscillating downhole seismic source device capable of periodically generating uncontaminated horizontally-propagated, shear waves is provided. A compressible fluid generated oscillation is created within the device which imparts an oscillation to a housing when the device is installed in a housing such as the cylinder off an existing downhole tool, thereby a torsional seismic source is established. Horizontal waves are transferred to the surrounding bore hole medium through downhole clamping.

  7. UBIQUITOUS TORSIONAL MOTIONS IN TYPE II SPICULES

    SciTech Connect

    De Pontieu, B.; Hansteen, V. H.; Carlsson, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Rutten, R. J.; Watanabe, H.

    2012-06-10

    Spicules are long, thin, highly dynamic features that jut out ubiquitously from the solar limb. They dominate the interface between the chromosphere and corona and may provide significant mass and energy to the corona. We use high-quality observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to establish that so-called type II spicules are characterized by the simultaneous action of three different types of motion: (1) field-aligned flows of order 50-100 km s{sup -1}, (2) swaying motions of order 15-20 km s{sup -1}, and (3) torsional motions of order 25-30 km s{sup -1}. The first two modes have been studied in detail before, but not the torsional motions. Our analysis of many near-limb and off-limb spectra and narrowband images using multiple spectral lines yields strong evidence that most, if not all, type II spicules undergo large torsional modulation and that these motions, like spicule swaying, represent Alfvenic waves propagating outward at several hundred km s{sup -1}. The combined action of the different motions explains the similar morphology of spicule bushes in the outer red and blue wings of chromospheric lines, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting Doppler motions to derive estimates for field-aligned flows in spicules and determining the Alfvenic wave energy in the solar atmosphere. Our results also suggest that large torsional motion is an ingredient in the production of type II spicules and that spicules play an important role in the transport of helicity through the solar atmosphere.

  8. Analytic Model for the Rototranslational Torsion Pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, F.; Bassan, M.; Pucacco, G.; Marconi, L.; Stanga, R.; Visco, M.

    2013-01-01

    We develop an analytic model to describe the motion of the RotoTranslational Torsion Pendulum PETER in a wide range of frequencies (from 1mHz up to 10-15Hz). We also try to explain some unexpected features we found in the data with only 1 soft degree of freedom and we estimate values for the misalignment angles and other parameters of the model.

  9. Investigation Of Tapered Tension/Torsion Strap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louie, Alexander

    1991-01-01

    Tapered strap provides more torque than parallel one. Report describes theoretical and experimental-investigation of simplified model of tension/torsion strap. Proposed for use in helicopter rotor blade to hold otherwise freely pitching blade tip inward against centrifugal force and to apply torque about pitch axis to regulate pitching motions of tip. Intended to improve aerodynamic performances of rotors and to reduce vibrations.

  10. Torsional Oscillations of Nonbare Strange Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannarelli, Massimo; Pagliaroli, Giulia; Parisi, Alessandro; Pilo, Luigi; Tonelli, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Strange stars are one of the possible compact stellar objects that can form after a supernova collapse. We consider a model of a strange star having an inner core in the color-flavor locked phase surmounted by a crystalline color superconducting (CCSC) layer. These two phases constitute the quarksphere, which we assume to be the largest and heaviest part of the strange star. The next layer consists of standard nuclear matter forming an ionic crust, hovering on the top of the quarksphere and prevented from falling by a strong dipolar electric field. The dipolar electric field arises because quark matter is confined in the quarksphere by the strong interaction, but electrons can leak outside forming an electron layer a few hundred fermi thick separating the ionic crust from the underlying quark matter. The ionic matter and the CCSC matter constitute two electromagnetically coupled crust layers. We study the torsional oscillations of these two layers. Remarkably, we find that if a fraction larger than 10-4 of the energy of a Vela-like glitch is conveyed to a torsional oscillation, the ionic crust will likely break. The reason is that the very rigid and heavy CCSC crust layer will absorb only a small fraction of the glitch energy, leading to a large-amplitude torsional oscillation of the ionic crust. The maximum stress generated by the torsional oscillation is located inside the ionic crust and is very close to the star's surface. This peculiar behavior leads to a much easier crust cracking than in standard neutron stars.

  11. Investigations of magnetic hysteresis of barium ferrite using the torsion pendulum method

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, H.J.; Hempel, K.A.

    1988-11-15

    The magnetic stiffness is measured by the torsion pendulum method as a function of the applied field. Measurements are performed on random assemblies of chemically coprecipitated barium ferrite powders. The magnetic stiffness for both minor and major loops of the hysteresis cycle is measured and compared with calculated curves based on the model of coherent rotation. The discrepancies between theory and experiment are partly due to the effect of magnetic interaction.

  12. [Pathogenesis and treatment of torsion dystonia].

    PubMed

    Barkhatova, V P; Markova, E D

    1978-01-01

    A study of the catecholamine excretion, their precursor DOPA and final metabolites--Homovaniline and vanilylphenylglycolic acid in torsion dystonia, detected certain changes which were different in patients with various clinical forms of the disease. On the basis of clinical and biochemical data 3 forms of torsion dystonia were distinguished: 1) with a prevalence in the clinical picture of muscle rigidity, leading to the development of pathological postures; 2) hyperkinetic forms and 3) mixed forms. In patients of the first group there was a decreased excretion of all catecholamines. On the basis of obtained data the conclusion is made that there is a drop in the intensity of the process of dophamine synthesis and an increase of its catabolism. In the hyperkinetic form, on the contrary, there is a tendency to an increase of dophamine synthesis. It is assumed that there is a drop in the intensity of the process of adrenaline synthesis and an increase of its catabolism. On the basis of biochemical heterogeneity of torsion dystonia the authors recommended different approaches in treating different forms of this disease. In a prevalent muscular rigidity the functions of the dophaminergic systems should be intensified: on the one hand, by administering precursors of dophamine L-DOPA, on the other--by inhibiting antagonistic activity with the aid of different cholinolytic preparations. In a hyperkinetic form a favorable effect is attained by preparations, inhibiting the dophaminergic activity (mainly preparations of the phenothiazine and butyrophenon series). PMID:696099

  13. Perinatal testicular torsion and medicolegal considerations.

    PubMed

    Massoni, F; Troili, G M; Pelosi, M; Ricci, S

    2014-06-01

    Perinatal testicular torsion (PTT) is a very complex condition because of rarity of presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. In presence of perinatal testicular torsion, the involvement of contralateral testis can be present also in absence of other indications which suggest the bilateral involvement; therefore, occurrences supported by literature do not exclude the use of surgery to avoid the risk of omitted or delayed diagnosis. The data on possible recovery of these testicles are not satisfactory, and treatment consists of an observational approach ("wait-and-see") or an interventional approach. The hypothesis of randomized clinical trials seems impracticable because of rarity of disease. The authors present a case of PTT, analyzing injuries due to clinical and surgical management of these patients, according to medicolegal profile. The delayed diagnosis and the choice of an incorrect therapeutic approach can compromise the position of healthcare professionals, defective in terms of skill, prudence and diligence. Endocrine insufficiency is an unfortunate event. The analysis of literature seems to support, because of high risk, a surgical approach aimed not only at resolution of unilateral pathology or prevention of a relapse, but also at prevention of contralateral testicular torsion. PMID:24826979

  14. On the physical interpretation of torsion-rotation parameters in methanol and acetaldehyde: Comparison of global fit and {ital ab initio} results

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, L.; Lees, R.M.; Hougen, J.T.

    1999-02-01

    Equilibrium structural constants and certain torsion{endash}rotation interaction parameters have been determined for methanol and acetaldehyde from {ital ab initio} calculations using GAUSSIAN 94. The substantial molecular flexing which occurs in going from the bottom to the top of the torsional potential barrier can be quantitatively related to coefficients of torsion{endash}rotation terms having a (1{minus}cos&hthinsp;3{gamma}) dependence on torsional angle {gamma}. The barrier height, six equilibrium structural constants characterizing the bottom of the potential well, and six torsion{endash}rotation constants are all compared to experimental parameters obtained from global fits to large microwave and far-infrared data sets for methanol and acetaldehyde. The rather encouraging agreement between the Gaussian and global fit results for methanol seems both to validate the accuracy of {ital ab initio} calculations of these parameters, and to demonstrate that the physical origin of these torsion{endash}rotation interaction terms in methanol lies primarily in structural relaxation with torsion. The less satisfactory agreement between theory and experiment for acetaldehyde requires further study. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Torsional and biaxial (tension-torsion) fatigue damage mechanisms in Waspaloy at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaraman, N.; Ditmars, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    Strain controlled torsional and biaxial (tension-torsion) low cycle fatigue behavior of Waspaloy was studied at room temperature as a function of heat treatment. Biaxial tests were conducted under proportional and nonproportional cyclic conditions. The deformation behavior under these different cyclic conditions was evaluated by slip trace analysis. For this, a Schmidt-type factor was defined for multiaxial loading conditions, and it was shown that when the slip deformation is predominant, nonproportional cycles are more damaging than proportional or pure axial or torsional cycles. This was attributed to the fact that under nonproportional cyclic conditions, deformation was through multiple slip, as opposed to single slip for other loading conditions, which gave rise to increased hardening. The total life for a given test condition was found to be independent of heat treatment. This was interpreted as being due to the differences in the cycles to initiation and propagation of cracks.

  16. A novel angular acceleration sensor based on the electromagnetic induction principle and investigation of its calibration tests.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao

    2013-01-01

    An angular acceleration sensor can be used for the dynamic analysis of human and joint motions. In this paper, an angular acceleration sensor with novel structure based on the principle of electromagnetic induction is designed. The method involves the construction of a constant magnetic field by the excitation windings of sensor, and the cup-shaped rotor that cut the magnetic field. The output windings of the sensor generate an electromotive force, which is directly proportional to the angular acceleration through the electromagnetic coupling when the rotor has rotational angular acceleration. The mechanical structure and the magnetic working circuit of the sensor are described. The output properties and the mathematical model including the transfer function and state-space model of the sensor are established. The asymptotical stability of the sensor when it is working is verified by the Lyapunov Theorem. An angular acceleration calibration device based on the torsional pendulum principle is designed. The method involves the coaxial connection of the angular acceleration sensor, torsion pendulum and a high-precision angle sensor, and then an initial external force is applied to the torsion pendulum to produce a periodic damping angle oscillation. The angular acceleration sensor and the angle sensor will generate two corresponding electrical signals. The sensitivity coefficient of the angular acceleration sensor can be obtained after processing these two-channel signals. The experiment results show that the sensitivity coefficient of the sensor is about 17.29 mv/Krads2. Finally, the errors existing in the practical applications of the sensor are discussed and the corresponding improvement measures are proposed to provide effective technical support for the practical promotion of the novel sensor. PMID:23941911

  17. A Novel Angular Acceleration Sensor Based on the Electromagnetic Induction Principle and Investigation of Its Calibration Tests

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao

    2013-01-01

    An angular acceleration sensor can be used for the dynamic analysis of human and joint motions. In this paper, an angular acceleration sensor with novel structure based on the principle of electromagnetic induction is designed. The method involves the construction of a constant magnetic field by the excitation windings of sensor, and the cup-shaped rotor that cut the magnetic field. The output windings of the sensor generate an electromotive force, which is directly proportional to the angular acceleration through the electromagnetic coupling when the rotor has rotational angular acceleration. The mechanical structure and the magnetic working circuit of the sensor are described. The output properties and the mathematical model including the transfer function and state-space model of the sensor are established. The asymptotical stability of the sensor when it is working is verified by the Lyapunov Theorem. An angular acceleration calibration device based on the torsional pendulum principle is designed. The method involves the coaxial connection of the angular acceleration sensor, torsion pendulum and a high-precision angle sensor, and then an initial external force is applied to the torsion pendulum to produce a periodic damping angle oscillation. The angular acceleration sensor and the angle sensor will generate two corresponding electrical signals. The sensitivity coefficient of the angular acceleration sensor can be obtained after processing these two-channel signals. The experiment results show that the sensitivity coefficient of the sensor is about 17.29 mv/Krads2. Finally, the errors existing in the practical applications of the sensor are discussed and the corresponding improvement measures are proposed to provide effective technical support for the practical promotion of the novel sensor. PMID:23941911

  18. Biothermal sensing of a torsional artificial muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Ho; Kim, Tae Hyeob; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-02-01

    Biomolecule responsive materials have been studied intensively for use in biomedical applications as smart systems because of their unique property of responding to specific biomolecules under mild conditions. However, these materials have some challenging drawbacks that limit further practical application, including their speed of response and mechanical properties, because most are based on hydrogels. Here, we present a fast, mechanically robust biscrolled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn as a torsional artificial muscle through entrapping an enzyme linked to a thermally sensitive hydrogel, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), utilizing the exothermic catalytic reaction of the enzyme. The induced rotation reached an equilibrated angle in less than 2 min under mild temperature conditions (25-37 °C) while maintaining the mechanical properties originating from the carbon nanotubes. This biothermal sensing of a torsional artificial muscle offers a versatile platform for the recognition of various types of biomolecules by replacing the enzyme, because an exothermic reaction is a general property accompanying a biochemical transformation.Biomolecule responsive materials have been studied intensively for use in biomedical applications as smart systems because of their unique property of responding to specific biomolecules under mild conditions. However, these materials have some challenging drawbacks that limit further practical application, including their speed of response and mechanical properties, because most are based on hydrogels. Here, we present a fast, mechanically robust biscrolled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn as a torsional artificial muscle through entrapping an enzyme linked to a thermally sensitive hydrogel, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), utilizing the exothermic catalytic reaction of the enzyme. The induced rotation reached an equilibrated angle in less than 2 min under mild temperature conditions (25-37 °C) while maintaining the mechanical properties originating from the carbon nanotubes. This biothermal sensing of a torsional artificial muscle offers a versatile platform for the recognition of various types of biomolecules by replacing the enzyme, because an exothermic reaction is a general property accompanying a biochemical transformation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental sections; a schematic drawing of the custom-built flow injection system; the change in the length of the yarn correlated with the wetting and drying of the entrapped PNIPAm-GOx particle versus time; the particle size distribution of PNIPAm-GOx hydrogel in a pure PBS solution and in a PBS solution containing 100 mM glucose at 36 °C biothermal sensing torsional actuation of a carbon nanotube yarn (video). See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07195j

  19. Modal interactions of flexural and torsional vibrations in a microcantilever.

    PubMed

    Westra, H J R; van der Zant, H S J; Venstra, W J

    2012-09-01

    The nonlinear interactions between flexural and torsional modes of a microcantilever are experimentally studied. The coupling is demonstrated by measuring the frequency response of one mode, which is sensitive to the motion of another resonance mode. The flexural-flexural, torsional-torsional and flexural-torsional modes are coupled due to nonlinearities, which affect the dynamics at high vibration amplitudes and cause the resonance frequency of one mode to depend on the amplitude of the other modes. We also investigate the nonlinear dynamics of torsional modes, which cause a frequency stiffening of the response. By simultaneously driving another torsional mode in the nonlinear regime, the nonlinear response is tuned from stiffening to weakening. By balancing the positive and negative cubic nonlinearities a linear response is obtained for the strongly driven system. The nonlinear modal interactions play an important role in the dynamics of multi-mode scanning probe microscopes. PMID:22796558

  20. Coherent Control of Angular Momentum Transfer in Resonant Two-Photon Light-Matter Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, D. A.; Kimel, A. V.; Kirilyuk, A.; Rasing, Th.; Zande, W. J. van der

    2010-04-02

    We show experimentally and theoretically that a polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulse with a zero net angular momentum creates a net angular momentum in atomic rubidium during resonant two-photon excitation. The necessary conditions for the creation of a nonzero angular momentum as well as the excitation efficiencies are analyzed in the framework of second-order time-dependent perturbation theory.

  1. Effects of torsional disorder and position isomerism on two-photon absorption properties of polar chromophore dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Hai-Hong; Zhao, Ke; Wu, Xiang-Lian

    2014-09-01

    Two-photon absorption properties of a push-pull molecule and its covalent dimers have been studied by density functional response theory in combination with polarizable continuum model. A set of constrained geometries with different torsional angles are optimized and used to calculate two-photon absorption spectra. It is found that the torsional disorder could possibly produce the experimental two-photon absorption additive behavior. We have also designed a series of covalent dimers and investigated the effects of position isomerism. Our results suggest that the cooperative two-photon absorption enhancement can be achieved when the subunits are substituted in closer proximity and have larger interchromophore angle.

  2. Torsion-gravity for Dirac fields and their effective phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Luca

    2014-08-01

    We will consider the torsional completion of gravity for a background filled with Dirac matter fields, studying the weak-gravitational non-relativistic approximation, in view of an assessment about their effective phenomenology: we discuss how the torsionally-induced nonlinear interactions among fermion fields in this limit are compatible with all experiments and remarks on the role of torsion to suggest new physics are given.

  3. Angular distributions in multifragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Stoenner, R.W.; Klobuchar, R.L.; Haustein, P.E.; Virtes, G.J.; Cumming, J.B.; Loveland, W.

    2006-04-15

    Angular distributions are reported for {sup 37}Ar and {sup 127}Xe from 381-GeV {sup 28}Si+Au interactions and for products between {sup 24}Na and {sup 149}Gd from 28-GeV {sup 1}H+Au. Sideward peaking and forward deficits for multifragmentation products are significantly enhanced for heavy ions compared with protons. Projectile kinetic energy does not appear to be a satisfactory scaling variable. The data are discussed in terms of a kinetic-focusing model in which sideward peaking is due to transverse motion of the excited product from the initial projectile-target interaction.

  4. Accurate description of torsion potentials in conjugated polymers using density functionals with reduced self-interaction error

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, Christopher; Gray, Matthew T.; Brunsfeld, Max; Parrish, Robert M.; Sherrill, C. David; Sears, John S.; Brdas, Jean-Luc E-mail: thomas.koerzdoerfer@uni-potsdam.de; Krzdrfer, Thomas E-mail: thomas.koerzdoerfer@uni-potsdam.de; Computational Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam

    2014-02-07

    We investigate the torsion potentials in two prototypical ?-conjugated polymers, polyacetylene and polydiacetylene, as a function of chain length using different flavors of density functional theory. Our study provides a quantitative analysis of the delocalization error in standard semilocal and hybrid density functionals and demonstrates how it can influence structural and thermodynamic properties. The delocalization error is quantified by evaluating the many-electron self-interaction error (MESIE) for fractional electron numbers, which allows us to establish a direct connection between the MESIE and the error in the torsion barriers. The use of non-empirically tuned long-range corrected hybrid functionals results in a very significant reduction of the MESIE and leads to an improved description of torsion barrier heights. In addition, we demonstrate how our analysis allows the determination of the effective conjugation length in polyacetylene and polydiacetylene chains.

  5. An extension of the high-resolution millimeter- and submillimeter-wave spectrum of methanol to high angular momentum quantum numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Todd; Herbst, Eric; De Lucia, Frank C.

    1992-01-01

    The high-resolution laboratory millimeter- and submillimeter-wave spectra of C-12H(3)OH and C-13H(3)OH have been extended to include transitions involving significantly higher angular momentum quantum numbers than studied previously. For C-12H(3)OH, the data set now includes 549 A torsional substate transitions and 524 E torsional substate transitions through J is not greater than 24, exclusive of blends. For C-13H(3)OH the data set now includes 453 A torsional substate transitions and 440 E torsional substate transitions through J is not greater than 24, exclusive of blends. The extended internal axis method Hamiltonian has been used to analyze the transitions to experimental accuracy. The molecular constants determined by this approach have been used to predict accurately the frequencies of many transitions through J = 25 not measured in the laboratory.

  6. Triply coupled bending-torsion vibration of Timoshenko and Euler-Bernoulli shaft beams with arbitrarily oriented open crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Sachin S.; Maiti, Surjya K.

    2009-07-01

    The paper presents the full formulation for a crack model for analyzing the triply coupled free vibration of both Timoshenko (short) and Euler-Bernoulli (long) shaft beams based on compliance approach in the presence of a planar open edge crack in an arbitrary angular orientation with a reference direction. The compliance coefficients to account for the local flexibility due to the crack for both the beams have been obtained through the concept of strain energy release rate and crack tip stress field given in terms of the stress intensity factors. The type of disturbance in stress-strain field that a continuous cracked beam theory can accommodate is not within the scope of the model. The compliance matrices for the Timoshenko (short) and Euler-Bernoulli (long) beams, respectively, are of size 66 and 33, and they consist of only 9 and 4 nonzero coefficients. The variation of the coefficients with crack orientation is presented. Equations governing the free transverse and torsion vibrations are derived and solved in both the cases. The formulation has been checked by comparing the theoretical frequencies with the finite element results for a few crack orientations, locations and depths. The agreement is good. It is shown further that, when such cases are analysed for studying the transverse vibration only in one plane by invoking a single rotational spring at the crack location, the approach leads to an erroneous variation of the frequencies with the crack orientations. The data presented here will be useful to solve both forward and inverse problems.

  7. The Torsional Spectrum of Doubly Deuterated Methanol CHD_2OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndao, M.; Coudert, L. H.; Kwabia Tchana, F.; Barros, J.; Margulès, L.; Manceron, Laurent; Roy, P.

    2014-06-01

    Although the torsional spectrum of several isotopic species of methanol with a symmetrical CH_3 or CD_3 was analyzed some time ago, it is recently, and only for the monodeuterated species CH_2DOH, that such an analysis was extended to the case of an asymmetrical methyl group. In this talk, based on a Fourier transform high-resolution spectrum recorded in the 20 to 670 wn region, the first analysis of the torsional spectrum of doubly deuterated methanol CHD_2OH will be presented. The Q branch of many torsional subbands could be observed and their assignment was initiated using a theoretical torsion-rotation spectrum computed with an approach accounting for the torsion-rotation Coriolis coupling and for the dependence of the generalized inertia tensor on the angle of internal rotation. 46 torsional subbands were thus assigned. For 28 of them, their rotational structure could be assigned and fitted using an effective Hamiltonian expressed as a J(J+1) expansion; and for 2 of them microwave transitions within the lower torsional level could also be included in the analysis. In several cases these analysis revealed that the torsional levels are strongly perturbed. In the talk, the torsional parameters retrieved in the analysis of the torsional subband centers will be discussed. The results of the analysis of the rotational structure of the torsional subbands will be presented and we will also try to understand the nature of the perturbations. At last, preliminary results about the analysis of the microwave spectrum will be presented. El Hilali, Coudert, Konov, and Klee, J. Chem. Phys. 135 (2011) 194309 Lauvergnat, Coudert, Klee, and Smirnov, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 256 (2009) 204 Quade, Liu, Mukhopadhyay, and Su, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 192 (1998) 378 Pearson, Yu, and Drouin, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 280 (2012) 119

  8. Linking the HOMO-LUMO gap to torsional disorder in P3HT/PCBM blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, John A.; Pitman, Amy L.; Kurmaev, Ernst Z.; Finkelstein, Larisa D.; Zhidkov, Ivan S.; Savva, Achilleas; Moewes, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The electronic structure of [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and P3HT/PCBM blends is studied using soft X-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. We find that annealing reduces the HOMO-LUMO gap of P3HT and P3HT/PCBM blends, whereas annealing has little effect on the HOMO-LUMO gap of PCBM. We propose a model connecting torsional disorder in a P3HT polymer to the HOMO-LUMO gap, which suggests that annealing helps to decrease the torsional disorder in the P3HT polymers. Our model is used to predict the characteristic length scales of the flat P3TH polymer segments in P3HT and P3HT/PCBM blends before and after annealing. Our approach may prove useful in characterizing organic photovoltaic devices in situ or even in operando.

  9. Experimental method for determination of bending and torsional rigidities of advanced composite laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Takenori

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents an experimental method for the determination of the bending and torsional rigidities of advanced fiber composite laminates with the aid of laser holographic interferometry. The proposed method consists of a four-point bending test and a resonance test. The bending rigidity ratio (D{sub 12}/D{sub 22}) can be determined from the fringe patterns of the four-point bending test. The bending rigidities (D{sub 11} and D{sub 22}) and the torsional rigidity (D{sub 66}) are calculated from the natural frequencies of cantilever plates of the resonance test. The test specimens are carbon/epoxy cross-ply laminates. The adequacy of the experimental method is confirmed by comparing the measured rigidities with the theoretical values obtained from classical lamination theory (CLT) by using the measured tensile properties. The results show that the present method can be used to evaluate the rigidities of orthotropic laminates with reasonably good accuracy.

  10. Study of torsional vibrations in an initially stressed composite poroelastic cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhya, Rani B.; Ch, Balu; Malla, Reddy P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates torsional vibrations in an initially stressed composite poroelastic cylinder in the framework of Biot's theory of wave propagation in poroelastic solids. Poroelastic composite cylinder consists of two concentric cylindrical layers made of different poroelastic materials. The governing equations are formulated from the Biot's incremental deformation theory. The non-dimensional frequency is computed as a function of ratio of thickness to wavelength. The limiting cases of a poroelastic solid cylinder and poroelastic hollow cylinder are discussed. The results are presented graphically for two poroelastic composite cylinders and then compared with the published results.

  11. Angular momentum evolution for galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrosa, S. E.; Tissera, P. B.

    2015-08-01

    Using cosmological hydrodinamics simulations we study the angular momentum content of the simulated galaxies in relation with their morphological type. We found that not only the angular momentum of the disk component follow the expected theoretical relation (Mo, Mao White model), but also the spheroidal one, with a gap due to its lost of angular momentum. We also found that the galaxy size can plot in one general relation, despite the morphological type,, in agreement with recent findings.

  12. Hydrostatic self-aligning axial/torsional mechanism

    DOEpatents

    O'Connor, Daniel G. (Knoxville, TN); Gerth, Howard L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a self-aligning axial/torsional loading mechanism for testing the strength of brittle materials which are sensitive to bending moments. Disposed inside said self-aligning loading mechanism is a frictionless hydrostatic ball joint with a flexure ring to accommodate torsional loads through said ball joint.

  13. Laparoscopic Management of Synchronous Bilateral Ovarian Torsion in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Murat; Elbek, Ali; Evruke, Cuneyt; Memec, Ahmet Eray; Ozkan, Bulent Aziz; Sucak, Hatice Glin; Erkan, Ozgur Talat

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous bilateral ovarian torsion is an uncommon entity of which both ovaries twist at the same time or observed twisted during the surgical intervention. Herein, we present a neonate with bilateral ovarian torsion, which successfully managed by laparoscopic approach. PMID:26793599

  14. Quantum gravity effect in torsion driven inflation and CP violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Sayantan; Pal, Barun Kumar; Basu, Banasri; Bandyopadhyay, Pratul

    2015-10-01

    We have derived an effective potential for inflationary scenario from torsion and quantum gravity correction in terms of the scalar field hidden in torsion. A strict bound on the CP violating ? parameter, O(1{0}^{-10})

  15. Mechanical origins of rightward torsion in early chick brain development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Taber, Larry

    2015-03-01

    During early development, the neural tube of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This torsional deformation is one of the major organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Previous studies suggested that bending is mainly due to differential growth, however, the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops rightwards that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is lacking, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. Moreover, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model and a 3D printed physical model are employed to help interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, and further reveals that the asymmetric development in one organ can induce the asymmetry of another developing organ through mechanics, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''. Z.C. is supported by the Society in Science - Branco Weiss fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich. L.A.T acknowledges the support from NIH Grants R01 GM075200 and R01 NS070918.

  16. Curvature and torsion in growing actin networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaevitz, Joshua W.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2008-06-01

    Intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Rickettsia rickettsii move within a host cell by polymerizing a comet-tail of actin fibers that ultimately pushes the cell forward. This dense network of cross-linked actin polymers typically exhibits a striking curvature that causes bacteria to move in gently looping paths. Theoretically, tail curvature has been linked to details of motility by considering force and torque balances from a finite number of polymerizing filaments. Here we track beads coated with a prokaryotic activator of actin polymerization in three dimensions to directly quantify the curvature and torsion of bead motility paths. We find that bead paths are more likely to have low rather than high curvature at any given time. Furthermore, path curvature changes very slowly in time, with an autocorrelation decay time of 200 s. Paths with a small radius of curvature, therefore, remain so for an extended period resulting in loops when confined to two dimensions. When allowed to explore a three-dimensional (3D) space, path loops are less evident. Finally, we quantify the torsion in the bead paths and show that beads do not exhibit a significant left- or right-handed bias to their motion in 3D. These results suggest that paths of actin-propelled objects may be attributed to slow changes in curvature, possibly associated with filament debranching, rather than a fixed torque.

  17. Infrared modified gravity with dynamical torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforova, V.; Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Rubakov, V.

    2009-12-01

    We continue the recent study of the possibility of constructing a consistent infrared modification of gravity by treating the vierbein and connection as independent dynamical fields. We present the generalized Fierz-Pauli equation that governs the propagation of a massive spin-2 mode in a model of this sort in the backgrounds of arbitrary torsionless Einstein manifolds. We show explicitly that the number of propagating degrees of freedom in these backgrounds remains the same as in flat space-time. This generalizes the recent result that the Boulware-Deser phenomenon does not occur in de Sitter and anti-de Sitter backgrounds. We find that, at least for weakly curved backgrounds, there are no ghosts in the model. We also discuss the interaction of sources in flat background. It is generally believed that the spinning matter is the only source of torsion. Our flat space study shows that this is not the case. We demonstrate that an ordinary conserved symmetric energy-momentum tensor can also generate torsion fields and thus excite massive spin-2 degrees of freedom.

  18. Infrared modified gravity with dynamical torsion

    SciTech Connect

    Nikiforova, V.; Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Rubakov, V.

    2009-12-15

    We continue the recent study of the possibility of constructing a consistent infrared modification of gravity by treating the vierbein and connection as independent dynamical fields. We present the generalized Fierz-Pauli equation that governs the propagation of a massive spin-2 mode in a model of this sort in the backgrounds of arbitrary torsionless Einstein manifolds. We show explicitly that the number of propagating degrees of freedom in these backgrounds remains the same as in flat space-time. This generalizes the recent result that the Boulware-Deser phenomenon does not occur in de Sitter and anti-de Sitter backgrounds. We find that, at least for weakly curved backgrounds, there are no ghosts in the model. We also discuss the interaction of sources in flat background. It is generally believed that the spinning matter is the only source of torsion. Our flat space study shows that this is not the case. We demonstrate that an ordinary conserved symmetric energy-momentum tensor can also generate torsion fields and thus excite massive spin-2 degrees of freedom.

  19. Curvature and torsion in growing actin networks

    PubMed Central

    Shaevitz, Joshua W; Fletcher, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Rickettsia rickettsii move within a host cell by polymerizing a comet-tail of actin fibers that ultimately pushes the cell forward. This dense network of cross-linked actin polymers typically exhibits a striking curvature that causes bacteria to move in gently looping paths. Theoretically, tail curvature has been linked to details of motility by considering force and torque balances from a finite number of polymerizing filaments. Here we track beads coated with a prokaryotic activator of actin polymerization in three dimensions to directly quantify the curvature and torsion of bead motility paths. We find that bead paths are more likely to have low rather than high curvature at any given time. Furthermore, path curvature changes very slowly in time, with an autocorrelation decay time of 200 s. Paths with a small radius of curvature, therefore, remain so for an extended period resulting in loops when confined to two dimensions. When allowed to explore a three-dimensional (3D) space, path loops are less evident. Finally, we quantify the torsion in the bead paths and show that beads do not exhibit a significant left- or right-handed bias to their motion in 3D. These results suggest that paths of actin-propelled objects may be attributed to slow changes in curvature, possibly associated with filament debranching, rather than a fixed torque. PMID:18560043

  20. Wave angular momentum and the evolution of planetary rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dranikov, I. L.; Fridman, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    A theory is proposed that provides angular momentum conservation through the acoustic drift mechanism for gap and ringlet formation in planetary rings. In this context, a new variant of drift mechanism is found, which is dominant if the collision frequency is of the order of the orbital frequency or less. An angular pseudo-momentum equation is derived for gravitational acoustic waves with dissipation. An explicit expression for angular pseudo-momentum, taking into account vertical wave structure, is obtained. The relation between Eulerian- and Lagrangian-averaged mass fluxes is also derived, and the advantages of the Lagrangian one are emphasized.

  1. Tailoring patterns of graphene wrinkles by circular torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becton, Matthew; Wang, Xianqiao

    2016-02-01

    Wrinkled graphene has been emerging as a hot topic of interest due to its easily induced physical changes accompanied by changes in its material behavior. However, the wrinkling pattern of graphene and its relevant properties remain poorly understood. Here we employ molecular dynamics simulations to model the behavior of graphene under periodic, torsional wrinkling and elucidate the effect of torsion pattern, torsion velocity, and hole size on the wrinkling characteristics of a large graphene sheet. Simulation results show that gross control over the wrinkling pattern is feasible via manipulation of torsion direction and relative hole size, with fine-tuning of the wrinkle formation possible by control of the relative torsion speed of each hole.

  2. Torsion and noninertial effects on a nonrelativistic Dirac particle

    SciTech Connect

    Bakke, K.

    2014-07-15

    We investigate torsion and noninertial effects on a spin-1/2 quantum particle in the nonrelativistic limit of the Dirac equation. We consider the cosmic dislocation spacetime as a background and show that a rotating system of reference can be used out to distances which depend on the parameter related to the torsion of the defect. Therefore, we analyse torsion effects on the spectrum of energy of a nonrelativistic Dirac particle confined to a hard-wall potential in a FermiWalker reference frame. -- Highlights: Torsion effects on a spin- 1/2 particle in a noninertial reference frame. FermiWalker reference frame in the cosmic dislocation spacetime background. Torsion and noninertial effects on the confinement to a hard-wall confining potential.

  3. Torsion of wing trusses at diving speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Roy G

    1921-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to indicate what effect the distortion of a typical loaded wing truss will have upon the load distribution. The case of high angle of incidence may be dismissed immediately from consideration as the loads on the front and rear trusses are balanced, and consequently there will be little angular distortion. A given angular distortion will have the maximum effect upon load distribution in the region of the angle of no-lift, because the slope of the lift curve is highest here, and it is here that the greatest angular distortion will occur, because the load on the front truss acts downward while the load on the rear truss acts upward.

  4. The Angular Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the structural and functional properties of the angular gyrus (AG). Located in the posterior part of the inferior parietal lobule, the AG has been shown in numerous meta-analysis reviews to be consistently activated in a variety of tasks. This review discusses the involvement of the AG in semantic processing, word reading and comprehension, number processing, default mode network, memory retrieval, attention and spatial cognition, reasoning, and social cognition. This large functional neuroimaging literature depicts a major role for the AG in processing concepts rather than percepts when interfacing perception-to-recognition-to-action. More specifically, the AG emerges as a cross-modal hub where converging multisensory information is combined and integrated to comprehend and give sense to events, manipulate mental representations, solve familiar problems, and reorient attention to relevant information. In addition, this review discusses recent findings that point to the existence of multiple subdivisions in the AG. This spatial parcellation can serve as a framework for reporting AG activations with greater definition. This review also acknowledges that the role of the AG cannot comprehensibly be identified in isolation but needs to be understood in parallel with the influence from other regions. Several interesting questions that warrant further investigations are finally emphasized. PMID:22547530

  5. Switching mechanism senses angular acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Switching mechanism actuates an electrical circuit when a predetermined angular acceleration and displacement are reached. A rotor in the mechanism overcomes the restraint of a magnetic detent when the case in which the detent is mounted reaches the predetermined angular acceleration.

  6. Intrinsic Angular Momentum of Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santarelli, Vincent

    1979-01-01

    Derives a familiar torque-angular momentum theorem for the electromagnetic field, and includes the intrinsic torques exerted by the fields on the polarized medium. This inclusion leads to the expressions for the intrinsic angular momentum carried by the radiation traveling through a charge-free medium. (Author/MA)

  7. PREDICTED EFFECTS OF LOCAL CONFORMATIONAL COUPLING AND EXTERNAL RESTRAINTS ON THE TORSIONAL PROPERTIES OF SINGLE DNA MOLECULES.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Atsushi; Olson, Wilma K

    2006-01-01

    A newly developed, coarse-grained treatment of the low-frequency normal modes of DNA has been adapted to study the torsional properties of fully extended, double-helical molecules. Each base pair is approximated in this scheme as a rigid body, and molecular structure is described in terms of the relative position and orientation of successive base pairs. The torsional modulus C is computed from the lowest-frequency normal twisting mode using expressions valid for a homogeneous, naturally straight elastic rod. Fluctuations of local dimeric structure, including the coupled variation of conformational parameters, are based on the observed arrangements of neighboring base pairs in high-resolution structures. Chain ends are restrained by an elastic energy term. The calculations show how the end-to-end constraints placed on a naturally straight DNA molecule, in combination with the natural conformational features of the double helix, can account for the substantially larger torsional moduli determined with state-of-the-art, single-molecule experiments compared to values extracted from solution measurements and/or incorporated into theories to account for the force-extension properties of single molecules. The computed normal-mode frequencies and torsional moduli increase substantially if base pairs are inclined with respect to the double-helical axis and the deformations of selected conformational variables follow known interdependent patterns. The changes are greatest if the fluctuations in dimeric twisting are coupled with parameters that directly alter the end-to-end displacement. Imposed restraints that mimic the end-to-end conditions of single-molecule experiments then impede the twisting of base pairs and increase the torsional modulus. The natural inclination of base pairs concomitantly softens the Young's modulus, i.e., ease of duplex stretching. The analysis of naturally curved DNA points to a drop in the torsional modulus upon imposed extension of the double-helical molecule. PMID:19081755

  8. Fatigue degradation and life prediction of glass fabric polymer composites under tension/torsion biaxial loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, H.; Fujii, T.J.; Morita, Y.

    1995-10-01

    Fatigue degradation and life prediction for a plain woven glass fabric reinforced polyester under tension/torsion biaxial loadings were investigated. Typical S-N diagrams were given at several biaxial ratios when the biaxial cyclic loads were proportionally applied to the specimens. A fatigue damage accumulation model based on the continuum damage mechanics theory was developed, where modulus decay ratios in tension and shear were used as indicators for damage variables (D). In the model, the damage variables are considered to be second-order tensors. Then, the maximum principal damage variable, D* is introduced. According to the similarity to the principal stress, D* is obtained as the maximum eigen value of damage tensor [D{prime}]. Under proportional tension/torsion loadings, fatigue lives were satisfactorily predicted at any biaxial stress ratios using the present model in which the fatigue characteristics only under uniaxial tension and pure torsion loadings were needed. For a certain biaxial stress ratio, the effect of loading path on the fatigue strength was examined. The experimental result does not show a strong effect of loading path on the fatigue life.

  9. Localization in rate-dependent shearing deformation, with application to torsion testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, M. S.

    2004-12-01

    In discussions on the localization of plastic deformation in situations such as the formation of "ductile" shear zones, it is commonly conjectured that strain softening, as evidenced by a falling stress-strain curve at constant strain rate, is likely to lead to strain localization in simple shear. Yet observations in torsion tests at constant twist rate on calcite and olivine aggregates fail to show such an effect. This apparent discrepancy is resolved by going to a continuum mechanics analysis using the theory of Fressengeas and Molinari (J. Mech. Phys. Solids 1987, 35, 185-211) for material showing strain-rate dependence of the flow stress. Their treatment of simple shear shows that, in the absence of material changes, whether localization occurs or not can depend on the nature of the boundary conditions. Thus, when the boundary conditions are specified in terms of displacements, no localization is predicted in case of strain softening, in agreement with the torsion test observations. In contrast, if the boundary conditions are set in terms of forces, localization can be expected for a strain-softening material. This prediction needs experimental testing in torsion creep tests at constant torque.

  10. Localization in rate-dependent shearing deformation, with application to torsion testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, M. S.

    2007-12-01

    In discussions on the localization of plastic deformation in situations such as the formation of "ductile" shear zones, it is commonly conjectured that strain softening, as evidenced by a falling stress-strain curve at constant strain rate, is likely to lead to strain localization in simple shear. Yet observations in torsion tests at constant twist rate on calcite and olivine aggregates fail to show such an effect. This apparent discrepancy is resolved by going to a continuum mechanics analysis using the theory of Fressengeas and Molinari (J. Mech. Phys. Solids 1987, 35, 185-211) for material showing strain-rate dependence of the flow stress. Their treatment of simple shear shows that, in the absence of material changes, whether localization occurs or not can depend on the nature of the boundary conditions. Thus, when the boundary conditions are specified in terms of displacements, no localization is predicted in case of strain softening, in agreement with the torsion test observations. In contrast, if the boundary conditions are set in terms of forces, localization can be expected for a strain-softening material. This prediction needs experimental testing in torsion creep tests at constant torque.

  11. Multistep-shaping control based on the static and dynamic behavior of nonlinear optical torsional micromirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Cheng; Huang, Jin

    2014-05-01

    Electrostatically driven torsional micromirrors are suitable for optical microelectromechanical systems due to their good dynamic response, low adhesion, and simple structure for large-scale-integrated applications. For these devices, how to eliminate the excessive residual vibration in order to achieve more accurate positioning and faster switching is an important research topic. Because of the known nonlinearity issues, traditional shaping techniques based on linear theories are not suitable for nonlinear torsional micromirrors. In addition, due to the difficulties in calculating energy dissipation, the existing nonlinear command shaping techniques using energy method have neglected the effect of damping. We analyze the static and dynamic behavior of the electrostatically actuated torsional micromirrors. Based on the response of these devices, a multistep-shaping control considering the damping effects and the nonlinearity is proposed. Compared to the conventional closed-loop control, the proposed multistep-shaping control is a feedforward approach which can yield a good enough performance without extra sensors and actuators. Simulation results show that, without changing the system structure, the preshaping input reduces the settling time from 4.3 to 0.97 ms, and the overshoot percentage of the mirror response is decreased from 33.2% to 0.2%.

  12. High-Pressure Torsion of Ti: Synchrotron characterization of phase volume fraction and domain sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolmaro, Ral E.; Sordi, Vitor L.; Ferrante, Maurizio; Brokmeier, Heinz-Gnter; Kawasaki, Megumi; Langdon, Terence G.

    2014-08-01

    Rods of grade 2 Ti were processed by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) (phi = 120 at 573 K) employing 2, 4 and 6 passes. The same billets were further deformed by High- Pressure Torsion (HPT) at room temperature, varying both the hydrostatic pressure (1 and 6 GPa) and the number of rotations (n = 1 and 5). The ECAP and HPT samples were studied by synchrotron radiation at DESY-Petra III GEMS line. On the ECAP samples, textures were thus determined while for both ECAP and HPT samples the measurements were further analyzed by MAUD. Domain sizes and phase volume fractions were determined as a function of the radial direction of the samples. Alpha and Omega phases were detected in different amounts depending mostly on hydrostatic pressure and shear deformation. These transition phases can be pressure-induced during HPT processing and the results of Vickers microhardness measurements were related to the processing parameters and to the amounts of these phases.

  13. Torsional suspension system for testing space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Wilmer H., III (Inventor); Gold, Ronald R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A low frequency torsional suspension system for testing a space structure uses a plurality of suspension stations attached to the space structure along the length thereof in order to suspend the space structure from an overhead support. Each suspension station includes a disk pivotally mounted to the overhead support, and two cables which have upper ends connected to the disk and lower ends connected to the space structure. The two cables define a parallelogram with the center of gravity of the space structure being vertically beneath the pivot axis of the disk. The vertical distance between the points of attachment of the cables to the disk and the pivot axis of the disk is adjusted to lower the frequency of the suspension system to a level which does not interfere with frequency levels of the space structure, thereby enabling accurate measurement.

  14. Torsional ultrasonic transducer computational design optimization.

    PubMed

    Melchor, J; Rus, G

    2014-09-01

    A torsional piezoelectric ultrasonic sensor design is proposed in this paper and computationally tested and optimized to measure shear stiffness properties of soft tissue. These are correlated with a number of pathologies like tumors, hepatic lesions and others. The reason is that, whereas compressibility is predominantly governed by the fluid phase of the tissue, the shear stiffness is dependent on the stroma micro-architecture, which is directly affected by those pathologies. However, diagnostic tools to quantify them are currently not well developed. The first contribution is a new typology of design adapted to quasifluids. A second contribution is the procedure for design optimization, for which an analytical estimate of the Robust Probability Of Detection, called RPOD, is presented for use as optimality criteria. The RPOD is formulated probabilistically to maximize the probability of detecting the least possible pathology while minimizing the effect of noise. The resulting optimal transducer has a resonance frequency of 28 kHz. PMID:24882020

  15. Torsion Tests of Stiffened Circular Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R L; Wescoat, C

    1944-01-01

    The design of curved sheet panels to resist shear involves a consideration of several factors: the buckling resistance of the sheet, the stress at which buckling becomes permanent, and the strength which may be developed beyond the buckling limit by tension-field action. Although some experimental as well as theoretical work has been done on the buckling and tension-field phases of this problem, neither of these types of action appears to be very well understood. The problem is of sufficient importance from the standpoint of aircraft design, it is believed, to warrant further experimental investigation. This report presents the results of the first series of torsion tests of stiffened circular cylinders to be completed in connection with this study at Aluminum Research Laboratories. (author)

  16. Mutations in GNAL cause primary torsion dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Tania; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Masuho, Ikuo; Luciano, Marta San; Raymond, Deborah; Factor, Stewart; Lang, Anthony E.; Liang, Tsao-Wei; Trosch, Richard M.; White, Sierra; Ainehsazan, Edmond; Herve, Denis; Sharma, Nutan; Ehrlich, Michelle E.; Martemyanov, Kirill A.; Bressman, Susan B.; Ozelius, Laurie J.

    2012-01-01

    Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by repetitive twisting muscle contractions and postures1,2. Its molecular pathophysiology is poorly understood, in part due to limited knowledge of the genetic basis of the disorder. Only three genes for primary torsion dystonia (PTD), TOR1A (DYT1)3, THAP1 (DYT6)4, and CIZ15 have been identified. Using exome sequencing in two PTD families we identified a novel causative gene, GNAL, with a nonsense p.S293X mutation resulting in premature stop codon in one family and a missense p.V137M mutation in the other. Screening of GNAL in 39 PTD families, revealed six additional novel mutations in this gene. Impaired function of several of the mutations was shown by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays. PMID:23222958

  17. Experimental Study of Torsional Column Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nile, Alfred S

    1939-01-01

    Thirty-three 24ST aluminum-alloy 2- by 2- by 0.10-inch channels, with lengths ranging from 10 to 90 inches were tested at Stanford University in compression to obtain an experimental verification of the theoretical formulas for torsional failure developed by Eugene E. Lundquist of the N.A.C.A. The observed critical loads and twist-axis locations were sufficiently close to the values obtained from the formulas to establish the substantial validity of the latter. The differences between observed and computed results were small enough to be accounted for by small and mostly unavoidable differences between actual test conditions and those assumed in deriving the formulas. Some data were obtained from the shorter specimens regarding the growth of the buckles that resulted in local buckling failure.

  18. Continuity Conditions and Torsion Angles from SSNMR Orientational Restraints

    PubMed Central

    Achuthan, S.; Asbury, T.; Hu, J.; Bertram, R.; Cross, T. A.; Quine, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    The backbone torsion angle pair (?, ?) at each amino acid of a polypeptide is a descriptor of its conformation. One can use chemical shift and dipolar coupling data from solid-state NMR PISEMA experiments to directly calculate the torsion angles for the membrane-spanning portion of a protein. However, degeneracies inherent in the data give rise to multiple potential torsion angles between two adjacent peptide planes (a diplane). The molecular backbone structure can be determined by gluing together the consecutive diplanes, as in the PIPATH algorithm [25]. The multiplicities in torsion angles translate to multiplicities in diplane orientations. In this paper, we show that adjacent diplanes can be glued together to form a permissible structure only if they satisfy continuity conditions, described quantitatively here. These restrict the number of potential torsion angle pairs. We rewrite the torsion angle formulas from [22] so that they automatically satisfy the continuity conditions. The reformulated torsion angle formulas have been applied recently in the PIPATH algorithm [25] and will be helpful in other applications in which diplane gluing is used to construct a protein backbone model. PMID:18093855

  19. Novel fiber grating sensing technique based on the torsion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weigang; Feng, Dejun; Ding, Lei; Zhang, Ying; Dong, Xinyong; Zhao, Chunliu; Dong, Xiaoyi

    2000-07-01

    A novel fiber grating sensing technology based on the torsion beam is reported for the first time. The Bragg wavelength change is linear with the torsional angle and the torque. The fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is firmly mounted on the surface of the torsion beam with a determinate angle along the direction of the axes of the torsion beam. The range of the torsional angle is between -45 degree(s) and +45 degree(s). The sensing sensitivity of the torsional angle is up to 11.534 degree/nm and that of the torque is up to 0.1595 Nm/nm, respectively. The formulas have been derived theoretically and the experimental results basically accord with the theoretical ones. This technology has many advantages, such as two dimensional tuning, the high sensitivity, the good repetitiveness and no chirping for the torsional angle within the range -45 degree(s) and +45 degree(s), etc. It has potential applications in the area of the fiber sensing, the fiber communication and laser technology.

  20. Significance of torsion modes in bowed-string dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inacio, Octavio; Antunes, Jose; Henrique, Luis

    2002-11-01

    Several aspects of bowed-string dynamics are still inadequately clarified. The importance of torsion modes on the motion regimes is one such issue. Experiments involving torsion are difficult and most of the results available pertain to numerical simulations. The authors' approach differs from previous efforts in two main aspects: (1) the development of a computational method distinct from the wave-propagation approach pioneered by McIntyre, Schumacher, and Woodhouse and (2) an extensive and systematic analysis of the coupling between torsion and transverse motions is performed. The numerical simulations are based on a modal representation of the unconstrained string and a computational approach for friction that enables accurate representations of the stick-slip forces and of the string dynamics, in both time and space. Many relevant aspects of the bowed-string can be readily implemented, including string inharmonic behavior, finite bow-width, and torsion effects. Concerning the later aspect, a realistic range of the torsional to transverse wave-speed ratio is investigated, for several values of the bow velocity and normal force. Results suggest that torsion modes can effect both transient durations and steady state regimes, in particular when the above-mentioned ratio is <4. Gut strings should then be particularly prone to torsion effects.

  1. Twisted anisotropic fibers for robust orbital-angular-momentum-based information transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barshak, E. V.; Alexeyev, C. N.; Lapin, B. P.; Yavorsky, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    We study the light propagation in the twisted anisotropic optical fibers endowed with torsional mechanical stress by obtaining the analytical solution of the vector wave equation. We show that at certain interplay between fiber parameters optical vortex beams of topological charge ? =0 ,1 ,2 ,... become the modes of the fibers in question. To explain the splitting of the optical vortex propagation constants we introduce the notions of orbital birefringence and optical Zeeman effect. Moreover, we unveil that induced by torsional stress circular birefringence makes the vortex beams with the well-defined orbital angular momentum robust against small perturbations characterized by both constant and spatially varying orientation of a director. We believe that such fibers can be successfully utilized for the long-range robust transmission of information encoded in the light's orbital degrees of freedom.

  2. Torsion constraints from cosmological magnetic field and QCD domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia de Andrade, L. C.

    2014-10-01

    Earlier Kostelecky [Phys. Rev. D 69, 105009 (2004)] has investigated the role of gravitational sector in Riemann-Cartan (RC) spacetime with torsion, in Lorentz and CPT violating (LV) Standard Model extension (SME). In his paper use of quantum electrodynamic (QED) extension in RC spacetime is made. More recently L. C. Garcia de Andrade [Phys. Lett. B 468, 28 (2011)] obtained magnetic field galactic dynamo seeds in the bosonic sector with massless photons, which proved to decay faster than necessary [Phys. Lett. B 711, 143 (2012)] to be able to seed galactic dynamos. In this paper it is shown that by using the fermionic sector of Kostelecky-Lagrangian and torsion written as a chiral current, one obtains torsion and magnetic fields explicitly from a Heisenberg-Ivanenko form of Dirac equation whose solution allows us to express torsion in terms of LV coefficients and magnetic field in terms of fermionic matter fields. When minimal coupling between electromagnetic and torsion fields is used it is shown that the fermionic sector of QED with torsion leads to resonantly amplify magnetic fields which mimics an ?2-dynamo mechanism. Fine-tuning of torsion is shown to result in the dynamo reversal, a phenomenon so important in solar physics and geophysics. Of course this is only an analogy since torsion is very weak in solar and geophysics contexts. An analogous expression for the ?-effect of mean-field dynamos is also obtained where the ?-effect is mimic by torsion. Similar resonant amplification mechanisms connected to early universe have been considered by Finelli and Gruppuso.

  3. Coupling and degenerating modes in longitudinal-torsional step horns.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Patrick; Lucas, Margaret; Cardoni, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    Longitudinal-torsional vibration is used and proposed for a variety of ultrasonic applications including motors, welding, and rock-cutting. To obtain this behavior in an ultrasonic step horn one can either, (i) couple the longitudinal and torsional modes of the horn by incorporating a ring of diagonal slits in the thick base section or, (ii) place helical flutes in the thin stem section to degenerate the longitudinal mode into a modified behavior with a longitudinal-torsional motion. This paper compares the efficacy of these two design approaches using both numerical and experimental techniques. PMID:22770885

  4. Spinning Particles in Scalar-Tensor Gravity with Torsion

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-H.

    2008-10-10

    A new model of neutral spinning particles in scalar-tensor gravity with torsion is developed by using a Fermi coordinates associated with orthonormal frames attached to a timelike curve and Noether identities. We further analyze its equations of motion both in background Brans-Dicke torsion field and the constant pseudo-Riemannian curvature with a constant scalar field. It turns that the particle's spin vector is parallel transport along its wordline in the Brans-Dicke torsion field and de Sitter spacetime. However, the dynamics of the spinning particle cannot completely determined in anti-de Sitter spacetime and it requires a further investigation.

  5. Discussion on massive gravitons and propagating torsion in arbitrary dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Hernaski, C. A.; Vargas-Paredes, A. A.; Helayeel-Neto, J. A.

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, we reassess a particular R{sup 2}-type gravity action in D dimensions, recently studied by Nakasone and Oda, now taking torsion effects into account. Considering that the vielbein and the spin connection carry independent propagating degrees of freedom, we conclude that ghosts and tachyons are absent only if torsion is nonpropagating, and we also conclude that there is no room for massive gravitons. To include these excitations, we understand how to enlarge Nakasone-Oda's model by means of explicit torsion terms in the action and we discuss the unitarity of the enlarged model for arbitrary dimensions.

  6. The Torsion of Box Beams with One Side Lacking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambilargiu, E

    1940-01-01

    The torsion of box beams of rectangular section, the edges of which are strengthened by flanges, and of which one side is lacking, is analyzed by the energy method. The torsional stresses are generally taken up by the bending of the two parallel walls, the rigidity of which is augmented by the third wall. The result was checked experimentally on duralumin and plywood boxes. The torsion recorded was 10 to 30 percent less than that given by the calculation, owing to self-stiffening.

  7. Experimental investigation of cyclic thermomechanical deformation in torsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, John R.; Castelli, Michael G.; Bakis, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation of thermomechanical testing and deformation behavior of tubular specimens under torsional loading is described. Experimental issues concerning test accuracy and control specific to thermomechanical loadings under a torsional regime are discussed. A series of shear strain-controlled tests involving the nickel-base superalloy Hastelloy X were performed with various temperature excursions and compared to similar thermomechanical uniaxial tests. The concept and use of second invariants of the deviatoric stress and strain tensors as a means of comparing uniaxial and torsional specimens is also briefly presented and discussed in light of previous thermomechanical tests conducted under uniaxial conditions.

  8. Quantum optimal control of photoelectron spectra and angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, R. Esteban; Karamatskou, Antonia; Santra, Robin; Koch, Christiane P.

    2016-01-01

    Photoelectron spectra and photoelectron angular distributions obtained in photoionization reveal important information on, e.g., charge transfer or hole coherence in the parent ion. Here we show that optimal control of the underlying quantum dynamics can be used to enhance desired features in the photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. To this end, we combine Krotov's method for optimal control theory with the time-dependent configuration interaction singles formalism and a splitting approach to calculate photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. The optimization target can account for specific desired properties in the photoelectron angular distribution alone, in the photoelectron spectrum, or in both. We demonstrate the method for hydrogen and then apply it to argon under strong XUV radiation, maximizing the difference of emission into the upper and lower hemispheres, in order to realize directed electron emission in the XUV regime.

  9. Measurement of the orbital-angular-momentum spectrum of fields with partial angular coherence using double-angular-slit interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Mehul; Murugkar, Sangeeta; Leach, Jonathan; Boyd, Robert W.

    2012-12-01

    We implement an interferometric method using two angular slits to measure the orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) mode spectrum of a field with partial angular coherence. As the angular separation of the slits changes, an interference pattern for a particular OAM mode is obtained. The visibility of this interference pattern as a function of angular separation is equivalent to the angular correlation function of the field. By Fourier transforming the angular correlation function obtained from the double-angular-slit interference, we are able to calculate the OAM spectrum of the partially coherent field. This method has potential application for characterizing the OAM spectrum in high-dimensional quantum information protocols.

  10. Electromagnetically induced angular Talbot effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tianhui; Yang, Guojian

    2015-12-01

    The discrete angular spectrum (angular Talbot effect) of a periodic grating illuminated by a suitable spherical wave front has been observed recently (Azaa and Chatellus 2104 Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 213902). In this paper we study the possibility of such a phenomenon being realized with a medium that has no macroperiodic structure itself. Tunable electromagnetically induced grating (EIG) could be such a kind of medium. We obtain an EIG based on the periodically modulated strong susceptibility due to the third-order nonlinear effect generated in a double ?-type four-level atomic system, and show the angular Talbot effect of an amplitude EIG, as well as a hybrid EIG, as the condition of the discrete phase-modulation shift of the illumination light front is satisfied. EIG parameters are tunable and the EIG-based angular Talbot effect may have the same potential applications as its periodic grating counterpart has.

  11. Plasmons with orbital angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Mendonca, J. T.; Ali, S.; Thide, B.

    2009-11-15

    Electron plasma waves carrying orbital angular momentum are investigated in an unmagnetized collisionless plasma composed of inertial electrons and static ions. For this purpose, the usual plasmon dispersion relation is employed to derive an approximate paraxial equation. The latter is analyzed with a Gaussian beam solution. For a finite angular momentum associated with the plasmon, Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) solutions are employed for solving the electrostatic potential problem which gives approximate solution and is valid for plasmon beams in the paraxial approximation. The LG potential determines the electric field components and energy flux of plasmons with finite angular momentum. Numerical illustrations show that the radial and angular mode numbers strongly modify the profiles of the LG potential.

  12. Patterns of dissociate torsional-vertical nystagmus in internuclear ophthalmoplegia.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seong-Hae; Kim, Eung Kyu; Lee, Jun; Choi, Kwang-Dong; Kim, Ji Soo

    2011-09-01

    To explore the patterns and mechanisms of jerky seesaw nystagmus in internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO), we analyzed the nystagmus patterns in 33 patients with dissociated torsional-vertical nystagmus and INO. In 11 (33%) patients, the nystagmus was ipsiversive torsional in both eyes with vertical components in the opposite directions. In contrast, 18 (55%) patients showed ipsiversive torsional nystagmus with a larger upbeat component in the contralesional eye. Four (12%) patients exhibited ipsiversive torsional nystagmus with a greater downbeat component in the ipsilesional eye. At least one component of contraversive ocular tilt reaction was associated in most patients (30/33, 91%). The patterns of jerky seesaw nystagmus in INO suggest a disruption of neural pathways from the contralateral vertical semicircular canals with or without concomitant damage to the fibers from the contralateral utricle in or near the medial longitudinal fasciculus. PMID:21951004

  13. Optical detection of thermal noise modes in torsional microelectromechanical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlaminck, Vincent; Guest, Jeffrey R.; Antonio, Dario; Lopez, Daniel; Pearson, John E.; Hoffmann, Axel

    2012-02-01

    We present the optical detection of the thermal noise spectrum for different torsional MEMS that will be implemented in a study of magnetomechanical coupling at the nanoscale. The interferometric measurement yields the differential dynamic displacement between two diffraction-limited spots on the surface to sub-pm precision, allowing us to identify the thermal modes in the low MHz frequency range. Flexion and torsional modes from thermal noise at room temperature can be distinguished by different amplitudes at different positions of the probe beam. The different mechanical eigenmodes are identified with the help of finite element simulations. This study of the thermal oscillation serves to identify the torsional mode frequencies that can be matched to low frequency magnetization dynamics of magnetic domain wall oscillators. At this point we have fabricated torsional oscillators with a resonance frequency of 6.53 MHz and a Q-factor of 1030, which are at the same time compatible with magnetic domain wall oscillators.

  14. Uncommon cause of acute pelvic pain: isolated torsion of hydrosalpinx.

    PubMed

    Ait Benkaddour, Y; Bennani, R; Aboulfalah, A; Abbassi, H

    2009-12-01

    Isolated torsion of hydrosalpinx is a rare cause of acute pelvic pain. Pre-operative diagnosis is very difficult because of non specific clinical presentation. Definitive diagnosis is always made at surgical exploration performed for suspected adnexal torsion and salpingectomy is performed in the majority of cases. A 34-year-old woman was admitted for acute pelvic pain with nausea and vomiting. Vaginal examination revealed a right adnexal tender mass and ultrasound revealed a well circumscribed right adnexal cystic mass. Surgical exploration has revealed torsion of a right hydrosalpinx and right salpingectomy was performed. Differential diagnosis between adnexal and tubal torsion is very difficult, however both should be managed by rapid surgical exploration which an allow precocious diagnosis and conservative treatment. PMID:20690282

  15. Response characteristics of the human torsional vestibuloocular reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of the response dynamics of the human torsional vestibuloocular reflex were studied during controlled rotations about an earth-horizontal axis. The results extended the frequency range to 2 Hz and identified the nonlinearity of the amplitude response.

  16. Omental torsion, a rare cause of acute abdomen.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Shivani; Cuthbert, Gary Andrew; Kerwat, Rajab

    2016-01-01

    Omental torsion is a rare cause of acute abdominal pain. We report a case of omental torsion in a 7-year-old girl, who presented with right iliac fossa pain. The patient underwent an open appendicectomy, during which a normal appendix was identified and a diagnosis of omental torsion was made. The affected segment of omentum was resected along with the appendix. The patient made an uncomplicated recovery and was discharged on day 1 postoperatively. A normal appendix in the presence of omental torsion is found in 0.1% of all appendicectomies in children. We suggest routine visualisation of the omentum in the presence of a normal appendix during appendicectomy. PMID:26733432

  17. Torsion effect on fully developed flow in a helical pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Hsiao C.

    1987-01-01

    Two techniques, a series expansion method of perturbed Poiseuille flow valid for low Dean numbers and a solution of the complete Navier-Stokes equation applicable to intermediate Dean values, are used to investigate the torsion effect on the fully developed laminar flow in a helical pipe of constant circular cross section. For the secondary flow patterns, the results show that the presence of torsion can produce a significant effect if the ratio of the curvature to the torsion is of order unity. The secondary flow is distorted in these cases. It is noted that the torsion effect is, however, usually small, and that the secondary flow has the usual pattern of a pair of counter-rotating vortices of nearly equal strength.

  18. Relaxation of rotational angular momentum of polar diatomic molecules in simple liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, A.; Perez, J.

    2007-03-15

    The relaxation processes of rotational angular momentum of polar diatomic molecules diluted in simple liquids are analyzed by applying a non-Markovian relaxation theory to the study of the binary time autocorrelation function of the angular momentum. This non-Markovian theory was previously applied to the study of the infrared and Raman spectroscopy, and also to the analysis of the rotational energy relaxation processes. We have obtained non-Markovian evolution equations for the two-time j-level angular momentum correlation components involved in the angular momentum correlation function. In these equations, the time-dependent angular momentum transfer rates and the pure orientational angular transfer rates are given in terms of the binary time autocorrelation function of the diatomic-solvent anisotropic interaction. The non-Markovian evolution equations converge to Markovian ones in the long time limit, reaching the angular momentum transfer rates in the usual time-independent form. Alternative time scales for the angular relaxation processes, relative to the individual rotational processes as well as to the global decay correlations, are introduced and analyzed. The theory is applied to the study of the angular momentum relaxation processes of HCl diluted in liquid SF{sub 6}, a system for which rotational energy relaxation and infrared and Raman spectroscopy was previously analyzed in the scope of the same theory.

  19. Non-Abelian anomalies on a curved space with torsion

    SciTech Connect

    Cognola, G.; Giacconi, P.

    1989-05-15

    Using path-integral methods and /zeta/-function regularization a nonperturbative derivation of non-Abelian-covariant and consistent anomalies on a curved space with torsion is given. All terms depending on torsion, that one has in the expression of the consistent anomaly, can be eliminated by adding suitable counterterms to the Lagrangian density. In this way, the well-known result of Bardeen is recovered. The so-called ''covariant anomaly'' will be discussed too.

  20. Killing tensors with nonvanishing Haantjes torsion and integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiganov, Andrey V.

    2015-07-01

    The second-order integrable Killing tensor with simple eigenvalues and vanishing Haantjes torsion is the key ingredient in construction of Liouville integrable systems of Stckel type. We present two examples of the integrable systems on three-dimensional Euclidean space associated with the second-order Killing tensors possessing nontrivial torsion. Integrals of motion for these integrable systems are the second- and fourth-order polynomials in momenta, which are constructed using a special family of the Killing tensors.

  1. [Prelabour uterine torsion complicated by partial abruption and fetal death].

    PubMed

    Agar, N; Canis, M; Accoceberry, M; Bourdel, N; Lafaye, A-L; Gallot, D

    2014-06-01

    Uterine torsion is a rare obstetrical complication whose diagnosis remains challenging. We report a case of 180 degrees dextrogyre torsion at 36(+5) weeks of gestation complicated by partial abruption and in utero fetal death. Emergency cesarean section was performed through an unintentional posterior hysterotomy. Literature reports a few similar cases. Vertical hysterotomy should be advised in this context avoiding incision on lateral sides associated with increased risk of vascular or ureteral injury. PMID:24411298

  2. Ultrasonic Welding of Plastic Pipes Using Torsional Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Hori, Kiichi; Ide, Masao

    1998-05-01

    In recent years, the application of ultrasonic welding to plastics has become common. In this paper a method for ultrasonic welding of plastic pipes using torsional vibrations is reported. In this method torsional vibrations are applied to the welding pipe from the circumferential direction with horns placed near the welding surface. Static pressure is independently applied from the vibrations to the welding surface. It was observed that acrylic resin pipes could be effectively welded by the proposed method.

  3. Changes in gravitational state cause changes in ocular torsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamond, S. G.; Markham, C. H.

    1998-01-01

    Gravity-responsive eye torsion was studied simultaneously in both eyes during parabolic flight to determine the effects of weightlessness. Observed effects were that torsional position of eyes in the 1G states between parabolas was offset from the baseline positions obtained prior to the onset of parabolas, responses to hyper- and hypogravity were seen in most subjects, and responses were consistent within subjects but varied between subjects.

  4. Torsional response of relativistic fermions in 2 + 1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle, Manuel

    2015-07-01

    We consider the equilibrium partition function of an ideal gas of Dirac fermions minimally coupled to torsion in 2 + 1 dimensions. We show that the energy-momentum tensor reproduces the Hall viscosity and other parity violating terms of first order in the torsion. We also consider the modifications of the constitutive relations, and classify the corresponding susceptibilities. An entropy current consistent with zero production of entropy in equilibrium is constructed.

  5. Torsional texturing of superconducting oxide composite articles

    DOEpatents

    Christopherson, Craig John; Riley, Jr., Gilbert N.; Scudiere, John

    2002-01-01

    A method of texturing a multifilamentary article having filaments comprising a desired oxide superconductor or its precursors by torsionally deforming the article is provided. The texturing is induced by applying a torsional strain which is at least about 0.3 and preferably at least about 0.6 at the surface of the article, but less than the strain which would cause failure of the composite. High performance multifilamentary superconducting composite articles having a plurality of low aspect ratio, twisted filaments with substantially uniform twist pitches in the range of about 1.00 inch to 0.01 inch (25 to 0.25 mm), each comprising a textured desired superconducting oxide material, may be obtained using this texturing method. If tighter twist pitches are desired, the article may be heat treated or annealed and the strain repeated as many times as necessary to obtain the desired twist pitch. It is preferred that the total strain applied per step should be sufficient to provide a twist pitch tighter than 5 times the diameter of the article, and twist pitches in the range of 1 to 5 times the diameter of the article are most preferred. The process may be used to make a high performance multifilamentary superconducting article, having a plurality of twisted filaments, wherein the degree of texturing varies substantially in proportion to the radial distance from the center of the article cross-section, and is substantially radially homogeneous at any given cross-section of the article. Round wires and other low aspect ratio multifilamentary articles are preferred forms. The invention is not dependent on the melting characteristics of the desired superconducting oxide. Desired oxide superconductors or precursors with micaceous or semi-micaceous structures are preferred. When used in connection with desired superconducting oxides which melt irreversibly, it provides multifilamentary articles that exhibit high DC performance characteristics and AC performance markedly superior to any currently available for these materials. In a preferred embodiment, the desired superconducting oxide material is BSCCO 2223.

  6. Differential equations of motion for combined flapwise bending, chordwise bending, and torsion of twisted nonuniform rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houbolt, John C; Brooks, George W

    1958-01-01

    The differential equations of motion for the lateral and torsional deformations of twisted rotating beams are developed for application to helicopter rotor and propeller blades. No assumption is made regarding the coincidence of the neutral, elastic, and mass axes, and the generality is such that previous theories involving various simplifications are contained as subcases to the theory presented in this paper. Special attention is given the terms which are not included in previous theories. These terms are largely coupling-type terms associated with the centrifugal forces. Methods of solution of the equations of motion are indicated by selected examples.

  7. Differential equations of motion for combined flapwise bending, chordwise bending, and torsion of twisted nonuniform rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houbolt, John C; Brooks, George W

    1957-01-01

    The differential equations of motion for the lateral and torsional deformations of twisted rotating beams are developed for application to helicopter rotor and propeller blades. No assumption is made regarding the coincidence of the neutral, elastic, and mass axes, and the generality is such that previous theories involving various simplifications are contained as subcases to the theory developed and presented in this paper. Special attention is given to coupling terms not found in previous theories, and methods of solution of the equations of motion are indicated by selected examples.

  8. Analysis of helicopter rotor blade torsional oscillations due to stall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crimi, P.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of stall-induced helicopter rotor blade torsional oscillations was carried out, the primary objectives being to predict the onset and severity of the oscillations and their relationship to aircraft and blade parameters. Blade flapping, flapwise bending, and torsional degrees of freedom were taken into account, with radial variation in aerodynamic loading determined from a previously developed dynamic stall model. Results of analyses were compared with data from flight tests of helicopters. Analyses were carried out while parametrically varying blade vibrational characteristics. It was found that the amplitudes of the higher harmonics of torsional oscillations can be significantly reduced by either reducing the torsional natural frequency or introducing viscous damping in the torsional degree of freedom. A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility and practicality of alleviating the stall problem by means of boundary layer control. The results indicate that boundary layer control would be effective in reducing the higher harmonics of torsional oscillations due to stall and that its implementation would not require excessive power or suction rates.

  9. The external-anomeric torsional effect.

    PubMed

    Lii, Jenn-Huei; Chen, Kuo-Hsiang; Johnson, Glenn P; French, Alfred D; Allinger, Norman L

    2005-04-11

    The rotational barrier for a methyl group at the end of an anomeric system is sometimes lower than we might have anticipated. Thus, in the trans-trans conformation of dimethoxymethane, the barrier to methyl rotation is calculated (B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p)) to be 2.22 kcal/mol, just slightly smaller than the corresponding barrier to rotation of the methyl group in methyl propyl ether of 2.32 kcal/mol. However, if the methyl being rotated in dimethoxymethane is placed into a gauche conformation, that rotational barrier is reduced to 1.52 kcal/mol. This substantial (0.80 kcal/mol relative to methyl propyl ether) reduction in barrier height in the latter case is attributed mainly to the change in the bond order of the C-O bond to which the methyl is attached, as a function of conformation, which in turn is a result of the anomeric effect. We have called this barrier lowering the external-anomeric torsional effect. This effect is apparently widespread in carbohydrates, and it results in the changing of conformational energies by up to about 2 kcal/mol. If polysaccharide potential surfaces are to be accurately mapped by molecular mechanics, this effect clearly needs to be accounted for. PMID:15780251

  10. Control of Torsional Vibrations by Pendulum Masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stieglitz, Albert

    1942-01-01

    Various versions of pendulum masses have been developed abroad within the past few years by means of which resonant vibrations of rotating shafts can be eliminated at a given tuning. They are already successfully employed on radial engines in the form of pendulous counterweights. Compared with the commonly known torsional vibration dampers, the pendulum masses have the advantage of being structurally very simple, requiring no internal damping and being capable of completely eliminating certain vibrations. Unexplained, so far, remains the problem of behavior of pendulum masses in other critical zones to which they are not tuned, their dynamic behavior at some tuning other than in resonance, and their effect within a compound vibration system and at simultaneous application of several differently tuned pendulous masses. These problems are analyzed in the present report. The results constitute an enlargement of the scope of application of pendulum masses, especially for in-line engines. Among other things it is found that the natural frequency of a system can be raised by means of a correspondingly tuned pendulum mass. The formulas necessary for the design of any practical version are developed, and a pendulum mass having two different natural frequencies simultaneously is described.

  11. Coherent Control of Molecular Torsion and the Active-space Decomposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Shane Matthew

    This dissertation discusses schemes and applications for the strong-field control of molecular torsions as well as introduces the active-space decomposition method. In the first part, a route to realize general control over the torsional motions of a class of biaryl compounds is proposed. Torsion in biaryl compounds--molecules with two aromatic moieties connected by a bond about which the barrier to rotation is small--mediates the electronic coupling between the two rings in the molecule. Thus, by controlling the torsion angle, one also controls the electron transfer and transport rates, the absorption and emission spectra, and the molecule's chirality. In our scheme, a non-resonant half-cycle pulse interacts with the permanent dipole of only one moiety of the pre-oriented biaryl compound. In the non-adiabatic regime, coherent motion is initiated by the half-cycle pulse. In the adiabatic regime, the torsion angle is tuned by the pulse. By properly choosing the parameters and polarization of the half-cycle pulse, we show that free internal rotation can be started or that the molecular chirality can be inverted. Then, with the aid of optimal control theory, we design "deracemizing" control pulses, i.e., control pulses that convert a racemic mixture into an enantiopure mixture. Finally, we explore the potential for this type of control in a single-molecule pulling experiment. In the second part, we describe the active space decomposition method for computing excited states of molecular dimers. In this method, the dimer's wavefunction is expressed as a linear combination of direct products of orthogonal localized monomer states. The adiabatic dimer states are found by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian in this direct product space. Matrix elements between direct product states are computed directly, without ever explicitly forming the dimer wavefunction, thus enabling calculations of dimers with active space sizes that would be otherwise impossible. The decomposed wavefunctions approach the exact dimer wavefunctions in two limiting cases: when there is no coupling between the two monomers and when a full set of monomer states is used. After introducing the method, we apply it to the computation of model Hamiltonians for the singlet fission process.

  12. Flap-lag-torsion aeroelastic stability of a circulation control rotor in forward flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chopra, Inderjit; Hong, Chang-Ho

    1987-01-01

    The aeroelastic stability of a circulation control rotor blade undergoing three degrees of motion (flap, lag, and torsion) is investigated in forward flight. Quasi-steady strip theory is used to evaluate the aerodynamics forces; and the airfoil characteristics are from data tables. The propulsive and the auxiliary power trims are calculated from vehicle and rotor equilibrium equations through the numerical integration of element forces in azimuth as well as in radial directions. The nonlinear time dependent periodic blade response is calculated using an iterative procedure based on Floquet theory. The periodic perturbation equations are solved for stability using Floquet transition matrix theory. The effects of several parameters on blade stability are examined, including advance ratio, collective pitch, thrust level, shaft tilt, structural stiffnesses variation, and propulsive and auxiliary power trims.

  13. Wavelength shifts of cladding-mode resonance in corrugated long-period fiber gratings under torsion.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Oleg V; Wang, Lon A

    2003-05-01

    A finite deformation theory of elasticity and a theory of nonlinear photoelasticity are applied to describe the wavelength shifts of cladding-mode resonance in corrugated long-period fiber gratings under torsion. The deformation of fiber is found by use of the Murnaghan model of a solid elastic body. The quadratic photoelastic effect that is proportional to the second-order displacement gradient is investigated and compared with the classical photoelastic effect. The electromagnetic field in the twisted corrugated structure is presented as a superposition of circularly polarized modes of the etched fiber section. The wavelength shift is found to be proportional to the square of the twist angle. As predicted by our theory, a wavelength shift of the same nature has been found in a conventionally photoinduced long-period fiber grating. PMID:12737456

  14. Torsion-vibration coupling in S1 toluene: Implications for IVR, the torsional barrier height, and rotational constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascooke, Jason R.; Virgo, Edwina A.; Lawrance, Warren D.

    2015-07-01

    We have examined the S1?S0 transition of toluene in the region from the 00 0 band to 210 cm-1 above it. The spectrum reveals methyl rotor levels of 00 toluene up to m = 6 and of the lowest frequency vibration, 201, up to m = 4. The rotor levels of both 201 and 00 are perturbed by torsion-vibration coupling. The inclusion of torsion-vibration coupling leads to the S1 torsional barrier, V6, being revised from -26.376 cm-1 to -5.59 cm-1. The torsion-vibration coupling constant is determined to be 21.1 cm-1. This situation is the S1 analogue of that recently reported for S0 toluene [Gascooke et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 024315 (2015)]. Torsion-vibration coupling alters both the rotor band positions and the rotational contours, which particularly affects the rotational constants associated with motion around the a-axis, about which the methyl group rotates. Every vibrational state (indicated generically by X) will be involved in the corresponding X - X201 torsion-vibration coupling; so, this interaction permeates the vib-rotor manifold, providing a mechanism to enhance intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution.

  15. Full Angular Profile of the Coherent Polarization Opposition Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Luck, Jean-Marc; Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.

    1999-01-01

    We use the rigorous vector theory of weak photon localization for a semi-infinite medium composed of nonabsorbing Rayleigh scatterers to compute the full angular profile of the polarization opposition effect. The latter is caused by coherent backscattering of unpolarized incident light and accompanies the renowned backscattering intensity peak.

  16. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  17. The Influence of the Aerodynamic Span Effect on the Magnitude of the Torsional-divergence Velocity and on the Shape of the Corresponding Deflection Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, Francis B; Reissner, Eric

    1944-01-01

    A procedure which takes into account the aerodynamic span effect is given for the determination of the torsional-divergence velocities of monoplanes. The explicit solutions obtained in several cases indicate that the aerodynamic span effect may increase the divergence velocities found by means of the section-force theory by as much as 17 to 40 percent. It is found that the magnitude of the effect increases with increasing degree of stiffness taper and decreases with increasing degree of chord taper. By a slight extension of the present method it is possible to analyze the elastic deformations of wings, and the resultant lift distributions, before torsional divergence occurs.

  18. Scrotal Exploration for Testicular Torsion and Testicular Appendage Torsion: Emergency and Reality

    PubMed Central

    Yu, You; Zhang, Feng; An, Qun; Wang, Long; Li, Chao; Xu, Zhilin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scrotal exploration is considered the procedure of choice for acute scrotum. Objectives: We evaluated the importance of early diagnosis and testicular salvage on the therapeutic outcomes of patients with pediatric testicular torsion (TT) and testicular appendage torsion (TAT) in our geographic area. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective database analysis of patients who underwent emergency surgery for TT or TAT between January 1996 and June 2009. Patient history, physical examination findings, laboratory test results, color Doppler sonography (CDS) results, and surgical findings were reviewed. Results: A total of 65 cases were included in our analysis. Forty-two cases were followed up for at least 3 months. Testicular tenderness was identified as the major clinical manifestation of TT, while only a few patients with TAT presented with swelling. CDS was an important diagnostic modality. The orchiectomy rate was 71% in the TT group. Conclusions: Cases of acute scrotum require attention in our area. Early diagnosis and scrotal exploration could salvage the testis or preserve normal function without the need for surgery. PMID:26199690

  19. Generation of angular momentum in cold gravitational collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhaiem, D.; Joyce, M.; Sylos Labini, F.; Worrakitpoonpon, T.

    2016-01-01

    During the violent relaxation of a self-gravitating system, a significant fraction of its mass may be ejected. If the time-varying gravitational field also breaks spherical symmetry, this mass can potentially carry angular momentum. Thus, starting initial configurations with zero angular momentum can, in principle, lead to a bound virialised system with non-zero angular momentum. Using numerical simulations we explore here how much angular momentum can be generated in a virialised structure in this way, starting from configurations of cold particles that are very close to spherically symmetric. For the initial configurations in which spherical symmetry is broken only by the Poissonian fluctuations associated with the finite particle number N, with N in range 103 to 105, we find that the relaxed structures have standard "spin" parameters λ ~ 10-3, and decreasing slowly with N. For slightly ellipsoidal initial conditions, in which the finite-N fluctuations break the residual reflection symmetries, we observe values λ ~ 10-2, i.e. of the same order of magnitude as those reported for elliptical galaxies. The net angular momentum vector is typically aligned close to normal to the major semi-axis of the triaxial relaxed structure and of the ejected mass. This simple mechanism may provide an alternative, or complement, to the so-called tidal torque theory for understanding the origin of angular momentum in astrophysical structures.

  20. Torsion - Vibration Coupling in the Methyl Rotor Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Meng; McCoy, Anne B.; Miller, Terry A.

    2014-06-01

    The couplings between the CH stretch and CH{_3} torsion in the methyl rotor have been widely studied in methanol. In this research, we are focusing on the effect of this coupling on the vibrational spectrum in the CH stretch region of the methanol cation - argon cluster, CH{_3}OH{^+}{\\cdot}Ar, and the methyl peroxy radical, CH{_3}OO{\\cdot}. A reduced dimensional analysis including the three CH stretches and the CH{_3} torsion is used to calculate the spectra. The CH stretches are treated as harmonic oscillators whose frequency depends on the torsional angle because of coupling between the CH stretch and CH{_3} torsion. The infrared spectrum of CH{_3}OH{^+}{\\cdot}Ar cluster taken by the Duncan groupshows multiple peak structure in the CH stretch region. In this system, the calculation indicates the coupling between the CH{_3} torsion and CH stretch is relatively strong. The multiple peak structure in the experimental spectrum can be assigned to the CH stretch fundamentals and the combination band involving the CH stretch and the CH{_3} torsion. However, for the methyl peroxy radical, the calculated coupling is very weak. In the CH stretch region of the infrared spectrum of CH{_3}OO{\\cdot} taken by the Lee group, only CH stretch fundamentals with relatively broad rotational contours are observed. The broadened structure of the CH stretch fundamental is possibly caused by sequence band structure from low lying torsional levels which are well populated and shift very little from the origin band. D. S. Perry J. Mol. Spectpsc. 2009, 257, 1-10 J. D. Mosley, J. W. Young, M. A. Duncan 68th International Symosium of Molecular Spectroscopy K.-H. Hsu, Y.-P. Lee, M. Huang, T. A. Miller 68th International Symosium of Molecular Spectroscopy

  1. Variations in atmospheric angular momentum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, R. D.; Salstein, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    Twice-daily values of the atmosphere's angular momentum about the polar axis during the five years from 1976 through 1980 are presented in graphs and a table. The compilation is based on a global data set, incorporating 90 percent of the mass of the atmosphere. The relationship between changes in the angular momentum of the atmosphere and changes in the length of day is described, as are the main sources of error in the data. The variability in angular momentum is revealed in a preliminary fashion by means of a spectral decomposition. The data presented should stimulate comparisons with other measures of the length of day and so provide a basis for greater understanding of Earth-atmosphere interactions.

  2. Non-Colinearity of Angular Velocity and Angular Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burr, A. F.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the principles, construction, and operation of an apparatus which serves to demonstrate the non-colinearity of the angular velocity and momentum vectors as well as the inertial tensors. Applications of the apparatus to teaching of advanced undergraduate mechanics courses are recommended. (CC)

  3. Automated Angular Momentum Recoupling Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, H. T.; Silbar, Richard R.

    1992-04-01

    We present a set of heuristic rules for algebraic solution of angular momentum recoupling problems. The general problem reduces to that of finding an optimal path from one binary tree (representing the angular momentum coupling scheme for the reduced matrix element) to another (representing the sub-integrals and spin sums to be done). The method lends itself to implementation on a microcomputer, and we have developed such an implementation using a dialect of LISP. We describe both how our code, called RACAH, works and how it appears to the user. We illustrate the use of RACAH for several transition and scattering amplitude matrix elements occurring in atomic, nuclear, and particle physics.

  4. Early onset torsion dystonia (Oppenheim's dystonia)

    PubMed Central

    Kamm, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Early onset torsion dystonia (EOTD) is a rare movement disorder characterized by involuntary, repetitive, sustained muscle contractions or postures involving one or more sites of the body. A US study estimated the prevalence at approximately 1 in 30,000. The estimated prevalence in the general population of Europe seems to be lower, ranging from 1 in 330,000 to 1 in 200,000, although precise numbers are currently not available. The estimated prevalence in the Ashkenazi Jewish population is approximately five to ten times higher, due to a founder mutation. Symptoms of EOTD typically develop first in an arm or leg in middle to late childhood and progress in approximately 30% of patients to other body regions (generalized dystonia) within about five years. Distribution and severity of symptoms vary widely between affected individuals. The majority of cases from various ethnic groups are caused by an autosomal dominantly inherited deletion of 3 bp (GAG) in the DYT1 gene on chromosome 9q34. This gene encodes a protein named torsinA, which is presumed to act as a chaperone protein associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope. It may interact with the dopamine transporter and participate in intracellular trafficking, although its precise function within the cell remains to be determined. Molecular genetic diagnostic and genetic counseling is recommended for individuals with age of onset below 26 years, and may also be considered in those with onset after 26 years having a relative with typical early onset dystonia. Treatment options include botulinum toxin injections for focal symptoms, pharmacological therapy such as anticholinergics (most commonly trihexiphenydil) for generalized dystonia and surgical approaches such as deep brain stimulation of the internal globus pallidus or intrathecal baclofen application in severe cases. All patients have normal cognitive function, and despite a high rate of generalization of dystonia, 75% of those patients are able to maintain ambulation and independence, and therefore a comparatively good quality of life, with modern treatment modalities. PMID:17129379

  5. On the possibility of tree-level leptogenesis from Kalb-Ramond torsion background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cesare, M.; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Sarkar, Sarben

    2015-10-01

    In this work we consider a phenomenological model for leptogenesis in the context of a Standard Model Extension with an axial-like background coupling to fermions that violates both Lorentz and CPT symmetries. The latter is motivated by a background geometry of the early Universe involving a particular kind of torsion, arising from the Kalb-Ramond antisymmetric tensor field which appears in the gravitational multiplet of string theory, although we do not restrict ourselves to this framework. It is shown that leptogenesis can occur even at tree level and with only one generation of right-handed heavy Majorana neutrinos, due to { CP } and CPT violation introduced by the background geometry. Important issues for the model, including (a) its compatibility with a conventional-like cosmology and (b) current-era phenomenology (characterised by very stringent bounds on the allowed amount of torsion) are pointed out, and potential ways of resolving them, within the framework of string-theory models, are discussed.

  6. DNA torsion as a feedback mediator of transcription and chromatin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Teves, Sheila S; Henikoff, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The double helical structure of DNA lends itself to topological constraints. Many DNA-based processes alter the topological state of DNA, generating torsional stress, which is efficiently relieved by topoisomerases. Maintaining this topological balance is crucial to cell survival, as excessive torsional strain risks DNA damage. Here, we review the mechanisms that generate and modulate DNA torsion within the cell. In particular, we discuss how transcription-generated torsional stress affects Pol II kinetics and chromatin dynamics, highlighting an emerging role of DNA torsion as a feedback mediator of torsion-generating processes. PMID:24819949

  7. Does a randall-sundrum scenario create the illusion of a torsion-free universe?

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Sen, Somasri; SenGupta, Soumitra

    2002-09-16

    We consider spacetime with torsion in a Randall-Sundrum scenario where torsion, identified with the rank-2 Kalb-Ramond field, exists in the bulk together with gravity. While the interactions of both graviton and torsion in the bulk are controlled by the Planck mass, an additional exponential suppression comes for the torsion zero-mode on the visible brane. This may serve as a natural explanation of why the effect of torsion is so much weaker than that of curvature on the brane. The massive torsion modes, on the other hand, are correlated with the corresponding gravitonic modes and may be detectable in TeV-scale experiments. PMID:12225074

  8. Evidence for changes in the angular velocity of the surface regions of the sun and stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A round table discussion of problems of solar and stellar spindown and theory is presented. Observational evidence of the angular momentum of the solar wind is included, emphasizing changes in the angular velocity of the surface regions of the sun and stars.

  9. Angular control of optical cavities in a radiation-pressure-dominated regime: the Enhanced LIGO case.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Katherine L; Barsotti, Lisa; Adhikari, Rana X; Evans, Matthew; Fricke, Tobin T; Fritschel, Peter; Frolov, Valera; Kawabe, Keita; Smith-Lefebvre, Nicols

    2013-12-01

    We describe the angular sensing and control (ASC) of 4 km detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). Enhanced LIGO, the culmination of the first generation LIGO detectors, operated between 2009 and 2010 with about 40 kW of laser power in the arm cavities. In this regime, radiation-pressure effects are significant and induce instabilities in the angular opto-mechanical transfer functions. Here we present and motivate the ASC design in this extreme case and present the results of its implementation in Enhanced LIGO. Highlights of the ASC performance are successful control of opto-mechanical torsional modes, relative mirror motions of ? 110(-7) rad rms, and limited impact on in-band strain sensitivity. PMID:24323024

  10. The intermountain power project commissioning - Subsynchronous torsional interaction tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.T.; Peterson, K.J. ); Pinko, R.J.; Kankam, M.D.; Baker, D.H. )

    1988-10-01

    Subsyncronous torsional vibration as a result of electrochemical interaction between the HVDC controls and a turbine-generator was first discovered during the commissioning of the Square Butte Project in 1977. The level of interaction between the HVDC controls and the turbine-generator depends on several interacting factors: the characteristic torsional frequencies of the turbine-generator, the bandwidth of the HVDC controls and the relative strength of the connecting ac system. For the Intermountain Power Project (IPP), early analysis of these interacting factors indicated that there exist definite potential for subsynchronous oscillation to occur. The calculated torsional frequencies of the IPP units showed that the first mode frequency is 14.0 Hz and is within the typical bandwidth of an HVDC control which is between 10-20 Hz. The HVDC controls, therefore, can influence the torsional stability of the IPP units. Further, the IPP turbine-generators are required to operate isolated on the HVDC rectifier terminal, with no other interconnecting ac network. This ''radial'' mode of operation will result in maximum interaction between the converter station and the IPP units. It became obvious that special measure must be implemented in the design of the IPP HVDC control system to modify its typical characteristics to avoid the occurrence of the subsynchronous oscillation. This paper presents the results of the subsynchronous torsional interaction (SSTI) tests that were performed during the commissioning of the IPP Unit 1 and the HVDC Transmission system.

  11. Torsional Deformations in Subnanometer MoS Interconnecting Wires.

    PubMed

    Koh, Ai Leen; Wang, Shanshan; Ataca, Can; Grossman, Jeffrey C; Sinclair, Robert; Warner, Jamie H

    2016-02-10

    We use aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy to track the real time atomic level torsional dynamics of subnanometer wires of MoS interconnecting monolayer regions of MoS2. An in situ heating holder is used inside the transmission electron microscope to raise the temperature of the sample to 400 °C to increase crystallization rates of the wires and reduce contamination effects. Frequent rotational twisting of the MoS wire is captured, demonstrating elastic torsional deformation of the MoS wires. We show that torsional rotations of the crystal structure of the MoS wires depend upon the specific atomic structure of the anchored sections of the suspended wire and the number of unit cells that make up the wire length. Elastic torsional flexibility of the MoS wires is revealed to help their self-adapting connectivity during the structural changes. Plastic torsional deformation is also seen for MoS wires that contain defects in their crystal structure, which produce small scale rotational disorder within the wires. Upon removal of the defects, the wire returns back to pristine form. These results provide detailed insights into how the atomic structure of the anchoring site significantly influences the nanowire configurations relative to the monolayered MoS2. PMID:26785319

  12. Protective effect of thymoquinone against testicular torsion induced oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Ayan, M; Tas, U; Sogut, E; Cayl?, S; Kaya, H; Esen, M; Erdemir, F; Uysal, M

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to determine the protective effects of thymoquinone (TQ), against ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in the testis tissue of rats. Twenty-seven male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: Group I, sham group; Group II, torsion group; and Group III, torsion+thymoquinone group. The ischaemia period was 2h, and orchiectomy was performed after 30min of detorsion. Testis tissue sections were analysed with the terminal transferase mediated dUTP-nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay to determine insitu apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Additionally, Caspase 3 and Bax proteins were analysed immunohistochemically. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity levels in the testis tissue were also measured. The superoxide dismutase activity and malondialdehyde levels in the torsion group were significantly higher than those of the sham group (P<0.05). Thymoquinone administration significantly reduced these levels. Torsion significantly increased active-Caspase 3 and Bax expression, which was decreased by thymoquinone. The apoptotic index of the torsion group was significantly higher than that of the control group. However, thymoquinone significantly reduced the apoptotic index (P<0.05). Our results indicate that thymoquinone plays a protective role in oxidative stress induced ischaemia-reperfusion in the testis tissue of rats. PMID:25906970

  13. A torsion quasi-zero stiffness vibration isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiaxi; Xu, Daolin; Bishop, Steven

    2015-03-01

    A torsion vibration isolator with quasi-zero stiffness (QZS) is proposed to attenuate the transmission of torsional vibration along a shaft system, which also plays a role of coupling between shafts. A pre-compressed cam-roller mechanism is designed to provide torsional negative stiffness that counteracts with the positive torsion stiffness of the vulcanized rubber between shafts. With the design parameters are set to satisfy a unique condition, the stiffness of the isolator delivers a QZS property about the equilibrium position. A nonlinear mathematical model is developed and its dynamic characteristics are further analyzed by using the Harmonic Balance method. A typical folded resonance curve occurs when the vibration amplitude is plotted as the excitation frequency is varied, illustrating a jump phenomenon in the response. The efficiency of vibration attenuation is estimated under a designed torque load, showing that the torsion QZS vibration isolator outperforms the corresponding linear counterpart, especial in low frequency ranges. Furthermore, the torque transmissibility of the QZS isolator is also studied to demonstrate the performance of the QZS isolator when the actual torque deviates from the design load.

  14. Elevated temperature axial and torsional fatigue behavior of Haynes 188

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh

    1992-01-01

    The results of high-temperature axial and torsional low-cycle fatigue experiments performed on Haynes 188, a wrought cobalt-base superalloy, are reported. Fatigue tests were performed at 760 C in air on thin-walled tubular specimens at various ranges under strain control. Data are also presented for coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, and shear modulus at various temperatures from room to 1000 C, and monotonic and cyclic stress-strain curves in tension and in shear at 760 C. The data set is used to evaluate several multiaxial fatigue life models (most were originally developed for room temperature multiaxial life prediction) including von Mises equivalent strain range (ASME boiler and pressure vessel code), Manson-Halford, Modified Multiaxiality Factor (proposed here), Modified Smith-Watson-Topper, and Fatemi-Socie-Kurath. At von Mises equivalent strain ranges (the torsional strain range divided by the square root of 3, taking the Poisson's ratio to be 0.5), torsionally strained specimens lasted, on average, factors of 2 to 3 times longer than axially strained specimens. The Modified Multiaxiality Factor approach shows promise as a useful method of estimating torsional fatigue life from axial fatigue data at high temperatures. Several difficulties arose with the specimen geometry and extensometry used in these experiments. Cracking at extensometer probe indentations was a problem at smaller strain ranges. Also, as the largest axial and torsional strain range fatigue tests neared completion, a small amount of specimen buckling was observed.

  15. Elevated temperature axial and torsional fatigue behavior of Haynes 188

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh

    1995-01-01

    The results are reported for high-temperature axial and torsional low-cycle fatigue experiments performed at 760 C in air on thin-walled tubular specimens of Haynes 188, a wrought cobalt-based superalloy. Data are also presented for mean coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, and shear modulus at various temperatures from room to 1000 C, and monotonic and cyclic stress-strain curves in tension and in shear at 760 C. This data set is used to evaluate several multiaxial fatigue life models (most were originally developed for room temperature multiaxial life prediction) including von Mises equivalent strain range (ASME Boiler and Pressure Code), Manson-Halford, modified multiaxiality factor (proposed in this paper), modified Smith-Watson-Topper, and Fatemi-Socie-Kurath. At von Mises equivalent strain ranges (the torsional strain range divided by the square root of 3, taking the Poisson's ratio to be 0.5), torsionally strained specimens lasted, on average, factors of 2 to 3 times longer than axially strained specimens. The modified multiaxiality factor approach shows promise as a useful method of estimating torsional fatigue life from axial fatigue data at high temperatures. Several difficulties arose with the specimen geometry and extensometry used in these experiments. Cracking at extensometer probe indentations was a problem at smaller strain ranges. Also, as the largest axial and torsional strain range fatigue tests neared completion, a small amount of specimen buckling was observed.

  16. Evidence for torsional stress in transcriptionally activated chromatin.

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, M W; Patient, R K

    1991-01-01

    The existence of torsional stress in eukaryotic chromatin has been controversial. To determine whether it could be detected, we probed the structure of an alternating AT tract. These sequences adopt cruciform geometry when the DNA helix is torsionally strained by negative supercoiling. The single-strand-specific nuclease P1 was used to determine the structure of an alternating AT sequence upstream of the Xenopus beta-globin gene when assembled into chromatin in microinjected Xenopus oocytes. The pattern of cleavage by P1 nuclease strongly suggests that the DNA in this chromatin template is under torsional stress. The cruciform was detected specifically in the most fully reconstituted templates at later stages of chromatin assembly, suggesting that negative supercoiling is associated with chromatin maturation. Furthermore, the number of torsionally strained templates increased dramatically at the time when transcription of assembled chromatin templates began. Transcription itself has been shown to induce supercoiling, but the requisite negative supercoiling for cruciform extrusion by (AT)n in oocytes was not generated in this way since the characteristic P1 cutting pattern was retained even when RNA polymerase elongation was blocked with alpha-amanitin. Thus, torsional stress is associated with transcriptional activation of chromatin templates in the absence of ongoing transcription. Images PMID:1944280

  17. Numerical modeling of pendulum dampers in torsional systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, P.R.; Shusto, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    Centrifugal pendulum-design dampers are utilized in torsional systems to reduce the vibration amplitude at certain objectionable torsional speeds. The damper is tuned by proper design of its mass, dimensions, and position on a carrier disk, which is rigidly attached to the torsional system. The effects of the pendulum damper on the response of the torsional system may be included by modifying the structural model to include a separate damper element representing each order of the pendulum damper. The stiffness and mass matrices for a damper element are dependent upon the order of vibration being dampened, the mass, and the geometry of the damper. A general form of the mass and stiffness equations for a simple centrifugal pendulum damper are derived from first principles using Lagrange's equations of motion. The analysis of torsional systems with pendulum dampers utilizing the mass and stiffness properties developed is included in the program SHAMS. SHAMS calculates the steady-state response of a system of springs and masses to harmonic loads using modal superposition. The response of a crankshaft system with and without the pendulum dampers are included as a case study.

  18. A Rare Cause of Placental Abruption: Uterine Torsion.

    PubMed

    Ulu, Ipek; Gne?, Muhammed Sira; Kiran, Grkan; Gl?en, Mehmet Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Uterine torsion is defined as a rotation on its long axis and it is a dangerous, unexpected obstetric emergency. We report a case of uterine torsion at 32 weeks of gestation in a singleton pregnancy. A 37-year-old woman with multiple prior cesarean deliveries referred to emergency unit of our hospital at 32 weeks of gestation with severe abdominal pain and mild vaginal bleeding. Ultrasonography showed a single fetus in vertex position, with a normal amniotic fluid. Fetal biometer was appropriate for 32 weeks of gestation. Placental location was anterior with a subchorionic hypoechogenic small area which was suspected to be a sign of placental abruption. An emergency cesarean section was performed under general anesthesia. The 180 uterine torsion was diagnosed and it was not possible to perform detorsion of the gravid uterus by exteriorization by pfannenstiel incision. Posterior hysterotomy was performed and a male baby of 1830 grams weight was delivered. The newborn was transported to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of another hospital and discharged within two weeks. Patient recovered well and was discharged on second postoperation day. Uterine torsion is a very rare and life threatening situation. In unexpected cases posterior low transuerse hysterotomy is generally performed and it is suggested as a safe choice when detorsion was not accomplished. It is not easy to keep in mind the possibility of uterine torsion in cases of abdominal pain during pregnancy. Because it generally causes abruption, management of abruption is vitally important to prevent fetal mortality. PMID:26894131

  19. Direct torsional actuation of microcantilevers using magnetic excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Gosvami, Nitya Nand; Nalam, Prathima C.; Tam, Qizhan; Carpick, Robert W.; Exarhos, Annemarie L.; Kikkawa, James M.

    2014-09-01

    Torsional mode dynamic force microscopy can be used for a wide range of studies including mapping lateral contact stiffness, torsional frequency or amplitude modulation imaging, and dynamic friction measurements of various materials. Piezo-actuation of the cantilever is commonly used, but it introduces spurious resonances, limiting the frequency range that can be sampled, and rendering the technique particularly difficult to apply in liquid medium where the cantilever oscillations are significantly damped. Here, we demonstrate a method that enables direct torsional actuation of cantilevers with high uniformity over wide frequency ranges by attaching a micrometer-scale magnetic bead on the back side of the cantilever. We show that when beads are magnetized along the width of the cantilever, efficient torsional actuation of the cantilevers can be achieved using a magnetic field produced from a solenoid placed underneath the sample. We demonstrate the capability of this technique by imaging atomic steps on graphite surfaces in tapping mode near the first torsional resonance of the cantilever in dodecane. The technique is also applied to map the variations in the lateral contact stiffness on the surface of graphite and polydiacetylene monolayers.

  20. Ocular torsion and the function of the vertical extraocular muscles.

    PubMed

    Jampel, R S

    1975-02-01

    The vertical corneal meridia are not kept perpendicular to the horizon in human and nonhuman primates when the head or body is tilted, i.e., compensatory counter-rolling of the eyes does not occur. The slight torsional displacement of the vertical corneal meridia noted by many observers may be the result of rotation around an axis or to translation of the globe. The neurologic and structural systems that control the actions of the vertical muscles in human and nonhuman primates do not appear to provide a mechanism for wheel-rotation of the eyes around the pupillary axis. Ocular torsion is not a normal function of the vertical extraocular muscles. Their function is probably the reverse, i.e., the inhibition or prevention of ocular torsion and the stabilization of the eyes when the head or body inclines. Torsional displacement of a vertical corneal meridian occurs only when there is an abnormal muscle imbalance. Wheel-like movements (cycloduction) around the pupillary axis or visual line do not occur. Torsional displacement of a vertical corneal meridian occurs only with a simultaneous vertical movement. The vertical rectus and the oblique muscles in man work together to produce vertical ocular movements regardless of head position of body posture while maintaining the vertical corneal meridia parallel to the sagittal plane of the head. The vestibular apparatus may be responsible for distributing innervation among these muscles, enabling them to function in this manner. PMID:803789

  1. Kinetic description of electron plasma waves with orbital angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Mendonca, J. T.

    2012-11-15

    We describe the kinetic theory of electron plasma waves with orbital angular momentum or twisted plasmons. The conditions for a twisted Landau resonance to exist are established, and this concept is introduced for the first time. Expressions for the kinetic dispersion relation and for the electron Landau damping are derived. The particular case of a Maxwellian plasma is examined in detail. The new contributions to wave dispersion and damping due the orbital angular momentum are discussed. It is shown that twisted plasmons can be excited by rotating electron beams.

  2. Angular momentum non-conserving symmetries in bosonic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, L.; de Graaf, W. A.

    2011-04-01

    The Levi-Malcev decomposition is applied to bosonic models of quantum mechanics based on unitary Lie algebras u(2), u(2)?u(2), u(3) and u(4) to clearly disentangle semisimple subalgebras. The theory of weighted Dynkin diagrams is then applied to identify conjugacy classes of relevant A1 subalgebras allowing us to introduce a complete classification of new angular momentum non conserving (AMNC) dynamical symmetries. The tensor analysis of the whole algebra based on the new 'angular momentum' operators reveals unexpected spinors to occur in purely bosonic models. The new chains of subalgebra can be invoked to set up ANMC bases for diagonalization.

  3. Olympic Wrestling and Angular Momentum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Mark

    1988-01-01

    Reported is the use of a wrestling photograph in a noncalculus introductory physics course. The photograph presents a maneuver that could serve as an example for a discussion on equilibrium, forces, torque, and angular motion. Provided are some qualitative thoughts as well as quantitative calculations. (YP)

  4. Analysis of line broadening and spectral asymmetry in an all-fiber torsional acousto-optic band-pass filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ilhwan; Lee, Kwang Jo; Hwang, In-Kag

    2014-12-01

    The transmission properties of an all-fiber torsional acousto-optic (AO) band-pass filter with a sub-nm bandwidth is studied. The device is based on torsional AO coupling in a highly birefringent (HB) optical fiber. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) measured in a conventional band (C-band) is 0.88 nm, which is compared with the theoretical value of 0.45 nm estimated by using the coupled mode theory. The line broadening and the spectral asymmetry observed in experiments are investigated in detail through our theoretical model and full numerical analyses. The influence of the non-uniformity in the birefringence of the HB fiber on the filter's transmission is analyzed quantitatively in terms of the change in the filtering bandwidth, the sidelobe asymmetry, and the resonance shift.

  5. Angular output of hollow, metal-lined, waveguide Raman sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Biedrzycki, Stephen; Buric, Michael P.; Falk, Joel; Woodruff, Steven D.

    2012-04-20

    Hollow, metal-lined waveguides used as gas sensors based on spontaneous Raman scattering are capable of large angular collection. The collection of light from a large solid angle implies the collection of a large number of waveguide modes. An accurate estimation of the propagation losses for these modes is required to predict the total collected Raman power. We report a theory/experimental comparison of the Raman power collected as a function of the solid angle and waveguide length. New theoretical observations are compared with previous theory appropriate only for low-order modes. A cutback experiment is demonstrated to verify the validity of either theory. The angular distribution of Raman light is measured using aluminum and silver-lined waveguides of varying lengths.

  6. Post-Newtonian spin and angular momentum of bounded systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, A.; Spyrou, N.

    1981-07-01

    The Newtonian expressions for (1) the orbital angular momentum of a two-body system and (2) the spin of each body, are generalized through the introduction of corresponding definitions in the post-Newtonian approximation of fully conservative theories of gravity. By means of this definition of the spin, and assuming that the bodies rotate rigidly and that the equations of motion are Hamiltonian, it is shown that the spin of each body undergoes a relativistic precession about the direction of the orbital angular momentum in fully conservative theories of gravity as a consequence of the local equations of motion for a perfect fluid. The method described is pertinent to the possibility of testing gravity theories by observing binary pulsar relativistic effects.

  7. Ab initio determination of mode coupling in HSSH - The torsional splitting in the first excited S-S stretching state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbst, Eric; Winnewisser, G.; Yamada, K. M. T.; Defrees, D. J.; Mclean, A. D.

    1989-01-01

    A mechanism for the enhanced splitting detected in the millimeter-wave rotational spectra of the first excited S-S stretching state of HSSH (disulfane) has been studied. The mechanism, which involves a potential coupling between the first excited S-S stretching state and excited torsional states, has been investigated in part by the use of ab initio theory. Based on an ab initio potential surface, coupling matrix elements have been calculated, and the amount of splitting has then been estimated by second-order perturbation theory. The result, while not in quantitative agreement with the measured splitting, lends plausibility to the assumed mechanism.

  8. ``Quasi-complete'' mechanical model for a double torsion pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, Fabrizio; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Bassan, Massimo; De Rosa, Rosario; Di Fiore, Luciano; Garufi, Fabio; Grado, Aniello; Marconi, Lorenzo; Stanga, Ruggero; Stolzi, Francesco; Visco, Massimo

    2013-06-01

    We present a dynamical model for the double torsion pendulum nicknamed PETER, where one torsion pendulum hangs in cascade, but off axis, from the other. The dynamics of interest in these devices lies around the torsional resonance, that is at very low frequencies (mHz). However, we find that, in order to properly describe the forced motion of the pendulums, also other modes must be considered, namely swinging and bouncing oscillations of the two suspended masses, that resonate at higher frequencies (Hz). Although the system has obviously 6+6 degrees of freedom, we find that 8 are sufficient for an accurate description of the observed motion. This model produces reliable estimates of the response to generic external disturbances and actuating forces or torques. In particular, we compute the effect of seismic floor motion (tilt noise) on the low frequency part of the signal spectra and show that it properly accounts for most of the measured low frequency noise.

  9. FREQUENCY FILTERING OF TORSIONAL ALFVEN WAVES BY CHROMOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Fedun, V.; Erdelyi, R.; Verth, G.; Jess, D. B.

    2011-10-20

    In this Letter, we demonstrate how the observation of broadband frequency propagating torsional Alfven waves in chromospheric magnetic flux tubes can provide valuable insight into their magnetic field structure. By implementing a full nonlinear three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulation with a realistic vortex driver, we demonstrate how the plasma structure of chromospheric magnetic flux tubes can act as a spatially dependent frequency filter for torsional Alfven waves. Importantly, for solar magnetoseismology applications, this frequency filtering is found to be strongly dependent on magnetic field structure. With reference to an observational case study of propagating torsional Alfven waves using spectroscopic data from the Swedish Solar Telescope, we demonstrate how the observed two-dimensional spatial distribution of maximum power Fourier frequency shows a strong correlation with our forward model. This opens the possibility of beginning an era of chromospheric magnetoseismology, to complement the more traditional methods of mapping the magnetic field structure of the solar chromosphere.

  10. On Measuring G with a Cryogenic Torsion Pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Riley

    2000-04-01

    A progress report is presented on a measurement of G using a torsion pendulum operating at 2K in a ``dynamic" (``time-of-swing") mode, in which G is determined from the change in the pendulum's torsional oscillation period when the position of a pair of field source masses is varied. The cryogenic environment offers many advantages, most notably in increased mechanical Q of the pendulum with correspondingly reduced possible systematic error from anelastic torsion fiber behavior. The source masses are copper rings with a particular spacing which results in an extremely uniform gravitational field gradient, making the G measurement highly insensitive to uncertainty in the pendulum's position relative to the masses. The pendulum is a thin quartz plate suspended in a vertical plane, a geometry that makes the G measurement relatively insensitive to error in the pendulum's mass and dimensions. The apparatus operates in a former Nike missile bunker near Richland, Washington.

  11. Fault diagnosis of planetary gearboxes via torsional vibration signal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhipeng; Zuo, Ming J.

    2013-04-01

    Torsional vibration signals are theoretically free from the amplitude modulation effect caused by time variant vibration transfer paths due to the rotation of planet carrier and sun gear, and therefore their spectral structure are simpler than transverse vibration signals. Thus, it is potentially easy and effective to diagnose planetary gearbox faults via torsional vibration signal analysis. We give explicit equations to model torsional vibration signals, considering both distributed gear faults (like manufacturing or assembly errors) and local gear faults (like pitting, crack or breakage of one tooth), and derive the characteristics of both the traditional Fourier spectrum and the proposed demodulated spectra of amplitude envelope and instantaneous frequency. These derivations are not only effective to diagnose single gear fault of planetary gearboxes, but can also be generalized to detect and locate multiple gear faults. We validate experimentally the signal models, as well as the Fourier spectral analysis and demodulation analysis methods.

  12. A novel low-profile shape memory alloy torsional actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Jamie K.; Hawkes, Elliot; Wood, Robert J.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents low-profile torsional actuators applicable for mesoscale and microscale robots. The primary actuator material is thermally activated Ni-Ti shape memory alloy (SMA), which exhibits remarkably high torque density. Despite the advantages of SMAs for actuator applicationshigh strain, silent operation, and mechanical simplicitythe response time and energy efficiency limit overall performance. As an alternative to SMA wires, thin SMA sheets are used to fabricate effective yet compact torsional actuators. Also, instead of using conventional Joule heating, an external Ni-Cr heating element is utilized to focus heat on the regions of highest required strain. Various design parameters and fabrication variants are described and experimentally explored in actuator prototypes. Controlled current profiles and discrete heating produces a 20% faster response time with 40% less power consumption as compared to Joule heating in a low-profile (sub-millimeter) torsional actuator capable of 180 motion.

  13. Fracture repair during external fixation. Torsion tests of rabbit osteotomies.

    PubMed

    Aalto, K; Holmstrm, T; Karaharju, E; Joukainen, J; Paavolainen, P; Sltis, P

    1987-02-01

    Bone repair was studied in the rabbit tibiofibular bone after a midshaft transverse osteotomy stabilized by external fixation and heavy compression. Both subendosteal and subperiosteal callus formation with concomitant contact healing were observed within 3 weeks, and were further succeeded by subendosteal resorption and increased porosis resulting in atrophy of the cortical bone. Subjected to the torsion test, the bones exhibited restoration of strength within 3 weeks, with maximal energy absorption and elasticity at 6 weeks. The failure of the osteotomy in the torsion test, with radiographic visibility of the osteotomy, characterized the soft-tissue type of behavior of the bones. Hard-tissue like behaviour of the bones with resistance to torsion at the osteotomy site and radiographic obliteration of the osteotomy line occurred by 12 weeks, indicating complete union of the osteotomy. Our experiments demonstrate that elastic external fixation is preferable to the rigid compression plate. PMID:3577742

  14. Nonlinear Curvature Expressions for Combined Flapwise Bending, Chordwise Bending, Torsion and Extension of Twisted Rotor Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, R. G.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1976-01-01

    The nonlinear curvature expressions for a twisted rotor blade or a beam undergoing transverse bending in two planes, torsion, and extension were developed. The curvature expressions were obtained using simple geometric considerations. The expressions were first developed in a general manner using the geometrical nonlinear theory of elasticity. These general nonlinear expressions were then systematically reduced to four levels of approximation by imposing various simplifying assumptions, and in each of these levels the second degree nonlinear expressions were given. The assumptions were carefully stated and their implications with respect to the nonlinear theory of elasticity as applied to beams were pointed out. The transformation matrices between the deformed and undeformed blade-fixed coordinates, which were needed in the development of the curvature expressions, were also given for three of the levels of approximation. The present curvature expressions and transformation matrices were compared with corresponding expressions existing in the literature.

  15. Coupled bending-bending-torsion flutter of a mistuned cascade with nonuniform blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaza, K. R. V.; Kielb, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    A set of aeroelastic equations describing the motion of an arbitrarily mistuned cascade with flexible, pretwisted, nonuniform blades is developed using an extended Hamilton's principle. The derivation of the equations has its basis in the geometric nonlinear theory of elasticity in which the elongations and shears are negligible compared to unity. A general expression for foreshortening of a blade is derived and is explicity used in the formulation. The blade aerodynamic loading in the subsonic and supersonic flow regimes is obtained from two dimensional, unsteady, cascade theories. The aerodynamic, inertial and structural coupling between the bending (in two planes) and torsional motions of the blade is included. The equations are used to investigate the aeroelastic stability and to quantify the effect of frequency mistuning on flutter in turbofans. Results indicate that a moderate amount of intentional mistuning has enough potential to alleviate flutter problems in unshrouded, high aspect ratio turbofans.

  16. Coupled bending-bending-torsion flutter of a mistuned cascade with nonuniform blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaza, K. R. V.; Kielb, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    A set of aeroelastic equations describing the motion of an arbitrarily mistuned cascade with flexible, pretwisted, nonuniform blades is developed using an extended Hamilton's principle. The derivation of the equations has its basis in the geometric nonlinear theory of elasticity in which the elongations and shears are negligible compared to unity. A general expression for foreshortening of a blade is derived and is explicitly used in the formulation. The blade aerodynamic loading in the subsonic and supersonic flow regimes is obtained from two-dimensional, unsteady, cascade theories. The aerodynamic, inertial and structural coupling between the bending (in two planes) and torsional motions of the blade is included. The equations are used to investigate the aeroelastic stability and to quantify the effect of frequency mistuning on flutter in turbofans. Results indicate that a moderate amount of intentional mistuning has enough potential to alleviate flutter problems in unshrouded, high-aspect-ratio turbofans.

  17. Edge delamination of composite laminates subject to combined tension and torsional loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooper, Steven J.

    1990-01-01

    Delamination is a common failure mode of laminated composite materials. Edge delamination is important since it results in reduced stiffness and strength of the laminate. The tension/torsion load condition is of particular significance to the structural integrity of composite helicopter rotor systems. Material coupons can easily be tested under this type of loading in servo-hydraulic tension/torsion test stands using techniques very similar to those used for the Edge Delamination Tensile Test (EDT) delamination specimen. Edge delamination of specimens loaded in tension was successfully analyzed by several investigators using both classical laminate theory and quasi-three dimensional (Q3D) finite element techniques. The former analysis technique can be used to predict the total strain energy release rate, while the latter technique enables the calculation of the mixed-mode strain energy release rates. The Q3D analysis is very efficient since it produces a three-dimensional solution to a two-dimensional domain. A computer program was developed which generates PATRAN commands to generate the finite element model. PATRAN is a pre- and post-processor which is commonly used with a variety of finite element programs such as MCS/NASTRAN. The program creates a sufficiently dense mesh at the delamination crack tips to support a mixed-mode fracture mechanics analysis. The program creates a coarse mesh in those regions where the gradients in the stress field are low (away from the delamination regions). A transition mesh is defined between these regions. This program is capable of generating a mesh for an arbitrarily oriented matrix crack. This program significantly reduces the modeling time required to generate these finite element meshes, thus providing a realistic tool with which to investigate the tension torsion problem.

  18. Analytic torsion of all vector bundles over an elliptic curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthomieu, A.

    2001-09-01

    The spectrum of the Hodge-Laplace operator of all holomorphic vector bundles (with parallel curvature metrics) over a flat elliptic curve is shown to be the union of the spectra of some infinite set of (explicit) finite rank matrices. The analytic torsion is then deduced by direct computation. Another evaluation of the analytic torsion is then performed using Bismut, Gillet, and Soul's comparison formula for short exact sequences of vector bundles. This is a test for this method which could be useful when direct calculation is hopeless.

  19. Coated Fused Silica Fibers for Enhanced Sensitivity Torsion Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Horowitz, Jordan; Camp, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the fundamental thermal noise limit of a torsion pendulum using a fused silica fiber, we systematically measured and modeled the mechanical losses of thin fused silica fibers coated by electrically conductive thin metal films. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve a thermal noise limit for coated silica lower by a factor between 3 and 9, depending on the silica diameter, compared to the best tungsten fibers available. This will allow a corresponding increase in sensitivity of torsion pendula used for weak force measurements, including the gravitational constant measurement and ground-based force noise testing for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission.

  20. Prenatal Testicular Torsion: Not Always in the Late Third Trimester.

    PubMed

    Sauvestre, Fanny; André, Gwenaëlle; Harran, Marie-Hélène; Hemard, Marie; Carles, Dominique; Pelluard, Fanny

    2016-03-01

    Prenatal testicular torsion is a very rare morbid entity, described in the literature to occur when the testicle is intrascrotal, around the 34th week of gestation. Here we report a case of early testicular necrosis. This male fetus was the product of a medical abortion at 27 weeks. During evisceration, a left testicular nubbin free in the peritoneal cavity was found. Histologically, it was extensively necrotic. Because of the location, the size, and the histological features of this necrotic testicle, we conclude that it was the result of torsion of the pedicle that occurred around the 20th week of pregnancy. PMID:26657689

  1. Free torsional vibrations of tapered cantilever I-beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, C. Kameswara; Mirza, S.

    1988-08-01

    Torsional vibration characteristics of linearly tapered cantilever I-beams have been studied by using the Galerkin finite element method. A third degree polynomial is assumed for the angle of twist. The analysis presented is valid for long beams and includes the effect of warping. The individual as well as combined effects of linear tapers in the width of the flanges and the depth of the web on the torsional vibration of cantilever I-beams are investigated. Numerical results generated for various values of taper ratios are presented in graphical form.

  2. Elastic torsional buckling of thin-walled composite cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlowe, D. E.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Dexter, H. B.

    1974-01-01

    The elastic torsional buckling strength has been determined experimentally for thin-walled cylinders fabricated with glass/epoxy, boron/epoxy, and graphite/epoxy composite materials and composite-reinforced aluminum and titanium. Cylinders have been tested with several unidirectional-ply orientations and several cross-ply layups. Specimens were designed with diameter-to-thickness ratios of approximately 150 and 300 and in two lengths of 10 in. and 20 in. The results of these tests were compared with the buckling strengths predicted by the torsional buckling analysis of Chao.

  3. Noise limit of a torsion pendulum under optomechanical control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yu-Jie; Hu, Zhong-Kun; Shao, Cheng-Gang

    2015-09-01

    In most torsion pendulum experiments, the force resolution is dominantly limited by thermal noise, which is proportional to the pendulum's intrinsic rigidity. Thus, increasing the rigidity directly, such as through increasing torsion fiber's diameter, will decrease the resolution. Here, we present a method to improve the rigidity of a pendulum indirectly through optomechanical control. In this method, for appropriate typical parameter values, the rigidity can be improved greatly. Meanwhile, the extra noise introduced, which our analysis focuses on, can be regulated within the thermal noise level, i.e., the force resolution may not decrease after optomechanical control. This can balance the conflict between large rigidity and high resolution.

  4. Torsion-induced optical rotation in isotropic glass media.

    PubMed

    Vasylkiv, Yuriy; Adamenko, Dmitro; Kvasnyuk, Oleksiy; Smaga, Ihor; Skab, Ihor; Shopa, Yaroslav; Vlokh, Rostyslav

    2015-03-20

    We have revealed that torsion stresses produce an optical activity effect in initially isotropic glass media. The optical activity caused by spatially inhomogeneous mechanical stresses has been experimentally studied for a standard glass BK7 subjected to torques, using a single-beam polarimetry and a polarizer-sample-analyzer scheme. The torsion-gyration coefficient for the BK7 glass has been determined as (3.96±0.82)×10-17  m3/N. PMID:25968521

  5. Two-way behavior of a Nitinol torsion bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Weiming

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, the experimental study of a NiTi shape memory alloy bar with nominal diameter of 6.5 mm is presented. First, some torsion experiments, including torsion cycling at constant temperature and thermal cycling under constant torque, were carried out. In these test, the torque was applied in both positive and negative directions. Two-way memory behavior and some unique phenomena, such as kink and easy-training, were found and hence, a series of uniaxial tension test was performed in order to understand the observations. After presenting the experimental work, the reason behind these phenomena is discussed.

  6. Torsion Testing of Diffusion Bonded LIGA Formed Nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheit, T.E.; Christenson, T.R.; Schmale, D.T.

    1999-01-27

    A test technique has been devised which is suitable for the testing of the bond strength of batch diffusion bonded LIGA or DXRL defined structures. The method uses a torsion tester constructed with the aid of LIGA fabrication and distributed torsion specimens which also make use of the high aspect ratio nature of DXRL based processing. Measurements reveal achieved bond strengths of 130MPa between electroplated nickel with a bond temperature of 450 C at 7 ksi pressure which is a sufficiently low temperature to avoid mechanical strength degradation.

  7. Torsional Newton-Cartan geometry and the Schrdinger algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hartong, Jelle; Rosseel, Jan

    2015-07-01

    We show that by gauging the Schrdinger algebra with critical exponent z and imposing suitable curvature constraints, that make diffeomorphisms equivalent to time and space translations, one obtains a geometric structure known as (twistless) torsional Newton-Cartan geometry (TTNC). This is a version of torsional Newton-Cartan geometry (TNC) in which the timelike vielbein {? }? must be hypersurface orthogonal. For z = 2 this version of TTNC geometry is very closely related to the one appearing in holographic duals of z = 2 Lifshitz space-times based on Einstein gravity coupled to massive vector fields in the bulk. For z\

  8. Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics with angular momentum conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Müller, Kathrin Fedosov, Dmitry A. Gompper, Gerhard

    2015-01-15

    Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) combines two popular mesoscopic techniques, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) methods, and can be considered as an improved dissipative particle dynamics approach. Despite several advantages of the SDPD method over the conventional DPD model, the original formulation of SDPD by Español and Revenga (2003) [9], lacks angular momentum conservation, leading to unphysical results for problems where the conservation of angular momentum is essential. To overcome this limitation, we extend the SDPD method by introducing a particle spin variable such that local and global angular momentum conservation is restored. The new SDPD formulation (SDPD+a) is directly derived from the Navier–Stokes equation for fluids with spin, while thermal fluctuations are incorporated similarly to the DPD method. We test the new SDPD method and demonstrate that it properly reproduces fluid transport coefficients. Also, SDPD with angular momentum conservation is validated using two problems: (i) the Taylor–Couette flow with two immiscible fluids and (ii) a tank-treading vesicle in shear flow with a viscosity contrast between inner and outer fluids. For both problems, the new SDPD method leads to simulation predictions in agreement with the corresponding analytical theories, while the original SDPD method fails to capture properly physical characteristics of the systems due to violation of angular momentum conservation. In conclusion, the extended SDPD method with angular momentum conservation provides a new approach to tackle fluid problems such as multiphase flows and vesicle/cell suspensions, where the conservation of angular momentum is essential.

  9. The Angular Momentum of Baryons and Dark Matter Halos Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Pichon, Christophe; Kassin, Susan A.; Dubois, Yohan

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown that galaxies at high redshift are fed by cold, dense gas filaments, suggesting angular momentum transport by gas differs from that by dark matter. Revisiting this issue using high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR), we find that at the time of accretion, gas and dark matter do carry a similar amount of specific angular momentum, but that it is systematically higher than that of the dark matter halo as a whole. At high redshift, freshly accreted gas rapidly streams into the central region of the halo, directly depositing this large amount of angular momentum within a sphere of radius r = 0.1R(sub vir). In contrast, dark matter particles pass through the central region unscathed, and a fraction of them ends up populating the outer regions of the halo (r/R(sub vir) > 0.1), redistributing angular momentum in the process. As a result, large-scale motions of the cosmic web have to be considered as the origin of gas angular momentum rather than its virialised dark matter halo host. This generic result holds for halos of all masses at all redshifts, as radiative cooling ensures that a significant fraction of baryons remain trapped at the centre of the halos. Despite this injection of angular momentum enriched gas, we predict an amount for stellar discs which is in fair agreement with observations at z=0. This arises because the total specific angular momentum of the baryons (gas and stars) remains close to that of dark matter halos. Indeed, our simulations indicate that any differential loss of angular momentum amplitude between the two components is minor even though dark matter halos continuously lose between half and two-thirds of their specific angular momentum modulus as they evolve. In light of our results, a substantial revision of the standard theory of disc formation seems to be required. We propose a new scenario where gas efficiently carries the angular momentum generated by large-scale structure motions deep inside dark matter halos, redistributing it only in the vicinity of the disc.

  10. Controversy concerning the definition of quark and gluon angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, Elliot

    2011-05-01

    A major controversy has arisen in QCD as to how to split the total angular momentum into separate quark and gluon contributions, and as to whether the gluon angular momentum can itself be split, in a gauge-invariant way, into a spin and orbital part. Several authors have proposed various answers to these questions and offered a variety of different expressions for the relevant operators. I argue that none of these is acceptable and suggest that the canonical expression for the momentum and angular momentum operators is the correct and physically meaningful one. It is then an inescapable fact that the gluon angular momentum operator cannot, in general, be split in a gauge-invariant way into a spin and orbital part. However, the projection of the gluon spin onto its direction of motion, i.e. its helicity is gauge invariant and is measured in deep inelastic scattering on nucleons. The Ji sum rule, relating the quark angular momentum to generalized parton distributions, though not based on the canonical operators, is shown to be correct, if interpreted with due care. I also draw attention to several interesting aspects of QED and QCD, which, to the best of my knowledge, are not commented upon in the standard textbooks on field theory.

  11. Tension/torsion loading of composite laminates with free-edge boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooper, Steven J.; Hagemeier, Rick; Ramaprasad, Srinivasan

    1991-01-01

    A finite element analysis of a family of quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy laminates was conducted for tension, torsion, and combined tension/torsion loading. The model was employed to investigate the effects of delaminations on torsional stiffness and also to evaluate the total strain energy release rates associated with these delaminations.

  12. Angular Multiplex Laser Fusion Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Joel H.

    1981-09-01

    A study program has been completed which assesses the feasibility of using rare gas-halide lasers as near term inertial confinement fusion (ICF) drivers. A prime objective of this program was to provide credible, design parameter maps to establish energy levels achievable with current and near term technologies. Key program elements include laser scaling projections, modular e-beam and pulsed power technology, optical angular multiplex configurations,optical structures, multibeam pointing and alignment, gas flow and acoustics issues, and trade-off analyses. Rare gas-halide lasers, in particular the KrF* laser, can be designed to meet ICF requirements. These lasers are scalable, emit at short wavelengths (KrF* 250 nm) and, through the use of optical angular multiplexing, can produce the required high energy (~1-5 MJ) in a short pulse (~10 ns) with projected overall efficiency in the range of 5-7%.

  13. Phonons with orbital angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Ayub, M. K.; Ali, S.; Mendonca, J. T.

    2011-10-15

    Ion accoustic waves or phonon modes are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collissionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann electrons and inertial ions. For this purpose, we have employed the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of ion density perturbations and discussed its Gaussian beam and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is presented, allowing to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. The energy flux due to phonons is also calculated and the corresponding OAM is derived. Numerically, it is shown that the parameters such as azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and beam waist, strongly modify the profiles of the phonon LG potential. The present results should be helpful in understanding the phonon mode excitations produced by Brillouin backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.

  14. Angular-Momentum-Compensating Servomechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchetto, Carl A.

    1988-01-01

    Servomechanism for rotating an instrumentation platform isolates supporting vehicle or stationary platform from reaction torques producedby rotations. Prevents aiming of instrument from disturbing vehicle or other instrument platforms. Rotating oppositely to instrument platform, reaction wheel, motor, and gear 1 have angular momentum equal and opposite to gear 2, output shaft, and platform. External torque reaction to rotation of platform canceled. Although spur gears appear in schematic diagram, gear train made of spline gears.

  15. A shear-shear torsional beam model for nonlinear aeroelastic analysis of tower buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardo, G.; Tubino, F.; Luongo, A.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, an equivalent one-dimensional beam model immersed in a three-dimensional space is proposed to study the aeroelastic behavior of tower buildings: linear and nonlinear dynamics are analyzed through a simple but realistic physical modeling of the structure and of the load. The beam is internally constrained, so that it is capable to experience shear strains and torsion only. The elasto-geometric and inertial characteristics of the beam are identified from a discrete model of three-dimensional frame, via a homogenization process. The model accounts for the torsional effect induced by the rotation of the floors around the tower axis; the macroscopic shear strain is produced by bending of the columns, accompanied by negligible rotation of the floors. Nonlinear aerodynamic forces are evaluated through the quasi-steady theory. The first aim is to investigate the effect of mechanical and aerodynamic coupling on the critical galloping conditions. Furthermore, the role of aerodynamic nonlinearities on the galloping post-critical behavior is analyzed through a perturbation solution which permits to obtain a reduced one-dimensional dynamical system, capable of capturing the essential dynamics of the problem.

  16. Torsional and bending rigidity of the double helix from data on small DNA rings.

    PubMed

    Frank-Kamenetskii, M D; Lukashin, A V; Anshelevich, V V; Vologodskii, A V

    1985-02-01

    We have calculated the variance of equilibrium distribution of a circular wormlike polymer chain over the writhing number, [Wr)2), as a function of the number of Kuhn statistical segments, n. For large n these data splice well with our earlier results obtained for a circular freely jointed polymer chain. Assuming that [delta Lk)2) = [delta Tw)2) we have compared our results with experimental data on the chain length dependence of the [delta Lk)2) value recently obtained by Horowitz and Wang for small DNA rings. This comparison has shown an excellent agreement between theory and experiment and yielded a reliable estimate of the torsional and bending rigidity parameters. Namely, the torsional rigidity constant is C = 3.0.10(-19) erg cm, and the bending rigidity as expressed in terms of the DNA persistence length is a = 500 A. The obtained value of C agrees well with earlier estimates by Shore and Baldwin as well as by Horowitz and Wang whereas the a value is in accord with the data of Hagerman. We have found the data of Shore and Baldwin on the chain length dependence of the [delta Lk)2) value to be entirely inconsistent with our theorectical results. PMID:3916932

  17. Flexure-torsion behavior of prismatic beams. I - Section properties via power series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmatka, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    The behavior of a tip-loaded cantilever beam with an arbitrary cross section is studied using Saint-Venant's semi-inverse method along with a power series solution for the out-of-plane flexure and torsion warping functions. The power series coefficients are determined by solving a set of variationally derived linear algebraic equations. For complex cross sections, the calculated coefficients represented a 'best-fit approximation' to the exact warping function. The resulting warping functions are used to determine the cross-sectional properties (torsion constant, shear correction factors, shear deformation coefficients, and shear center location). A new linear relation is developed for locating the shear center, where the twist rate is zero about the line of shear centers. Moreover, the kinematic relations for a new fully compatible one-dimensional beam theory are developed. Numerical results are presented first to verify the approach and second to provide section data on NACA four-series airfoils not currently found in the literature.

  18. Solution of elastoplastic torsion problem by boundary integral method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendelson, A.

    1975-01-01

    The boundary integral method was applied to the elastoplastic analysis of the torsion of prismatic bars, and the results are compared with those obtained by the finite difference method. Although fewer unknowns were used, very good accuracy was obtained with the boundary integral method. Both simply and multiply connected bodies can be handled with equal ease.

  19. Penile torsion correction by diagonal corporal plication sutures.

    PubMed

    Snow, Brent W

    2009-01-01

    Penile torsion is commonly encountered. It can be caused by skin and dartos adherence or Buck's fascia attachments. The authors suggest a new surgical approach to solve both problems. If Buck's fascia involvement is demonstrated by artificial erection then a new diagonal corporal plication suture is described to effectively solve this problem. PMID:19254399

  20. New Approaches to Data Acquisitions in a Torsion Pendulum Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Daya; Xiao, Jinghua; Li, Haihong; Dai, Qionglin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, two simple non-contact and cost-effective methods to acquire data in the student laboratory are applied to investigate the motion of a torsion pendulum. The first method is based on a Hall sensor, while the second makes use of an optical mouse.

  1. Quaternionic Torsion Geometry, Superconformal Symmetry and T-duality

    SciTech Connect

    Swann, Andrew

    2009-02-02

    HyperKaehler metrics with torsion (HKT metrics) are constructed via superconformal symmetry. It is shown how T-duality interpreted as a twist construction for circle actions provides a number of compact simply-connected examples. Further applications of the twist construction are discussed to obtain compact simply-connected HKT manifolds with few symmetries and to construct all HKT nilmanifolds.

  2. Testicular torsion in a patient with Cohen syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Ömer; Yeşildal, Cumhur; Malkoç, Ercan; Soydan, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Cohen syndrome is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder. A 12-year-old boy with Cohen syndrome applied to a primary health care center because of severe pain in the left groin and was diagnosed with epididymo-orchitis. Despite the administered the antibiotic treatment, pain increased. Therefore, the family brought the patient to the emergency department 16 h after the first diagnosis. The patient had mild mental retardation, myopia, and craniofacial dysmorphism, which are components of Cohen syndrome. There was no blood flow on the left testicle at color Doppler ultrasonography. Further, scrotal exploration was performed because of a high risk of torsion. The left testicle was torsioned, and the color was dark blue. Revascularization could not be achieved by detorsion; left orchiectomy and right testicular fixation were then conducted. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of testicular torsion in Cohen syndrome. If a patient with this syndrome has acute groin pain, testicular torsion should be immediately ruled out with Doppler ultrasonography. These patients may not clearly and correctly express themselves because of mild mental retardation. Moreover, detailed genitourinary, particularly testicular examination may clarify the omitted pathologies and make them well known in future in this syndrome. PMID:26328200

  3. 34. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL MOTION VIEWED FROM EAST TOWER, 7 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL MOTION VIEWED FROM EAST TOWER, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MN FILM SHOT BY PROFESSOR F.B. FARQUHARSON, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON. (LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE TACOMA NARROWS BRIDGE, AT UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON (SEATTLE: UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 1941) - Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Spanning Narrows at State Route 16, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  4. Torsional Oscillations and Waves Projected on the Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    2008-01-01

    The article "Torsional Oscillations with Lorentz Force" by Paul Gluck provides a glimpse into the major world of ancient physics demonstrations in the late 19th and first half of the 20th centuries. The apparatus that was described and similar pieces of apparatus are the basis for many memorable but long forgotten educational demonstrations. The

  5. The impact of tibial torsion measurements on gait analysis kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Santos, Nadia Maria; Godoy, Wagner De; Bernal, Milena Moreira Barreto; Paes, ngela Tavares; Ramalho, Amancio

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To measure and compare tibial torsion values as assessed by goniometry and three-dimensional kinematics. In addition, the impact of each one of these measurements on kinematic and kinetic results for normal gait was determined. Methods: Twenty-three healthy and fully ambulatory patients were assessed, 11 women and 12 men, from 20 to 40 years old. Data were collected at a laboratory for the three-dimensional analysis of movement with 10 cameras and two force plates. Tibial torsion measurements were obtained using goniometry and three-dimensional kinematics based on the Plug-in Gait model. Afterwards, both procedures were compared, and the impact of each result was assessed on the kinematic and kinetic modeling of the knee and ankle. Results: Pearson's linear correlation coefficient (r=0,504) showed a moderate correlation between the three-dimensional kinematics and goniometry, and between the changes in the measurements. Regarding the processed kinematic and kinetic results for every torsion position, no significant differences were noticed among any of the studied variables (p>0.05). Conclusion: Although statistical correlation among tibial torsion angles by goniometry and three-dimensional kinematic were moderate, kinematic and kinetic analysis of the joints did not reveal any significant changes. Level of Evidence I, Diagnostic Studies - Investigating a Diagnostic Test. PMID:25328438

  6. Testicular torsion in a patient with Cohen syndrome.

    PubMed

    Y?lmaz, mer; Ye?ildal, Cumhur; Malko, Ercan; Soydan, Hasan

    2015-03-01

    Cohen syndrome is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder. A 12-year-old boy with Cohen syndrome applied to a primary health care center because of severe pain in the left groin and was diagnosed with epididymo-orchitis. Despite the administered the antibiotic treatment, pain increased. Therefore, the family brought the patient to the emergency department 16 h after the first diagnosis. The patient had mild mental retardation, myopia, and craniofacial dysmorphism, which are components of Cohen syndrome. There was no blood flow on the left testicle at color Doppler ultrasonography. Further, scrotal exploration was performed because of a high risk of torsion. The left testicle was torsioned, and the color was dark blue. Revascularization could not be achieved by detorsion; left orchiectomy and right testicular fixation were then conducted. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of testicular torsion in Cohen syndrome. If a patient with this syndrome has acute groin pain, testicular torsion should be immediately ruled out with Doppler ultrasonography. These patients may not clearly and correctly express themselves because of mild mental retardation. Moreover, detailed genitourinary, particularly testicular examination may clarify the omitted pathologies and make them well known in future in this syndrome. PMID:26328200

  7. Angular Momentum Decomposition for an Electron

    SciTech Connect

    Burkardt, Matthias; BC, Hikmat

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the orbital angular momentum of the `quark' in the scalar diquark model as well as that of the electron in QED (to order $\\alpha$). We compare the orbital angular momentum obtained from the Jaffe-Manohar decomposition to that obtained from the Ji relation and estimate the importance of the vector potential in the definition of orbital angular momentum.

  8. Effects of toughness anisotropy and combined tension, torsion, and bending loads on fracture behavior of ferritic nuclear pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, R.; Marschall, C.; Krishnaswamy, P.; Brust, F.; Ghadiali, N.; Wilkowski, G.

    1995-04-01

    This topical report summarizes the work on angled crack growth and combined loading effects performed within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s research program entitled {open_quotes}Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds{close_quotes}. The major impetus for this work stemmed from the observation that initial circumferential cracks in carbon steel pipes exhibited angular crack growth. This failure mode was little understood, and the effect of angled crack growth from an initially circumferential crack raised questions of how pipes under combined loading with torsional stresses would behave. There were three major conclusions from this work. The first was that virtually all ferritic nuclear pipes will have toughness anisotropy. The second was that the ratio of the normalized crack driving force (as a function of angle) to the normalized toughness (also as a function of the angle of crack growth) showed that there was an equal likelihood of cracks growing at any angle between 25 and 65 degrees. This agreed with the scatter of crack growth angles observed in pipe tests. Third, for combined loads with torsional stresses, an effective moment allows pure bending analyses to be used up to crack initiation. Crack opening area under combined loads could also be determined in this mariner.

  9. Stark Effect and Torsional Motion Interaction in Biphenyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudert, L. H.; Pacios, L. F.; Ortigoso, J.

    2009-06-01

    Although the interaction of an electric field with molecular motions has been thoroughly investigated in the case of a rigid molecule, much less results are available for a non-rigid molecule, like the biphenyl molecule, displaying an internal torsional motion strongly coupled to the electric field. The present paper reports an exact calculation of the rotation-torsion energy levels of a biphenyl molecule interacting with an electric field. This molecule, with formula (C_6H_5)_2, consists of two rings which can rotate about the C-C bond, the angle of internal rotation being taken equal to 2?, with 0??? 2?. This molecule interacts with the electric field through its induced dipole moment, the interaction being described by the ?-dependent polarizability tensor. The calculation involves computing rotation-torsion energy levels and wavefunctions using the Hamiltonian derived by Merer and Watson for ethylene-like molecules. The ?-dependent electric field interaction Hamiltonian is diagonalized using these wavefunctions as a basis set. The number of energy levels thus obtained being very high, Boltzmannian equilibrium is assumed in order to evaluate average values of several operators related to the molecular orientation, the rotational wavefunction, and the torsional wavefunction. In the paper, these average values will be calculated for several temperatures in two cases: (i) assuming a rigid molecule and setting ? equal to its equilibrium value, approximately 20.2^, and (ii) taking into account the non-rigidity of the molecule and solving the Schrdinger equation as outlined above. The qualitative differences arising in the case of a static electric field and in the case of a fast oscillating circular polarized field will be discussed. The possibility of torsional control of the molecule will also be investigated. Friedrich and Herschbach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74 (1995) 4623. Merer and Watson, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 47 (1973) 499. Ramakrishna and Seideman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 (2007) 103001.

  10. Development of a high-resolution micro-torsion tester for measuring the shear modulus of metallic glass fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Y. J.; Huan, Y.; Gao, M.; Dong, J.; Liu, W.; Pan, M. X.; Wang, W. H.; Bi, Z. L.

    2015-02-01

    A high-resolution micro-torsion tester is developed based on electromagnetism, and the shear modulus of metallic glass fiber (Pd40Cu30Ni10P20) is measured using this tester. The torque is measured by a coil-magnet component and the rotation angle is measured by an inductive angular transducer. The calibration results show that the torque capacity of this tester is 1.1  ×  10-3 N m with resolution of 3  ×  10-8 N m and the rotation angle capacity is 90° with a resolution of 0.01°. A set of metallic glass fibers, with diameter of about 90 µm, are tested using this tester. The average shear modulus is obtained as 20.2 GPa (±6%).

  11. Delamination behavior of quasi-isotropic graphite epoxy laminates subjected to tension and torsion loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, J. A.; O'Brien, T. K.

    1991-01-01

    Sixteen and thirty-two ply quasi-isotropic laminates fabricated from AS4/3501-6 were subjected to pure tension, simultaneous tension and torsion, and torsion fatigue. Layups tested were (45 sub n/-45 sub n/0 sub n/90 sub n) sub s, with n = 2 or 4. A torsion damage pattern consisting of a localized matrix crack and delaminations was characterized, and the measured torsional stiffnesses were compared with calculated values. It was found that a combination of tension and torsion led to failure at smaller loads than either type of deformation acting alone. Further work is required to determine the exact form of the failure criterion.

  12. Delamination behavior of quasi-isotropic graphite epoxy laminates subjected to tension and torsion loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, J. A.; Obrien, T. K.

    1992-01-01

    Sixteen and thirty-two ply quasi-isotropic laminates fabricated from AS4/3501-6 were subjected to pure tension, simultaneous tension and torsion, and torsion fatigue. Layups tested were (45 sub n/-45 sub n/O sub n/90 sub n) sub s, with n = 2 or 4. A torsion damage pattern consisting of a localized matrix crack and delaminations was characterized, and the measured torsional stiffnesses were compared with calculated values. It was found that a combination of tension and torsion led to failure at smaller loads than either type of deformation acting alone. Further work is required to determine the exact form of the failure criterion.

  13. Design, modeling and characterization of a novel meso-scale SMA-actuated torsion actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Jun; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents our work on design, modeling, and characterization of a novel shape memory alloy (SMA)-actuated torsion actuator for meso-scale robots. Development of a miniature torsion actuator is challenging, but it can enhance the agility and enlarge the workspace of meso-scale robots. This torsion actuator comprises a pair of antagonistic SMA torsion springs, which bi-directionally actuate the actuator by Joule heating and natural cooling. First, the mechanical design of the torsion actuator is presented, followed by the fabrication of SMA torsion springs. Then, we present the constitutive model of the SMA torsion spring with an analysis of its strain change, and derive a quasi-static model with the Coulomb friction torque for this torsion actuator. Finally, a series of characterization experiments are conducted on the SMA torsion spring and the torsion actuator prototype to determine the values of all model parameters. This work shows that the properties of the SMA-actuated torsion actuator can be appropriately characterized by experiments and the actuator is feasible for robotics applications.

  14. A direct test of Listing's law--I. Human ocular torsion measured in static tertiary positions.

    PubMed

    Ferman, L; Collewijn, H; Van den Berg, A V

    1987-01-01

    The validity of Listing's law was reinvestigated by means of a direct test. Horizontal, vertical and torsional eye movements were measured simultaneously with a recently developed scleral induction coil. Either eye of 4 subjects was measured monocularly. Eye position were measured in Fick coordinates and ocular torsion values were compared to the theoretical ones predicted by Listing's law. During consecutive measurements in the primary position torsion values were close to zero although considerable fluctuations of torsion were seen. Torsion values in the secondary positions were also close to zero. In the tertiary positions torsion in the direction as predicted by Listing's law and increasing with eccentricity was recorded. In the temporal quadrants mean torsion was quantitatively in agreement with Listing's law; torsion values in the nasal quadrants however showed systematically larger values and this discrepancy increased with eccentricity to more than 50%. Statistical support for this finding however, was seen only in 4 out of 8 eyes. Symmetry could be obtained by shifting the chosen horizontal primary position (gaze parallel to the midplane) in the temporal direction; as a consequence all measured torsion values would exceed the ones specified by Listing's law. Torsion values varied idiosyncratically among subjects and among the left and right eyes of any one subject. It is concluded that Listing's law specifies ocular torsion only approximately: physiological eye movements show considerable stochastical as well as systematical deviations from this law. PMID:3660654

  15. Accelerated rotation with orbital angular momentum modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Christian; Roux, Filippus S.; Dudley, Angela; Rop, Ronald; Duparr, Michael; Forbes, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    We introduce a class of light field that angularly accelerates during propagation. We show that the acceleration (deceleration) may be controlled by adjustment of a single parameter, and tuned continuously, down to no acceleration at all. As the angular acceleration takes place in a bounded space, the azimuthal degree of freedom, such fields accelerate periodically as they propagate. Notably, the amount of angular acceleration is not limited by paraxial considerations, may be tailored for large accelerations over arbitrarily long distances, and can be engineered independently of the beam's spatial extent. We discuss how such angularly accelerating light fields can maintain the conservation of angular momentum through an energy exchange mechanism across the field.

  16. Two-axis angular effector

    DOEpatents

    Vaughn, Mark R.; Robinett, III, Rush D.; Phelan, John R.; Van Zuiden, Don M.

    1997-01-21

    A new class of coplanar two-axis angular effectors. These effectors combine a two-axis rotational joint analogous to a Cardan joint with linear actuators in a manner to produce a wider range of rotational motion about both axes defined by the joint. This new class of effectors also allows design of robotic manipulators having very high strength and efficiency. These effectors are particularly suited for remote operation in unknown surroundings, because of their extraordinary versatility. An immediate application is to the problems which arise in nuclear waste remediation.

  17. Variable Distance Angular Symbology Reader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F., Jr. (Inventor); Corder, Eric L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A variable distance angular symbology, reader utilizes at least one light source to direct light through a beam splitter and onto a target. A target may be angled relative to the impinging light beam up to and maybe even greater than 45deg. A reflected beam from the target passes through the beam splitter and is preferably directed 90deg relative to the light source through a telecentric lens to a scanner which records an image of the target such as a direct part marking code.

  18. Study on torsional fretting wear behavior of a ball-on-socket contact configuration simulating an artificial cervical disk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Song; Wang, Fei; Liao, Zhenhua; Wang, Qingliang; Liu, Yuhong; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-10-01

    A ball-on-socket contact configuration was designed to simulate an artificial cervical disk in structure. UHMWPE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene) hot pressed by powders and Ti6Al4V alloy were selected as the material combination of ball and socket. The socket surface was coated by a ~500 nm C-DLC (carbon ion implantation-diamond like carbon) mixed layer to improve its surface nano hardness and wear resistance. The torsional fretting wear behavior of the ball-on-socket model was tested at different angular displacements under 25% bovine serum lubrication with an axial force of 100 N to obtain more realistic results with that in vivo. The fretting running regimes and wear damage characteristics as well as wear mechanisms for both ball and socket were studied based on 2D (two dimension) optical microscope, SEM (scanning electron microscope) and 3D (three dimension) profiles. With the increase of angular displacement amplitude from 1° to 7°, three types of T-θ (Torsional torque-angular displacement amplitude) curves (i.e., linear, elliptical and parallelogram loops) corresponding to running regimes of PSR (partial slip regime), MR (mixed regime) and SR (slip regime) were observed and analyzed. Both the central region and the edge zone of the ball and socket were damaged. The worn surfaces were characterized by wear scratches and wear debris. In addition, more severe wear damage and more wear debris appeared on the central region of the socket at higher angular displacement amplitude. The dominant damage mechanism was a mix of surface scratch, adhesive wear and abrasive wear for the UHMWPE ball while that for the coated socket was abrasive wear by PE particles and some polishing and rolling process on the raised overgrown DLC grains. The frictional kinetic behavior, wear type, damage region and damage mechanism for the ball-on-socket model revealed significant differences with those of a ball-on-flat contact while showing better consistency with that of in vitro cervical prosthesis simulations according to the literature. PMID:26117735

  19. Dynamical system analysis for a nonminimal torsion-matter coupled gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carloni, Sante; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Otalora, Giovanni; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we perform a detailed dynamical analysis for the cosmological applications of a nonminimal torsion-matter coupled gravity. Two alternative formalisms are proposed, which enable one to choose between the easier approach for a given problem, and furthermore, we analyze six specific models. In general, we extract fixed points corresponding either to dark-matter-dominated, scaling decelerated solutions, or to dark-energy-dominated accelerated solutions. Additionally, we find that there is a small parameter region in which the model can experience the transition from the matter epoch to the dark-energy era. These features are in agreement with the observed evolution of the Universe, and make the theory a successful candidate for the description of nature.

  20. Localization in rate-dependent shearing deformation, with application to torsion testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, M. S.

    2007-12-01

    The localization of plastic deformation in rock is of particular interest in geology in connection with the formation of "ductile" shear zones. It is commonly conjectured that strain softening, as evidenced by a falling stress-strain curve at constant strain rate, is likely to lead to strain localization. Yet observations in torsion tests at constant twist rate fail to show such an effect. However, a more sophisticated analysis using the theory of Fressengeas and Molinari (J. Mech. Phys. Solids 1987, 35, 185-211) for material showing strain-rate dependence of the flow stress does show that, when the boundary conditions are specified in terms of displacements, no localization is predicted in case of strain softening. In contrast, if the boundary conditions are set in terms of forces, localization can be expected for a strain softening material. This prediction needs experimental testing.

  1. Numerical Investigation of Flapwise-Torsional Vibration Model of a Smart Section Blade with Microtab

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Nailu; Balas, Mark J.; Yang, Hua; Jiang, Wei; Magar, Kaman T.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a method to develop an aeroelastic model of a smart section blade equipped with microtab. The model is suitable for potential passive vibration control study of the blade section in classic flutter. Equations of the model are described by the nondimensional flapwise and torsional vibration modes coupled with the aerodynamic model based on the Theodorsen theory and aerodynamic effects of the microtab based on the wind tunnel experimental data. The aeroelastic model is validated using numerical data available in the literature and then utilized to analyze the microtab control capability on flutter instability case and divergence instabilitymore » case. The effectiveness of the microtab is investigated with the scenarios of different output controllers and actuation deployments for both instability cases. The numerical results show that the microtab can effectively suppress both vibration modes with the appropriate choice of the output feedback controller.« less

  2. An Ap-Structure with Finslerian Flavor II:. Torsion, Curvature and Other Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanas, M. I.; Kamal, Mona M.

    An absolute parallelism (AP-) space having Finslerian properties is called FAP-space. This FAP-structure is wider than both conventional AP and Finsler structures. In the present work, more geometric objects as curvature and torsion tensors are derived in the context of this structure. Also second order tensors, usually needed for physical applications, are derived and studied. Furthermore, the anti-curvature and the W-tensor are defined for the FAP-structure. Relations between Riemannian, AP, Finsler and FAP structures are given. These relations facilitate comparison between results of applications carried out in the framework of these structures. We hope that the use of the FAP-structure, in applications may throw some light on some of the problems facing geometric field theories.

  3. Torsional spring is the optimal flexibility arrangement for thrust production of a flapping wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. Nicholas J.

    2015-09-01

    While it is understood that flexibility can improve the propulsive performance of flapping wings and fins, the flexibility distribution leading to optimal performance has not been explored. Using 2D small-amplitude theory and a fast Chebyshev method, we examine how thrust depends on the chord-wise distribution of wing stiffness. Through numerical optimization, we find that focusing flexibility at the wing's front, e.g., through a torsional spring, maximizes thrust. A wing with an optimally chosen spring constant typically generates 36% more thrust than a wing of optimal uniform stiffness. These results may relate to material distributions found in nature, such as insect wings, and may apply to the design of biomimetic swimmers and flyers, such as ornithopters.

  4. On a finite-state inflow application to flap-lag-torsion damping in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Andrade, Donizeti; Peters, David A.

    1992-01-01

    An aerodynamic model with a coupled set of generalized dynamic wake equations and hybrid equations of motion for an elastic blade are applied here to a two-blade untwisted stiff in-plane hingeless small-scale model rotor with torsionally soft blades. Blade root offset, precone, blade droop, pitch control stiffness, and blade pitch angle are included in the model rotor. Numerical results show that 3D tip relief effects within the nonuniform steady-state inflow are significant to predict steady-state aerodynamic loads and blade deflections. Eigenvalue results confirm the importance of unsteady 3D aerodynamics in predicting lead-lag damping and frequency. Eigenvector analysis correlations reinforced qualitative and quantitative shortcomings associated with quasi-steady 2D aerodynamic theory for aeroelastic applications in hover.

  5. The transition to Earth-like torsional oscillations in magnetoconvection simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teed, Robert J.; Jones, Chris A.; Tobias, Steven M.

    2015-06-01

    Evidence for torsional oscillations (TOs) operating within the Earth's fluid outer core has been found in the secular variation of the geomagnetic field. These waves arise via disturbances to the predominant (magnetostrophic) force balance believed to exist in the core. The coupling of the core and mantle allow TOs to affect the length-of-day of the Earth via angular momentum conservation. Encouraged by previous work, where we were able to observe TOs in geodynamo simulations, we perform 3-D magnetoconvection simulations in a spherical shell in order to reach more Earth-like parameter regimes that proved hitherto elusive. At large Ekman numbers we find that TOs can be present but are typically only a small fraction of the overall dynamics and are often driven by Reynolds forcing at various locations throughout the domain. However, as the Ekman number is reduced to more Earth-like values, TOs become more apparent and can make up the dominant portion of the short timescale flow. This coincides with a transition to regimes where excitation is found only at the tangent cylinder, is delivered by the Lorentz force and gives rise to a periodic Earth-like wave pattern, approximately operating on a 4 to 5 year timescale. The core travel times of our waves also become independent of rotation at low Ekman number with many converging to Earth-like values of around 4 years.

  6. Controlling neutron orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charles W; Barankov, Roman; Huber, Michael G; Arif, Muhammad; Cory, David G; Pushin, Dmitry A

    2015-09-24

    The quantized orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons offers an additional degree of freedom and topological protection from noise. Photonic OAM states have therefore been exploited in various applications ranging from studies of quantum entanglement and quantum information science to imaging. The OAM states of electron beams have been shown to be similarly useful, for example in rotating nanoparticles and determining the chirality of crystals. However, although neutrons--as massive, penetrating and neutral particles--are important in materials characterization, quantum information and studies of the foundations of quantum mechanics, OAM control of neutrons has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate OAM control of neutrons using macroscopic spiral phase plates that apply a 'twist' to an input neutron beam. The twisted neutron beams are analysed with neutron interferometry. Our techniques, applied to spatially incoherent beams, demonstrate both the addition of quantum angular momenta along the direction of propagation, effected by multiple spiral phase plates, and the conservation of topological charge with respect to uniform phase fluctuations. Neutron-based studies of quantum information science, the foundations of quantum mechanics, and scattering and imaging of magnetic, superconducting and chiral materials have until now been limited to three degrees of freedom: spin, path and energy. The optimization of OAM control, leading to well defined values of OAM, would provide an additional quantized degree of freedom for such studies. PMID:26399831

  7. Controlling neutron orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Charles W.; Barankov, Roman; Huber, Michael G.; Arif, Muhammad; Cory, David G.; Pushin, Dmitry A.

    2015-09-01

    The quantized orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons offers an additional degree of freedom and topological protection from noise. Photonic OAM states have therefore been exploited in various applications ranging from studies of quantum entanglement and quantum information science to imaging. The OAM states of electron beams have been shown to be similarly useful, for example in rotating nanoparticles and determining the chirality of crystals. However, although neutrons--as massive, penetrating and neutral particles--are important in materials characterization, quantum information and studies of the foundations of quantum mechanics, OAM control of neutrons has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate OAM control of neutrons using macroscopic spiral phase plates that apply a `twist' to an input neutron beam. The twisted neutron beams are analysed with neutron interferometry. Our techniques, applied to spatially incoherent beams, demonstrate both the addition of quantum angular momenta along the direction of propagation, effected by multiple spiral phase plates, and the conservation of topological charge with respect to uniform phase fluctuations. Neutron-based studies of quantum information science, the foundations of quantum mechanics, and scattering and imaging of magnetic, superconducting and chiral materials have until now been limited to three degrees of freedom: spin, path and energy. The optimization of OAM control, leading to well defined values of OAM, would provide an additional quantized degree of freedom for such studies.

  8. Mean Platelet Volume in Early Diagnosis of Adnexal Torsion

    PubMed Central

    Köleli, Işıl

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adnexal torsion (AT) is among the gynecological emergencies; more common in reproductive age, if diagnosed late, this can cause ovarian failure and infertility, but rarely thrombophlebitis and peritonitis. Despite these severe complications, preoperative diagnostic tests are not enough for early diagnosis. There are certain pieces of literature on the subject that reveal changes in mean platelet volume (MPV) values occur in inflammatory and ischemic diseases and that these changes have diagnostic and prognostic significance. However, there are no studies investigating this relationship with adnexal torsion. Aims: The aim of the study is to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic significance of the mean platelet volume value in the early diagnosis of patients with adnexal torsion. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Pre-operative demographic data, MPV, leukocyte count and neutrophils to lymphocytes (N/L) ratio in the blood samples of 51 patients, who were operated on preliminary adnexal torsion and diagnosed as adnexal torsion with a benign ovarian cyst (AT group) were retrospectively compared with those of 50 patients who were operated upon because of benign ovarian cysts and without torsion (control group) at this hospital between 2006 and 2014. Results: The mean MPV level was found to be 8.1 (7.1–10.7) fL in the AT group and 7.9 (6.6–10.2) fL in the control group; no statistically significant difference was found between the groups (p>0.05). Leukocyte count and N/L ratio in the AT group were, on average, 12×103/mm3 and 82% respectively and in control group; they were, on average, 7.2×103/mm3 and 59%, respectively. A statistically significant increase was found in the leukocyte count and N/L ratio of the AT group compared to the control group (p<0.001). The platelet count in the AT group was, on average, 253×103/mm3 and in the control group it was, on average, 280×103/mm3; no statistically significant difference was detected between these two groups (p>0.05). No correlation was detected between the MPV, platelet and leukocyte counts. The sensitivity of the leukocytosis to the AT cases was found to be 66.7%, and selectivity was 94%. Conclusion: The AT diagnostic and prognostic importance of MPV value has not been determined in this study. PMID:26740902

  9. Two Model Hamiltonians for Torsion-Inversion Tunneling in the Ch-Stretch Vibrationally Excited States of Methylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawadi, Mahesh B.; Perry, David S.

    2012-06-01

    In methylamine (CH_3NH_2), there are six equivalent mimina that are connected by torsion and inversion tunneling. In the G_1_2 molecular symmetric group, there are four species, A = {A_1, A_2}, B = {B_1, B_2}, E_1 and E_2 that combine with distinct nuclear states. The ground vibrational state of CH_3NH_2 is split by torsion and inversion tunneling into a multiplet pattern of four distinct energy levels. The experimental tunneling pattern for CH_3NH_2 in the ?_1_1 asymmetric CH-stretch fundamental has been previously reported at this meeting. In the experimental pattern, the degenerate species (E_1 and E_2) are at the top and bottom of the multiplet and the non-degenerate species (B and A) are between them. In this work, we present two models for the torsion-inversion tunneling behavior in the CH-stretch excited states. Each model includes the lowest order torsion-inversion-vibration interactions available in the context of the model. The first model, which extends Hougen{'s} treatment of methanol, couples the two vibrational angular momentum components of the asymmetric CH-stretches to the large-amplitude motion to yield predicted tunneling patterns for the ?_2 and ?_1_1 fundamentals. This model gives similar patterns for ?_2 and ?_1_1, in which E_1 and E_2 are in the middle of the multiplet and the non-degenerate species are at the top and bottom. The second model, which follows conceptually Wang and Perry{'s} local mode treatment of methanol, couples the three local CH-stretches to each other and to the large-amplitude motion to yield the tunneling patterns for the ?_2, ?_3 and ?_1_1 fundamentals. For this model, we found that, for ?_2 and ?_1_1, both E_1 and E_2 are at the bottom of the multiplet, in contrast to ?_3 and the ground state where they are at the top. The fact that neither model reproduces the observed tunneling pattern for ?_1_1, suggests that additional isolated perturbations or systematic interactions are present in the experimental spectra. V.V. Ilyshin et al. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 251(56-63), 2008. J.T. Hougen J. Mol. Spectrosc. 207(60-65), 2001. X. Wang and D.S. Perry J. Chem. Phys. 109(10795-10805), 1998.

  10. Base-state stress-driven melt segregation in torsion and extrusion experiments on partially molten rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, C.; Kohlstedt, D. L.; Katz, R. F.; Takei, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Partial melting in Earth mostly occurs at regions undergoing intense deformation. To understand the behavior of partially molten rocks exposed to differential stress, two-phase aggregates consisting of a solid and melt were deformed at high-temperature, high-pressure laboratory conditions. In these experiments, stress-driven melt segregation that leads to the formation of melt-enriched bands has been produced consistently. This segregation process has been successfully reproduced by a theory based on anisotropic viscosity of sheared two-phase aggregates. This theory also predicts a base-state (background), stress-driven melt segregation at the sample-scale. Here we present experimental results from torsion and extrusion experiments designed to test the theoretical predictions. Samples composed of fine-grained San Carlos olivine and uniformly distributed basalt melt were deformed in two different types of experiments at a temperature of 1200C and a confining pressure of 300 MPa in a gas-medium apparatus. Samples were either sheared in torsion at constant strain rate to a maximum strain of ? ? 13 or extruded through a rigid tube at constant differential pressure in a Poiseuille flow geometry. Melt distribution maps obtained from reflected-light optical and backscattered electron micrographs demonstrate that melt migrates radially inward from the outer edge to the center of torsion samples and radially outward from the center to the wall of the tube in extrusion samples. This base-state melt segregation indicates that the partially molten aggregate decompacted (compacted) at the center (outer edge) of torsion samples and at the wall (center) of extrusion samples. Based on the observed melt distribution, we conclude that the compaction/decompaction rate increases with increasing stress, as predicted by the theory. These experimental observations qualitatively agree with the theoretical predictions, with some quantitative discrepancies remaining such as the magnitude of compaction rate. This comparison of experimental results with the theory provides confidence in applying both to developing a deeper understanding of magma dynamics in Earth's mantle.

  11. The effects of lateral-torsional coupling on the nonlinear dynamic behavior of a rotating continuous flexible shaft-disk system with rub-impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanlo, H. M.; Ghayour, M.; Ziaei-Rad, S.

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the lateral-torsional coupling effects on the nonlinear dynamic behavior of a rotating flexible shaft-disk system. The system is modeled as a continuous shaft with a rigid disk in its mid span. Coriolis and centrifugal effects due to shaft flexibility are also included. The partial differential equations of motion are extracted under the Rayleigh beam theory. The assumed mode method is used to discretize partial differential equations and the resulting equations are solved via numerical methods. The analytical methods used in this work include time series, phase plane portrait, power spectrum, Poincar map, bifurcation diagrams, and Lyapunov exponents. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the torsional coupling effects on the chaotic vibration behavior of a system. Periodic, sub-harmonic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic states can be observed for cases with and without torsional effects. As demonstrated, inclusion of the torsional-lateral coupling effects can primarily change the speed ratios at which rub-impact occurs. Also, substantial differences are shown to exist in the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the system in the two cases.

  12. Inter-Ring and Hexyl Chain Torsional Potentials in Poly (3-HEXYLTHIOPHENE) Oligomers: Scaling with the Length of the Conjugted Polymer Backbone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, Ram S.; Perry, David S.; Yimer, Yeneneh; Tsige, Mesfin

    2011-06-01

    Density functional theory calculations are presented for the equilibrium structures and torsional potentials for isolated Poly (3-Hexylthiophene) (P3HT) oligomers up to 12 monomer units (up to 302 atoms). Calculations were performed at B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) treating both the backbone of thiophene rings and the hexyl chains explicitly. One-dimensional inter-ring torsional potentials were calculated by rotating backbone around the central inter-ring bond and hexyl torsional potentials were calculated rotating n-hexyl group adjacent to the central inter-ring bond for each oligomer. The torsional and electronic properties change significantly for oligomers with 2 to 8 units but reach asymptotic values for a 10 unit P3HT chain, thereby suggesting the 10 unit long oligomer as a molecular model for the extended polymer. For P3HT oligomers having 10 or more units, all the rings and the hexyl groups are approximately coplanar except for one hexyl group at head end. The principal interaction that promotes the coplanarity of the hexyl groups is the attraction of the proximal methylene hydrogens to the sulfur on the adjacent thiophene ring. The cis conformation of the backbone is about 2kT higher than the trans minimum at room temperature. The gauche conformation of the hexyl group is within about half kT of the planar minimum. Therefore conformational polymorphisms of both types will likely be significant in the heterogeneous environment of photovoltaic devices.

  13. Torsion Test of a Monocoque Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherson, Albert E; Ramberg, Walter; Levy, Samuel

    1942-01-01

    A monocoque box beam consisting of a 24S-T aluminum-alloy sheet reinforced by four bulkheads and by longitudinal stringers and corner posts was subjected to bending loads as follows: pure bending about the lift axis, cantilever bending about the lift axis, and pure bending about both lift and drag axis. Longitudinal strains were measured for loads up to a load at which permanent set became measurable. The loads were sufficient to produce buckling of the sheet between stringers on the compression side of the box. The only noticeable effect of this buckling was a small increase in extreme-fiber strain on the compression side. The measured strains and measured deflections differed less than 10 percent from those computed from the simple beam theory after taking account of the effective width of the buckled sheet. The effect of the bulkheads on the distribution of stringer strain was negligible.

  14. Accelerated jets of energetic protons generated by torsional fan reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinpour, M.

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a potential mechanism for charged particle acceleration in astrophysical and space plasmas, especially in solar flares, which are rich sources of highly energetic particles. "Torsional fan reconnection" is one type of model for steady-state 3D null point reconnection. In this study, we investigate proton acceleration with input parameters for the solar corona in the presence of the magnetic and electric fields associated with torsional fan reconnection. By randomly injecting a population of 10,000 protons as test particles in the vicinity of a null point, we show that two symmetric jets of accelerated protons with relativistic energies are generated along the spine axis above and below the fan plane. These jets comprise almost all of the population with average kinetic energy on the order of a few . Also, the details of the energy spectra are discussed.

  15. Interpreting Torsional Oscillator Measurements: Effect of Shear Modulus and Supersolidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reppy, John D.; Mi, Xiao; Justin, Alexander; Mueller, Erich J.

    2012-08-01

    The torsional oscillator is the chief instrument for investigating supersolidity in solid 4He. These oscillators can be sensitive to the elastic properties of the solid helium, which show anomalies over the same range of temperature in which the supersolid phenomenon appears. In this report we present a detailed study of the influence of the elastic properties of the solid on the periods of torsional oscillators for the various designs that have been commonly employed in supersolid measurements. We show how to design an oscillator which measures supersolidity, and how to design one which predominantly measures elasticity. We describe the use of multiple frequency TOs for the separation of the elastic and supersolid phenomena.

  16. The Torsion of Members Having Sections Common in Aircraft Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trayer, George W; March, H W

    1930-01-01

    Within recent years a great variety of approximate torsion formulas and drafting-room processes have been advocated. In some of these, especially where mathematical considerations are involved, the results are extremely complex and are not generally intelligible to engineers. The principal object of this investigation was to determine by experiment and theoretical investigation how accurate the more common of these formulas are and on what assumptions they are founded and, if none of the proposed methods proved to be reasonable accurate in practice, to produce simple, practical formulas from reasonably correct assumptions, backed by experiment. A second object was to collect in readily accessible form the most useful of known results for the more common sections. Formulas for all the important solid sections that have yielded to mathematical treatment are listed. Then follows a discussion of the torsion of tubular rods with formulas both rigorous and approximate.

  17. Bending and Torsion Load Alleviator With Automatic Reset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    delaFuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Eubanks, Michael C. (Inventor); Dao, Anthony X. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A force transmitting load alleviator apparatus and method are provided for rotatably and pivotally driving a member to be protected against overload torsional and bending (moment) forces. The load alleviator includes at least one bias spring to resiliently bias cam followers and cam surfaces together and to maintain them in locked engagement unless a predetermined load is exceeded whereupon a center housing is pivotal or rotational with respect to a crown assembly. This pivotal and rotational movement results in frictional dissipation of the overload force by an energy dissipator. The energy dissipator can be provided to dissipate substantially more energy from the overload force than from the bias force that automatically resets the center housing and crown assembly to the normally fixed centered alignment. The torsional and bending (moment) overload levels can designed independently of each other.

  18. The frequencies of cantilever wings in beam and torsional vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, C P

    1940-01-01

    Methods are described for calculating the period and frequency of vibration of cantilever wings and similar structures in which the weight and moment of inertia vary along the span. Both the beam and torsional frequencies may be calculated by these methods. The procedure is illustrated by examples. It is shown that a surprisingly close approximation to the beam frequency may be obtained by a very brief calculation in which the curvature of the wing in vibration is assumed to be constant. A somewhat longer computation permits taking account of the true curvature of the beam by a series of successive approximations which are shown to be strongly convergent. Analogous methods are applied to calculations of the torsional frequency. For the first approximation it is assumed that the angle of twist varies linearly alone the semispan. True variation of the twist is computed by successive approximations which are strongly convergent, as in the case of beam vibrations.

  19. Photonic crystal split-beam nanocavities for torsional optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Marcelo; Hryciw, Aaron C.; Khanaliloo, Behzad; Healey, Chris; Freeman, Mark R.; Davis, John P.; Barclay, Paul E.

    2013-03-01

    A novel type of photonic crystal nanocavity nanocavity tailored to sensitively measure torques is theoretically investigated. Suspended low-mass elements (< pg) in the nanomechanical resonator are sensitive to environmental stimuli, such as a magnetic field from external sources or from embedded nanomagnetic systems. The torsional mechanical motion of these elements directly influences the optical field concentrated inside the optical nanocavity, resulting in a strong cavity optomechanical coupling rate up to 90 GHz/nm. The actuation of the mechanical resonator is readout with high sensitivity using evanescent coupling between the photonic crystal nanocavity and an optical fiber taper. A sub-100nm physical air gap in the middle of the nanobeam cavity allows torsional mechanical degrees of freedom as well as strong optical field confinement in a small mode volume. Numerical simulations show that high-Q ~ 106 optical cavities with a gap are possible. Potential applications incorporating these devices include sensitive magnetometry and probing the quantum properties of nanomagnetic systems.

  20. Analysis of damping in finite shearing and torsional deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Romesh C.; Yu, Jang-Horng

    2000-04-01

    We use two constitutive relations to analyze finite simple shearing, simple extensional and torsional deformations of a viscoelastic body. One of these constitutive relations is a linear relationship between the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor and the history of the rate of change of the Green-St. Venant strain tensor. The other is a linear relationship between the Cauchy stress tensor and the rate of change of the relative Green-St. Venant strain tensor. It is found that only predictions from the latter constitutive relation agree with the test findings. This constitutive relation is used to analyze damping in steady state torsional oscillations of a cylinder, and slow finite shearing deformations of a constrained viscoelastic layer.

  1. Omental torsion in a captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Mendez-Angulo, Jose L; Funes, Francisco J; Trent, Ava M; Willette, Michelle; Woodhouse, Kerry; Renier, Anna C

    2014-03-01

    This is the first case report of an omental torsion in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus). A captive, 23-yr-old, 250-kg, intact female polar bear presented to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center with a 2-day history of lethargy, depression, and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound identified large amounts of hyperechoic free peritoneal fluid. Ultrasound-guided abdominocentesis was performed and yielded thick serosanguinous fluid compatible with a hemoabdomen. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large amount of malodorous, serosanguineous fluid and multiple necrotic blood clots associated with a torsion of the greater omentum and rupture of a branch of the omental artery. A partial omentectomy was performed to remove the necrotic tissue and the abdomen was copiously lavaged. The polar bear recovered successfully and is reported to be clinically well 6 mo later. This condition should be considered as a differential in bears with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction and hemoabdomen. PMID:24712179

  2. Calibration of combined bending-torsion fatigue reliability data reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kececioglu, D.; Mcconnell, J. B.

    1969-01-01

    The combined bending-torsion fatigue reliability research machines are described. Three such machines are presently in operation. The calibration of these machines is presented in depth. Fatigue data generated with these machines for SAE 4340 steel grooved specimens subjected to reversed bending and steady torque loading are given. The data reduction procedure is presented. Finally, some comments are made about notch sensitivity and stress concentration as applied to combined fatigue.

  3. Genetic and clinical features of primary torsion dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Ozelius, Laurie J.; Bressman, Susan B.

    2011-01-01

    Primary torsion dystonia (PTD) is defined as a syndrome in which dystonia is the only clinical sign (except for tremor), and there is no evidence of neuronal degeneration or an acquired cause by history or routine laboratory assessment. Seven different loci have been recognized for PTD but only two of the genes have been identified. In this review we will described the phenotypes associated with these loci and discuss the responsible gene. PMID:21168499

  4. Outcomes of Second Look Exploration in Testicular Torsion of Children

    PubMed Central

    Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Testicular torsion (TT), or twisting of the testicle resulting in a strangulation of the blood supply, occurs in men whose tissue surrounding the testicle is not well attached to the scrotum. It is important to emphasize that testicular torsion is a medical emergency. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the second look exploration and outcomes in TT. Patients and Methods: Seventy boys out of 124 patients underwent early exploration and 48 hours later second look exploration due to TT. All patients were checked with preoperative color-doppler ultrasonography (CDU) and intraoperative bleeding test. Data included age at admission, side of pathology, relation of TT with season of year, duration of preoperative history, degree of testicular torsion, CDU findings, and degree of bleeding; results of second look exploration, follow-up, and outcomes were analyzed. Results: Totally 70 patients were included in this study within five years, of which mean age was 28.6 32.9 months (range 1 to 144), 48% of our patients had nausea and vomiting. Preoperative CDU showed absent/weak flow in 50 (71%) cases. Winter showed most frequently (44%) referred cases of testicular torsion. Orchidopexy was performed in 44 (63%) and orchidectomy in 26 (37%) cases after second look exploration. Mean follow-up duration was 3.1 1.4 years. 4 (9%) cases in orchidopexy group developed testicular atrophy during follow-up, all four cases had a history of longer than 12 hours and grade II testicular bleeding test intra-operatively. Other orchidopexy patients salvaged. 26 patients, who were in grade III, underwent orchidectomy in second look exploration. Conclusions: TT requires emergency attention. The ischemia time of the testis is traditionally after 6 hours, and imaging or other diagnostic modality should not be a cause of delay. Early surgical exploration is modality of choice, and second look exploration after 48 hours can be more effective and salvageable in these patients. PMID:26396707

  5. A measurement of G with a cryogenic torsion pendulum.

    PubMed

    Newman, Riley; Bantel, Michael; Berg, Eric; Cross, William

    2014-10-13

    A measurement of Newton's gravitational constant G has been made with a cryogenic torsion pendulum operating below 4 K in a dynamic mode in which G is determined from the change in torsional period when a field source mass is moved between two orientations. The source mass was a pair of copper rings that produced an extremely uniform gravitational field gradient, whereas the pendulum was a thin fused silica plate, a combination that minimized the measurement's sensitivity to error in pendulum placement. The measurement was made using an as-drawn CuBe torsion fibre, a heat-treated CuBe fibre, and an as-drawn Al5056 fibre. The pendulum operated with a set of different large torsional amplitudes. The three fibres yielded high Q-values: 82 000, 120 000 and 164 000, minimizing experimental bias from fibre anelasticity. G-values found with the three fibres are, respectively: {6.67435(10),6.67408(15),6.67455(13)}×10(-11) m(3) kg(-1) s(-2), with corresponding uncertainties 14, 22 and 20 ppm. Relative to the CODATA2010 G-value, these are higher by 77, 37 and 107 ppm, respectively. The unweighted average of the three G-values, with the unweighted average of their uncertainties, is 6.67433(13)×10(-11) m(3) kg(-1) s(-2) (19 ppm). PMID:25202000

  6. Observation of 1990 solar eclipse by a torsion pendulum

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Jun; Li Jianguo; Zhang Xuerong ); Liakhovets, V. ); Lomonosov, M.; Ragyn, A. )

    1991-10-15

    During the solar eclipse of 22 July 1990 in the city of Bielomorsk of the U.S.S.R., we repeated the torsion pendulum experiment of Saxl and Allen, who reported an anomalous period increase during the solar eclipse of 7 March 1970. The relative change in the pendulum's period associated with the eclipse was found to be less than 5.2{times}10{sup {minus}5} (90% confidence).

  7. The initial torsional stiffness of shells with interior webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Paul

    1935-01-01

    A method of calculating the stresses and torsional stiffness of thin shells with interior webs is summarized. Comparisons between experimental and calculated results are given for 3 duralumin beams, 5 stainless steel beams and 2 duralumin wings. It is concluded that if the theoretical stiffness is multiplied by a correction factor of 0.9, experimental values may be expected to check calculated values within about 10 percent.

  8. Angular dependence of sampling MTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadar, Ofer; Dogariu, Aristide C.; Boreman, Glenn D.

    1997-09-01

    Sampling MTF defined in Park, Hock, and de Luca, as an x and y sampling, can be generalized for image data not along x and y directions. For a given sampling lattice (such as in a laser printer, a scene projector, or a focal plane array), we construct a two-dimensional sampling MTF based on the distance between nearest samples in each direction. Because the intersample distance depends on direction, the sampling MTF will be best in the directions of highest spatial sampling, and poorer in the directions of sparse sampling. We compare hexagonal and rectangular lattices in terms of their equivalent spatial frequency bandwidth. We filter images as demonstration of the angular-dependent two-dimensional sampling MTF.

  9. Liquid Angular-Momentum Compensator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iskenderian, Theodore C.

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses use of fluid-loop reaction ring as part of system orienting spacecraft. Proposed device imparts angular rotation to spacecraft by reacting against liquid contained in loop. Pump, or pumps, provide impetus to both spacecraft and fluid. Hydraulic accumulators and valves added to control flow. Technique offers better control than attitude-control thrusters. Several advantages in applications otherwise requiring large, rigid reaction wheel: Fluid loop need occupy only peripheral circulation path; does not necessarily require motor sized for maximum torque; does not require difficult-to-make bearings specified to withstand high launch-acceleration loads, provide high stiffness, operate smoothly, and exert minimal fractional torque. Unlike reaction wheel, fluid loop not balanced dynamically.

  10. LISA technology development using the UF precision torsion pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apple, Stephen; Chilton, Andrew; Olatunde, Taiwo; Ciani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido; Conklin, John

    2015-04-01

    LISA will directly observe low-frequency gravitational waves emitted by sources ranging from super-massive black hole mergers to compact galactic binaries. A laser interferometer will measure picometer changes in the distances between free falling test masses separated by millions of kilometers. A test mass and its associated sensing, actuation, charge control and caging subsystems are referred to as a gravitational reference sensor (GRS). The demanding acceleration noise requirement for the LISA GRS has motivated a rigorous testing campaign in Europe and a dedicated technology mission, LISA Pathfinder, scheduled for launch in the fall of 2015. At the University of Florida we are developing a nearly thermally noise limited torsion pendulum for testing GRS technology enhancements that may improve the performance and/or reduce the cost of the LISA GRS. This experimental facility is based on the design of a similar facility at the University of Trento, and consists of a vacuum enclosed torsion pendulum that suspends mock-ups of the LISA test masses, surrounded by electrode housings. Some of the technologies that will be demonstrated by this facility include a novel TM charge control scheme based on ultraviolet LEDs, an all-optical TM position and attitude sensor, and drift mode operation. This presentation will describe the design of the torsion pendulum facility, its current acceleration noise performance, and the status of the GRS technologies under development.

  11. Development of a torsion balance for adhesion measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Maeda, Chikayoshi; Masuo, Ryuichi

    1988-01-01

    A new torsion balance for study of adhesion in ceramics is discussed. A torsion wire and a linear variable differential transformer are used to monitor load and to measure pull-off force (adhesion force). The investigation suggests that this torsion balance is valuable in studying the interfacial properties of ceramics in controlled environments such as in ultrahigh vacuum. The pull-off forces measured in dry, moist, and saturated nitrogen atmosphere demonstrate that the adhesion of silicon nitride contacts remains low at humidities below 80 percent but rises rapidly above that. The adhesion at saturation is 10 times or more greater than that below 80 percent relative humidity. The adhesion in a saturated atmosphere arises primarily from the surface tension effects of a thin film of water adsorbed on the surface. The surface tension of the water film was 58 x 10 to the minus 5 to 65 x 10 to the minus 5 power. The accepted value for water is 72.7 x 10 to the minus 5 power N/cm. Adhesion characteristics of silicon nitride in contact with metals, like the friction characteristics of silicon carbide to metal contacts, can be related to the relative chemical activity of metals in ultrahigh vacuum. The more active the metal, the higher the adhesion.

  12. Optical diagnosis of testicular torsion: feasibility and methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn; Kajbafzadeh, A. M.

    2014-03-01

    Background: Torsion of the testis compromises blood flow through the spermatic cord; testicular ischemia results which if not diagnosed promptly and corrected surgically irrevocably damages the testis. Current diagnostic modalities aimed at rationalizing surgical exploration by demonstrating interruption of spermatic cord blood flow or testicular ischemia have limited applicability. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) offers a non-invasive optical method for detection of ischemia; continuous wave and frequency domain devices have been used experimentally; no device customized for clinical use has been designed. Methods: A miniature spatially resolved NIRS device with light emitting diode light source was applied over the right and left spermatic cord and the difference in oxygen saturation between the two sides measured. Results: In a 14-month old boy with a history of unilateral testicular pain color Doppler ultrasonography was equivocal but the NIRS-derived tissue oxygen saturation index (TSI) was significantly reduced on the left side. Confirmation of torsion of the left testicle was made surgically. Conclusions: Spatially resolved NIRS monitoring of spermatic cord oxygen saturation is feasible in children, adding to prior studies of testicular oxygen saturation in adults. Customized device design and further clinical trials would enhance the applicability of NIRS as a diagnostic entity for torsion.

  13. Transverse and torsional modes of vibration of American organ reeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirksen, Blake M.; Cottingham, James P.

    2002-11-01

    A reed from an American reed organ consists of a brass tongue riveted to a frame with an opening just large enough for the reed to pass through during the course of its oscillation. To a first approximation, the reed tongue can be modeled as a cantilever beam of uniform cross section, and the mode frequencies of transverse and torsional modes can be calculated. The reeds used in this study differ from this simple model in several ways, including a nonuniform thickness along the reed length. In addition, the reed includes a curved spoon-like section at the tip of the reed tongue as well as an asymmetric twist at the tip. Transverse and torsional modes of vibration of a mechanically excited reed tongue have been studied using a proximity sensor (variable impedance transducer), a laser vibrometer, and a TV holography system. The motion of the air-driven reed has also been investigated. Although the motion of air-driven reed is dominated by the first transverse mode, some evidence of higher-order transverse modes and torsional modes has been observed. [Work supported by the NSF from REU Grant No. 0139096.

  14. Model-based diagnosis of large diesel engines based on angular speed variations of the crankshaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbazeille, M.; Randall, R. B.; Guillet, F.; El Badaoui, M.; Hoisnard, C.

    2010-07-01

    This work aims at monitoring large diesel engines by analyzing the crankshaft angular speed variations. It focuses on a powerful 20-cylinder diesel engine with crankshaft natural frequencies within the operating speed range. First, the angular speed variations are modeled at the crankshaft free end. This includes modeling both the crankshaft dynamical behavior and the excitation torques. As the engine is very large, the first crankshaft torsional modes are in the low frequency range. A model with the assumption of a flexible crankshaft is required. The excitation torques depend on the in-cylinder pressure curve. The latter is modeled with a phenomenological model. Mechanical and combustion parameters of the model are optimized with the help of actual data. Then, an automated diagnosis based on an artificially intelligent system is proposed. Neural networks are used for pattern recognition of the angular speed waveforms in normal and faulty conditions. Reference patterns required in the training phase are computed with the model, calibrated using a small number of actual measurements. Promising results are obtained. An experimental fuel leakage fault is successfully diagnosed, including detection and localization of the faulty cylinder, as well as the approximation of the fault severity.

  15. Preliminary determination of Newtonian gravitational constant with angular acceleration feedback method

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Chao; Quan, Li-Di; Yang, Shan-Qing; Wang, Bing-Peng; Wu, Jun-Fei; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Tu, Liang-Cheng; Milyukov, Vadim; Luo, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant G with the angular acceleration feedback method at HUST. The apparatus has been built, and preliminary measurement performed, to test all aspects of the experimental design, particularly the feedback function, which was recently discussed in detail by Quan et al. The experimental results show that the residual twist angle of the torsion pendulum at the signal frequency introduces 0.4?ppm to the value of G. The relative uncertainty of the angular acceleration of the turntable is approximately 100?ppm, which is mainly limited by the stability of the apparatus. Therefore, the experiment has been modified with three features: (i) the height of the apparatus is reduced almost by half, (ii) the aluminium shelves were replaced with shelves made from ultra-low expansion material and (iii) a perfect compensation of the laboratory-fixed gravitational background will be carried out. With these improvements, the angular acceleration is expected to be determined with an uncertainty of better than 10?ppm, and a reliable value of G with 20?ppm or below will be obtained in the near future. PMID:25201996

  16. Rotational Energies in Various Torsional Levels of CH_2DOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudert, L. H.; Hilali, A. El; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Klee, S.

    2012-06-01

    Using an approach accounting for the hindered internal rotation of a monodeuterated methyl group, an analysis of the torsional spectrum of the monodeuterated species of methanol CH_2DOH has been carried out recently and led to the assignment of 76 torsional subbands in its microwave, FIR, and IR spectra. Although this approach also allowed us to account for subband centers, the rotational structure of the torsional subbands is not well understood yet. In this paper, we will deal with the rotational energies of CH_2DOH. Analyses of the rotational structure of the available subbands^b have been performed using the polynomial-type expansion introduced in the case of the normal species of methanol. For each subband, FIR or IR transitions and a-type microwave lines, within the lower torsional level, were fitted. The frequencies of the latters were taken from previous investigations or from new measurements carried out from 50 to 950 GHz with the submillimeterwave solid state spectrometer in Lille. Subbands involving lower levels with v_t=0 and K ≥ 3 could be satisfactorily analyzed. For levels characterized by lower K-values, the expansion fails. In the case of the K=1, v_t=1 level, the frequencies of a-type microwave transitions involving the lower member of the K-type doublet cannot be well reproduced. For K=0 levels with v_t=1 and 2, a large number of terms is needed in the expansion. We will try to understand why the rotational energies of these levels cannot be reproduced. The results of the analyses will be compared to those obtained with a global approach based on the rotation-torsion Hamiltonian of the molecule. [2] El Hilali, Coudert, Konov, and Klee, J. Chem. Phys. 135 (2011) 194309. [3] Ioli, Moruzzi, Riminucci, Strumia, Moraes, Winnewisser, and Winnewisser, J. Mol. Spec. 171 (1995) 130. [4] Quade and Suenram, J. Chem. Phys. 73 (1980) 1127; and Su and Quade, J. Mol. Spec. 134 (1989) 290. [5] Lauvergnat, Coudert, Klee, and Smirnov, J. Mol. Spec. 256 (2009) 204.

  17. Rotation of Electromagnetic Fields and the Nature of Optical Angular Momentum

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    The association of spin and orbital angular momenta of light with its polarization and helical phase fronts is now well established. The problems in linking this with electromagnetic theory, as expressed in Maxwell's equations, are rather less well known. We present a simple analysis of the problems involved in defining spin and orbital angular momenta for electromagnetic fields and discuss some of the remaining challenges. Crucial to our investigation is the duplex symmetry between the electric and magnetic fields. PMID:24808629

  18. Rotation of Electromagnetic Fields and the Nature of Optical Angular Momentum.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Stephen M

    2010-08-01

    The association of spin and orbital angular momenta of light with its polarization and helical phase fronts is now well established. The problems in linking this with electromagnetic theory, as expressed in Maxwell's equations, are rather less well known. We present a simple analysis of the problems involved in defining spin and orbital angular momenta for electromagnetic fields and discuss some of the remaining challenges. Crucial to our investigation is the duplex symmetry between the electric and magnetic fields. PMID:24808629

  19. Optic-electronic system for measuring the three-dimensional angular deformation of pipe sections at large constructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyakhin, Igor; Hoang, Van Phong; Artemenko, Yury; Li, Renpu; Smekhov, Andrey

    2015-05-01

    The improved autocollimation system for measuring three-dimension angular deformations of pipe sections at large constructions as support tube of radio telescope mirror is analyzed. New type of the reflector for autocollimators is researched. The reflector is the trihedral mirror composition of three reflecting sides. It advantage is the measurement pitch, yaw and torsion as three angular rotation of controlled object. The second advantage of reflector is the measurements on the large work distances. Causes are the small value of the conversion coefficient and two orthogonal reference axes of trihedral reflector. The technical characteristics of the experimental setups of new reflector are presented. The features of trihedral reflector as the reflectors for optic-electronic autocollimators are discussed.

  20. Angularly parameterized macromodel extraction for unconstrained microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinghui; Yuan, Weizheng; Chang, Honglong; Ma, Binghe; Yu, Yiting

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, we present an angularly parameterized model order reduction (APMOR) technique for macromodel extraction of unconstrained microstructures by combining a new, iterated IRS (improved reduced system) method with coordinate transformation theory. The extracted macromodels are encapsulated in the MAST hardware description language and can be exported automatically as components which can be inserted directly into an analog circuit simulator for dynamics simulation. An in-plane micro accelerometer including four variable cross-section folded beams is used to demonstrate the proposed macromodeling method. The folded beams are treated as unconstrained microstructures, and numerical simulation results in a SABER simulator show that the macromodels can dramatically reduce the computation cost while capturing the device behavior faithfully. Compared with FEM results, the relative error is less than 1.4%, while the computational efficiency improves about 22 times. Once the macromodel of one of the folded beams is obtained, the macromodels of all other folded beams can be obtained easily by setting the corresponding angle parameters. With the help of an APMOR technique and the existing model library which is developed in our previous work, the hybrid system-level model of the in-plane micro accelerometer can be constructed rapidly, and the scale factor of the accelerometer is simulated. Compared with experimental results, the relative error is about 8.16%.

  1. Improving the sensitivity of a torsion pendulum by using an optical spring method

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qinglan; Yeh Hsienchi; Zhou Zebing; Luo Jun

    2009-10-15

    We present a scheme aiming at improving the sensitivity of a torsion pendulum by means of radiation-pressure-induced optical spring. Two partial-reflective mirrors are installed on the opposite sides of a torsion pendulum, and one high-reflective mirror is mounted at the end of the torsion beam so that two identical Fabry-Perot cavities can be formed and aligned in series. Due to the antisymmetric radiation pressures acting on the opposite sides of the torsion beam, a negative restoring coefficient can be generated within a certain dynamic range, such that both the resultant torsional rigidity and the resonant frequency of the torsion pendulum are reduced, and the minimum detectable response torque in high-frequency region can be reduced accordingly.

  2. Fast torsional waves and strong magnetic field within the Earth's core.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Nicolas; Jault, Dominique; Canet, Elisabeth; Fournier, Alexandre

    2010-05-01

    The magnetic field inside the Earth's fluid and electrically conducting outer core cannot be directly probed. The root-mean-squared (r.m.s.) intensity for the resolved part of the radial magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary is 0.3 mT, but further assumptions are needed to infer the strength of the field inside the core. Recent diagnostics obtained from numerical geodynamo models indicate that the magnitude of the dipole field at the surface of a fluid dynamo is about ten times weaker than the r.m.s. field strength in its interior, which would yield an intensity of the order of several millitesla within the Earth's core. However, a 60-year signal found in the variation in the length of day has long been associated with magneto-hydrodynamic torsional waves carried by a much weaker internal field. According to these studies, the r.m.s. strength of the field in the cylindrical radial direction (calculated for all length scales) is only 0.2 mT, a figure even smaller than the r.m.s. strength of the large-scale (spherical harmonic degree n torsional wave recurring every six years, the angular momentum of which accounts well for both the phase and the amplitude of the six-year signal for change in length of day detected over the second half of the twentieth century. It takes about four years for the wave to propagate throughout the fluid outer core, and this travel time translates into a slowness for Alfvén waves that corresponds to a r.m.s. field strength in the cylindrical radial direction of approximately 2 mT. Assuming isotropy, this yields a r.m.s. field strength of 4 mT inside the Earth's core. PMID:20445627

  3. Continuous theta burst stimulation of angular gyrus reduces subjective recollection.

    PubMed

    Yazar, Yasemin; Bergstrm, Zara M; Simons, Jon S

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of lateral parietal regions such as the angular gyrus to human episodic memory has been the subject of much debate following widespread observations of left parietal activity in healthy volunteers during functional neuroimaging studies of memory retrieval. Patients with lateral parietal lesions are not amnesic, but recent evidence indicates that their memory abilities may not be entirely preserved. Whereas recollection appears intact when objective measures such as source accuracy are used, patients often exhibit reduced subjective confidence in their accurate recollections. When asked to recall autobiographical memories, they may produce spontaneous narratives that lack richness and specificity, but can remember specific details when prompted. Two distinct theoretical accounts have been proposed to explain these results: that the patients have a deficit in the bottom-up capturing of attention by retrieval output, or that they have an impairment in the subjective experience of recollection. The present study aimed to differentiate between these accounts using continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) in healthy participants to disrupt function of specific left parietal subregions, including angular gyrus. Inconsistent with predictions of the attentional theory, angular gyrus cTBS did not result in greater impairment of free recall than cued recall. Supporting predictions of the subjective recollection account, temporary disruption of angular gyrus was associated with highly accurate source recollection accuracy but a selective reduction in participants' rated source confidence. The findings are consistent with a role for angular gyrus in the integration of memory features into a conscious representation that enables the subjective experience of remembering. PMID:25333985

  4. Angular Power Spectrum in Modular Invariant Inflation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Mitsuo J.; Okame, Y.; Takagi, K.; Watanabe, T.; Hirai, S.; Takami, T.

    2008-05-29

    A scalar potential of inflation is proposed and the angular power spectra of the adiabatic density perturbations are computed. The potential consists of three scalar fields, S, Y and T, together with two free parameters. By fitting the parameters to cosmological data at the fixed point T = 1, we find that the potential behaves like the single-field potential of S, which slowly rolls down. We further show that the inflation predictions corresponding to this potential provide a good fit to the recent three-year WMAP data, e.g. the spectral index n{sub s} = 0.951.The TT and TE angular power spectra obtained from our model almost completely coincide with the corresponding results obtained from the {lambda}CDM model. We conclude that our model is considered to be an adequate theory of inflation that explains the present data.

  5. Penile degloving and dorsal dartos flap rotation approach for the management of isolated penile torsion

    PubMed Central

    Aykaç, Aykut; Baran, Özer; Yapıcı, Onur; Aygün, Bülent Alper; Aydın, Cemil; Çakan, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objective Penile torsion is a counterclockwise rotational anomaly of the penile shaft or glans. We aimed to evaluate the outcomes of penile degloving and dorsal dartos flap rotation used for the repair of isolated penil torsion. Material and methods During evaluation of the patients admitted to our polyclinic for circumcision between January 2013-December 2014, 5 cases of isolated penile torsion were determined. Following the circumcision procedure performed with bipolar cautery, patients undergoing penile degloving were checked whether penile torsion was relieved or not. In case of insufficient improvement, torsion was corrected with application of dorsal dartos flap. Penile torsion was corrected with dartos flap in 2, and penile degloving in 3 cases. Results The mean age of the patients was 5.6 years (4–7), and the mean operative time 12 minutes (7–20), respectively. The mean operation time was 17.5 (15–20) minutes and 8.3 (7–10) minutes in the dorsal dartos flap and penile degloving groups, respectively. The preoperative mean degree of penile torsion was 50° (30°–70°). The mean degree of torsion was 65° and 40° in the dorsal dartos and penile degloving groups, respectively. During the postoperative follow up, 1 case of residual torsion (<10°) was observed in the dorsal dartos flap group. Residual torsion was not observed in other patients. Conclusion Exploration for isolated cases of penile torsion during the circumcision procedure should not be overlooked. Successful results can be obtained with penile degloving and dartos flap rotation in cases with low and moderate torsion. PMID:27011878

  6. Extended torsional tests of an interlocked bi-stem satellite boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercrombie, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The effect is reported of continued oscillations of a 1.27-cm interlocked bi-stem satellite boom. The test setup oscillated a boom continuously between set torque limits and periodically recorded its hysteresis characteristics. Results showed that repeated oscillations affected torsional characteristics and that torsional rigidity changed as a function of the number of cycles oscillated within certain torque limits. Torsional characteristics changes caused by repeated oscillations were retained.

  7. Application of a boundary element method to the study of dynamical torsion of beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czekajski, C.; Laroze, S.; Gay, D.

    1982-01-01

    During dynamic torsion of beam elements, consideration of nonuniform warping effects involves a more general technical formulation then that of Saint-Venant. Nonclassical torsion constants appear in addition to the well known torsional rigidity. The adaptation of the boundary integral element method to the calculation of these constants for general section shapes is described. The suitability of the formulation is investigated with some examples of thick as well as thin walled cross sections.

  8. 3D Curves With a Prescribed Curvature and Torsion for a Flying Robot

    SciTech Connect

    Bestaoui, Yasmina

    2008-06-12

    The objective of this paper is to generate a desired flight path to be followed by an flying robot. A curve with discontinuous curvature and torsion is not appropriate for smooth motions for any vehicle architecture. Three different classes of curves are presented. First, constant curvature and torsion followed by a linear variation versus the curvilinear abscissa then a quadratic variation. Finally, the problem of maneuvers between two trim helices of different curvature and torsion is tackled with.

  9. Eye torsion and visual tilt are mediated by different binocular processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, J. M.; Held, R.

    1979-01-01

    Viewing a large, patterned field rotating about the line of sight produces two measurable effects; cyclotorsion of the eyes (torsion) and a perceived displacement of vertical and horizontal (tilt). Experiments examining binocular interaction for these effects show: (1) both effects demonstrate summation in normal individuals and thus both involve a binocular process; (2) the process for tilt is different than for torsion, since summation for torsion is spared in stereodeficient individuals while that for tilt is eliminated.

  10. Axial and torsional fatigue behavior of a cobalt-base alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh

    1991-01-01

    In order to develop elevated temperature multiaxial fatigue life prediction models for the wrought cobalt-base alloy, Haynes 188, a multiaxial fatigue data base is required. To satisfy this need, an elevated temperature experimental program on Haynes 188 consisting of axial, torsional, inphase and out of phase axial-torsional fatigue experiments was designed. Elevated temperature axial and torsional fatigue experiments were conducted under strain control on thin wall tubular specimens of Haynes 188 in air. Test results are given.

  11. The effects of torsion-vibration coupling on rotational spectra: Toluene reinterpreted and refitted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascooke, Jason R.; Lawrance, Warren D.

    2015-12-01

    A re-examination of rotational line positions for toluene is reported, motivated by the recent observation that the methyl internal rotor states are perturbed by torsion-vibration coupling to vibrational mode M20 (Gascooke et al., 2015). We demonstrate that the data can be fit equally well including or excluding torsion-vibration coupling. The torsion-vibration model required to account for the torsional band positions is thus shown to be consistent with the rotational line positions reported. It is found that including torsion-vibration coupling leads to changes in the values of the rotational and torsional constants, most significantly for AF, AF?, F and V6, as well as the higher order constants, with those involving powers of m, K and their cross-terms most affected. Expressions for these effects are provided based on a perturbation expansion, which shows the links between the two models. A primary indicator for the presence of torsion-vibration coupling is AF? being significantly different to the rotational constant for the frame, AF, and changing with m. Examination of published AF? /AF ratios for several substituted toluenes suggests that torsion-vibration coupling is widespread in such molecules. Torsion-vibration coupling has been directly observed through local perturbations to torsional levels in substituted toluenes with both 3- and 6-fold torsion potentials, indicating that it will also affect rotational and torsional constants in molecules with a 3-fold barrier. This indicates that the assumption that the small amplitude vibrations can be ignored when considering the large amplitude methyl rotation requires reassessment.

  12. Unification Principle and a Geometric Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanas, Mamdouh I.; Osman, Samah N.; El-Kholy, Reham I.

    2015-08-01

    In the context of the geometrization philosophy, a covariant field theory is constructed. The theory satisfies the unification principle. The field equations of the theory are constructed depending on a general differential identity in the geometry used. The Lagrangian scalar used in the formalism is neither curvature scalar nor torsion scalar, but an alloy made of both, the W-scalar. The physical contents of the theory are explored depending on different methods. The analysis shows that the theory is capable of dealing with gravity, electromagnetism and material distribution with possible mutual interactions. The theory is shown to cover the domain of general relativity under certain conditions.

  13. Torsion-sensing material from aligned carbon nanotubes wound onto a rod demonstrating wide dynamic range.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takeo; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hayamizu, Yuhei; Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kobashi, Kazufumi; Futaba, Don N; Hata, Kenji

    2013-04-23

    A rational torsion sensing material was fabricated by wrapping aligned single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin films onto the surface of a rod with a predetermined and fixed wrapping angle without destroying the internal network of the SWCNTs within the film. When applied as a torsion sensor, torsion could be measured up to 400 rad/meter, that is, more than 4 times higher than conventional optical fiber torsion sensors, by monitoring increases in resistance due to fracturing of the aligned SWCNT thin films. PMID:23464614

  14. The propagation of torsion along flux tubes subject to dynamical nonequilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1983-01-01

    It is noted that the dynamical nonequilibrium of close-packed flux tubes is driven by the torsion in the individual tubes. Because of this, whenever tubes with the same sense of twisting come into contact, there is reconnection of their azimuthal field components. The reconnection consumes the local torsion, and this causes the propagation of torsional Alfven waves into the region from elsewhere along the tubes. The formal problem of the propagation of the torsion along twisted flux tubes is presented, along with some of the basic physical properties worked out in the limit of small torsion. It is noted that in tubes with finite twisting the propagation of torsional Alfven waves can be a more complicated phenomenon. Application to the sun suggests that the propagation of torsion from below the visible surface up into the corona is an important energy supply to the corona for a period of perhaps 10-20 hours after the emergence of the flux tubes through the surface of the sun, bringing up torsion from depths of 10,000 km or more. Torsion is of course continually furnished by the manipulation and shuffling of the field by the convection.

  15. Schwarzschild-dS Solution in Modified Teleparallel Gravity Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashed, Gamal G. L.

    2014-04-01

    A tetrad field, having one unknown function of radial coordinate r and an angle Φ which is a function of the azimuthal angle ϕ, is applied to the field equation of modified teleparallel theory of gravity with cosmological constant. Exact vacuum solution is derived whose scalar torsion, T = Tμ ν α Sα μ ν , (where Tμ ν α is the torsion tensor and Sα μ ν is a tensor defined in terms of the contortion and torsion tensors), is vanishing. When the angle Φ coincides with the polar angle (-ϕ), another solution is derived whose scalar torsion is constant. The space-time of the derived solutions is rewritten as a multiplication of two matrices: The first matrix is a special case of Euler’s angle “so(3)” while the second matrix represents the square root of the spherically-symmetric-dS metric.

  16. Vacuum static compactified wormholes in eight-dimensional Lovelock theory

    SciTech Connect

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Alex

    2008-10-15

    In this paper, new exact solutions in eight-dimensional Lovelock theory will be presented. These solutions are the vacuum static wormhole, the black hole, and generalized Bertotti-Robinson space-times with nontrivial torsion. All of the solutions have a cross product structure of the type M{sub 5}x{sigma}{sub 3}, where M{sub 5} is a five-dimensional manifold and {sigma}{sub 3} a compact constant curvature manifold. The wormhole is the first example of a smooth vacuum static Lovelock wormhole which is neither Chern-Simons nor Born-Infeld. It will be also discussed how the presence of torsion affects the 'navigableness' of the wormhole for scalar and spinning particles. It will be shown that the wormhole with torsion may act as 'geometrical filter': A very large torsion may 'increase the traversability' for scalars while acting as a 'polarizator' on spinning particles. This may have interesting phenomenological consequences.

  17. Angular-Rate Estimation Using Quaternion Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, Ruth; Bar-Itzhack, Y.; Deutschmann, Julie K.; Harman, Richard R.

    1998-01-01

    In most spacecraft (SC) there is a need to know the SC angular rate. Precise angular rate is required for attitude determination, and a coarse rate is needed for attitude control damping. Classically, angular rate information is obtained from gyro measurements. These days, there is a tendency to build smaller, lighter and cheaper SC, therefore the inclination now is to do away with gyros and use other means and methods to determine the angular rate. The latter is also needed even in gyro equipped satellites when performing high rate maneuvers whose angular-rate is out of range of the on board gyros or in case of gyro failure. There are several ways to obtain the angular rate in a gyro-less SC. When the attitude is known, one can differentiate the attitude in whatever parameters it is given and use the kinematics equation that connects the derivative of the attitude with the satellite angular-rate and compute the latter. Since SC usually utilize vector measurements for attitude determination, the differentiation of the attitude introduces a considerable noise component in the computed angular-rate vector.

  18. Angular Momentum Eigenstates for Equivalent Electrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, E. R.; Calvert, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    Simple and efficient methods for adding angular momenta and for finding angular momentum eigenstates for systems of equivalent electrons are developed. Several different common representations are used in specific examples. The material is suitable for a graduate course in quantum mechanics. (SK)

  19. Orbital angular momentum in the nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, Gerald T.

    2010-05-15

    Analysis of the measured value of the integrated d-bar-u-bar asymmetry (I{sub fas} = 0.147 +- 0.027) in the nucleon show it to arise from nucleon fluctuations into baryon plus pion. Requiring angular momentum conservation in these fluctuations shows the associated orbital angular momentum is equal to the value of the flavor asymmetry.

  20. Angular momentum decomposition of Richardson's pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Dussel, G. G.; Sofia, H. M.

    2008-07-15

    The angular momentum decomposition of pairs obtained using Richardson's exact solution of the pairing Hamiltonian for the deformed {sup 174}Yb nucleus are displayed. The probabilities for low angular momenta of the collective pairs are strikingly different from the ones obtained in the BCS ground state.