Can Gravity Probe B usefully constrain torsion gravity theories?
Flanagan, Eanna E.; Rosenthal, Eran
2007-06-15
In most theories of gravity involving torsion, the source for torsion is the intrinsic spin of matter. Since the spins of fermions are normally randomly oriented in macroscopic bodies, the amount of torsion generated by macroscopic bodies is normally negligible. However, in a recent paper, Mao et al. (arXiv:gr-qc/0608121) point out that there is a class of theories, including the Hayashi-Shirafuji (1979) theory, in which the angular momentum of macroscopic spinning bodies generates a significant amount of torsion. They further argue that, by the principle of action equals reaction, one would expect the angular momentum of test bodies to couple to a background torsion field, and therefore the precession of the Gravity Probe B gyroscopes should be affected in these theories by the torsion generated by the Earth. We show that in fact the principle of action equals reaction does not apply to these theories, essentially because the torsion is not an independent dynamical degree of freedom. We examine in detail a generalization of the Hayashi-Shirafuji theory suggested by Mao et al. called Einstein-Hayashi-Shirafuji theory. There are a variety of different versions of this theory, depending on the precise form of the coupling to matter chosen for the torsion. We show that, for any coupling to matter that is compatible with the spin transport equation postulated by Mao et al., the theory has either ghosts or an ill-posed initial-value formulation. These theoretical problems can be avoided by specializing the parameters of the theory and in addition choosing the standard minimal coupling to matter of the torsion tensor. This yields a consistent theory, but one in which the action equals reaction principle is violated, and in which the angular momentum of the gyroscopes does not couple to the Earth's torsion field. Thus, the Einstein-Hayashi-Shirafuji theory does not predict a detectable torsion signal for Gravity Probe B. There may be other torsion theories which do.
Coupling a small torsional oscillator to large optical angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Hao; Bhattacharya, Mishkatul
2013-05-01
We propose a new optomechanical system to achieve torsional optomechanics. Our system is composed of a windmill-shaped dielectric optically trapped within a cavity interacting with Laguerre-Gaussian cavity modes with both angular and radial nodes. Compared to existing configurations, our proposal enables small mechanical oscillators to interact with the in-principle unlimited orbital angular momentum that can be carried by a single photon, and therefore allows the generation of scalable optomechanical coupling. Supported by Research Corporation for Science Advancement.
35. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL MOTION FROM EAST TOWER SHOWING ANGULAR ...
35. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL MOTION FROM EAST TOWER SHOWING ANGULAR DISTORTION APPROACHING 45 DEGREES WITH LAMP POSTS APPEARING TO BE AT EIGHT ANGLES, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MN FILM SHOT BY PROFESSOR F.B. FARQUHARSON, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON. (LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE TACOMA NARROWS BRIDGE, AT UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON SEATTLE: UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 1941) - Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Spanning Narrows at State Route 16, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Y. Z.; Fang, L.; Luo, J.; Yin, H.; Zhou, Z. B.
2015-09-01
The torsion pendulum is widely employed in gravitational experiments as a weak force sensitive instrument, and its resolution is limited by the thermal noise of the pendulum and detection noise of angular deflection. Different kinds of angular deflection transducers are proposed and realized to improve its resolution. A torsion pendulum combined with an electrostatic spring is proposed here in order to improve the measurement sensitivity of angular deflection. Noise analysis and demonstration experiments show that the electrostatic torsion pendulum can relax the requirement of angular deflection detection, which is useful for gravitational experiments with much higher precision requirements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Louck, James
Angular momentum theory is presented from the viewpoint of the group SU(1) of unimodular unitary matrices of order two. This is the basic quantum mechanical rotation group for implementing the consequences of rotational symmetry into isolated complex physical systems, and gives the structure of the angular momentum multiplets of such systems. This entails the study of representation functions of SU(2), the Lie algebra of SU(2) and copies thereof, and the associated Wigner-Clebsch-Gordan coefficients, Racah coefficients, and 1n-j coefficients, with an almost boundless set of inter-relations, and presentations of the associated conceptual framework. The relationship to the rotation group in physical 3-space is given in detail. Formulas are often given in a compendium format with brief introductions on their physical and mathematical content. A special effort is made to inter-relate the material to the special functions of mathematics and to the combinatorial foundations of the subject.
Tanioku, Akito; Hayashi, Satoko; Nakanishi, Waro
2009-01-01
Nuclear couplings for the Se-Se bonds, 1J(Se, Se), are analyzed on the basis of the molecular orbital (MO) theory. The values are calculated by employing the triple ? basis sets of the Slater type at the DFT level. 1J(Se, Se) are calculated modeled by MeSeSeMe (1a), which shows the typical torsional angular dependence on ?(CMeSeSeCMe). The dependence explains well the observed 1Jobsd (Se, Se) of small values (? 64 Hz) for RSeSeR? (1) (simple derivatives of 1a) and large values (330–380 Hz) observed for 4-substituted naphto[1,8-c, d]-1,2-diselenoles (2) which correspond to symperiplanar diselenides. 1J (Se, Se: 2) becomes larger as the electron density on Se increases. The paramagnetic spin-orbit terms contribute predominantly. The contributions are evaluated separately from each MO (?i) and each ?i ? ?a transition, where ?i and ?a are occupied and unoccupied MO's, respectively. The separate evaluation enables us to recognize and visualize the origin and the mechanism of the couplings. PMID:19680451
Quan, Li-Di; School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 ; Xue, Chao; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Yang, Shan-Qing; Tu, Liang-Cheng; Luo, Jun; Wang, Yong-Ji
2014-01-15
The performance of the feedback control system is of central importance in the measurement of the Newton's gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method. In this paper, a PID (Proportion-Integration-Differentiation) feedback loop is discussed in detail. Experimental results show that, with the feedback control activated, the twist angle of the torsion balance is limited to 7.3×10{sup ?7} rad /?( Hz ) at the signal frequency of 2?mHz, which contributes a 0.4 ppm uncertainty to the G value.
The torsion cosmology in Kaluza–Klein theory
Chen, Songbai; Jing, Jiliang E-mail: jljing@hunnu.edu.cn
2009-09-01
We have studied the torsion cosmology model in Kaluza–Klein theory. We considered two simple models in which the torsion vectors are A{sub ?} = (?,0,0,0) and A{sub ?} = a(t){sup 2}(0,?,?,?), respectively. For the first model, the accelerating expansion of the Universe can be not explained without dark energy which is similar to that in the standard cosmology. But for the second model, we find that without dark energy the effect of torsion can give rise to the accelerating expansion of the universe and the alleviation of the well-known age problem of the three old objects for appropriated value of the model parameter ?. These outstanding features of the second torsion cosmology model have been supported by the Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) data.
Thermal Properties of SiCp/Al Composites Consolidated by Equal Channel Angular Pressing and Torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Chen-hao; Li, Ping; Xue, Ke-min
2015-02-01
Powder mixture of pure Al and oxidized SiC was consolidated into SiCp/Al composites by equal channel angular pressing and torsion (ECAP-T). The influences of several parameters on the thermal expansions, the thermal conductivities, and the recrystallization temperatures of the as-consolidated composites were studied. These parameters are the number of ECAP-T passes (1, 2, and 4), the content of SiC (10, 20, and 40 wt.%), and the fabrication temperature (150, 250, and 350 °C). The results show that increasing the number of ECAP-T passes has a positive effect on depressing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the composite within a certain temperature range, since the total variation amplitude of the CTE is enlarged. The CTE can also be decreased by increasing the content of SiC. The number of ECAP-T passes and the contents of SiC in the composites are both positively related with the thermal conductivity of the composites. No direct relationship between the fabrication temperature and the thermal properties was detected. However, the composite fabricated at too low temperature (150 °C) can not obtain full densification, leading to the appearance of low CTE and thermal conductivity. Finally, when the number of ECAP-T passes is elevated from 2 to 4, the recrystallization temperature of the composite has an obvious declination.
Constraining torsion with Gravity Probe B
Mao Yi; Guth, Alan H.; Cabi, Serkan; Tegmark, Max
2007-11-15
It is well-entrenched folklore that all torsion gravity theories predict observationally negligible torsion in the solar system, since torsion (if it exists) couples only to the intrinsic spin of elementary particles, not to rotational angular momentum. We argue that this assumption has a logical loophole which can and should be tested experimentally, and consider nonstandard torsion theories in which torsion can be generated by macroscopic rotating objects. In the spirit of action=reaction, if a rotating mass like a planet can generate torsion, then a gyroscope would be expected to feel torsion. An experiment with a gyroscope (without nuclear spin) such as Gravity Probe B (GPB) can test theories where this is the case. Using symmetry arguments, we show that to lowest order, any torsion field around a uniformly rotating spherical mass is determined by seven dimensionless parameters. These parameters effectively generalize the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism and provide a concrete framework for further testing Einstein's general theory of relativity (GR). We construct a parametrized Lagrangian that includes both standard torsion-free GR and Hayashi-Shirafuji maximal torsion gravity as special cases. We demonstrate that classic solar system tests rule out the latter and constrain two observable parameters. We show that Gravity Probe B is an ideal experiment for further constraining nonstandard torsion theories, and work out the most general torsion-induced precession of its gyroscope in terms of our torsion parameters.
Hyperscaling violating black holes in scalar-torsion theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kofinas, Georgios
2015-10-01
We study a gravity theory where a scalar field with potential, beyond its minimal coupling, is also coupled through a nonminimal derivative coupling with the torsion scalar which is the teleparallel equivalent of Einstein gravity. This theory provides second order equations of motion and we find large-distance, nonperturbative, static, spherically symmetric four-dimensional solutions. Among them a general class of black hole solutions is found for some range of the parameters/integration constants with asymptotics of the form of hyperscaling violating Lifshitz spacetime with spherical horizon topology. Although the scalar field diverges at the horizon, its energy density and pressures are finite there. From the astrophysical point of view, this solution provides extra deflection of light compared to the Newtonian deflection.
De Sitter spacetimes with torsion in the model of dS gauge theory of gravity
Chao-Guang Huang; Meng-Sen Ma
2009-10-08
In the model of de Sitter gauge theory of gravity, the empty homogenous and isotropic spacetimes with constant curvature scalar and nonvanishing homogenous and isotropic torsion must have de Sitter metrics. The static de Sitter spacetime with static, O(3)-symmetric, vector torsion is the only spherically symmetric, vacuum solution with the metric of the form $g_{\\mu\
String Theory backgrounds with Torsion in the presence of Fermions and implications for Leptogenesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarkar, Sarben
2015-07-01
Fermions couple in a universal way to the the Kalb-Ramond field which occurs in the gravitational multiplet of string theory. The Kalb-Ramond field is a source of torsion and can provide a background for fermion dynamics. Solutions for this background in terms of the string effective action are discussed and are fixed ’’points” of conformal invariance conditions. Nonperturbative fixed points for the torsion in the absence of matter are shown to be compatible with perturbative fixed points in the presence of matter. Fermion coupling to such backgrounds can lead to both CP and CPT violation. Hence torsion can give a new mechanism for leptogenesis. The presence of anomalies in the Bianchi identity for the torsion, in the presence of matter, is crucial in giving a background solution for the torsion and dilaton with an acceptable cosmology.
Parallel spinors and connections with skewsymmetric torsion in string theory \\Lambda
Friedrich, Thomas
Parallel spinors and connections with skewÂsymmetric torsion in string theory \\Lambda Thomas is of importance in string theory, since they are associated with some string solitons (BPS solitons) [42Â plications in the exploration of perturbative and nonÂperturbative properties of string theory. An important
Torsion and Nonmetricity in Scalar-Tensor Theories of Gravity
Jean-paul Berthias; Bahman Shahid-Saless
1993-03-09
We show that the gravitational field equations derived from an action composed of i) an arbitrary function of the scalar curvature and other scalar fields plus ii) connection-independent kinetic and source terms, are identical whether one chooses nonmetricity to vanish and have non-zero torsion or vice versa.
Scalar-torsion mode in a cosmological model of the Poincaré gauge theory of gravity
Tseng, Huan-Hsin; Lee, Chung-Chi; Geng, Chao-Qiang E-mail: g9522545@oz.nthu.edu.tw
2012-11-01
We investigate the scalar-torsion mode in a cosmological model of the Poincaré gauge theory of gravity. We treat the geometric effect of torsion as an effective quantity, which behaves like dark energy, and study the effective equation of state (EoS) of the model. We concentrate on two cases with the constant curvature solution and positive kinetic energy, respectively. In the former, we find that the torsion EoS has different values in the various stages of the universe. In particular, it behaves like the radiation (matter) EoS of w{sub r} = 1/3 (w{sub m} = 0) in the radiation (matter) dominant epoch, while in the late time the torsion density is supportive for the accelerating universe. In the latter, our numerical analysis shows that in general the EoS has an asymptotic behavior in the high redshift regime, while it could cross the phantom divide line in the low redshift regime.
Self-gravitating spherically symmetric solutions in scalar-torsion theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kofinas, Georgios; Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.
2015-05-01
We study spherically symmetric solutions in scalar-torsion gravity theories in which a scalar field is coupled to torsion with a derivative coupling. We obtain the general field equations from which we extract a decoupled master equation, the solution of which leads to the specification of all other unknown functions. We first obtain an exact solution which represents a new wormholelike solution dressed with a regular scalar field. Then, we find large distance linearized spherically symmetric solutions in which the space asymptotically is anti-de Sitter.
On Torsion-free Vacuum Solutions of the Model of de Sitter Gauge Theory of Gravity (II)
Chao-Guang Huang; Meng-Sen Ma
2009-06-15
It is shown that all torsion-free vacuum solutions of the model of dS gauge theory of gravity are the vacuum solutions of Einstein field equations with the same positive cosmological constant. Furthermore, for the gravitational theories with more general quadratic gravitational Lagrangian ($F^2+T^2$), the torsion-free vacuum solutions are also the vacuum solutions of Einstein field equations.
Neil Russell
2008-03-14
In this proceedings, similarities between the structure of theories with Lorentz violation and theories with constant torsion in flat spacetime are exploited to place bounds on torsion components. An example is given showing the analysis leading to bounds on the axial-vector and mixed-symmetry components of torsion, based on a dual-maser experiment.
Standard Electroweak Interactions in Gravitational Theory with Chameleon Field and Torsion
A. N. Ivanov; M. Wellenzohn
2015-04-22
We propose a version of a gravitational theory with the torsion field, induced by the chameleon field. Following Hojman et al. Phys. Rev. D17, 3141 (1976) the results, obtained in Phys. Rev. D90, 045040 (2014), are generalised by extending the Einstein gravity to the Einstein-Cartan gravity with the torsion field as a gradient of the chameleon field through a modification of local gauge invariance of minimal coupling in the Weinberg-Salam electroweak model. The contributions of the chameleon (torsion) field to the observables of electromagnetic and weak processes are calculated. Since in our approach the chameleon-photon coupling constant beta_(gamma) is equal to the chameleon-matter coupling constant beta, i.e. beta_(gamma) = beta, the experimental constraints on beta, obtained in terrestrial laboratories by T. Jenke et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 115105 (2014)) and by H. Lemmel et al. (Phys. Lett. B743, 310 (2015)), can be used for the analysis of astrophysical sources of chameleons, proposed by C. Burrage et al. (Phys. Rev. D79, 044028 (2009)), A.-Ch. Davis et al. (Phys. Rev. D80, 064016 (2009), and in references therein, where chameleons induce photons because of direct chameleon-photon transitions in the magnetic fields.
Standard electroweak interactions in gravitational theory with chameleon field and torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, A. N.; Wellenzohn, M.
2015-04-01
We propose a version of a gravitational theory with a torsion field, induced by the chameleon field. Following Hojman et al. [Phys. Rev. D 17, 3141 (1976)], the results obtained in Phys. Rev. D 90, 045040 (2014) are generalized by extending Einstein gravity to Einstein-Cartan gravity with a torsion field as a gradient of the chameleon field through a modification of the local gauge invariance of minimal coupling in the Weinberg-Salam electroweak model. The contributions of the chameleon (torsion) field to the observables of electromagnetic and weak processes are calculated. Since in our approach the chameleon-photon coupling constant ?? is equal to the chameleon-matter coupling constant ? , i.e., ??=? , the experimental constraints on ? —obtained in terrestrial laboratories by T. Jenke et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 115105 (2014)] and by H. Lemmel et al. [Phys. Lett. B 743, 310 (2015)]—can be used for the analysis of astrophysical sources of chameleons, proposed by C. Burrage et al. [Phys. Rev. D 79, 044028 (2009)], A.-C. Davis et al. [Phys. Rev. D 80, 064016 (2009)], and in references therein, where chameleons induce photons because of direct chameleon-photon transitions in the magnetic fields.
Standard Electroweak Interactions in Gravitational Theory with Chameleon Field and Torsion
Ivanov, A N
2015-01-01
We propose a version of a gravitational theory with the torsion field, induced by the chameleon field. Following Hojman et al. Phys. Rev. D17, 3141 (1976) the results, obtained in Phys. Rev. D90, 045040 (2014), are generalised by extending the Einstein gravity to the Einstein-Cartan gravity with the torsion field as a gradient of the chameleon field through a modification of local gauge invariance of minimal coupling in the Weinberg-Salam electroweak model. The contributions of the chameleon (torsion) field to the observables of electromagnetic and weak processes are calculated. Since in our approach the chameleon-photon coupling constant beta_(gamma) is equal to the chameleon-matter coupling constant beta, i.e. beta_(gamma) = beta, the experimental constraints on beta, obtained in terrestrial laboratories by T. Jenke et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 115105 (2014)) and by H. Lemmel et al. (Phys. Lett. B743, 310 (2015)), can be used for the analysis of astrophysical sources of chameleons, proposed by C. Burrage e...
Gyrokinetic theory and simulation of angular momentum transport
Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J.; Hinton, F. L.
2007-12-15
A gyrokinetic theory of turbulent toroidal angular momentum transport as well as modifications to neoclassical poloidal rotation from turbulence is formulated starting from the fundamental six-dimensional kinetic equation. The gyro-Bohm scaled transport is evaluated from toroidal delta-f gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code [Candy and Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)]. The simulations recover two pinch mechanisms in the radial transport of toroidal angular momentum: The slab geometry ExB shear pinch [Dominguez and Staebler, Phys. Fluids B 5, 387 (1993)] and the toroidal geometry 'Coriolis' pinch [Peeters, Angioni, and Strintzi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265003 (2007)]. The pinches allow the steady state null stress (or angular momentum transport flow) condition required to understand intrinsic (or spontaneous) toroidal rotation in heated tokamak without an internal source of torque [Staebler, Kinsey, and Waltz, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 46, 221 (2001)]. A predicted turbulent shift in the neoclassical poloidal rotation [Staebler, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1064 (2004)] appears to be small at the finite relative gyroradius (rho-star) of current experiments.
The nonlinear bending-torsion theory for curved rods as Gamma-limit of three-dimensional elasticity
Lucia Scardia
2008-03-06
The problem of the rigorous derivation of one-dimensional models for nonlinearly elastic curved beams is studied in a variational setting. Considering different scalings of the three-dimensional energy and passing to the limit as the diameter of the beam goes to zero, a nonlinear model for strings and a bending-torsion theory for rods are deduced.
Singularity in the Laboratory Frame Angular Distribution Derived in Two-Body Scattering Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.
2009-01-01
The laboratory (lab) frame angular distribution derived in two-body scattering theory exhibits a singularity at the maximum lab scattering angle. The singularity appears in the kinematic factor that transforms the centre of momentum (cm) angular distribution to the lab angular distribution. We show that it is caused in the transformation by the…
Eustice, Ryan
Magnetometer Bias Calibration Based on Relative Angular Position: Theory and Experimental for esti- mating the sensor bias of three-axis magnetometers (or any other field sensor). Our approach employs relative angular position measurements to estimate the three-axis magnetometer measurement bias
Bars, I.; Nemeschansky, D.; Yankielowicz, S.
1985-09-01
String theories on a background manifold with torsion are discussed. Candidate vacuum configurations are discussed for ten-dimensional superstrings. These are compactified on M/sub 4/ x K, where M/sub 4/ is four-dimensional and K is some compact six-dimensional manifold. Solutions with non-zero torsion on K are emphasized. The compactification problem is approached both from the effective field theory point of view and directly using string considerations. The construction of string theories in curved space with torsion is then discussed. Particular emphasis is put on the constraints on space-time supersymmetry in the Green-Schwarz approach. Two-dimensional non-linear sigma models are used to describe the propagation of strings in background geometries with torsion. (LEW)
Felix Ploger; Saul Ramos-Sanchez; Michael Ratz; Patrick K. S. Vaudrevange
2007-04-18
Z_NxZ_M orbifold models admit the introduction of a discrete torsion phase. We find that models with discrete torsion have an alternative description in terms of torsionless models. More specifically, discrete torsion can be 'gauged away' by changing the shifts by lattice vectors. Similarly, a large class of the so-called generalized discrete torsion phases can be traded for changing the background fields (Wilson lines) by lattice vectors. We further observe that certain models with generalized discrete torsion are equivalent to torsionless models with the same gauge embedding but based on different compactification lattices. We also present a method of classifying heterotic Z_NxZ_M orbifolds.
Torsion cosmology of Poincaré gauge theory and the constraints of its parameters via SNeIa data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ao, Xi-Chen; Li, Xin-Zhou
2012-02-01
Poincarè gauge theory (PGT) is an alternative gravity theory, which brings the gravity into the gauge-theoretic framework, where the Lagrangian includes both quadratic torsion and curvature terms. Recently, the cosmological models with torsion based on this theory, which explained the cosmic acceleration in a new way, have received much attention. Among these PGT cosmological models, the one with only even parity dynamical modes-SNY model, for its realistic meaning, is very attractive. In this paper, we first analyze the past-time cosmic evolution of SNY model analytically. And based on these results we fit this model to the most comprehensive SNeIa data (Union 2) and thus find the best-fit values of model parameters and initial conditions, whose related ?2 value is consistent with the one from ?CMD at the 1? level. Also by the ?2 estimate, we provide certain constraints on these parameters. Using these best-fit values for the Union 2 SNeIa dataset, we are able to predict the evolution of our real universe in late time. From this prediction, we know that the fate of our universe is that it would expand forever, slowly asymptotically to a halt, which is in accordance with the earlier works.
Torsion cosmology of Poincaré gauge theory and the constraints of its parameters via SNeIa data
Ao, Xi-Chen; Li, Xin-Zhou E-mail: kychz@shnu.edu.cn
2012-02-01
Poincarè gauge theory (PGT) is an alternative gravity theory, which brings the gravity into the gauge-theoretic framework, where the Lagrangian includes both quadratic torsion and curvature terms. Recently, the cosmological models with torsion based on this theory, which explained the cosmic acceleration in a new way, have received much attention. Among these PGT cosmological models, the one with only even parity dynamical modes-SNY model, for its realistic meaning, is very attractive. In this paper, we first analyze the past-time cosmic evolution of SNY model analytically. And based on these results we fit this model to the most comprehensive SNeIa data (Union 2) and thus find the best-fit values of model parameters and initial conditions, whose related ?{sup 2} value is consistent with the one from ?CMD at the 1? level. Also by the ?{sup 2} estimate, we provide certain constraints on these parameters. Using these best-fit values for the Union 2 SNeIa dataset, we are able to predict the evolution of our real universe in late time. From this prediction, we know that the fate of our universe is that it would expand forever, slowly asymptotically to a halt, which is in accordance with the earlier works.
Torsion as electromagnetism and spin
Nikodem J. Poplawski
2010-07-10
We show that it is possible to formulate the classical Einstein-Maxwell-Dirac theory of spinors interacting with the gravitational and electromagnetic fields as the Einstein-Cartan-Kibble-Sciama theory with the Ricci scalar of the traceless torsion, describing gravity, and the torsion trace acting as the electromagnetic potential.
Theory of angular dispersive imaging hard x-ray spectrographs
Shvyd'ko, Yuri
2015-01-01
A spectrograph is an optical instrument that disperses photons of different energies into distinct directions and space locations, and images photon spectra on a position-sensitive detector. Spectrographs consist of collimating, angular dispersive, and focusing optical elements. Bragg reflecting crystals arranged in an asymmetric scattering geometry are used as the dispersing elements. A ray-transfer matrix technique is applied to propagate x-rays through the optical elements. Several optical designs of hard x-ray spectrographs are proposed and their performance is analyzed. Spectrographs with an energy resolution of 0.1 meV and a spectral window of imaging up to a few tens of meVs are shown to be feasible for inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) spectroscopy applications. In another example, a spectrograph with a 1-meV spectral resolution and 85-meV spectral window of imaging is considered for Cu K-edge resonant IXS (RIXS).
Inverse problems for torsional modes.
Willis, C.
1984-01-01
Considers a spherically symmetric, non-rotating Earth consisting of an isotropic, perfect elastic material where the density and the S-wave velocity may have one or two discontinuities in the upper mantle. Shows that given the velocity throughout the mantle and the crust and given the density in the lower mantle, then the freqencies of the torsional oscillations of one angular order (one torsional spectrum), determine the density in the upper mantle and in the crust uniquely. If the velocity is known only in the lower mantle, then the frequencies of the torsional oscillations of two angular orders uniquely determine both the density and the velocity in the upper mantle and in the crust. In particular, the position and size of the discontinuities in the density and velocity are uniquely determined by two torsional spectra.-Author
Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Rafikov, Roman R.; Stone, James M.
2013-06-10
The nature of angular momentum transport in the boundary layers of accretion disks has been one of the central and long-standing issues of accretion disk theory. In this work we demonstrate that acoustic waves excited by supersonic shear in the boundary layer serve as an efficient mechanism of mass, momentum, and energy transport at the interface between the disk and the accreting object. We develop the theory of angular momentum transport by acoustic modes in the boundary layer, and support our findings with three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, using an isothermal equation of state. Our first major result is the identification of three types of global modes in the boundary layer. We derive dispersion relations for each of these modes that accurately capture the pattern speeds observed in simulations to within a few percent. Second, we show that angular momentum transport in the boundary layer is intrinsically nonlocal, and is driven by radiation of angular momentum away from the boundary layer into both the star and the disk. The picture of angular momentum transport in the boundary layer by waves that can travel large distances before dissipating and redistributing angular momentum and energy to the disk and star is incompatible with the conventional notion of local transport by turbulent stresses. Our results have important implications for semianalytical models that describe the spectral emission from boundary layers.
Generalization of Equivalent Crystal Theory to Include Angular Dependence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferrante, John; Zypman, Fredy R.
2004-01-01
In the original Equivalent Crystal Theory, each atomic site in the real crystal is assigned an equivalent lattice constant, in general different from the ground state one. This parameter corresponds to a local compression or expansion of the lattice. The basic method considers these volumetric transformations and, in addition, introduces the possibility that the reference lattice is anisotropically distorted. These distortions however, were introduced ad-hoc. In this work, we generalize the original Equivalent Crystal Theory by systematically introducing site-dependent directional distortions of the lattice, whose corresponding distortions account for the dependence of the energy on anisotropic local density variations. This is done in the spirit of the original framework, but including a gradient term in the density. This approach is introduced to correct a deficiency in the original Equivalent Crystal Theory and other semiempirical methods in quantitatively obtaining the correct ratios of the surface energies of low index planes of cubic metals (100), (110), and (111). We develop here the basic framework, and apply it to the calculation of Fe (110) and Fe (111) surface energy formation. The results, compared with first principles calculations, show an improvement over previous semiempirical approaches.
Zhou, Yun Pollak, Eli; Miret-Artés, Salvador
2014-01-14
A second order classical perturbation theory is developed and applied to elastic atom corrugated surface scattering. The resulting theory accounts for experimentally observed asymmetry in the final angular distributions. These include qualitative features, such as reduction of the asymmetry in the intensity of the rainbow peaks with increased incidence energy as well as the asymmetry in the location of the rainbow peaks with respect to the specular scattering angle. The theory is especially applicable to “soft” corrugated potentials. Expressions for the angular distribution are derived for the exponential repulsive and Morse potential models. The theory is implemented numerically to a simplified model of the scattering of an Ar atom from a LiF(100) surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mosna, Ricardo A.; Saa, Alberto
2005-11-01
We reexamine here the issue of consistency of minimal action formulation with the minimal coupling procedure (MCP) in spaces with torsion. In Riemann-Cartan spaces, it is known that a proper use of the MCP requires that the trace of the torsion tensor be a gradient, T?=???, and that the modified volume element ??=e??g dx1?⋯?dxn be used in the action formulation of a physical model. We rederive this result here under considerably weaker assumptions, reinforcing some recent results about the inadequacy of propagating torsion theories of gravity to explain the available observational data. The results presented here also open the door to possible applications of the modified volume element in the geometric theory of crystalline defects.
Spin-torsion coupling and gravitational moments of Dirac fermions: theory and experimental bounds
Yuri N. Obukhov; Alexander J. Silenko; Oleg V. Teryaev
2015-01-29
We discuss the quantum dynamics of the Dirac fermion particle in a gauge gravitational field. The minimal as well as the Pauli-type nonminimal coupling of a fermion with external fields is studied, bringing into consideration the notions of the translational and the Lorentz gravitational moments. The anomalous gravitomagnetic and gravitoelectric moments are ruled out on the basis of the covariance arguments. We derive the general Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation for an arbitrary configuration of the gauge gravitational field without assuming it weak. Making use of the Foldy-Wouthuysen Hamiltonian for the Dirac particle coupled to magnetic field in a noninertial reference system, we analyze the recent experimental data and obtain bounds on the spacetime torsion.
Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabaret, J.; Béquin, P.; Theocharis, G.; Andreev, V.; Gusev, V. E.; Tournat, V.
2015-07-01
We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters.
Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves.
Cabaret, J; Béquin, P; Theocharis, G; Andreev, V; Gusev, V E; Tournat, V
2015-07-31
We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters. PMID:26274421
Angular Momentum Evolution of Young Stars: Toward a Synthesis of Observations, Theory, and Modeling
Keivan G. Stassun; Donald Terndrup
2003-03-17
The aim of this AAS Topical Session was to update the community on the current state of knowledge about the angular momentum evolution of young stars. For newcomers to the subject, the session was intended to provide an introduction and general overview and to highlight emerging issues. For experienced workers in this field, the session provided an opportunity for synthesizing recent developments in observations, theory, and modeling of rotation of young stars and for identifying promising new research directions.
Derivation of Einstein-Cartan theory from general relativity
R. J. Petti
2015-05-28
General relativity cannot describe exchange of classical intrinsic angular momentum and orbital angular momentum. Einstein Cartan theory fixes this problem in the least invasive way. This article presents a derivation of Einstein Cartan theory from general relativity, with no additional assumptions or parameters. The derivation begins with a sequence of arrays of general relativistic solutions that converge to a continuum of matter in which densities of mass, momentum, angular momentum and charge are constants. The continuum limit of this sequence of solutions yields Einstein Cartan theory with torsion and the spin torsion relation, not general relativity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, Donald B.; Parzych, David J.
1993-01-01
This report presents the derivation of a frequency domain theory and working equations for radiation of propeller harmonic noise in the presence of angular inflow. In applying the acoustic analogy, integration over the tangential coordinate of the source region is performed numerically, permitting the equations to be solved without approximation for any degree of angular inflow. Inflow angle is specified in terms of yaw, pitch, and roll angles of the aircraft. Since these can be arbitrarily large, the analysis applies with equal accuracy to propellers and helicopter rotors. For thickness and loading, the derivation is given in complete detail with working equations for near and far field. However, the quadrupole derivation has been carried only far enough to show feasibility of the numerical approach. Explicit formulas are presented for computation of source elements, evaluation of Green's functions, and location of observer points in various visual and retarded coordinate systems. The resulting computer program, called WOBBLE has been written in FORTRAN and follows the notation of this report very closely. The new theory is explored to establish the effects of varying inflow angle on axial and circumferential directivity. Also, parametric studies were performed to evaluate various phenomena outside the capabilities of earlier theories, such as an unsteady thickness effect. Validity of the theory was established by comparison with test data from conventional propellers and Prop Fans in flight and in wind tunnels under a variety of operating conditions and inflow angles.
Torsion-induced spin precession
Morteza Mohseni
2008-07-22
We investigate the motion of a spinning test particle in a spatially-flat FRW-type space-time in the framework of the Einstein-Cartan theory. The space-time has a torsion arising from a spinning fluid filling the space-time. We show that for spinning particles with nonzero transverse spin components, the torsion induces a precession of particle spin around the direction of the fluid spin. We also show that a charged spinning particle moving in a torsion-less spatially-flat FRW space-time in the presence of a uniform magnetic field undergoes a precession of a different character.
Bigoni, D.; Dal Corso, F.; Misseroni, D.; Bosi, F.
2014-01-01
One edge of an elastic rod is inserted into a friction-less and fitting socket head, whereas the other edge is subjected to a torque, generating a uniform twisting moment. It is theoretically shown and experimentally proved that, although perfectly smooth, the constraint realizes an expulsive axial force on the elastic rod, which amount is independent of the shape of the socket head. The axial force explains why screwdrivers at high torque have the tendency to disengage from screw heads and demonstrates torsional locomotion along a perfectly smooth channel. This new type of locomotion finds direct evidence in the realization of a ‘torsional gun’, capable of transforming torque into propulsive force. PMID:25383038
Abbasi, Mohammad; Karami Mohammadi, Ardeshir
2015-05-01
A relationship based on a nonlocal elasticity theory is developed to investigate the torsional sensitivity and resonant frequency of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with assembled cantilever probe (ACP). This ACP comprises a horizontal cantilever and a vertical extension, and a tip located at the free end of the extension, which makes the AFM capable of topography at sidewalls of microstructures. First, the governing differential equations of motion and boundary conditions for dynamic analysis are obtained by a combination of the basic equations of nonlocal elasticity theory and Hamilton's principle. Afterward, a closed-form expression for the sensitivity of vibration modes has been obtained using the relationship between the resonant frequency and contact stiffness of cantilever and sample. These analysis accounts for a better representation of the torsional behavior of an AFM with sidewall probe where the small-scale effect are significant. The results of the proposed model are compared with those of classical beam theory. The results show that the sensitivities and resonant frequencies of ACP predicted by the nonlocal elasticity theory are smaller than those obtained by the classical beam theory. PMID:25755027
Angular-momentum theory applied to interactions in solids. Summary progress report
Morrison, C.A.
1987-02-01
This report discusses those concepts of group theory that are applied to the spectra of impurity ions in crystals. Beginning with the simple hydrogen atom, spectroscopic notation and angular-momentum operators are discussed. This is followed by a general discussion of angular-momentum theory including Clebsch-Gordon coefficients, the Wigner-Eckart theorem, unit spherical tensors, and Racah coefficients. The extension of these techniques to the electronic configuration, (l to the Nth power), for N equivalent electrons is discussed. The theory of point groups as applied to ions in solids is introduced, along with the use of the International Tables of Crystallography and character tables. The phenomenological theory of crystal fields is discussed in some detail along with the so-called free-ion parameters characterizing the Coulomb interaction, the spin-orbit interaction, and the interconfiguration interaction. The use of tables of 3-j and 6-j symbols used in the calculation of the matrix elements of the various interactions is presented, along with other tables and aids in the computation of the energy levels. The point ion model of crystal-field interaction is discussed with particular emphasis on the work done at the Harry Diamond Laboratories (HDL) on its development. The earlier work at HDL was applied to triply ionized rare earth ions (l to the Nth power) electronic configuration), and the preliminary extensions presently being undertaken at HDL are applied to the transition-metal ions with the electronic configurations d to the Nth power (n=3,4, and 5).
Axions in gravity with torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castillo-Felisola, Oscar; Corral, Cristóbal; Kovalenko, Sergey; Schmidt, Iván; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.
2015-04-01
We study a scenario allowing a solution of the strong charge parity problem via the Peccei-Quinn mechanism, implemented in gravity with torsion. In this framework there appears a torsion-related pseudoscalar field known as the Kalb-Ramond axion. We compare it with the so-called Barbero-Immirzi axion recently proposed in the literature also in the context of the gravity with torsion. We show that they are equivalent from the viewpoint of the effective theory. The phenomenology of these torsion-descended axions is completely determined by the Planck scale without any additional model parameters. These axions are very light and very weakly interacting with ordinary matter. We briefly comment on their astrophysical and cosmological implications in view of the recent BICEP2 and Planck data.
Meana-Pañeda, Rubén; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio
2014-05-01
This work reports a detailed theoretical study of the hydrogen abstraction reactions from ethanol by atomic hydrogen. The calculated thermal rate constants take into account torsional anharmonicity and conformational flexibility, in addition to the variational and tunneling effects. Specifically, the kinetics calculations were performed by using multi-path canonical variational transition state theory with least-action path tunneling corrections, to which we have added the two-dimensional non-separable method to take into account torsional anharmonicity. The multi-path thermal rate constant is expressed as a sum over conformational reaction channels. Each of these channels includes all the transition states that can be reached by internal rotations. The results show that, in the interval of temperatures between 250 and 2500 K, the account for multiple paths leads to higher thermal rate constants with respect to the single path approach, mainly at low and at high temperatures. In addition, torsional anharmonicity enhances the slope of the Arrhenius plot in this range of temperatures. Finally, we show that the incorporation of tunneling into the hydrogen abstraction reactions substantially changes the contribution of each of the transition states to the conformational reaction channel. PMID:24811637
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meana-Pañeda, Rubén; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio
2014-05-01
This work reports a detailed theoretical study of the hydrogen abstraction reactions from ethanol by atomic hydrogen. The calculated thermal rate constants take into account torsional anharmonicity and conformational flexibility, in addition to the variational and tunneling effects. Specifically, the kinetics calculations were performed by using multi-path canonical variational transition state theory with least-action path tunneling corrections, to which we have added the two-dimensional non-separable method to take into account torsional anharmonicity. The multi-path thermal rate constant is expressed as a sum over conformational reaction channels. Each of these channels includes all the transition states that can be reached by internal rotations. The results show that, in the interval of temperatures between 250 and 2500 K, the account for multiple paths leads to higher thermal rate constants with respect to the single path approach, mainly at low and at high temperatures. In addition, torsional anharmonicity enhances the slope of the Arrhenius plot in this range of temperatures. Finally, we show that the incorporation of tunneling into the hydrogen abstraction reactions substantially changes the contribution of each of the transition states to the conformational reaction channel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yuan; Ning, Chuangang
2015-10-01
Recently, the development of photoelectron velocity map imaging makes it much easier to obtain the photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) experimentally. However, explanations of PADs are only qualitative in most cases, and very limited works have been reported on how to calculate PAD of anions. In the present work, we report a method using the density-functional-theory Kohn-Sham orbitals to calculate the photodetachment cross sections and the anisotropy parameter ?. The spherical average over all random molecular orientation is calculated analytically. A program which can handle both the Gaussian type orbital and the Slater type orbital has been coded. The testing calculations on Li-, C-, O-, F-, CH-, OH-, NH2-, O2-, and S2- show that our method is an efficient way to calculate the photodetachment cross section and anisotropy parameter ? for anions, thus promising for large systems.
Zhou, Junhe; Zong, Jinbang; Liu, Daoqiang
2015-12-14
In this paper, orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes transmission in the presence of atmosphere turbulence is studied via a coupled mode theory. The Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beams with OAM topological charges are emitted into free space and undergo interactions due to the random index variations in the atmosphere. The coupling between the LG beams can be characterized by a set of coupled average power equation, which resembles the Marcuse' coupled power equation (CPE) originally proposed for the optical waveguides. The coupling coefficients and the modal radiation losses for the equation can be evaluated analytically. The accurate solution and the first order approximate solution to the CPE match the published data and the Mont-Carlos simulation results with good accuracy. The CPE and its approximate analytical solution can work as powerful tools for the analysis of the OAM beam evolution with the presence of the atmosphere turbulence. PMID:26698988
Silverman, Joseph H.
Depth and dispersal If a is the first nonzero coefficient, write dp(u) = for the depth of u, and dp If a is the first nonzero coefficient, write dp(u) = for the depth of u, and dp(x) = . So dp(x + x10) = 9. Torsion If a is the first nonzero coefficient, write dp(u) = for the depth of u, and dp(x) = . So dp(x + x10) = 9. m
Abhishek K. Singh; K. Priyabrat Pandey; Sunita Singh; Supriya Kar
2013-03-21
The U(1) gauge dynamics on a D4-brane is revisited, with a two form, to construct an effective curvature theory in a second order formalism. We exploit the local degrees in a two form, and modify its dynamics in a gauge invariant way, to incorporate a non-perturbative metric fluctuation in an effective D4-brane. Interestingly, the near horizon D4-brane is shown to describe an asymptotic Anti de Sitter (AdS) in a semi-classical regime. Using Weyl scaling(s), we obtain the emergent rotating geometries leading to primordial de Sitter (dS) and AdS vacua in a quantum regime. Under a discrete transformation, we re-arrange the mixed dS patches to describe a Schwazschild-like dS (SdS) and a topological-like dS (TdS) black holes. We analyze SdS vacuum for Hawking radiations to arrive at Nariai geometry, where a discrete torsion forms a condensate. We perform thermal analysis to identify Nariai vacuum with a TdS. Investigation reveals an AdS patch within a thermal dS brane, which may provide a clue to unfold dS/CFT. In addition, the role of dark energy, sourced by a discrete torsion, in the dS vacua is investigated using Painleve geometries. It is argued that a D-instanton pair is created by a discrete torsion, with a Big Bang/Crunch, at the past horizon in a pure dS. Nucleation, of brane/anti-brane pair(s), is qualitatively analyzed to construct an effective space-time on a D4-brane and its anti brane. Analysis re-assures the significant role played by a non-zero mode, of NS-NS two form, to generalize the notion of branes within a brane.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Abhishek K.; Pandey, K. Priyabrat; Singh, Sunita; Kar, Supriya
2013-05-01
The U(1) gauge dynamics on a D 4-brane is revisited, with a two form, to construct an effective curvature theory in a second order formalism. We exploit the local degrees in a two form, and modify its dynamics in a gauge invariant way, to incorporate a non-perturbative metric fluctuation in an effective D 4-brane. Interestingly, the near horizon D 4-brane is shown to describe an asymptotic Anti de Sitter (AdS) in a semi-classical regime. Using Weyl scaling(s), we obtain the emergent rotating geometries leading to primordial de Sitter (dS) and AdS vacua in a quantum regime. Under a discrete transformation, we re-arrange the mixed dS patches to describe a Schwazschild-like dS (SdS) and a topological-like dS (TdS) black holes. We analyze SdS vacuum for Hawking radiations to arrive at Nariai geometry, where a discrete torsion forms a condensate. We perform thermal analysis to identify Nariai vacuum with a TdS. Investigation reveals an AdS patch within a thermal dS brane, which may provide a clue to unfold dS/CFT. In addition, the role of dark energy, sourced by a discrete torsion, in the dS vacua is investigated using Painleve geometries. It is argued that a D-instanton pair is created by a discrete torsion, with a Big Bang/Crunch, at the past horizon in a pure dS. Nucleation, of brane/anti-brane pair(s), is qualitatively analyzed to construct an effective space-time on a D 4-brane and its anti brane. Analysis re-assures the significant role played by a non-zero mode, of NS-NS two form, to generalize the notion of branes within a brane.
Yu, T.; Zheng, J.; Truhlar, D. G.
2011-01-01
We present a new formulation of variational transition state theory (VTST) called multi-structural VTST (MS-VTST) and the use of this to calculate the rate constant for the 1,4-hydrogen shift isomerization reaction of 1-pentyl radical and that for the reverse reaction. MS-VTST uses a multi-faceted dividing surface and provides a convenient way to include the contributions of many structures (typically conformers) of the reactant and the transition state in rate constant calculations. In this particular application, we also account for the torsional anharmonicity. We used the multi-configuration Shepard interpolation method to efficiently generate a semi-global portion of the potential energy surface from a small number of high-level electronic structure calculations using the M06 density functional in order to compute the energies and Hessians of Shepard points along a reaction path. The M06-2X density functional was used to calculate the multi-structural anharmonicity effect, including all of the structures of the reactant, product and transition state. To predict the thermal rate constant, VTST calculations were performed to obtain the canonical variational rate constant over the temperature range 200–2000 K. A transmission coefficient is calculated by the multidimensional small-curvature tunneling (SCT) approximation. The final MS-CVT/SCT thermal rate constant was determined by combining a reaction rate calculation in the single-structural harmonic oscillator approximation (including tunneling) with the multi-structural anharmonicity torsional factor. The calculated forward rate constant agrees very well with experimentally-based evaluations of the high-pressure limit for the temperature range 300–1300 K, although it is a factor of 2.5–3.0 lower than the single-structural harmonic oscillator approximation over this temperature range. We anticipate that MS-VTST will be generally useful for calculating the reaction rates of complex molecules with multiple torsions.
Estimation of Angular Momentum Transport Coefficients via Extended Kalman Filtering Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Chao; Schuster, Eugenio
2009-11-01
The accuracy of first-principles predictive models for the evolution of plasma profiles is sometimes limited by the lack of understanding of the plasma transport phenomena. In this work we use the extended Kalman filtering theory to provide real-time estimates of poorly known or totally unknown angular momentum transport coefficients. These estimates are based solely on input-output diagnostic data and limited understanding of the transport physics. We first assume that the plasma dynamics can be governed by a tractable model obtained by first principles but the transport coefficients are considered unknown and to-be-estimated. The partial-differential-equation model is discretized both in space and time to obtain a finite-dimensional discrete-time state-space representation. The system states and to-be-estimated coefficients are then combined into an augmented state vector. The resulting nonlinear state-space model is used for the design of an extended Kalman filter that provides real-time estimations not only of the system states but also of the unknown transport coefficients.
Chao, Y. A.; Yamamoto, A.
2012-07-01
The current SP{sub n} theory formulation, via either the asymptotic method or the variational method, does not provide an explicit and calculable representation for the corresponding angular flux solution. It is therefore not possible to reconstruct from the SP{sub n} solution the corresponding angular flux solution, or to extract from a reference transport solution the corresponding SP{sub n} solution. This makes it impossible to calculate the necessary surface discontinuity factors to force consistency between the SP{sub n} solution and the higher level transport solution. Without discontinuity factors, the superiority of SP{sub n} over diffusion could be significantly degraded in practical applications. In this paper we present a different SP{sub n} formulation that provides the explicit angular flux solution such that the physical picture for the SP{sub n} approximation is transparent and the SP{sub n} discontinuity factors can be calculated. (authors)
Vaidya-like exact solutions with torsion
M. Blagojevi?; B. Cvetkovi?
2015-04-16
Starting from the Oliva--Tempo--Troncoso black hole, a solution of the Bergshoeff--Hohm--Townsend massive gravity, a class of the Vaidya-like exact vacuum solutions with torsion is constructed in the three-dimensional Poincar\\'e gauge theory. A particular subclass of these solutions is shown to possess the asymptotic conformal symmetry. The related canonical energy contains a contribution stemming from torsion.
Vaidya-like exact solutions with torsion
Blagojevi?, M
2015-01-01
Starting from the Oliva-Tempo-Troncoso black hole, a solution of the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend massive gravity, a new class of the Vaidya-like exact solutions with torsion is constructed in the three-dimensional Poincar\\'e gauge theory. A particular subclass of these solutions is shown to possess the asymptotic conformal symmetry. The related canonical energy contains a contribution stemming from torsion.
Engelbert L. Schucking
2008-03-28
The mantra about gravitation as curvature is a misnomer. The curvature tensor for a standard of rest does not describe acceleration in a gravitational field but the \\underline{gradient} of the acceleration (e.g. geodesic deviation). The gravitational field itself (Einstein 1907) is essentially an accelerated reference system. It is characterized by a field of orthonormal four-legs in a Riemann space with Lorentz metric. By viewing vectors at different events having identical leg-components as parallel (teleparallelism) the geometry in a gravitational field defines torsion. This formulation of Einstein's 1907 principle of equivalence uses the same Riemannian metric and the same 1916 field equations for his theory of gravitation and fulfills his vision of General Relativity.
Noncontact measurement of angular deflection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryant, E. L.
1978-01-01
Technique for measuring instantaneous angular deflection of object requires no physical contact. Technique utilizes two flat refractors, converging lens, and different photocell. Distinction of method is its combination of optical and electromechanical components into feedback system in which measurement error is made to approach zero. Application is foreseen in measurement of torsional strain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hankel, Marlies; Connor, J. N. L.
2015-07-01
A valuable tool for understanding the dynamics of direct reactions is Nearside-Farside (NF) scattering theory. It makes a decomposition of the (resummed) partial wave series for the scattering amplitude, both for the differential cross section (DCS) and the Local Angular Momentum (LAM). This paper makes the first combined application of these techniques to complex-mode reactions. We ask if NF theory is a useful tool for their identification, in particular, can it distinguish complex-mode from direct-mode reactions? We also ask whether NF theory can identify NF interference oscillations in the full DCSs of complex-mode reactions. Our investigation exploits the fact that accurate quantum scattering matrix elements have recently become available for complex-mode reactions. We first apply NF theory to two simple models for the scattering amplitude of a complex-mode reaction: One involves a single Legendre polynomial; the other involves a single Legendre function of the first kind, whose form is suggested by complex angular momentum theory. We then study, at fixed translational energies, four state-to-state complex-mode reactions. They are: S(1D) + HD ? SH + D, S(1D) + DH ? SD + H, N(2D) +H2 ? NH + H, and H+ + D2 ? HD + D+. We compare the NF results for the DCSs and LAMs with those for a state-to-state direct reaction, namely, F + H2 ? FH + H. We demonstrate that NF theory is a valuable tool for identifying and analyzing the dynamics of complex-mode reactions.
Ovchinnikov, S.Y.; Macek, J.H. |
1994-12-31
The two-dimensional resonances in the problem of two Coulomb centers are discussed. The ab initio calculation of electron energy and angular distributions of saddle-point and S-promotion electrons for ionization in proton-hydrogen atom collisions are presented. The calculation is based on an outgoing wave Sturmian expansion in the frequency domain. It goes beyond the usual Born-Oppenheimer separation of electron and nuclei motions and displays the ``{upsilon}/2`` peak and the continuum cusp, missing in previous theories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Töws, W.; Pastor, G. M.
2015-11-01
Exact calculated time evolutions in the framework of a many-electron model of itinerant magnetism provide new insights into the laser-induced ultrafast demagnetization observed in ferromagnetic (FM) transition metal thin films. The interplay between local spin-orbit interactions and interatomic hopping is shown to be at the origin of the observed postexcitation breakdown of FM correlations between highly stable local magnetic moments. The mechanism behind spin- and angular-momentum transfer is revealed from a microscopic perspective by rigorously complying with all fundamental conservation laws. An energy-resolved analysis of the time evolution shows that the efficiency of the demagnetization process reaches almost 100% in the excited states.
Membranes from monopole operators in ABJM theory: Large angular momentum and M-theoretic AdS4/CFT3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovacs, Stefano; Sato, Yuki; Shimada, Hidehiko
2014-09-01
We study the duality between M-theory in AdS_4 × S^7/{Z}_k and the ABJM {N}=6 Chern-Simons-matter theory with gauge group U(N) × {U}(N) and level k, taking N large and k of order 1. In this M-theoretic regime the lack of an explicit formulation of M-theory in AdS_4 × S^7/{Z}_k makes the gravity side difficult, while the CFT is strongly coupled and the planar approximation is not applicable. We focus on states on the gravity side with large angular momentum J? 1 associated with a single plane of rotation in S^7 and identify their dual operators in the CFT. We show that natural approximation schemes arise on both sides thanks to the presence of the small parameter 1/J. On the AdS side, we use the matrix model of M-theory on the maximally supersymmetric pp-wave background with matrices of size J/k. A perturbative treatment of this matrix model provides a good approximation to M-theory in AdS_4 × S^7/{Z}_k when N^{1/3}? J? N^{1/2}. On the CFT side, we study the theory on S^2× {R} with magnetic flux J/k. A Born-Oppenheimer-type expansion arises naturally for large J in spite of the theory being strongly coupled. The energy spectra on the two sides agree at leading order. This provides a non-trivial test of the AdS_4/CFT_3 correspondence including near-BPS observables associated with membrane degrees of freedom, thus verifying the duality beyond the previously studied sectors corresponding to either BPS observables or the type IIA string regime.
Töws, W; Pastor, G M
2015-11-20
Exact calculated time evolutions in the framework of a many-electron model of itinerant magnetism provide new insights into the laser-induced ultrafast demagnetization observed in ferromagnetic (FM) transition metal thin films. The interplay between local spin-orbit interactions and interatomic hopping is shown to be at the origin of the observed postexcitation breakdown of FM correlations between highly stable local magnetic moments. The mechanism behind spin- and angular-momentum transfer is revealed from a microscopic perspective by rigorously complying with all fundamental conservation laws. An energy-resolved analysis of the time evolution shows that the efficiency of the demagnetization process reaches almost 100% in the excited states. PMID:26636871
Erez Zohar; J. Ignacio Cirac; Benni Reznik
2013-08-28
Quantum simulations of High Energy Physics, and especially of gauge theories, is an emerging and exciting direction in quantum simulations. However, simulations of such theories, compared to simulations of condensed matter physics, must satisfy extra restrictions, such as local gauge and Lorentz invariance. In this paper we discuss these special requirements, and present a new method for quantum simulation of lattice gauge theories using ultracold atoms. This method allows to include local gauge invariance as a fundamental symmetry of the atomic Hamiltonian, arising from natural atomic interactions and conservation laws (and not as a property of a low energy sector). This allows us to implement elementary gauge invariant interactions for three lattice gauge theories: compact QED (U(1)), SU(N) and Z_N, which can be used to build quantum simulators in 1+1 dimensions. We also present a new loop method, which uses the elementary interactions as building blocks in the effective construction of quantum simulations for d+1 dimensional lattice gauge theories (d>1), without having to use Gauss's law as a constraint, as in previous proposals. We discuss in detail the quantum simulation of 2+1 dimensional compact QED and provide a numerical proof of principle. The simplicity of the already gauge invariant elementary interactions of this model suggests it may be useful for future experimental realizations.
P. Kurian; C. Verzegnassi
2015-08-01
We consider in a quantum field theory framework the effects of a classical magnetic field on the spin and orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a free electron. We derive formulae for the changes in the spin and OAM due to the introduction of a general classical background field. We consider then a constant magnetic field, in which case the relevant expressions of the effects become much simpler and conversions between spin and OAM become readily apparent. An estimate of the expectation values for a realistic electron state is also given. Our findings may be of interest to researchers in spintronics and the field of quantum biology, where electron spin has been implicated on macroscopic time and energy scales.
Discrete torsion, non-abelian orbifolds and the Schur multiplier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Bo; Hanany, Amihay; He, Yang-Hui; Prezas, Nikolaos
2001-01-01
Armed with the explicit computation of Schur multipliers, we offer a classification of SU(n) orbifolds for n = 2,3,4 which permit the turning on of discrete torsion. This is in response to the host of activity lately in vogue on the application of discrete torsion to D-brane orbifold theories. As a by-product, we find a hitherto unknown class of Script N = 1 orbifolds with non-cyclic discrete torsion group. Furthermore, we supplement the status quo ante by investigating a first example of a non-abelian orbifold admitting discrete torsion, namely the ordinary dihedral group as a subgroup of SU(3). A comparison of the quiver theory thereof with that of its covering group, the binary dihedral group, without discrete torsion, is also performed.
Meana-Pañeda, Rubén; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio
2014-05-07
This work reports a detailed theoretical study of the hydrogen abstraction reactions from ethanol by atomic hydrogen. The calculated thermal rate constants take into account torsional anharmonicity and conformational flexibility, in addition to the variational and tunneling effects. Specifically, the kinetics calculations were performed by using multi-path canonical variational transition state theory with least-action path tunneling corrections, to which we have added the two-dimensional non-separable method to take into account torsional anharmonicity. The multi-path thermal rate constant is expressed as a sum over conformational reaction channels. Each of these channels includes all the transition states that can be reached by internal rotations. The results show that, in the interval of temperatures between 250 and 2500 K, the account for multiple paths leads to higher thermal rate constants with respect to the single path approach, mainly at low and at high temperatures. In addition, torsional anharmonicity enhances the slope of the Arrhenius plot in this range of temperatures. Finally, we show that the incorporation of tunneling into the hydrogen abstraction reactions substantially changes the contribution of each of the transition states to the conformational reaction channel.
Massimo Bassan; Fabrizio De Marchi; Lorenzo Marconi; Giuseppe Pucacco; Ruggero Stanga; Massimo Visco
2013-05-30
We present an analysis of the motion of a simple torsion pendulum and we describe how, with straightforward extensions to the usual basic dynamical model, we succeed in explaining some unexpected features we found in our data, like the modulation of the torsion mode at a higher frequency and the frequency splitting of the swinging motion. Comparison with observed values yields estimates for the misalignment angles and other parameters of the model.
Bassan, Massimo; Marconi, Lorenzo; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Stanga, Ruggero; Visco, Massimo
2013-01-01
We present an analysis of the motion of a simple torsion pendulum and we describe how, with straightforward extensions to the usual basic dynamical model, we succeed in explaining some unexpected features we found in our data, like the modulation of the torsion mode at a higher frequency and the frequency splitting of the swinging motion. Comparison with observed values yields estimates for the misalignment angles and other parameters of the model.
Structural and torsional vibration analysis of a dry screw compressor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willie, J.; Sachs, R.
2015-08-01
This paper investigates torsional vibration and pulsating noise in a dry screw compressor. The compressor is designed at Gardner Denver (GD) and is oil free and use for mounting on highway trucks. They are driven using a Power Take-Off (PTO) transmission and gear box on a truck. Torque peak fluctuation and noise measurements are done and their sources are investigated and reported in this work. To accurately predict the torsional response (frequency and relative angular deflection and torque amplitude), the Holzer method is used. It is shown that the first torsional frequency is manifested as sidebands in the gear train meshing frequencies and this can lead to noise that is the result of amplitude modulation. Sensitivity analysis of the drive train identifies the weakest link in the drive train that limits the first torsional frequency to a low value. Finally, the significance of higher mode shapes on inter-lobe clearance distribution of the rotors is investigated.
Two-step spacetime deformation induced dynamical torsion
G Ter-Kazarian
2011-02-12
We extend the geometrical ideas of the spacetime deformations to study the physical foundation of the post-Riemannian geometry. To this aim, we construct the theory of 'two-step spacetime deformation' as a guiding principle. We address the theory of teleparallel gravity and construct a consistent Einstein-Cartan (EC) theory with the 'dynamical torsion'. We show that the equations of the standard EC theory, in which the equation defining torsion is the algebraic type and, in fact, no propagation of torsion is allowed, can be equivalently replaced by the set of 'modified EC equations' in which the torsion, in general, is dynamical. The special physical constraint imposed upon the spacetime deformations yields the short-range propagating spin-spin interaction.
Ultrasonography in testicular torsion.
Bird, K; Rosenfield, A T; Taylor, K J
1983-05-01
Testicular torsion was evaluated by B-scan ultrasound in one experimental animal and in 12 patients. The clinical findings were categorized as acute, subacute, or chronic depending on the amount of time that had elapsed since the onset of pain (less than 24 hours, 1 to 10 days, and more than 10 days, respectively). A consistent pattern of sonographic parenchymal changes for each of these stages is described. The ultrasound textural changes were found to be diagnostically useful when correlated with the clinical findings. Scrotal ultrasound also complements radioisotope studies, locating the testicle when it cannot be found by palpation, and may detect testicular torsion that is not suspected clinically. When physiologic blood flow studies are normal in the clinical setting of possible torsion, ultrasound is more accurate than other imaging modalities in demonstrating pathology. PMID:6836134
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)
2012-01-01
A torsion spring comprises an inner mounting segment. An outer mounting segment is located concentrically around the inner mounting segment. A plurality of splines extends from the inner mounting segment to the outer mounting segment. At least a portion of each spline extends generally annularly around the inner mounting segment.
Torsion And Bending Alleviator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doebbler, Thomas R.; Kent, Preston E.
1994-01-01
Device couples two shafts while relieving excessive loads between them. Torsion and bending loads between upper and mounting shafts relieved in coupling by ball springs and Belleville springs, respectively. Both sets of springs adjustable so as not to relieve loads below preset limits.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mattson, D. L.
1975-01-01
The effect of prolonged angular acceleration on choice reaction time to an accelerating visual stimulus was investigated, with 10 commercial airline pilots serving as subjects. The pattern of reaction times during and following acceleration was compared with the pattern of velocity estimates reported during identical trials. Both reaction times and velocity estimates increased at the onset of acceleration, declined prior to the termination of acceleration, and showed an aftereffect. These results are inconsistent with the torsion-pendulum theory of semicircular canal function and suggest that the vestibular adaptation is of central origin.
Gravitation, Cosmology and Space-Time Torsion
A. V. Minkevich
2007-09-27
Poincar\\'e gauge theory of gravity offers opportunities to solve some principal problems of general relativity theory and modern cosmology. In the frame of this theory the gravitational interaction can have the repulsion character in the case of usual gravitating matter with positive values of energy density and pressure satisfying energy dominance condition. Cosmological consequences of gravitational repulsion are considered in the case of homogeneous isotropic models in connection with the problem of cosmological singularity and dark energy problem of general relativity theory. Regular Big Bang inflationary scenario with accelerating stage of cosmological expansion at asymptotics and the principal role of space-time torsion in this scenario are discussed.
Generalised discrete torsion and mirror symmetry for G2 manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Kaste, Peter
2004-08-01
A generalisation of discrete torsion is introduced in which different discrete torsion phases are considered for the different fixed points or twist fields of a twisted sector. The constraints that arise from modular invariance are analysed carefully. As an application we show how all the different resolutions of the T7/Bbb Z23 orbifold of Joyce have an interpretation in terms of such generalised discrete torsion orbifolds. Furthermore, we show that these manifolds are pairwise identified under G2 mirror symmetry. From a conformal field theory point of view, this mirror symmetry arises from an automorphism of the extended chiral algebra of the G2 compactification.
Torsional anharmonicity in the conformational thermodynamics of flexible molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Thomas F., III; Clary, David C.
We present an algorithm for calculating the conformational thermodynamics of large, flexible molecules that combines ab initio electronic structure theory calculations with a torsional path integral Monte Carlo (TPIMC) simulation. The new algorithm overcomes the previous limitations of the TPIMC method by including the thermodynamic contributions of non-torsional vibrational modes and by affordably incorporating the ab initio calculation of conformer electronic energies, and it improves the conventional ab initio treatment of conformational thermodynamics by accounting for the anharmonicity of the torsional modes. Using previously published ab initio results and new TPIMC calculations, we apply the algorithm to the conformers of the adrenaline molecule.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Changyu; Huang, Yong-Chang; Zhou, Bao-Hua
2015-09-01
We investigate the inner structure of a general S U (2 ) [naturally including S O (3 )] symmetry system—the fermion-gauge field interaction system—and achieve naturally a set of gauge-invariant spin and orbital angular momentum operators of fermion and gauge fields by Noether's theorem in general field theory. Some new relations concerning non-Abelian field strengths are discovered, e.g., the covariant transverse condition, covariant parallel condition (i.e., non-Abelian divergence, non-Abelian curl), and simplified S U (2 ) Coulomb theorem. And we show that the condition that Chen et al. obtained to construct their gauge-invariant angular momentum operators is a result of some fundamental equations in the general field theory. The results obtained in this paper present a new perspective for looking at the overall structure of the gauge field, and provide a new viewpoint to the final resolution of the nucleon spin crisis in the general field theory. Especially, the achieved theory in this paper can calculate the strong interactions with isospin symmetry and solves the serious problem without gauge-invariant angular momenta in strong interaction systems with isospin symmetry, and then the achieved predictions in the calculations can be exactly measured by particle physics experiments due to their gauge invariant properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clasp, Trocia N.; Perry, David S.
2006-09-01
The four-dimensional model Hamiltonian of Wang and Perry [J. Chem. Phys. 109, 10795 (1998)] is used to compare the approximate adiabatic separation of the torsion and CH stretches in methanol to an exact solution of the same Hamiltonian. The adiabatic approximation accounts for the pattern of the energy levels in the lowest torsional states, including the inverted tunneling splittings, but does not account for the pattern of systematic two- and four-fold near degeneracies at high torsional excitation. In the adiabatic basis, the nonadiabatic couplings mix the torsional and vibrational degrees of freedom and hence are a source for intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR). These IVR matrix elements are found to decrease by only a factor of 2 or 3 with each higher coupling order, in agreement with the results of Pearman and Gruebele [Z. Phys. Chem. Munich 214, 1439 (2000)]. This gentle scaling behavior, which contrasts with a steeper falloff with coupling order in more rigid molecules, points to a more important role for direct high-order couplings in torsional molecules. In this model, the scaling behavior derives from a single coupling term that is low order in the torsional angular momentum in combination with one-dimensional torsional functions that include contributions from many torsional angular momenta.
Satula, W.; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, Witold
2012-01-01
Background: Superallowed -decay rates provide stringent constraints on physics beyond the standard model of particle physics. To extract crucial information about the electroweak force, small isospin-breaking corrections to the Fermi matrix element of superallowed transitions must be applied.
Purpose: We perform systematic calculations of isospin-breaking corrections to superallowed decays and estimate theoretical uncertainties related to the basis truncation, to time-odd polarization effects related to the intrinsic symmetry of the underlying Slater determinants, and to the functional parametrization.
Methods: We use the self-consistent isospin- and angular-momentum-projected nuclear density functional theory employing two density functionals derived from the density-independent Skyrme interaction. Pairing correlations are ignored. Our framework can simultaneously describe various effects that impact matrix elements of the Fermi decay: symmetry breaking, configuration mixing, and long-range Coulomb polarization.
Results: Isospin-breaking corrections to the I=0+, T=1 I=0+, T=1 pure Fermi transitions are computed for nuclei from A=10 to A=98 and, for the first time, to the Fermi branch of the I,T=1/2 I, T=1/2 transitions in mirror nuclei from A=11 to A=49. We carefully analyze various model assumptions impacting theoretical uncertainties of our calculations and provide theoretical error bars on our predictions. Conclusions: The overall agreement with empirical isospin-breaking corrections is very satisfactory. Using computed isospin-breaking corrections we show that the unitarity of the CKM matrix is satisfied with a precision of better than 0.1%.
Constraining spacetime torsion with the Moon and Mercury
Riccardo March; Giovanni Bellettini; Roberto Tauraso; Simone Dell'Agnello
2011-03-28
We report a search for new gravitational physics phenomena based on Einstein-Cartan theory of General Relativity including spacetime torsion. Starting from the parametrized torsion framework of Mao, Tegmark, Guth and Cabi, we analyze the motion of test bodies in the presence of torsion, and in particular we compute the corrections to the perihelion advance and to the orbital geodetic precession of a satellite. We describe the torsion field by means of three parameters, and we make use of the autoparallel trajectories, which in general may differ from geodesics when torsion is present. We derive the equations of motion of a test body in a spherically symmetric field, and the equations of motion of a satellite in the gravitational field of the Sun and the Earth. We calculate the secular variations of the longitudes of the node and of the pericenter of the satellite. The computed secular variations show how the corrections to the perihelion advance and to the orbital de Sitter effect depend on the torsion parameters. All computations are performed under the assumptions of weak field and slow motion. To test our predictions, we use the measurements of the Moon geodetic precession from lunar laser ranging data, and the measurements of Mercury's perihelion advance from planetary radar ranging data. These measurements are then used to constrain suitable linear combinations of the torsion parameters.
Constraining spacetime torsion with the Moon and Mercury
March, Riccardo; Bellettini, Giovanni; Tauraso, Roberto; Dell'Agnello, Simone
2011-05-15
We report a search for new gravitational physics phenomena based on Riemann-Cartan theory of general relativity including spacetime torsion. Starting from the parametrized torsion framework of Mao, Tegmark, Guth, and Cabi, we analyze the motion of test bodies in the presence of torsion, and, in particular, we compute the corrections to the perihelion advance and to the orbital geodetic precession of a satellite. We consider the motion of a test body in a spherically symmetric field, and the motion of a satellite in the gravitational field of the Sun and the Earth. We describe the torsion field by means of three parameters, and we make use of the autoparallel trajectories, which in general differ from geodesics when torsion is present. We derive the specific approximate expression of the corresponding system of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved with methods of celestial mechanics. We calculate the secular variations of the longitudes of the node and of the pericenter of the satellite. The computed secular variations show how the corrections to the perihelion advance and to the orbital de Sitter effect depend on the torsion parameters. All computations are performed under the assumptions of weak field and slow motion. To test our predictions, we use the measurements of the Moon's geodetic precession from lunar laser ranging data, and the measurements of Mercury's perihelion advance from planetary radar ranging data. These measurements are then used to constrain suitable linear combinations of the torsion parameters.
Torsional Ratcheting Actuating System
BARNES,STEPHEN MATTHEW; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; RODGERS,M. STEVEN; BITSIE,FERNANDO
2000-01-24
A new type of surface micromachined ratcheting actuation system has been developed at the Microelectronics Development Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories. The actuator uses a torsional electrostatic comb drive that is coupled to an external ring gear through a ratcheting scheme. The actuator can be operated with a single square wave, has minimal rubbing surfaces, maximizes comb finger density, and can be used for open-loop position control. The prototypes function as intended with a minimum demonstrated operating voltage of 18V. The equations of motion are developed for the torsional electrostatic comb drive. The resonant frequency, voltage vs. displacement and force delivery characteristics are predicted and compared with the fabricated device's performance.
Femtosecond torsional relaxation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, J.; Nelson, T.; Tretiak, S.; Cirmi, G.; Lanzani, G.
2012-03-01
Molecular conformational reorganization following photon absorption is a fundamental process driving reactions such as the cis-trans isomerization at the heart of the primary step of vision and can be exploited for switching in artificial systems using photochromics. In general, conformational change occurs on a timescale defined by the energy of the main vibrational mode and the rate of energy dissipation. Typically, for a conformational change such as a twist around the backbone of a conjugated molecule, this occurs on the tens of picoseconds timescale. However, here we demonstrate experimentally that in certain circumstances the molecule, in this case an oligofluorene, can change conformation over two orders of magnitude faster (that is sub-100fs) in a manner analogous to inertial solvent reorganization demonstrated in the 1990s. Theoretical simulations demonstrate that non-adiabatic transitions during internal conversion can efficiently convert electronic potential energy into torsional kinetic energy, providing the `kick' that prompts sub-100fs torsional reorganization.
Einstein manifolds with skew torsion
Ilka Agricola; Ana Cristina Ferreira
2013-02-15
This paper is devoted to the first systematic investigation of manifolds that are Einstein for a connection with skew symmetric torsion. We derive the Einstein equation from a variational principle and prove that, for parallel torsion, any Einstein manifold with skew torsion has constant scalar curvature; and if it is complete of positive scalar curvature, it is necessarily compact and it has finite first fundamental group. The longest part of the paper is devoted to the systematic construction of large families of examples. We discuss when a Riemannian Einstein manifold can be Einstein with skew torsion. We give examples of almost Hermitian, almost metric contact, and G2 manifolds that are Einstein with skew torsion. For example, we prove that any Einstein-Sasaki manifold and any 7-dimensional 3-Sasakian manifolds admit deformations into an Einstein metric with parallel skew torsion.
Development of Torsional and Linear Piezoelectrically Driven Motors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duong, Khanh; Newton, David; Garcia, Ephrahim
1996-01-01
The development of rotary and linear inchworm-motors using piezoelectric actuators is presented. The motors' design has the advantage of a macro and micro stepper motor with high load and speed. The torsional design is capable of fast angular positioning with micro level accuracy. Additionally, the rotary motor, as designed, can be used as a clutch/brake mechanism. Constructed prototype motors of both types along with their characteristics are presented. The torsional motor consists of a torsional section that provides angular displacement and torque, and two alternating clamping sections which provide the holding force. The motor relies on the principal piezoelectric coupling coefficient (d33) with no torsional elements, increasing its torque capability. The linear motor consists of a longitudinal vibrator that provides displacement and load, and two alternating clamping sections which provide the holding force. This design eliminates bending moment, tension and shear applied to the actuator elements, increase its load capability and life. Innovative flexure designs have been introduced for both motor types. Critical issues that affect the design and performance of the motors are explored and discussed. Experiments are performed demonstrating the motor prototypes based on the aforementioned design considerations.
The Dynamics and Excitation of Torsional Waves in Geodynamo Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, C. A.; Teed, R.; Tobias, S.
2013-12-01
The predominant force balance in rapidly rotating planetary cores is between Coriolis, pressure, buoyancy and Lorentz forces. This magnetostrophic balance leads to a Taylor state where the spatially averaged azimuthal Lorentz force is compelled to vanish on cylinders aligned with the rotation axis. Any deviation from this state leads to a torsional oscillation, signatures of which have been observed in the Earth's secular variation and are thought to influence length of day variations via angular momentum conservation. In order to investigate the dynamics of torsional oscillations, we perform several three-dimensional dynamo simulations in a spherical shell. We find torsional oscillations, identified by their propagation at the correct Alfven speed, in many of our simulations. We find that the frequency, location and direction of propagation of the waves are influenced by the choice of parameters. Torsional waves are observed within the tangent cylinder and also have the ability to pass through it. Several of our simulations display waves with core travel times of 4 to 6 years. We calculate the driving terms for these waves and find that both the Reynolds force and ageostrophic convection acting through the Lorentz force are important in driving torsional oscillations.
Autoparallel vs. Geodesic Trajectories in a Model of Torsion Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acedo, Luis
2015-11-01
We consider a parametrized torsion gravity model for Riemann-Cartan geometry around a rotating axisymmetric massive body. In this model, the source of torsion is given by a circulating vector potential following the celestial parallels around the rotating object. Ours is a variant of the Mao, Tegmark, Guth and Cabi (MTGC model) in which the total angular momentum is proposed as a source of torsion. We study the motion of bodies around the rotating object in terms of autoparallel trajectories and determine the leading perturbations of the orbital elements by using standard celestial mechanics techniques. We find that this torsion model implies new gravitational physical consequences in the Solar system and, in particular, secular variations of the semi-major axis of the planetary orbits. Perturbations on the longitude of the ascending node and the perihelion of the planets are already under discussion in the astronomical community, and if confirmed as truly non-zero effects at a statistically significant level, we might be at the dawn of an era of torsion phenomenology in the Solar system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Devries, P. L.; George, T. F.
1978-01-01
The problem of two atoms colliding in the presence of an intense radiation field, such as that of a laser, is investigated. The radiation field, which couples states of different electronic symmetry, is described by the number state representation while the electronic degrees of freedom (plus spin-orbit interaction) are discussed in terms of a diabatic representation. The total angular momentum of the field-free system and the angular momentum transferred by absorption (or emission) of a photon are explicitly considered in the derivation of the coupled scattering equations. A model calculation is discussed for the Xe + F collision system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sapountzakis, E. J.; Tsipiras, V. J.; Argyridi, A. K.
2015-10-01
In this paper a boundary element method (BEM) is developed for the torsional vibration problem of bars of arbitrary doubly symmetric constant cross section, taking into account the nonuniform warping and secondary torsional shear deformation effects (STSDE). The bar is subjected to arbitrarily distributed or concentrated dynamic torsional loading along its length, while its edges are subjected to the most general torsional and warping boundary conditions. Apart from the angle of twist, the primary angle of twist per unit length is considered as an additional 1-D degree of freedom in order to account for the STSDE in the equations of motion of the bar. The warping shear stress distribution and the pertinent secondary torsional rigidity are computed by satisfying local equilibrium considerations under dynamic conditions without adhering to assumptions of Thin Tube Theory (TTT). By employing a distributed mass model system accounting for rotatory and warping inertia, an initial boundary value and two boundary value problems with respect to the variable along the bar time-dependent 1-D kinematical components, to the primary and secondary warping functions, respectively, are formulated. The latter are solved employing a pure BE method, requiring exclusively boundary discretization of the bar's cross section. The numerical solution of the aforementioned initial boundary value problem is performed through a BE method leading to a system of differential equations with displacement only unknowns, which is solved using an efficient direct time integration technique. Additionally, for the free vibrations case, a generalized eigenvalue problem is formulated through a similar BE technique. The accuracy and reliability of the results is assessed by FEM solutions employing solid or shell modelling. Both open- and closed-shaped cross section bars are examined and the necessity to include nonuniform torsional and STSD effects in the dynamic analysis of bars is demonstrated.
Performance of an angular flange aeroelastic wind energy converter
Ahmadi, G.
1983-05-01
ALL conventional wind turbines operate on the principles of turbomachinaries, with wind being made to flow over a set of rotating vanes. Recently, a new concept for wind energy conversion based on aeroelastic instability was introduced. It is well known that couplings between the vibration of an elastic structure and fluid stream may lead to aeroelastic instability. Energy then is transferred from the airstream into the elastic structure, which results in a destructive monotonic increase of the vibration amplitude of the structure. The failure of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge is one of the well-known examples of such a disaster. The use of an aeroelastic instability (or flutter) mechanism for constructing a wind energy converter was suggested. The theory for a torsional wind energy converter and the results of some model tests were also presented. Recently, some studies on similar types of wind energy converters using oscillating airfoils were reported. In the present study an angular flange H-section model of a torsional aeroelastic wind energy converter is constructed, and its performances under various conditions are investigated. The effects of the variations of the flange angle and the flange width on the performance of the model are studied. The weight of the pendulum is also varied, and its effects on the power coefficient of the model are investigated. It is observed that the efficiency of energy conversion decreases with an increase in wind speed. A method for possible improvement of the theoretical prediction is suggested and discussed.
Torsion-rotation intensities in methanol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pearson, John
Methanol exists in numerous kinds of astronomical objects featuring a wide range of local conditions. The light nature of the molecule coupled with the internal rotation of the methyl group with respect to the hydroxyl group results in a rich, strong spectrum that spans the entire far-infrared region. As a result, any modest size observational window will have a number of strong methanol transitions. This has made it the gas of choice for testing THz receivers and to extract the local physical conditions from observations covering small frequency windows. The latter has caused methanol to be dubbed the Swiss army knife of astrophysics. Methanol has been increasingly used in this capacity and will be used even more for subsequent investigations into the Herschel archive, and with SOFIA and ALMA. Interpreting physical conditions on the basis of a few methanol lines requires that the molecular data, line positions, intensities, and collision rates, be complete, consistent and accurate to a much higher level than previously required for astrophysics. The need for highly reliable data is even more critical for modeling the two classes of widespread maser action and many examples of optical pumping through the torsional bands. Observation of the torsional bands in the infrared will be a unique opportunity to directly connect JWST observations with those of Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA. The theory for the intensities of torsion-rotation transitions in a molecule featuring a single internally rotating methyl group is well developed after 70 years of research. However, other than a recent very preliminary and not completely satisfactory investigation of a few CH3OH torsional bands, this theory has never been experimentally tested for any C3V internal rotor. More alarming is a set of recent intensity calibrated microwave measurements that showed deviations relative to calculations of up to 50% in some ground state rotational transitions commonly used by astronomers to extract local conditions. We propose a comprehensive study of the intensities of methanol involving both the pure rotation bands and the torsional bands to serve as a benchmark for the theory used to calculate the infrared activity of all single methyl internal rotation molecules.
LARGE TORSIONAL OSCILLATIONS IN A SUSPENSION BRIDGE: MULTIPLE PERIODIC SOLUTIONS TO A NONLINEAR
Moore, Kristen
LARGE TORSIONAL OSCILLATIONS IN A SUSPENSION BRIDGE: MULTIPLE PERIODIC SOLUTIONS TO A NONLINEAR of a suspension bridge. We use LeraySchauder degree theory to prove that, under small periodic external forcing. nonlinear wave equation, torsional oscillations, suspension bridge AMS subject classification. 35B10 PII. S
P. Fiziev; S. Yazadjiev
1998-07-19
It is shown that the recently proposed interpretation of the transposed equi-affine theory of gravity as a theory with variable Plank "constant" is inconsistent with basic solar system gravitational experiments.
Big bounce from spin and torsion
Nikodem J. Poplawski
2012-08-30
The Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity naturally extends general relativity to account for the intrinsic spin of matter. Spacetime torsion, generated by spin of Dirac fields, induces gravitational repulsion in fermionic matter at extremely high densities and prevents the formation of singularities. Accordingly, the big bang is replaced by a bounce that occurred when the energy density $\\epsilon\\propto gT^4$ was on the order of $n^2/m_\\textrm{Pl}^2$ (in natural units), where $n\\propto gT^3$ is the fermion number density and $g$ is the number of thermal degrees of freedom. If the early Universe contained only the known standard-model particles ($g\\approx 100$), then the energy density at the big bounce was about 15 times larger than the Planck energy. The minimum scale factor of the Universe (at the bounce) was about $10^{32}$ times smaller than its present value, giving $\\approx 50 \\mum$. If more fermions existed in the early Universe, then the spin-torsion coupling causes a bounce at a lower energy and larger scale factor. Recent observations of high-energy photons from gamma-ray bursts indicate that spacetime may behave classically even at scales below the Planck length, supporting the classical spin-torsion mechanism of the big bounce. Such a classical bounce prevents the matter in the contracting Universe from reaching the conditions at which a quantum bounce could possibly occur.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bradas, James C.; Fennelly, Alphonsus J.; Smalley, Larry L.
1987-01-01
It is shown that a generalized (or 'power law') inflationary phase arises naturally and inevitably in a simple (Bianchi type-I) anisotropic cosmological model in the self-consistent Einstein-Cartan gravitation theory with the improved stress-energy-momentum tensor with the spin density of Ray and Smalley (1982, 1983). This is made explicit by an analytical solution of the field equations of motion of the fluid variables. The inflation is caused by the angular kinetic energy density due to spin. The model further elucidates the relationship between fluid vorticity, the angular velocity of the inertially dragged tetrads, and the precession of the principal axes of the shear ellipsoid. Shear is not effective in damping the inflation.
Pediatric ovarian torsion: a pictorial review.
Ngo, Anh-Vu; Otjen, Jeffrey P; Parisi, Marguerite T; Ferguson, Mark R; Otto, Randolph K; Stanescu, A Luana
2015-11-01
Imaging is crucial in expediting the diagnosis and guiding definitive therapy in children with ovarian torsion. This article reviews the multimodality spectrum of imaging findings in pediatric ovarian torsion, focusing primarily on US appearances. We describe predisposing conditions that can lead to torsion, the pathological basis of the radiologic findings in ovarian torsion, and the common diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:26209957
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor
2013-01-01
The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stang, Ambrose H; Ramberg, Walter; Back, Goldie
1937-01-01
This report presents the results of tests of 63 chromium-molybdenum steel tubes and 102 17st aluminum-alloy tubes of various sizes and lengths made to study the dependence of the torsional strength on both the dimensions of the tube and the physical properties of the tube material. Three types of failure are found to be important for sizes of tubes frequently used in aircraft construction: (1) failure by plastic shear, in which the tube material reached its yield strength before the critical torque was reached; (2) failure by elastic two-lobe buckling, which depended only on the elastic properties of the tube material and the dimensions of the tube; and (3) failure by a combination of (1) and (2) that is, by buckling taking place after some yielding of the tube material.
Propagating Torsion from First Principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saa, Alberto
1997-02-01
A propagating torsion model is derived from the requirement of compatibility between minimal action principle and minimal coupling procedure in Riemann-Cartan spacetimes. In the proposed model, the trace of the torsion tensor is derived from a scalar potential that determines the volume element of the spacetime. The equations of the model are written down for the vacuum and for various types of matter fields. Some of their properties are discussed. In particular, we show that gauge fields can interact minimally with the torsion without the breaking of gauge symmetry.
Adnexal torsion: a literature review.
Huchon, Cyrille; Fauconnier, Arnaud
2010-05-01
This review of the literature focuses on the diagnosis and surgical management of adnexal torsion. Diagnosis of adnexal torsion is difficult and is based on a range of elements obtained by questioning, clinical examination and additional investigations. Pelvic and Doppler ultrasonography are often incapable of revealing this pathology. When adnexal torsion is suspected and diagnosis can only be achieved by surgery, arrangements should be made for laparoscopy as soon as possible. Treatment consists essentially of untwisting the adnexa, even when necrosed, and completed as required by treatment of any cyst present and/or ligamentopexy. PMID:20189289
Isolated penile torsion in newborns
Eroglu, Egemen; Gundogdu, Gokhan
2015-01-01
Introduction: We reported on the incidence of isolated penile torsion among our healthy children and our approach to this anomaly. Methods: Between 2011 and 2014, newborn babies with penile torsion were classified according to the angle of torsion. Surgical correction (penile degloving and reattachment for moderate cases and dorsal dartos flap technique in case of resistance) after 6 months was advised to the babies with rotations more than 45°. Results: Among 1000 newborn babies, 200 isolated penile torsions were found, and among these, 43 had torsions more than 45°, and 4 of these had angles greater than 90°. The mean angle of the rotations was found 30.45° (median: 20°). In total, 8 children with 60° torsions were previously circumcised. Surgery was performed on 19 patients, with a mean patient age of 12 ± 2 months. Of these 19, 13 babies were corrected with degloving and reattachment. This technique was not enough on the remaining 6 patients; therefore, derotational dorsal dartos flap was added to correct the torsion. After a mean of 15.6 ± 9.8 months, residual penile rotation, less than 15°, was found only in 2 children. Conclusion: The incidence of isolated penile torsion is 20% in newborns. However, rotation more than 45° angles are seen in 4.3% of male babies. Correction is not necessary in mild degrees, and penile degloving with reattachment is enough in most cases. If the initial correction is insufficient, dorsal dartos flap rotation is easy and effective. Prior circumcision neither disturbs the operative procedure nor affects the outcomes. PMID:26600889
Plastic Behavior and Fracture of Aluminum and Copper in Torsion Tests
Bressan, Jose Divo
2007-04-07
Present work investigates the plastic behavior, work hardening and the beginning of plastic instabilities, of cylindrical specimens deformed by high speed cold plastic torsion tests and at low speed tensile test. The tests were carried out in a laboratory torsion test equipment and an universal tensile test machine. The tensile tests were performed at room temperature in an universal testing machine at low strain rate of 0.034/s. Experimental torsion tests were carried out at constant angular speed that imposed a constant shear strain rate to the specimen. In the tests, the rotation speed were set to 62 rpm and 200 rpm which imposed high strain rates of about 2/s and 6.5/s respectively. The torsion tests performed at room temperature on annealed commercial pure copper and aluminum. Two types of torsion specimen for aluminum were used: solid and tubular. The solid aluminum specimen curves presented various points of maximum torque. The tubular copper specimens showed two points of maximum. Shear bands or shear strain localization at specimen were possibly the mechanism of maximum torque points formation. The work hardening coefficient n and the strain rate sensitivity parameter m were evaluated from the equivalent stress versus strain curve from tensile and torsion tests. The n-value remained constant whereas the m-value increased ten folds for aluminum specimens: from tensile test m= 0.027 and torsion test m= 0.27. However, the hardening curves were sigmoidal.
Some recent results on generalized analytic torsion classes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burgos Gil, José I.; i Montplet, Gerard Freixas; Li?canu, R?zvan
2011-02-01
In this presentation we give a brief account of an axiomatic approach to generalized analytic torsion classes for arbitrary projective morphisms of smooth complex varieties and of the classification of the theories that can be constructed using our axioms. This note summarizes the main results in Burgos Gil, J. I. and Li?canu, R.: Singular Bott-Chern classes and the arithmetic Grothendieck-Riemann-Roch theorem for closed immersions, Doc. Math. 15 (2010), 73-176 and Burgos Gil, J. I., Freixas i Montplet, G. and Li?canu, R.: Generalized Holomorphic Analytic Torsion, arXiv:1011.3702.
Nonsingular, big-bounce cosmology from spinor-torsion coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pop?awski, Nikodem
2012-05-01
The Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity removes the constraint of general relativity that the affine connection be symmetric by regarding its antisymmetric part, the torsion tensor, as a dynamical variable. The minimal coupling between the torsion tensor and Dirac spinors generates a spin-spin interaction which is significant in fermionic matter at extremely high densities. We show that such an interaction averts the unphysical big-bang singularity, replacing it with a cusp-like bounce at a finite minimum scale factor, before which the Universe was contracting. This scenario also explains why the present Universe at largest scales appears spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic.
Big-bounce cosmology with spinor-torsion coupling
Poplawski, Nikodem J
2011-01-01
The Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity removes the constraint of general relativity that the affine connection be symmetric by regarding its antisymmetric part, the torsion tensor, as a dynamical variable. The minimal coupling between the torsion tensor and Dirac spinors leads to gravitational repulsion in fermionic matter at extremely high densities even without approximating it as a spin fluid. We show that such a repulsion replaces the unphysical big-bang singularity with a nonsingular big bounce that follows a contracting phase of the Universe. This scenario also naturally explains why the Universe today appears spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic.
Nonsingular, big-bounce cosmology from spinor-torsion coupling
Nikodem Poplawski
2012-07-04
The Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity removes the constraint of general relativity that the affine connection be symmetric by regarding its antisymmetric part, the torsion tensor, as a dynamical variable. The minimal coupling between the torsion tensor and Dirac spinors generates a spin-spin interaction which is significant in fermionic matter at extremely high densities. We show that such an interaction averts the unphysical big-bang singularity, replacing it with a cusp-like bounce at a finite minimum scale factor, before which the Universe was contracting. This scenario also explains why the present Universe at largest scales appears spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor
2013-12-01
The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in the physics laboratory. Many traditional physics experiments can now be performed very conveniently in a pedagogically enlightening environment while simultaneously reducing the laboratory budget substantially by using student-owned smartphones.
Simple torsion test for shear moduli determination of orthotropic composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sumsion, H. T.; Rajapakse, Y. D. S.
1978-01-01
By means of torsion tests performed on test specimens of the same material having a minimum of two different cross sections (flat sheet of different widths), the effective in-plane (G13) and out-of-plane (G23) shear moduli were determined for two composite materials of uniaxial and angleply fiber orientations. Test specimens were 16 plies (nominal 2 mm) thick, 100 mm in length, and in widths of 6.3, 9.5, 12.5, and 15.8 mm. Torsion tests were run under controlled deflection (constant angle of twist) using an electrohydraulic servocontrolled test system. In-plane and out-of-plane shear moduli were calculated from an equation derived in the theory of elasticity which relates applied torque, the torsional angle of twist, the specimen width/thickness ratio, and the ratio of the two shear moduli G13/G23. Results demonstrate that torsional shear moduli, G23 as well as G13, can be determined by simple torsion tests of flat specimens of rectangular cross section. Neither the uniaxial nor angleply composite material were transversely isotropic.
Karadag, V.
1996-11-01
Longitude-torsion-bending coupling effects on the vibration characteristics of the nonuniform highly pretwisted asymmetrical thick beams, have been investigated. The rotation speed of the beam, shear center effects, longitude-torsion-bending couplings, the warping of the beam cross sections, and beam root flexibility, have been incorporated into the analysis considering three dimensional motion of beam. Thin and Timoshenko thick beam theories have been used in the analysis. The relating coupling effects have been calculated by the finite element method and the numerical values obtained, have been compared with the available experimental values. It has been shown that in some of the practical cases; the longitudinal-torsional coupling can, considerably effect the bending, the torsional frequencies and is effective on the shear deformation frequencies by the shear center and torsion-bending couplings due to pretwist of beam as a new research aspect on the subject.
Effects of temperature and torsion speed on torsional properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes
Chen, Zhongping
by performing experimental tests, such as the direct tension test [13], bending experiment [14], and torsionEffects of temperature and torsion speed on torsional properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes Available online 4 December 2010 Keywords: Carbon nanotube Molecular dynamics Temperature effect Torsion
Torsional waves operating in geodynamo and magnetoconvection simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teed, Robert; Jones, Chris; Tobias, Steve
2015-04-01
Torsional waves are a principal feature of the dynamics of the fluid outer core where the Earth's magnetic field is generated. These oscillations are Alfvén waves operating about an equilibrium known as a Taylor state (Taylor, 1963) and they propagate in the cylindrical radial direction. The change in core angular momentum inferred from geomagnetic observations has a measurable impact on the length of the day, and the small decadal variations in the length-of-day signal confirm the existence of torsional oscillations (Holme & de Viron, 2013). Many questions remain unanswered about the exact nature of these waves and this presentation will attempt to address some of these. In order to gain insight we perform three-dimensional spherical dynamo and magnetoconvection simulations in parameter regimes where Earth-like magnetic fields are produced. Many of our simulations produce the desired torsional oscillations, identified by their movement at the correct Alfvén speed, and several show Earth-like core travel times of around 4 years. Our dynamo simulations (Teed et al., 2014) show torsional waves within the tangent cylinder region that also have the ability to pass through this theoretical cylinder. By calculating the driving terms for these waves we find that both the Reynolds force and ageostrophic convection acting through the Lorentz force can be important in driving torsional oscillations. Driven by a desire to reach smaller Ekman numbers and larger magnetic field strengths, which are computationally unattainable in dynamo simulations, we perform, in our follow up work, magnetoconvection simulations (Teed et al., 2015) by imposing a dipolar field on the core-mantle boundary. Under this configuration we find a transition, at low Ekman numbers, to regimes where excitation is found only at the tangent cylinder, is delivered by the Lorentz force and gives rise to a periodic Earth-like wave pattern. This pattern is approximately operating on a 4 to 5 year timescale, similar to the 6 year period expected of the waves in the Earth. References Holme, R. & de Viron, O., 2013. Characterization and implications of intradecadal variations in length of day. Nature 499 (7457), 202-204. Taylor, J., 1963. The magneto-hydrodynamics of a rotating fluid and the Earth's dynamo problem. Proc. Roy. Soc. A 274, 274-283. Teed, R., Jones, C., Tobias, S., 2014. The dynamics and excitation of torsional waves in geodynamo simulations. Geophys. J. Int. 196 (2), 724-735. Teed, R., Jones, C., Tobias, S., 2015. The transition to Earth-like torsional oscillations in magnetoconvection simulations. Submitted
Ovarian Torsion: Multimodality Review of Imaging Characteristics.
Smolinski, Sara E; Kreychman, Alena; Catanzano, Tara
2015-01-01
We present a case of ovarian torsion in pregnancy with demonstration of vascular flow on sequential Doppler ultrasonography. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated ovarian enlargement and edema. Mild symptoms and low clinical suspicion, in addition to risks associated with pregnancy prevented early laparoscopic examination, though torsion was considered. Progressive ovarian enlargement supported surgical intervention, which confirmed the presence of torsion. This case report reviews multimodality imaging characteristics of ovarian torsion, re-emphasizing the significance of ovarian morphology. PMID:26484959
Torsional electromechanical quantum oscillations in carbon nanotubes
Joselevich, Ernesto
, rather than to bending or stretching. The corresponding torsional spring constants (see SupplementaryTorsional electromechanical quantum oscillations in carbon nanotubes TZAHI COHEN-KARNI1 *, LIOR by mechanical torsion4 can induce conductance oscillations, which can be attributed to metal
Big bounce from spin and torsion
Poplawski, Nikodem J
2011-01-01
The Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity naturally extends general relativity to account for the intrinsic spin of matter. Spacetime torsion, generated by spin, induces gravitational repulsion in fermionic matter at extremely high densities and prevents the formation of singularities. Accordingly, the big bang is replaced by a bounce that occurred when the energy density $\\epsilon\\propto gT^4$ was on the order of $n^2/m_\\textrm{Pl}^2$, where $n\\propto gT^3$ is the fermion number density and $g$ is the number of thermal degrees of freedom. If the early Universe contained only the known standard-model particles ($g\\approx 100$), then the energy density at the big bounce was on the Planck scale where quantum gravity should be used. If, however, much more fermions existed at extremely high energies ($g\\gg 100$), then the spin-torsion coupling caused a bounce below the Planck scale, where the classical description of gravity is valid. Such a classical bounce prevents the matter in the contracting Univer...
Supplementary Information Nanomechanical Torsional Resonators
Roukes, Michael L.
clamped boundary conditions: = 0. S3a Applying Newton's 2nd law at the paddle 1 2 , S3b where / , Mp in the motion. Figure S1 illustrates how the tensile force T enters into the equation of motion of the flexural mode, but not into the torsional motion Fig. S1. (a), in the flexural mode, the tensile force T has
Bistability of a Torsion Magnetometer
Randall D. Peters
2002-07-16
Low-level bistability has been observed in the output from a recently developed novel magnetometer. It is not known whether this behavior is associated with the torsion fiber of the instrument or with the Earth's magnetic field. Whatever its cause, this form of complexity is not widely known.
Brabson, Tamera L.; Maki, Lynn C.; Newell, Susan M.; Ralphs, S. Christopher
2015-01-01
A 6-month-old male intact Cane Corso mastiff dog was presented for a recent history of vomiting, abdominal pain, and lethargy. A diagnosis of pancreatic torsion was made during abdominal exploratory surgery and was confirmed with histopathology. The dog underwent partial pancreatectomy and recovered with no complications. PMID:25969579
Electrothermally-Actuated Micromirrors with Bimorph Actuators—Bending-Type and Torsion-Type
Tsai, Cheng-Hua; Tsai, Chun-Wei; Chang, Hsu-Tang; Liu, Shih-Hsiang; Tsai, Jui-Che
2015-01-01
Three different electrothermally-actuated MEMS micromirrors with Cr/Au-Si bimorph actuators are proposed. The devices are fabricated with the SOIMUMPs process developed by MEMSCAP, Inc. (Durham, NC, USA). A silicon-on-insulator MEMS process has been employed for the fabrication of these micromirrors. Electrothermal actuation has achieved a large angular movement in the micromirrors. Application of an external electric current 0.04 A to the bending-type, restricted-torsion-type, and free-torsion-type mirrors achieved rotation angles of 1.69°, 3.28°, and 3.64°, respectively. PMID:26110409
Novel torsion balance based on a spherical superconducting suspension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hammond, Giles D.; Pulido-Paton, Antonio; Speake, Clive C.; Trenkel, Christian
2004-04-01
We report on the progress that has been made on the development of a spherical superconducting torsion balance in which the traditional fiber is replaced with a Meissner effect suspension operating at 4.2 K. The instrument can levitate a mass of 18 g in persistent mode and currently operates in a helium exchange gas pressure of a few mTorr. A superconducting rotation detector incorporating a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer has been developed to interrogate the angular position of the torsion balance and provide its natural period. The natural period can be programmed from 25 s to 150 s by varying the current stored in the detector. The detector also offers the possibility of applying external torques onto the torsion balance for the purpose of servocontrol, and a simple derivative control has been developed. The properties of the rotation detector can be predicted from measurements of the inductances of the circuit components. The total measured torque noise is 2×10-13 Nm/?Hz at around 0.02 Hz. This is two orders of magnitude higher than the intrinsic thermal noise and we are currently investigating possible sources of this excess noise. The highest quality factor that has been observed is 4×104 at a period of 40 s, and this corresponds to an ultimate sensitivity of 2×10-16 Nm/?Hz.
Combined bending-torsion fatigue reliability. III
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kececioglu, D.; Chester, L. B.; Nolf, C. F., Jr.
1975-01-01
Results generated by three, unique fatigue reliability research machines which can apply reversed bending loads combined with steady torque are presented. AISI 4340 steel, grooved specimens with a stress concentration factor of 1.42 and 2.34, and Rockwell C hardness of 35/40 were subjected to various combinations of these loads and cycled to failure. The generated cycles-to-failure and stress-to-failure data are statistically analyzed to develop distributional S-N and Goodman diagrams. Various failure theories are investigated to determine which one represents the data best. The effects of the groove, and of the various combined bending-torsion loads, on the S-N and Goodman diagrams are determined. Two design applications are presented which illustrate the direct useability and value of the distributional failure governing strength and cycles-to-failure data in designing for specified levels of reliability and in predicting the reliability of given designs.
Shaft instantaneous angular speed for blade vibration in rotating machine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gubran, Ahmed A.; Sinha, Jyoti K.
2014-02-01
Reliable blade health monitoring (BHM) in rotating machines like steam turbines and gas turbines, is a topic of research since decades to reduce machine down time, maintenance costs and to maintain the overall safety. Transverse blade vibration is often transmitted to the shaft as torsional vibration. The shaft instantaneous angular speed (IAS) is nothing but the representing the shaft torsional vibration. Hence the shaft IAS has been extracted from the measured encoder data during machine run-up to understand the blade vibration and to explore the possibility of reliable assessment of blade health. A number of experiments on an experimental rig with a bladed disk were conducted with healthy but mistuned blades and with different faults simulation in the blades. The measured shaft torsional vibration shows a distinct difference between the healthy and the faulty blade conditions. Hence, the observations are useful for the BHM in future. The paper presents the experimental setup, simulation of blade faults, experiments conducted, observations and results.
Electric field in 3D gravity with torsion
Blagojevic, M.; Cvetkovic, B.
2008-08-15
It is shown that in static and spherically symmetric configurations of the system of Maxwell field coupled to 3D gravity with torsion, at least one of the Maxwell field components has to vanish. Restricting our attention to the electric sector of the theory, we find an interesting exact solution, corresponding to the azimuthal electric field. Its geometric structure is to a large extent influenced by the values of two different central charges, associated to the asymptotic AdS structure of spacetime.
Modeling slender viscoelastic jets and fibers with torsion
Cao, J.
1992-01-01
All thin-filament models to date are torsionless and consider only leading-order approximations in a slender asymptotic sense. This dissertation first presents a higher-order perturbation theory for slender viscoelastic jets and fibers, which allows full consideration of axisymmetric torsion. It then illustrates the practical applications of this higher-order perturbation theory through four practical examples. The steady equations through three orders for all four examples are solved to illustrate several points: (1) it is necessary to go to the higher-order corrections in order to check the leading-order approximation or to consider the torsional coupling; (2) many leading-order steady solutions are asymptotically valid and robust to neglected higher-order physical effects (the higher-order corrections are computed and found being small); (3) other leading-order solutions are invalid in the presence of higher-order effects; specifically, it is shown that corrections due to weak elastic relaxation can be as large as the Newtonian leading-order approximation; (4) it is straightforward using this higher-order perturbation theory to determine if a particular leading-order solution is a valid approximation of physical behavior; (5) torsion can have effect on both the mathematical structure of the model and higher-order corrections of the leading-order approximations.
Orbital angular momentum in phase space
Rigas, I.; Sanchez-Soto, L.L.; Klimov, A.B.; Rehacek, J.; Hradil, Z.
2011-02-15
Research Highlights: > We propose a comprehensive Weyl-Wigner formalism for the canonical pair angle-angular momentum. > We present a simple and useful toolkit for the practitioner. > We derive simple evolution equations in terms of a star product in the semiclassical limit. - Abstract: A comprehensive theory of the Weyl-Wigner formalism for the canonical pair angle-angular momentum is presented. Special attention is paid to the problems linked to rotational periodicity and angular-momentum discreteness.
Quantum Formulation of Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum
J. B. Goette; S. Franke-Arnold; R. Zambrini; Stephen M. Barnett
2006-11-15
The quantum theory of rotation angles (S. M. Barnett and D. T. Pegg, Phys. Rev. A, 41, 3427-3425 (1990)) is generalised to non-integer values of the orbital angular momentum. This requires the introduction of an additional parameter, the orientation of a phase discontinuity associated with fractional values of the orbital angular momentum. We apply our formalism to the propagation of light modes with fractional orbital angular momentum in the paraxial and non-paraxial regime.
Petit, Yannick; Boulanger, Benoit; Segonds, Patricia
2007-12-15
We propose a generalization of quasi-phase-matching of quadratic nonlinear processes that we call angular quasi-phase-matching (AQPM). It corresponds to a propagation of three collinear interacting electromagnetic waves in a periodically poled nonlinear medium at any angle with respect to the grating vector. AQPM directions are analyzed using groups theory.
An analysis of traction drive torsional stiffness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rohn, D. A.; Loewenthal, S. H.
1983-01-01
The tangential compliance of elastic bodies in concentrated contact applied to traction drive elements to determine their torsional stiffness was analyzed. Static loading and rotating conditions are considered. The effects of several design variables are shown. The theoretical torsional stiffness of a fixed ratio multiroller drive is computed and compared to experimental values. It is shown that the torsional compliance of the traction contacts themselves is a relatively small portion of the overall drive system compliance.
Primary splenic torsion in a Boston terrier.
OHTA, Hiroshi; TAKAGI, Satoshi; MURAKAMI, Masahiro; SASAKI, Noboru; YOSHIKAWA, Muneyoshi; NAKAMURA, Kensuke; HWANG, Shiang-Jyi; YAMASAKI, Masahiro; TAKIGUCHI, Mitsuyoshi
2009-11-01
A 7-year-old female Boston terrier was referred to Hokkaido University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a history of hemoglobinuria and anemia for several days. Abdominal radiographs showed splenomegaly, and ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic splenic parenchyma with interspersed linear echoes consistent with the ultrasonographic appearance of splenic torsion. Ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) indicated a C-shaped spleen. Exploratory laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis of splenic torsion. A splenectomy was performed, and the dog recovered well without complications. This is the first report of splenic torsion in Boston terriers, and the usefulness of ultrasonographic and CT findings of the splenic torsion was also confirmed. PMID:19959908
Premotor neurons encode torsional eye velocity during smooth-pursuit eye movements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Angelaki, Dora E.; Dickman, J. David
2003-01-01
Responses to horizontal and vertical ocular pursuit and head and body rotation in multiple planes were recorded in eye movement-sensitive neurons in the rostral vestibular nuclei (VN) of two rhesus monkeys. When tested during pursuit through primary eye position, the majority of the cells preferred either horizontal or vertical target motion. During pursuit of targets that moved horizontally at different vertical eccentricities or vertically at different horizontal eccentricities, eye angular velocity has been shown to include a torsional component the amplitude of which is proportional to half the gaze angle ("half-angle rule" of Listing's law). Approximately half of the neurons, the majority of which were characterized as "vertical" during pursuit through primary position, exhibited significant changes in their response gain and/or phase as a function of gaze eccentricity during pursuit, as if they were also sensitive to torsional eye velocity. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant contribution of torsional eye movement sensitivity to the responsiveness of the cells. These findings suggest that many VN neurons encode three-dimensional angular velocity, rather than the two-dimensional derivative of eye position, during smooth-pursuit eye movements. Although no clear clustering of pursuit preferred-direction vectors along the semicircular canal axes was observed, the sensitivity of VN neurons to torsional eye movements might reflect a preservation of similar premotor coding of visual and vestibular-driven slow eye movements for both lateral-eyed and foveate species.
Angular momentum in subbarrier fusion
DiGregorio, D.E.; Lesko, K.T.; Harmon, B.A.; Norman, E.B.; Pouliot, J.; Sur, B.; Chan, Y.D.; Stokstad, R.G.
1990-05-01
We have measured the ratio of the isomer to ground-state yields of {sup 137}Ce produced in the fusion reactions {sup 128}Te({sup 12}C,3n), {sup 133}Cs({sup 7}Li,3n), {sup 136}Ba({sup 3}He,2n), {sup 136}Ba({sup 4}He,3n), and {sup 137}Ba({sup 3}He,3n), from energies above the Coulomb barrier to energies typically 20--30% below the barrier by observing the delayed x- and {gamma}-ray emission. We deduce the average angular momentum, {lt}J{gt}, from the measured isomer ratios with a statistical model. In the first three reactions we observe that the values of {lt}J{gt} exhibit the behavior predicted for low energies and the expected variation with the reduced mass of the entrance channel. We analyze these data and the associated cross sections with a barrier penetration model that includes the coupling of inelastic channels. Measurements of average angular momenta and cross sections made on other systems using the {gamma}-multiplicity and fission-fragment angular correlation techniques are then analyzed in a similar way with this model. The discrepancies with theory for the {gamma}-multiplicity data show correlations in cross section and angular momentum that suggest a valid model can be found. The measurements of angular momentum using the fission fragment angular correlation technique, however, do not appear reconcilable with the energy dependence of the cross sections. This systematic overview suggests, in particular, that our current understanding of the relationship of angular momentum and anisotropy in fission fragment angular correlations is incomplete. 26 refs.
Spin Quantum Number or Rest Angular Momentum
H. Razmi; A. MohammadKazemi
2013-08-01
Considering the fundamental origins of Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, Thomas precession, and the photon spin, it is clear that the origin of spin angular momentum refers to relativity than quantum theory; so, when introducing spin, it is better to know it as rest angular momentum than as an intrinsic quantum quantity.
Coupled lateral-torsional-axial vibrations of a helical gear-rotor-bearing system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chao-Feng; Zhou, Shi-Hua; Liu, Jie; Wen, Bang-Chun
2014-10-01
Considering the axial and radial loads, a mathematical model of angular contact ball bearing is deduced with Hertz contact theory. With the coupling effects of lateral, torsional and axial vibrations taken into account, a lumped-parameter nonlinear dynamic model of helical gearrotor-bearing system (HGRBS) is established to obtain the transmission system dynamic response to the changes of different parameters. The vibration differential equations of the drive system are derived through the Lagrange equation, which considers the kinetic and potential energies, the dissipative function and the internal/external excitation. Based on the Runge-Kutta numerical method, the dynamics of the HGRBS is investigated, which describes vibration properties of HGRBS more comprehensively. The results show that the vibration amplitudes have obvious fluctuation, and the frequency multiplication and random frequency components become increasingly obvious with changing rotational speed and eccentricity at gear and bearing positions. Axial vibration of the HGRBS also has some fluctuations. The bearing has self-variable stiffness frequency, which should be avoided in engineering design. In addition, the bearing clearance needs little attention due to its slightly discernible effect on vibration response. It is suggested that a careful examination should be made in modelling the nonlinear dynamic behavior of a helical gear-rotor-bearing system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krot, A. M.
2013-09-01
This work develops a statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies to calculate the orbits of planets and explore forms of planetary orbits with regard to the Alfvén oscillating force [1] in the Solar system and other exoplanetary systems. The statistical theory of formation of gravitating spheroidal bodies has been proposed in [2]-[5]. Starting the conception for forming a spheroidal body inside a gas-dust protoplanetary nebula, this theory solves the problem of gravitational condensation of a gas-dust protoplanetary cloud with a view to planetary formation in its own gravitational field [3] as well as derives a new law of the Solar system planetary distances which generalizes the wellknown laws [2], [3]. This work also explains an origin of the Alfvén oscillating force modifying forms of planetary orbits within the framework of the statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies [5]. Due to the Alfvén oscillating force moving solid bodies in a distant zone of a rotating spheroidal body have elliptic trajectories. It means that orbits for the enough remote planets from the Sun in Solar system are described by ellipses with focus in the origin of coordinates and with small eccentricities. The nearby planet to Sun named Mercury has more complex trajectory. Namely, in case of Mercury the angular displacement of a Newtonian ellipse is observed during its one rotation on an orbit, i.e. a regular (century) shift of the perihelion of Mercury' orbit occurs. According to the statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies [2]-[5] under the usage of laws of celestial mechanics in conformity to cosmogonic bodies (especially, to stars) it is necessary to take into account an extended substance called a stellar corona. In this connection the stellar corona can be described by means of model of rotating and gravitating spheroidal body [5]. Moreover, the parameter of gravitational compression ? of a spheroidal body (describing the Sun, in particular) has been estimated on the basis of the linear size of its kernel, i.e. the thickness of a visible part of the solar corona. Really, NASA' astronomer S. Odenwald in his notice «How thick is the solar corona?» wrote: "The corona actually extends throughout the entire solar system as a "wind" of particles, however, the densist parts of the corona is usually seen not more than about 1-2 solar radii from the surface or about 690,000 to 1.5 million kilometers at the equator. Near the poles, it seems to be a bit flatter..." [6]. In the fact, as mentioned in [5], a recession of plots of dependences of relative brightness of components of spectrum of the Solar corona occurs on distance of 3-3.5 radii from the center, i.e. on 2-2.5 radii from the edge of the solar disk. Thus, accepting thickness of a visible part of the solar corona equal to ? = 2R (here R is radius of the solar disk) we find that r* = R + ? = 3R , where r* =1/ ? . In other words, the parameter of gravitational compression 2 ? =1/ r* of a spheroidal body in case of the Sun with its corona (for which the equatorial radius ofdisk R = 6.955?108 m) can be estimated by the value [2]-[5]: 2.29701177718 10 (m ) (3 ) 1 19 2 2 = ? ? - - R ? . (1) So, the procedure of finding ? is based on the known 3? -rule in the statistical theory. Really, as shown in the monograph [5], namely the solar corona accounting under calculation of perturbed orbit of the planet of Mercury allows to find the estimation of a displacement of perihelion of Mercury' orbit for the one period within the framework of the statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies. As it is known, on a way of specification of the law of Newton using the general relativity theory the Mercury problem solving was found [5]. Nevertheless, from a common position of the statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies the points of view as Leverrier (about existence of an unknown matter) and Einstein (about insufficiency of the theory of Newton) practically differ nothing. Really, there exist plasma as well as gas-dust substance
Torsional Buckling and Writhing Dynamics of Elastic Cables and DNA
Goyal, S; Perkins, N C; Lee, C L
2003-02-14
Marine cables under low tension and torsion on the sea floor can undergo a dynamic buckling process during which torsional strain energy is converted to bending strain energy. The resulting three-dimensional cable geometries can be highly contorted and include loops and tangles. Similar geometries are known to exist for supercoiled DNA and these also arise from the conversion of torsional strain energy to bending strain energy or, kinematically, a conversion of twist to writhe. A dynamic form of Kirchhoff rod theory is presented herein that captures these nonlinear dynamic processes. The resulting theory is discretized using the generalized-method for finite differencing in both space and time. The important kinematics of cross-section rotation are described using an incremental rotation ''vector'' as opposed to traditional Euler angles or Euler parameters. Numerical solutions are presented for an example system of a cable subjected to increasing twist at one end. The solutions show the dynamic evolution of the cable from an initially straight element, through a buckled element in the approximate form of a helix, and through the dynamic collapse of this helix through a looped form.
Solar neutrinos, helicity effects and new affine gravity with torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cirilo-Lombardo, Diego Julio
2013-12-01
New f(R, T) model of gravitation, introduced previously by the author, is considered. It is based on an affine geometrical construction in which the torsion is a dynamical field, the coupling is minimal and the theory is Lorentz invariant by construction. It was shown that the Dirac equation emerges from the same space time and acquires a modification (coupling-like) of the form ?? j 1-d/d ?5h? , with h? the torsion axial vector, j a parameter of pure geometrical nature and d, the spacetime dimension. In the present work it is shown that this interaction produces a mechanism of spin (helicity) flipping, with its consequent weak symmetry violation. The cross section of this process is explicitly calculated and a logarithmic energy dependence (even at high energies) is found. This behavior is reminiscent of similar computations made by Hans Bethe in the context of neutrino astrophysics. These results are applied to the solar neutrino case and compared with similar results coming from a gravitational model with torsion of string theory type and within the standard model context respectively.
Solar neutrinos, helicity effects and new affine gravity with torsion
Diego Julio Cirilo-Lombardo; BLTP-JINR
2013-10-18
New f(R,T) model of gravitation, introduced previously by the author, is considered. It is based on an affine geometrical construction in which the torsion is a dynamical field, the coupling is minimal and the theory is Lorentz invariant by construction. It was shown that the Dirac equation emerges from the same space time and acquires a modification (coupling-like) of the form {\\gamma}^{{\\alpha}}j((1-d)/d){\\gamma}h_{{\\alpha}}, with h_{{\\alpha}} the torsion axial vector, j a parameter of pure geometrical nature and d, the spacetime dimension. In the present work it is shown that this interaction produces a mechanism of spin (helicity) flipping, with its consequent weak symmetry violation. The cross section of this process is explicitly calculated and a logaritmical energy dependence (even at high energies) is found. This behavior is reminiscent of similar computations made by Hans Bethe in the context of neutrino astrophysics. These results are applied to the solar neutrino case and compared with similar results coming from a gravitational model with torsion of string theory type and within the standard model context respectively.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Plummer, G. M.; Herbst, E.; De Lucia, F.; Blake, G. A.
1984-01-01
Over 200 rotational lines of methyl formate in its ground (v sub t = 0), symmetric (A) torsional state have been measured in the frequency range 140-550 GHz. Analysis of these and lower frequency transitions permits accurate prediction (below 0.1 MHz) of over 10,000 transitions at frequencies below 600 GHz with angular momentum J lower than 50. The measured spectral lines have permitted identification of over 100 new methyl formate lines in Orion.
2D Gravity with Torsion, Oriented Matroids and 2+2 Dimensions
J. A. Nieto; E. A. Leon
2009-09-22
We find a link between oriented matroid theory and 2d gravity with torsion. Our considerations may be useful in the context of noncommutative phase space in a target spacetime of signature (2+2) and in a possible theory of gravity ramification.
Gauge invariant coupling of fields to torsion: A string inspired model
Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Chatterjee, Ayan
2011-05-15
In a consistent heterotic string theory, the Kalb-Ramond field, which is the source of space-time torsion, is augmented by Yang-Mills and gravitational Chern-Simons terms. When compactified to 4 dimensions and in the field theory limit, such additional terms give rise to interactions with interesting astrophysical predictions like rotation of plane of polarization for electromagnetic and gravitational waves. On the other hand, if one is also interested in coupling 2- or 3-form (Abelian or non-Abelian) gauge fields to torsion, one needs another class of interaction. In this paper, we shall study this interaction and offer some astrophysical and cosmological predictions. We explicitly calculate the Coleman-Weinberg potential for this theory. We also comment on the possibility of such terms in loop quantum gravity where, if the Barbero-Immirzi parameter is promoted to a field, acts as a source for torsion.
A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor
Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao
2015-01-01
Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s?2). Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability. PMID:26151217
A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor.
Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao
2015-01-01
Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s(-2)). Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability. PMID:26151217
Optically probing torsional superelasticity in spider silks
Kumar, Bhupesh; Thakur, Ashish; Panda, Biswajit; Singh, Kamal P.
2013-11-11
We investigate torsion mechanics of various spider silks using a sensitive optical technique. We find that spider silks are torsionally superelastic in that they can reversibly withstand great torsion strains of over 10{sup 2?3} rotations per cm before failure. Among various silks from a spider, we find the failure twist-strain is greatest in the sticky capture silk followed by dragline and egg-case silk. Our in situ laser-diffraction measurements reveal that torsional strains on the silks induce a nano-scale transverse compression in its diameter that is linear and reversible. These unique torsional properties of the silks could find applications in silk-based materials and devices.
Gamal G. L. Nashed
2009-10-27
The energy-momentum tensor, which is coordinate independent, is used to calculate energy, momentum and angular-momentum of two different tetrad fields. Although, the two tetrad fields reproduce the same space-time their energies are different. Therefore, a regularized expression of the gravitational energy-momentum tensor of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity, (TEGR), is used to make the energies of the two tetrad fields equal. The definition of the gravitational energy-momentum is used to investigate the energy within the external event horizon. The components of angular-momentum associated with these space-times are calculated. In spite that we use a static space-times, we get a non-zero component of angular-momentum! Therefore, we derive the killing vectors associated with these space-times using the definition of the Lie derivative of a second rank tensor in the framework of the TEGR to make the picture more clear.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yazadjiev, Stoytcho
2013-01-01
We derive inequalities between the area, the angular momentum, and the charges for axisymmetric closed outermost stably marginally outer trapped surfaces, embedded in dynamical and, in general, nonaxisymmetric spacetimes satisfying the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-matter equations. In proving the inequalities, we assume that the dilaton potential is non-negative and that the matter energy-momentum tensor satisfies the dominant energy condition.
Torsion Balance Search for Lorentz-invariance, Dark
Torsion Balance Search for Lorentz-invariance, Dark Energy and Dark Matter Claire Cramer AAPT of unpolarized matter another particle's spin #12;Torsion balances Coulomb's torsion balance: A high precision-plated · magnetically shielded · 4 mirrors 2.6 cm #12;#12;The torsion balance apparatus feet pendulum magnetic shielding
Magnetic Torsional Oscillations in Magnetars
Sotani, Hajime; Kokkotas, Kostas D.; Stergioulas, Nikolaos
2009-05-01
We investigate torsional Alfven oscillations of relativistic stars with a global dipole magnetic field, via 2D numerical simulations. We find that a) there exist two families of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with harmonics at integer multiples of the fundamental frequency, b) the QPOs are long-lived, c) for the chosen form of dipolar magnetic field, the frequency ratio of the lower to upper fundamental QPOs is about 0.6, independent of the equilibrium model or of the strength of the magnetic field, and d) within a representative sample of EOS and of various magnetar masses, the Alfven QPO frequencies are given by accurate empirical relations that depend only on the compactness of the star and on the magnetic field strength. Compared to the observational frequencies, we also obtain an upper limit on the strength of magnetic field of SGR 1806-20 (if is dominated by a dipolar component) between {approx}3 and 7x10{sup 15} Gauss.
Torsional oscillations of strange stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mannarelli, Massimo
2014-11-01
Strange stars are one of the hypothetical compact stellar objects that can be formed after a supernova explosion. The existence of these objects relies on the absolute stability of strange collapsed quark matter with respect to standard nuclear matter. We discuss simple models of strange stars with a bare quark matter surface, thus standard nuclear matter is completely absent. In these models an electric dipole layer a few hundreds Fermi thick should exist close to the star surface. Studying the torsional oscillations of the electrically charged layer we estimate the emitted power, finding that it is of the order of 1045 erg/s, meaning that these objects would be among the brightest compact sources in the heavens. The associated relaxation times are very uncertain, with values ranging between microseconds and minutes, depending on the crust thickness. Although part of the radiated power should be absorbed by the electrosphere surrounding the strange star, a sizable fraction of photons should escape and be detectable.
Stationary model of the Universe with torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panzhensky, V. I.
2013-10-01
On a four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian manifold with the metric of a stationary model of the Universe, we construct a Riemann-Cartan structure with the automorphism group of maximum dimension. The torsion tensor of this structure is the sum of two parts: semisymmetric, aspiring to geometrization of the spin density of matter, and skew-symmetric, determining the torsion of a spatial section. We give a geometric interpretation of the spatial section torsion. We prove that the maximum dimension of the Lie group of automorphisms of a Riemann-Cartan space-time manifold with a semisymmetric or skewsymmetric connection is seven.
Modification of gravity due to torsion
Nair, V. P.; Nikiforova, V.; Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Rubakov, V.
2010-01-01
Modifications of general relativity have been considered as one of the possible ways of addressing some of the outstanding problems related to the large scale gravitational physics. In this contribution we review some of the recent results which are due to the inclusion of dynamical torsion. More specifically we shall discuss the propagation of massive spin-2 particles in flat and curved space times. We shall show that, contrary to what is generally believed, spinning matter is not the sole source of torsion field. A symmetric energy momentum tensor can also couple to torsion degrees of freedom. The massive and massless spin-2 particles mix giving rise to an infrared modification of gravity.
Abrahamsson, T.J.S.; Saellstroem, J.H.
1996-01-01
Linear vibrations are studied for a straight uniform finite beam element of general orientation spinning at a constant angular speed about a fixed axis in the inertial space. The gyroscopic and circulatory matrices and also the geometric stiffness matrix of the beam element are presented. The effect of the centrifugal static axial load on the bending and torsional dynamic stiffnesses is thereby accounted for. The Rayleigh/Timoshenko/Saint-Venant theory is applied, and polynomial shape functions are used in the construction of the deformation fields. Nonzero off-diagonal elements in the gyroscopic and circulatory matrices indicate coupled bending/shearing/torsional/tensional free and forced modes of a generally oriented spinning beam. Two numerical examples demonstrate the use and performance of the beam element.
Torsion-induced effects in magnetic nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheka, Denis D.; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Yershov, Kostiantyn V.; Gaididei, Yuri
2015-08-01
A magnetic helix wire is one of the simplest magnetic systems which manifests properties of both curvature and torsion. Possible equilibrium magnetization states in the helix wire with different anisotropy directions are studied theoretically. There exist two equilibrium states in the helix wire with easy-tangential anisotropy: a quasitangential magnetization distribution in the case of relatively small curvatures and torsions, and an onion state in the opposite case. The curvature and torsion also essentially influence the spin-wave dynamics in the helix wire, acting as an effective magnetic field. Originated from a geometry-induced effective Dzyaloshinskii interaction, this magnetic field leads to a coupling between the helix chirality and the magnetochirality and breaks mirror symmetry in the spin-wave spectrum: the modification of magnon dispersion relation is linear with respect to the torsion and quadratic with respect to the curvature. All analytical predictions on magnetization statics and dynamics are well confirmed by direct spin-lattice simulations.
Dark Energy: Is It of Torsion Origin?
M. I. Wanas
2010-06-10
{\\it "Dark Energy"} is a term recently used to interpret supernovae type Ia observation. In the present work we give two arguments on a possible relation between dark energy and torsion of space-time.
Quantum gravity with torsion and non-metricity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pagani, C.; Percacci, R.
2015-10-01
We study the renormalization of theories of gravity with an arbitrary (torsional and non-metric) connection. The class of actions we consider is of the Palatini type, including the most general terms with up to two derivatives of the metric, but no derivatives of the connection. It contains 19 independent parameters. We calculate the one-loop beta functions of these parameters and find their fixed points. The Holst subspace is discussed in some detail and found not to be stable under renormalization. Some possible implications for ultraviolet and infrared gravity are discussed.
A torsion balance for probing a non-standard force in the sub-micrometre range
Masuda, M; Araya, A
2015-01-01
We report the performance of an instrument that employs a torsion balance for probing a non-standard force in the sub-micrometre range. High sensitivity is achieved by using a torsion balance that has a long torsional period, strong magnetic damping of all vibrational motions and a feedback system that employs an optical lever. In torsion balance experiments, the distance fluctuations during measurements and the accuracy to which the absolute distance is determined are crucial for determining the sensitivity of the balance to a macroscopic force in the sub-micrometre range. We have estimated the root mean square amplitude of the distance fluctuation to be 18 nm by considering the effects due to seismic motions, tilt motions, residual angular fluctuations and thermal fluctuations. We have also estimated the error of the absolute distance to be 13 nm and the statistical error of the force to be 3.4$\\times$10$^{-12}$ N by measuring the electrostatic forces. As a result of this systematic study, we have evaluated...
Torsion and geometrostasis in covariant superstrings
Zachos, C.
1985-01-01
The covariant action for freely propagating heterotic superstrings consists of a metric and a torsion term with a special relative strength. It is shown that the strength for which torsion flattens the underlying 10-dimensional superspace geometry is precisely that which yields free oscillators on the light cone. This is in complete analogy with the geometrostasis of two-dimensional sigma-models with Wess-Zumino interactions. 13 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Jingjing; Meana-Pañeda, Rubén; Truhlar, Donald G.
2013-08-01
We present an improved version of the MSTor program package, which calculates partition functions and thermodynamic functions of complex molecules involving multiple torsions; the method is based on either a coupled torsional potential or an uncoupled torsional potential. The program can also carry out calculations in the multiple-structure local harmonic approximation. The program package also includes seven utility codes that can be used as stand-alone programs to calculate reduced moment of inertia matrices by the method of Kilpatrick and Pitzer, to generate conformational structures, to calculate, either analytically or by Monte Carlo sampling, volumes for torsional subdomains defined by Voronoi tessellation of the conformational subspace, to generate template input files for the MSTor calculation and Voronoi calculation, and to calculate one-dimensional torsional partition functions using the torsional eigenvalue summation method. Restrictions: There is no limit on the number of torsions that can be included in either the Voronoi calculation or the full MS-T calculation. In practice, the range of problems that can be addressed with the present method consists of all multitorsional problems for which one can afford to calculate all the conformational structures and their frequencies. Unusual features: The method can be applied to transition states as well as stable molecules. The program package also includes the hull program for the calculation of Voronoi volumes, the symmetry program for determining point group symmetry of a molecule, and seven utility codes that can be used as stand-alone programs to calculate reduced moment-of-inertia matrices by the method of Kilpatrick and Pitzer, to generate conformational structures, to calculate, either analytically or by Monte Carlo sampling, volumes of the torsional subdomains defined by Voronoi tessellation of the conformational subspace, to generate template input files, and to calculate one-dimensional torsional partition functions using the torsional eigenvalue summation method. Additional comments: The program package includes a manual, installation script, and input and output files for a test suite. Running time: There are 26 test runs. The running time of the test runs on a single processor of the Itasca computer is less than 2 s. References: [1] MS-T(C) method: Quantum Thermochemistry: Multi-Structural Method with Torsional Anharmonicity Based on a Coupled Torsional Potential, J. Zheng and D.G. Truhlar, Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 9 (2013) 1356-1367, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ct3010722. [2] MS-T(U) method: Practical Methods for Including Torsional Anharmonicity in Thermochemical Calculations of Complex Molecules: The Internal-Coordinate Multi-Structural Approximation, J. Zheng, T. Yu, E. Papajak, I, M. Alecu, S.L. Mielke, and D.G. Truhlar, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 13 (2011) 10885-10907.
Analytic torsion for cubes of vector bundles and Gillet's Riemann-Roch theorem
Rossler, Damian
Analytic torsion for cubes of vector bundles and Gillet's Riemann-Roch theorem Damian Roessler-mail: roessler@mathematik.hu-berlin.de May 16, 2006 Abstract We present an analytic proof of Gillet's Riemann-Roch-theory the analytic approach to the Grothendieck-Riemann- Roch theorem. Our proof depends essentially on Burgos
Shear and Vorticity in an Accelerating Brans-Dicke Lambda-Universe with Torsion
Marcelo Samuel Berman
2008-08-06
We study accelerating Universes with power-law scale-factors. We include shear and vorticity, a cosmological "constant" term, and spin from torsion, as in Einstein-Cartan's theory when a scalar-field of Brans-Dicke type acts in the model. We find a "no-hair" result, for shear and vorticity; we also make contact with the alternative Machian picture of the Universe. Keywords: Cosmology; Einstein; Brans-Dicke; Cosmological term; Shear; Spin; Vorticity; Inflation; Einstein-Cartan; Torsion; Accelerating Universe
Inevitable inflation in Einstein-Cartan theory with improved energy-momentum tensor with spin
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fennelly, A. J.; Bradas, James C.; Smalley, Larry L.
1988-01-01
Generalized, or power-law, inflation is shown to necessarily exist for a simple, anisotropic, (Bianchi Type-1) cosmology in the Einstein-Cartan gravitational theory with the Ray-Smalley improved energy momentum tensor with spin. Formal solution of the EC field equations with the fluid equations of motion explicitly shows inflation caused by the RS spin angular kinetic energy density. Shear is not effective in preventing inflation in the ECRS model. The relation between fluid vorticity, torsion, reference axis rotation, and shear ellipsoid precession shows through clearly.
Williamson, Matthew M. (Boston, MA); Pratt, Gill A. (Lexington, MA)
1999-06-08
The invention provides an elastic actuator consisting of a motor and a motor drive transmission connected at an output of the motor. An elastic element is connected in series with the motor drive transmission, and this elastic element is positioned to alone support the full weight of any load connected at an output of the actuator. A single force transducer is positioned at a point between a mount for the motor and an output of the actuator. This force transducer generates a force signal, based on deflection of the elastic element, that indicates force applied by the elastic element to an output of the actuator. An active feedback force control loop is connected between the force transducer and the motor for controlling the motor. This motor control is based on the force signal to deflect the elastic element an amount that produces a desired actuator output force. The produced output force is substantially independent of load motion. The invention also provides a torsional spring consisting of a flexible structure having at least three flat sections each connected integrally with and extending radially from a central section. Each flat section extends axially along the central section from a distal end of the central section to a proximal end of the central section.
Williamson, M.M.; Pratt, G.A.
1999-06-08
The invention provides an elastic actuator consisting of a motor and a motor drive transmission connected at an output of the motor. An elastic element is connected in series with the motor drive transmission, and this elastic element is positioned to alone support the full weight of any load connected at an output of the actuator. A single force transducer is positioned at a point between a mount for the motor and an output of the actuator. This force transducer generates a force signal, based on deflection of the elastic element, that indicates force applied by the elastic element to an output of the actuator. An active feedback force control loop is connected between the force transducer and the motor for controlling the motor. This motor control is based on the force signal to deflect the elastic element an amount that produces a desired actuator output force. The produced output force is substantially independent of load motion. The invention also provides a torsional spring consisting of a flexible structure having at least three flat sections each connected integrally with and extending radially from a central section. Each flat section extends axially along the central section from a distal end of the central section to a proximal end of the central section. 30 figs.
Torsion-vibration interactions in the CH{sub 3}-rocking and OH-bending fundamentals of C-13 methanol
Predoi, A.; Lees, R.M.
1996-12-31
A review is presented of recent work on the study of the molecular interactions observed in the CH{sub 3}-rocking and OH-bending bands of C-13 methanol. The main aim was to find the interaction constants and to estimate the contributions due to the torsional motion. The modelling was done using a Marquardt algorithm and a second order perturbation theory approach. The frequent Fermi mixing between states of the OH-bending and the first torsionally excited CH{sub 3}-rocking modes make it essential to study these bands jointly and not individually. The pattern of torsion-rotation energies for the OH-bending mode is inverted relative to that of the ground state, implying that the usual Hamiltonian used successfully for the ground state cannot describe the excited state energy manifold. With these findings, the author hope to contribute to better understanding of the torsion-vibration energy structure of the bending modes of methanol.
Angular Acceleration without Torque?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaufman, Richard D.
2012-01-01
Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuda, Yuri; Yasutake, Hironori; Ishijima, Akihiko; Yanagida, Toshio
1996-11-01
Knowledge of the elastic properties of actin filaments is crucial for considering its role in muscle contraction, cellular motile events, and formation of cell shape. The stiffness of actin filaments in the directions of stretching and bending has been determined. In this study, we have directly determined the torsional rigidity and breaking force of single actin filaments by measuring the rotational Brownian motion and tensile strength using optical tweezers and microneedles, respectively. Rotational angular fluctuations of filaments supplied the torsional rigidity as (8.0 ± 1.2) × 10-26 Nm2. This value is similar to that deduced from the longitudinal rigidity, assuming the actin filament to be a homogeneous rod. The breaking force of the actin-actin bond was measured while twisting a filament through various angles using microneedles. The breaking force decreased greatly under twist, e.g., from 600-320 pN when filaments were turned through 90 degrees, independent of the rotational direction. Our results indicate that an actin filament exhibits comparable flexibility in the rotational and longitudinal directions, but breaks more easily under torsional load.
Combined bending and torsional fatigue of woven roving GRP
Aboul Wafa, M.N.; Hamdy, A.H.; El-Midany, A.A.
1997-04-01
A study of biaxial fatigue of woven roving glass reinforced polyester (GRP) subjected to in-phase and out-of-phase cyclic bending and torsional moments is presented. To evaluate failure theories for this material, tests were conducted on two fiber orientations [0, 90] and [45, {minus}45] tubes. The results showed that for [0, 90] composites the S-N curves in pure bending and in pure torsion are sufficient to predict life. For [45, {minus}45] tubes, the value of the normal stress interaction component of the strength tensor, H{sub 12}, has to be obtained. If the ratio of the global flexural stress amplitude, A, to the accompanied global shear stress, B, is less than 2, the value of H{sub 12} may be taken as presented by Tsai-Hahn theory. But, if A/B {ge} 2, the value of H{sub 12} has to be obtained from [45, {minus}45] pure bending S-N curve, since the failure mode is a combination of interfacial shear and matrix failure. The out-of-phase loading results showed that the life of the specimens at high stress levels is less than that for the in-phase loading with the same peak values A and B.
Anisotropic bending-torsion coupling for warping in a non-linear beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klinkel, S.; Govindjee, S.
MEMS devices made from single crystal silicon often contain rod-like structures that are operated in bending and/or torsion. The design of these devices usually relies upon simple mechanical theories that ignore the coupling between these two modes of operation. In this paper, we develop a theory that is capable of accounting for the material coupling in the bending and twisting of single crystal beams which arises from anisotropic elastic properties and apply it in selected examples to the case of silicon. The generalized Saint-Venant torsion theory, which is valid for isotropic materials, is extended to arbitrary anisotropic linear elastic materials. The anisotropic material behavior couples the bending and torsion behavior. Thus, for the geometrically linear case, we find two warping functions associated with the bending moments and one warping function which is associated with the torsion moment. These warping patterns or functions are then taken as inputs to a geometrically non-linear formulation. Due to the presence of the additional warping functions, we find the existence of non-standard bi-moment and bi-shears which play an important role under certain conditions of extreme deformations. The final complexity of the non-linear formulation dictates the usage of a numerical solution procedure for practical computations. Here we employ a finite element scheme to solve the governing equations. Example computations elucidate the importance of the coupling effects by examining beams cut from (1 0 0) type silicon wafers.
Li, Zhijie; Wang, Shengjie; Wang, Zhiguo; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.
2010-07-01
The mechanical behavior of twinned silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires under combined tension-torsion and compression-torsion is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations with an empirical potential. The simulation results show that both the tensile failure stress and buckling stress decrease under combined tension-torsional and combined compression-torsional strain, and they decrease with increasing torsional rate under combined loading. The torsion rate has no effect on the elastic properties of the twinned SiC nanowires. The collapse of the twinned nanowires takes place in a twin stacking fault of the nanowires.
The metric on field space, functional renormalization, and metric-torsion quantum gravity
Reuter, Martin
2015-01-01
Searching for new non-perturbatively renormalizable quantum gravity theories, functional renormalization group (RG) flows are studied on a theory space of action functionals depending on the metric and the torsion tensor, the latter parameterized by three irreducible component fields. A detailed comparison with Quantum Einstein-Cartan Gravity (QECG), Quantum Einstein Gravity (QEG), and "tetrad-only" gravity, all based on different theory spaces, is performed. It is demonstrated that, over a generic theory space, the construction of a functional RG equation (FRGE) for the effective average action requires the specification of a metric on the infinite-dimensional field manifold as an additional input. A modified FRGE is obtained if this metric is scale-dependent, as it happens in the metric-torsion system considered.
The odd side of torsion geometry
Conti, Diego
2012-01-01
We introduce and study a notion of `Sasaki with torsion structure' (ST) as an odd-dimensional analogue of K\\"ahler with torsion geometry (KT). These are normal almost contact metric manifolds that admit a unique compatible connection with 3-form torsion. Any odd-dimensional compact Lie group is shown to admit such a structure; in this case the structure is left-invariant and has closed torsion form. We illustrate the relation between ST structures and other generalizations of Sasaki geometry, and explain how some standard constructions in Sasaki geometry can be adapted to this setting. In particular, we relate the ST structure to a KT structure on the space of leaves, and show that both the cylinder and the cone over an ST manifold are KT, although only the cylinder behaves well with respect to closedness of the torsion form. Finally, we introduce a notion of `G-moment map'. We provide criteria based on equivariant cohomology ensuring the existence of these maps, and then apply them as a tool for reducing ST ...
Skokov, S.; Bowman, J.M.
1999-05-01
Complex L{sup 2} calculations of the variation of (very narrow) resonance widths of the 6{nu}{sub OH} state of HOCl with total angular momentum are reported, using a recently developed, accurate {ital ab initio} potential energy surface [S. Skokov, J. M. Bowman, and K. A. Peterson, J. Chem. Phys. {bold 109}, 2662 (1998)]. The calculations are carried out within the adiabatic rotation approximation for the overall rotation and a truncation/recoupling method for the vibrational states. Comparisons with recent double-resonance experiments of the Rizzo and Sinha groups are made. The variation of resonance width with {ital J} for {ital K}=0 is shown to be due to rotation-induced coupling of the 6{nu}{sub OH} state with a dense set of states with large excitation in the dissociative coordinate. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
TORSIONAL VIBRATION REDUCTION IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES USING
Shaw, Steven W.
TORSIONAL VIBRATION REDUCTION IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES USING CENTRIFUGAL PENDULUMS Cheng centrifugal pendulum vibration absorbers (CPVA's) for reducing torsional vibration in internal combustion, and have been successfully employed in inter- nal combustion engines and helicopter rotors. The history
Computed tomographic features of lung lobe torsion.
Seiler, Gabriela; Schwarz, Tobias; Vignoli, Massimo; Rodriguez, Daniel
2008-01-01
The imaging features of lung lobe torsion in 10 dogs (nine complete, one partial torsion) acquired with a helical single-slice computed tomography (CT) unit are described. Attenuation values of normal, rotated, and adjacent collapsed lung lobes before and after intravenous contrast medium administration were compared. Affected lung lobes were: left cranial (5), right middle (3), right cranial (1), and left caudal (1). CT findings in nine dogs with complete lung lobe torsion included pleural effusion and an abruptly ending bronchus. In eight of these dogs, enlargement, consolidation, emphysema of the affected lung lobe, and mediastinal shift to the contralateral side were present. Rotated lung lobes did not enhance, whereas adjacent collapsed and aerated lung lobes did (P < 0.05). Apnea induced with hyperventilation or breath-hold is essential to reduce motion artefacts and obtain a diagnostic study. PMID:19051638
Resonant Frequency Change of Torsional Oscillator Induced by Solid 4He in Torsion Rod
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aoki, Yuki; Iwasa, Izumi; Miura, Takeru; Takahashi, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Akira; Murakawa, Satoshi; Okuda, Yuichi
2014-08-01
The contribution of solid 4He contained in the torsion rod of a torsional oscillator to its resonant frequency is investigated using a modified torsional oscillator. The purpose of the present study is to discriminate between two possible contributions to the resonant frequency of the torsional oscillator, which abruptly increases below ˜0.2 K. The first possible contribution is the elastic property change of solid 4He in the torsion rod (i.e., shear modulus increase), and the second possible contribution is mass decoupling by the supersolid transition of solid 4He in the oscillating body (i.e., a decrease in the momentum inertia). A torsional oscillator that has no hollow space for solid 4He in the body was constructed, and its resonant frequency and Q-factor were compared to those of the conventional oscillator. The shear modulus contributions of solid 4He in the torsion rod were identical, but the momentum inertias of solid 4He in the oscillating body were quite different between the two oscillators. Surprisingly, the observed frequency behavior and magnitude of the two oscillators were comparable. This finding indicates that the resonant frequency increase observed in the torsional oscillator originates from the increase in the shear modulus of solid 4He in the torsion rod, rather than from the momentum inertia decrease of the solid 4He in the oscillating body. The temperature dependence of the increase in the shear modulus of solid 4He was well reproduced by the dislocation-vibration model with a much lower 3He impurity concentration than that of commercially available 4He gas.
Torsional behavior of axonal microtubule bundles.
Lazarus, Carole; Soheilypour, Mohammad; Mofrad, Mohammad R K
2015-07-21
Axonal microtubule (MT) bundles crosslinked by microtubule-associated protein (MAP) tau are responsible for vital biological functions such as maintaining mechanical integrity and shape of the axon as well as facilitating axonal transport. Breaking and twisting of MTs have been previously observed in damaged undulated axons. Such breaking and twisting of MTs is suggested to cause axonal swellings that lead to axonal degeneration, which is known as "diffuse axonal injury". In particular, overstretching and torsion of axons can potentially damage the axonal cytoskeleton. Following our previous studies on mechanical response of axonal MT bundles under uniaxial tension and compression, this work seeks to characterize the mechanical behavior of MT bundles under pure torsion as well as a combination of torsional and tensile loads using a coarse-grained computational model. In the case of pure torsion, a competition between MAP tau tensile and MT bending energies is observed. After three turns, a transition occurs in the mechanical behavior of the bundle that is characterized by its diameter shrinkage. Furthermore, crosslink spacing is shown to considerably influence the mechanical response, with larger MAP tau spacing resulting in a higher rate of turns. Therefore, MAP tau crosslinking of MT filaments protects the bundle from excessive deformation. Simultaneous application of torsion and tension on MT bundles is shown to accelerate bundle failure, compared to pure tension experiments. MAP tau proteins fail in clusters of 10-100 elements located at the discontinuities or the ends of MT filaments. This failure occurs in a stepwise fashion, implying gradual accumulation of elastic tensile energy in crosslinks followed by rupture. Failure of large groups of interconnecting MAP tau proteins leads to detachment of MT filaments from the bundle near discontinuities. This study highlights the importance of torsional loading in axonal damage after traumatic brain injury. PMID:26200859
Fourier relationship between angular position and optical orbital angular momentum
Eric Yao; Sonja Franke-Arnold; Johannes Courtial; Stephen Barnett; Miles Padgett
2006-06-15
We demonstrate the Fourier relationship between angular position and angular momentum for a light mode. In particular we measure the distribution of orbital angular momentum states of light that has passed through an aperture and verify that the orbital angular momentum distribution is given by the complex Fourier-transform of the aperture function. We use spatial light modulators, configured as diffractive optical components, to define the initial orbital angular momentum state of the beam, set the defining aperture, and measure the angular momentum spread of the resulting beam. These measurements clearly confirm the Fourier relationship between angular momentum and angular position, even at light intensities corresponding to the single photon level.
Chronic liver lobe torsion in a cat.
Nazarali, Alim; Singh, Ameet; Chalmers, Heather; Stevens, Brian; Plattner, Brandon L
2014-01-01
A 13 yr old castrated male blue British shorthair with a 3 mo history of vomiting was diagnosed with a left lateral liver lobe mass following abdominal ultrasonography. At the time of celiotomy, liver lobe torsion (LLT) of the left lateral lobe was also present. Histopathologic evaluation of the liver mass and associated lobe revealed extensive necrosis secondary to chronic torsion. This is the second reported case of LLT in a cat. Both cases were associated with liver masses. The cat presented in this case remained clinically normal 8 mo postoperatively following lobectomy of the affected lobe. PMID:24446406
Torsion and Bending Periodic Boundary Conditions for Modeling the Intrinsic
Cai, Wei
Torsion and Bending Periodic Boundary Conditions for Modeling the Intrinsic Strength of Nanowires and bending of nanowires that is free from artificial end effects. Torsional and bending periodic boundary Dynamics formulation because we focus on the special cases of torsion and bending. A simple implemen
Tussive syncope in a pug with lung-lobe torsion
Davies, John A.; Snead, Elisabeth C.R.; Pharr, John W.
2011-01-01
The most common presenting clinical signs of lung-lobe torsion include dyspnea, tachypnea, lethargy, and anorexia. Tussive syncope secondary to lung-lobe torsion has not been documented. This article describes the presentation, diagnosis, management, and outcome of a pug with tussive syncope secondary to lung-lobe torsion. PMID:22131584
Metamaterial broadband angular selectivity
Shen, Yichen
We demonstrate how broadband angular selectivity can be achieved with stacks of one-dimensionally periodic photonic crystals, each consisting of alternating isotropic layers and effective anisotropic layers, where each ...
Optical Broadband Angular Selectivity
Shen, Yichen
Light selection based purely on the angle of propagation is a long-standing scientific challenge. In angularly selective systems, however, the transmission of light usually also depends on the light frequency. We tailored ...
On some features of possible torsion effects on observables at Hadron colliders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Syromyatnikov, A. G.
2015-08-01
I give a geometrical description of conformal gauge gravitational theory (CGTG) from the viewpoint of symmetries and affine structure. In the frames of the CGTG incorporating gravitation with torsion space-time into Standard Model of electro-weak interaction (EWI) the multi-muon events produced at the Fermilab Tevatron collider were studied. The CGTG gives the value of the torsion pseudotrace-spinor (muon) universal coupling fT = 4.388 ? 10-17 GF, and with limits from known experiments — torsion mass mT = 0.4700 ? 10-7 eV or mT = 0.445 ? 10-15 muon mass. So the value of the constant of effective four-fermions interaction fT/mT = 0.988, indeed may lead to multi-muon events production. The model of interaction of quantum oscillator with the tensor potential W?? of traceless part of the torsion lead to 2 cm displacement of quark-lepton system as a whole in the magnetic field of collider in accordance with a significant sample of events related to b\\bar {b} production and decay in which at least one of the muon candidates is produced outside of the beam pipe of radius 1.5 cm. A traceless part of the torsion in CGTG does not vanish in the Newtonian limit of nonzero mass. Torsion gravity potential W?? gives conservation of a special conformal current and may be produced in the condition of a spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetry where the gravitation mass MX defect is 1-3 Tev ? c-2 or 10-13MX. This effect may be possible at known effects on top pair asymmetries at the Tevatron and LHC and takes place as the known energy dissipation above 3 TeV of the Galaxy gamma-ray and neutrino spectrum from two bubbles outside the Galaxy plane.
Modified teleparallel theories of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahamonde, Sebastian; Böhmer, Christian G.; Wright, Matthew
2015-11-01
We investigate modified theories of gravity in the context of teleparallel geometries. It is well known that modified gravity models based on the torsion scalar are not invariant under local Lorentz transformations while modifications based on the Ricci scalar are. This motivates the study of a model depending on the torsion scalar and the divergence of the torsion vector. We derive the teleparallel equivalent of f (R ) gravity as a particular subset of these models and also show that this is the unique theory in this class that is invariant under local Lorentz transformation. Furthermore one can show that f (T ) gravity is the unique theory admitting second-order field equations.
Matter-antimatter asymmetry and dark matter from torsion
Poplawski, Nikodem J.
2011-04-15
We propose a simple scenario which explains the observed matter-antimatter imbalance and the origin of dark matter in the Universe. We use the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity which naturally extends general relativity to include the intrinsic spin of matter. Spacetime torsion produced by spin generates, in the classical Dirac equation, the Hehl-Datta term which is cubic in spinor fields. We show that under a charge-conjugation transformation this term changes sign relative to the mass term. A classical Dirac spinor and its charge conjugate therefore satisfy different field equations. Fermions in the presence of torsion have higher energy levels than antifermions, which leads to their decay asymmetry. Such a difference is significant only at extremely high densities that existed in the very early Universe. We propose that this difference caused a mechanism, according to which heavy fermions existing in such a Universe and carrying the baryon number decayed mostly to normal matter, whereas their antiparticles decayed mostly to hidden antimatter which forms dark matter. The conserved total baryon number of the Universe remained zero.
TORSION ANALYSIS OF FRESH AND AGED CHEESES
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Torsion gelometry is a fundamental rheological test that can be performed on cheese to provide values of shear stress and shear strain. Six cheese varieties encompassing a wide compositional and age range were analyzed fresh and after aging to determine correlations between casein proteolysis produ...
Test particle acceleration in torsional fan reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseinpour, M.
2014-12-01
Magnetic reconnection is understood to be a potential mechanism for particle acceleration in astrophysical and space plasmas, especially in solar flares. Torsional fan reconnection is one of the proposed mechanisms for steady-state three-dimensional (3D) magnetic reconnection. By using the magnetic and electric fields for `torsional fan reconnection', the features of test particle acceleration with input parameters for the solar corona are investigated numerically. We show that torsional fan reconnection is potentially an efficient particle accelerator and a proton can gain up to tens of MeV of kinetic energy within only a few milliseconds. Although the final kinetic energy of the accelerated particle depends on the injection position but there exists only one scenario for the particle's trajectory with different initial positions in which the particle is accelerated on the fan plane. Moreover, adopting either spatially uniform or non-uniform localized plasma resistivity does not much influence the features of trajectory. These results are compared with those of torsional spine reconnection.
Mechanism of defibration in torsional failure
Koran, Z.
1983-01-01
Cylindrical wood bars were twisted through a 360-degree rotation in a standard torsiometer in glycerine at 20, 60, and 100/sup 0/C temperatures. The torsional load-deformation curves were plotted for each specimen, and energy consumptions were calculated at each temperature. 11 references, 6 figures.
Scheck, Michael G
2007-04-01
Abdominal radiographs of a dog presented for anorexia and vomiting revealed an ill-defined increase in opacity caudal to the stomach and caudal displacement of the small intestines. Ultrasonographs revealed an enlarged liver lobe with vascular thrombosis. Left medial liver lobe torsion was confirmed at postmortem. PMID:17494372
Radiographic diagnosis of lung lobe torsion.
d'Anjou, Marc-André; Tidwell, Amy S; Hecht, Silke
2005-01-01
Clinical data, thoracic radiographs, ultrasonographic exams, and histopathologic reports in 13 dogs and two cats with confirmed lung lobe torsion were reviewed. Age of dogs ranged from 4 months to 11.5 years, (mean of 6.4 years) and several breeds of large and small dogs were represented. Right middle lobe torsion was predominant in large dogs (five of eight large breed dogs) and left cranial lobe torsion was more commonly seen in small dogs (three of five small-breed dogs). Two domestic short-hair cats, 10 and 14 years of age, had right cranial and right middle lobe torsion, respectively. Underlying thoracic disease was found in only five of 15 patients. On thoracic radiographs, increased lobar opacity and pleural effusion were found in all patients (100%). Small dispersed air bubbles were found within the affected lobe of 13 patients (87%). This pattern, which was the result of vesicular emphysema, was variably extensive, and became more evident on follow-up radiographs in five of six dogs. The lobar bronchi could be seen in only eight of 15 patients (54%), and appeared irregular, focally narrowed or blunted in six of the eight patients, and displaced in five of the eight. Other common radiographic findings included mediastinal shift (nine), curved and dorsally displaced trachea (seven), and axial rotation of the carina (seven). Ultrasonography was used in seven patients and considered generally useful, although variable signs were observed. PMID:16396263
Angular Momentum Operator Identities G I. Orbital Angular Momentum
Simons, Jack
Angular Momentum Operator Identities G I. Orbital Angular Momentum A particle moving with momentum p at a position r relative to some coordinate origin has so-called orbital angular momentum equal to L = r x p . The three components of this angular momentum vector in a cartesian coordinate system
Minimum uncertainty states of angular momentum and angular position
Zambrini, Roberta
Minimum uncertainty states of angular momentum and angular position David T Pegg1 , Stephen M of linear momentum that satisfy the equality in the Heisenberg uncertainty principle for position for position and momentum. The corresponding uncertainty relation for angular momentum and angular position
Accelerating Universe with spacetime torsion but without dark matter and dark energy
A. V. Minkevich
2009-08-22
It is shown that cosmological equations for homogeneous isotropic models deduced in the framework of the Poincar\\'e gauge theory of gravity by certain restrictions on indefinite parameters of gravitational Lagrangian take at asymptotics the same form as cosmological equations of general relativity theory for $\\Lambda CDM$-model. Terms related to dark matter and dark energy in cosmological equations of standard theory for $\\Lambda CDM$-model are connected in considered theory with the change of gravitational interaction provoked by spacetime torsion.
Sudden lateral asymmetry and torsional oscillations of section models of suspension bridges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plaut, R. H.; Davis, F. M.
2007-11-01
Cable-supported bridges typically exhibit minimal torsional motion under traffic and wind loads. If symmetry of the bridge about the deck's centerline is suddenly lost, such as by the failure of one or more cables or hangers (suspenders), torsional motion of the deck may grow and angles of twist may become large. The initiation of the disastrous torsional oscillations of the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge involved a sudden lateral asymmetry due to loosening of a cable band at midspan. The effects of these types of events on two-degree-of-freedom and four-degree-of-freedom section models of suspension bridges are analyzed. Vertical and rotational motions of the deck, along with vertical motions of the cables, are considered. A harmonic vertical force and an aerodynamic moment proportional to angular velocity are applied to the deck. Resistance is provided by translational and rotational springs and dashpots. Flutter instability and large oscillations occur under the aerodynamic moment, which provides "negative damping." In order to model the occurrence of limit cycles, nonlinear damping of the van der Pol type is included in one case, and nonlinear stiffness of the hangers in others. The frequencies of the limit cycles are compared to the natural frequencies of the system.
Optomechanics based on angular momentum exchange between light and matter
Shi, Hao
2015-01-01
The subject of optomechanics involves interactions between optical and mechanical degrees of freedom, and is currently of great interest as an enabler of fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, as well as a platform for ultrasensitive measurement devices. The majority of optomechanical configurations rely on the exchange of linear momentum between light and matter. We will begin this tutorial with a brief description of such systems. Subsequently, we will introduce optomechanical systems based on angular momentum exchange. In this context, optical fields carrying polarization and orbital angular momentum will be considered, while for the mechanics, torsional and free rotational motion will be of relevance. Our overall aims will be to supply basic analyses of some of the existing theoretical proposals, to provide functional descriptions of some of the experiments conducted thus far, and to consider some directions for future research. We hope this tutorial will be useful to both theorists and experime...
Design and analysis of a torsion braid pendulum displacement transducer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rind, E.; Bryant, E. L.
1981-01-01
The dynamic properties at various temperatures of braids impregnated with polymer can be measured by using the braid as the suspension of a torsion pendulum. This report describes the electronic and mechanical design of a torsional braid pendulum displacement transducer which is an advance in the state of the art. The transducer uses a unique optical design consisting of refracting quartz windows used in conjunction with a differential photocell to produce a null signal. The release mechanism for initiating free torsional oscillation of the pendulum has also been improved. Analysis of the precision and accuracy of the transducer indicated that the maximum relative error in measuring torsional amplitude was approximately 0. A serious problem inherent in all instruments which use a torsional suspension was analyzed: misalignment of the physical and torsional axes of the torsional member which results in modulation of the amplitude of the free oscillation.
The Angular Momentum Dichotomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teklu, Adelheid; Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Dolag, Klaus; Burkert, Andreas
2015-02-01
In the context of the formation of spiral galaxies the evolution and distribution of the angular momentum of dark matter halos have been discussed for more than 20 years, especially the idea that the specific angular momentum of the halo can be estimated from the specific angular momentum of its disk (e.g. Fall & Efstathiou (1980), Fall (1983) and Mo et al. (1998)). We use a new set of hydrodynamic cosmological simulations called Magneticum Pathfinder which allow us to split the galaxies into spheroidal and disk galaxies via the circularity parameter ?, as commonly used (e.g. Scannapieco et al. (2008)). Here, we focus on the dimensionless spin parameter ? = J |E|1/2 / (G M5/2) (Peebles 1969, 1971), which is a measure of the rotation of the total halo and can be fitted by a lognormal distribution, e.g. Mo et al. (1998). The spin parameter allows one to compare the relative angular momentum of halos across different masses and different times. Fig. 1 reveals a dichotomy in the distribution of ? at all redshifts when the galaxies are split into spheroids (dashed) and disk galaxies (dash-dotted). The disk galaxies preferentially live in halos with slightly larger spin parameter compared to spheroidal galaxies. Thus, we see that the ? of the whole halo reflects the morphology of its central galaxy. For more details and a larger study of the angular momentum properties of disk and spheroidal galaxies, see Teklu et al. (in prep.).
Fedoruk, Sergey Ivanov, Evgeny; Smilga, Andrei
2014-05-15
We present simple models of N= 4 supersymmetric mechanics with ordinary and mirror linear (4, 4, 0) multiplets that give a transparent description of Hyper-Kähler with Torsion (HKT), Clifford Kähler with Torsion (CKT), and Octonionic Kähler with Torsion (OKT) geometries. These models are treated in the N= 4 and N=2 superfield approaches, as well as in the component approach. Our study makes manifest that the CKT and OKT supersymmetric sigma models are distinguished from the more simple HKT models by the presence of extra holomorphic torsion terms in the supercharges.
Cracked shells under skew-symmetric loading. [Reissner theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Delale, F.
1981-01-01
The general problem of a shell containing a through crack in one of the principal planes of curvature and under general skew-symmetric loading is considered. By employing a Reissner type shell theory which takes into account the effect of transverse shear strains, all boundary conditions on the crack surfaces are satisfied separately. Consequently, unlike those obtained from the classical shell theory, the angular distributions of the stress components around the crack tips are shown to be identical to the distributions obtained from the plane and anti-plane elasticity solutions. Results are given for axially and circumferentially cracked cylindrical shells, spherical shells, and toroidal shells under uniform in-plane shearing, out of plane shearing, and torsion. The problem is formulated for specially orthostropic materials, therefore, the effect of orthotropy on the results is also studied.
Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC
2012-02-17
We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.
Dynamical system analysis for nonminimal torsion-matter coupled gravity
Carloni, Sante; Otalora, Giovanni; Saridakis, Emmanuel N
2015-01-01
In this work, we perform a detailed dynamical analysis for the cosmological applications of a nonminimal torsion-matter coupled gravity. Two alternative formalisms are proposed, which enable one to choose between the easier approach for a given problem, and furthermore, we analyze six specific models. In general, we extract fixed points corresponding either to dark-matter dominated, scaling decelerated solutions, or to dark-energy dominated accelerated solutions. Additionally, we find that there is a small parameter region in which the model can experience the transition from the matter epoch to a dark-energy era. These features are in agreement with the observed universe evolution, and make the theory a successful candidate for the description of Nature.
Wind-tunnel Investigations on Flexural-torsional Wing Flutter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Voigt, H
1938-01-01
For the purpose of testing the theory of an oscillating airfoil of two degrees of freedom, a wing was mounted in the wind tunnel between two walls in such a manner that it could execute vertical (flexural) oscillations as well as torsional oscillations about an arbitrary axis parallel to the span. It was possible to vary the inertia and elasticity parameters and also to increase artificially the negligibly small natural damping of the system. The oscillations were recorded to a strongly magnified scale. The experimentally determined critical (or flutter) velocities fully agree with the theoretical ones of Wagner and Kussner within the limits of computational and measuring accuracy. An extremely narrow wing without end walls (three dimensional problem) showed the same oscillations as one with end walls (two-dimensional problem).
Torsion of DNA modeled as a heterogeneous fluctuating rod
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Argudo, David; Purohit, Prashant K.
2014-01-01
We discuss the statistical mechanics of a heterogeneous elastic rod with bending, twisting and stretching. Our model goes beyond earlier works where only homogeneous rods were considered in the limit of high forces and long lengths. Our methods allow us to consider shorter fluctuating rods for which boundary conditions can play an important role. We use our theory to study structural transitions in torsionally constrained DNA where there is coexistence of states with different effective properties. In particular, we examine whether a newly discovered left-handed DNA conformation called L-DNA is a mixture of two known states. We also use our model to investigate the mechanical effects of the binding of small molecules to DNA. For both these applications we make experimentally falsifiable predictions.
Effects of warping and pretwist on torsional vibration of rotating beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaza, K. R. V.; Kielb, R. E.
1984-01-01
The effect of pretwist and warping on the torsional vibration of short-aspect-ratio rotating beams is examined for application to the modeling of turbofan, turboprop, and compressor blades. The equations of motion and the associated boundary conditions by using both Wagner's hypothesis and Washizu's theory are derived and a few minor limitations of the Wagner's hypothesis, as applied to thick blades, are pointed out and discussed. The equations for several special cases are solved in a closed form. Results are presented indicating the effect of warping, pretwist, and rotation on torsional vibration of beams as aspect ratio is varied. The results show that the structural warping and pretwist terms have a significant effect on torsional frequency and mode shapes of short-aspect-ratio blades whereas the inertial warping terms have negligible effect. Since the torsional frequencies and mode shapes are very important in aeroelastic analyses by using modal methods, the structural warping terms should be included in modeling turbofan, turboprop, compressor, and turbine blades.
Quasi-steady prediction of coupled bending-torsion flutter under rotating stall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ananth, S. M.; Kushari, A.; Venkatesan, C.
2013-11-01
A method is presented in this paper to predict cascade flutter under subsonic stalled flow condition in a quasi-steady manner. The ability to predict the occurrence of aeroelastic flutter is highly important from the compressor design point of view. In the present work, the well known Moore-Greitzer compression system model is used to evaluate the flow under rotating stall and the linearized aerodynamic theory of Whitehead is used to estimate the blade loading. The cascade stability is then predicted by solving the structural model, which is posed as a complex eigenvalue problem. The possibility of occurrence of flutter in both bending and torsional modes is considered and the latter is found to be the dominant one, under subsonic stalled flow, for a large range of frequency ratios examined. It is also shown that the design of compressor blades at frequency ratios close to unity may result in rapid initiation of torsional flutter in the presence of stalled flow. A frequency ratio of 0.9 is primarily emphasized for most part of the study as many interesting features are revealed and the results are physically interpreted. Roughly a pitchfork pattern of energy distribution appears to occur between bending mode and torsional mode which ensures that only one flutter mode is possible at any instant in time. A bifurcation from bending flutter to torsional flutter is shown to occur during which the frequency of the two vibrating modes appear to coalesce for a very short period of time.
Angular momentum in spin-phonon processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garanin, D. A.; Chudnovsky, E. M.
2015-07-01
Quantum theory of spin relaxation in the elastic environment is revised with account of the concept of a phonon spin recently introduced by Zhang and Niu [L. Zhang and Q. Niu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 085503 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.085503]. Similar to the case of the electromagnetic field, the division of the angular momentum associated with elastic deformations into the orbital part and the part due to phonon spins proves to be useful for the analysis of the balance of the angular momentum. Such analysis sheds important light on microscopic processes leading to the Einstein-de Haas effect.
Torsional Pendulum Studies of HELIUM-4 in Nanopores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyamoto, Satoru
In this dissertation, experimental results are presented on the torsion pendulum studies of ^4 He adsorbed in chabazite, whose pore is 13 A in diameter, and in silica with 25 A diameter pores. The objective of this work was to search for superfluidity in extremely confined ^4He. A novel technique for dehydrating chabazite crystals has been developed for this work. As we found out, chabazite crystals of millimeter sizes cannot be dehydrated simply by heating them in vacuum as commonly done for zeolite powders, since the heating results in pulverization of the crystals. To dehydrate the crystals without damage, a high pressure dehydration technique has been developed. In this method, chabazite crystals are heated in a high pressure helium atomosphere at pressures over 10,000 psi in a furnace attached to a sorption pump filled with activated charcoal. The pump removes water selectively under high pressure. Using a crystal prepared with this method, the experiment down to 100 mK found no superfluidity in ^4He adsorbed in chabazite crystal with the torsion pendulum technique. In porous silica, superfluid transition was observed with the transition temperature ranging from 0.12 K to 0.82 K depending on the ^4He coverage. Near the full pore coverage, the temperature dependence of the superfluid density was found to arise entirely from the phonon excitation, with no evidence for other mechanisms such as vortex-pair unbinding. The superfluid density for lower ^4He coverages are compared with the Kosterlitz-Thouless theory adopted by Kotsubo and Williams for a small sphere. The fitting parameters obtained from the comparison are examined to address the applicability of the Kosterlitz-Thouless theory to ^4He films in extreme confinement.
Geometric classification of the torsion tensor in space-time
S. Capozziello; G. Lambiase; C. Stornaiolo
2001-01-10
Torsion appears in literature in quite different forms. Generally, spin is considered to be the source of torsion, but there are several other possibilities in which torsion emerges in different contexts. In some cases a phenomenological counterpart is absent, in some other cases torsion arises from sources without spin as a gradient of a scalar field. Accordingly, we propose two classification schemes. The first one is based on the possibility to construct torsion tensors from the product of a covariant bivector and a vector and their respective space-time properties. The second one is obtained by starting from the decomposition of torsion into three irreducible pieces. Their space-time properties again lead to a complete classification. The classifications found are given in a U_4, a four dimensional space-time where the torsion tensors have some peculiar properties. The irreducible decomposition is useful since most of the phenomenological work done for torsion concerns four dimensional cosmological models. In the second part of the paper two applications of these classification schemes are given. The modifications of energy-momentum tensors are considered that arise due to different sources of torsion. Furthermore, we analyze the contributions of torsion to shear, vorticity, expansion and acceleration. Finally the generalized Raychaudhuri equation is discussed.
Ideal Linear Chain Polymers with Fixed Angular Momentum
Matthew Brunner; J. M. Deutsch
2010-08-21
The statistical mechanics of a linear non-interacting polymer chain with a large number of monomers is considered with fixed angular momentum. The radius of gyration for a linear polymer is derived exactly by functional integration. This result is then compared to simulations done with a large number of non-interacting rigid links at fixed angular momentum. The simulation agrees with the theory up to finite size corrections. The simulations are also used to investigate the anisotropic nature of a spinning polymer. We find universal scaling of the polymer size along the direction of the angular momentum, as a function of rescaled angular momentum.
On the Birational Invariance of the BCOV Torsion of Calabi-Yau Threefolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maillot, V.; Rössler, D.
2012-04-01
Fang et al. (J. Diff. Geom. 80(2):175-259, 2008, Sect. 4, Conj. 4.17) conjecture that a certain spectral string-theoretic invariant of Calabi-Yau threefolds (the BCOV torsion) is a birational invariant. We prove a weak form of this conjecture. The proof combines the arithmetic Riemann-Roch theorem in Arakelov geometry with some inputs from motivic integration theory.
Shear and Vorticity in an Accelerating Brans-Dicke Lambda-Universe with Torsion
Berman, Marcelo Samuel
2008-01-01
We study accelerating Universes with power-law scale-factors. We include shear and vorticity, a cosmological "constant" term, and spin from torsion, as in Einstein-Cartan's theory when a scalar-field of Brans-Dicke type acts in the model. We find a "no-hair" result, for shear and vorticity; we also make contact with the alternative Machian picture of the Universe.
G-linear sets and torsion points in definably compact groups
Peterzil, Ya'acov
a torsion point of G. Along the way we develop a general theory for the so-called G-linear sets and Y have the same germ at a, in notation X =a Y , if there exists an open neighbourhood U of a such that X U = Y U. We say that the germ of X at a is contained in the germ of Y at a, in notation X a Y
G-linear sets and torsion points in definably compact groups
Otero DomÃnguez, Margarita
contains a torsion point of G. Along the way we develop a general theory for the so-called G-linear sets and Y have the same germ at a, in notation X =a Y , if there exists an open neighbourhood U of a such that X U = Y U. We say that the germ of X at a is contained in the germ of Y at a, in notation X a Y
Investigations of magnetic hysteresis of barium ferrite using the torsion pendulum method
Richter, H.J.; Hempel, K.A.
1988-11-15
The magnetic stiffness is measured by the torsion pendulum method as a function of the applied field. Measurements are performed on random assemblies of chemically coprecipitated barium ferrite powders. The magnetic stiffness for both minor and major loops of the hysteresis cycle is measured and compared with calculated curves based on the model of coherent rotation. The discrepancies between theory and experiment are partly due to the effect of magnetic interaction.
Torsional Kinematic Model for Concentric Tube Robots
Dupont, Pierre E.; Lock, Jesse; Butler, Evan
2011-01-01
A recent approach to steerable needle design is based on combining pre-curved tubes concentrically. By rotating and extending the tubes with respect to each other, the position and orientation of the needle tip, as well as the shape of the inserted length, can be controlled. Prior models neglected torsional twisting in the curved portions of the tubes. This paper presents a mechanics model that includes torsion, applies to any number of tubes and allows curvature and stiffness to vary with arc length. While the general model is comprised of differential equations, an analytic solution is given for two tubes of constant curvature. This solution enables analytic prediction of “snap through” instability based on a single dimensionless parameter. Simulation and experiments are used to illustrate the results. PMID:21479158
Interfacing a torsion pendulum with a microcomputer
Bush, J.A.; Newby, J.W.
1983-02-24
Shear modulus testing is performed on the torsion pendulum at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) as a means of gauging the state of cure for a polymer system. However, collection and reduction of the data to obtain the elastic modulus necessitated extensive operator involved measurements and calculations, which were subject to errors. To improve the reliability of the test, an analog-to-digital interface was designed and built to connect the torsion pendulum with a minicomputer. After the necessary programming was prepared, the system was tested and found to be an improvement over the old procedure in both quality and time of operation. An analysis of the data indicated that the computer generated modulus data were equivalent to the hand method data, but potential operator errors in frequency measurements and calculations were eliminated. The interfacing of the pendulum with the computer resulted in an overall time savings of 52 percent.
Chronic splenic torsion in two dogs.
Reinhart, Jennifer M; Sherwood, J Matthew; KuKanich, Katherine S; Klocke, Emily; Biller, David S
2015-01-01
A 5 yr old spayed female poodle (case 1) was presented with a 4 mo history of lethargy, inappetence, and nonregenerative anemia. A 5 yr old castrated male French bulldog (case 2) was presented with a 2 wk history of mild abdominal pain, dyschezia, and intermittent anorexia. Both dogs were diagnosed with chronic splenic torsion based on changes in splenic position, echogenicity, and/or echotexture identified on B-mode abdominal ultrasonography, as well as either decreased or absent splenic blood flow on color-flow Doppler ultrasonography. Both dogs underwent splenectomy and had full resolution of clinical signs. Presentation of chronic splenic torsion is variable, and clinical signs can be nonspecific. Abdominal ultrasound with Doppler evaluation is an important diagnostic step that can lead to appropriate surgical intervention and good long-term prognosis. PMID:25955145
Fluid driven torsional dipole seismic source
Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM)
1991-01-01
A compressible fluid powered oscillating downhole seismic source device capable of periodically generating uncontaminated horizontally-propagated, shear waves is provided. A compressible fluid generated oscillation is created within the device which imparts an oscillation to a housing when the device is installed in a housing such as the cylinder off an existing downhole tool, thereby a torsional seismic source is established. Horizontal waves are transferred to the surrounding bore hole medium through downhole clamping.
Torsional Oscillations of Nonbare Strange Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mannarelli, Massimo; Pagliaroli, Giulia; Parisi, Alessandro; Pilo, Luigi; Tonelli, Francesco
2015-12-01
Strange stars are one of the possible compact stellar objects that can form after a supernova collapse. We consider a model of a strange star having an inner core in the color-flavor locked phase surmounted by a crystalline color superconducting (CCSC) layer. These two phases constitute the quarksphere, which we assume to be the largest and heaviest part of the strange star. The next layer consists of standard nuclear matter forming an ionic crust, hovering on the top of the quarksphere and prevented from falling by a strong dipolar electric field. The dipolar electric field arises because quark matter is confined in the quarksphere by the strong interaction, but electrons can leak outside forming an electron layer a few hundred fermi thick separating the ionic crust from the underlying quark matter. The ionic matter and the CCSC matter constitute two electromagnetically coupled crust layers. We study the torsional oscillations of these two layers. Remarkably, we find that if a fraction larger than 10-4 of the energy of a Vela-like glitch is conveyed to a torsional oscillation, the ionic crust will likely break. The reason is that the very rigid and heavy CCSC crust layer will absorb only a small fraction of the glitch energy, leading to a large-amplitude torsional oscillation of the ionic crust. The maximum stress generated by the torsional oscillation is located inside the ionic crust and is very close to the star's surface. This peculiar behavior leads to a much easier crust cracking than in standard neutron stars.
Is Torsion a Fundamental Physical Field?
Orchidea Maria Lecian; Simone Mercuri; Giovanni Montani
2007-02-05
The local Lorentz group is introduced in flat space-time, where the resulting Dirac and Yang-Mills equations are found, and then generalized to curved space-time: if matter is neglected, the Lorentz connection is identified with the contortion field, while, if matter is taken into account, both the Lorentz connection and the spinor axial current are illustrated to contribute to the torsion of space-time.
Perinatal testicular torsion and medicolegal considerations.
Massoni, F; Troili, G M; Pelosi, M; Ricci, S
2014-06-01
Perinatal testicular torsion (PTT) is a very complex condition because of rarity of presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. In presence of perinatal testicular torsion, the involvement of contralateral testis can be present also in absence of other indications which suggest the bilateral involvement; therefore, occurrences supported by literature do not exclude the use of surgery to avoid the risk of omitted or delayed diagnosis. The data on possible recovery of these testicles are not satisfactory, and treatment consists of an observational approach ("wait-and-see") or an interventional approach. The hypothesis of randomized clinical trials seems impracticable because of rarity of disease. The authors present a case of PTT, analyzing injuries due to clinical and surgical management of these patients, according to medicolegal profile. The delayed diagnosis and the choice of an incorrect therapeutic approach can compromise the position of healthcare professionals, defective in terms of skill, prudence and diligence. Endocrine insufficiency is an unfortunate event. The analysis of literature seems to support, because of high risk, a surgical approach aimed not only at resolution of unilateral pathology or prevention of a relapse, but also at prevention of contralateral testicular torsion. PMID:24826979
[Pathogenesis and treatment of torsion dystonia].
Barkhatova, V P; Markova, E D
1978-01-01
A study of the catecholamine excretion, their precursor DOPA and final metabolites--Homovaniline and vanilylphenylglycolic acid in torsion dystonia, detected certain changes which were different in patients with various clinical forms of the disease. On the basis of clinical and biochemical data 3 forms of torsion dystonia were distinguished: 1) with a prevalence in the clinical picture of muscle rigidity, leading to the development of pathological postures; 2) hyperkinetic forms and 3) mixed forms. In patients of the first group there was a decreased excretion of all catecholamines. On the basis of obtained data the conclusion is made that there is a drop in the intensity of the process of dophamine synthesis and an increase of its catabolism. In the hyperkinetic form, on the contrary, there is a tendency to an increase of dophamine synthesis. It is assumed that there is a drop in the intensity of the process of adrenaline synthesis and an increase of its catabolism. On the basis of biochemical heterogeneity of torsion dystonia the authors recommended different approaches in treating different forms of this disease. In a prevalent muscular rigidity the functions of the dophaminergic systems should be intensified: on the one hand, by administering precursors of dophamine L-DOPA, on the other--by inhibiting antagonistic activity with the aid of different cholinolytic preparations. In a hyperkinetic form a favorable effect is attained by preparations, inhibiting the dophaminergic activity (mainly preparations of the phenothiazine and butyrophenon series). PMID:696099
Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao
2013-01-01
An angular acceleration sensor can be used for the dynamic analysis of human and joint motions. In this paper, an angular acceleration sensor with novel structure based on the principle of electromagnetic induction is designed. The method involves the construction of a constant magnetic field by the excitation windings of sensor, and the cup-shaped rotor that cut the magnetic field. The output windings of the sensor generate an electromotive force, which is directly proportional to the angular acceleration through the electromagnetic coupling when the rotor has rotational angular acceleration. The mechanical structure and the magnetic working circuit of the sensor are described. The output properties and the mathematical model including the transfer function and state-space model of the sensor are established. The asymptotical stability of the sensor when it is working is verified by the Lyapunov Theorem. An angular acceleration calibration device based on the torsional pendulum principle is designed. The method involves the coaxial connection of the angular acceleration sensor, torsion pendulum and a high-precision angle sensor, and then an initial external force is applied to the torsion pendulum to produce a periodic damping angle oscillation. The angular acceleration sensor and the angle sensor will generate two corresponding electrical signals. The sensitivity coefficient of the angular acceleration sensor can be obtained after processing these two-channel signals. The experiment results show that the sensitivity coefficient of the sensor is about 17.29 mv/Krad·s2. Finally, the errors existing in the practical applications of the sensor are discussed and the corresponding improvement measures are proposed to provide effective technical support for the practical promotion of the novel sensor. PMID:23941911
Curro, John G.; Webb III, Edmund B.; Grest, Gary S.; Weinhold, Jeffrey D.; Putz, Mathias; McCoy, John D.
1999-07-21
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed on dense liquids of polyethylene chains of 24 and 66 united atom CH{sub 2} units. A series of models was studied ranging in atomistic detail from coarse-grained, freely-jointed, tangent site chains to realistic, overlapping site models subjected to bond angle restrictions and torsional potentials. These same models were also treated with the self-consistent, polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theory. The intramolecular and total structure factors, as well as, the intermolecular radial distribution functions g(r) and direct correlation functions C(r) were obtained from theory and simulation. Angular correlation functions were also simulation obtained from the MD simulations. Comparisons between theory and reveal that PRISM theory works well for computing the intermolecular structure of coarse-grained chain models, but systematically underpredicts the extent of intermolecular packing as more atomistic details are introduced into the model. A consequence of g(r) having insufficient structure is that the theory yields an isothermal compressibility that progressively becomes larger, relative to the simulations, as overlapping the PRISM sites and angular restrictions are introduced into the model. We found that theory could be considerably improved by adding a tail function to C(r) beyond the effective hard core diameter. The range of this tail function was determined by requiring the theory to yield the correct compressibility.
A torsional parametric oscillator based on carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Byeong-Woo; Sinnott, Susan B.
2009-08-01
Parametric oscillations are observed in torsional electromechanical oscillators based on carbon nanotubes via molecular dynamics simulations. The stretch of nanotube torsion springs due to the vertical translational-electrostatic force acting on the paddle makes possible the parametric oscillations. The electrostatic force can provide control over nanotube stretching that allows it to parametrically modulate the torsional spring constant at twice the resonance frequency. This reveals potential building blocks for a variety of applications of the devices.
A Vacuum Solution with Torsion in Higher-Derivative Gravity
Kouzou Nishida
2012-09-02
In this paper, we provide a vacuum solution with torsion in quadratic Riemann-curvature gravity. Physically, the solution means that vacuum can have a nonzero vacuum field with large torsion. We show that the Einstein-Hilbert action can be derived if we expand the quadratic curvature of the Lagrangian in a torsion-free Riemannian space-time around a nonzero vacuum field. We also show that the cosmological constant caused by a nonzero vacuum field is equal to zero.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wormer, Paul E. S.; Paldus, Josef
Starting from the simplest possible building blocks--a ket, a bra, a time-reversed ket, and a time-reversed bra--a diagrammatic formalism is developed for angular momentum coupling problems. The formalism comprises Clebsch-Gordan coefficients as well as 3jm-symbols. The idea of constructing invariants (internal lines) by contracting contragredient pairs of quantities is emphasized throughout. The Clebsch-Gordan series, and its extension to the coupling of more than two angular momenta, is introduced algebraically and diagrammatically. Recoupling between bases obtained in different coupling schemes is introduced and the connection between recoupling coefficients and irreducible 3nj-symbols is derived diagrammatically. The well-known diagrammatic rules due to Jucys and co-workers are derived by group theoretical means and simple rules for their practical exploitation are presented.
Sutton, Christopher; Gray, Matthew T.; Brunsfeld, Max; Parrish, Robert M.; Sherrill, C. David; Sears, John S.; Brédas, Jean-Luc E-mail: thomas.koerzdoerfer@uni-potsdam.de; Körzdörfer, Thomas E-mail: thomas.koerzdoerfer@uni-potsdam.de; Computational Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam
2014-02-07
We investigate the torsion potentials in two prototypical ?-conjugated polymers, polyacetylene and polydiacetylene, as a function of chain length using different flavors of density functional theory. Our study provides a quantitative analysis of the delocalization error in standard semilocal and hybrid density functionals and demonstrates how it can influence structural and thermodynamic properties. The delocalization error is quantified by evaluating the many-electron self-interaction error (MESIE) for fractional electron numbers, which allows us to establish a direct connection between the MESIE and the error in the torsion barriers. The use of non-empirically tuned long-range corrected hybrid functionals results in a very significant reduction of the MESIE and leads to an improved description of torsion barrier heights. In addition, we demonstrate how our analysis allows the determination of the effective conjugation length in polyacetylene and polydiacetylene chains.
Quantum Heuristics of Angular Momentum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levy-Leblond, Jean-Marc
1976-01-01
Discusses the quantization of angular momentum components, Heisenberg-type inequalities for their spectral dispersions, and the quantization of the angular momentum modulus, without using operators or commutation relations. (MLH)
Coherent Control of Angular Momentum Transfer in Resonant Two-Photon Light-Matter Interaction
Malik, D. A.; Kimel, A. V.; Kirilyuk, A.; Rasing, Th.; Zande, W. J. van der
2010-04-02
We show experimentally and theoretically that a polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulse with a zero net angular momentum creates a net angular momentum in atomic rubidium during resonant two-photon excitation. The necessary conditions for the creation of a nonzero angular momentum as well as the excitation efficiencies are analyzed in the framework of second-order time-dependent perturbation theory.
The Torsional Spectrum of Doubly Deuterated Methanol CHD_2OH
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ndao, M.; Coudert, L. H.; Kwabia Tchana, F.; Barros, J.; Margulès, L.; Manceron, Laurent; Roy, P.
2014-06-01
Although the torsional spectrum of several isotopic species of methanol with a symmetrical CH_3 or CD_3 was analyzed some time ago, it is recently, and only for the monodeuterated species CH_2DOH, that such an analysis was extended to the case of an asymmetrical methyl group. In this talk, based on a Fourier transform high-resolution spectrum recorded in the 20 to 670 wn region, the first analysis of the torsional spectrum of doubly deuterated methanol CHD_2OH will be presented. The Q branch of many torsional subbands could be observed and their assignment was initiated using a theoretical torsion-rotation spectrum computed with an approach accounting for the torsion-rotation Coriolis coupling and for the dependence of the generalized inertia tensor on the angle of internal rotation. 46 torsional subbands were thus assigned. For 28 of them, their rotational structure could be assigned and fitted using an effective Hamiltonian expressed as a J(J+1) expansion; and for 2 of them microwave transitions within the lower torsional level could also be included in the analysis. In several cases these analysis revealed that the torsional levels are strongly perturbed. In the talk, the torsional parameters retrieved in the analysis of the torsional subband centers will be discussed. The results of the analysis of the rotational structure of the torsional subbands will be presented and we will also try to understand the nature of the perturbations. At last, preliminary results about the analysis of the microwave spectrum will be presented. El Hilali, Coudert, Konov, and Klee, J. Chem. Phys. 135 (2011) 194309 Lauvergnat, Coudert, Klee, and Smirnov, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 256 (2009) 204 Quade, Liu, Mukhopadhyay, and Su, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 192 (1998) 378 Pearson, Yu, and Drouin, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 280 (2012) 119
Completely Antisymmetric Torsion in Conformal Gravitation with Electrodynamics for Dirac Spinors
Fabbri, Luca
2012-01-01
In this paper we are going to consider a completely antisymmetric torsion to build metric-compatible connections in conformal gravity, in which then gauge potentials are added; this establishes a geometric background that will be filled with Dirac spinors: such kinematic construction shall be endowed with a system of field equations. The resulting dynamics will be worked out to yield the system of field equations in which torsional effects are converted into spinorial self-interactions: in particular the massless spinors shall display self-interactions of a specific form that enables them to have most of the features they have in the non-conformal theory but with the additional character of renormalizability. Particular behaviours and interactions will be investigated. Further remarks shall be sketched.
Maeda, Takenori
1995-11-01
This paper presents an experimental method for the determination of the bending and torsional rigidities of advanced fiber composite laminates with the aid of laser holographic interferometry. The proposed method consists of a four-point bending test and a resonance test. The bending rigidity ratio (D{sub 12}/D{sub 22}) can be determined from the fringe patterns of the four-point bending test. The bending rigidities (D{sub 11} and D{sub 22}) and the torsional rigidity (D{sub 66}) are calculated from the natural frequencies of cantilever plates of the resonance test. The test specimens are carbon/epoxy cross-ply laminates. The adequacy of the experimental method is confirmed by comparing the measured rigidities with the theoretical values obtained from classical lamination theory (CLT) by using the measured tensile properties. The results show that the present method can be used to evaluate the rigidities of orthotropic laminates with reasonably good accuracy.
Hydrostatic self-aligning axial/torsional mechanism
O'Connor, D.G.; Gerth, H.L.
1990-05-29
This patent describes an invention directed to a self-aligning axial/torsional loading mechanism for testing the strength of brittle materials which are sensitive to bending moments. Disposed inside the self-aligning loading mechanism is a frictionless hydrostatic ball joint with a flexure ring to accommodate torsional loads through the ball joint.
Hydrostatic self-aligning axial/torsional mechanism
O'Connor, D.G.; Gerth, H.L.
1989-05-23
The present invention is directed to a self-aligning axial/torsional loading mechanism for testing the strength of brittle materials which are sensitive to bending moments. Disposed inside said self-aligning loading mechanism is a frictionless hydrostatic ball joint with a flexure ring to accommodate torsional loads through said ball joint. 2 figs.
Mechanical origins of rightward torsion in early chick brain development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Taber, Larry
2015-03-01
During early development, the neural tube of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This torsional deformation is one of the major organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Previous studies suggested that bending is mainly due to differential growth, however, the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops rightwards that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is lacking, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. Moreover, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model and a 3D printed physical model are employed to help interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, and further reveals that the asymmetric development in one organ can induce the asymmetry of another developing organ through mechanics, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''. Z.C. is supported by the Society in Science - Branco Weiss fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich. L.A.T acknowledges the support from NIH Grants R01 GM075200 and R01 NS070918.
Quantum gravity effect in torsion driven inflation and CP violation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choudhury, Sayantan; Pal, Barun Kumar; Basu, Banasri; Bandyopadhyay, Pratul
2015-10-01
We have derived an effective potential for inflationary scenario from torsion and quantum gravity correction in terms of the scalar field hidden in torsion. A strict bound on the CP violating ? parameter, O(1{0}^{-10})
Diagnostic Efficacy of Sonography for Diagnosis of Ovarian Torsion
Rostamzadeh, Ayoob; Mirfendereski, Sam; Rezaie, Mohammad Jafar; Rezaei, Shohreh
2014-01-01
Objectives: Misdiagnosing ovarian torsion is now suggested as an important issue in clinical setting. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of sonography for ovarian torsion. Methods : In this study 323 women with acute pelvic pain with highly suspected ovarian torsion signs and symptoms attending Imam Reza Medical Center in Kermanshah between 2011 through 2012 were included and underwent a transabdominal sonography (2-5 MHz probes). Then findings of sonography were compared with laparatomy. Results : The ultrasound correctly diagnosed 72.1% of ovarian torsion and missed 27.9% of them (false negatives). However, one free subject (0.4%) was misclassified as ovarian torsion (false positive). There was a strong correlation between sonography and laparatomy with a kappa value of 84.0%. The sensitivity and specificity of sonography were 72.1% and 99.6%, respectively. Sonography had a positive predictive value of 96.9%, a negative predictive value of 95.9%, and a total accuracy of 96.0% for detection of ovarian torsion. Conclusion: Sonography appears to be an excellent method to evaluate patients with suspected ovarian torsion. Abnormal blood flow detected by sonography is highly predictive of ovarian torsion and is therefore useful in the diagnosis of this phenomenon. PMID:24772154
Quantum Gravity Effect in Torsion Driven Inflation and CP violation
Sayantan Choudhury; Barun Kumar Pal; Banasri Basu; Pratul Bandyopadhyay
2015-10-10
We have derived an effective potential for inflationary scenario from torsion and quantum gravity correction in terms of the scalar field hidden in torsion. A strict bound on the CP violating $\\theta$ parameter, ${\\cal O}(10^{-10})<\\theta<{\\cal O}(10^{-9})$ has been obtained, using {\\tt Planck+WMAP9} best fit cosmological parameters.
Hydrostatic self-aligning axial/torsional mechanism
O'Connor, Daniel G. (Knoxville, TN); Gerth, Howard L. (Knoxville, TN)
1990-01-01
The present invention is directed to a self-aligning axial/torsional loading mechanism for testing the strength of brittle materials which are sensitive to bending moments. Disposed inside said self-aligning loading mechanism is a frictionless hydrostatic ball joint with a flexure ring to accommodate torsional loads through said ball joint.
Torsional instability in suspension bridges: the Tacoma Narrows Bridge case
Torsional instability in suspension bridges: the Tacoma Narrows Bridge case Gianni ARIOLI Â Filippo explanations for the torsional instability of suspension bridges have been somehow criticised and none of them is unanimously accepted by the scientific community. We suggest a new nonlinear model for a suspension bridge
Energy-Trapping Torsional-Mode Resonators for Liquid Sensing
Huang, Rui
. By coupling thickness-shear vibrations of a finite crystal plates and wave propagations in a Newtonian liquid plate, torsional-mode vibrations do not coupled with flexural mode, thus no out-of-plane motion have demonstrated that energy-trapping torsional-mode vibrations can be excited in elastic plates
PLASTIC TORSION AND RELATED PROBLEMS FRANCOIS ALOUGES AND ANTONIO DESIMONE
Alouges, FranÃ§ois
PLASTIC TORSION AND RELATED PROBLEMS FRANCÂ¸OIS ALOUGES AND ANTONIO DESIMONE Abstract. A simple buckling of thin film blisters are also discussed. 1. Introduction A classical problem in Plasticity (more of Matlab code provided herein will entice many to experiment with plastic torsional loads, isotropic thin
Torsion and noninertial effects on a nonrelativistic Dirac particle
Bakke, K.
2014-07-15
We investigate torsion and noninertial effects on a spin-1/2 quantum particle in the nonrelativistic limit of the Dirac equation. We consider the cosmic dislocation spacetime as a background and show that a rotating system of reference can be used out to distances which depend on the parameter related to the torsion of the defect. Therefore, we analyse torsion effects on the spectrum of energy of a nonrelativistic Dirac particle confined to a hard-wall potential in a Fermi–Walker reference frame. -- Highlights: •Torsion effects on a spin- 1/2 particle in a noninertial reference frame. •Fermi–Walker reference frame in the cosmic dislocation spacetime background. •Torsion and noninertial effects on the confinement to a hard-wall confining potential.
Interaction of ultrasound and torsional oscillation in solid 4He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwasa, Izumi; Goodkind, John; Kojima, Harry
2015-03-01
A new cell for studying ultrasound (10 MHz) propagation and torsional oscillation (1013 Hz) in solid He-4 was constructed. Improvements were made in the design of the spacer for the quartz transducers and the diameter of the torsion rod containing helium fill hole to reduce the effects of the shear modulus of the solid He-4 sample on the torsional oscillator response. Sudden shifts in both the sound propagation velocity and attenuation are observed below 100 mK. The detailed response depends on the ultrasound excitation level and thermal history. Increase in torsional oscillator frequency is observed at nearly the same temperature as where the sound propagation property shifts occur. At temperatures below 50 mK, changes in the ultrasound excitation level induce changes in the torsional oscillator frequency. Interpretation of these results in terms of He-3 impurity being trapped on dislocation lines will be discussed. NSF Grant DMR-1005325.
Curvature and torsion in growing actin networks
Shaevitz, Joshua W; Fletcher, Daniel A
2011-01-01
Intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Rickettsia rickettsii move within a host cell by polymerizing a comet-tail of actin fibers that ultimately pushes the cell forward. This dense network of cross-linked actin polymers typically exhibits a striking curvature that causes bacteria to move in gently looping paths. Theoretically, tail curvature has been linked to details of motility by considering force and torque balances from a finite number of polymerizing filaments. Here we track beads coated with a prokaryotic activator of actin polymerization in three dimensions to directly quantify the curvature and torsion of bead motility paths. We find that bead paths are more likely to have low rather than high curvature at any given time. Furthermore, path curvature changes very slowly in time, with an autocorrelation decay time of 200 s. Paths with a small radius of curvature, therefore, remain so for an extended period resulting in loops when confined to two dimensions. When allowed to explore a three-dimensional (3D) space, path loops are less evident. Finally, we quantify the torsion in the bead paths and show that beads do not exhibit a significant left- or right-handed bias to their motion in 3D. These results suggest that paths of actin-propelled objects may be attributed to slow changes in curvature, possibly associated with filament debranching, rather than a fixed torque. PMID:18560043
Infrared modified gravity with dynamical torsion
Nikiforova, V.; Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Rubakov, V.
2009-12-15
We continue the recent study of the possibility of constructing a consistent infrared modification of gravity by treating the vierbein and connection as independent dynamical fields. We present the generalized Fierz-Pauli equation that governs the propagation of a massive spin-2 mode in a model of this sort in the backgrounds of arbitrary torsionless Einstein manifolds. We show explicitly that the number of propagating degrees of freedom in these backgrounds remains the same as in flat space-time. This generalizes the recent result that the Boulware-Deser phenomenon does not occur in de Sitter and anti-de Sitter backgrounds. We find that, at least for weakly curved backgrounds, there are no ghosts in the model. We also discuss the interaction of sources in flat background. It is generally believed that the spinning matter is the only source of torsion. Our flat space study shows that this is not the case. We demonstrate that an ordinary conserved symmetric energy-momentum tensor can also generate torsion fields and thus excite massive spin-2 degrees of freedom.
Curvature and torsion in growing actin networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaevitz, Joshua W.; Fletcher, Daniel A.
2008-06-01
Intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Rickettsia rickettsii move within a host cell by polymerizing a comet-tail of actin fibers that ultimately pushes the cell forward. This dense network of cross-linked actin polymers typically exhibits a striking curvature that causes bacteria to move in gently looping paths. Theoretically, tail curvature has been linked to details of motility by considering force and torque balances from a finite number of polymerizing filaments. Here we track beads coated with a prokaryotic activator of actin polymerization in three dimensions to directly quantify the curvature and torsion of bead motility paths. We find that bead paths are more likely to have low rather than high curvature at any given time. Furthermore, path curvature changes very slowly in time, with an autocorrelation decay time of 200 s. Paths with a small radius of curvature, therefore, remain so for an extended period resulting in loops when confined to two dimensions. When allowed to explore a three-dimensional (3D) space, path loops are less evident. Finally, we quantify the torsion in the bead paths and show that beads do not exhibit a significant left- or right-handed bias to their motion in 3D. These results suggest that paths of actin-propelled objects may be attributed to slow changes in curvature, possibly associated with filament debranching, rather than a fixed torque.
Elbakry, Adel; Zakaria, Ahmed; Matar, Adel; El Nashar, Ahmed
2013-01-01
Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of urethral mobilisation for correcting moderate and severe penile torsion associated with distal hypospadias. Patients and methods Nineteen patients with distal hypospadias and congenital moderate and severe penile torsion were treated surgically. The hypospadias was at the distal shaft, coronal and glanular in seven, eight and four patients, respectively, and six had mild chordee. The mean (SD, range) angle of torsion was 94.7 (19.9, 75–160)°. The urethra was mobilised down to the perineum. If the urethral mobilisation was insufficient the right border of the tunica albuginea was anchored to the pubic periosteum. The hypospadias was repaired using the urethral mobilisation and advancement technique, with a triangular plate flap for meatoplasty. The patients were followed up for 12–18 months. Results All patients had a successful functional and cosmetic outcome, with no residual torsion. Two patients had a small subcutaneous haematoma that resolved after conservative treatment. Massive oedema occurred in three patients and was treated conservatively. Urethral mobilisation did not correct the penile torsion completely. Although the mean (SD, range) angle of torsion was reduced to 86.1 (14.3, 65–130)°, statistically significantly different (P = 0.001), it was not clinically important. The presence of chordee had no significant correlation with the reduction of penile torsion. Conclusion Urethral mobilisation cannot completely correct moderate and severe penile torsion but it might only partly decrease the angle of torsion. Periosteal anchoring of the tunica albuginea might be the most reliable manoeuvre for the complete correction of penile torsion.
Angular momentum evolution for galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedrosa, S. E.; Tissera, P. B.
2015-08-01
Using cosmological hydrodinamics simulations we study the angular momentum content of the simulated galaxies in relation with their morphological type. We found that not only the angular momentum of the disk component follow the expected theoretical relation (Mo, Mao White model), but also the spheroidal one, with a gap due to its lost of angular momentum. We also found that the galaxy size can plot in one general relation, despite the morphological type,, in agreement with recent findings.
Torsion of wing trusses at diving speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Roy G
1921-01-01
The purpose of this report is to indicate what effect the distortion of a typical loaded wing truss will have upon the load distribution. The case of high angle of incidence may be dismissed immediately from consideration as the loads on the front and rear trusses are balanced, and consequently there will be little angular distortion. A given angular distortion will have the maximum effect upon load distribution in the region of the angle of no-lift, because the slope of the lift curve is highest here, and it is here that the greatest angular distortion will occur, because the load on the front truss acts downward while the load on the rear truss acts upward.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Cheng; Huang, Jin
2014-05-01
Electrostatically driven torsional micromirrors are suitable for optical microelectromechanical systems due to their good dynamic response, low adhesion, and simple structure for large-scale-integrated applications. For these devices, how to eliminate the excessive residual vibration in order to achieve more accurate positioning and faster switching is an important research topic. Because of the known nonlinearity issues, traditional shaping techniques based on linear theories are not suitable for nonlinear torsional micromirrors. In addition, due to the difficulties in calculating energy dissipation, the existing nonlinear command shaping techniques using energy method have neglected the effect of damping. We analyze the static and dynamic behavior of the electrostatically actuated torsional micromirrors. Based on the response of these devices, a multistep-shaping control considering the damping effects and the nonlinearity is proposed. Compared to the conventional closed-loop control, the proposed multistep-shaping control is a feedforward approach which can yield a good enough performance without extra sensors and actuators. Simulation results show that, without changing the system structure, the preshaping input reduces the settling time from 4.3 to 0.97 ms, and the overshoot percentage of the mirror response is decreased from 33.2% to 0.2%.
Time-dependent photoelectron angular distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiangyang
1999-09-01
I show that the angular distribution of electrons photoionized from gas phase targets by short light pulses is time-dependent, when the orbital momentum composition of the photocurrent changes with excitation energy so evolves with the time of detection. A theory of time- dependent photoionization is outlined and general formulas of time-dependent photoelectron flux and angular distribution are given. Two general propagator methods suitable to describe the time-dependent photoionization and scattering processes are developed. The photoionization process is viewed as a local excitation followed by a half scattering. The local excitation process is solved theoretically in a small region around the target core. This approach has been generalized to describe the evolution of a wavepacket in an unbound system. An asymptotic propagator theorem is discovered and used to derive analytic expressions for asymptotic propagators. The origin of the time dependence is explored by parameterizing the time delay and orbital momentum coupling in a two channel model. K-shell photoionization of N2 and CO are calculated with this time- dependent photoionization theory, implemented using a multiple scattering model. Numerical results demonstrate that the time dependence of photoelectron angular distributions is a realistic effect.
The laboratory millimeter-wave spectrum of methyl formate in its ground torsional E state
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Plummer, G. M.; Herbst, E.; De Lucia, F. C.; Blake, G. A.
1986-01-01
Over 250 rotational transitions of the internal rotor methyl formate (HCOOCH3) in its ground v(t) = 0 degenerate (E) torsional substate have been measured in the millimeter-wave spectral region. These data and a number of E-state lines identified by several other workers have been analyzed using an extension of the classical principal-axis method in the high barrier limit. The resulting rotational constants allow accurate prediction of the v(t) = 0 E substate methyl formate spectrum below 300 GHz between states with angular momentum J not greater than 30 and rotational energy of not more than 350/cm. The calculated transition frequencies for the E state, when combined with the results of the previous analysis of the ground-symmetric, nondegenerate state, account for over 200 of the emission lines observed toward Orion in a recent survey of the 215-265 GHz band.
Torsion and bending periodic boundary conditions for modeling the intrinsic strength of nanowires
Cai, Wei
Torsion and bending periodic boundary conditions for modeling the intrinsic strength of nanowires of torsion and bending of nanowires that is free from artificial end effects. Torsional and bending periodic molecular dynamics formulation because we focus on the special cases of torsion and bending. A simple
Twisted anisotropic fibers for robust orbital-angular-momentum-based information transmission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barshak, E. V.; Alexeyev, C. N.; Lapin, B. P.; Yavorsky, M. A.
2015-03-01
We study the light propagation in the twisted anisotropic optical fibers endowed with torsional mechanical stress by obtaining the analytical solution of the vector wave equation. We show that at certain interplay between fiber parameters optical vortex beams of topological charge ? =0 ,±1 ,±2 ,... become the modes of the fibers in question. To explain the splitting of the optical vortex propagation constants we introduce the notions of orbital birefringence and optical Zeeman effect. Moreover, we unveil that induced by torsional stress circular birefringence makes the vortex beams with the well-defined orbital angular momentum robust against small perturbations characterized by both constant and spatially varying orientation of a director. We believe that such fibers can be successfully utilized for the long-range robust transmission of information encoded in the light's orbital degrees of freedom.
Torsion-balance probes of fundamental physics
E. G. Adelberger
2013-08-14
This white paper is submitted as part of Snowmass2013 (subgroup CF2). The extraordinary sensitivity of torsion-balances can be used to search for the ultra-feeble forces suggested by attempts to unify gravity with the other fundamental interactions. The motivation, the results and their implications as well as the future prospects of this work are summarized. The experiments include tests of the universality of free fall (weak equivalence principle), probes of the short-distance behavior of gravity (inverse-square law tests for extra dimensions and exchange forces from new meV scale bosons), and Planck-scale tests of Lorentz invariance (preferred-frame effects, non-commutative geometries).
Torsion Tests of Stiffened Circular Cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, R L; Wescoat, C
1944-01-01
The design of curved sheet panels to resist shear involves a consideration of several factors: the buckling resistance of the sheet, the stress at which buckling becomes permanent, and the strength which may be developed beyond the buckling limit by tension-field action. Although some experimental as well as theoretical work has been done on the buckling and tension-field phases of this problem, neither of these types of action appears to be very well understood. The problem is of sufficient importance from the standpoint of aircraft design, it is believed, to warrant further experimental investigation. This report presents the results of the first series of torsion tests of stiffened circular cylinders to be completed in connection with this study at Aluminum Research Laboratories. (author)
Experimental Study of Torsional Column Failure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nile, Alfred S
1939-01-01
Thirty-three 24ST aluminum-alloy 2- by 2- by 0.10-inch channels, with lengths ranging from 10 to 90 inches were tested at Stanford University in compression to obtain an experimental verification of the theoretical formulas for torsional failure developed by Eugene E. Lundquist of the N.A.C.A. The observed critical loads and twist-axis locations were sufficiently close to the values obtained from the formulas to establish the substantial validity of the latter. The differences between observed and computed results were small enough to be accounted for by small and mostly unavoidable differences between actual test conditions and those assumed in deriving the formulas. Some data were obtained from the shorter specimens regarding the growth of the buckles that resulted in local buckling failure.
Discussion on massive gravitons and propagating torsion in arbitrary dimensions
Hernaski, C. A.; Vargas-Paredes, A. A.; Helayeel-Neto, J. A.
2009-12-15
In this paper, we reassess a particular R{sup 2}-type gravity action in D dimensions, recently studied by Nakasone and Oda, now taking torsion effects into account. Considering that the vielbein and the spin connection carry independent propagating degrees of freedom, we conclude that ghosts and tachyons are absent only if torsion is nonpropagating, and we also conclude that there is no room for massive gravitons. To include these excitations, we understand how to enlarge Nakasone-Oda's model by means of explicit torsion terms in the action and we discuss the unitarity of the enlarged model for arbitrary dimensions.
Sensitivity of rotor blade vibration characteristics to torsional oscillations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bratanow, T.; Ecer, A.
1973-01-01
A theoretical investigation of dynamic response characteristics of helicopter rotor blades in forward flight was carried out with special emphasis on the torsional degrees-of-freedom. The finite element method was applied in the formulation of the coupled equations of motion for flapwise bending and torsion for blades with non-collinear elastic, mass and aerodynamic axes. The sensitivity of blade vibration characteristics with respect to structural, geometric and aerodynamic properties as well as flight conditions was evaluated. Numerical results for sample blades were plotted to show the variation of the coupling between bending and torsional components of the response.
Spinning Particles in Scalar-Tensor Gravity with Torsion
Wang, C.-H.
2008-10-10
A new model of neutral spinning particles in scalar-tensor gravity with torsion is developed by using a Fermi coordinates associated with orthonormal frames attached to a timelike curve and Noether identities. We further analyze its equations of motion both in background Brans-Dicke torsion field and the constant pseudo-Riemannian curvature with a constant scalar field. It turns that the particle's spin vector is parallel transport along its wordline in the Brans-Dicke torsion field and de Sitter spacetime. However, the dynamics of the spinning particle cannot completely determined in anti-de Sitter spacetime and it requires a further investigation.
The Torsion of Box Beams with One Side Lacking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cambilargiu, E
1940-01-01
The torsion of box beams of rectangular section, the edges of which are strengthened by flanges, and of which one side is lacking, is analyzed by the energy method. The torsional stresses are generally taken up by the bending of the two parallel walls, the rigidity of which is augmented by the third wall. The result was checked experimentally on duralumin and plywood boxes. The torsion recorded was 10 to 30 percent less than that given by the calculation, owing to self-stiffening.
Recurrence of spontaneous lung lobe torsion in a pug.
Spranklin, David B; Gulikers, Keven P; Lanz, Otto I
2003-01-01
Lung lobe torsion (LLT) results from a displacement and twisting of a lung lobe around its bronchovascular pedicle. This relatively rare disorder affects dogs, cats, and humans. Etiologies include primary (i.e., spontaneous) and secondary torsion due to thoracic trauma, pleural space disease, thoracic surgery, pulmonary parenchyma disease, and diaphragmatic hernia repair. Although both spontaneous and secondary torsion have been described in small-breed dogs, a spontaneous LLT followed by recurrence of a spontaneous LLT > 2 years later has not been documented. This article describes the presentation, diagnosis, management, and outcome of a pug with recurrent spontaneous LLT. PMID:14518651
Noncommutative Gauge Theory with Covariant Star Product
Zet, G.
2010-08-04
We present a noncommutative gauge theory with covariant star product on a space-time with torsion. In order to obtain the covariant star product one imposes some restrictions on the connection of the space-time. Then, a noncommutative gauge theory is developed applying this product to the case of differential forms. Some comments on the advantages of using a space-time with torsion to describe the gravitational field are also given.
Intrinsic Angular Momentum of Light.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Santarelli, Vincent
1979-01-01
Derives a familiar torque-angular momentum theorem for the electromagnetic field, and includes the intrinsic torques exerted by the fields on the polarized medium. This inclusion leads to the expressions for the intrinsic angular momentum carried by the radiation traveling through a charge-free medium. (Author/MA)
Nanofabricated quartz cylinders for angular
Cai, Long
Nanofabricated quartz cylinders for angular trapping: DNA supercoiling torque detection Christopher nanofabricated quartz cylinders well suited for torque application and detection in an angular optical trap. We made the cylinder axis perpendicular to the extraordinary axis of the quartz crystal and chemically
2013-01-01
There is considerable interest in the structural and functional properties of the angular gyrus (AG). Located in the posterior part of the inferior parietal lobule, the AG has been shown in numerous meta-analysis reviews to be consistently activated in a variety of tasks. This review discusses the involvement of the AG in semantic processing, word reading and comprehension, number processing, default mode network, memory retrieval, attention and spatial cognition, reasoning, and social cognition. This large functional neuroimaging literature depicts a major role for the AG in processing concepts rather than percepts when interfacing perception-to-recognition-to-action. More specifically, the AG emerges as a cross-modal hub where converging multisensory information is combined and integrated to comprehend and give sense to events, manipulate mental representations, solve familiar problems, and reorient attention to relevant information. In addition, this review discusses recent findings that point to the existence of multiple subdivisions in the AG. This spatial parcellation can serve as a framework for reporting AG activations with greater definition. This review also acknowledges that the role of the AG cannot comprehensibly be identified in isolation but needs to be understood in parallel with the influence from other regions. Several interesting questions that warrant further investigations are finally emphasized. PMID:22547530
Study of properties of sand asphalt using a torsional rheometer
Kasula, Lavan Kumar Reddy
2004-11-15
multiple natural configurations (multiple stress free states) to derive the constitutive equations. Recently an Orthogonal Rheometer was built to characterize the granular solids by Gupta and Rajagopal which was later used by Baek in the torsional mode...
An Inexpensive Torsional Pendulum Apparatus for Rigidity Modulus Measurement.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tyagi, S.; Lord, A. E., Jr.
1979-01-01
Described is an easy to assemble, and inexpensive, torsional pendulum which gives an accuracy of measurement of the modulus of rigidity, G, comparable to the accuracy obtained with the more expensive commercially available student models. (Author/GA)
Response characteristics of the human torsional vestibuloocular reflex
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterka, Robert J.
1992-01-01
The characteristics of the response dynamics of the human torsional vestibuloocular reflex were studied during controlled rotations about an earth-horizontal axis. The results extended the frequency range to 2 Hz and identified the nonlinearity of the amplitude response.
Patterns of dissociate torsional-vertical nystagmus in internuclear ophthalmoplegia.
Jeong, Seong-Hae; Kim, Eung Kyu; Lee, Jun; Choi, Kwang-Dong; Kim, Ji Soo
2011-09-01
To explore the patterns and mechanisms of jerky seesaw nystagmus in internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO), we analyzed the nystagmus patterns in 33 patients with dissociated torsional-vertical nystagmus and INO. In 11 (33%) patients, the nystagmus was ipsiversive torsional in both eyes with vertical components in the opposite directions. In contrast, 18 (55%) patients showed ipsiversive torsional nystagmus with a larger upbeat component in the contralesional eye. Four (12%) patients exhibited ipsiversive torsional nystagmus with a greater downbeat component in the ipsilesional eye. At least one component of contraversive ocular tilt reaction was associated in most patients (30/33, 91%). The patterns of jerky seesaw nystagmus in INO suggest a disruption of neural pathways from the contralateral vertical semicircular canals with or without concomitant damage to the fibers from the contralateral utricle in or near the medial longitudinal fasciculus. PMID:21951004
The universal torsion-free image of Sergei D. Brodsky,
Howie, Jim
St. Garrun Park, Bldg. 1, Rishon-Le-Zion new industrial zone, Israel 75855. James Howie, Department of Mathematics, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, Scotland. Abstract We show that the universal torsion
ANALYTIC TORSIONS ON CONTACT MANIFOLDS MICHEL RUMIN AND NEIL SESHADRI
Rumin, Michel
ANALYTIC TORSIONS ON CONTACT MANIFOLDS MICHEL RUMIN AND NEIL SESHADRI Abstract. We propose a de#28 Government (MEXT) Scholarship for research students. 1 #12; 2 MICHEL RUMIN AND NEIL SESHADRI in `middle
Experimental study of the sonographic diagnosis of testicular torsion.
Hricak, H; Lue, T; Filly, R A; Alpers, C E; Zeineh, S J; Tanagho, E A
1983-08-01
The sonographic and Doppler features of acute spermatic cord torsion were investigated in eight dogs. Serial sonography following torsion demonstrated unambiguous abnormalities in all experimental subjects within one hour. The observed abnormalities included increase in size of the spermatic cord, testis, and epididymis, decrease in echogenicity of the testis and epididymis, and loss of Doppler signal from the cord. Sonographic abnormalities were clearly visible before any histologic change was detected and well in advance of the onset of cellular necrosis. Since every experimental subject had an abnormal testicle, the identification of a normal testicle in a clinical setting is felt to exclude torsion. Combined gray-scale sonographic and Doppler features appear promising in the diagnosis of acute spermatic cord torsion and its distinction from acute epididymo-orchitis. PMID:6887328
Omental torsion, a rare cause of acute abdomen.
Joshi, Shivani; Cuthbert, Gary Andrew; Kerwat, Rajab
2016-01-01
Omental torsion is a rare cause of acute abdominal pain. We report a case of omental torsion in a 7-year-old girl, who presented with right iliac fossa pain. The patient underwent an open appendicectomy, during which a normal appendix was identified and a diagnosis of omental torsion was made. The affected segment of omentum was resected along with the appendix. The patient made an uncomplicated recovery and was discharged on day 1 postoperatively. A normal appendix in the presence of omental torsion is found in 0.1% of all appendicectomies in children. We suggest routine visualisation of the omentum in the presence of a normal appendix during appendicectomy. PMID:26733432
Angular momentum - area - proportionality of extremal charged black holes in odd dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blázquez-Salcedo, Jose Luis; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco
2013-11-01
Extremal rotating cohomogeneity-1 black holes in Einstein-Maxwell theory feature two branches. On the branch emerging from the Myers-Perry solutions their angular momentum is proportional to their horizon area, while on the branch emerging from the Tangherlini solutions their angular momentum is proportional to their horizon angular momentum. The transition between these branches occurs at a critical value of the charge, which depends on the value of the angular momentum. However, when a dilaton is included, the angular momentum is always proportional to the horizon area.
Energy conditions in $f(T)$ gravity with non-minimal torsion-matter coupling
M. Zubair; Saira Waheed
2015-02-09
The present paper examines the validity of energy bounds in a modified theory of gravity involving non-minimal coupling of torsion scalar and perfect fluid matter. In this respect, we formulate the general inequalities of energy conditions by assuming the flat FRW universe. For the application of these bounds, we particularly focus on two specific models that are recently proposed in literature and also choose the power law cosmology. We find the feasible constraints on the involved free parameters and evaluate their possible ranges graphically for the consistency of these energy bounds.
Torsional chiral magnetic effect in Weyl semimetal with topological defect
Hiroaki Sumiyoshi; Satoshi Fujimoto
2015-09-14
We propose a torsional response raised by lattice dislocation in Weyl semimetals akin to chiral magnetic effect; i.e. a fictitious magnetic field arising from screw or edge dislocation induces charge current. We demonstrate that, in sharp contrast to the usual chiral magnetic effect which vanishes in real solid state materials, the torsional chiral magnetic effect exists even for realistic lattice models, which implies the experimental detection of the effect via the measurement of the nonlocal resistivity in Weyl semimetal materials.
Torsional chiral magnetic effect in Weyl semimetal with topological defect
Sumiyoshi, Hiroaki
2015-01-01
We propose a torsional response raised by lattice dislocation in Weyl semimetals akin to chiral magnetic effect; i.e. a fictitious magnetic field arising from screw or edge dislocation induces charge current. We demonstrate that, in sharp contrast to the usual chiral magnetic effect which vanishes in real solid state materials, the torsional chiral magnetic effect exists even for realistic lattice models, which implies the experimental detection of the effect via the measurement of the nonlocal resistivity in Weyl semimetal materials.
Killing tensors with nonvanishing Haantjes torsion and integrable systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsiganov, Andrey V.
2015-07-01
The second-order integrable Killing tensor with simple eigenvalues and vanishing Haantjes torsion is the key ingredient in construction of Liouville integrable systems of Stäckel type. We present two examples of the integrable systems on three-dimensional Euclidean space associated with the second-order Killing tensors possessing nontrivial torsion. Integrals of motion for these integrable systems are the second- and fourth-order polynomials in momenta, which are constructed using a special family of the Killing tensors.
[Prelabour uterine torsion complicated by partial abruption and fetal death].
Agar, N; Canis, M; Accoceberry, M; Bourdel, N; Lafaye, A-L; Gallot, D
2014-06-01
Uterine torsion is a rare obstetrical complication whose diagnosis remains challenging. We report a case of 180 degrees dextrogyre torsion at 36(+5) weeks of gestation complicated by partial abruption and in utero fetal death. Emergency cesarean section was performed through an unintentional posterior hysterotomy. Literature reports a few similar cases. Vertical hysterotomy should be advised in this context avoiding incision on lateral sides associated with increased risk of vascular or ureteral injury. PMID:24411298
Analysis of helicopter rotor blade torsional oscillations due to stall
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crimi, P.
1975-01-01
An analysis of stall-induced helicopter rotor blade torsional oscillations was carried out, the primary objectives being to predict the onset and severity of the oscillations and their relationship to aircraft and blade parameters. Blade flapping, flapwise bending, and torsional degrees of freedom were taken into account, with radial variation in aerodynamic loading determined from a previously developed dynamic stall model. Results of analyses were compared with data from flight tests of helicopters. Analyses were carried out while parametrically varying blade vibrational characteristics. It was found that the amplitudes of the higher harmonics of torsional oscillations can be significantly reduced by either reducing the torsional natural frequency or introducing viscous damping in the torsional degree of freedom. A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility and practicality of alleviating the stall problem by means of boundary layer control. The results indicate that boundary layer control would be effective in reducing the higher harmonics of torsional oscillations due to stall and that its implementation would not require excessive power or suction rates.
Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics with angular momentum conservation
Müller, Kathrin Fedosov, Dmitry A. Gompper, Gerhard
2015-01-15
Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) combines two popular mesoscopic techniques, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) methods, and can be considered as an improved dissipative particle dynamics approach. Despite several advantages of the SDPD method over the conventional DPD model, the original formulation of SDPD by Español and Revenga (2003) [9], lacks angular momentum conservation, leading to unphysical results for problems where the conservation of angular momentum is essential. To overcome this limitation, we extend the SDPD method by introducing a particle spin variable such that local and global angular momentum conservation is restored. The new SDPD formulation (SDPD+a) is directly derived from the Navier–Stokes equation for fluids with spin, while thermal fluctuations are incorporated similarly to the DPD method. We test the new SDPD method and demonstrate that it properly reproduces fluid transport coefficients. Also, SDPD with angular momentum conservation is validated using two problems: (i) the Taylor–Couette flow with two immiscible fluids and (ii) a tank-treading vesicle in shear flow with a viscosity contrast between inner and outer fluids. For both problems, the new SDPD method leads to simulation predictions in agreement with the corresponding analytical theories, while the original SDPD method fails to capture properly physical characteristics of the systems due to violation of angular momentum conservation. In conclusion, the extended SDPD method with angular momentum conservation provides a new approach to tackle fluid problems such as multiphase flows and vesicle/cell suspensions, where the conservation of angular momentum is essential.
Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics with angular momentum conservation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Kathrin; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Gompper, Gerhard
2015-01-01
Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) combines two popular mesoscopic techniques, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) methods, and can be considered as an improved dissipative particle dynamics approach. Despite several advantages of the SDPD method over the conventional DPD model, the original formulation of SDPD by Español and Revenga (2003) [9], lacks angular momentum conservation, leading to unphysical results for problems where the conservation of angular momentum is essential. To overcome this limitation, we extend the SDPD method by introducing a particle spin variable such that local and global angular momentum conservation is restored. The new SDPD formulation (SDPD+a) is directly derived from the Navier-Stokes equation for fluids with spin, while thermal fluctuations are incorporated similarly to the DPD method. We test the new SDPD method and demonstrate that it properly reproduces fluid transport coefficients. Also, SDPD with angular momentum conservation is validated using two problems: (i) the Taylor-Couette flow with two immiscible fluids and (ii) a tank-treading vesicle in shear flow with a viscosity contrast between inner and outer fluids. For both problems, the new SDPD method leads to simulation predictions in agreement with the corresponding analytical theories, while the original SDPD method fails to capture properly physical characteristics of the systems due to violation of angular momentum conservation. In conclusion, the extended SDPD method with angular momentum conservation provides a new approach to tackle fluid problems such as multiphase flows and vesicle/cell suspensions, where the conservation of angular momentum is essential.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houbolt, John C; Brooks, George W
1957-01-01
The differential equations of motion for the lateral and torsional deformations of twisted rotating beams are developed for application to helicopter rotor and propeller blades. No assumption is made regarding the coincidence of the neutral, elastic, and mass axes, and the generality is such that previous theories involving various simplifications are contained as subcases to the theory developed and presented in this paper. Special attention is given to coupling terms not found in previous theories, and methods of solution of the equations of motion are indicated by selected examples.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houbolt, John C; Brooks, George W
1958-01-01
The differential equations of motion for the lateral and torsional deformations of twisted rotating beams are developed for application to helicopter rotor and propeller blades. No assumption is made regarding the coincidence of the neutral, elastic, and mass axes, and the generality is such that previous theories involving various simplifications are contained as subcases to the theory presented in this paper. Special attention is given the terms which are not included in previous theories. These terms are largely coupling-type terms associated with the centrifugal forces. Methods of solution of the equations of motion are indicated by selected examples.
Torsional texturing of superconducting oxide composite articles
Christopherson, Craig John (Grafton, MA); Riley, Jr., Gilbert N. (Marlborough, MA); Scudiere, John (Bolton, MA)
2002-01-01
A method of texturing a multifilamentary article having filaments comprising a desired oxide superconductor or its precursors by torsionally deforming the article is provided. The texturing is induced by applying a torsional strain which is at least about 0.3 and preferably at least about 0.6 at the surface of the article, but less than the strain which would cause failure of the composite. High performance multifilamentary superconducting composite articles having a plurality of low aspect ratio, twisted filaments with substantially uniform twist pitches in the range of about 1.00 inch to 0.01 inch (25 to 0.25 mm), each comprising a textured desired superconducting oxide material, may be obtained using this texturing method. If tighter twist pitches are desired, the article may be heat treated or annealed and the strain repeated as many times as necessary to obtain the desired twist pitch. It is preferred that the total strain applied per step should be sufficient to provide a twist pitch tighter than 5 times the diameter of the article, and twist pitches in the range of 1 to 5 times the diameter of the article are most preferred. The process may be used to make a high performance multifilamentary superconducting article, having a plurality of twisted filaments, wherein the degree of texturing varies substantially in proportion to the radial distance from the center of the article cross-section, and is substantially radially homogeneous at any given cross-section of the article. Round wires and other low aspect ratio multifilamentary articles are preferred forms. The invention is not dependent on the melting characteristics of the desired superconducting oxide. Desired oxide superconductors or precursors with micaceous or semi-micaceous structures are preferred. When used in connection with desired superconducting oxides which melt irreversibly, it provides multifilamentary articles that exhibit high DC performance characteristics and AC performance markedly superior to any currently available for these materials. In a preferred embodiment, the desired superconducting oxide material is BSCCO 2223.
Hoffmann, Stefanie; Gerber, Claus; von Oldenburg, Geert; Kessler, Manuel; Stephan, Daniel; Augat, Peter
2015-04-01
To extend the indications of intramedullary nails for distal or proximal fractures, nails with angle stable locking options have been developed. Studies on the mechanical efficacy of these systems have been inconsistent likely due to confounding variables such as number, geometry, or orientation of the screws, as well as differences in the loading mode. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify the effect of angular stability on the mechanical performance of intramedullary nails. The results could then be compared with the effects of various locking screw parameters and loading modes. A generic model was developed consisting of artificial bone material and titanium intramedullary nail that provided the option to systematically modify the locking screw configuration. Using a base configuration, the following parameters were varied: number of screws, distance and orientation between screws, blocking of screws, and simulation of freehand locking. Tension/compression, torsional, and bending loads were applied. Stiffness and clearance around the zero loading point were determined. Angular stability had no effect on stiffness but completely blocked axial clearance (p=0.003). Simulation of freehand locking reduced clearance for all loading modes by at least 70% (p<0.003). The greatest increases in torsional and bending stiffness were obtained by increasing the number of locking screws (up to 80%, p<0.001) and by increasing the distance between them (up to 70%, p<0.001). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the mechanical performance of IM nailing can be affected by various locking parameters of which angular stability is only one. While angular stability clearly reduces clearance of the screw within the nail, mechanical stiffness depends more on the number of screws and their relative distance. Thus, optimal mechanical performance in IM nailing could potentially be obtained by combining angular stability with optimal arrangement of locking screws. PMID:25581739
Quantum optimal control of photoelectron spectra and angular distributions
Goetz, R Esteban; Santra, Robin; Koch, Christiane P
2015-01-01
Photoelectron spectra and photoelectron angular distributions obtained in photoionization reveal important information on e.g. charge transfer or hole coherence in the parent ion. Here we show that optimal control of the underlying quantum dynamics can be used to enhance desired features in the photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. To this end, we combine Krotov's method for optimal control theory with the time-dependent configuration interaction singles formalism and a splitting approach to calculate photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. The optimization target can account for specific desired properties in the photoelectron angular distribution alone, in the photoelectron spectrum, or in both. We demonstrate the method for hydrogen and then apply it to argon under strong XUV radiation, maximizing the difference of emission into the upper and lower hemispheres, in order to realize directed electron emission in the XUV regime.
Electromagnetically induced angular Talbot effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Tianhui; Yang, Guojian
2015-12-01
The discrete angular spectrum (angular Talbot effect) of a periodic grating illuminated by a suitable spherical wave front has been observed recently (Azaña and Chatellus 2104 Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 213902). In this paper we study the possibility of such a phenomenon being realized with a medium that has no macroperiodic structure itself. Tunable electromagnetically induced grating (EIG) could be such a kind of medium. We obtain an EIG based on the periodically modulated strong susceptibility due to the third-order nonlinear effect generated in a double ?-type four-level atomic system, and show the angular Talbot effect of an amplitude EIG, as well as a hybrid EIG, as the condition of the discrete phase-modulation shift of the illumination light front is satisfied. EIG parameters are tunable and the EIG-based angular Talbot effect may have the same potential applications as its periodic grating counterpart has.
Plasmons with orbital angular momentum
Mendonca, J. T.; Ali, S.; Thide, B.
2009-11-15
Electron plasma waves carrying orbital angular momentum are investigated in an unmagnetized collisionless plasma composed of inertial electrons and static ions. For this purpose, the usual plasmon dispersion relation is employed to derive an approximate paraxial equation. The latter is analyzed with a Gaussian beam solution. For a finite angular momentum associated with the plasmon, Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) solutions are employed for solving the electrostatic potential problem which gives approximate solution and is valid for plasmon beams in the paraxial approximation. The LG potential determines the electric field components and energy flux of plasmons with finite angular momentum. Numerical illustrations show that the radial and angular mode numbers strongly modify the profiles of the LG potential.
Influence of mistuning on blade torsional flutter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, A. V.
1980-01-01
An analytical technique for the prediction of fan blade flutter was evaluated by utilizing first stage fan flutter data from tests on an advanced high performance engine. The formulation includes both aerodynamic and mechanical coupling among all the blades of the assembly. Mistuning is accounted for in the analysis so that individual blade inertias, frequencies, or damping can be considered. Airfoil stability was predicted by calculating a flutter determinant, the eigenvalues of which indicate the extent of susceptibility to flutter. When blade to blade differences in frequencies are considered, a stable system is predicted for the test points examined. For a tuned system, it was found that torsional flutter can be predicted at a limited number of interblade phase angles. Examination of these phase angles indicated that they were "close" to the condition of acoustic resonance. For the range of Mach numbers and reduced frequencies considered, the so called subcritical flutter cannot be predicted. The essential influence of mechanical coupling among the blades is to change the frequencies of the system with little or no change in damping; however, aerodynamic coupling together with mechanical coupling could change not only frequencies, but also damping in the system, with a trend toward instability.
Control of Torsional Vibrations by Pendulum Masses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stieglitz, Albert
1942-01-01
Various versions of pendulum masses have been developed abroad within the past few years by means of which resonant vibrations of rotating shafts can be eliminated at a given tuning. They are already successfully employed on radial engines in the form of pendulous counterweights. Compared with the commonly known torsional vibration dampers, the pendulum masses have the advantage of being structurally very simple, requiring no internal damping and being capable of completely eliminating certain vibrations. Unexplained, so far, remains the problem of behavior of pendulum masses in other critical zones to which they are not tuned, their dynamic behavior at some tuning other than in resonance, and their effect within a compound vibration system and at simultaneous application of several differently tuned pendulous masses. These problems are analyzed in the present report. The results constitute an enlargement of the scope of application of pendulum masses, especially for in-line engines. Among other things it is found that the natural frequency of a system can be raised by means of a correspondingly tuned pendulum mass. The formulas necessary for the design of any practical version are developed, and a pendulum mass having two different natural frequencies simultaneously is described.
On the possibility of tree-level leptogenesis from Kalb-Ramond torsion background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Cesare, M.; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Sarkar, Sarben
2015-10-01
In this work we consider a phenomenological model for leptogenesis in the context of a Standard Model Extension with an axial-like background coupling to fermions that violates both Lorentz and CPT symmetries. The latter is motivated by a background geometry of the early Universe involving a particular kind of torsion, arising from the Kalb-Ramond antisymmetric tensor field which appears in the gravitational multiplet of string theory, although we do not restrict ourselves to this framework. It is shown that leptogenesis can occur even at tree level and with only one generation of right-handed heavy Majorana neutrinos, due to { CP } and CPT violation introduced by the background geometry. Important issues for the model, including (a) its compatibility with a conventional-like cosmology and (b) current-era phenomenology (characterised by very stringent bounds on the allowed amount of torsion) are pointed out, and potential ways of resolving them, within the framework of string-theory models, are discussed.
Angular distributions of sequentially emitted particles and gamma rays in deep inelastic processes
Moretto, L.G.
1981-01-01
A general theory for the angular distribution of sequentially emitted particles and gamma rays is developed. Comparison with experimental data allows one to obtain information on the fragment spin and misalignment. Angular distributions of sequentially emitted gammas, alphas, and fission fragments are discussed in detail. It is shown that the experimental data are consistent with the thermal excitation of angular momentum-bearing modes. The anomaly of sequential fission suggests the presence of a prompt or direct fission component. 13 figures.
Angular momentum evolution during star and planetary system formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, Claire L.; Greaves, Jane S.
2014-01-01
We focused on analysing the role played by protoplanetary disks in the evolution of angular momentum during star formation. If all the angular momentum contained within collapsing pre-stellar cores was conserved during their formation, proto-stars would reach rotation rates exceeding their break-up velocities before they reached the main sequence (Bodenheimer 1995). In order to avoid this occuring, methods by which proto-stars can lose angular momentum must exist. Angular momentum can be transferred from star to disk via stellar magnetic field lines through a process called magnetic braking (Camenzind 1990; Königl 1991). Alternatively, the stellar angular momentum can be lost from the star-disk system entirely via stellar- or disk-winds (e.g. Pelletier & Pudritz 1992; Matt & Pudritz 2005). The proportion of lost stellar angular momentum retained within the protoplanetary disk is important to studies of planetary system formation. If the bulk motion within the disk remains Keplerian, any increase of angular momentum in the disk causes an outward migration of disk material and an expansion of the disk. Therefore, an increase in disk angular momentum may cause a reduction in the disk surface density, often used to indicate the disk's ability to form planets. We made use of multi-wavelength data available in the literature to directly calculate the stellar and disk angular momenta for two nearby regions of star formation. Namely, these were the densely populated and highly irradiated Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and the comparitively sparse Taurus-Auriga region. Due to the limited size of the ONC dataset, we produced an average surface density profile for the region. We modelled the stars as solid body rotators due to their fully convective nature (Krishnamurthi et al. 1997) and assumed the disks are flat and undergo Keplerian rotation about the same rotation axis as the star. We observed the older disks within each of the two star forming regions to be preferentially larger and less massive, consistent with viscous accretion theories and disk dispersal. However, when drawing comparisons between the two regions, the ONC sample appeared to have less massive disks than the Taurus-Auriga sample, even though the population of Taurus-Auriga is older. This may suggest an influence of the birth cloud environment on protoplanetary disk evolution. Finally, the older stars within the ONC were observed to harbour disks that contained more angular momentum than their younger counterparts whereas, in the Taurus-Auriga sample, the amount of angular momentum contained in the older and younger samples was consistent. We suggest that the missing disk angular momentum in the older Taurus-Auriga disks may be contained within yet-undetected planets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bantel, Michael Kurt
1998-07-01
Using a torsion pendulum, we have investigated the anelastic properties of a CuBe torsion fiber for shear strains in the range 4×10-7 to 3×10-3 at temperatures 4.2K, 77K, and 295K. The fiber was 20 ?m in diameter and 24 cm long, with a torsion constant of 0.033 dyn/cdot cm/cdot rad-1. It suspended an 11 gram azimuthally symmetric torsion pendulum which loaded the fiber to approximately 25% of its tensile strength at room temperature. The natural torsional oscillation frequency of this system was 6.4 mHz. An autocollimator viewing a set of mirrors on the oscillating pendulum served to measure with great accuracy the times at which the pendulum assumed a large set of discrete angular displacements during each oscillation cycle. This enabled a determination of the angular displacement of the pendulum as a function of time to better than a part in 107 of its oscillation amplitude, from which accurate information was obtained on the pendulum's frequency, damping, and harmonic content as functions of the oscillation amplitude. Analysis yields a determination of the fourth order shear elastic constant of CuBe. Expressing the shear potential energy density as: u(/epsilon)=c2?2+c3?3+ c4?4 where ? is the shear strain, the values determined for (c2,/ c3,/ c4) are (25, 0.17, -550) GPa respectively. A striking feature of the fiber's internal friction Q-1 is that it appears to be the sum of two independent components: Q-1=Q I-1(T)+ Q II-1(A) where Q I-1(T) is temperature-dependent, varying by a factor of 3 between 4.2 and 77K, and Q II-1(A) is linearly dependent on amplitude and virtually independent of temperature; its linear dependence on amplitude varied by less than 4% between 4.2K and 77K. Interestingly the measurements of: the linear amplitude-dependent Q II-1, the linear component of the amplitude-dependent frequency shift, and the harmonic content associated with a dissipative hysteresis loop, are consistent with the motion generated by a simple stick-slip mechanism. Such a mechanism may be the result of microplastic behavior associated with the motion of dislocations and/or point defects. For a measurement of the gravitational constant using a torsion pendulum, these fiber-related properties may create a maximal 2-5 ppm systematic error assuming a comprehensive analysis is employed.
Elevated temperature axial and torsional fatigue behavior of Haynes 188
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh
1992-01-01
The results of high-temperature axial and torsional low-cycle fatigue experiments performed on Haynes 188, a wrought cobalt-base superalloy, are reported. Fatigue tests were performed at 760 C in air on thin-walled tubular specimens at various ranges under strain control. Data are also presented for coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, and shear modulus at various temperatures from room to 1000 C, and monotonic and cyclic stress-strain curves in tension and in shear at 760 C. The data set is used to evaluate several multiaxial fatigue life models (most were originally developed for room temperature multiaxial life prediction) including von Mises equivalent strain range (ASME boiler and pressure vessel code), Manson-Halford, Modified Multiaxiality Factor (proposed here), Modified Smith-Watson-Topper, and Fatemi-Socie-Kurath. At von Mises equivalent strain ranges (the torsional strain range divided by the square root of 3, taking the Poisson's ratio to be 0.5), torsionally strained specimens lasted, on average, factors of 2 to 3 times longer than axially strained specimens. The Modified Multiaxiality Factor approach shows promise as a useful method of estimating torsional fatigue life from axial fatigue data at high temperatures. Several difficulties arose with the specimen geometry and extensometry used in these experiments. Cracking at extensometer probe indentations was a problem at smaller strain ranges. Also, as the largest axial and torsional strain range fatigue tests neared completion, a small amount of specimen buckling was observed.
Elevated temperature axial and torsional fatigue behavior of Haynes 188
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh
1995-01-01
The results are reported for high-temperature axial and torsional low-cycle fatigue experiments performed at 760 C in air on thin-walled tubular specimens of Haynes 188, a wrought cobalt-based superalloy. Data are also presented for mean coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, and shear modulus at various temperatures from room to 1000 C, and monotonic and cyclic stress-strain curves in tension and in shear at 760 C. This data set is used to evaluate several multiaxial fatigue life models (most were originally developed for room temperature multiaxial life prediction) including von Mises equivalent strain range (ASME Boiler and Pressure Code), Manson-Halford, modified multiaxiality factor (proposed in this paper), modified Smith-Watson-Topper, and Fatemi-Socie-Kurath. At von Mises equivalent strain ranges (the torsional strain range divided by the square root of 3, taking the Poisson's ratio to be 0.5), torsionally strained specimens lasted, on average, factors of 2 to 3 times longer than axially strained specimens. The modified multiaxiality factor approach shows promise as a useful method of estimating torsional fatigue life from axial fatigue data at high temperatures. Several difficulties arose with the specimen geometry and extensometry used in these experiments. Cracking at extensometer probe indentations was a problem at smaller strain ranges. Also, as the largest axial and torsional strain range fatigue tests neared completion, a small amount of specimen buckling was observed.
Direct torsional actuation of microcantilevers using magnetic excitation
Gosvami, Nitya Nand; Nalam, Prathima C.; Tam, Qizhan; Carpick, Robert W.; Exarhos, Annemarie L.; Kikkawa, James M.
2014-09-01
Torsional mode dynamic force microscopy can be used for a wide range of studies including mapping lateral contact stiffness, torsional frequency or amplitude modulation imaging, and dynamic friction measurements of various materials. Piezo-actuation of the cantilever is commonly used, but it introduces spurious resonances, limiting the frequency range that can be sampled, and rendering the technique particularly difficult to apply in liquid medium where the cantilever oscillations are significantly damped. Here, we demonstrate a method that enables direct torsional actuation of cantilevers with high uniformity over wide frequency ranges by attaching a micrometer-scale magnetic bead on the back side of the cantilever. We show that when beads are magnetized along the width of the cantilever, efficient torsional actuation of the cantilevers can be achieved using a magnetic field produced from a solenoid placed underneath the sample. We demonstrate the capability of this technique by imaging atomic steps on graphite surfaces in tapping mode near the first torsional resonance of the cantilever in dodecane. The technique is also applied to map the variations in the lateral contact stiffness on the surface of graphite and polydiacetylene monolayers.
Ocular torsion and the function of the vertical extraocular muscles.
Jampel, R S
1975-02-01
The vertical corneal meridia are not kept perpendicular to the horizon in human and nonhuman primates when the head or body is tilted, i.e., compensatory counter-rolling of the eyes does not occur. The slight torsional displacement of the vertical corneal meridia noted by many observers may be the result of rotation around an axis or to translation of the globe. The neurologic and structural systems that control the actions of the vertical muscles in human and nonhuman primates do not appear to provide a mechanism for wheel-rotation of the eyes around the pupillary axis. Ocular torsion is not a normal function of the vertical extraocular muscles. Their function is probably the reverse, i.e., the inhibition or prevention of ocular torsion and the stabilization of the eyes when the head or body inclines. Torsional displacement of a vertical corneal meridian occurs only when there is an abnormal muscle imbalance. Wheel-like movements (cycloduction) around the pupillary axis or visual line do not occur. Torsional displacement of a vertical corneal meridian occurs only with a simultaneous vertical movement. The vertical rectus and the oblique muscles in man work together to produce vertical ocular movements regardless of head position of body posture while maintaining the vertical corneal meridia parallel to the sagittal plane of the head. The vestibular apparatus may be responsible for distributing innervation among these muscles, enabling them to function in this manner. PMID:803789
Numerical modeling of pendulum dampers in torsional systems
Johnston, P.R.; Shusto, L.M.
1986-01-01
Centrifugal pendulum-design dampers are utilized in torsional systems to reduce the vibration amplitude at certain objectionable torsional speeds. The damper is tuned by proper design of its mass, dimensions, and position on a carrier disk, which is rigidly attached to the torsional system. The effects of the pendulum damper on the response of the torsional system may be included by modifying the structural model to include a separate damper element representing each order of the pendulum damper. The stiffness and mass matrices for a damper element are dependent upon the order of vibration being dampened, the mass, and the geometry of the damper. A general form of the mass and stiffness equations for a simple centrifugal pendulum damper are derived from first principles using Lagrange's equations of motion. The analysis of torsional systems with pendulum dampers utilizing the mass and stiffness properties developed is included in the program SHAMS. SHAMS calculates the steady-state response of a system of springs and masses to harmonic loads using modal superposition. The response of a crankshaft system with and without the pendulum dampers are included as a case study.
Computed tomographic determination of tibial torsion in the dog.
Aper, Rhonda; Kowaleski, Michael P; Apelt, Detlef; Drost, W Tod; Dyce, Jonathan
2005-01-01
The goal of this study was to develop a method for computed tomographic (CT) measurement of tibial torsion, and to compare this technique with direct anatomic measurement of tibial torsion in cadaveric canine tibiae. Paired hind limbs of 10 cadaveric dogs were mounted on a custom-designed limb holding apparatus. One-millimeter thick, contiguous, transverse CT slices were obtained from the distal femur to the proximal tibia and 2 mm CT slices were obtained from the distal tibia to the proximal tarsus. The tibiae were freed of soft tissues and digital photographic images of the proximal and distal articular surfaces were obtained with the camera lens aligned perpendicular to the long axis of the tibia. Multiple proximal and distal tibial axes were identified on the images; two proximal and two distal axes were found to be repeatable in all specimens in both the direct and CT methods. The torsion angle was calculated by determining the difference between the axis angles for each pair of proximal and distal axes. There was no significant difference in torsion angle identified between the direct photographic and CT method for any pair of proximal and distal axes. CT determination of tibial torsion is a rapid and accurate method, and warrants investigation in clinical patients. PMID:16050274
Full Angular Profile of the Coherent Polarization Opposition Effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mishchenko, Michael I.; Luck, Jean-Marc; Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.
1999-01-01
We use the rigorous vector theory of weak photon localization for a semi-infinite medium composed of nonabsorbing Rayleigh scatterers to compute the full angular profile of the polarization opposition effect. The latter is caused by coherent backscattering of unpolarized incident light and accompanies the renowned backscattering intensity peak.
Modelling the torsion of thin metal wires by distortion gradient plasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bardella, Lorenzo; Panteghini, Andrea
2015-05-01
Under small strains and rotations, we apply a phenomenological higher-order theory of distortion gradient plasticity to the torsion problem, here assumed as a paradigmatic benchmark of small-scale plasticity. Peculiar of the studied theory, proposed about ten years ago by Morton E. Gurtin, is the constitutive inclusion of the plastic spin, affecting both the free energy and the dissipation. In particular, the part of the free energy, called the defect energy, which accounts for Geometrically Necessary Dislocations, is a function of Nye's dislocation density tensor, dependent on the plastic distortion, including the plastic spin. For the specific torsion problem, we implement this distortion gradient plasticity theory into a Finite Element (FE) code characterised by implicit (Backward Euler) time integration, numerically robust and accurate for both viscoplastic and rate-independent material responses. We show that, contrariwise to other higher-order theories of strain gradient plasticity (neglecting the plastic spin), the distortion gradient plasticity can predict some strengthening even if a quadratic defect energy is chosen. On the basis of the results of many FE analyses, concerned with (i) cyclic loading, (ii) switch in the higher-order boundary conditions during monotonic plastic loading, (iii) the use of non-quadratic defect energies, and (iv) the prediction of experimental data, we mainly show that (a) including the plastic spin contribution in a gradient plasticity theory is highly recommendable to model small-scale plasticity, (b) less-than-quadratic defect energies may help in describing the experimental results, but they may lead to anomalous cyclic behaviour, and (c) dissipative (unrecoverable) higher-order finite stresses are responsible for an unexpected mechanical response under non-proportional loading.
Cordonier-Tello, Fabrizio; Mella, Patricio; Rodríguez, Eduardo
2015-01-01
In stark contrast with the three-dimensional case, higher-dimensional Chern-Simons theories can have non-topological, propagating degrees of freedom. Finding those vacua that allow for the propagation of linear perturbations, however, proves to be surprisingly challenging. The simplest solutions are somehow "hyper-stable," and preclude the construction of realistic, four-dimensional physical models. In the context of Chern-Simons gravity, we show that endowing the vacuum with torsion can be helpful to overcome this problem. In particular, we consider a five-dimensional Chern-Simons gravity theory, off-shell gauge-invariant under the Weyl subgroup of the conformal group. We find a Lorentz-flat vacuum with non-vanishing torsion, which gives rise to propagating degrees of freedom on a Randall-Sundrum brane universe. On the brane, torsion vanishes in all the four-dimensional directions, and the metric perturbations propagate as standard gravitational waves on a four-dimensional Minkowski background. In the non-pe...
Dooley, Katherine L; Barsotti, Lisa; Adhikari, Rana X; Evans, Matthew; Fricke, Tobin T; Fritschel, Peter; Frolov, Valera; Kawabe, Keita; Smith-Lefebvre, Nicolás
2013-12-01
We describe the angular sensing and control (ASC) of 4 km detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). Enhanced LIGO, the culmination of the first generation LIGO detectors, operated between 2009 and 2010 with about 40 kW of laser power in the arm cavities. In this regime, radiation-pressure effects are significant and induce instabilities in the angular opto-mechanical transfer functions. Here we present and motivate the ASC design in this extreme case and present the results of its implementation in Enhanced LIGO. Highlights of the ASC performance are successful control of opto-mechanical torsional modes, relative mirror motions of ? 1×10(-7) rad rms, and limited impact on in-band strain sensitivity. PMID:24323024
Angular momentum of isolated systems
Adam D. Helfer
2007-09-07
Penrose's twistorial approach to the definition of angular momentum at null infinity is developed so that angular momenta at different cuts can be meaningfully compared. This is done by showing that the twistor spaces associated with different cuts of scri can be identified as manifolds (but not as vector spaces). The result is a well-defined, Bondi-Metzner-Sachs-invariant notion of angular momentum in a radiating space-time; the difficulties and ambiguities previously encountered are attached to attempts to express this in special-relativistic terms, and in particular to attempts to identify a single Minkowski space of origins. Unlike the special-relativistic case, the angular momentum cannot be represented by a purely j=1 quantity M_{ab}, but has higher-j contributions as well. Applying standard kinematic prescriptions, these higher-j contributions are shown to correspond precisely to the shear. Thus it appears that shear and angular momentum should be regarded as different aspects of a single unified concept.
Angular momentum & spin January 8, 2002
Landstreet, John D.
Angular momentum & spin January 8, 2002 1 Angular momentum Angular momentum appears as a very properties of this quantity. 1.1 Definitions The classical definition of the angular momentum of a particle: L = r × p. Using the correspondence between classical and quantum linear momentum p -i
The effects of torsional-lateral coupling on the dynamics of a gear coupled rotor
Emery, Michael Aaron
2007-04-25
This thesis focuses on the torsional-lateral interactions seen in gear coupled rotors. Of particular interest are cases where the torsional stiffness parameters affect the lateral critical speeds and where lateral stiffness and damping parameters...
Water dimer hydrogen bond stretch, donor torsion overtone, and ``in-plane bend'' vibrations
Cohen, Ronald C.
Water dimer hydrogen bond stretch, donor torsion overtone, and ``in-plane bend'' vibrations Frank N to A vibrations assigned to the hydrogen bond stretch translational and donor torsion overtone vibrations
Palmieri, John
Sage basics Problem: Triangulations Problem: Torsion in homology Advertisements, links Algebraic topology in Sage John H. Palmieri Department of Mathematics University of Washington Cascade Topology Seminar December 1, 2012 Eugene #12;Sage basics Problem: Triangulations Problem: Torsion in homology
Interferometric measurement of angular motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peña Arellano, Fabián Erasmo; Panjwani, Hasnain; Carbone, Ludovico; Speake, Clive C.
2013-04-01
This paper describes the design and realization of a homodyne polarization interferometer for measuring angular motion. The optical layout incorporates carefully designed cat's eye retroreflectors that maximize the measurable range of angular motion and facilitate initial alignment. The retroreflectors are optimized and numerically characterized in terms of defocus and spherical aberrations using Zemax software for optical design. The linearity of the measurement is then calculated in terms of the aberrations. The actual physical interferometer is realized as a compact device with optical components from stock and without relying on adjustable holders. Evaluation of its performance using a commercial autocollimator confirmed a reproducibility within 0.1%, a non-linearity of less than 1 ppm with respect to the autocollimator, an upper limit to its sensitivity of about 5 × 10-11 rad/sqrt{textrm {Hz}} from audioband down to 100 mHz and an angular measurement range of more than ±1°.
Fault diagnosis of planetary gearboxes via torsional vibration signal analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Zhipeng; Zuo, Ming J.
2013-04-01
Torsional vibration signals are theoretically free from the amplitude modulation effect caused by time variant vibration transfer paths due to the rotation of planet carrier and sun gear, and therefore their spectral structure are simpler than transverse vibration signals. Thus, it is potentially easy and effective to diagnose planetary gearbox faults via torsional vibration signal analysis. We give explicit equations to model torsional vibration signals, considering both distributed gear faults (like manufacturing or assembly errors) and local gear faults (like pitting, crack or breakage of one tooth), and derive the characteristics of both the traditional Fourier spectrum and the proposed demodulated spectra of amplitude envelope and instantaneous frequency. These derivations are not only effective to diagnose single gear fault of planetary gearboxes, but can also be generalized to detect and locate multiple gear faults. We validate experimentally the signal models, as well as the Fourier spectral analysis and demodulation analysis methods.
Liver lobe torsion and liver abscess in a dog.
Downs, M O; Miller, M A; Cross, A R; Selcer, B A; Abdy, M J; Watson, E
1998-03-01
A 4-year-old Rhodesian Ridgeback had acute onset of vomiting, lethargy, and discolored urine. Physical examination revealed lethargy, pyrexia, weak femoral pulses, cardiac arrhythmia, distended abdomen, and signs of pain on abdominal palpation. Abdominal radiography and ultrasonography revealed a gas-containing lesion in the cranial portion of the abdomen. Preoperative care included administration of fluids, antibiotics, and antiarrhythmic medication. Exploratory laparotomy revealed hemobilia and a 360 degrees clockwise torsion of the papillary process of the caudate lobe of the liver. Clinical signs resolved completely after liver lobectomy, and the dog was alive 2 years after surgery. Torsion of a liver lobe is rare in dogs. Necrosis of the involved liver lobe can result in acute weakness, shock, and death. Hemodynamic stabilization, antibiotic treatment, and surgical intervention have been successful in treating this condition. Liver lobe torsion should be considered on the differential diagnoses list of acute abdominal pain. PMID:9524639
Coupled bending-bending-torsion flutter of a mistuned cascade with nonuniform blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaza, K. R. V.; Kielb, R. E.
1982-01-01
A set of aeroelastic equations describing the motion of an arbitrarily mistuned cascade with flexible, pretwisted, nonuniform blades is developed using an extended Hamilton's principle. The derivation of the equations has its basis in the geometric nonlinear theory of elasticity in which the elongations and shears are negligible compared to unity. A general expression for foreshortening of a blade is derived and is explicity used in the formulation. The blade aerodynamic loading in the subsonic and supersonic flow regimes is obtained from two dimensional, unsteady, cascade theories. The aerodynamic, inertial and structural coupling between the bending (in two planes) and torsional motions of the blade is included. The equations are used to investigate the aeroelastic stability and to quantify the effect of frequency mistuning on flutter in turbofans. Results indicate that a moderate amount of intentional mistuning has enough potential to alleviate flutter problems in unshrouded, high aspect ratio turbofans.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kvaternik, R. G.; Kaza, K. R. V.
1976-01-01
The nonlinear curvature expressions for a twisted rotor blade or a beam undergoing transverse bending in two planes, torsion, and extension were developed. The curvature expressions were obtained using simple geometric considerations. The expressions were first developed in a general manner using the geometrical nonlinear theory of elasticity. These general nonlinear expressions were then systematically reduced to four levels of approximation by imposing various simplifying assumptions, and in each of these levels the second degree nonlinear expressions were given. The assumptions were carefully stated and their implications with respect to the nonlinear theory of elasticity as applied to beams were pointed out. The transformation matrices between the deformed and undeformed blade-fixed coordinates, which were needed in the development of the curvature expressions, were also given for three of the levels of approximation. The present curvature expressions and transformation matrices were compared with corresponding expressions existing in the literature.
Coupled bending-bending-torsion flutter of a mistuned cascade with nonuniform blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaza, K. R. V.; Kielb, R. E.
1982-01-01
A set of aeroelastic equations describing the motion of an arbitrarily mistuned cascade with flexible, pretwisted, nonuniform blades is developed using an extended Hamilton's principle. The derivation of the equations has its basis in the geometric nonlinear theory of elasticity in which the elongations and shears are negligible compared to unity. A general expression for foreshortening of a blade is derived and is explicitly used in the formulation. The blade aerodynamic loading in the subsonic and supersonic flow regimes is obtained from two-dimensional, unsteady, cascade theories. The aerodynamic, inertial and structural coupling between the bending (in two planes) and torsional motions of the blade is included. The equations are used to investigate the aeroelastic stability and to quantify the effect of frequency mistuning on flutter in turbofans. Results indicate that a moderate amount of intentional mistuning has enough potential to alleviate flutter problems in unshrouded, high-aspect-ratio turbofans.
Solar cell angular position transducer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sandford, M. C.; Gray, D. L. (inventors)
1980-01-01
An angular position transducer utilizing photocells and a light source is disclosed. The device uses a fully rotatable baffle which is connected via an actuator shaft to the body whose rotational displacement is to be measured. The baffle blocks the light path between the light source and the photocells so that a constant semicircular beam of light reaches the photocells. The current produced by the photocells is fed through a resistor, a differential amplifier measures the voltage drop across the resistor which indicates the angular position of the actuator shaft and hence of the object.
Free torsional vibrations of tapered cantilever I-beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, C. Kameswara; Mirza, S.
1988-08-01
Torsional vibration characteristics of linearly tapered cantilever I-beams have been studied by using the Galerkin finite element method. A third degree polynomial is assumed for the angle of twist. The analysis presented is valid for long beams and includes the effect of warping. The individual as well as combined effects of linear tapers in the width of the flanges and the depth of the web on the torsional vibration of cantilever I-beams are investigated. Numerical results generated for various values of taper ratios are presented in graphical form.
Fermion condensate from torsion in the reheating era after inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weller, Joel M.
2013-10-01
The inclusion of Dirac fermions in Einstein-Cartan gravity leads to a four-fermion interaction mediated by nonpropagating torsion, which can allow for the formation of a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer condensate. By considering a simplified model in 2+1 spacetime dimensions, we show that even without an excess of fermions over antifermions, the nonthermal distribution arising from preheating after inflation can give rise to a fermion condensate generated by torsion. We derive the effective Lagrangian for the spacetime-dependent pair field describing the condensate in the extreme cases of nonrelativistic and massless fermions, and show that it satisfies the Gross-Pitaevski equation for a gapless, propagating mode.
Noise limit of a torsion pendulum under optomechanical control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Yu-Jie; Hu, Zhong-Kun; Shao, Cheng-Gang
2015-09-01
In most torsion pendulum experiments, the force resolution is dominantly limited by thermal noise, which is proportional to the pendulum's intrinsic rigidity. Thus, increasing the rigidity directly, such as through increasing torsion fiber's diameter, will decrease the resolution. Here, we present a method to improve the rigidity of a pendulum indirectly through optomechanical control. In this method, for appropriate typical parameter values, the rigidity can be improved greatly. Meanwhile, the extra noise introduced, which our analysis focuses on, can be regulated within the thermal noise level, i.e., the force resolution may not decrease after optomechanical control. This can balance the conflict between large rigidity and high resolution.
Torsion Testing of Diffusion Bonded LIGA Formed Nickel
Buchheit, T.E.; Christenson, T.R.; Schmale, D.T.
1999-01-27
A test technique has been devised which is suitable for the testing of the bond strength of batch diffusion bonded LIGA or DXRL defined structures. The method uses a torsion tester constructed with the aid of LIGA fabrication and distributed torsion specimens which also make use of the high aspect ratio nature of DXRL based processing. Measurements reveal achieved bond strengths of 130MPa between electroplated nickel with a bond temperature of 450 C at 7 ksi pressure which is a sufficiently low temperature to avoid mechanical strength degradation.
Coated Fused Silica Fibers for Enhanced Sensitivity Torsion Pendulum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Numata, Kenji; Horowitz, Jordan; Camp, Jordan
2007-01-01
In order to investigate the fundamental thermal noise limit of a torsion pendulum using a fused silica fiber, we systematically measured and modeled the mechanical losses of thin fused silica fibers coated by electrically conductive thin metal films. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve a thermal noise limit for coated silica lower by a factor between 3 and 9, depending on the silica diameter, compared to the best tungsten fibers available. This will allow a corresponding increase in sensitivity of torsion pendula used for weak force measurements, including the gravitational constant measurement and ground-based force noise testing for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission.
Elastic torsional buckling of thin-walled composite cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marlowe, D. E.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Dexter, H. B.
1974-01-01
The elastic torsional buckling strength has been determined experimentally for thin-walled cylinders fabricated with glass/epoxy, boron/epoxy, and graphite/epoxy composite materials and composite-reinforced aluminum and titanium. Cylinders have been tested with several unidirectional-ply orientations and several cross-ply layups. Specimens were designed with diameter-to-thickness ratios of approximately 150 and 300 and in two lengths of 10 in. and 20 in. The results of these tests were compared with the buckling strengths predicted by the torsional buckling analysis of Chao.
High Sensitivity Torsion Balance Tests for LISA Proof Mass Modeling
S. Schlamminger; C. A. Hagedorn; M. G. Famulare; S. E. Pollack; J. H. Gundlach
2007-02-08
We have built a highly sensitive torsion balance to investigate small forces between closely spaced gold coated surfaces. Such forces will occur between the LISA proof mass and its housing. These forces are not well understood and experimental investigations are imperative. We describe our torsion balance and present the noise of the system. A significant contribution to the LISA noise budget at low frequencies is the fluctuation in the surface potential difference between the proof mass and its housing. We present first results of these measurements with our apparatus.
Uterine horn torsion in two non-gravid bitches.
Misumi, K; Fujiki, M; Miura, N; Sakamoto, H
2000-10-01
Uterine torsion secondary to sacculation of the uterine horns was diagnosed in two non-gravid bitches which were presented with anorexia, polydipsia and an acutely swollen abdomen. On the basis of the radiological and ultrasonographic findings, which indicated the presence of an enlarged spherical or tubular structure filled with hypoechoic material in the caudal abdomen, a tentative diagnosis of pyometra was made. Exploratory laparotomy revealed unilateral uterine horn torsion along the longitudinal axis, with bilateral fluid-filled sacculations. Ovariohysterectomy was performed in both cases. Pathological examination of the uteri demonstrated haematometra in one dog and pyometra in the other. PMID:11072917
Two-way behavior of a Nitinol torsion bar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Weiming
1999-07-01
In this paper, the experimental study of a NiTi shape memory alloy bar with nominal diameter of 6.5 mm is presented. First, some torsion experiments, including torsion cycling at constant temperature and thermal cycling under constant torque, were carried out. In these test, the torque was applied in both positive and negative directions. Two-way memory behavior and some unique phenomena, such as kink and easy-training, were found and hence, a series of uniaxial tension test was performed in order to understand the observations. After presenting the experimental work, the reason behind these phenomena is discussed.
D-brane Spectrum and K-theory Constraints of D=4, N=1 Orientifolds
Maiden, J; Stefanski, B; Maiden, John; Shiu, Gary; Stefanski, Bogdan
2006-01-01
We study the spectrum of stable BPS and non-BPS D-branes in Z_2 x Z_2 orientifolds for all choices of discrete torsion between the orbifold and orientifold generators. We compute the torsion K-theory charges in these D=4, N=1 orientifold models directly from worldsheet conformal field theory, and compare with the K-theory constraints obtained indirectly using D-brane probes. The K-theory torsion charges derived here provide non-trivial constraints on string model building. We also discuss regions of stability for non-BPS D-branes in these examples.
D-brane Spectrum and K-theory Constraints of D=4, N=1 Orientifolds
John Maiden; Gary Shiu; Bogdan Stefanski
2006-03-29
We study the spectrum of stable BPS and non-BPS D-branes in Z_2 x Z_2 orientifolds for all choices of discrete torsion between the orbifold and orientifold generators. We compute the torsion K-theory charges in these D=4, N=1 orientifold models directly from worldsheet conformal field theory, and compare with the K-theory constraints obtained indirectly using D-brane probes. The K-theory torsion charges derived here provide non-trivial constraints on string model building. We also discuss regions of stability for non-BPS D-branes in these examples.
VISCOELASTIC SPECTRA OF Cd0.67Mg0.33 IN TORSION AND BENDING
Lakes, Roderic
1 VISCOELASTIC SPECTRA OF Cd0.67Mg0.33 IN TORSION AND BENDING L. Steven Cook and Roderic S. Lakes Cook, L. S. and Lakes, R. S., "Viscoelastic spectra of Cd0.67Mg0.33 in torsion and bending", adapted from Metallurgical Transactions, 26A, 2037-2039 (1995). Abstract In both torsion and in bending
Mechanics-Based Modeling of Bending and Torsion in Active Cannulas
Mechanics-Based Modeling of Bending and Torsion in Active Cannulas D. Caleb Rucker, and Robert J transmissions. In this paper, we consider both bending and torsion, describing the total elastic energy stored not consider either bending or torsion, treating each outer tubes as infinitely rigid compared to all those
Modeling and Identification of Material Parameters in Coupled Torsion and Bending
3 y 3 y Modeling and Identification of Material Parameters in Coupled Torsion and Bending H Introduction 2 Model for Coupled Torsion and Bending Interest in analysis and control of flexible structures as well as bending motions are observed. Coupled torsion and bending is a well known phenomena
Mechanics of Bending, Torsion, and Variable Precurvature in Multi-Tube Active Cannulas
Mechanics of Bending, Torsion, and Variable Precurvature in Multi-Tube Active Cannulas D. Caleb with arc length, deriving a set of differential equations that capture both bending and torsional effects and predictive power. The simplest model treats each outer tube as infinitely rigid (in both bending and torsion
Mutation of torsion pairs in triangulated categories and its geometric realization
Zhu, Bin
Mutation of torsion pairs in triangulated categories and its geometric realization Yu Zhou and Bin@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn; bzhu@math.tsinghua.edu.cn Abstract The notion of D-mutation of torsion pairs in triangulated categories is introduced. It is proved that the D-mutation of torsion pairs in triangulated
QUASI-STATIC AND DYNAMIC TORSION TESTING OF CERAMIC COATINGS USING HIGH-SPEED PHOTOGRAPHY
Espinosa, Horacio D.
QUASI-STATIC AND DYNAMIC TORSION TESTING OF CERAMIC COATINGS USING HIGH-SPEED PHOTOGRAPHY François were performed on a Kolsky bar apparatus modified for torsion loading. High-speed photography was used-static and dynamic loading. A Kolsky bar [6] modified for torsional loading was used. High-Speed Photography
Kinetic description of electron plasma waves with orbital angular momentum
Mendonca, J. T.
2012-11-15
We describe the kinetic theory of electron plasma waves with orbital angular momentum or twisted plasmons. The conditions for a twisted Landau resonance to exist are established, and this concept is introduced for the first time. Expressions for the kinetic dispersion relation and for the electron Landau damping are derived. The particular case of a Maxwellian plasma is examined in detail. The new contributions to wave dispersion and damping due the orbital angular momentum are discussed. It is shown that twisted plasmons can be excited by rotating electron beams.
Angular momentum non-conserving symmetries in bosonic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortunato, L.; de Graaf, W. A.
2011-04-01
The Levi-Malcev decomposition is applied to bosonic models of quantum mechanics based on unitary Lie algebras u(2), u(2)?u(2), u(3) and u(4) to clearly disentangle semisimple subalgebras. The theory of weighted Dynkin diagrams is then applied to identify conjugacy classes of relevant A1 subalgebras allowing us to introduce a complete classification of new angular momentum non conserving (AMNC) dynamical symmetries. The tensor analysis of the whole algebra based on the new 'angular momentum' operators reveals unexpected spinors to occur in purely bosonic models. The new chains of subalgebra can be invoked to set up ANMC bases for diagonalization.
Angular output of hollow, metal-lined, waveguide Raman sensors
Biedrzycki, Stephen; Buric, Michael P.; Falk, Joel; Woodruff, Steven D.
2012-04-20
Hollow, metal-lined waveguides used as gas sensors based on spontaneous Raman scattering are capable of large angular collection. The collection of light from a large solid angle implies the collection of a large number of waveguide modes. An accurate estimation of the propagation losses for these modes is required to predict the total collected Raman power. We report a theory/experimental comparison of the Raman power collected as a function of the solid angle and waveguide length. New theoretical observations are compared with previous theory appropriate only for low-order modes. A cutback experiment is demonstrated to verify the validity of either theory. The angular distribution of Raman light is measured using aluminum and silver-lined waveguides of varying lengths.
A shear-shear torsional beam model for nonlinear aeroelastic analysis of tower buildings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piccardo, G.; Tubino, F.; Luongo, A.
2015-08-01
In this paper, an equivalent one-dimensional beam model immersed in a three-dimensional space is proposed to study the aeroelastic behavior of tower buildings: linear and nonlinear dynamics are analyzed through a simple but realistic physical modeling of the structure and of the load. The beam is internally constrained, so that it is capable to experience shear strains and torsion only. The elasto-geometric and inertial characteristics of the beam are identified from a discrete model of three-dimensional frame, via a homogenization process. The model accounts for the torsional effect induced by the rotation of the floors around the tower axis; the macroscopic shear strain is produced by bending of the columns, accompanied by negligible rotation of the floors. Nonlinear aerodynamic forces are evaluated through the quasi-steady theory. The first aim is to investigate the effect of mechanical and aerodynamic coupling on the critical galloping conditions. Furthermore, the role of aerodynamic nonlinearities on the galloping post-critical behavior is analyzed through a perturbation solution which permits to obtain a reduced one-dimensional dynamical system, capable of capturing the essential dynamics of the problem.
Torsional and bending rigidity of the double helix from data on small DNA rings.
Frank-Kamenetskii, M D; Lukashin, A V; Anshelevich, V V; Vologodskii, A V
1985-02-01
We have calculated the variance of equilibrium distribution of a circular wormlike polymer chain over the writhing number, [Wr)2), as a function of the number of Kuhn statistical segments, n. For large n these data splice well with our earlier results obtained for a circular freely jointed polymer chain. Assuming that [delta Lk)2) = [delta Tw)2) we have compared our results with experimental data on the chain length dependence of the [delta Lk)2) value recently obtained by Horowitz and Wang for small DNA rings. This comparison has shown an excellent agreement between theory and experiment and yielded a reliable estimate of the torsional and bending rigidity parameters. Namely, the torsional rigidity constant is C = 3.0.10(-19) erg cm, and the bending rigidity as expressed in terms of the DNA persistence length is a = 500 A. The obtained value of C agrees well with earlier estimates by Shore and Baldwin as well as by Horowitz and Wang whereas the a value is in accord with the data of Hagerman. We have found the data of Shore and Baldwin on the chain length dependence of the [delta Lk)2) value to be entirely inconsistent with our theorectical results. PMID:3916932
Nuclear pairing at finite temperature and angular momentum
Dang, N. Dinh; Hung, N. Quang
2009-01-28
We propose an approach to nuclear pairing at finite temperature and angular momentum. This approach includes the effects due to the quasiparticle-number fluctuation and dynamic coupling to pair vibrations within the self-consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The pairing gaps, total energies, and heat capacities are calculated within a doubly folded multilevel model as well as several realistic nuclei. The results obtained show that, in the region of moderate and strong couplings, the sharp transition between the superconducting and normal phases is smoothed out. This is manifested in a thermal pairing gap, which does not collapse at a critical temperature predicted by the conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer's (BCS) theory, but has a tail extended to high temperatures. Moreover, this approach also predicts the appearance of a thermally assisted pairing at finite angular momentum. The effect of backbending of the momentum of inertia as a function of the square of angular velocity is also discussed.
New Approaches to Data Acquisitions in a Torsion Pendulum Experiment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jiang, Daya; Xiao, Jinghua; Li, Haihong; Dai, Qionglin
2007-01-01
In this paper, two simple non-contact and cost-effective methods to acquire data in the student laboratory are applied to investigate the motion of a torsion pendulum. The first method is based on a Hall sensor, while the second makes use of an optical mouse.
Torsional Oscillations and Waves Projected on the Wall
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bartlett, Albert A.
2008-01-01
The article "Torsional Oscillations with Lorentz Force" by Paul Gluck provides a glimpse into the major world of ancient physics demonstrations in the late 19th and first half of the 20th centuries. The apparatus that was described and similar pieces of apparatus are the basis for many memorable but long forgotten educational demonstrations. The…
34. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL MOTION VIEWED FROM EAST TOWER, 7 ...
34. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL MOTION VIEWED FROM EAST TOWER, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MN FILM SHOT BY PROFESSOR F.B. FARQUHARSON, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON. (LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE TACOMA NARROWS BRIDGE, AT UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON (SEATTLE: UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 1941) - Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Spanning Narrows at State Route 16, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA
Optical MEMS devices based on micromachined torsion structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yaming; Xu, Jing; Li, Sihua; Wan, Zhujun; Mu, Canjun
2008-03-01
Optical MEMS components with optical fiber inputs and outputs are the most important kinds of optical MEMS devices because of their applications in optical communication industry and fiber-optic sensors. Efficient optical coupling is the key to develop optical MEMS devices for optical communication and sensing, however, efficient coupling between MEMS actuators or sensing structures and optical fibers is a challenging job. Besides high performance MEMS actuators and coupling micro-optics are needed, the MEMS structures should adapt to coupling micro-optics. The torsion MEMS micro-mirrors and gratings can couple with fiber collimators at low insertion loss, therefore, the torsion MEMS structure is a good choice for optical MEMS devices, especially for continuous or multi-level controlled devices. In this paper, we report three kinds of optical MEMS devices based on silicon torsion micro structure, MEMS variable optical attenuator (VOA), 1×8 MEMS optical switch and high-speed MEMS torsion blazed grating , which have been developed recently in our optical MEMS research group. The three devices are coupled with optical fibers by optical fiber collimators, so low loss coupling can be achieved.
Torsionally-gravitating charged matter fields and quanta
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabbri, Luca
2015-10-01
In the present article we shall consider the torsional completion of a gravitational background that is filled with electrodynamically interacting material fields, taken to be of fermionic type, eventually deriving properties like the impossibility of singularities and the possibility of confinement, both necessary for a correct quantum description.
Torsion Spring Oscillator with Dry Friction Eugene I. Butikov
Butikov, Eugene
, Saint Petersburg, Russia Abstract Free and forced oscillations of a torsion spring pendulum damped-state oscillations. 1. Introduction Mechanical vibration systems with combined viscous and dry (Coulomb) friction in motion of dry friction oscillator. Damping of free oscillations under dry friction is very clearly
A measurement of G with a cryogenic torsion pendulum.
Newman, Riley; Bantel, Michael; Berg, Eric; Cross, William
2014-10-13
A measurement of Newton's gravitational constant G has been made with a cryogenic torsion pendulum operating below 4 K in a dynamic mode in which G is determined from the change in torsional period when a field source mass is moved between two orientations. The source mass was a pair of copper rings that produced an extremely uniform gravitational field gradient, whereas the pendulum was a thin fused silica plate, a combination that minimized the measurement's sensitivity to error in pendulum placement. The measurement was made using an as-drawn CuBe torsion fibre, a heat-treated CuBe fibre, and an as-drawn Al5056 fibre. The pendulum operated with a set of different large torsional amplitudes. The three fibres yielded high Q-values: 82?000, 120?000 and 164?000, minimizing experimental bias from fibre anelasticity. G-values found with the three fibres are, respectively: {6.67435(10),6.67408(15),6.67455(13)}×10(-11)?m(3)?kg(-1)?s(-2), with corresponding uncertainties 14, 22 and 20?ppm. Relative to the CODATA2010 G-value, these are higher by 77, 37 and 107?ppm, respectively. The unweighted average of the three G-values, with the unweighted average of their uncertainties, is 6.67433(13)×10(-11)?m(3)?kg(-1)?s(-2) (19?ppm). PMID:25202000
Penile torsion correction by diagonal corporal plication sutures.
Snow, Brent W
2009-01-01
Penile torsion is commonly encountered. It can be caused by skin and dartos adherence or Buck's fascia attachments. The authors suggest a new surgical approach to solve both problems. If Buck's fascia involvement is demonstrated by artificial erection then a new diagonal corporal plication suture is described to effectively solve this problem. PMID:19254399
TORSION OF RATIONAL ELLIPTIC CURVES OVER QUADRATIC FIELDS
González, Enrique
) and Derickx, Kamienny, Stein and Stoll have announced [4] that they have established the sets S(d) for d = 4. Primary: 11G05,11R11; Secondary:14G05. Key words and phrases. Elliptic curves, Torsion subgroup, rationals
Bond Angle Torsion http://www.nobelprize.org/
Fukai, Tomoki
MARBLE-K 20141024 1 #12;2 MARBLE MARBLE #12;MD Bond Angle Torsion http://www.nobelprize.org/ Nonbond (Elec, vdW) MDKarplus 2013 MD MD MD 16 #12;MARBLE( olecul Simulation program for iomo cules) MARBLE-K PME CHARMM Force Field AMBER Force Field NMRSAXS molx XNMR #12;MARBLE
Torsion-Free Generalized Connections and Heterotic Supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia-Fernandez, Mario
2014-11-01
This work revisits the notions of connection and curvature in generalized geometry, with emphasis on torsion-free generalized connections on a transitive Courant algebroid. As an application, we provide a mathematical derivation of the equations of motion of heterotic supergravity in terms of the Ricci tensor of a generalized metric, inspired by the work of Coimbra, Strickland-Constable and Waldram.
A case of splenic torsion with progressive anemia and thrombocytopenia.
Schnier, Lisa M
2010-05-01
A 4-year-old male, castrated Saint Bernard was evaluated for acute onset of lethargy and collapse. Moderately severe anemia and splenomegaly were noted. Immune mediated hemolytic anemia was initially suspected. Abdominal ultrasound demonstrated an absence of splenic blood flow. Splenic torsion was confirmed on exploratory laparotomy and a splenectomy was performed. PMID:20676299
Computed tomography diagnosis of isolated splenic torsion in a dog.
Patsikas, M N; Rallis, T; Kladakis, S E; Dessiris, A K
2001-01-01
Isolated splenic torsion in a dog was diagnosed using computed tomography (CT). The enlarged non enhanced spleen and a twisted soft tissue mass effect represented the rotated pedicle were the main findings. Abdominal radiography and ultrasonography were not conclusive. PMID:11405265
PRTAD: A DATABASE FOR PROTEIN RESIDUE TORSION ANGLE DISTRIBUTIONS
PRTAD: A DATABASE FOR PROTEIN RESIDUE TORSION ANGLE DISTRIBUTIONS By Xiaoyong Sun Di Wu RobertÂ0436 Phone: 612-624-6066 Fax: 612-626-7370 URL: http://www.ima.umn.edu #12;PRTAD: A Database for Protein@iastate.edu Abstract PRTAD is a dedicated database and structural bioinformatics system for protein analysis
On Gravity, Torsion and the Spectral Action Principle
Frank Pfaeffle; Christoph A. Stephan
2011-06-03
We consider compact Riemannian spin manifolds without boundary equipped with orthogonal connections. We investigate the induced Dirac operators and the associated commutative spectral triples. In case of dimension four and totally anti-symmetric torsion we compute the Chamseddine-Connes spectral action, deduce the equations of motions and discuss critical points.
Quaternionic Torsion Geometry, Superconformal Symmetry and T-duality
Swann, Andrew
2009-02-02
HyperKaehler metrics with torsion (HKT metrics) are constructed via superconformal symmetry. It is shown how T-duality interpreted as a twist construction for circle actions provides a number of compact simply-connected examples. Further applications of the twist construction are discussed to obtain compact simply-connected HKT manifolds with few symmetries and to construct all HKT nilmanifolds.
Mohan, R.; Marschall, C.; Krishnaswamy, P.; Brust, F.; Ghadiali, N.; Wilkowski, G.
1995-04-01
This topical report summarizes the work on angled crack growth and combined loading effects performed within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s research program entitled {open_quotes}Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds{close_quotes}. The major impetus for this work stemmed from the observation that initial circumferential cracks in carbon steel pipes exhibited angular crack growth. This failure mode was little understood, and the effect of angled crack growth from an initially circumferential crack raised questions of how pipes under combined loading with torsional stresses would behave. There were three major conclusions from this work. The first was that virtually all ferritic nuclear pipes will have toughness anisotropy. The second was that the ratio of the normalized crack driving force (as a function of angle) to the normalized toughness (also as a function of the angle of crack growth) showed that there was an equal likelihood of cracks growing at any angle between 25 and 65 degrees. This agreed with the scatter of crack growth angles observed in pipe tests. Third, for combined loads with torsional stresses, an effective moment allows pure bending analyses to be used up to crack initiation. Crack opening area under combined loads could also be determined in this mariner.
Gravitational energy for GR and Poincaré gauge theories: A covariant Hamiltonian approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chiang-Mei; Nester, James M.; Tung, Roh-Suan
2015-08-01
Our topic concerns a long standing puzzle: The energy of gravitating systems. More precisely we want to consider, for gravitating systems, how to best describe energy-momentum and angular momentum/center-of-mass momentum (CoMM). It is known that these quantities cannot be given by a local density. The modern understanding is that (i) they are quasi-local (associated with a closed 2-surface), (ii) they have no unique formula, (iii) they have no reference frame independent description. In the first part of this work, we review some early history, much of it not so well known, on the subject of gravitational energy in Einstein's general relativity (GR), noting especially Noether's contribution. In the second part, we review (including some new results) much of our covariant Hamiltonian formalism and apply it to Poincaré gauge theories of gravity (PG), with GR as a special case. The key point is that the Hamiltonian boundary term has two roles, it determines the quasi-local quantities, and furthermore, it determines the boundary conditions for the dynamical variables. Energy-momentum and angular momentum/CoMM are associated with the geometric symmetries under Poincaré transformations. They are best described in a local Poincaré gauge theory. The type of spacetime that naturally has this symmetry is Riemann-Cartan spacetime, with a metric compatible connection having, in general, both curvature and torsion. Thus our expression for the energy-momentum of physical systems is obtained via our covariant Hamiltonian formulation applied to the PG.
Arbitrary orbital angular momentum of photons
Pan, Yue; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Wang, Xi-Lin; Tu, Chenghou; Li, Yongnan; Wang, Hui-Tian
2015-01-01
Orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons, as a new fundamental degree of freedom, has excited a great diversity of interest, because of a variety of emerging applications. Arbitrarily tunable OAM has gained much attention, but its creation remains still a tremendous challenge. We demonstrate the realization of well-controlled arbitrary OAM in both theory and experiment. We present the concept of general OAM, which extends the OAM carried by the scalar vortex field to the OAM carried by the azimuthally varying polarized vector field. The arbitrary OAM has the same characteristics as the well-defined integer OAM: intrinsic OAM, uniform local OAM and intensity ring, and propagation stability. The arbitrary OAM has unique natures: it is allowed to be flexibly tailored and the radius of the focusing ring can have various choices for a desired OAM, which are of great significance to the benefit of surprising applications of the arbitrary OAM.
Chiral symmetries associated with angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, M.; Kleinert, M.
2014-03-01
In quantum mechanics courses, symmetries of a physical system are usually introduced as operators which commute with the Hamiltonian. In this paper we will consider chiral symmetries which anticommute with the Hamiltonian. Typically, introductory courses at the (under)graduate level do not discuss these simple, useful and beautiful symmetries at all. The first time a student encounters them is when the Dirac equation is discussed in a course on relativistic quantum mechanics, or when particle-hole symmetry is studied in the context of superconductivity. In this paper, we will show how chiral symmetries can be simply elucidated using the theory of angular momentum, which is taught in virtually all introductory quantum mechanics courses.
773revision:2002-01-18modified:2002-01-19 Cotorsion theories cogenerated by 1-free abelian groups
Shelah, Saharon
773revision:2002-01-18modified:2002-01-19 Cotorsion theories cogenerated by 1-free abelian groups of the cotorsion class singly cogenerated by a torsion-free group G. Cotorsion theories were introduced by Salce
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartman, Edwin P.; Biermann, David
1938-01-01
The torsional deflection of the blades of three full-scale duralumin propellers operating under various loading conditions was measured by a light-beam method. Angular bending deflections were also obtained as an incidental part of the study. The deflection measurements showed that the usual present-day type of propeller blades twisted but a negligible amount under ordinary flight conditions. A maximum deflection of about 1/10th of a degree was found at V/nD of 0.3 and a smaller deflection at higher values of V/nD for the station at 0.70 radius. These deflections are much smaller than would be expected from earlier tests, but the light-beam method is considered to be much more accurate than the direct-reading transit method used in the previous tests.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartman, Edwin P; Biermann, David
1938-01-01
The torsional deflection of the blades of three full-scale aluminum-alloy propellers operating under various loading conditions was measured by a light-beam method. Angular bending deflections were also obtained as an incidental part of the study. The deflection measurements showed that the usual present-day type of propeller blades twisted but a negligible amount under ordinary flight conditions. A maximum deflection of about 1/10 degree was found at a v/nd of 0.3 and a smaller deflection at higher values of v/nd for the station at 0.70 radius. These deflections are much smaller than would be expected from earlier tests, but the light-beam method is considered to be much more accurate than the direct-reading-transit method used in the previous test.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Y. J.; Huan, Y.; Gao, M.; Dong, J.; Liu, W.; Pan, M. X.; Wang, W. H.; Bi, Z. L.
2015-02-01
A high-resolution micro-torsion tester is developed based on electromagnetism, and the shear modulus of metallic glass fiber (Pd40Cu30Ni10P20) is measured using this tester. The torque is measured by a coil-magnet component and the rotation angle is measured by an inductive angular transducer. The calibration results show that the torque capacity of this tester is 1.1? × ?10-3?N m with resolution of 3? × ?10-8?N m and the rotation angle capacity is 90° with a resolution of 0.01°. A set of metallic glass fibers, with diameter of about 90?µm, are tested using this tester. The average shear modulus is obtained as 20.2?GPa (±6%).
The Angular Momentum of Baryons and Dark Matter Halos Revisited
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Pichon, Christophe; Kassin, Susan A.; Dubois, Yohan
2011-01-01
Recent theoretical studies have shown that galaxies at high redshift are fed by cold, dense gas filaments, suggesting angular momentum transport by gas differs from that by dark matter. Revisiting this issue using high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR), we find that at the time of accretion, gas and dark matter do carry a similar amount of specific angular momentum, but that it is systematically higher than that of the dark matter halo as a whole. At high redshift, freshly accreted gas rapidly streams into the central region of the halo, directly depositing this large amount of angular momentum within a sphere of radius r = 0.1R(sub vir). In contrast, dark matter particles pass through the central region unscathed, and a fraction of them ends up populating the outer regions of the halo (r/R(sub vir) > 0.1), redistributing angular momentum in the process. As a result, large-scale motions of the cosmic web have to be considered as the origin of gas angular momentum rather than its virialised dark matter halo host. This generic result holds for halos of all masses at all redshifts, as radiative cooling ensures that a significant fraction of baryons remain trapped at the centre of the halos. Despite this injection of angular momentum enriched gas, we predict an amount for stellar discs which is in fair agreement with observations at z=0. This arises because the total specific angular momentum of the baryons (gas and stars) remains close to that of dark matter halos. Indeed, our simulations indicate that any differential loss of angular momentum amplitude between the two components is minor even though dark matter halos continuously lose between half and two-thirds of their specific angular momentum modulus as they evolve. In light of our results, a substantial revision of the standard theory of disc formation seems to be required. We propose a new scenario where gas efficiently carries the angular momentum generated by large-scale structure motions deep inside dark matter halos, redistributing it only in the vicinity of the disc.
Cohen, Ronald C.
of the trimer torsional and hydrogen bond stretch/bend vibrational modes which underlies the torsional model,16 All of these spectra have been observed in the ``torsional band'' or ``bending band'' region of liquidQuantitative characterization of the ,,D2O...3 torsional manifold by terahertz laser spectroscopy
Design, modeling and characterization of a novel meso-scale SMA-actuated torsion actuator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheng, Jun; Desai, Jaydev P.
2015-10-01
This paper presents our work on design, modeling, and characterization of a novel shape memory alloy (SMA)-actuated torsion actuator for meso-scale robots. Development of a miniature torsion actuator is challenging, but it can enhance the agility and enlarge the workspace of meso-scale robots. This torsion actuator comprises a pair of antagonistic SMA torsion springs, which bi-directionally actuate the actuator by Joule heating and natural cooling. First, the mechanical design of the torsion actuator is presented, followed by the fabrication of SMA torsion springs. Then, we present the constitutive model of the SMA torsion spring with an analysis of its strain change, and derive a quasi-static model with the Coulomb friction torque for this torsion actuator. Finally, a series of characterization experiments are conducted on the SMA torsion spring and the torsion actuator prototype to determine the values of all model parameters. This work shows that the properties of the SMA-actuated torsion actuator can be appropriately characterized by experiments and the actuator is feasible for robotics applications.
Controversy concerning the definition of quark and gluon angular momentum
Leader, Elliot
2011-05-01
A major controversy has arisen in QCD as to how to split the total angular momentum into separate quark and gluon contributions, and as to whether the gluon angular momentum can itself be split, in a gauge-invariant way, into a spin and orbital part. Several authors have proposed various answers to these questions and offered a variety of different expressions for the relevant operators. I argue that none of these is acceptable and suggest that the canonical expression for the momentum and angular momentum operators is the correct and physically meaningful one. It is then an inescapable fact that the gluon angular momentum operator cannot, in general, be split in a gauge-invariant way into a spin and orbital part. However, the projection of the gluon spin onto its direction of motion, i.e. its helicity is gauge invariant and is measured in deep inelastic scattering on nucleons. The Ji sum rule, relating the quark angular momentum to generalized parton distributions, though not based on the canonical operators, is shown to be correct, if interpreted with due care. I also draw attention to several interesting aspects of QED and QCD, which, to the best of my knowledge, are not commented upon in the standard textbooks on field theory.
The hilar perivenous hyperechoic triangle as a sign of acute splenic torsion in dogs.
Mai, Wilfried
2006-01-01
Diagnosis of acute primary splenic torsion is challenging. The ultrasonographic appearance of this condition has been described, but other splenic diseases, such as diffuse infarction because of thrombosis, can appear very similar. We describe an additional ultrasonographic sign of acute splenic torsion; a triangular hyperechoic area at the hilus between the veins and the splenic parenchyma that is continuous with the hyperechoic mesentery. In a group of animals where acute splenic torsion was part of the ultrasound report differential diagnosis, we compared findings in dogs with torsion with findings in dogs with other splenic conditions. The presence of a hilar hyperechoic perivenous triangle was significantly associated with splenic torsion (P = 0.005). We speculate that this sign is associated with torsion because of the secondary severe, diffuse splenic enlargement. Although not pathognomonic, this sign could be used to more accurately diagnose splenic torsion in light of other findings consistent with this condition. PMID:17009514
Phonons with orbital angular momentum
Ayub, M. K.; Ali, S.; Mendonca, J. T.
2011-10-15
Ion accoustic waves or phonon modes are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collissionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann electrons and inertial ions. For this purpose, we have employed the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of ion density perturbations and discussed its Gaussian beam and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is presented, allowing to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. The energy flux due to phonons is also calculated and the corresponding OAM is derived. Numerically, it is shown that the parameters such as azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and beam waist, strongly modify the profiles of the phonon LG potential. The present results should be helpful in understanding the phonon mode excitations produced by Brillouin backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.
Angular momentum generation by parity violation
Liu, Hong
We generalize our holographic derivation of spontaneous angular momentum generation in 2 + 1 dimensions in several directions. We consider cases when a parity-violating perturbation responsible for the angular momentum ...
NUCLEI AT HIGH ANGULAR MOMENTUM
Diamond, R.M.; Stephens, F.S.
1980-06-01
It appears that most nuclei show a compromise between purely collective and purely non-collective behavior at very high spins.non~collective behavior in nuclei has been seen only as high as 36 or 37{bar h}, at which point a more collective structure seems to develop. The concepts underlying the study of high angular momentum states are discussed. The factors that limit angular momentum in nuclei are considered. The currently emerging state of physics of very high spin states is reviewed. The detailed calculations currently made for high spin states are described, focusing not on the calculations themselves, but on the physical input to them and results that come out. Production of high-spin states using heavy-ion reactions is reviewed. Studies of {gamma}-rays de-exciting the evaporation residues from heavy-ion reactions are covered. Two types of {gamma} rays occur: those that cool the nucleus to or toward the yrast line, called "statistical," and those that are more or less parallel to the yrast line and remove the angular momentum, called "yrast~like." Collective rotation, in simplest form the motion of a deformed nucleus around an axis perpendicular to its symmetry axis, is also covered.
Wang, Song; Wang, Fei; Liao, Zhenhua; Wang, Qingliang; Liu, Yuhong; Liu, Weiqiang
2015-10-01
A ball-on-socket contact configuration was designed to simulate an artificial cervical disk in structure. UHMWPE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene) hot pressed by powders and Ti6Al4V alloy were selected as the material combination of ball and socket. The socket surface was coated by a ~500 nm C-DLC (carbon ion implantation-diamond like carbon) mixed layer to improve its surface nano hardness and wear resistance. The torsional fretting wear behavior of the ball-on-socket model was tested at different angular displacements under 25% bovine serum lubrication with an axial force of 100 N to obtain more realistic results with that in vivo. The fretting running regimes and wear damage characteristics as well as wear mechanisms for both ball and socket were studied based on 2D (two dimension) optical microscope, SEM (scanning electron microscope) and 3D (three dimension) profiles. With the increase of angular displacement amplitude from 1° to 7°, three types of T-? (Torsional torque-angular displacement amplitude) curves (i.e., linear, elliptical and parallelogram loops) corresponding to running regimes of PSR (partial slip regime), MR (mixed regime) and SR (slip regime) were observed and analyzed. Both the central region and the edge zone of the ball and socket were damaged. The worn surfaces were characterized by wear scratches and wear debris. In addition, more severe wear damage and more wear debris appeared on the central region of the socket at higher angular displacement amplitude. The dominant damage mechanism was a mix of surface scratch, adhesive wear and abrasive wear for the UHMWPE ball while that for the coated socket was abrasive wear by PE particles and some polishing and rolling process on the raised overgrown DLC grains. The frictional kinetic behavior, wear type, damage region and damage mechanism for the ball-on-socket model revealed significant differences with those of a ball-on-flat contact while showing better consistency with that of in vitro cervical prosthesis simulations according to the literature. PMID:26117735
Angular momentum control in coordinated Victor Zordan
Zordan, Victor
Angular momentum control in coordinated behaviors Victor Zordan University of California, Riverside Abstract. This paper explores the many uses of angular momentum regulation and its role in the synthesis of characteristic movements that can be generated through the control of angular momentum. Keywords: Character
Angular Momentum Decomposition for an Electron
Matthias Burkardt; Hikmat BC
2008-12-09
We calculate the orbital angular momentum of the `quark' in the scalar diquark model as well as that of the electron in QED (to order $\\alpha$). We compare the orbital angular momentum obtained from the Jaffe-Manohar decomposition to that obtained from the Ji relation and estimate the importance of the vector potential in the definition of orbital angular momentum.
Torsional instanton effects in quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaul, Romesh K.; Sengupta, Sandipan
2014-12-01
We show that in the first-order gravity theory coupled to axions the instanton number of the Giddings-Strominger wormhole can be interpreted as the Nieh-Yan topological index. The axion charge of the baby universes is quantized in terms of the Nieh-Yan integers. Tunneling between universes of different Nieh-Yan charges implies a nonperturbative vacuum state. The associated topological vacuum angle can be identified with the Barbero-Immirzi parameter.
The transition to Earth-like torsional oscillations in magnetoconvection simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teed, Robert J.; Jones, Chris A.; Tobias, Steven M.
2015-06-01
Evidence for torsional oscillations (TOs) operating within the Earth's fluid outer core has been found in the secular variation of the geomagnetic field. These waves arise via disturbances to the predominant (magnetostrophic) force balance believed to exist in the core. The coupling of the core and mantle allow TOs to affect the length-of-day of the Earth via angular momentum conservation. Encouraged by previous work, where we were able to observe TOs in geodynamo simulations, we perform 3-D magnetoconvection simulations in a spherical shell in order to reach more Earth-like parameter regimes that proved hitherto elusive. At large Ekman numbers we find that TOs can be present but are typically only a small fraction of the overall dynamics and are often driven by Reynolds forcing at various locations throughout the domain. However, as the Ekman number is reduced to more Earth-like values, TOs become more apparent and can make up the dominant portion of the short timescale flow. This coincides with a transition to regimes where excitation is found only at the tangent cylinder, is delivered by the Lorentz force and gives rise to a periodic Earth-like wave pattern, approximately operating on a 4 to 5 year timescale. The core travel times of our waves also become independent of rotation at low Ekman number with many converging to Earth-like values of around 4 years.
Numerical Investigation of Flapwise-Torsional Vibration Model of a Smart Section Blade with Microtab
Li, Nailu; Balas, Mark J.; Yang, Hua; Jiang, Wei; Magar, Kaman T.
2015-01-01
This study presents a method to develop an aeroelastic model of a smart section blade equipped with microtab. The model is suitable for potential passive vibration control study of the blade section in classic flutter. Equations of the model are described by the nondimensional flapwise and torsional vibration modes coupled with the aerodynamic model based on the Theodorsen theory and aerodynamic effects of the microtab based on the wind tunnel experimental data. The aeroelastic model is validated using numerical data available in the literature and then utilized to analyze the microtab control capability on flutter instability case and divergence instabilitymore »case. The effectiveness of the microtab is investigated with the scenarios of different output controllers and actuation deployments for both instability cases. The numerical results show that the microtab can effectively suppress both vibration modes with the appropriate choice of the output feedback controller.« less
Torsional spring is the optimal flexibility arrangement for thrust production of a flapping wing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, M. Nicholas J.
2015-09-01
While it is understood that flexibility can improve the propulsive performance of flapping wings and fins, the flexibility distribution leading to optimal performance has not been explored. Using 2D small-amplitude theory and a fast Chebyshev method, we examine how thrust depends on the chord-wise distribution of wing stiffness. Through numerical optimization, we find that focusing flexibility at the wing's front, e.g., through a torsional spring, maximizes thrust. A wing with an optimally chosen spring constant typically generates 36% more thrust than a wing of optimal uniform stiffness. These results may relate to material distributions found in nature, such as insect wings, and may apply to the design of biomimetic swimmers and flyers, such as ornithopters.
Mean Platelet Volume in Early Diagnosis of Adnexal Torsion
Köleli, I??l
2015-01-01
Background: Adnexal torsion (AT) is among the gynecological emergencies; more common in reproductive age, if diagnosed late, this can cause ovarian failure and infertility, but rarely thrombophlebitis and peritonitis. Despite these severe complications, preoperative diagnostic tests are not enough for early diagnosis. There are certain pieces of literature on the subject that reveal changes in mean platelet volume (MPV) values occur in inflammatory and ischemic diseases and that these changes have diagnostic and prognostic significance. However, there are no studies investigating this relationship with adnexal torsion. Aims: The aim of the study is to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic significance of the mean platelet volume value in the early diagnosis of patients with adnexal torsion. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Pre-operative demographic data, MPV, leukocyte count and neutrophils to lymphocytes (N/L) ratio in the blood samples of 51 patients, who were operated on preliminary adnexal torsion and diagnosed as adnexal torsion with a benign ovarian cyst (AT group) were retrospectively compared with those of 50 patients who were operated upon because of benign ovarian cysts and without torsion (control group) at this hospital between 2006 and 2014. Results: The mean MPV level was found to be 8.1 (7.1–10.7) fL in the AT group and 7.9 (6.6–10.2) fL in the control group; no statistically significant difference was found between the groups (p>0.05). Leukocyte count and N/L ratio in the AT group were, on average, 12×103/mm3 and 82% respectively and in control group; they were, on average, 7.2×103/mm3 and 59%, respectively. A statistically significant increase was found in the leukocyte count and N/L ratio of the AT group compared to the control group (p<0.001). The platelet count in the AT group was, on average, 253×103/mm3 and in the control group it was, on average, 280×103/mm3; no statistically significant difference was detected between these two groups (p>0.05). No correlation was detected between the MPV, platelet and leukocyte counts. The sensitivity of the leukocytosis to the AT cases was found to be 66.7%, and selectivity was 94%. Conclusion: The AT diagnostic and prognostic importance of MPV value has not been determined in this study.
Angular momentum and torque described with the complex octonion
Weng, Zi-Hua
2015-01-01
The paper aims to adopt the complex octonion to formulate the angular momentum, torque, and force etc in the electromagnetic and gravitational fields. Applying the octonionic representation enables one single definition of angular momentum (or torque, force) to combine some physics contents, which were considered to be independent of each other in the past. J. C. Maxwell used simultaneously two methods, the vector terminology and quaternion analysis, to depict the electromagnetic theory. It motivates the paper to introduce the quaternion space into the field theory, describing the physical feature of electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The spaces of two fields can be chosen as the quaternion spaces, while the coordinate component of quaternion space is able to be the complex number. The quaternion space of electromagnetic field is independent of that of gravitational field. These two quaternion spaces may compose one octonion space. Contrarily, one octonion space can be separated into two subspaces, the...
Accelerated rotation with orbital angular momentum modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulze, Christian; Roux, Filippus S.; Dudley, Angela; Rop, Ronald; Duparré, Michael; Forbes, Andrew
2015-04-01
We introduce a class of light field that angularly accelerates during propagation. We show that the acceleration (deceleration) may be controlled by adjustment of a single parameter, and tuned continuously, down to no acceleration at all. As the angular acceleration takes place in a bounded space, the azimuthal degree of freedom, such fields accelerate periodically as they propagate. Notably, the amount of angular acceleration is not limited by paraxial considerations, may be tailored for large accelerations over arbitrarily long distances, and can be engineered independently of the beam's spatial extent. We discuss how such angularly accelerating light fields can maintain the conservation of angular momentum through an energy exchange mechanism across the field.
Formation of Helices in Graphene Nanoribbons under Torsion.
Nikiforov, I; Hourahine, B; Frauenheim, Th; Dumitric?, T
2014-12-01
We use objective boundary conditions and self-consistent charge density-functional-based tight-binding to simulate at the atomistic scale the formation of helices in narrow graphene nanoribbons with armchair edges terminated with fluorine and hydrogen. We interpret the microscopic data using an inextensible, unshearable elastic rod model, which considers both bending and torsional strains. When fitted to the atomistic data, the simple rod model uses closed-form solutions for a cubic equation to predict the strain energy and morphology at a given twist angle and the crossover point between pure torsion and a helix. Our modeling and simulation bring key insights into the origin of the helical graphene morphologies stored inside of carbon nanotubes. They can be useful for designing chiral nanoribbons with tailored properties. PMID:26278936
Bending and Torsion Load Alleviator With Automatic Reset
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
delaFuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Eubanks, Michael C. (Inventor); Dao, Anthony X. (Inventor)
1996-01-01
A force transmitting load alleviator apparatus and method are provided for rotatably and pivotally driving a member to be protected against overload torsional and bending (moment) forces. The load alleviator includes at least one bias spring to resiliently bias cam followers and cam surfaces together and to maintain them in locked engagement unless a predetermined load is exceeded whereupon a center housing is pivotal or rotational with respect to a crown assembly. This pivotal and rotational movement results in frictional dissipation of the overload force by an energy dissipator. The energy dissipator can be provided to dissipate substantially more energy from the overload force than from the bias force that automatically resets the center housing and crown assembly to the normally fixed centered alignment. The torsional and bending (moment) overload levels can designed independently of each other.
MAGNETOSEISMOLOGY: EIGENMODES OF TORSIONAL ALFVEN WAVES IN STRATIFIED SOLAR WAVEGUIDES
Verth, G.; Goossens, M.; Erdelyi, R. E-mail: Marcel.Goossens@wis.kuleuven.b
2010-05-10
There have recently been significant claims of Alfven wave observation in the solar chromosphere and corona. We investigate how the radial and longitudinal plasma structuring affects the observational properties of torsional Alfven waves in magnetic flux tubes for the purposes of solar magnetoseismology. The governing magnetohydrodynamic equations of these waves in axisymmetric flux tubes of arbitrary radial and axial plasma structuring are derived and we study their observable properties for various equilibria in both thin and finite-width magnetic flux tubes. For thin flux tubes, it is demonstrated that observation of the eigenmodes of torsional Alfven waves can provide temperature diagnostics of both the internal and surrounding plasma. In the finite-width flux tube regime, it is shown that these waves are the ideal magnetoseismological tool for probing radial plasma inhomogeneity in solar waveguides.
Subsynchronous torsional interactions with static VAR compensators; Influence of HVDC
Rostamkolai, N.; Piwko, R.J.; Larsen, E.V. ); Fisher, D.A. ); Mobarak, M.A. ); Poitras, A.E. )
1991-02-01
Planning for installation of a static var compensator (SVC) in Chester, Maine, was initiated in 1987. The pre-specification subsynchronous torsional interaction (SSTI) studies showed the SVC might have a negative influence on stability of torsional modes of vibration of the nearby turbine-generators. In a previous paper, the parameters influencing the level of SSTI were identified with the use of a simple system. This paper extends the work to power systems containing an HVDC transmission system. The combined effect of SVC and HVDC on turbine-generator SSTI is investigated with the use of a hypothetical system. Simulation plots for the large machines of New Brunswick and Maine are included to quantify the level of interaction with the Chester SVC. Filtering as a mitigation measure is proposed to eliminate the small level of SSTI attributed to the Chester SVC.
Wandering spleen with chronic torsion in a patient with thalassaemia
Ho, Chi Long
2014-01-01
Wandering spleen or splenoptosis is an uncommon entity and often an asymptomatic finding of acute abdomen in the emergency department. A high index of suspicion for splenic torsion is required, particularly in patients with known splenomegaly, as this condition could potentially lead to splenic infarction. Recognition of this condition can help avoid potential confusion with acute abdomen of other aetiologies. Herein, we present a unique case of wandering spleen with chronic torsion, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been described in an elderly patient with haemoglobin H thalassaemia. We also review the literature for the aetiology and pathogenesis of wandering spleen, and discuss the relevant diagnostic modalities and treatment options. PMID:25630326
State reversals of optically induced tilt and torsional eye movements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Finke, R. A.; Held, R.
1978-01-01
Alternations of the state of apparent self-motion during observation of a large visual display rotating about the line of sight are associated with alternations in the magnitude of induced tilt and torsional eye rotation. In one experiment, shifts in visually induced tilt during these state alternations are found to be in the opposite direction to corresponding shifts in induced ocular torsion. In a second experiment, the reversals of self-motion perception are shown to be an intravisual phenomenon, independent of competing inputs provided by the vestibular system. These results emphasize the importance of distinguishing between visual and vestibular processes in tilt perception and ocular rotation during human orientation to gravitational vertical.
Generalized Hodge dual for torsion in teleparallel gravity
Peng Huang; Fang-Fang Yuan
2015-04-13
For teleparallel gravity in four dimensions, Lucas and Pereira have shown that a generalized Hodge dual for torsion tensor can be defined with coefficients determined by mathematical consistency. In this paper, we demonstrate that a direct generalization to other dimensions fails and no new generalized Hodge dual operator could be given. Furthermore, if one enforces the definition of a generalized Hodge dual to be consistent with the action of teleparallel gravity in general dimensions, the basic identity for any sensible Hodge dual would require an \\textit{ad hoc} definition for the second Hodge dual operation which is totally unexpected. Therefore, we conclude that at least for the torsion tensor, the observation of Lucas and Pereira only applies to four dimensions.
The Torsion of Members Having Sections Common in Aircraft Construction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trayer, George W; March, H W
1930-01-01
Within recent years a great variety of approximate torsion formulas and drafting-room processes have been advocated. In some of these, especially where mathematical considerations are involved, the results are extremely complex and are not generally intelligible to engineers. The principal object of this investigation was to determine by experiment and theoretical investigation how accurate the more common of these formulas are and on what assumptions they are founded and, if none of the proposed methods proved to be reasonable accurate in practice, to produce simple, practical formulas from reasonably correct assumptions, backed by experiment. A second object was to collect in readily accessible form the most useful of known results for the more common sections. Formulas for all the important solid sections that have yielded to mathematical treatment are listed. Then follows a discussion of the torsion of tubular rods with formulas both rigorous and approximate.
Dark energy fifth forces in torsion pendulum experiments
Amol Upadhye
2012-10-22
The chameleon scalar field is a matter-coupled dark energy candidate whose nonlinear self-interaction partially screens its fifth force at laboratory scales. Nevertheless, small-scale experiments such as the torsion pendulum can provide powerful constraints on chameleon models. Here we develop a simple approximation for computing chameleon fifth forces in torsion pendulum experiments such as Eot-Wash. We show that our approximation agrees well with published constraints on the quartic chameleon, and we use it to extend these constraints to a much wider range of models. Finally, we forecast the constraints which will result from the next-generation Eot-Wash experiment, and show that this experiment will exclude a wide range of quantum-stable models.
Accelerated jets of energetic protons generated by torsional fan reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseinpour, M.
2015-08-01
Magnetic reconnection is a potential mechanism for charged particle acceleration in astrophysical and space plasmas, especially in solar flares, which are rich sources of highly energetic particles. "Torsional fan reconnection" is one type of model for steady-state 3D null point reconnection. In this study, we investigate proton acceleration with input parameters for the solar corona in the presence of the magnetic and electric fields associated with torsional fan reconnection. By randomly injecting a population of 10,000 protons as test particles in the vicinity of a null point, we show that two symmetric jets of accelerated protons with relativistic energies are generated along the spine axis above and below the fan plane. These jets comprise almost all of the population with average kinetic energy on the order of a few . Also, the details of the energy spectra are discussed.
Omental torsion in a captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus).
Mendez-Angulo, Jose L; Funes, Francisco J; Trent, Ava M; Willette, Michelle; Woodhouse, Kerry; Renier, Anna C
2014-03-01
This is the first case report of an omental torsion in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus). A captive, 23-yr-old, 250-kg, intact female polar bear presented to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center with a 2-day history of lethargy, depression, and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound identified large amounts of hyperechoic free peritoneal fluid. Ultrasound-guided abdominocentesis was performed and yielded thick serosanguinous fluid compatible with a hemoabdomen. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large amount of malodorous, serosanguineous fluid and multiple necrotic blood clots associated with a torsion of the greater omentum and rupture of a branch of the omental artery. A partial omentectomy was performed to remove the necrotic tissue and the abdomen was copiously lavaged. The polar bear recovered successfully and is reported to be clinically well 6 mo later. This condition should be considered as a differential in bears with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction and hemoabdomen. PMID:24712179
Variable Distance Angular Symbology Reader
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schramm, Harry F., Jr. (Inventor); Corder, Eric L. (Inventor)
2006-01-01
A variable distance angular symbology, reader utilizes at least one light source to direct light through a beam splitter and onto a target. A target may be angled relative to the impinging light beam up to and maybe even greater than 45deg. A reflected beam from the target passes through the beam splitter and is preferably directed 90deg relative to the light source through a telecentric lens to a scanner which records an image of the target such as a direct part marking code.
Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM); Phelan, John R. (Albuquerque, NM); Van Zuiden, Don M. (Albuquerque, NM)
1997-01-21
A new class of coplanar two-axis angular effectors. These effectors combine a two-axis rotational joint analogous to a Cardan joint with linear actuators in a manner to produce a wider range of rotational motion about both axes defined by the joint. This new class of effectors also allows design of robotic manipulators having very high strength and efficiency. These effectors are particularly suited for remote operation in unknown surroundings, because of their extraordinary versatility. An immediate application is to the problems which arise in nuclear waste remediation.
Outcomes of Second Look Exploration in Testicular Torsion of Children
Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Ahmad
2015-01-01
Background: Testicular torsion (TT), or twisting of the testicle resulting in a strangulation of the blood supply, occurs in men whose tissue surrounding the testicle is not well attached to the scrotum. It is important to emphasize that testicular torsion is a medical emergency. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the second look exploration and outcomes in TT. Patients and Methods: Seventy boys out of 124 patients underwent early exploration and 48 hours later second look exploration due to TT. All patients were checked with preoperative color-doppler ultrasonography (CDU) and intraoperative bleeding test. Data included age at admission, side of pathology, relation of TT with season of year, duration of preoperative history, degree of testicular torsion, CDU findings, and degree of bleeding; results of second look exploration, follow-up, and outcomes were analyzed. Results: Totally 70 patients were included in this study within five years, of which mean age was 28.6 ± 32.9 months (range 1 to 144), 48% of our patients had nausea and vomiting. Preoperative CDU showed absent/weak flow in 50 (71%) cases. Winter showed most frequently (44%) referred cases of testicular torsion. Orchidopexy was performed in 44 (63%) and orchidectomy in 26 (37%) cases after second look exploration. Mean follow-up duration was 3.1 ± 1.4 years. 4 (9%) cases in orchidopexy group developed testicular atrophy during follow-up, all four cases had a history of longer than 12 hours and grade II testicular bleeding test intra-operatively. Other orchidopexy patients salvaged. 26 patients, who were in grade III, underwent orchidectomy in second look exploration. Conclusions: TT requires emergency attention. The ischemia time of the testis is traditionally after 6 hours, and imaging or other diagnostic modality should not be a cause of delay. Early surgical exploration is modality of choice, and second look exploration after 48 hours can be more effective and salvageable in these patients. PMID:26396707
Torsion-balance tests of the weak equivalence principle
T. A. Wagner; S. Schlamminger; J. H. Gundlach; E. G. Adelberger
2012-07-10
We briefly summarize motivations for testing the weak equivalence principle and then review recent torsion-balance results that compare the differential accelerations of beryllium-aluminum and beryllium-titanium test body pairs with precisions at the part in $10^{13}$ level. We discuss some implications of these results for the gravitational properties of antimatter and dark matter, and speculate about the prospects for further improvements in experimental sensitivity.
Calibration of combined bending-torsion fatigue reliability data reduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kececioglu, D.; Mcconnell, J. B.
1969-01-01
The combined bending-torsion fatigue reliability research machines are described. Three such machines are presently in operation. The calibration of these machines is presented in depth. Fatigue data generated with these machines for SAE 4340 steel grooved specimens subjected to reversed bending and steady torque loading are given. The data reduction procedure is presented. Finally, some comments are made about notch sensitivity and stress concentration as applied to combined fatigue.
Observation of 1990 solar eclipse by a torsion pendulum
Luo Jun; Li Jianguo; Zhang Xuerong ); Liakhovets, V. ); Lomonosov, M.; Ragyn, A. )
1991-10-15
During the solar eclipse of 22 July 1990 in the city of Bielomorsk of the U.S.S.R., we repeated the torsion pendulum experiment of Saxl and Allen, who reported an anomalous period increase during the solar eclipse of 7 March 1970. The relative change in the pendulum's period associated with the eclipse was found to be less than 5.2{times}10{sup {minus}5} (90% confidence).
Development of a torsion balance for adhesion measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Maeda, Chikayoshi; Masuo, Ryuichi
1988-01-01
A new torsion balance for study of adhesion in ceramics is discussed. A torsion wire and a linear variable differential transformer are used to monitor load and to measure pull-off force (adhesion force). The investigation suggests that this torsion balance is valuable in studying the interfacial properties of ceramics in controlled environments such as in ultrahigh vacuum. The pull-off forces measured in dry, moist, and saturated nitrogen atmosphere demonstrate that the adhesion of silicon nitride contacts remains low at humidities below 80 percent but rises rapidly above that. The adhesion at saturation is 10 times or more greater than that below 80 percent relative humidity. The adhesion in a saturated atmosphere arises primarily from the surface tension effects of a thin film of water adsorbed on the surface. The surface tension of the water film was 58 x 10 to the minus 5 to 65 x 10 to the minus 5 power. The accepted value for water is 72.7 x 10 to the minus 5 power N/cm. Adhesion characteristics of silicon nitride in contact with metals, like the friction characteristics of silicon carbide to metal contacts, can be related to the relative chemical activity of metals in ultrahigh vacuum. The more active the metal, the higher the adhesion.
Torsional wave experiments with a new magnetostrictive transducer configuration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yoon Young; Park, Chan Il; Cho, Seung Hyun; Han, Soon Woo
2005-06-01
For the efficient long-range nondestructive structural health inspection of pipes, guided waves have become widely used. Among the various guided wave modes, the torsional wave is most preferred since its first branch is nondispersive. Our objective in this work is to develop a new magnetostrictive transducer configuration to transmit and receive torsional waves in cylindrical waveguides. The conventional magnetostrictive transducer for the generation and measurement of torsional waves consists of solenoid coils and a nickel strip bonded circumferentially to test pipes. The strip must be premagnetized by a permanent magnet before actual measurements. Because of the premagnetization, the transducer is not suitable for the long-term on-line monitoring of pipes buried underground. To avoid the cumbersome premagnetization and to improve the transduction efficiency, we propose a new transducer configuration using several pieces of nickel strips installed at 45° with respect to the pipe axis. If a static bias magnetic field is also applied, the transducer output can be substantially increased. Several experiments were conducted to study the performance of the proposed transducer configuration. The proposed transducer configuration was also applied for damage detection in an aluminum pipe. .
LISA technology development using the UF precision torsion pendulum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apple, Stephen; Chilton, Andrew; Olatunde, Taiwo; Ciani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido; Conklin, John
2015-04-01
LISA will directly observe low-frequency gravitational waves emitted by sources ranging from super-massive black hole mergers to compact galactic binaries. A laser interferometer will measure picometer changes in the distances between free falling test masses separated by millions of kilometers. A test mass and its associated sensing, actuation, charge control and caging subsystems are referred to as a gravitational reference sensor (GRS). The demanding acceleration noise requirement for the LISA GRS has motivated a rigorous testing campaign in Europe and a dedicated technology mission, LISA Pathfinder, scheduled for launch in the fall of 2015. At the University of Florida we are developing a nearly thermally noise limited torsion pendulum for testing GRS technology enhancements that may improve the performance and/or reduce the cost of the LISA GRS. This experimental facility is based on the design of a similar facility at the University of Trento, and consists of a vacuum enclosed torsion pendulum that suspends mock-ups of the LISA test masses, surrounded by electrode housings. Some of the technologies that will be demonstrated by this facility include a novel TM charge control scheme based on ultraviolet LEDs, an all-optical TM position and attitude sensor, and drift mode operation. This presentation will describe the design of the torsion pendulum facility, its current acceleration noise performance, and the status of the GRS technologies under development.
Optical diagnosis of testicular torsion: feasibility and methodology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn; Kajbafzadeh, A. M.
2014-03-01
Background: Torsion of the testis compromises blood flow through the spermatic cord; testicular ischemia results which if not diagnosed promptly and corrected surgically irrevocably damages the testis. Current diagnostic modalities aimed at rationalizing surgical exploration by demonstrating interruption of spermatic cord blood flow or testicular ischemia have limited applicability. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) offers a non-invasive optical method for detection of ischemia; continuous wave and frequency domain devices have been used experimentally; no device customized for clinical use has been designed. Methods: A miniature spatially resolved NIRS device with light emitting diode light source was applied over the right and left spermatic cord and the difference in oxygen saturation between the two sides measured. Results: In a 14-month old boy with a history of unilateral testicular pain color Doppler ultrasonography was equivocal but the NIRS-derived tissue oxygen saturation index (TSI) was significantly reduced on the left side. Confirmation of torsion of the left testicle was made surgically. Conclusions: Spatially resolved NIRS monitoring of spermatic cord oxygen saturation is feasible in children, adding to prior studies of testicular oxygen saturation in adults. Customized device design and further clinical trials would enhance the applicability of NIRS as a diagnostic entity for torsion.
Torsional stiffness degradation and aerostatic divergence of suspension bridge decks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Z. T.; Ge, Y. J.; Yang, Y. X.
2013-07-01
The mechanism of aerostatic torsional divergence (ATD) of long-span suspension bridges is investigated. A theoretical analysis on the basis of a generalized model is presented, showing that the vertical motion of a bridge deck is crucial to the torsional stiffness of the whole suspended system, and that the vertical motion of either cable with a magnitude beyond a certain threshold could result in a sudden degradation of the torsional stiffness of the system. This vertical motion-induced degradation of stiffness is recognized as the main reason for the ATD. Long-span suspension bridges are susceptible to such a type of divergence, especially when they are immersed in turbulent wind fields. The divergences that occur in turbulent wind fields differ significantly from those in smooth wind fields, and the difference is well explained by the generalized model that the loosening of any one cable could result in the vanishing of the part of stiffness provided by the whole cable system. The mechanism revealed in this paper leads to a definition of the critical wind speed of the ATD in a turbulent flow; that is, the one resulting in a vertical motion so large as to loosen either cable to a stressless state. Numerical results from the nonlinear finite-element (FE) analysis of the Xihoumen suspension bridge, in conjunction with observations from wind tunnel tests on an aero-elastic full bridge model, are in support of the viewpoint presented in this study.
Torsion Test of a Monocoque Box
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcpherson, Albert E; Ramberg, Walter; Levy, Samuel
1942-01-01
A monocoque box beam consisting of a 24S-T aluminum-alloy sheet reinforced by four bulkheads and by longitudinal stringers and corner posts was subjected to bending loads as follows: pure bending about the lift axis, cantilever bending about the lift axis, and pure bending about both lift and drag axis. Longitudinal strains were measured for loads up to a load at which permanent set became measurable. The loads were sufficient to produce buckling of the sheet between stringers on the compression side of the box. The only noticeable effect of this buckling was a small increase in extreme-fiber strain on the compression side. The measured strains and measured deflections differed less than 10 percent from those computed from the simple beam theory after taking account of the effective width of the buckled sheet. The effect of the bulkheads on the distribution of stringer strain was negligible.
Controlling neutron orbital angular momentum.
Clark, Charles W; Barankov, Roman; Huber, Michael G; Arif, Muhammad; Cory, David G; Pushin, Dmitry A
2015-09-24
The quantized orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons offers an additional degree of freedom and topological protection from noise. Photonic OAM states have therefore been exploited in various applications ranging from studies of quantum entanglement and quantum information science to imaging. The OAM states of electron beams have been shown to be similarly useful, for example in rotating nanoparticles and determining the chirality of crystals. However, although neutrons--as massive, penetrating and neutral particles--are important in materials characterization, quantum information and studies of the foundations of quantum mechanics, OAM control of neutrons has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate OAM control of neutrons using macroscopic spiral phase plates that apply a 'twist' to an input neutron beam. The twisted neutron beams are analysed with neutron interferometry. Our techniques, applied to spatially incoherent beams, demonstrate both the addition of quantum angular momenta along the direction of propagation, effected by multiple spiral phase plates, and the conservation of topological charge with respect to uniform phase fluctuations. Neutron-based studies of quantum information science, the foundations of quantum mechanics, and scattering and imaging of magnetic, superconducting and chiral materials have until now been limited to three degrees of freedom: spin, path and energy. The optimization of OAM control, leading to well defined values of OAM, would provide an additional quantized degree of freedom for such studies. PMID:26399831
Controlling neutron orbital angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Charles W.; Barankov, Roman; Huber, Michael G.; Arif, Muhammad; Cory, David G.; Pushin, Dmitry A.
2015-09-01
The quantized orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons offers an additional degree of freedom and topological protection from noise. Photonic OAM states have therefore been exploited in various applications ranging from studies of quantum entanglement and quantum information science to imaging. The OAM states of electron beams have been shown to be similarly useful, for example in rotating nanoparticles and determining the chirality of crystals. However, although neutrons--as massive, penetrating and neutral particles--are important in materials characterization, quantum information and studies of the foundations of quantum mechanics, OAM control of neutrons has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate OAM control of neutrons using macroscopic spiral phase plates that apply a `twist' to an input neutron beam. The twisted neutron beams are analysed with neutron interferometry. Our techniques, applied to spatially incoherent beams, demonstrate both the addition of quantum angular momenta along the direction of propagation, effected by multiple spiral phase plates, and the conservation of topological charge with respect to uniform phase fluctuations. Neutron-based studies of quantum information science, the foundations of quantum mechanics, and scattering and imaging of magnetic, superconducting and chiral materials have until now been limited to three degrees of freedom: spin, path and energy. The optimization of OAM control, leading to well defined values of OAM, would provide an additional quantized degree of freedom for such studies.
Improving the sensitivity of a torsion pendulum by using an optical spring method
Wang Qinglan; Yeh Hsienchi; Zhou Zebing; Luo Jun
2009-10-15
We present a scheme aiming at improving the sensitivity of a torsion pendulum by means of radiation-pressure-induced optical spring. Two partial-reflective mirrors are installed on the opposite sides of a torsion pendulum, and one high-reflective mirror is mounted at the end of the torsion beam so that two identical Fabry-Perot cavities can be formed and aligned in series. Due to the antisymmetric radiation pressures acting on the opposite sides of the torsion beam, a negative restoring coefficient can be generated within a certain dynamic range, such that both the resultant torsional rigidity and the resonant frequency of the torsion pendulum are reduced, and the minimum detectable response torque in high-frequency region can be reduced accordingly.
Rotational Energies in Various Torsional Levels of CH_2DOH
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coudert, L. H.; Hilali, A. El; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Klee, S.
2012-06-01
Using an approach accounting for the hindered internal rotation of a monodeuterated methyl group, an analysis of the torsional spectrum of the monodeuterated species of methanol CH_2DOH has been carried out recently and led to the assignment of 76 torsional subbands in its microwave, FIR, and IR spectra. Although this approach also allowed us to account for subband centers, the rotational structure of the torsional subbands is not well understood yet. In this paper, we will deal with the rotational energies of CH_2DOH. Analyses of the rotational structure of the available subbands^b have been performed using the polynomial-type expansion introduced in the case of the normal species of methanol. For each subband, FIR or IR transitions and a-type microwave lines, within the lower torsional level, were fitted. The frequencies of the latters were taken from previous investigations or from new measurements carried out from 50 to 950 GHz with the submillimeterwave solid state spectrometer in Lille. Subbands involving lower levels with v_t=0 and K ? 3 could be satisfactorily analyzed. For levels characterized by lower K-values, the expansion fails. In the case of the K=1, v_t=1 level, the frequencies of a-type microwave transitions involving the lower member of the K-type doublet cannot be well reproduced. For K=0 levels with v_t=1 and 2, a large number of terms is needed in the expansion. We will try to understand why the rotational energies of these levels cannot be reproduced. The results of the analyses will be compared to those obtained with a global approach based on the rotation-torsion Hamiltonian of the molecule. [2] El Hilali, Coudert, Konov, and Klee, J. Chem. Phys. 135 (2011) 194309. [3] Ioli, Moruzzi, Riminucci, Strumia, Moraes, Winnewisser, and Winnewisser, J. Mol. Spec. 171 (1995) 130. [4] Quade and Suenram, J. Chem. Phys. 73 (1980) 1127; and Su and Quade, J. Mol. Spec. 134 (1989) 290. [5] Lauvergnat, Coudert, Klee, and Smirnov, J. Mol. Spec. 256 (2009) 204.
Xue, Chao; Quan, Li-Di; Yang, Shan-Qing; Wang, Bing-Peng; Wu, Jun-Fei; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Tu, Liang-Cheng; Milyukov, Vadim; Luo, Jun
2014-01-01
This paper describes the preliminary measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant G with the angular acceleration feedback method at HUST. The apparatus has been built, and preliminary measurement performed, to test all aspects of the experimental design, particularly the feedback function, which was recently discussed in detail by Quan et al. The experimental results show that the residual twist angle of the torsion pendulum at the signal frequency introduces 0.4?ppm to the value of G. The relative uncertainty of the angular acceleration of the turntable is approximately 100?ppm, which is mainly limited by the stability of the apparatus. Therefore, the experiment has been modified with three features: (i) the height of the apparatus is reduced almost by half, (ii) the aluminium shelves were replaced with shelves made from ultra-low expansion material and (iii) a perfect compensation of the laboratory-fixed gravitational background will be carried out. With these improvements, the angular acceleration is expected to be determined with an uncertainty of better than 10?ppm, and a reliable value of G with 20?ppm or below will be obtained in the near future. PMID:25201996
Extended torsional tests of an interlocked bi-stem satellite boom
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abercrombie, R. A.
1973-01-01
The effect is reported of continued oscillations of a 1.27-cm interlocked bi-stem satellite boom. The test setup oscillated a boom continuously between set torque limits and periodically recorded its hysteresis characteristics. Results showed that repeated oscillations affected torsional characteristics and that torsional rigidity changed as a function of the number of cycles oscillated within certain torque limits. Torsional characteristics changes caused by repeated oscillations were retained.
Ptolemy diagrams and torsion pairs in the cluster category of Dynkin type A_n
Holm, Thorsten; Rubey, Martin
2010-01-01
We give a complete classification of torsion pairs in the cluster category of Dynkin type A_n. Along the way we give a new combinatorial description of Ptolemy diagrams, an infinite version of which was introduced by Ng. This allows us to count the number of torsion pairs in the cluster category of type A_n. We also count torsion pairs up to Auslander-Reiten translation.
Axial and torsional fatigue behavior of a cobalt-base alloy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh
1991-01-01
In order to develop elevated temperature multiaxial fatigue life prediction models for the wrought cobalt-base alloy, Haynes 188, a multiaxial fatigue data base is required. To satisfy this need, an elevated temperature experimental program on Haynes 188 consisting of axial, torsional, inphase and out of phase axial-torsional fatigue experiments was designed. Elevated temperature axial and torsional fatigue experiments were conducted under strain control on thin wall tubular specimens of Haynes 188 in air. Test results are given.
Application of a boundary element method to the study of dynamical torsion of beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Czekajski, C.; Laroze, S.; Gay, D.
1982-01-01
During dynamic torsion of beam elements, consideration of nonuniform warping effects involves a more general technical formulation then that of Saint-Venant. Nonclassical torsion constants appear in addition to the well known torsional rigidity. The adaptation of the boundary integral element method to the calculation of these constants for general section shapes is described. The suitability of the formulation is investigated with some examples of thick as well as thin walled cross sections.
The effects of torsion-vibration coupling on rotational spectra: Toluene reinterpreted and refitted
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gascooke, Jason R.; Lawrance, Warren D.
2015-12-01
A re-examination of rotational line positions for toluene is reported, motivated by the recent observation that the methyl internal rotor states are perturbed by torsion-vibration coupling to vibrational mode M20 (Gascooke et al., 2015). We demonstrate that the data can be fit equally well including or excluding torsion-vibration coupling. The torsion-vibration model required to account for the torsional band positions is thus shown to be consistent with the rotational line positions reported. It is found that including torsion-vibration coupling leads to changes in the values of the rotational and torsional constants, most significantly for AF, AF?, F and V6, as well as the higher order constants, with those involving powers of m, K and their cross-terms most affected. Expressions for these effects are provided based on a perturbation expansion, which shows the links between the two models. A primary indicator for the presence of torsion-vibration coupling is AF? being significantly different to the rotational constant for the frame, AF, and changing with m. Examination of published AF? /AF ratios for several substituted toluenes suggests that torsion-vibration coupling is widespread in such molecules. Torsion-vibration coupling has been directly observed through local perturbations to torsional levels in substituted toluenes with both 3- and 6-fold torsion potentials, indicating that it will also affect rotational and torsional constants in molecules with a 3-fold barrier. This indicates that the assumption that the small amplitude vibrations can be ignored when considering the large amplitude methyl rotation requires reassessment.
3D Curves With a Prescribed Curvature and Torsion for a Flying Robot
Bestaoui, Yasmina
2008-06-12
The objective of this paper is to generate a desired flight path to be followed by an flying robot. A curve with discontinuous curvature and torsion is not appropriate for smooth motions for any vehicle architecture. Three different classes of curves are presented. First, constant curvature and torsion followed by a linear variation versus the curvilinear abscissa then a quadratic variation. Finally, the problem of maneuvers between two trim helices of different curvature and torsion is tackled with.
Xu, Li-Hong; Hougen, J.T.
1995-12-31
Methanol data for v{sub t} = 0 (below the barrier) and v{sub t} = 1 (straddling the barrier) have been treated, using a program based on the formalism of Herbst et al. This program has been rather successful in fitting torsion-rotation levels of acetaldehyde below or at the barrier to internal rotation, and the authors wished to test it also for methanol. A careful test of this one-large-amplitude-motion formalism for methanol is of some interest, since the OH bending motion, if its amplitude is large enough, could have a very large effect on the internal rotation barrier. Indeed, this barrier, and even the internal rotation degree of freedom itself, must disappear at the C{sub 3v} configuration. If such a bend-torsion interaction is important, accurate energy level calculations for methanol will be possible only if a two-dimensional large-amplitude-motion formalism is used. So far, no obvious evidence has been seen for the necessity of the two-dimensional treatment for methanol since the authors have achieved very satisfactory global fits for the v{sub t} = 0 and 1 torsional states.
Angular diameter measurements of stars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mozurkewich, D.; Johnston, K. J.; Simon, Richard S.; Bowers, P. F.; Gaume, Ralph; Hutter, D. J.; Colavita, M. M.; Shao, M.
1991-01-01
Angular diameters determined with the Mark III Optical Interferometer are presented for 12 stars at wavelengths of 450 and 800 nm. The uniform disk diameters resulting from fits to the visibility observations have rms residuals of order 1 percent for the 800 nm measurements and less than 3 percent for the 450 nm measurements. The improvement over previous observations with this instrument is due to improved data analysis and the use of a wider range of baseline lengths. An analysis of the calibration systematics for the Mark III Optical Interferometer is included. There is good agreement between these measurements and previously published data. The changes in uniform disk diameter between wavelengths of 450 and 800 nm agree with models of stellar atmospheres.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodges, D. H., Roberta.
1976-01-01
The stability of elastic flap bending, lead-lag bending, and torsion of uniform, untwisted, cantilever rotor blades without chordwise offsets between the elastic, mass, tension, and areodynamic center axes is investigated for the hovering flight condition. The equations of motion are obtained by simplifying the general, nonlinear, partial differential equations of motion of an elastic rotating cantilever blade. The equations are adapted for a linearized stability analysis in the hovering flight condition by prescribing aerodynamic forces, applying Galerkin's method, and linearizing the resulting ordinary differential equations about the equilibrium operating condition. The aerodynamic forces are obtained from strip theory based on a quasi-steady approximation of two-dimensional unsteady airfoil theory. Six coupled mode shapes, calculated from free vibration about the equilibrium operating condition, are used in the linearized stability analysis. The study emphasizes the effects of two types of structural coupling that strongly influence the stability of hingeless rotor blades. The first structural coupling is the linear coupling between flap and lead-lag bending of the rotor blade. The second structural coupling is a nonlinear coupling between flap bending, lead-lag bending, and torsion deflections. Results are obtained for a wide variety of hingeless rotor configurations and operating conditions in order to provide a reasonably complete picture of hingeless rotor blade stability characteristics.
de Sitter angular momentum conservation in de Sitter gravity and spin origin of dark energy
Jia-An Lu
2015-08-09
In de Sitter (dS) gravity, two kinds of conservation laws are derived. The first kind is a differential equation for a 5-dimensional (5d) dS-covariant angular momentum (AM) current, which unites the canonical energy-momentum (EM) and 4d AM tensors. The second kind presents a 5d dS-invariant AM current, which is conserved in the sense that its torsion-free divergence vanishes, and unites the total EM and 4d AM currents. It is found that the dS spin, i.e., the spin part of the dS-covariant current, contributes to the EM tensor with the contribution proportional to Lambda^{1/2}, where Lambda is the cosmological constant. Hence the dS spin may be one source of dark energy. All the results are compared to the ordinary Lorentz gravity.
Angular Momentum and Gravimagnetization of the ${\\cal N}=2$ SYM vacuum
A. Gorsky
2011-02-09
In this note we discuss the gravimagnetization of the ${\\cal N}=2$ SYM vacuum in the $\\Omega$-background. It is argued that the Seiberg-Witten prepotential is related to the vacuum density of the angular momentum in the Euclidean $R^4$ space. The possible role of the dyonic instantons as the microscopic angular momentum carriers which could yield the spontaneous vacuum gravimagnetization is conjectured. We interpret the dyonic instanton as a kind of the Euclidean bounce in $R^4$ similar to one responsible for the Schwinger pair creation. The induced angular momentum in $R^4$ is also briefly considered in the dual Liouville formulation of $SU(2)$ theory via AGT relation.
Vibrational branching ratios and photoelectron angular distributions in 5? photoionisation of CO
Stephens, J. A.; Dill, Dan; Dehmer, Joseph L.
1981-10-28
Vibrationally resolved photoelectron angular distributions have been calculated for the 5? photoionisation channel of CO using the multiple-scattering method. Vibrational branching ratios and vibrationally unresolved integrated cross sections and photoelectron angular distributions are also reported and compared with available measurements. Both angular distributions and branching ratios exhibit striking non-Franck-Condon behaviour caused primarily by the f-wave shape resonance in the sigma photoionisation continuum. Significant discrepancies between theory and experiment exist for the weaker v_{f}=2,3 vibrational levels and interaction with nearby two-electron excitation is proposed as a likely cause.
Marinelli, Dimitri; Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Anderson, Roger W; Bitencourt, Ana Carla P; Ragni, Mirco
2014-01-01
A unified vision of the symmetric coupling of angular momenta and of the quantum mechanical volume operator is illustrated. The focus is on the quantum mechanical angular momentum theory of Wigner's 6j symbols and on the volume operator of the symmetric coupling in spin network approaches: here, crucial to our presentation are an appreciation of the role of the Racah sum rule and the simplification arising from the use of Regge symmetry. The projective geometry approach permits the introduction of a symmetric representation of a network of seven spins or angular momenta. Results of extensive computational investigations are summarized, presented and briefly discussed.
Ocular torsion as a test of the asymmetry hypothesis of space motion sickness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diamond, Shirley G.; Markham, Charles H.
Disconjugate eye torsion induced by O G and 1.8 G during parabolic flight was studied in nine former astronauts in 1990 and eight in 1991, four of whom were included in the previous experiment. The astronauts could be divided into two statistically significant groups on the basis of low and high scores of disconjugacy. When their histories of space motion sickness (SMS) were later revealed, all of the low scorers had not been sick on previous space flights; all the high scorers had had SMS. These data give support to the hypothesis that SMS in one-half or two-thirds of astronauts is due to an otolith, probably utricular, asymmetry in those persons. Ocular disconjugacy tended to increase at O G with increasing numbers of parabolas, this being particularly evident in those subjects with prior SMS. One conclusion: 10 to 20 parabolas are necessary to adequately discriminate those who are subject to SMS from those who are not. Tilting the subjects with high disconjugacy values and presumed otolith asymmetry by small amounts in right ear down or left ear down positions for several exposures to hypergravity did not reveal a lessened amount of ocular disconjugacy; there were actually increased amounts of ocular disconjugacy induced in the tipped positions. We suspect the increased disconjugacy caused by multiple parabolas may have masked any "null" point induced at 1.8 G by small head angulations. Space motion sickness (SMS) appears to be a unique form of motion sickness. It occurs within minutes to hours after entering microgravity environment, typically lasts the first 1 to 4 days in space flight, and may occur in abbreviated form on returning to earth. The symptoms are much like other forms of motion sickness except vomiting may occur with little warning. The substrate of SMS appears to be a loss of the constant force of gravity acting on the vestibular otolith system. In certain subjects in this "sensory mismatched" state, motion sickness may be easily triggered by linear and angular acceleration to the head and by visual stimuli. Between one-half and two-thirds of astronauts and cosmonauts have SMS 3 — and the remainder do not. The most likely explanation is the hypothesis advanced by von Baumgarten and Thümler, 1 i.e. in certain individuals there is an asymmetry in the otolith apparatus on the two sides of the head which becomes compensated in a lifetime in a 1 G environment, but this compensation is lost when exposed to the hypogravity of space flight. One thing that makes SMS unique is that there is no correlation with motion sickness in a earth-based environment, whether it be on land, sea or in the air. This is perhaps the main reason it has not been possible, until the present investigations, to predict who would get SMS. We shall review here work relating alterations in ocular torsional movements induced by repeated exposure to transient episodes of O G and 1.8 G during parabolic airplane flight to SMS. Several questions were asked: Could we predict in a blinded analysis which astronaut-subjects had had prior SMS (and which had not)? Based on what appears to be a positive answer, 4 we then asked whether the observed ocular torsional disconjugacy could be modified by an increasing number of parabolas; and whether observed disconjugacy seen in the subject in the upright position could be reduced or "nulled" by parabolic stimuli with the subjects tipped at different angles in the right ear down and left ear down directions.
Cross-axis adaptation of torsional components in the yaw-axis vestibulo-ocular reflex
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trillenberg, P.; Shelhamer, M.; Roberts, D. C.; Zee, D. S.
2003-01-01
The three pairs of semicircular canals within the labyrinth are not perfectly aligned with the pulling directions of the six extraocular muscles. Therefore, for a given head movement, the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) depends upon central neural mechanisms that couple the canals to the muscles with the appropriate functional gains in order to generate a response that rotates the eye the correct amount and around the correct axis. A consequence of these neural connections is a cross-axis adaptive capability, which can be stimulated experimentally when head rotation is around one axis and visual motion about another. From this visual-vestibular conflict the brain infers that the slow-phase eye movement is rotating around the wrong axis. We explored the capability of human cross-axis adaptation, using a short-term training paradigm, to determine if torsional eye movements could be elicited by yaw (horizontal) head rotation (where torsion is normally inappropriate). We applied yaw sinusoidal head rotation (+/-10 degrees, 0.33 Hz) and measured eye movement responses in the dark, and before and after adaptation. The adaptation paradigm lasted 45-60 min, and consisted of the identical head motion, coupled with a moving visual scene that required one of several types of eye movements: (1) torsion alone (-Roll); (2) horizontal/torsional, head right/CW torsion (Yaw-Roll); (3) horizontal/torsional, head right/CCW torsion (Yaw+Roll); (4) horizontal, vertical, torsional combined (Yaw+Pitch-Roll); and (5) horizontal and vertical together (Yaw+Pitch). The largest and most significant changes in torsional amplitude occurred in the Yaw-Roll and Yaw+Roll conditions. We conclude that short-term, cross-axis adaptation of torsion is possible but constrained by the complexity of the adaptation task: smaller torsional components are produced if more than one cross-coupling component is required. In contrast, vertical cross-axis components can be easily trained to occur with yaw head movements.
[The functional sport shoe parameter "torsion" within running shoe research--a literature review].
Michel, F I; Kälin, X; Metzger, A; Westphal, K; Schweizer, F; Campe, S; Segesser, B
2009-12-01
Within the sport shoe area torsion is described as the twisting and decoupling of the rear-, mid- and forefoot along the longitudinal axis of the foot. Studies have shown that running shoes restrict the torsion of the foot and thus they increase the pronation of the foot. Based on the findings, it is recommended to design running shoes, which allow the natural freedom of movement of the foot. The market introduction of the first torsion concept through adidas(R) took place in 1989. Independently of the first market introduction, only one epidemiological study was conducted in the running shoe area. The study should investigate the occurrence of Achilles tendon problems of the athletes running in the new "adidas Torsion(R) shoes". However, further studies quantifying the optimal region of torsionability concerning the reduction of injury incidence are still missing. Newer studies reveal that the criterion torsion only plays a secondary roll regarding the buying decision. Moreover, athletes are not able to perceive torsionability as a discrete functional parameter. It is to register, that several workgroups are dealing intensively with the detailed analysis of the foot movement based on kinematic multi-segment-models. However, scientific as well as popular scientific contributions display that the original idea of the torsion concept is still not completely understood. Hence, the "inverse" characteristic is postulated. The present literature review leads to the deduction that the functional characteristics of the torsion concept are not fully implemented within the running shoe area. This implies the necessity of scientific studies, which investigate the relevance of a functional torsion concept regarding injury prevention based on basic and applied research. Besides, biomechanical studies should analyse systematically the mechanism and the effects of torsion relevant technologies and systems. PMID:20108183
Angular Power Spectrum in Modular Invariant Inflation Model
Hayashi, Mitsuo J.; Okame, Y.; Takagi, K.; Watanabe, T.; Hirai, S.; Takami, T.
2008-05-29
A scalar potential of inflation is proposed and the angular power spectra of the adiabatic density perturbations are computed. The potential consists of three scalar fields, S, Y and T, together with two free parameters. By fitting the parameters to cosmological data at the fixed point T = 1, we find that the potential behaves like the single-field potential of S, which slowly rolls down. We further show that the inflation predictions corresponding to this potential provide a good fit to the recent three-year WMAP data, e.g. the spectral index n{sub s} = 0.951.The TT and TE angular power spectra obtained from our model almost completely coincide with the corresponding results obtained from the {lambda}CDM model. We conclude that our model is considered to be an adequate theory of inflation that explains the present data.
Fatigue strength of adhesive bonded section beams under torsion
Tomioka, Noboru; Kakiage, Masashi; Niisawa, Junetsu; Kitagawa, Hideo
1995-11-01
Fatigue strength of adhesive bonded box beams was investigated. From results of the fatigue tests, it was seen that the fatigue strength of bonded beams was higher than that of spot welded beams. Fatigue strength of bonded beams was independent of plate thickness and partition. The flexural rigidity of the box beams in the plane of partition can increase without decrease of torsional rigidity and torsional fatigue strength, if the partition is jointed by adhesive bonding instead of spot welding. Since the fatigue strength and rigidity of adhesive bonded joints can be higher than the spot welded joints in the weight saving structures, it is expected that the structural adhesive joints will be employed more in the automobile body structure. For assuring the introduction of this joint more into the automobile body structures, it is necessary that the fatigue tests on the model members of the actual members used in the automobile body structure are conducted, in addition to those of the simple joints such as tension shear and T-type tension, and the property of the fatigue strength on the adhesive bonded members is known. But, the authors now have little data on fatigue tests of the adhesive bonded members. In the present research to be reported, the fatigue tests on adhesive bonded box beams under torsion, which are typical members in automobile body structure, were carried out and the effects of the presence of longitudinal partition and plate thickness on fatigue strength were investigated. Comparing the results of fatigue tests on adhesive bonded box beams with those on spot welded box beams, the property of fatigue strength on these adhesive bonded box beams was cleared.
Neutrophil to Lymphocyte ratio in the diagnosis of adnexal torsion
Ercan, Önder; Köstü, Bülent; Bakacak, Murat; Co?kun, Bora; Tohma, Aytaç; Mavigök, Erkan
2015-01-01
Adnexal torsion (AT) is a condition in which there is sometimes difficulty in making a preoperative diagnosis since there are no routine laboratory markers and this condition is usually intraoperatively diagnosed. Many of the studies have indicated that the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a significant inflammatory marker in various diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of the NLR on the diagnosis of AT. Patients surgically treated for AT were analysed retrospectively. A total of 27 AT patients were included in the study (Group 1). Another 30 patients who were surgically treated for a unilateral ovarian mass and did not have torsion or malignity on the final histopathological examination were assigned to the control group (Group 2). White blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, lymphocytes and the NLR were compared between groups. The mean WBC values for Groups 1 and 2 were 9.7 ± 1.8 and 7.6 ± 1.5 K/µL (P < 0.001), respectively. The mean neutrophil values were also significantly higher in Group 1 (P < 0.001). However, the mean lymphocyte values were significantly higher in Group 2 (P < 0.001). Mean NLR was significantly higher in Group 1 (P < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of WBC > 8.8 were 83.3% and 74.1%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of NLR > 3 were 88.9% and 100%, respectively. Furthermore, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.933 for the NLR and 0.830 for WBC. With respect to the diagnosis of adnexal torsion, an NLR > 3 was identified as a more sensitive marker than the high WBC count. Therefore, an NLR > 3 seems to be a valuable marker in cases where it is difficult to diagnose AT. PMID:26629118
Whittaker-Hill equation, Ince polynomials, and molecular torsional modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roncaratti, Luiz F.; Aquilanti, Vincenzo
We present an analysis of the Whittaker-Hill equation in view of its usefulness in quantum mechanics when periodic potentials are involved. The transformation due to Ince leads to polynomial solutions which have not attracted much attention so far in the applications. With respect to Mathieu equation, here we have an additional parameter, which permits to describe a variety of phenomena, including the treatment of the torsional motion of flexible molecules. Examples are discussed, with particular attention payed to the case of H2O2 and similar molecules.
Damping in coupled bending and torsion - An experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Umland, Jeffrey W.; Inman, Daniel J.; Banks, H. T.
1991-01-01
Traditional experimental modal testing methods are used to determine the damping properties of a Euler-Bernoulli beam with offset inertial tip mass. Both viscous and strain rate damping models are considered in bending and in torsion. A partial differential equation model of the coupled system is used. Eigenfunctions are derived for the coupled system by using a Green's function approach to derive the approximate uncoupled eigenfunctions. These eigenfunctions are used in a decoupled fashion with experimental modal data to estimate the damping parameters of the coupled system. The experimental modal data were obtained from both free and impulse responses using a combined translational and rotational accelerometer.
Cosmological constant and Euclidean space from nonperturbative quantum torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir
2015-10-01
Heisenberg's nonperturbative quantization technique is applied to the nonperturbative quantization of gravity. An infinite set of equations for all Green's functions is obtained. An approximation is considered where: (a) the metric remains as a classical field; (b) the affine connection can be decomposed into classical and quantum parts; (c) the classical part of the affine connection is the Christoffel symbols; (d) the quantum part is the torsion. Using a scalar and vector fields approximation it is shown that nonperturbative quantum effects give rise to a cosmological constant and an Euclidean solution.
Deformation of olivine in torsion under hydrous conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demouchy, Sylvie; Tommasi, Andréa; Barou, Fabrice; Mainprice, David; Cordier, Patrick
2012-08-01
We performed torsional deformation experiments on pre-hydrated fine-grained olivine aggregates using an innovative experimental assembly to investigate water weakening in mantle rocks at high shear strains. San Carlos olivine powder was cold-pressed and then hot-pressed under hydrous conditions, producing aggregates with average grain sizes of 7 or 15 ?m. Deformation experiments were performed in a high-resolution gas-medium apparatus equipped with a torsional actuator, under a confining pressure of 300 MPa, a temperature of 1200 °C, and constant shear strain rates ranging from 8 × 10-5 to 1.4 × 10-4 s-1. Maximum shear stresses range from 150 to 195 MPa. These values are 30% lower relative to those determined in previous torsion experiments on dry, fined-grained dunites under similar conditions. Textures and microstructures of the starting and deformed specimens were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. All deformed aggregates exhibit a shape-preferred orientation marking a foliation and lineation, as well as a reduction in mean grain size from 15 ?m down to 3-4 ?m due to dynamic recrystallization. Olivine crystallographic fabrics developed rapidly (? < 0.1), but their strength, characterized by the J-index, is low compared to naturally deformed peridotites or to polycrystalline olivine deformed at similar finite shear strains under dry conditions. The crystallographic fabrics are consistent with deformation by a dislocation accommodated creep mechanism with activation of multiple {0 k l}[1 0 0] systems, among which the (0 1 0)[1 0 0] slip system is dominant, and minor participation of the (0 1 0)[0 0 1] slip system. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the occurrence of dislocations with [1 0 0] and [0 0 1] Burgers vectors in most grains. Analysis of unpolarized infrared spectra indicates that hydrogen concentration in the olivine lattice is below the saturation level of 18 ppm wt H2O, which is similar to those typically observed in spinel-bearing peridotite xenoliths, and also provide evidence for water-rich inter-granular material trapped in pores and grain boundaries. Seismic properties computed from the CPO observations correspond to those most commonly observed in naturally deformed mantle peridotites with fast P-wave propagation and S-wave polarization subparallel to the shear direction. These torsion experiments on fine-grained olivine polycrystals under hydrous conditions indicate that water weakening under lithospheric conditions is linked to various defects with hydrogen in the olivine structure, as well as with water-derived species in grain boundaries or pores.
Delayed urethral obstruction after uterine torsion in a pregnant dog.
Reynolds, Debbie; Campbell, Bonnie G
2011-01-01
A 4 yr old pregnant female shih tzu was presented with abdominal discomfort and bloody vulvar discharge. The nongravid uterine horn was reflected caudally over the trigone, obstructing urine outflow. A cesarian section and ovariohysterectomy were performed. Postoperatively, the hematuria and pollakiuria resolved. Seventeen days later, the pelvic urethra was completely obstructed by a soft tissue mass that was identified by rectal palpation, blocked catheterization attempts, contrast radiography, ultrasonography, and surgery. Management included temporary cystostomy tube and definitive prepubic urethrostomy. Histologic diagnosis was severe, multifocal, necrosuppurative urethritis with fibroplasia, fibrosis, and cellulitis, apparently secondary to ischemia. Delayed urethral obstruction is a potential complication of canine uterine torsion. PMID:21896835
Laparoscopic treatment of testicular torsion in a puppy.
Carr, Jennifer G; Heng, Hock Gan; Ruth, Jeffrey; Freeman, Lynetta
2015-01-01
A 6 mo old male puppy was presented as an emergency for an acute onset of lethargy, ptyalism, and vomiting. On physical examination, the dog was painful on abdominal palpation. A torsed intra-abdominal testis was diagnosed via abdominal ultrasonography and radiography. Laparoscopy was used to identify and remove the torsed testis. The dog recovered uneventfully and was described as doing well by the owners at the 6 mo follow-up telephone contact. This is the first report of an abdominal testicular torsion treated with laparoscopy. PMID:25654442
McKenna, Joseph
Large Torsional Oscillations in Suspension Bridges Revisited: Fixing an Old Approximation Author to The American Mathematical Monthly. http://www.jstor.org #12;LargeTorsionalOscillations in SuspensionBridges
Week 11: Chapter 11 Angular Momentum
1 Week 11: Chapter 11 Angular Momentum The Vector Product There are instances where the product i j j i i j k Angular Momentum Consider a particle of mass m located at the vector position and moving with linear momentum Find the net torque Add the term sinceit 0 ( ) d dt d dt d dt
Angular momentum decomposition of Richardson's pairs
Dussel, G. G.; Sofia, H. M.
2008-07-15
The angular momentum decomposition of pairs obtained using Richardson's exact solution of the pairing Hamiltonian for the deformed {sup 174}Yb nucleus are displayed. The probabilities for low angular momenta of the collective pairs are strikingly different from the ones obtained in the BCS ground state.
The Angular Momentum-Energy Space
Dan Comanescu
2007-02-09
In this paper we shall define and study the angular momentum-energy space for the classical problem of plane-motions of a particle situated in a potential field of a central force. We shall present the angular momentum-energy space for some important cases.
Orbital Angular Momentum in the Nucleon
Gerald T. Garvey
2010-03-12
Analysis of the measured value of the integrated \\bar{d}-\\bar{u} asymmetry (Ifas = 0.147+-0.027) in the nucleon show it to arise from nucleon fluctuations into baryon plus pion. Requiring angular momentum conservation in these fluctuations shows the associated orbital angular momentum is equal to the value of the flavor asymmetry.
Wescott, Daniel J; Cunningham, Deborah L; Hunt, David R
2014-08-01
Average femoral torsion has been reported to differ among populations, and several studies have observed a relatively high prevalence of femoral anteversion asymmetry in Native Americans, especially females. This study investigates sexual dimorphism and temporal trends in femoral torsional asymmetry among the Arikara from the seventeenth to the early nineteenth century. To establish if there are population differences, femoral torsion was first measured using a direct method on a diverse comparative sample of Native Americans from the Southwest, Midwest, and Great Plains as well as American Whites and Blacks. To examine temporal trends among the Arikara, femoral torsion was examined using the orientation of the maximum bending rigidity at subtrochanteric in 154 females and 164 males from three temporal variants of the Arikara Coalescent tradition. There is significant sexual dimorphism in femoral torsional directional and absolute asymmetry among most Native American samples, but not among American Whites and Blacks. Among the Arikara there is significant sexual dimorphism in femoral torsional asymmetry in all three temporal variants, and asymmetry in femoral torsional asymmetry increased significantly from the protohistoric to the early historic period among females. The increased femoral torsional asymmetry is likely associated with a common side-sitting posture observed in historic photographs of Great Plains females. Historic Arikara females may have habitually sat in this compulsory position for extended periods while conducting domestic chores. The dramatic change from the protohistoric to historic period suggests a cultural change in sitting posture among females that was widespread across the Northern Plains. PMID:24861881
Effective Torsion and Spring Constants in a Hybrid Translational-Rotational Oscillator
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nakhoda, Zein; Taylor, Ken
2011-01-01
A torsion oscillator is a vibrating system that experiences a restoring torque given by [tau] = -[kappa][theta] when it experiences a rotational displacement [theta] from its equilibrium position. The torsion constant [kappa] (kappa) is analogous to the spring constant "k" for the traditional translational oscillator (for which the restoring force…
PROGRESS IN THE MEASUREMENT OF THE GRAVITATIONAL CONSTANT USING A CRYOGENIC TORSION PENDULUM
Newman, Riley D.
PROGRESS IN THE MEASUREMENT OF THE GRAVITATIONAL CONSTANT USING A CRYOGENIC TORSION PENDULUM E a cryogenic torsion pendulum in the "dynamic" (time- of-swing) mode. The total metrology contribution to the G al- ternately as indicated in Figure 1. The pendulum is in an evacuated chamber within a dewar filled
A MEASUREMENT OF THE GRAVITATIONAL CONSTANT USING A CRYOGENIC TORSION PENDULUM
Newman, Riley D.
A MEASUREMENT OF THE GRAVITATIONAL CONSTANT USING A CRYOGENIC TORSION PENDULUM M.K. Bantel, E of a measurement of G made using a cryogenic torsion pendulum in the `dynamic' (time-of-swing) mode. We have al- ternately as indicated in figure 1. The pendulum is in an evacuated chamber within a dewar filled
Torsional Response and Stiffening of Individual Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes P. A. Williams,1
Falvo, Michael
oscillators which use multiwalled carbon nanotubes as the spring elements. Through atomic which allows direct mea- surement of the CNTs' torsional properties. Torsional or ``paddle'' oscillators nanotubes (MWNTs) as the spring elements (Fig. 1). The MWNTs are arc grown [13]. Soot scraped directly from
Torsional properties of helix-reinforced composites fabricated by magnetic freeze casting
Meyers, Marc A.
Torsional properties of helix-reinforced composites fabricated by magnetic freeze casting Michael M September 2014 Keywords: Torsion Helix Bioinspired Freeze casting Magnetic alignment Ceramic composites a b inspiration from these natural structures, a novel materials processing method, known as magnetic freeze
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takabayashi, A.; Ohmura, T.; Mori, S.
We analyzed torsional eye movements of normal goldfish during sinusoidal linear acceleration, altering the orientation of the fish on the linear accelerator in the yaw plane over a range of 90 degrees and in the pitch plane up to 30 degrees. We video-recorded changes of torsional eye movements associated with a body rotation in the yaw and pitch plane and analyzed them frame by frame. In normal fish, we observed clear torsional eye movements for stimuli of 0.1G linear accelerations along the body axis in the horizontal position. Torsion occurred in the opposite direction of resultant force produced by linear acceleration and gravity. Though the amplitude of these compensatory responses increased with increasing magnitude of acceleration up to 0.5 G, the torsion angle did not fully compensate the angle calculated from gravity and linear acceleration. Furthermore, the torsion angle decreased as the longitudinal body axis deviated from the direction of linear acceleration. For the body axis perpendicular to the direction of acceleration, torsional eye movement was still observed. When we tilted the fish in the pitch plane, compensatory eye torsion occurred. The response amplitude to acceleration decreased for both head-up and head-down up to 30 degrees. These results suggested the existence of specific connections between the otolith organ and ocular muscles.
TORSION SIMPLIFIED: A FAILURE PLANE MODEL FOR DESIGN OF SPANDREL BEAMS
torsion must also resist shear, and, as such, failure will occur along a plane inclined upward toward, as such, failure will occur along a plane inclined upward toward #12;3 midspan. By dividing torsion into bending and twist components that act on the inclined plane, the design model provides a direct procedure
A discussion on the most general torsion-gravity with electrodynamics for Dirac spinor matter fields
Luca Fabbri
2015-07-21
We consider the most general torsional completion of gravitation together with electrodynamics for the Dirac spinorial material fields, and we show that consistency arguments constrain torsion to be completely antisymmetric and the dynamics to be parity-invariant and described by actions that are either least-order derivative or renormalizable.
Highly Accurate Beam Torsion Solutions Using the p-Version Finite Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, James P.
1996-01-01
A new treatment of the classical beam torsion boundary value problem is applied. Using the p-version finite element method with shape functions based on Legendre polynomials, torsion solutions for generic cross-sections comprised of isotropic materials are developed. Element shape functions for quadrilateral and triangular elements are discussed, and numerical examples are provided.
Radiographic and computed tomographic determination of femoral varus and torsion in the dog.
Dudley, Robert M; Kowaleski, Michael P; Drost, Wm Tod; Dyce, Jonathan
2006-01-01
Diagnosis and quantification of femoral varus and femoral torsion using radiographs is technically challenging due to the difficulty in determining proper positioning. The purpose of this study is to describe a computed tomographic technique for determination of femoral varus and femoral torsion and to compare this technique, and standard radiography, to anatomic preparation, for the measurement of femoral varus and femoral torsion in normal dogs. Nine canine cadavers, visually and radiographically free of orthopedic disease of the hip and stifle joints, were utilized for analysis. Femoral varus was determined using a craniocaudal radiograph, a craniocaudal radiograph obtained after confirming accurate positioning using horizontal beam fluoroscopy, and computed tomography (CT). Femoral torsion (expressed as angle of version) was determined using an axial radiographic projection obtained from distal to proximal and CT. Each femur was dissected free of soft tissues, and direct determination of femoral varus and femoral torsion was performed using digital photographic images. All radiologic and photographic images were digitally measured to quantify the magnitude of femoral varus and femoral torsion. For femoral varus, no difference (P = 0.149) between the three different imaging techniques and the anatomic preparation was identified. For femoral torsion, no difference (P = 0.059) between the two imaging techniques and the anatomic preparation was identified. Well positioned radiographs and the described computed tomographic method are both as accurate as anatomic preparation for the measurement of both femoral varus and femoral torsion in normal dogs. PMID:17153063
Radiographic and ultrasonographic findings of liver lobe torsion in a dog.
Sonnenfield, J M; Armbrust, L J; Radlinsky, M A; Chun, R; Hoskinson, J J; Kennedy, G A
2001-01-01
A twelve-year-old neutered male beagle presented for a cranial abdominal mass. The results of physical examination, laboratory tests, radiography, and ultrasonography are presented. A torsion of the quadrate lobe of the liver was diagnosed at surgery and confirmed by histopathology. A brief discussion of liver lobe torsion is presented. PMID:11499710
Ultrasound diagnosis: intra-abdominal torsion of a non-neoplastic testicle in a cryptorchid dog.
Hecht, Silke; King, Ryan; Tidwell, Amy S; Gorman, Stephanie C
2004-01-01
A 6-month-old male bilaterally cryptorchid Boxer was examined for acute abdominal pain. The results of physical examination, laboratory testing, and ultrasonographic examination are presented. Intra-abdominal testicular torsion was suspected and confirmed at surgery. No evidence of neoplasia was found at histopathologic examination of the twisted testicle. A discussion of testicular torsion is presented. PMID:15005362
[Isolated splenic torsion in dogs with special emphasis on B-mode and color doppler sonography].
Janthur, M
1997-01-01
The clinical, radiologic, sonographic and histopathologic findings of isolated splenic torsion in the dog are described with the help of eight case reports. Special emphasis is placed on the significance of B-Mode and Color Doppler Imaging which facilitated diagnosis in all of these cases. Possible causes of splenic torsion and the different diagnostic measures are discussed. PMID:9324928
Trapped Torsional Vibrations in Elastic Plates Min K. Kang and Rui Huang
Huang, Rui
Trapped Torsional Vibrations in Elastic Plates Min K. Kang and Rui Huang Department of Aerospace observed that torsional vibrations can be trapped in elastic plates with circular regions of slightly sensing [1-3]. Energy trapping in QCM is usually achieved by confining thickness-shear mode vibrations
Trapped torsional vibrations in elastic plates Texzec, Inc., Round Rock, Texas 78681
Huang, Rui
Trapped torsional vibrations in elastic plates T. Knowles Texzec, Inc., Round Rock, Texas 78681 M November 2005 We report observation and analysis of trapped torsional vibrations in elastic plates. Each found extensive applications from vis- cometers to biodetectors. Thickness-shear mode vibrations
Degenerate torsion-free G3-connections Quo-Shin Chi
Chi, Quo-Shin
Degenerate torsion-free G3-connections revisited Quo-Shin Chi Department of Mathematics, Washington) torsion-free G3-connections, which are anomalous of all the exotic holonomies. Bryant found in [2] exotic G3-connections that do not preserve any metric on 4-manifolds. Indeed, let Vn be the space
Gubicza, Jenõ
-pressure torsion, Microstructure, Hardness, Thermal stability. Abstract. Blends of Cu powders and 3 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and an additional sample from pure Cu powder were consolidated by High Pressure Torsion in the sample consolidated from the pure Cu powder. The increase of the HPT-processing temperature from RT
Analysis of the Lowest In-Plane Bend and First Excited Torsional State of CH_3CH_2CN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brauer, Carolyn S.; Pearson, John C.; Drouin, Brian J.; Yu, Shanshan
2009-06-01
Propionitrile (CH_3CH_2CN) is observed with large column densities in a number of high-mass star-forming cores, where core temperatures exceed 200 K. It is a near-prolate (?=0.96) asymmetric top with appreciable dipole moment components on both the a- and b-axes (?_a = 3.84 D, ?_b = 1.23 D). This, combined with the presence of four fundamental modes as well as four overtones and combination bands all occurring below 600 cm^{-1}, results in a very rich spectrum. It is known to be a major contributor to spectral line confusion in ground-based observations and is expected to complicate observations by Herschel, SOFIA and ALMA, making it imperative to fully characterize the entire spectrum. The lowest in-plane bend, ?_{13}, is 206.9(0.5) cm^{-1}, and the first excited torsional state, ?_{21}, which is just 186 GHz above, have been detected in hot cores with antenna temperatures of a few Kelvin. The close proximity of ?_{13} and ?_{21}, as well as their low-lying nature, offers a unique opportunity to study the vibration-torsion-rotation coupling problem in the case of two nearly degenerate vibrational states. As expected from C_s symmetry and their A^' and A^'' nature, these states exhibit strong a- and b-symmetry Coriolis interactions, as well as interactions resulting from different sets of Eckhart-Sayvetz conditions being required in ?_{13} and ?_{21}. In the present work, the ?_{13} and ?_{21} states of propionitrile have been analyzed to high frequency and angular momentum quantum number. The spectrum, molecular constants,and insights into the vibration-torsion-rotation problem will be discussed. H. M. Heise, H. Lutz & H. Dreizler,Z.Nat.,29a,1345 (1974). H. M. Heise, F. Winther & H. Lutz,J. Mol. Spectrosc.,90,531 (1981). D. M. Mehringer, J. C. Pearson, J. Keene & T. G. Phillips,Ap.J.,608,306 (2004).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Angelaki, D. E.; Hess, B. J.
1996-01-01
1. The dynamic contribution of otolith signals to three-dimensional angular vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) was studied during off-vertical axis rotations in rhesus monkeys. In an attempt to separate response components to head velocity from those to head position relative to gravity during low-frequency sinusoidal oscillations, large oscillation amplitudes were chosen such that peak-to-peak head displacements exceeded 360 degrees. Because the waveforms of head position and velocity differed in shape and frequency content, the particular head position and angular velocity sensitivity of otolith-ocular responses could be independently assessed. 2. During both constant velocity rotation and low-frequency sinusoidal oscillations, the otolith system generated two different types of oculomotor responses: 1) modulation of three-dimensional eye position and/or eye velocity as a function of head position relative to gravity, as presented in the preceding paper, and 2) slow-phase eye velocity as a function of head angular velocity. These two types of otolith-ocular responses have been analyzed separately. In this paper we focus on the angular velocity responses of the otolith system. 3. During constant velocity off-vertical axis rotations, a steady-state nystagmus was elicited that was maintained throughout rotation. During low-frequency sinusoidal off-vertical axis oscillations, dynamic otolith stimulation resulted primarily in a reduction of phase leads that characterize low-frequency VOR during earth-vertical axis rotations. Both of these effects are the result of an internally generated head angular velocity signal of otolithic origin that is coupled through a low-pass filter to the VOR. No change in either VOR gain or phase was observed at stimulus frequencies larger than 0.1 Hz. 4. The dynamic otolith contribution to low-frequency angular VOR exhibited three-dimensional response characteristics with some quantitative differences in the different response components. For horizontal VOR, the amplitude of the steady-state slow-phase velocity during constant velocity rotation and the reduction of phase leads during sinusoidal oscillation were relatively independent of tilt angle (for angles larger than approximately 10 degrees). For vertical and torsional VOR, the amplitude of steady-state slow-phase eye velocity during constant velocity rotation increased, and the phase leads during sinusoidal oscillation decreased with increasing tilt angle. The largest steady-state response amplitudes and smallest phase leads were observed during vertical/torsional VOR about an earth-horizontal axis. 5. The dynamic range of otolith-borne head angular velocity information in the VOR was limited to velocities up to approximately 110 degrees/s. Higher head velocities resulted in saturation and a decrease in the amplitude of the steady-state response components during constant velocity rotation and in increased phase leads during sinusoidal oscillations. 6. The response characteristics of otolith-borne angular VORs were also studied in animals after selective semicircular canal inactivation. Otolith angular VORs exhibited clear low-pass filtered properties with a corner frequency of approximately 0.05-0.1 Hz. Vectorial summation of canal VOR alone (elicited during earth-vertical axis rotations) and otolith VOR alone (elicited during off-vertical axis oscillations after semicircular canal inactivation) could not predict VOR gain and phase during off-vertical axis rotations in intact animals. This suggests a more complex interaction of semicircular canal and otolith signals. 7. The results of this study show that the primate low-frequency enhancement of VOR dynamics during off-vertical axis rotation is independent of a simultaneous activation of the vertical and torsional "tilt" otolith-ocular reflexes that have been characterized in the preceding paper. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ubertini, Filippo; Venanzi, Ilaria; Comanducci, Gabriele
2015-06-01
The current trend in full-scale applications of active mass drivers for mitigating buildings' vibrations is to rely on the use of electric servomotors and low friction transmission devices. While similar full-scale applications have been recently documented, there is still the need for deepening the understanding of the behavior of such active mass drivers, especially as it concerns their reliability in the case of extreme loading events. This paper presents some considerations arisen in the physical implementation of a prototype active mass driver system, fabricated by coupling an electric torsional servomotor with a ball screw transmission device, using state-of-the-art electronics and a high speed digital communication protocol between controller and servomotor drive. The prototype actuator is mounted on top of a scaled-down five-story frame structure, subjected to base excitation provided by a sliding table actuated by an electrodynamic shaker. The equations of motion are rigorously derived, at first, by considering the torque of the servomotor as the control input, in agreement with other literature work. Then, they are extended to the case where the servomotor operates under kinematic control, that is, by commanding its angular velocity instead of its torque, including control-structure-interaction effects. Experiments are carried out by employing an inherently stable collocated skyhook control algorithm, proving, on the one hand, the control effectiveness of the device but also revealing, on the other hand, the possibility of closed-loop system instability at high gains. Theoretical interpretation of the results clarifies that the dynamic behavior of the actuator plays a central role in determining its control effectiveness and is responsible for the observed stability issues, operating similarly to time delay effects. Numerical extension to the case of earthquake excitation confirms the control effectiveness of the device and highlights that different controllers essentially provide similar performances in the mitigation of the structural response.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durig, J. R.; Groner, P.; Griffin, M. G.
1977-01-01
The Raman spectra of gaseous propane-d0 and -d3 have been recorded between 50 and 3500 cm. Considerable torsional data are reported and used to characterize the torsional potential function based on a semirigid model. The average 'effective' V3 for the propanes is found to be 1139 plus or minus 10/cm. The sine-sine coupling term is similar in magnitude but opposite in sign to the cosine-cosine coupling term in propane-d0.
Kim, Hye Jin; Yoon, Ji-Hong; Lee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Jin Hee; Lee, Soon Ju; Han, Ji Whan
2015-01-01
Background and Objectives This study was aimed at assessing left ventricular torsion (LVtor) mechanics using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), establishing normal reference values of principal LVtor parameters, and analyzing the age-related changes in normal children. Subjects and Methods Eighty children (aged 3 months to 15 years) with normal cardiac function and rhythm were recruited. LVtor parameters including rotations, twist and untwist, torsion, and their rate indices were measured using STE. Age and heart rate related changes of the parameters were analyzed. Results Speckle tracking echocardiography analyses for LVtor parameters had excellent reliability in 64 of 80 subjects (80%) (intraclass correlation coefficients; 0.93-0.97). Early systolic twist (EST) motions (-8.4--0.1°) were observed in all subjects during an early 20±7% of systolic time intervals. The peak systolic twist and torsion were 17.0±6.5° and 2.9±1.3°/cm, respectively. The peak twist velocity was recorded at 51±13% of systolic time and the peak untwist velocity at 13.8±11.5% of diastolic time intervals. Multivariate analysis showed that heart rate change was an independent predictor of changes in torsion parameters; significantly decreasing LV length-normalized apical and basal rotation, torsion, and twist and untwist rate with increasing age. Isovolumetric recoil rate was independent of change in age and heart rate. Conclusion Left ventricle showed unique torsion mechanics in children with EST, torsion, and untwists. Heart rate was an independent predictor of the change in torsion parameters with aging. PMID:25810735
Vacuum static compactified wormholes in eight-dimensional Lovelock theory
Canfora, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Alex
2008-10-15
In this paper, new exact solutions in eight-dimensional Lovelock theory will be presented. These solutions are the vacuum static wormhole, the black hole, and generalized Bertotti-Robinson space-times with nontrivial torsion. All of the solutions have a cross product structure of the type M{sub 5}x{sigma}{sub 3}, where M{sub 5} is a five-dimensional manifold and {sigma}{sub 3} a compact constant curvature manifold. The wormhole is the first example of a smooth vacuum static Lovelock wormhole which is neither Chern-Simons nor Born-Infeld. It will be also discussed how the presence of torsion affects the 'navigableness' of the wormhole for scalar and spinning particles. It will be shown that the wormhole with torsion may act as 'geometrical filter': A very large torsion may 'increase the traversability' for scalars while acting as a 'polarizator' on spinning particles. This may have interesting phenomenological consequences.
Zheng, Yufeng
Comparative Study of Torsional and Bending Properties for Six Models of Nickel-Titanium Root Canal files are subjected to torsional and bending stressesbecauseoffrictionbetweenthedeviceandthecanalwall-section profiles on the torsional and bending stresses of root canal files using boundary integral method(5
Kung, Andy
Rotationally resolved spectra of transitions involving methyl torsion and CCO bendCO bend series are slightly smaller than those in the pure torsional series 140 and 140 ; these result from a decreased torsional barrier due to the CCO bending motion. Inversion spacings exhibit
Laparoscopic management of a two staged gall bladder torsion
Sunder, Yadav Kamal; Akhilesh, Sali Priyanka; Raman, Garg; Deborshi, Sharma; Shantilal, Mehta Hitesh
2015-01-01
Gall bladder torsion (GBT) is a relatively uncommon entity and rarely diagnosed preoperatively. A constant factor in all occurrences of GBT is a freely mobile gall bladder due to congenital or acquired anomalies. GBT is commonly observed in elderly white females. We report a 77-year-old, Caucasian lady who was originally diagnosed as gall bladder perforation but was eventually found with a two staged torsion of the gall bladder with twisting of the Riedel’s lobe (part of tongue like projection of liver segment 4A). This together, has not been reported in literature, to the best of our knowledge. We performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy and she had an uneventful post-operative period. GBT may create a diagnostic dilemma in the context of acute cholecystitis. Timely diagnosis and intervention is necessary, with extra care while operating as the anatomy is generally distorted. The fundus first approach can be useful due to altered anatomy in the region of Calot’s triangle. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has the benefit of early recovery.
Test particle acceleration in torsional spine magnetic reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseinpour, M.
2014-10-01
Three-dimensional (3D) magnetic reconnection is taking place commonly in astrophysical and space plasmas, especially in solar flares which are rich sources of highly energetic particles. One of the proposed mechanisms for steady-state 3D magnetic reconnection is "torsional spine reconnection". By using the magnetic and electric fields for "torsional spine reconnection", we numerically investigate the features of test particle acceleration with input parameters for the solar corona. We show that efficient acceleration of a relativistic proton is possible near the null point where it can gain up to 100 MeV of kinetic energy within a few milliseconds. However, varying the injection position results in different scenarios for proton acceleration. A proton is most efficiently accelerated when it is injected at the point where the magnetic field lines change their curvature in the fan plane. Moreover, a proton injected far away from the null point cannot be accelerated and, even in some cases, it is trapped in the magnetic field. In addition, adopting either spatially uniform or non-uniform localized plasma resistivity does not much influence the features of trajectory.
Protective role of Proanthocyanidin in experimental ovarian torsion
Y?ld?r?m, ?ule; Topalo?lu, Naci; Tekin, Mustafa; Küçük, Adem; Erdem, Havva; Erba?, Mesut; Y?ld?r?m, Ahmet
2015-01-01
Background: Proanthocyanidin is a potent bioactive antioxidant naturally occurring in grape seed and acts as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of proanthocyanidinin in experimental ovarian torsion injury. Methods: Twenty four rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=8). Group 1: the laparotomy group, group 2: ovarian torsion group, and group 3: intervention group administered proanthocyanidinin of 50 mg/kg before bilateral ovarian ischemia and reperfusion. Histologic examination and scoring was done at the end of the experiment. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS v. 19. Results: Ovarian histopathologic findings of all three groups were significantly different in terms of hemorrhage (p<0.001), edema (p=0.001) and vascular dilatation (p< 0.001). Pathologic changes induced by I/R were reduced in ovaries of rats administered proanthocyanidin, in particular, hemorrhage, edema and vascular dilatation. Conclusion: Proanthocyanidin, known as free radical scavenger and antioxidant, is protective against tissue damage induced by ischemia and/or ischemia/reperfusion in rat ovaries. PMID:26034738
Normal and torsional spring constants of atomic force microscope cantilevers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, Christopher P.; Lioe, Hadi; Cleveland, Jason P.; Proksch, Roger; Mulvaney, Paul; Sader, John E.
2004-06-01
Two methods commonly used to measure the normal spring constants of atomic force microscope cantilevers are the added mass method of Cleveland et al. [J. P. Cleveland et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 403 (1993)], and the unloaded resonance technique of Sader et al. [J. E. Sader, J. W. M. Chon, and P. Mulvaney, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3967 (1999)]. The added mass method involves measuring the change in resonant frequency of the fundamental mode of vibration upon the addition of known masses to the free end of the cantilever. In contrast, the unloaded resonance technique requires measurement of the unloaded resonant frequency and quality factor of the fundamental mode of vibration, as well as knowledge of the plan view dimensions of the cantilever and properties of the fluid. In many applications, such as frictional force microscopy, the torsional spring constant is often required. Consequently, in this article, we extend both of these techniques to allow simultaneous calibration of both the normal and torsional spring constants. We also investigate the validity and applicability of the unloaded resonance method when a mass is attached to the free end of the cantilever due to its importance in practice.
Torsional sensor applications in two-phase fluids.
Kim, J O; Bau, H H; Liu, Y; Lynnworth, L C; Lynnworth, S A; Hall, K A; Jacobson, S A; Korba, J A
1993-01-01
A solid corrosion-resistant torsional waveguide of diamond cross section has been developed to sense, online and in real-time, the characteristics of the liquid in which it is submerged. The sensor can measure, among other things, the liquid content of a bubbly medium, the density of adjacent pure liquids, the equivalent density of liquid-vapor mixtures or particulate suspensions, a suspension's concentration, and the liquid level. The sensor exploits the phenomenon that the speed of propagation of a torsional stress wave in a submerged waveguide with a noncircular cross section is inversely proportional to the equivalent density of the liquid in which the waveguide is submerged. The sensor may be used to conduct measurements along distances ranging from 20 mm to 20 m and over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, e.g., from the cryogenic temperature of liquid nitrogen, -196 degrees C, up to hot pressurized water at 300 degrees C and 7 MPa. A self-calibrating three-zone sensor and associated electronics have also been developed to compensate for any sensor inaccuracies due to operation over a wide range of temperature. PMID:18263221
Diameter-dependent conductance oscillations in carbon nanotubes upon torsion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagapriya K., S.; Cohen-Karni, Tzahi; Segev, Lior; Srur-Lavi, Onit; Cohen, Sidney; Joselevich, Ernesto
2008-03-01
Torsion-induced conductance oscillations have been recently observed in multi-wall carbon nanotubes^1,2. These oscillations have been interpreted as metal-semiconductor periodic transitions, while an alternative interpretation attributed the phenomenon to changes in registry between the walls. Here we show^3 that the period of the oscillations is inversely proportional to the squared diameter of the nanotube (??˜1/d^2). This dependence is theoretically predicted from the shifting of the corners of the first Brillouin zone of graphene across different subbands allowed in the nanotube, whereas a change in registry should give rise to a simple inverse dependence (??˜1/d). Hence, the experimental results validate the interpretation of Fermi level shift across subbands vs. that of registry change, as a source of torsion-induced conductance oscillations in carbon nanotubes. [1] T. Cohen-Karni et al, Nature Nanotech. 1, 36 (2006). [2] E. Joselevich, ChemPhysChem 7, 1405 (2006). [3] K. S. Nagapriya et al, in preparation.
Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic visualization of gonadal torsion.
Brown, J M; Taylor, K J; Alderman, J L; Quedens-Case, C; Greener, Y
1997-05-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of use of intravenous ultrasonographic contrast agent in the diagnosis of gonadal torsion in an animal model. After examination of perfusion of normal gonads in male and female dogs, torsion was produced and maintained mechanically. Presence and pattern of blood flow was then reassessed before and after administration of varying doses of perfluorocarbon-filled microsphere intravenous contrast agent. Modes of examination included gray scale, color flow, color power, and spectral analysis using a transducer placed directly on the surgically exposed gonads. Although no enhancement was perceptible on gray scale images, color and spectral Doppler signals were significantly stronger after injection of contrast agent in both normal and rotated gonads. Perfusion asymmetry was more obvious. Some residual flow was seen in partially rotated testes, and absence of flow was documented in both partially and fully rotated ovaries. Use of intravenous contrast medium improves demonstration of altered flow patterns in ischemic gonads, allowing more confident diagnosis. PMID:9315168
Extension of torsionally stressed DNA by external force.
Vologodskii, A V; Marko, J F
1997-01-01
Metropolis Monte Carlo simulation was used to study the elasticity of torsionally stressed double-helical DNA. Equilibrium distributions of DNA conformations for different values of linking deficit, external force, and ionic conditions were simulated using the discrete wormlike chain model. Ionic conditions were specified in terms of DNA effective diameter, i.e., hard-core radius of the model chain. The simulations show that entropic elasticity of the double helix depends on how much it is twisted. For low amounts of twisting (less than about one turn per twist persistence length) the force versus extension is nearly the same as in the completely torsionally relaxed case. For more twisting than this, the molecule starts to supercoil, and there is an increase in the force needed to realize a given extension. For sufficiently large amounts of twist, the entire chain is plectonemically supercoiled at low extensions; a finite force must be applied to obtain any extension at all in this regime. The simulation results agree well with the results of recent micromanipulation experiments. PMID:9199777
Angularly Deformed Special Relativity and its Results for Quantum Mechanics
Lukasz Andrzej Glinka
2015-09-15
In this paper, the deformed Special Relativity, which leads to an essentially new theoretical context of quantum mechanics, is presented. The formulation of the theory arises from a straightforward analogy with the Special Relativity, but its foundations are laid through the hypothesis on breakdown of the velocity-momentum parallelism which affects onto the Einstein equivalence principle between mass and energy of a relativistic particle. Furthermore, the derivation is based on the technique of an eikonal equation whose well-confirmed physical role lays the foundations of both optics and quantum mechanics. As a result, we receive the angular deformation of Special Relativity which clearly depicts the new deformation-based theoretical foundations of physics, and, moreover, offers both constructive and consistent phenomenological discussion of the theoretical issues such like imaginary mass and formal superluminal motion predicted in Special Relativity for this case. In the context of the relativistic theory, presence of deformation does not break the Poincar\\'{e} invariance, in particular the Lorentz symmetry, and provides essential modifications of both bosons described through the Klein-Gordon equation and fermions satisfying the Dirac equation. On the other hand, on the level of discussion of quantum theory, there arises the concept of emergent deformed space-time, wherein the presence of angular deformation elucidates a certain new insight into the nature of spin, as well as both the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the Schr\\"odinger wave equation.
Angular momentum and torque described with the complex octonion
Zi-Hua Weng
2015-07-21
The paper aims to adopt the complex octonion to formulate the angular momentum, torque, and force etc in the electromagnetic and gravitational fields. Applying the octonionic representation enables one single definition of angular momentum (or torque, force) to combine some physics contents, which were considered to be independent of each other in the past. J. C. Maxwell used simultaneously two methods, the vector terminology and quaternion analysis, to depict the electromagnetic theory. It motivates the paper to introduce the quaternion space into the field theory, describing the physical feature of electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The spaces of two fields can be chosen as the quaternion spaces, while the coordinate component of quaternion space is able to be the complex number. The quaternion space of electromagnetic field is independent of that of gravitational field. These two quaternion spaces may compose one octonion space. Contrarily, one octonion space can be separated into two subspaces, the quaternion space and S-quaternion space. In the quaternion space, it is able to infer the field potential, field strength, field source, angular momentum, torque, and force etc in the gravitational field. In the S-quaternion space, it is capable of deducing the field potential, field strength, field source, current continuity equation, and electric (or magnetic) dipolar moment etc in the electromagnetic field. The results reveal that the quaternion space is appropriate to describe the gravitational features, including the torque, force, and mass continuity equation etc. The S-quaternion space is proper to depict the electromagnetic features, including the dipolar moment and current continuity equation etc. In case the field strength is weak enough, the force and the continuity equation etc can be respectively reduced to that in the classical field theory.
Angular momentum and torque described with the complex octonion
Weng, Zi-Hua
2014-08-15
The paper aims to adopt the complex octonion to formulate the angular momentum, torque, and force etc in the electromagnetic and gravitational fields. Applying the octonionic representation enables one single definition of angular momentum (or torque, force) to combine some physics contents, which were considered to be independent of each other in the past. J. C. Maxwell used simultaneously two methods, the vector terminology and quaternion analysis, to depict the electromagnetic theory. It motivates the paper to introduce the quaternion space into the field theory, describing the physical feature of electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The spaces of electromagnetic field and of gravitational field can be chosen as the quaternion spaces, while the coordinate component of quaternion space is able to be the complex number. The quaternion space of electromagnetic field is independent of that of gravitational field. These two quaternion spaces may compose one octonion space. Contrarily, one octonion space can be separated into two subspaces, the quaternion space and S-quaternion space. In the quaternion space, it is able to infer the field potential, field strength, field source, angular momentum, torque, and force etc in the gravitational field. In the S-quaternion space, it is capable of deducing the field potential, field strength, field source, current continuity equation, and electric (or magnetic) dipolar moment etc in the electromagnetic field. The results reveal that the quaternion space is appropriate to describe the gravitational features, including the torque, force, and mass continuity equation etc. The S-quaternion space is proper to depict the electromagnetic features, including the dipolar moment and current continuity equation etc. In case the field strength is weak enough, the force and the continuity equation etc can be respectively reduced to that in the classical field theory.
Angular Motion Estimation Using Dynamic Models in a Gyro-Free Inertial Measurement Unit
Edwan, Ezzaldeen; Knedlik, Stefan; Loffeld, Otmar
2012-01-01
In this paper, we summarize the results of using dynamic models borrowed from tracking theory in describing the time evolution of the state vector to have an estimate of the angular motion in a gyro-free inertial measurement unit (GF-IMU). The GF-IMU is a special type inertial measurement unit (IMU) that uses only a set of accelerometers in inferring the angular motion. Using distributed accelerometers, we get an angular information vector (AIV) composed of angular acceleration and quadratic angular velocity terms. We use a Kalman filter approach to estimate the angular velocity vector since it is not expressed explicitly within the AIV. The bias parameters inherent in the accelerometers measurements' produce a biased AIV and hence the AIV bias parameters are estimated within an augmented state vector. Using dynamic models, the appended bias parameters of the AIV become observable and hence we can have unbiased angular motion estimate. Moreover, a good model is required to extract the maximum amount of information from the observation. Observability analysis is done to determine the conditions for having an observable state space model. For higher grades of accelerometers and under relatively higher sampling frequency, the error of accelerometer measurements is dominated by the noise error. Consequently, simulations are conducted on two models, one has bias parameters appended in the state space model and the other is a reduced model without bias parameters. PMID:22778586
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Egidio, Angelo; Contento, Alessandro; Vestroni, Fabrizio
2015-12-01
An open-cross section thin-walled beam model, already developed by the authors, has been conveniently simplified while maintaining the capacity of accounting for the significant nonlinear warping effects. For a technical range of geometrical and mechanical characteristics of the beam, the response is characterized by the torsional curvature prevailing over the flexural ones. A Galerkin discretization is performed by using a suitable expansion of displacements based on shape functions. The attention is focused on the dynamic response of the beam to a harmonic force, applied at the free end of the cantilever beam. The excitation is directed along the symmetry axis of the beam section. The stability of the one-component oscillations has been investigated using the analytical model, showing the importance of the internal resonances due to the nonlinear warping coupling terms. Comparison with the results provided by a computational finite element model has been performed. The good agreement among the results of the analytical and the computational models confirms the effectiveness of the simplified model of a nonlinear open-cross section thin-walled beam and overall the important role of the warping and of the torsional elongation in the study of the one-component dynamic oscillations and their stability.
Classical and Quantum Chaotic Angular-Momentum Pumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dittrich, T.; Dubeibe, F. L.
2015-03-01
We study directed transport of charge and intrinsic angular momentum by periodically driven scattering in the regime of fast and strong driving. A spin-orbit coupling through a kicked magnetic field confined to a compact region in space leads to irregular scattering and triggers spin flips in a spatially asymmetric manner which allows us to generate polarized currents. The dynamical mechanisms responsible for the spin separation carry over to the quantum level and give rise to spin pumping. Our theory based on the Floquet formalism is confirmed by numerical solutions of the time-dependent inhomogeneous Schrödinger equation with a continuous source term.
Angular momentum blockade in nanoscale high-Tc superconducting grains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mancarella, Francesco; Balatsky, Alexander; Wallin, Mats; Rosengren, Anders; Nordita-Condensed Matter Collaboration; KTH-Theoretical Physics Collaboration
2014-03-01
We discuss the angular momentum blockade in small d-wave SC grains in an external magnetic field. We find abrupt changes in angular momentum state of the condensate (''angular momentum blockade'') as a result of the variation of the external field. The effect represents a direct analog of the Coulomb blockade. We use the Ginzburg-Landau theory to illustrate how the field turns a d-wave order parameter (OP) into a(dx2 -y2 + idxy)-OP. We derive the volume magnetic susceptibility as a function of the field, and corresponding small jumps in magnetization at critical values of the field that should be experimentally observable in SC grains. The observation of these jumps requires a small grain, since their extent is inversely proportional to the number of Cooper pairs in the sample. The general source of instability of the pure d-wave gap is the presence of gap nodes, completely lifted by the secondary OP component. A d + id' -state is chiral and hence has an orbital moment carried by Cooper pairs. We consider fields H <
Angular momentum conservation for uniformly expanding flows
Sean A. Hayward
2006-11-04
Angular momentum has recently been defined as a surface integral involving an axial vector and a twist 1-form, which measures the twisting around of space-time due to a rotating mass. The axial vector is chosen to be a transverse, divergence-free, coordinate vector, which is compatible with any initial choice of axis and integral curves. Then a conservation equation expresses rate of change of angular momentum along a uniformly expanding flow as a surface integral of angular momentum densities, with the same form as the standard equation for an axial Killing vector, apart from the inclusion of an effective energy tensor for gravitational radiation.
Angular momentum in the Local Group
Dunn, A.; Laflamme, R.
1994-04-01
We briefly review models for the Local Group and the acquisition of its angular momentum. We describe early attempts to understand the origin of the spin of the galaxies discussing the hypothesis that the Local Group has little angular momentum. Finally we show that using Peebles` least action principle there should be a rather large amount of orbital angular momentum compared to the magnitude of the spin of its galaxies. Therefore the Local Group cannot be thought as tidally isolated. Using Peebles` trajectories we give a possible set of trajectories for Local Group galaxies which would predict their spin.
Angular momentum decomposition from a QED example
Tianbo Liu; Bo-Qiang Ma
2014-12-25
We investigate the angular momentum decomposition with a quantum electrodynamics example to clarify the proton spin decomposition debates. We adopt the light-front formalism where the parton model is well defined. We prove that the sum of fermion and boson angular momenta is equal to half the sum of the two gravitational form factors $A(0)$ and $B(0)$, as is well known. However, the suggestion to make a separation of the above relation into the fermion and boson pieces, as a way to measure the orbital angular momentum of fermions or bosons, respectively, is not justified from our explicit calculation.
Unification Principle and a Geometric Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wanas, Mamdouh I.; Osman, Samah N.; El-Kholy, Reham I.
2015-08-01
In the context of the geometrization philosophy, a covariant field theory is constructed. The theory satisfies the unification principle. The field equations of the theory are constructed depending on a general differential identity in the geometry used. The Lagrangian scalar used in the formalism is neither curvature scalar nor torsion scalar, but an alloy made of both, the W-scalar. The physical contents of the theory are explored depending on different methods. The analysis shows that the theory is capable of dealing with gravity, electromagnetism and material distribution with possible mutual interactions. The theory is shown to cover the domain of general relativity under certain conditions.
Kollipost, F; Andersen, J; Mahler, D W; Heimdal, J; Heger, M; Suhm, M A; Wugt Larsen, R
2014-11-01
The effect of strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding on torsional degrees of freedom is investigated by far-infrared absorption spectroscopy for different methanol dimer isotopologues isolated in supersonic jet expansions or embedded in inert neon matrices at low temperatures. For the vacuum-isolated and Ne-embedded methanol dimer, the hydrogen bond OH librational mode of the donor subunit is finally observed at ~560 cm(-1), blue-shifted by more than 300 cm(-1) relative to the OH torsional fundamental of the free methanol monomer. The OH torsional mode of the acceptor embedded in neon is observed at ~286 cm(-1). The experimental findings are held against harmonic predictions from local coupled-cluster methods with single and double excitations and a perturbative treatment of triple excitations [LCCSD(T)] and anharmonic. VPT2 corrections at canonical MP2 and density functional theory (DFT) levels in order to quantify the contribution of vibrational anharmonicity for this important class of intermolecular hydrogen bond vibrational motion. PMID:25381521
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kollipost, F.; Andersen, J.; Mahler, D. W.; Heimdal, J.; Heger, M.; Suhm, M. A.; Wugt Larsen, R.
2014-11-01
The effect of strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding on torsional degrees of freedom is investigated by far-infrared absorption spectroscopy for different methanol dimer isotopologues isolated in supersonic jet expansions or embedded in inert neon matrices at low temperatures. For the vacuum-isolated and Ne-embedded methanol dimer, the hydrogen bond OH librational mode of the donor subunit is finally observed at ˜560 cm-1, blue-shifted by more than 300 cm-1 relative to the OH torsional fundamental of the free methanol monomer. The OH torsional mode of the acceptor embedded in neon is observed at ˜286 cm-1. The experimental findings are held against harmonic predictions from local coupled-cluster methods with single and double excitations and a perturbative treatment of triple excitations [LCCSD(T)] and anharmonic. VPT2 corrections at canonical MP2 and density functional theory (DFT) levels in order to quantify the contribution of vibrational anharmonicity for this important class of intermolecular hydrogen bond vibrational motion.
Quantum theory on protein folding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, LiaoFu
2014-03-01
The conformational change of biological macromolecule is investigated from the point of quantum transition. A quantum theory on protein folding is proposed. Compared with other dynamical variables such as mobile electrons, chemical bonds and stretching-bending vibrations the molecular torsion has the lowest energy and can be looked as the slow variable of the system. Simultaneously, from the multi-minima property of torsion potential the local conformational states are well defined. Following the idea that the slow variables slave the fast ones and using the nonadiabaticity operator method we deduce the Hamiltonian describing conformational change. It is shown that the influence of fast variables on the macromolecule can fully be taken into account through a phase transformation of slow variable wave function. Starting from the conformation-transition Hamiltonian the nonradiative matrix element was calculated and a general formulas for protein folding rate was deduced. The analytical form of the formula was utilized to study the temperature dependence of protein folding rate and the curious non-Arrhenius temperature relation was interpreted. By using temperature dependence data the multi-torsion correlation was studied. The decoherence time of quantum torsion state is estimated. The proposed folding rate formula gives a unifying approach for the study of a large class problems of biological conformational change.
Torsionally Excited Dimethyl Ether in the Laboratory and in Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Endres, C. P.; Müller, H. S. P.; Lewen, F.; Giesen, T. F.; Schlemmer, S.; Drouin, B. J.; Bisschop, S.; Groner, P.
2010-06-01
Dimethyl ether (DME) is highly abundant in hot cores and numerous transitions within the vibrational ground state have been detected in various interstellar line surveys of sources such as Orion KL. As a nearly prolate asymmetric top with two internal rotors, it shows a complex spectrum with low lying torsional modes. The energy levels of the two lowest torsional states (v11, and v15) lie only 200 and 240 cm-1 above the ground state (barrier height ? 915 cm-1), and are thus sufficiently populated in these interstellar sources to exhibit transitions in line surveys due to high excitation temperatures in hot cores. So far, the lack of sufficiently accurate predictions for the two lowest excited torsional states prevented their identification in astronomical spectra. Therefore, we analyzed spectra, which have been recorded within the context of the investigations of the ground state. In total, more than 9500 transitions have been assigned covering the frequency range from 38 up to 1670 GHz. The enlarged splitting of each rotational level into four substates (AA, EE, AE, EA) compared to its size in the ground state and a large number of perturbed transitions hampered not only the line assignment but also the astrophysical modelling. However, the inclusion of interaction terms between both excited states in the model of an effective Hamiltonian for a symmetric two-top rotor, allowed us to model both excited states within a global fit, and also to accurately determine the energy difference between both states. Frequency predictions have been calculated based on this analysis and have been used to unambiguously assign numerous rotational transitions within these excited states in the astronomical line survey of the hot core region G327.3-0.6. P. Schilke, T.D. Groesbeck et al., Astrophys.J.Suppl.Ser., 108,(1997) 301-337 P. Schilke, D.J. Benford, T.R. Hunter et al., Astrophys.J.Suppl.Ser., 132,(2001) 281-364. P. Groner, S. Albert, E. Herbst, and F.C. De Lucia, Astrophys. J., 500, (1998) 1059-1063 C.P. Endres, B.J. Drouin et al., Astronom.Astrophys., 504, (2009) 635-640
Angular momentum conservation and gravity wave drag parameterization
Wirosoetisno, Djoko
Angular momentum conservation and gravity wave drag parameterization: implications for climate models Article Published Version Shaw, T. A. and Shepherd, T. G. (2007) Angular momentum conservation of Reading Reading's research outputs online #12;Angular Momentum Conservation and Gravity Wave Drag
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, S.
1986-01-01
A mathematical model developed to predict the enhanced coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter stability due to alternate circumferential spacing aerodynamic detuning of a turbomachine rotor. The translational and torsional unsteady aerodynamic coefficients are developed in terms of influence coefficients, with the coupled bending-torsion stability analysis developed by considering the coupled equations of this aerodynamic detuning on coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter as well as the verification of the modeling are then demonstrated by considering an unstable 12 bladed rotor, with Verdon's uniformly spaced Cascade B flow geometry as a baseline. However, with the elastic axis and center of gravity at 60 percent of the chord, this type of aerodynamic detuning has a minimal effect on stability. For both uniform and nonuniform circumferentially space rotors, a single degree of freedom torsion mode analysis was shown to be appropriate for values of the bending-torsion natural frequency ratio lower than 0.6 and higher 1.2. When the elastic axis and center of gravity are not coincident, the effect of detuning on cascade stability was found to be very sensitive to the location of the center of gravity with respect to the elastic axis. In addition, it was determined that when the center of gravity was forward of an elastic axis located at midchord, a single degree of freedom torsion model did not accurately predict cascade stability.
The predicted effect of aerodynamic detuning on coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, S.
1986-01-01
A mathematical model is developed to predict the enhanced coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter stability due to alternate circumferential spacing aerodynamic detuning of a turbomachine rotor. The translational and torsional unsteady aerodynamic coefficients are developed in terms of influence coefficients, with the coupled bending-torsion stability analysis developed by considering the coupled equations of motion together with the unsteady aerodynamic loading. The effect of this aerodynamic detuning on coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter as well as the verification of the modeling are then demonstrated by considering an unstable 12 bladed rotor, with Verdon's uniformly spaced Cascade B flow geometry as a baseline. However, with the elastic axis and center of gravity at 60 percent of the chord, this type of aerodynamic detuning has a minimal effect on stability. For both uniform and nonuniform circumferentially space rotors, a single degree of freedom torsion mode analysis was shown to be appropriate for values of the bending-torsion natural frequency ratio lower than 0.6 and higher 1.2. When the elastic axis and center of gravity are not coincident, the effect of detuning on cascade stability was found to be very sensitive to the location of the center of gravity with respect to the elastic axis. In addition, it was determined that when the center of gravity was forward of an elastic axis located at midchord, a single degree of freedom torsion model did not accurately predict cascade stability.
Cumulative Axial and Torsional Fatigue: An Investigation of Load-Type Sequencing Effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bonacuse, Peter J.
2000-01-01
Cumulative fatigue behavior of a wrought cobalt-base superalloy, Haynes 188 was investigated at 538 C under various single-step sequences of axial and torsional loading conditions. Initially, fully-reversed, axial and torsional fatigue tests were conducted under strain control at 538 C on thin-walled tubular specimens to establish baseline fatigue life relationships. Subsequently, four sequences (axial/axial, torsional/torsional, axial/torsional, and torsional/axial) of two load-level fatigue tests were conducted to characterize both the load-order (high/low) and load-type sequencing effects. For the two load-level tests, summations of life fractions and the remaining fatigue lives at the second load-level were computed by the Miner's Linear Damage Rule (LDR) and a nonlinear Damage Curve Approach (DCA). In general, for all four cases predictions by LDR were unconservative. Predictions by the DCA were within a factor of two of the experimentally observed fatigue lives for a majority of the cumulative axial and torsional fatigue tests.